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Sample records for acremonium chrysogenum carries

  1. Allosamidin inhibits the fragmentation of Acremonium chrysogenum but does not influence the cephalosporin-C production of the fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, E; Pusztahelyi, T; Karaffa, L; Karányi, Z; Pócsi, I; Biró, S; Szentirmai, A; Pócsi, I

    1998-07-15

    The pseudotrisaccharide allosamidin, a potent inhibitor of chitinases, retarded the fragmentation of hyphae but did not affect the fungal growth and cephalosporin-C production in Acremonium chrysogenum. In vitro inhibition of A. chrysogenum cell-bound chitinase(s) by allosamidin revealed that about 47% of the soluble intracellular chitinase activity was resistant to the inhibitory effect of allosamidin. On the other hand, about 76% of the total chitinase activity localised in both the soluble and insoluble enzyme fractions was effectively inhibited by allosamidin. All the chitinase activities were measured using a new procedure based on purified A. chrysogenum chitin as substrate.

  2. Deactivation of the autotrophic sulfate assimilation pathway substantially reduces high-level β-lactam antibiotic biosynthesis and arthrospore formation in a production strain from Acremonium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terfehr, Dominik; Kück, Ulrich

    2017-06-01

    The filamentous ascomycete Acremonium chrysogenum is the only industrial producer of the β-lactam antibiotic cephalosporin C. Synthesis of all β-lactam antibiotics starts with the three amino acids l-α-aminoadipic acid, l-cysteine and l-valine condensing to form the δ-(l-α-aminoadipyl)-l-cysteinyl-d-valine tripeptide. The availability of building blocks is essential in every biosynthetic process and is therefore one of the most important parameters required for optimal biosynthetic production. Synthesis of l-cysteine is feasible by various biosynthetic pathways in all euascomycetes, and sequencing of the Acr. chrysogenum genome has shown that a full set of sulfur-metabolizing genes is present. In principle, two pathways are effective: an autotrophic one, where the sulfur atom is taken from assimilated sulfide to synthesize either l-cysteine or l-homocysteine, and a reverse transsulfuration pathway, where l-methionine is the sulfur donor. Previous research with production strains has focused on reverse transsulfuration, and concluded that both l-methionine and reverse transsulfuration are essential for high-level cephalosporin C synthesis. Here, we conducted molecular genetic analysis with A3/2, another production strain, to investigate the autotrophic pathway. Strains lacking either cysteine synthase or homocysteine synthase, enzymes of the autotrophic pathway, are still autotrophic for sulfur. However, deletion of both genes results in sulfur amino acid auxotrophic mutants exhibiting delayed biomass production and drastically reduced cephalosporin C synthesis. Furthermore, both single- and double-deletion strains are more sensitive to oxidative stress and form fewer arthrospores. Our findings provide evidence that autotrophic sulfur assimilation is essential for growth and cephalosporin C biosynthesis in production strain A3/2 from Acr. chrysogenum.

  3. Onicomicosis por Acremonium Kiliense Onychomycosis by Acremonium Kiliense

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    M C Albrecht

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El rol de los hongos filamentosos hilalinos no dermatofitos, como agentes causales de onicomicosis, ha sido documentado en las últimas tres décadas por diferentes autores y son considerados oportunistas emergentes. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar un caso de onicomicosis producido por Acremonium kiliense, cuya evolución fue estudiada. Se presentó al laboratorio de micología un paciente de 18 años de edad de sexo femenino con traumatismo en la uña del primer dedo del pie derecho. Se tomaron muestras seriadas de la lesión para la observación microscópica directa con OHK 40% p/v y para cultivos en Agar Sabouraud, Agar Lactrimel y DTM (medio selectivo para dermatofitos y con las colonias recuperadas se efectuaron microcultivos. Se implementó tratamiento con ciclopirox laca al 8% combinado al principio con Itraconazol vía oral (100 mg/día, con buena evolución. Es importante tener en cuenta a estos hongos oportunistas como agentes etiológicos potenciales de micosis ungueales, en especial en pacientes inmunodeprimidos, ya que la afección ungueal puede ser la puerta de entrada para la diseminación de la infección.The role of non-dermatophytic hyaline filamentous fungi as agents of onychomycosis has been documented in the last three decades by different authors, who have considered these fungi emerging opportunists. A 18-year-old female patient with trauma to the first toenail of the right foot came to the mycology laboratory. Serial samples of the lesion were collected for direct microscopic observation using 40% (w/v potassium hydroxide (KOH and for culture in Sabouraud agar, Lactrimel agar and DTM (dermatophyte selective medium. Microcultures were grown from the colonies recovered. Treatment with 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer, combined at the beginning with oral administration of itraconazole (100 mg a day, was implemented with good evolution. It is important to consider these opportunist fungi as potential etiological agents

  4. Carry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koijen, Ralph S.J.; Moskowitz, Tobias J.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    that include global equities, global bonds, currencies, commodities, US Treasuries, credit, and equity index options. This predictability underlies the strong returns to "carry trades" that go long high-carry and short low-carry securities, applied almost exclusively to currencies, but shown here...

  5. Carry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koijen, Ralph S.J.; Moskowitz, Tobias; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    2018-01-01

    -sectionally and in time series for a host of different asset classes, including global equities, global bonds, commodities, US Treasuries, credit, and options. Carry is not explained by known predictors of returns from these asset classes, and it captures many of these predictors, providing a unifying framework...... for return predictability. We reject a generalized version of Uncovered Interest Parity and the Expectations Hypothesis in favor of models with varying risk premia, in which carry strategies are commonly exposed to global recession, liquidity, and volatility risks, though none fully explains carry’s premium....

  6. DECOLOURIZATION OF SELECTED PROCION DYE USING FUNGI, ACREMONIUM CHRYSOGENUM A COMPARISON WITH PHYSICAL ADSORBENTS

    OpenAIRE

    M.Prasad Naidu; P. Aruna

    2015-01-01

    Azo dyes, based on aromatic amines, may contain these amines as impurities introduced during the manufacturing process. Aromatic amines may also be present as a result of thermal or photochemical degradation of azo dyes. The more stable derivatives contain two aryl groups. As a consequence of ?-delocalization, aryl azo compounds have vivid colors, especially reds, oranges, and yellows. Therefore, they are used as dyes, and are commonly known as azo dyes, an example of which is Disperse Orange...

  7. Canine mycotic keratoconjuntivitis caused by Acremonium kiliense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, L; Donato, A; Padhye, A

    1985-12-01

    Mycotic keratoconjuntivitis caused by Acremonium kiliense in a German Shepherd bitch was diagnosed with the aid of laboratory tests. The dog presented with photophobia, tearing, corneal edema and reduction of the visual capacity. A thick white layer partially covered the right eye. The left eye showed irritation and small brown stains which were diagnosed as pigmentary keratitis. The initial treatment consisted of 2% yellow mercury oxide. Natamycin was used as final treatment. Seven days later, the natural brightness of the eye as well as the visual capacity were restored.

  8. The transport of phenylacetic acid across the peroxisomal membrane is mediated by the PaaT protein in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aguado, Marta; Ullán, Ricardo V; Teijeira, Fernando; Rodríguez-Castro, Raquel; Martín, Juan F

    2013-04-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum, an industrial microorganism used worldwide for penicillin production, is an excellent model to study the biochemistry and the cell biology of enzymes involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites. The well-known peroxisomal location of the last two steps of penicillin biosynthesis (phenylacetyl-CoA ligase and isopenicillin N acyltransferase) requires the import into the peroxisomes of the intermediate isopenicillin N and the precursors phenylacetic acid and coenzyme A. The mechanisms for the molecular transport of these precursors are still poorly understood. In this work, a search was made, in the genome of P. chrysogenum, in order to find a Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) membrane protein homologous to CefT of Acremonium chrysogenum, which is known to confer resistance to phenylacetic acid. The paaT gene was found to encode a MFS membrane protein containing 12 transmembrane spanners and one Pex19p-binding domain for Pex19-mediated targeting to peroxisomal membranes. RNA interference-mediated silencing of the paaT gene caused a clear reduction of benzylpenicillin secretion and increased the sensitivity of P. chrysogenum to the penicillin precursor phenylacetic acid. The opposite behavior was found when paaT was overexpressed from the glutamate dehydrogenase promoter that increases phenylacetic acid resistance and penicillin production. Localization studies by fluorescent laser scanning microscopy using PaaT-DsRed and EGFP-SKL fluorescent fusion proteins clearly showed that the protein was located in the peroxisomal membrane. The results suggested that PaaT is involved in penicillin production, most likely through the translocation of side-chain precursors (phenylacetic acid and phenoxyacetic acid) from the cytosol to the peroxisomal lumen across the peroxisomal membrane of P. chrysogenum.

  9. Characterization of Acremonium and Isaria ice nuclei

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    Pummer, Bernhard G.; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2014-05-01

    Until recently, the only known fungal ice nuclei (IN) were a few exponents of lichen mycobionts and Fusarium spp. [Kieft and Ruscetti 1990, Pouleur et al. 1992, Hasegawa et al. 1994, Tsumuki et al. 1995], as well as two strains of mold [Jayaweera and Flanagan 1982]. Other investigated species did not show any IN activity [Pouleur et al. 1992, Iannone et al. 2011, Pummer et al. 2013]. In the last few years, IN-activity has been discovered in some rust and smut fungi [Morris et al. 2013, Haga et al. 2013], Acremonium implicatum (Acr.) and Isaria farinosa (Isa.) [Huffman et al. 2013] and a handful of other airborne and soil fungi [unpublished data]. We started characterizing the IN of Acr. and Isa.: Like other non-bacterial biological IN, they can be easily separated from the cells in aqueous suspension, and keep their activity. The IN-active aqueous suspensions were processed by filtration (5 μm, 0.1 μm, 300 kDa, 100 kDa) and exposure to heat (60° C) or guanidinium chloride (6 M). The IN activity of the processed samples was measured by a freezing assay of droplets, as described by Pummer et al. [2013]. Via the Vali formula, we calculated the amount of IN per gram of mycelium, which is higher than 105 g-1. The initial freezing temperature was -4° C for Isaria and -8° C for Acremonium IN. Both were completely knocked out by 60° C or guanidinium chloride. The Acremonium IN are in a mass range between 100 and 300 kDa. The Isaria IN seem to be either a bit larger, or more attached to larger particles, since not all of them pass through the 300-kDa-filter. It is likely that both of these new IN are proteinaceous like the IN of Fusarium spp. and lichen mycobionts, which belong to the Ascomycota phylum. Since the Isaria IN show a high onset freezing temperature and are rather large for single molecules, they might be agglomerates. Haga D.I. et al. (2013) J. Geophys. Res.: Atm. 118, 7260-7272 Hasegawa Y. et al. (1994) Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 58, 2273-2274 Huffman A

  10. Batch culture fermentation of Penicillium chrysogenum and a report on the isolation, purification, identification and antibiotic activity of citrinin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, T.; Rodrigues, C.; Naik, C.G.

    Batch fermentation of Penicillium chrysogenum, MTCC 5108 was carried out using potato dextrose broth medium prepared in seawater: distilled water (1:1). Biomass as dry weight was determined by gravimetric analysis. Citrinin, the main secondary...

  11. Clinical experiences in fungal keratitis caused by Acremonium

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    Kim SJ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seong-Jae Kim,1,2 Yong-Wun Cho,1 Seong-Wook Seo,1,2 Sun-Joo Kim,2,3 Ji-Myong Yoo1,21Department of Ophthalmology, 2Gyeongsang Institute of Health Science, 3Department of Laboratory Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, College of Medicine, Jinju, KoreaPurpose: To report the predisposing risk factors, clinical presentation, management, and therapeutic outcomes of fungal keratitis caused by Acremonium.Methods: This is a retrospective study of cases with Acremonium fungal keratitis that presented to our tertiary referral center between January 2006 and August 2012. Patient demographic and clinical details were determined and reported.Results: Five cases of fungal keratitis from Acremonium species were identified in five patients (three males, two females. The mean age of the patients was of 73.4±5.46 years, with a mean follow-up time of 124±72 days. All patients had a history of corneal trauma with vegetable matter. Four cases were unresponsive to initial treatment (0.2% fluconazole, 0.15% amphotericin B and required topical 5% natamycin, and, in two out of five cases, topical 1% voriconazole.Conclusion: The most common risk factors for Acremonium fungal keratitis was ocular trauma. When a corneal lesion is found to be unresponsive to the initial treatment, we should consider adding or substituting topical natamycin or voriconazole for treatment.Keywords: Acremonium, fungal keratitis, natamycin, prognosis, voriconazole

  12. Cellulases and hemicellulases from endophytic Acremonium species and its application on sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this work was to have cellulase activity and hemicellulase activity screenings of endophyte Acremonium species (Acremonium zeae EA0802 and Acremonium sp. EA0810). Both fungi were cultivated in submerged culture (SC) containing L-arabinose, D-xylose, oat spelt xylan, sugarcane bagasse, or...

  13. Isolation of Acremonium species producing cephalosporine C (CPC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-19

    Nov 19, 2007 ... Cephalosporin C production by. Cephalosporium acremonium: the methionine story, Crit. Rev. Biotechnol. 18(4): 283-94. Domsch KH (1980). Compendium of soil fungi, Vol. 182 (Academic press, London ). EL-Nagdy A, Hafez SI (1990). Occurance of zoosporic and terrestrial fungi in some ponds of kharga ...

  14. Production of cephalosporin intermediates by feeding adipic acid to recombinant Penicillium chrysogenum strains expressing ring expansion activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, L; Stepan, A M; McAda, P C; Rambosek, J A; Conder, M J; Vinci, V A; Reeves, C D

    1995-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel and efficient bioprocess for production of the cephalosporin intermediates, 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) or 7-amino deacetoxycephalosporanic acid (7-ADCA). The Streptomyces clavuligerus expandase gene or the Cephalosporium acremonium expandase-hydroxylase gene, with and without the acetyltransferase gene, were expressed in a penicillin production strain of Penicillium chrysogenum. Growth of these transformants in media containing adipic acid as the side chain precursor resulted in efficient production of cephalosporins having an adipyl side chain, proving that adipyl-6-APA is a substrate for either enzyme in vivo. Strains expressing expandase produced adipyl-7-ADCA, whereas strains expressing expandase-hydroxylase produced both adipyl-7-ADCA and adipyl-7-ADAC (aminodeacetylcephalosporanic acid). Strains expressing expandase-hydroxylase and acetyltransferase produced adipyl-7-ADCA, adipyl-7-ADAC and adipyl-7-ACA. The adipyl side chain of these cephalosporins was easily removed with a Pseudomonas-derived amidase to yield the cephalosporin intermediates.

  15. Rheological characterization of media containing Penicillium chrysogenum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Annemarie Gade; Bundgaard-Nielsen, Mikael; Nielsen, Jens

    1993-01-01

    Samples from fed-batch fermentations of Penicillium chrysogenum on complex medium are rheologically characterized. The behavior is well described by a power law model for which the parameters are estimates. Furthermore, two types of model media are characterized and compared with the real...

  16. A vacuolar membrane protein affects drastically the biosynthesis of the ACV tripeptide and the beta-lactam pathway of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aguado, Marta; Teijeira, Fernando; Martín, Juan F; Ullán, Ricardo V

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge about enzymes' compartmentalization and transport processes involved in the penicillin biosynthesis in Penicillium chrysogenum is very limited. The genome of this fungus contains multiple genes encoding transporter proteins, but very little is known about them. A bioinformatic search was made to find major facilitator supefamily (MFS) membrane proteins related to CefP transporter protein involved in the entry of isopenicillin N to the peroxisome in Acremonium chrysogenum. No strict homologue of CefP was observed in P. chrysogenum, but the penV gene was found to encode a membrane protein that contained 10 clear transmembrane spanners and two other motifs COG5594 and DUF221, typical of membrane proteins. RNAi-mediated silencing of penV gene provoked a drastic reduction of the production of the δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl-L-cysteinyl-D-valine) (ACV) and isopenicillin N intermediates and the final product of the pathway. RT-PCR and northern blot analyses confirmed a reduction in the expression levels of the pcbC and penDE biosynthetic genes, whereas that of the pcbAB gene increased. Localization studies by fluorescent laser scanning microscopy using Dsred and GFP fluorescent fusion proteins and the FM 4-64 fluorescent dye showed clearly that the protein was located in the vacuolar membrane. These results indicate that PenV participates in the first stage of the beta-lactam biosynthesis (i.e., the formation of the ACV tripeptide), probably taking part in the supply of amino acids from the vacuolar lumen to the vacuole-anchored ACV synthetase. This is in agreement with several reports on the localization of the ACV synthetase and provides increased evidence for a compartmentalized storage of precursor amino acids for non-ribosomal peptides. PenV is the first MFS transporter of P. chrysogenum linked to the beta-lactam biosynthesis that has been located in the vacuolar membrane.

  17. Physically triggered morphology changes in a novel Acremonium isolate cultivated in precisely engineered microfabricated environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catón, Laura; Yurkov, Andrey; Giesbers, Marcel; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Ingham, Colin J.

    2017-01-01

    Fungi are strongly affected by their physical environment. Microfabrication offers the possibility of creating new culture environments and ecosystems with defined characteristics. Here, we report the isolation of a novel member of the fungal genus Acremonium using a microengineered cultivation

  18. Entomopathogenic Potential of Verticillium and Acremonium Species (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Humber, Richard A

    1999-01-01

    entomopathogen. The fungi were identified as Verticillium fusisporum, Veritcillium psalliotae, Verticillium lamellicola, and species of Acremonium. Isolates of these fungi were bioassayed against the sweet-potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and against the housefly (Musca domestica) to examine...

  19. Recurrent Acremonium infection in a kidney transplant patient treated with voriconazole: a case report Infecção recidivante por Acremonium em paciente transplantado renal tratado com voriconazol: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Francisco Tuon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Acremonium infection is rare and associated with immunosuppression. A case of recurrent cutaneous Acremonium infection after short term voriconazole use is described. Surgical resection was the definitive therapy. Oral voriconazole was used in the treatment of Acremonium infection, but recurrence was associated with short therapy. Prolonged antifungal therapy and surgical resection are discussed for the treatment of localized lesions.Infecção por Acremonium é rara e pode estar associada com imunossupressão. Descrevemos um caso de infecção recorrente de pele por Acremonium após tratamento breve com voriconazol. Ressecção cirúrgica foi o tratamento definitivo. Terapia prolongada com antifúngicos e ressecção cirúrgica são discutidas para o tratamento de doenças fúngicas localizadas.

  20. Physiological characterisation of Penicillium chrysogenum strains expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus during batch cultivations. Growth and adipoyl-7- aminodeacetoxycephalosporanic acid production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robin, Jarno Jacky Christian; Jakobsen, M.; Beyer, M.

    2001-01-01

    The production of adipoyl-7-aminodeacetoxy-cephalosporanic acid (ad-7-ADCA) was studied, using two recombinant strains of Penicillium chrysogenum carrying the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus. The adipoyl-side chain of this compound may easily be removed using an amidase; and this pr...

  1. The paf gene product modulates asexual development in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedüs, Nikoletta; Sigl, Claudia; Zadra, Ivo; Pócsi, Istvan; Marx, Florentine

    2011-06-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum secretes a low molecular weight, cationic and cysteine-rich protein (PAF). It has growth inhibitory activity against the model organism Aspergillus nidulans and numerous zoo- and phytopathogenic fungi but shows only minimal conditional antifungal activity against the producing organism itself. In this study we provide evidence for an additional function of PAF which is distinct from the antifungal activity against putative ecologically concurrent microorganisms. Our data indicate that PAF enhances conidiation in P. chrysogenum by modulating the expression of brlA, the central regulatory gene for mitospore development. A paf deletion strain showed a significant impairment of mitospore formation which sustains our hypothesis that PAF plays an important role in balancing asexual differentiation in P. chrysogenum. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Cross-Linking Treatment and Corneal Transplant in Refractory Acremonium Keratitis: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagci, Ayse; Palamar, Melis; Polat Hilmioglu, Suleyha; Irkec, Murat

    2016-10-01

    To report a case of Acremonium keratitis treated with voriconazole, corneal collagen cross-linking, and corneal transplant. Case report. A 42-year-old woman who wore contact lenses daily was referred for refractory keratitis. Her main complaints were gritty sensation and pain. At slit lamp biomicroscopy, an infiltrate on the inferior paracentral cornea and an arcuate conjunctival ulceration were evident. The rest of the cornea was clear with no anterior chamber reaction. Scrapings from the corneal ulcer showed Candida parapsilosis and Acremonium species, which were sensitive to voriconazole. Despite the administration of topical, systemic, and intrastromal voriconazole for 1 month, repeat corneal scraping was positive for Acremonium, and clinical appearance and pain did not resolve. Therefore, corneal collagen cross-linking was applied. Although the pain resolved immediately after the procedure, the lesion showed no improvement. After a month of cross-linking, corneal transplant was performed for visual rehabilitation and treatment of the refractory lesion. The excised corneal button was negative for any microorganisms. Although corneal collagen cross-linking may be an effective treatment for Acremonium keratitis refractory to medical therapy, corneal transplant was required for visual gain and recovery.

  3. Comparative analysis of intracellular metabolites of Cephalosporium acremonium in pilot and industrial fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Lu, Hua; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Jiang, Jing; Chen, Yao; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2012-01-01

    To get a better understanding of the characteristics of Cephalosporium acremonium with higher productivity, C. acremonium cells in pilot and industrial fermentation processes were analyzed using the profiles of metabolites. The different metabolic features of cells in pilot and industrial processes were caused by the different fermentation environments. The hierarchical cluster analysis of the data of metabolic profiling revealed that the concentrations of most of the metabolites were higher in the industrial process than in the pilot one, especially at the cephalosporin C accumulation stage. The analysis of important metabolites of primary metabolism indicated that the ability of the cephalosporin C biosynthesis was higher in the industrial process than that in the pilot one in C. acremonium. The analysis of the variations of cephalosporin C precursors and amino acids that were related to these precursors suggested that the metabolic flux changes of α-aminoadipic acid and cysteine between the primary metabolism and cephalosporin biosynthetic pathway in the industrial process. Furthermore, metabolites of C. acremonium, such as proline, spermine, inositol phosphate, and glycerol, were shown to respond to the fermentation environmental stress. These findings provide insights into the intracellular metabolite characteristics and feasible regulation scheme to improve the titer of cephalosporin C in the industrial process. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Keratomycosis caused by Acremonium Recifei, treated with keratoplasty, Miconazole and Ketoconazole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractA patient is discussed who developed a fungal corneal ulcer due to Acremonium (Cephalosporium) Recifei after a piece of a coconut flew into his eye while he was cracking it. Treatment consisted of keratoplasty, Miconazole as ointment and intravenously, and Ketaconazole orally. Diagnosis

  5. CRISPR/Cas9 based genome editing of Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohl, Carsten; Kiel, Jan A K W; Driessen, Arnold J M; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Nygård, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 based systems have emerged as versatile platforms for precision genome editing in a wide range of organisms. Here we have developed powerful CRISPR/Cas9 tools for marker-based and marker-free genome modifications in Penicillium chrysogenum, a model filamentous fungus and industrially

  6. HEMOLYSIN, CHRYSOLYSIN FROM PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM PROMOTES INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some strains of Penicillium chrysogenum produce a proteinaceous hemolysin, chrysolysin, when incubated on sheep's blood agar at 37 �C but not at 23 �C. Chrysolysin is an aggregating protein composed of approximately 2 kDa monomers, contains one cysteine amino acid, and has an is...

  7. Mycoparasitism of Acremonium strictum BCP on Botrytis cinerea, the gray mold pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Cho, Kwang Yun; Kim, Heung Tae

    2008-01-01

    A fungal strain BCP, which parasitizes Botrytis cinerea gray mold pathogen, was isolated and identified as Acremonium strictum. BCP strain overgrew the colonies of B. cinerea and caused severe lysis of the host hyphae. Frequent penetration and hyphal growth of A. strictum BCP inside the mycelia of B. cinerea were observed under light microscopy. In addition, some morphological abnormalities such as granulation and vacuolation of the cytoplasm were observed in mycelia and spores of B. cinerea. In dual culture test, A. strictum BCP strongly inhibited the mycelial growth of several plant pathogenic fungi as well as B. cinerea. To our knowledge, this is the first report on mycoparasitism of Acremonium species on B. cinerea.

  8. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium fumiculosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Violeta D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the biological and chemical activity on two species of fungi of the genus Penicillium isolated from wastewater. On the selected species of fungi the different antioxidant activity assays were carried out: DPPH free-radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity, Fe2+- chelating ability and Fe3+- reducing power. Total phenol content was also determinate for ethanolic extract of mycelia. Penicillium chrysogenum ethanolic extract contained higher total phenolic content and better total antioxidant capacity as well as ferrous ion chelating ability. Penicillium fumiculosum ethanolic extract showed higher DPPH free-radical scavenging activity, as well as reducing power. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that two types of fungi are potential new sources of natural antioxidants. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43004

  9. Identification and purification of O-acetyl-L-serine sulphhydrylase in Penicillium chrysogenum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    østergaard, Simon; Theilgaard, Hanne Birgitte; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1998-01-01

    We have demonstrated that Penicillium chrysogenum possesses the L-cysteine biosynthetic enzyme O-acetyI-L-serine sulphhydrylase (EC 4.2.99.8) of the direct sulphhydrylation pathway. The finding of this enzyme, and thus the presence of the direct sulphhydrylation pathway in P. chrysogenum, creates...

  10. Metabolic engineering of ?-oxidation in Penicillium chrysogenum for improved semi-synthetic cephalosporin biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veiga, T.; Gombert, A.K.; Landes, N.; Verhoeven, M.D.; Kiel, J.A.K.W.; Krikken, A.; Nijland, J.G.; Touw, H.; Luttik, M.A.H.; Van der Toorn, J.C.; Driessen, A.J.M.; Bovenberg, R.A.L.; Van den Berg, M.A.; Van der Klei, I.J.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial production of semi-synthetic cephalosporins by Penicillium chrysogenum requires supplementation of the growth media with the side-chain precursor adipic acid. In glucose-limited chemostat cultures of P. chrysogenum, up to 88% of the consumed adipic acid was not recovered in

  11. Metabolic engineering of beta-oxidation in Penicillium chrysogenum for improved semi-synthetic cephalosporin biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veiga, Tânia; Gombert, Andreas K; Landes, Nils; Verhoeven, Maarten D; Kiel, Jan A K W; Krikken, Arjen M; Nijland, Jeroen G; Touw, Hesselien; Luttik, Marijke A H; van der Toorn, John C; Driessen, Arnold J M; Bovenberg, Roel A L; van den Berg, Marco A; van der Klei, Ida J; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean-Marc

    Industrial production of semi-synthetic cephalosporins by Penicillium chrysogenum requires supplementation of the growth media with the side-chain precursor adipic acid. In glucose-limited chemostat cultures of P. chrysogenum, up to 88% of the consumed adipic acid was not recovered in

  12. Fleming's penicillin producing strain is not Penicillium chrysogenum but P. rubens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbraken, Jos; Frisvad, Jens C; Samson, Robert A

    2011-06-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum is a commonly occurring mould in indoor environments and foods, and has gained much attention for its use in the production of the antibiotic penicillin. Phylogenetic analysis of the most important penicillin producing P. chrysogenum isolates revealed the presence of two highly supported clades, and we show here that these two clades represent two species, P. chrysogenum and P. rubens. These species are phenotypically similar, but extrolite analysis shows that P. chrysogenum produces secalonic acid D and F and/or a metabolite related to lumpidin, while P. rubens does not produce these metabolites. Fleming's original penicillin producing strain and the full genome sequenced strain of P. chrysogenum are re-identified as P. rubens. Furthermore, the well-known claim that Alexander Fleming misidentified the original penicillin producing strain as P. rubrum is discussed.

  13. The production and characterization of a new active lipase from Acremonium alcalophilum using a plant bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Eridan Orlando; Tsang, Adrian; McAllister, Tim A; Menassa, Rima

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms are the most proficient decomposers in nature, using secreted enzymes in the hydrolysis of lignocellulose. As such, they present the most abundant source for discovery of new enzymes. Acremonium alcalophilum is the only known cellulolytic fungus that thrives in alkaline conditions and can be cultured readily in the laboratory. Its optimal conditions for growth are 30°C and pH 9.0-9.2. The genome sequence of Acremonium alcalophilum has revealed a large number of genes encoding biomass-degrading enzymes. Among these enzymes, lipases are interesting because of several industrial applications including biofuels, detergent, food processing and textile industries. We identified a lipA gene in the genome sequence of Acremonium alcalophilum, encoding a protein with a predicted lipase domain with weak sequence identity to characterized enzymes. Unusually, the predicted lipase displays ≈ 30% amino acid sequence identity to both feruloyl esterase and lipase of Aspergillus niger. LipA, when transiently produced in Nicotiana benthamiana, accumulated to over 9% of total soluble protein. Plant-produced recombinant LipA is active towards p-nitrophenol esters of various carbon chain lengths with peak activity on medium-chain fatty acid (C8). The enzyme is also highly active on xylose tetra-acetate and oat spelt xylan. These results suggests that LipA is a novel lipolytic enzyme that possesses both lipase and acetylxylan esterase activity. We determined that LipA is a glycoprotein with pH and temperature optima at 8.0 and 40°C, respectively. Besides being the first heterologous expression and characterization of a gene coding for a lipase from A. alcalophilum, this report shows that LipA is very versatile exhibiting both acetylxylan esterase and lipase activities potentially useful for diverse industry sectors, and that tobacco is a suitable bioreactor for producing fungal proteins.

  14. In vivo application of a small molecular weight antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palicz, Zoltán; Jenes, Ágnes; Gáll, Tamás [Department of Physiology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Miszti-Blasius, Kornél [Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Kollár, Sándor; Kovács, Ilona [Department of Pathology, Kenézy Hospital LTD, Debrecen (Hungary); Emri, Miklós; Márián, Teréz [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Leiter, Éva; Pócsi, István [Department of Microbial Biotechnology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Centre of Arts, Humanities and Sciences, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Csősz, Éva; Kalló, Gergő [Proteomics Core Facility, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Hegedűs, Csaba; Virág, László [Department of Medical Chemistry, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Csernoch, László [Department of Physiology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Szentesi, Péter, E-mail: szentesi.peter@med.unideb.hu [Department of Physiology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2013-05-15

    The antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF) inhibits the growth of important pathogenic filamentous fungi, including members of the Aspergillus family and some dermatophytes. Furthermore, PAF was proven to have no toxic effects on mammalian cells in vitro. To prove that PAF could be safely used in therapy, experiments were carried out to investigate its in vivo effects. Adult mice were inoculated with PAF intranasally in different concentrations, up to 2700 μg·kg{sup −1} daily, for 2 weeks. Even at the highest concentration – a concentration highly toxic in vitro for all affected molds – used, animals neither died due to the treatment nor were any side effects observed. Histological examinations did not find pathological reactions in the liver, in the kidney, and in the lungs. Mass spectrometry confirmed that a measurable amount of PAF was accumulated in the lungs after the treatment. Lung tissue extracts from PAF treated mice exerted significant antifungal activity. Small-animal positron emission tomography revealed that neither the application of physiological saline nor that of PAF induced any inflammation while the positive control lipopolysaccharide did. The effect of the drug on the skin was examined in an irritative dermatitis model where the change in the thickness of the ears following PAF application was found to be the same as in control and significantly less than when treated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate used as positive control. Since no toxic effects of PAF were found in intranasal application, our result is the first step for introducing PAF as potential antifungal drug in therapy. - Highlights: • PAF, the antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum, was not toxic in mice. • Its intranasal application didn't induce pathological reactions in the lung. • PAF retained its antifungal activity in lung extracts. • Its application on the skin did not cause inflammation.

  15. A case of colonization of a prosthetic mitral valve by Acremonium strictum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarro, Josep; Del Palacio, Amalia; Gené, Josep; Cano, Josep; González, Carmen Gómez

    2009-06-30

    A case of colonization of a prosthetic mitral valve in a 73-year-old Spanish male by the fungus Acremonium strictum W. Gams is described. The valve was replaced due to paravalvular leak and severe insufficiency and the patient died of multiorgan failure. The identity of the fungus was determined by morphological studies and it was confirmed by the analysis of the ITS region sequence analysis. Molecular studies seem to demonstrate that A. strictum is a species complex. The case emphasizes the potential high risk of fungal infection for patients with prosthetic valves.

  16. Proteome Analysis of the Penicillin Producer Penicillium chrysogenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jami, Mohammad-Saeid; Barreiro, Carlos; García-Estrada, Carlos; Martín, Juan-Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Proteomics is a powerful tool to understand the molecular mechanisms causing the production of high penicillin titers by industrial strains of the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum as the result of strain improvement programs. Penicillin biosynthesis is an excellent model system for many other bioactive microbial metabolites. The recent publication of the P. chrysogenum genome has established the basis to understand the molecular processes underlying penicillin overproduction. We report here the proteome reference map of P. chrysogenum Wisconsin 54-1255 (the genome project reference strain) together with an in-depth study of the changes produced in three different strains of this filamentous fungus during industrial strain improvement. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, peptide mass fingerprinting, and tandem mass spectrometry were used for protein identification. Around 1000 spots were visualized by “blue silver” colloidal Coomassie staining in a non-linear pI range from 3 to 10 with high resolution, which allowed the identification of 950 proteins (549 different proteins and isoforms). Comparison among the cytosolic proteomes of the wild-type NRRL 1951, Wisconsin 54-1255 (an improved, moderate penicillin producer), and AS-P-78 (a penicillin high producer) strains indicated that global metabolic reorganizations occurred during the strain improvement program. The main changes observed in the high producer strains were increases of cysteine biosynthesis (a penicillin precursor), enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway, and stress response proteins together with a reduction in virulence and in the biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites different from penicillin (pigments and isoflavonoids). In the wild-type strain, we identified enzymes to utilize cellulose, sorbitol, and other carbon sources that have been lost in the high penicillin producer strains. Changes in the levels of a few specific proteins correlated well with the improved penicillin

  17. Isolation, Purification, and Some Properties of Penicillium chrysogenum Tannase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, G S; Nandy, S C

    1983-08-01

    Tannase isolated from Penicillium chrysogenum was purified 24-fold with 18.5% recovery after ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration. Optimum enzyme activity was recorded at pH 5.0 to 6.0 and at 30 to 40 degrees C. The enzyme was stable up to 30 degrees C and within the pH range of 4.0 to 6.5. The K(m) value was found to be 0.48 x 10 M when tannic acid was used as the substrate. Metal salts at 20 mM inhibited the enzyme to different levels.

  18. Intestinal invasion and disseminated disease associated with Penicillium chrysogenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herchline Thomas E

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penicillium sp., other than P. marneffei, is an unusual cause of invasive disease. These organisms are often identified in immunosuppressed patients, either due to human immunodeficiency virus or from immunosuppressant medications post-transplantation. They are a rarely identified cause of infection in immunocompetent hosts. Case presentation A 51 year old African-American female presented with an acute abdomen and underwent an exploratory laparotomy which revealed an incarcerated peristomal hernia. Her postoperative course was complicated by severe sepsis syndrome with respiratory failure, hypotension, leukocytosis, and DIC. On postoperative day 9 she was found to have an anastamotic breakdown. Pathology from the second surgery showed transmural ischemic necrosis with angioinvasion of a fungal organism. Fungal blood cultures were positive for Penicillium chrysogenum and the patient completed a 6 week course of amphotericin B lipid complex, followed by an extended course oral intraconazole. She was discharged to a nursing home without evidence of recurrent infection. Discussion Penicillium chrysogenum is a rare cause of infection in immunocompetent patients. Diagnosis can be difficult, but Penicillium sp. grows rapidly on routine fungal cultures. Prognosis remains very poor, but aggressive treatment is essential, including surgical debridement and the removal of foci of infection along with the use of amphotericin B. The clinical utility of newer antifungal agents remains to be determined.

  19. Fleming's penicillin producing streain is not Penicillium chrysogenum but P. rubens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbraken, Jos; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum is a commonly occurring mould in indoor environments and foods, and has gained much attention for its use in the production of the antibiotic penicillin. Phylogenetic analysis of the most important penicillin producing P. chrysogenum isolates revealed the presence of two...... not produce these metabolites. Fleming’s original penicillin producing strain and the full genome sequenced strain of P. chrysogenum are re-identified as P. rubens. Furthermore, the well-known claim that Alexander Fleming misidentified the original penicillin producing strain as P. rubrum is discussed....

  20. Production of functionally active Penicillium chrysogenum isopenicillin N synthase in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gidijala, L.; Bovenberg, R.A.L.; Klaassen, P.; Van der Klei, I.J.; Veenhuis, M.; Kiel, J.A.K.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: ?-Lactams like penicillin and cephalosporin are among the oldes known antibiotics used against bacterial infections. Industrially, penicillin is produced by the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. Our goal is to introduce the entire penicillin biosynthesis pathway into the

  1. Production of functionally active Penicillium chrysogenum isopenicillin N synthase in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gidijala, Loknath; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Klaassen, Paul; van der Klei, Ida J.; Veenhuis, Marten; Kiel, Jan A. K. W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: beta-Lactams like penicillin and cephalosporin are among the oldest known antibiotics used against bacterial infections. Industrially, penicillin is produced by the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. Our goal is to introduce the entire penicillin biosynthesis pathway into the

  2. Isolation, Purification, and Some Properties of Penicillium chrysogenum Tannase

    OpenAIRE

    Rajakumar, G. Suseela; Nandy, S. C.

    1983-01-01

    Tannase isolated from Penicillium chrysogenum was purified 24-fold with 18.5% recovery after ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration. Optimum enzyme activity was recorded at pH 5.0 to 6.0 and at 30 to 40°C. The enzyme was stable up to 30°C and within the pH range of 4.0 to 6.5. The Km value was found to be 0.48 × 10−4 M when tannic acid was used as the substrate. Metal salts at 20 mM inhibited the enzyme to different levels.

  3. Genomic characteristics and comparative genomics analysis of Penicillium chrysogenum KF-25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qin; Yuan, Yihui; Gao, Meiying; Chen, Xupeng; Liu, Biao; Liu, Pengming; Wu, Yan; Wu, Dandan

    2014-02-21

    Penicillium chrysogenum has been used in producing penicillin and derived β-lactam antibiotics for many years. Although the genome of the mutant strain P. chrysogenum Wisconsin 54-1255 has already been sequenced, the versatility and genetic diversity of this species still needs to be intensively studied. In this study, the genome of the wild-type P. chrysogenum strain KF-25, which has high activity against Ustilaginoidea virens, was sequenced and characterized. The genome of KF-25 was about 29.9 Mb in size and contained 9,804 putative open reading frames (orfs). Thirteen genes were predicted to encode two-component system proteins, of which six were putatively involved in osmolarity adaption. There were 33 putative secondary metabolism pathways and numerous genes that were essential in metabolite biosynthesis. Several P. chrysogenum virus untranslated region sequences were found in the KF-25 genome, suggesting that there might be a relationship between the virus and P. chrysogenum in evolution. Comparative genome analysis showed that the genomes of KF-25 and Wisconsin 54-1255 were highly similar, except that KF-25 was 2.3 Mb smaller. Three hundred and fifty-five KF-25 specific genes were found and the biological functions of the proteins encoded by these genes were mainly unknown (232, representing 65%), except for some orfs encoding proteins with predicted functions in transport, metabolism, and signal transduction. Numerous KF-25-specific genes were found to be associated with the pathogenicity and virulence of the strains, which were identical to those of wild-type P. chrysogenum NRRL 1951. Genome sequencing and comparative analysis are helpful in further understanding the biology, evolution, and environment adaption of P. chrysogenum, and provide a new tool for identifying further functional metabolites.

  4. Production of functionally active Penicillium chrysogenum isopenicillin N synthase in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veenhuis Marten

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background β-Lactams like penicillin and cephalosporin are among the oldest known antibiotics used against bacterial infections. Industrially, penicillin is produced by the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. Our goal is to introduce the entire penicillin biosynthesis pathway into the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha. Yeast species have the advantage of being versatile, easy to handle and cultivate, and possess superior fermentation properties relative to filamentous fungi. One of the fundamental challenges is to produce functionally active enzyme in H. polymorpha. Results The P. chrysogenum pcbC gene encoding isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS was successfully expressed in H. polymorpha, but the protein produced was unstable and inactive when the host was grown at its optimal growth temperature (37°C. Heterologously produced IPNS protein levels were enhanced when the cultivation temperature was lowered to either 25°C or 30°C. Furthermore, IPNS produced at these lower cultivation temperatures was functionally active. Localization experiments demonstrated that, like in P. chrysogenum, in H. polymorpha IPNS is located in the cytosol. Conclusion In P. chrysogenum, the enzymes involved in penicillin production are compartmentalized in the cytosol and in microbodies. In this study, we focus on the cytosolic enzyme IPNS. Our data show that high amounts of functionally active IPNS enzyme can be produced in the heterologous host during cultivation at 25°C, the optimal growth temperature for P. chrysogenum. This is a new step forward in the metabolic reprogramming of H. polymorpha to produce penicillin.

  5. CRISPR/Cas9 Based Genome Editing of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, C; Kiel, J A K W; Driessen, A J M; Bovenberg, R A L; Nygård, Y

    2016-07-15

    CRISPR/Cas9 based systems have emerged as versatile platforms for precision genome editing in a wide range of organisms. Here we have developed powerful CRISPR/Cas9 tools for marker-based and marker-free genome modifications in Penicillium chrysogenum, a model filamentous fungus and industrially relevant cell factory. The developed CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox is highly flexible and allows editing of new targets with minimal cloning efforts. The Cas9 protein and the sgRNA can be either delivered during transformation, as preassembled CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) or expressed from an AMA1 based plasmid within the cell. The direct delivery of the Cas9 protein with in vitro synthesized sgRNA to the cells allows for a transient method for genome engineering that may rapidly be applicable for other filamentous fungi. The expression of Cas9 from an AMA1 based vector was shown to be highly efficient for marker-free gene deletions.

  6. EFECTO TÓXICO DE Acremonium zeae EN POLLOS DE ENGORDA EN INICIACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma S\\u00E1nchez-Bautista

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar si Acremonium zeae afecta el desarrollo de pollos de engorde. En el Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Montecillo, en el Estado de México de agosto a diciembre de 2010, se realizó un experimento con pollos recién nacidos bajo un diseño experimental completamente al azar con cinco dietas (tratamientos y cinco repeticiones, cada una constó de cinco pollos. Los animales fueron alimentados durante tres semanas con cada una de las dietas, en las que se adicionaron porcentajes de avena contaminada con A. zeae en sustitución del maíz. Los tratamientos fueron: T1, 0% avena contaminada: 100% de maíz; T2, 25% avena contaminada: 75% de maíz; T3, 50% avena contaminada: 50% de maíz; T4, 75% avena contaminada: 25% de maíz; y, T5, 100% avena contaminada: 0% de maíz. Durante tres semanas cada siete días se registró el incremento en peso de los pollos y el consumo de alimento. Hubo efecto negativo en el peso a partir de la segunda semana de alimentación, con una composición de dieta elaborada con un mínimo de 50% de avena contaminada con el hongo.

  7. Physically Triggered Morphology Changes in a Novel Acremonium Isolate Cultivated in Precisely Engineered Microfabricated Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catón

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are strongly affected by their physical environment. Microfabrication offers the possibility of creating new culture environments and ecosystems with defined characteristics. Here, we report the isolation of a novel member of the fungal genus Acremonium using a microengineered cultivation chip. This isolate was unusual in that it organizes into macroscopic structures when initially cultivated within microwells with a porous aluminum oxide (PAO base. These “templated mycelial bundles” (TMB were formed from masses of parallel hyphae with side branching suppressed. TMB were highly hydrated, facilitating the passive movement of solutes along the bundle. By using a range of culture chips, it was deduced that the critical factors in triggering the TMB were growth in microwells from 50 to 300 μm in diameter with a PAO base. Cultivation experiments, using spores and pigments as tracking agents, indicate that bulk growth of the TMB occurs at the base. TMB morphology is highly coherent and is maintained after growing out of the microwells. TMB can explore their environment by developing unbundled lateral hyphae; TMB only followed if nutrients were available. Because of the ease of fabricating numerous microstructures, we suggest this is a productive approach for exploring morphology and growth in multicellular microorganisms and microbial communities.

  8. A kinetic study of textile dyeing wastewater degradation by Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durruty, Ignacio; Fasce, Diana; González, Jorge Froilán; Wolski, Erika Alejandra

    2015-06-01

    The potential of Penicillium chrysogenum to decolorize azo dyes and a real industrial textile wastewater was studied. P. chrysogenum was able to decolorize and degrade three azo dyes (200 mg L(-1)), either independently or in a mixture of them, using glucose as a carbon source. A kinetic model for degradation was developed and it allowed predicting the degradation kinetics of the mixture of the three azo dyes. In addition, P. chrysogenum was able to decolorize real industrial wastewater. The kinetic model proposed was also able to predict the decolorization of the real wastewater. The calibration of the proposed model makes it a useful tool for future wastewater facilities' design and for practical applications.

  9. Lag time for germination of Penicillium chrysogenum conidia is induced by temperature shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, Safaa; Bensoussan, Maurice; Dantigny, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    In the environment, fungal conidia are subject to transient conditions. In particular, temperature is varying according to day/night periods. All predictive models for germination assume that fungal spores can adapt instantaneously to changes of temperature. The only study that supports this assumption (Gougouli and Koutsoumanis, 2012, Modelling germination of fungal spores at constant and fluctuating temperature conditions. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 152: 153-161) was carried out on Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus niger conidia that, in most cases, already produced germ tubes. In contrast, the present study focuses on temperature shifts applied during the first stages of germination (i.e., before the apparition of the germ tubes). Firstly, germination times were determined in steady state conditions at 10, 15, 20 and 25 °C. Secondly, temperature shifts (e.g., up-shifts and down-shifts) were applied at 1/4, 1/2, and 3/4 of germination times, with 5, 10 and 15 °C magnitudes. Experiments were carried out in triplicate on Penicillium chrysogenum conidia on Potato Dextrose Agar medium according to a full factorial design. Statistical analysis of the results clearly demonstrated that the assumption of instantaneous adaptation of the conidia should be rejected. Temperature shifts during germination led to an induced lag time or an extended germination time as compared to the experiments conducted ay steady state. The induced lag time was maximized when the amplitude of the shift was equal to 10 °C. Interaction between the instant and the direction of the shift was highlighted. A negative lag time was observed for a 15 °C down-shift applied at 1/4 of the germination time. This result suggested that at optimal temperature the rate of germination decreased with time, and that the variation of this rate with time depended on temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Metabolic network analysis of Penicillium chrysogenum using C-13-labeled glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjarke; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    Using C-13-labeled glucose fed to a penicillin-overproducing strain of Penicillium chrysogenum, the intracellular fluxes were quantified, and the presence of two new pathways, not previously described in this organism, is suggested. Thus, glycine was synthesized not only by serine hydroxymethyltr......Using C-13-labeled glucose fed to a penicillin-overproducing strain of Penicillium chrysogenum, the intracellular fluxes were quantified, and the presence of two new pathways, not previously described in this organism, is suggested. Thus, glycine was synthesized not only by serine...

  11. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive....../cities. Four different sectors (water, food production, waste, and forests) were selected as core areas for decentralised spatial planning. Indicators for SCC and ACC were identified and assessed with regard to relevance and quantifiability. For each of the indicators selected, a legal threshold or guiding...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  12. Effects of the fungal endophyte Acremonium coenophialum on nitrogen accumulation and metabolism in tall fescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, P.C. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA)); Evans, J.J.; Bacon, C.W. (Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Infection by the fungal endophyte Acremonium coenophialum affected the accumulation of inorganic and organic N in leaf blades and leaf sheaths of KY31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grown under greenhouse conditions. Total soluble amino acid concentrations were increased in either the blade or sheath of the leaf from infected plants. A number of amino acids were significantly increased in the sheath, but only asparagine increased in the blade. Infection resulted in higher sheath NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentrations, whereas NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} concentrations decreased in both leaf parts. The effects on amino acid, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentrations were dependent upon the level of N fertilization and were usually apparent only at the high rate (10 millimolar) of application. Administration of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} to the leaf blades increased the accumulation of {sup 14}C in their amino acid fraction but not in the sheaths of infected plants. This may indicate that infection increased amino acid synthesis in the blade but that translocation to the sheath, which is the site of fungal colonization, was not affected. Glutamine synthetase activity was greater in leaf blades of infected plants at high and low N rates of fertilization, but nitrate reductase activity was not affected in either part of the leaf. Increased activities of glutamine synthetase together with the other observed changes in N accumulation and metabolism in endophyte-infected tall fescue suggest that NH{sub 4}{sup +} reassimilation could also be affected in the leaf blade.

  13. Intestinal microbial ecology and hematological parameters of broiler fed cassava waste pulp fermented with Acremonium charticola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Yudiarti, Turrini; Isroli, Isroli; Widiastuti, Endang; Putra, Fatan Dwi

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding Acremonium charticola-fermented cassava pulp (AC-FCP) on the intestinal microbial ecology and hematological indices of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 male Lohman day-old-chicks were randomly allotted to one of the four experimental diets including control diet, control diet + antimicrobials (neomycin; 300 mg/kg diet), diet containing AC-FCP (16 g/100 g diet) or diet containing AC-FCP + antimicrobials. At day 28, the birds from each pen were blood sampled, sacrificed and immediately the internal organs were removed and weighed. Digesta were obtained from the ileum and cecum. Results: Birds fed AC-FCP had lower (pButiric acid was higher (p<0.05) in the cecal content of birds fed AC-FCP than in other birds. Propionic acid was also higher in AC-FCP fed birds than in other birds although statistically not significant. The percentages of lymphocytes and heterophils were higher (p<0.05) and tended (p=0.07) to be lower, respectively, in broilers fed control diet than in other birds. The birds provided control diet had lower (p<0.05) heterophils to lymphocytes ratio compared to those receiving AC-FCP or AC-FCP + antimicrobials. Serum total protein and globulin were higher (p<0.01) in birds fed control diet or control diet + antimicrobials compared to AC-FCP or AC-FCP + antimicrobials fed birds. Serum albumin was lower (p<0.01) in AC-FCP birds than that in other birds. There was a tendency (p=0.09) that birds fed AC-FCP diet had lower total serum cholesterol than other birds. Conclusion: Feeding AC-FCP has potential to improve the intestinal health and protect the birds from acute infections. PMID:28435195

  14. Is the root-colonizing endophyte Acremonium strictum an ericoid mycorrhizal fungus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewaldt-Stöcker, Gisela; von Alten, Henning

    2016-07-01

    In previous investigations, we found that Acremonium strictum (strain DSM 100709) developed intracellular structures with similarity to mycelia of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizodermal cells of flax plants and in hair roots of Rhododendron plantlets. A. strictum had also been isolated from roots of ericaceous salal plants and was described as an unusual ericoid mycorrhizal fungus (ERMF). As its mycorrhizal traits were doubted, we revised the hypothesis of a mycorrhizal nature of A. strictum. A successful synthesis of mycorrhiza in hair roots of inoculated ericaceous plants was a first step of evidence, followed by fluorescence microscopy with FUN(®)1 cell stain to observe the vitality of the host cells at the early infection stage. In inoculation trials with in vitro-raised mycorrhiza-free Rhododendron plants in axenic liquid culture and in greenhouse substrate culture, A. strictum was never observed in living hair root cells. As compared to the ERMF Oidiodendron maius and Rhizoscyphus ericae that invaded metabolically active host cells and established a symbiotic unit, A. strictum was only found in cells that were dead or in the process of dying and in the apoplast. In conclusion, A. strictum does not behave like a common ERMF-if it is one at all. A comparison of A. strictum isolates from ericaceous and non-ericaceous hosts could reveal further identity details to generalize or specify our findings on the symbiotic nature of A. strictum. At least, the staining method enables to discern between true mycorrhizal and other root endophytes-a tool for further studies.

  15. In vivo application of a small molecular weight antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palicz, Zoltán; Jenes, Agnes; Gáll, Tamás; Miszti-Blasius, Kornél; Kollár, Sándor; Kovács, Ilona; Emri, Miklós; Márián, Teréz; Leiter, Eva; Pócsi, István; Csősz, Eva; Kalló, Gergő; Hegedűs, Csaba; Virág, László; Csernoch, László; Szentesi, Péter

    2013-05-15

    The antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF) inhibits the growth of important pathogenic filamentous fungi, including members of the Aspergillus family and some dermatophytes. Furthermore, PAF was proven to have no toxic effects on mammalian cells in vitro. To prove that PAF could be safely used in therapy, experiments were carried out to investigate its in vivo effects. Adult mice were inoculated with PAF intranasally in different concentrations, up to 2700 μg·kg⁻¹ daily, for 2 weeks. Even at the highest concentration--a concentration highly toxic in vitro for all affected molds used, animals neither died due to the treatment nor were any side effects observed. Histological examinations did not find pathological reactions in the liver, in the kidney, and in the lungs. Mass spectrometry confirmed that a measurable amount of PAF was accumulated in the lungs after the treatment. Lung tissue extracts from PAF treated mice exerted significant antifungal activity. Small-animal positron emission tomography revealed that neither the application of physiological saline nor that of PAF induced any inflammation while the positive control lipopolysaccharide did. The effect of the drug on the skin was examined in an irritative dermatitis model where the change in the thickness of the ears following PAF application was found to be the same as in control and significantly less than when treated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate used as positive control. Since no toxic effects of PAF were found in intranasal application, our result is the first step for introducing PAF as potential antifungal drug in therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic engineering of Penicillium chrysogenum for the reactivation of biosynthetic pathways with potential pharmaceutical value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guzmán Chávez, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Sinds de ontdekking van penicilline door Alexander Fleming wordt de filamenteuze schimmel Penicillium chrysogenum op grote schaal gebruikt voor de industriële productie van β-lactam antibiotica. Van origine kan deze schimmel ook andere, mogelijk bruikbare, biologisch actieve componenten produceren.

  17. Efficient gene targeting in Penicillium chrysogenum using novel Agrobacterium-mediated transformation approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P. de; Bronkhof, J.; Duki, K.; Kerkman, R.; Touw, H.; Berg , M. van den; Offringa, R.

    2013-01-01

    The industrial production of β-lactam antibiotics by Penicillium chrysogenum has increased tremendously over the last decades, however, further optimization via classical strain and process improvement has reached its limits. The availability of the genome sequence provides new opportunities for

  18. Modeling the effect of ethanol vapor on the germination time of Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dantigny, P.; Tchobanov, I.; Bensoussan, M.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of ethanol vapor on germination of Penicillium chrysogenum was determined on yeast nitrogen base plus glucose agar medium at 25°C. Ethanol vapors were generated by 0 to 6% (wt/wt) ethanol solutions at the bottom of hermetically closed petri dishes. The logistic equation was used to

  19. Cloning and characterization of an aromatic amino acid and leucine permease of Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, Hein; Evers, Melchior E.; Konings, Wil N.; Driessen, Arnold J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The gene encoding the amino acid permease ArlP (Aromatic and leucine Permease) was isolated from the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum after PCR using degenerated oligonucleotides based on conserved regions of fungal amino acid permeases. The cDNA clone was used for expression of the

  20. PcMtr, an aromatic and neutral aliphatic amino acid permease of Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, H; Evers, ME; Driessen, AJM

    2004-01-01

    The gene encoding an aromatic and neutral aliphatic amino acid permease of Penicillium chrysogenum was cloned, functionally expressed and characterized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae M4276. The permease, designated PcMtr, is structurally and functionally homologous to Mtr of Neurospora crassa, and

  1. Metabolic characterization of high- and low-yielding strains of Penicillium chrysogenum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjarke; Thykær, Jette; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    A recently developed method for analyzing metabolic networks using C-13-labels was employed for investigating the metabolism of a high- and a low-yielding strain of Penicillium chrysogenum. Under penicillin-producing conditions, the flux through the pentose phosphate (PP) pathway in the high- and...

  2. Improving production of ?-lactam antibiotics by Penicillium chrysogenum : Metabolic engineering based on transcriptome analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veiga, T.

    2012-01-01

    In Chapters 2-5 of this thesis, the applicability of transcriptome analysis to guide metabolic engineering strategies in P. chrysogenum is explored by investigating four cellular processes that are of potential relevance for industrial production of ?-lactam antibiotics: - Regulation of secondary

  3. Biosynthetic concepts for the production of beta-lactam antibiotics in Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Stefan S.; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    Industrial production of beta-lactam antibiotics by the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum is based on successive classical strain improvement cycles. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the results of this classical strain improvement process, and discusses avenues to improve

  4. The ABC transporter ABC40 encodes a phenylacetic acid export system in Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Stefan S.; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Bovenberg, Roe A. L.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum is used for the industrial production of beta-lactam antibiotics. The pathway for beta-lactam biosynthesis has been resolved and involves the enzyme phenylacetic acid CoA ligase that is responsible for the CoA activation of the side chain precursor

  5. Elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway for the production of the pigment chrysogine by Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viggiano, Annarita; Salo, Oleksandr; Ali, Hazrat; Szymanski, Wiktor; Lankhorst, Peter P; Nygård, Yvonne; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Driessen, Arnold J M

    Chrysogine is a yellow pigment produced by Penicillium chrysogenum and other filamentous fungi. Although it was first isolated in 1973, the biosynthetic pathway has so far not been resolved. Here, we show that the deletion of the highly expressed non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene

  6. Substrate cycles in Penicillium chrysogenum quantified by isotopic non-stationary flux analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Z.; Ten Pierick, A.; De Jonge, L.; Heijnen, J.J.; Wahl, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Penicillium chrysogenum, the main production strain for penicillin-G, has a high content of intracellular carbohydrates, especially reduced sugars such as mannitol, arabitol, erythritol, as well as trehalose and glycogen. In previous steady state 13C wash-in experiments a delay of

  7. Dieback of rose caused by Acremonium sclerotigenum as a new causal agent of rose dieback in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirtalebi, M.; Banihashemi, Z.; Sabahi, F.; Mafakheri, H.

    2016-07-01

    Severe dieback of rose has been recently observed in several rose greenhouses in Fars province of Iran. During 2014 and 2015, stems of rose plants showing yellow to brown discoloration and dieback were collected from rose greenhouses. Coniothyrium fuckelii, Botrytis cinerea and Acremonium were subsequently isolated from the margin between healthy and symptomatic tissue. B. cinerea and C. fuckelii isolates were similar to those previously reported for dieback of rose worldwide. Morphological and cultural characters along with molecular analysis based on partial sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA genome allowed confirming the affiliation of the Acremonium isolates, corresponding to A. sclerotigenum as a new causal agent of rose dieback. To determine its pathogenicity on rose, Koch's postulates were fulfilled by stem inoculation of nine rose cultivars under greenhouse conditions. While A. sclerotigenum is considered as a soil-born pathogen, and produces sclerotia that are resistant to adverse conditions enables the fungus to survive extended period in soil, propagule trapping in our study revealed that conidia can become airborn, imply that an aerial phase, forms an important component of the disease cycle.

  8. Dieback of rose caused by Acremonium sclerotigenum as a new causal agent of rose dieback in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirtalebi, M.; Banihashemi, Z.; Sabahi, F.; Mafakheri, H.

    2016-01-01

    Severe dieback of rose has been recently observed in several rose greenhouses in Fars province of Iran. During 2014 and 2015, stems of rose plants showing yellow to brown discoloration and dieback were collected from rose greenhouses. Coniothyrium fuckelii, Botrytis cinerea and Acremonium were subsequently isolated from the margin between healthy and symptomatic tissue. B. cinerea and C. fuckelii isolates were similar to those previously reported for dieback of rose worldwide. Morphological and cultural characters along with molecular analysis based on partial sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA genome allowed confirming the affiliation of the Acremonium isolates, corresponding to A. sclerotigenum as a new causal agent of rose dieback. To determine its pathogenicity on rose, Koch's postulates were fulfilled by stem inoculation of nine rose cultivars under greenhouse conditions. While A. sclerotigenum is considered as a soil-born pathogen, and produces sclerotia that are resistant to adverse conditions enables the fungus to survive extended period in soil, propagule trapping in our study revealed that conidia can become airborn, imply that an aerial phase, forms an important component of the disease cycle.

  9. Disruption of the NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase affects the morphology of two industrial strains of Penicillium chrysogenum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thykær, Jette; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Noorman, H.

    2009-01-01

    New morphological aspects of Penicillium chrysogenum were found during physiological characterisation of two NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase mutant strains. A morphological characterisation of the previously constructed strains, together with the two beta-lactam producing industrial recip...

  10. Continuous cultivations of a Penicillium chrysogenum strain expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus: Growth yields and morphological characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robin, Jarno Jacky Christian; Lettier, G.; Mcintyre, Mhairi

    2003-01-01

    The growth stoichiometry of a Penicillium chrysogenum strain expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus was determined in glucose-limited chemostat cultivations using a chemically defined medium. This strain produces adipoyl-7-aminocleacetoxycephalosporanic acid (ad-7-ADCA) when...

  11. Efficient gene targeting in Penicillium chrysogenum using novel Agrobacterium-mediated transformation approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Paulo; Bronkhof, Jurian; Dukiќ, Karolina; Kerkman, Richard; Touw, Hesselien; van den Berg, Marco; Offringa, Remko

    2013-12-01

    The industrial production of β-lactam antibiotics by Penicillium chrysogenum has increased tremendously over the last decades, however, further optimization via classical strain and process improvement has reached its limits. The availability of the genome sequence provides new opportunities for directed strain improvement, but this requires the establishment of an efficient gene targeting (GT) system. Recently, mutations affecting the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway were shown to increase GT efficiencies following PEG-mediated DNA transfer in P. chrysogenum from 1% to 50%. Apart from direct DNA transfer many fungi can efficiently be transformed using the T-DNA transfer system of the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, however, for P. chrysogenum no robust system for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was available. We obtained efficient AMT of P. chrysogenum spores with the nourseothricin acetyltransferase gene as selection marker, and using this system we investigated if AMT in a NHEJ mutant background could further enhance GT efficiencies. In general, AMT resulted in higher GT efficiencies than direct DNA transfer, although the final frequencies depended on the Agrobacterium strain and plasmid backbone used. Providing overlapping and complementing fragments on two different plasmid backbones via the same Agrobacterium host was shown to be most effective. This so-called split-marker or bi-partite method resulted in highly efficient GT (>97%) almost exclusively without additional ectopic T-DNA insertions. As this method provides for an efficient GT method independent of protoplasts, it can be applied to other fungi for which no protoplasts can be generated or for which protoplast transformation leads to varying results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Proteomics Shows New Faces for the Old Penicillin Producer Penicillium chrysogenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Barreiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi comprise a vast group of microorganisms including the Ascomycota (majority of all described fungi, the Basidiomycota (mushrooms or higher fungi, and the Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota (basal or lower fungi that produce industrially interesting secondary metabolites, such as β-lactam antibiotics. These compounds are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs world-wide. Since Fleming's initial discovery of Penicillium notatum 80 years ago, the role of Penicillium as an antimicrobial source became patent. After the isolation of Penicillium chrysogenum NRRL 1951 six decades ago, classical mutagenesis and screening programs led to the development of industrial strains with increased productivity (at least three orders of magnitude. The new “omics” era has provided the key to understand the underlying mechanisms of the industrial strain improvement process. The review of different proteomics methods applied to P. chrysogenum has revealed that industrial modification of this microorganism was a consequence of a careful rebalancing of several metabolic pathways. In addition, the secretome analysis of P. chrysogenum has opened the door to new industrial applications for this versatile filamentous fungus.

  13. Application of a low molecular weight antifungal protein from Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF) to treat pulmonary aspergillosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palicz, Zoltán; Gáll, Tamás; Leiter, Éva; Kollár, Sándor; Kovács, Ilona; Miszti-Blasius, Kornél; Pócsi, István; Csernoch, László; Szentesi, Péter

    2016-11-09

    PAF, a small antifungal protein from Penicillium chrysogenum, inhibits the growth of several pathogenic filamentous fungi, including members of the Aspergillus genus. PAF has been proven to have no toxic effects in vivo in mice by intranasal application. To test its efficacy against invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), experiments were carried out in mice suffering from IPA. Adult mice were immunosuppressed and then infected with Aspergillus fumigatus. After stable infection, the animals were inoculated with PAF intranasally at a concentration of 2.7 mg/kg twice per day. At this concentration-which is highly toxic in vitro to A. fumigatus-the mortality of the animals was slightly delayed but finally all animals died. Histological examinations revealed massive fungal infections in the lungs of both PAF-treated and untreated animal groups. Because intranasally administered PAF was unable to overcome IPA, modified and combined therapies were introduced. The intraperitoneal application of PAF in animals with IPA prolonged the survival of the animals only 1 day. Similar results were obtained with amphotericin B (AMB), with PAF and AMB being equally effective. Combined therapy with AMB and PAF-which are synergistic in vitro-was found to be more effective than either AMB or PAF treatment alone. As no toxic effects of PAF in mammals have been described thus far, and, moreover, there are so far no A. fumigatus strains with reported inherent or acquired PAF resistance, it is worth carrying out further studies to introduce PAF as a potential antifungal drug in human therapy.

  14. Effect of phenolic compounds and osmotic stress on the expression of penicillin biosynthetic genes from Penicillium chrysogenum var. halophenolicum strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaya Ferreira Guedes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenol and phenolic compounds are aromatic pollutants that inhibit biological treatment of wastewaters. Penicillium chrysogenum var. halophenolicum is a halotolerant fungus that previously showed the ability to degrade phenol and resorcinol in high salinity conditions. The presence of the penicillin biosynthetic cluster in P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum was recently described. In this article, we examined the expression of pcbAB, pcbC and penDE, genes responsible for δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase, isopenicillin N synthase and isopenicillin N acyltransferase activities, respectively, in P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum. A quantitative PCR (qPCR approach was used to determine how these genes were expressed in media with 2% and 5.9% NaCl supplemented with phenol, catechol, hydroquinone and resorcinol as the sole carbon source. The effect of salt on the capability of P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum to degrade aromatic compounds was measured using HPLC. qPCR analysis of RNA extracted from P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum indicated that the expression levels of pcbAB, pcbC and penDE decreased in high saline concentrations compared to the levels expressed in media with glucose. High concentrations of salt significantly repress the expression of pcbAB and penDE. The pcbC gene was expressed differentially in catechol containing medium. There was no evident relationship between the expression levels of penicillin biosynthetic genes and yields of penicillin. Meanwhile, the presence of phenol and phenolic compounds seems to positively influence the antibiotic production; high concentrations of salt stimulated penicillin production. These results support the hypothesis that phenol, phenolic compounds and high concentrations of salt could act like a stress factor for P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum resulting in higher yields of β-lactam antibiotic production.

  15. Degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by a halotolerant strain of Penicillium chrysogenum: antibiotic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Guedes, Sumaya; Mendes, Benilde; Leitão, Ana Lúcia

    2012-01-01

    The extensive use of pesticides in agriculture has prompted intensive research on chemical and biological methods in order to protect contamination of water and soil resources. In this paper the degradation of the pesticide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by a Penicillium chrysogenum strain previously isolated from a salt mine was studied in batch cultures. Co-degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid with additives such as sugar and intermediates of pesticide metabolism was also investigated. Penicillium chrysogenum in solid medium was able to grow at concentrations up to 1000 mg/L of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) with sucrose. Meanwhile, supplementation of the solid medium with glucose and lactose led to fungal growth at concentrations up to 500 mg/L of herbicide. Batch cultures of 2,4-D at 100 mg/L were developed under aerobic conditions with the addition of glucose, lactose and sucrose, showing sucrose as the best additional carbon source. The 2,4-D removal was quantified by liquid chromatography. The fungus was able to use 2,4-D as the sole carbon and energy source under 0%, 2% and 5.9% NaCl. The greatest 2,4-D degradation efficiency was found using alpha-ketoglutarate and ascorbic acid as co-substrates under 2% NaCl at pH 7. Penicillin production was evaluated in submerged cultures by bioassay, and higher amounts of beta-lactam antibiotic were produced when the herbicide was alone. Taking into account the ability of P. chrysogenum CLONA2 to degrade aromatic compounds, this strain could be an interesting tool for 2,4-D herbicide remediation in saline environments.

  16. Comparative study on production, purification of penicillin by Penicillium chrysogenum isolated from soil and citrus samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayalan, S Anto Jeya; Darwin, Pramod; Prakash, S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore various unexplored locations where Penicillium spp. would be available and study the production of penicillin from the isolated Penicillium spp. in different media with altered carbohydrate source. Methods The collected soil samples were screened for the isolation of Penicillium chrysogenum (P. chrysogenum) by soil dilution plate. The isolated Penicillium species were further grown in different production media with changes in the carbohydrate source. The extracted penicillin from various isolates was analyzed by HPLC for the efficacy of the product. Further the products were screened with various bacterial species including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). And the work was extended to find the possible action on MRSA, along with characterization using other pathogens. Results From the various soil and citrus samples used for analysis, only the soil sample from Government General Hospital of Bangalore, India, and Sanjay Gandhi Hospital, Bangalore, India, showed some potential growth of the desired fungi P. chrysogenum. Different production media showed varied range of growth of Penicillium. Optimum production of penicillin was obtained in maltose which proved maximum zone of inhibition during assay. Characterization of penicillin on pathogens, like wild Escherichia coli strain, Klebsiella spp., and MRSA, gave quite interesting results such as no activity on the later strain as it is resistant. HPLC data provided the analytical and confirmation details of the penicillin produced. Accordingly, the penicillin produced from the soil sample of Government General Hospital had the high milli absorbance unit of 441.5 mAu compared with that of the penicillin produced from Sanjay Gandhi Hospital sample, 85.52 mAu. Therefore, there was a considerable change in quantity of the penicillin produced from both the samples. Conclusions The Penicillium spp. could be possibly rich in hospital contaminants and its environments. This research

  17. Purification and characterization of delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase from Penicillium chrysogenum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilgaard, Hanne Birgitte; Kristiansen, K.N.; Henriksen, Claus Maxel

    1997-01-01

    delta-(L-alpha-Aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase (ACVS) from Penicillium chrysogenum was purified to homogeneity by a combination of (NH4)(2)SO4 precipitation, protamine sulphate treatment, ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The mole......delta-(L-alpha-Aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase (ACVS) from Penicillium chrysogenum was purified to homogeneity by a combination of (NH4)(2)SO4 precipitation, protamine sulphate treatment, ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration and hydrophobic interaction chromatography...

  18. Effect of simulated acid rain on the mutualism between tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and an endophytic fungus (Acremonium coenophialum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheplick, G.P. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Whitewater (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Biotic interactions between plants and microorganisms have the potential to be affected by acidic precipitation. I examined the effect of simulated sulfuric acid rain on the mutualism between a perennial forage grass (Festuca arundinacea) and a fungal endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum). Acid water was supplied as mists sprayed onto leaf surfaces or as water added to the soil for two groups in a greenhouse: one group had high levels of endophyte infection, while the other was predominantly noninfected. Control plants received distilled water (pH 6), while others received sulfuric acid water at pH 4.5 or pH 3. Plants were harvested after 4, 6, 8, and 23 wk. Leaf endophyte infection intensity as measured by hyphal counts was not affected by acid water treatment. Root mass and root: shoot ratios generally decreased with increasing acidity of both foliar sprays and soil water, but shoot mass was mostly not affected. There was a significant pH x infection interaction for plants exposed to acidic foliar sprays for 4 wk; root and shoot mass decreased with acidity, but only for infected plants. It was found that acid rain may be deleterious to tall fescue growth at specific stages of development, but biomass production in response to acid rain is not likely to be influenced by fungal endophytes within mature plants. 55 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Isolation and Characterization of Antibacterial Compound from a Mangrove-Endophytic Fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum MTCC 5108.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Prabha; Rodrigues, Cheryl; Naik, C G; D'Souza, L

    2012-12-01

    Microorganisms, especially endophytic fungi that reside in the tissue of living mangrove plants, seem to play a major role in meeting the general demand for new biologically active substances. During the course of screening for biologically active secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms, an antibiotic compound containing an indole and a diketopiperazine moiety was isolated from the culture medium of Penicillium chrysogenum, (MTCC 5108), an endophytic fungus on the mangrove plant Porteresia coarctata (Roxb.). The cell free culture medium of P. chrysogenum showed significant activity against Vibrio cholerae, (MCM B-322), a pathogen causing cholera in humans. Bioassay guided chemical characterization of the crude extract led to the isolation of a secondary metabolite possessing a molecular formula C19H21O2N3. Its antibacterial activity was comparable with standard antibiotic, streptomycin. This compound (1) was found to be (3,1'-didehydro-3[2″(3'″,3'″-dimethyl-prop-2-enyl)-3″-indolylmethylene]-6-methyl pipera-zine-2,5-dione) on the basis of mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy and one and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance analysis.

  20. Comparison of the Allergic Responses Induced by PeniciIlium chrysogenum and House Dust Mite Extracts in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    A report by the Institute of Medicine suggested that more research is needed to better understand mold effects on allergic disease, particularly asthma development. We compared the ability of the fungal Penicillium chrysogenum (PCE) and house dust mite (HDM) extracts to induce al...

  1. Continuous cultivations of a Penicillium chrysogenum strain expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus: Growth yields and morphological characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robin, Jarno Jacky Christian; Lettier, G.; Mcintyre, Mhairi

    2003-01-01

    it is fed with adipic acid. The biomass yield and maintenance coefficients for the strain were similar to those found for penicillin-producing strains of Penicillium chrysogenum. The maximum specific growth rate in the chemostat was found to be 0.11 h(-1). Metabolic degradation of adipate was found to take...

  2. Resorcinol degradation by a Penicillium chrysogenum strain under osmotic stress: mono and binary substrate matrices with phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Sumaya Ferreira; Mendes, Benilde; Leitão, Ana Lúcia

    2011-04-01

    A phenol-degrading Penicillium chrysogenum strain previously isolated from a salt mine was able to grow at 1,000 mg l(-1) of resorcinol on solid medium. The aerobic degradation of resorcinol by P. chrysogenum CLONA2 was studied in batch cultures in minimal mineral medium with 58.5 g l(-1) of sodium chloride using resorcinol as the sole carbon source. The fungal strain showed the ability to degrade up to 250 mg l(-1) of resorcinol. Resorcinol and phenol efficiency degradation by P. chrysogenum CLONA2 was compared. This strain removes phenol faster than resorcinol. When phenol and resorcinol were in binary substrate matrices, phenol enhanced resorcinol degradation, and organic load decreased with respect to the mono substrate matrices. The acute toxicity of phenol and resorcinol, individually and in combination, to Artemia franciscana larvae has been verified before and after the bioremediation process with P. chrysogenum CLONA2. The remediation process was effective in mono and binary substrate systems.

  3. Radiosensitization of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum using basil essential oil and ionizing radiation for food decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of basil oil, was determined for two pathogenic fungi of rice, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum. The antifungal activity of the basil oil in combination with ionising radiation was then investigated to determine if basil oil caused radiosensit...

  4. Continuous cultivations of a Penicillium chrysogenum strain expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus: Kinetics of adipoyl-7-aminodeacetoxycephalosporanic acid and byproduct formations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robin, Jarno Jacky Christian; Bruheim, P.; Nielsen, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    The production kinetics of a transformed strain of Penicillium chrysogenum expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus was investigated in chemostat cultivations. The recombinant strain produces adipoyl-7-aminodeacetoxycephalosporanic acid (ad-7-ADCA) as the major product; howeve...

  5. Bioleaching mechanism of heavy metals in the mixture of contaminated soil and slag by using indigenous Penicillium chrysogenum strain F1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xinhui [College of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University (China); College of Packing and Material Engineering, Hunan University of Technology (China); Chai, Liyuan, E-mail: liyuan.chai@yahoo.com [College of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University (China); Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Control and Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution (China); Yang, Zhihui; Tang, Chongjian [College of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University (China); Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Control and Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution (China); Wang, Yangyang; Shi, Yan [College of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University (China)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► We use Penicillium chrysogenum growth experiment data to fit Gompertz model. ► We compared the removal efficiencies of bioleaching with chemical bioleaching. ► The morphology and resistant mechanism of P. chrysogenum were preliminary examined. ► Glucose oxidase activity produced by P. chrysogenum during bioleaching was studied. -- Abstract: The ability and bioleaching mechanism of heavy metals by Penicillium chrysogenum in soils contaminated with smelting slag were examined in this study. Batch experiments were performed to investigate the growth kinetics of P. chrysogenum, organic acids production and to compare the removal efficiencies of heavy metals between bioleaching with P. chrysogenum and chemical organic acids. The results showed that the bioleaching had higher removals than chemical leaching, and the removal percentages of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn and Cr reached up to 74%, 59%, 24%, 55%, 57% and 25%, respectively. Removal efficiencies of heavy metals (15.41 mg/50 mL) by bioleaching were higher than chemical leaching with 0.5% of citric acid (15.15 mg/50 mL), oxalic acid (8.46 mg/50 mL), malic acid (11.35 mg/50 mL) and succinic acid (10.85 mg/50 mL). The results of transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that no damage was obviously observed on the surface of the living cell except for thinner cell wall, discontinuous plasma membrane, compartmentalized lumen and concentrated cytoplasm during bioleaching process. The activity of extracellular glucose oxidase (GOD) produced by P. chrysogenum is influenced severely by the multi-heavy metal ions. The result implied that P. chrysogenum can be used to remove heavy metals from polluted soil and smeltery slag.

  6. Bioleaching mechanism of heavy metals in the mixture of contaminated soil and slag by using indigenous Penicillium chrysogenum strain F1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Xinhui; Chai, Liyuan; Yang, Zhihui; Tang, Chongjian; Wang, Yangyang; Shi, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We use Penicillium chrysogenum growth experiment data to fit Gompertz model. ► We compared the removal efficiencies of bioleaching with chemical bioleaching. ► The morphology and resistant mechanism of P. chrysogenum were preliminary examined. ► Glucose oxidase activity produced by P. chrysogenum during bioleaching was studied. -- Abstract: The ability and bioleaching mechanism of heavy metals by Penicillium chrysogenum in soils contaminated with smelting slag were examined in this study. Batch experiments were performed to investigate the growth kinetics of P. chrysogenum, organic acids production and to compare the removal efficiencies of heavy metals between bioleaching with P. chrysogenum and chemical organic acids. The results showed that the bioleaching had higher removals than chemical leaching, and the removal percentages of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn and Cr reached up to 74%, 59%, 24%, 55%, 57% and 25%, respectively. Removal efficiencies of heavy metals (15.41 mg/50 mL) by bioleaching were higher than chemical leaching with 0.5% of citric acid (15.15 mg/50 mL), oxalic acid (8.46 mg/50 mL), malic acid (11.35 mg/50 mL) and succinic acid (10.85 mg/50 mL). The results of transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that no damage was obviously observed on the surface of the living cell except for thinner cell wall, discontinuous plasma membrane, compartmentalized lumen and concentrated cytoplasm during bioleaching process. The activity of extracellular glucose oxidase (GOD) produced by P. chrysogenum is influenced severely by the multi-heavy metal ions. The result implied that P. chrysogenum can be used to remove heavy metals from polluted soil and smeltery slag

  7. Cephalosporin C production by a highly productive Cephalosporium acremonium strain in an airlift tower loop reactor with static mixers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W; Holzhauer-Rieger, K; Bayer, T; Schügerl, K

    1993-04-01

    The production of cephalosporin C (CPC) and its precursors penicillin N (PEN N), deacetoxycephalosporin C (DAOC) and deacetylcephalosporin C (DAC), with a highly productive strain of Cephalosporin acremonium, was investigated in an 80-1 airlift tower loop reactor with four static mixer modules (Type SMV, Sulzer) (ATLRM) on a complex medium containing 50 g l-1 peanut flour (PF). The most important key parameters such as glucose concentration and cell mass concentration were monitored during a fed-batch cultivation process. The concentrations of products CPC, PEN N, DAOC an DAC were determined on line by HPLC. The influences of four motionless mixers on the dissolved oxygen concentration (DOC), oxygen transfer rate, the cell growth and the CPC production, as well as the reactor performance, were evaluated. The results were compared with the performance of an airlift tower loop reactor (ATLR) without static mixers as well as with a stirred tank reactor (STR). A comparison of cultivations in the ATLRM and ATLR with 50 g l-1 PF indicates that the obtained maximal CPC concentration and the (CPC + DAC + DAOC) concentration were 7% and 22% higher in the ATLRM (4.96 and 7.46 g l-1) than in the ATLR (4.63 and 6.13 g l-1) respectively. The maximal CPC volumetric productivity in the ATLRM (55.1 mg l-1 h-1) was also considerably higher than that in the ATLR (48.5 mg l-1 h-1). The specific power input was reduced from 2.36 to 1.5 kW m-3, the specific productivity pertaining to the power input was improved from 1.96 to 3.31 g W-1. On the other hand, cultivation in the ATLRM had a lower maximum CPC concentration and volumetric productivity than those in STR (7.2 g l-1 and 71.2 mg l-1 h-1) with the same medium due to the lower shear stress levels and the lower specific power input (1.5 vs. 3.0 kW m-3); but the specific power imput-based yield coefficient was in the ATLRM (3.31 g W-1) higher than in the STR (2.40 g W-1). By increasing the amount of PF, it was possible to enhance the

  8. Penicillium antifungal protein (PAF) is involved in the apoptotic and autophagic processes of the producer Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Barbara; Hegedűs, Nikoletta; Bálint, Mihály; Szabó, Zsuzsa; Emri, Tamás; Kiss, Gréta; Antal, Miklós; Pócsi, István; Leiter, Eva

    2014-09-01

    PAF, which is produced by the filamentous fungus Pencicillium chrysogenum, is a small antifungal protein, triggering ROS-mediated apoptotic cell death in Aspergillus nidulans. In this work, we provide information on the function of PAF in the host P. chrysogenum considering that carbon-starving cultures of the Δpaf mutant strain showed significantly reduced apoptosis rates in comparison to the wild-type (wt) strain. Moreover, the addition of PAF to the Δpaf strain resulted in a twofold increase in the apoptosis rate. PAF was also involved in the regulation of the autophagy machinery of this fungus, since several Saccharomyces cerevisiae autophagy-related ortholog genes, e.g. those of atg7, atg22 and tipA, were repressed in the deletion strain. This phenomenon was accompanied by the absence of autophagosomes in the Δpaf strain, even in old hyphae.

  9. NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase in Penicillium chrysogenum is involved in regulation of beta-lactam production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thykær, Jette; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Noorman, H.

    2008-01-01

    The interactions between the ammonium assimilatory pathways and beta-lactam production were investigated by disruption of the NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase gene (gdhA) in two industrial beta-lactam-producing strains of Penicillium chrysogenum. The strains used were an adipoyl-7-ADCA...... continued beta-lactam production for the reference strains whereas the Delta gdhA strains remained non-productive under all conditions. By overexpressing the NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase, the specific growth rate could be restored, but still no beta-lactam production was detected. The results...... indicate that the NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase may be directly or indirectly involved in the regulation of beta-lactann production in industrial strains of P. chrysogenum....

  10. [Secondary metabolites of halotolerant fungus Penicillium chrysogenum HK14-01 from the Yellow River Delta area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Peng; Liu, Peipei; Fu, Peng; Wang, Yi; Zhu, Weiming

    2012-09-04

    To search for structurally novel and biologically active compounds from the secondary metabolites of halotolerant fungi from the Yellow River Delta area. We screened halotolerant fungi with rich chemical diversity and antitumor or antimicrobial activity by means of integrated chemical and biological method. We cultured halotolerant fungi under different conditions at first. Then we investigated the chemical diversity and the bioactivity of the EtOAc extracts of the fermentation broth by HPLC and TLC, and cytotoxic assay or antimicrobial assay. We selected Penicillium chrysogenum HK14-01 to further study for the large yield, producing alkaloids and cytotoxicity on P388 cells in YMDP culture medium containing 10% NaCl. We fermented P. chrysogenum HK14-01 on a large scale; we isolated and purified the compounds by column chromatography over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and semipreparative HPLC; and we identified the structures by spectroscopic analysis, X-ray diffraction (Mo-Kalpha), CD spectra and the time-dependent density functional theory electronic circular dichroism (TDDFT ECD) calculation. We isolated and identified a halotolerant fungal strain, P. chrysogenum HK14-01, from the sediments collected in the Yellow River Delta area. From the fermentation broth of P. chrysogenum HK14-01, we isolated and identified eight compounds, i.e. (2S,3R)-oxaline (1, a major product), (3R, 4R)-3,4,8-trihydroxy-3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1 (2H)-one (2), (Z)-N-(4-hydroxy styryl) formamide (3), (E)-N-(4-hydroxystyryl) formamide (4), emodin (5), 4-(2-hydroxyethyl) benzene-1,2-diol (6), methyl 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetate (7), and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetonitrile (8). Bioactive compounds can be obtained from the secondary metabolites of halotolerant microorganisms from the Yellow River Delta area.

  11. Viabilidade, confirmação taxonômica e detecção enzimática de espécies de Acremonium preservadas sob óleo mineral na Coleção de Culturas University Recife Mycology Viability, taxonomic confirmation and enzymatic detection of Acremonium species preserved under mineral oil in the URM Culture Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen Carvalho de Moura Braz

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Enzimas hidrolíticas secretadas por fungos têm um papel importante na patogenicidade das infecções. Objetivando avaliar a atividade enzimática foram testados 31 isolados de Acremonium mantidos na Coleção de Culturas University Recife Mycology. Fragmentos das culturas foram transferidos para caldo glicosado para reativação e posterior crescimento em meio ágar batata dextrose, para verificar viabilidade, pureza e confirmação taxonômica pela observação das características macroscópicas e microscópicas. Para detecção enzimática foram utilizados substratos de caseína do leite e gelatina para protease, amido para amilase e lecitina de soja para fosfolipase. Das 31 culturas, 26 (83,9% mantiveram-se viáveis e 24 (92,3% foram confirmadas taxonomicamente. Das 24 culturas, 12 (50% apresentaram atividade proteásica, duas (16,7% em caseína do leite, uma (8,3% em gelatina e nove (75% em ambos os substratos; 16 (66,7% degradaram amido. Nenhuma cultura apresentou atividade fosfolipásica. Conclui-se que espécies de Acremonium são capazes de produzir enzimas envolvidas na patogenicidade das infecções fúngicas.Hydrolytic enzymes secreted by fungi play an important role in the pathogenesis of infection. With the aim of evaluating the enzymatic activity, 31 isolates of Acremonium stored in the University of Recife Mycology (URM Culture Collection were tested. Culture fragments were transferred to glycoside broth for reactivation and further growth in potato dextrose agar medium in order to investigate viability and purity and to confirm the taxonomy through observing the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. To detect enzymes, milk casein and gelatin were used as substrates for proteinase, starch for amylase and soy lecithin for phospholipase. Among the 31 cultures, 26 (83.9% remained viable and 24 (92.3% were confirmed taxonomically. Out of these 24 cultures, 12 (50% presented proteinase activity, of which two (16.7% were on

  12. Proteome analysis of the penicillin producer Penicillium chrysogenum: characterization of protein changes during the industrial strain improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jami, Mohammad-Saeid; Barreiro, Carlos; García-Estrada, Carlos; Martín, Juan-Francisco

    2010-06-01

    Proteomics is a powerful tool to understand the molecular mechanisms causing the production of high penicillin titers by industrial strains of the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum as the result of strain improvement programs. Penicillin biosynthesis is an excellent model system for many other bioactive microbial metabolites. The recent publication of the P. chrysogenum genome has established the basis to understand the molecular processes underlying penicillin overproduction. We report here the proteome reference map of P. chrysogenum Wisconsin 54-1255 (the genome project reference strain) together with an in-depth study of the changes produced in three different strains of this filamentous fungus during industrial strain improvement. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, peptide mass fingerprinting, and tandem mass spectrometry were used for protein identification. Around 1000 spots were visualized by "blue silver" colloidal Coomassie staining in a non-linear pI range from 3 to 10 with high resolution, which allowed the identification of 950 proteins (549 different proteins and isoforms). Comparison among the cytosolic proteomes of the wild-type NRRL 1951, Wisconsin 54-1255 (an improved, moderate penicillin producer), and AS-P-78 (a penicillin high producer) strains indicated that global metabolic reorganizations occurred during the strain improvement program. The main changes observed in the high producer strains were increases of cysteine biosynthesis (a penicillin precursor), enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway, and stress response proteins together with a reduction in virulence and in the biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites different from penicillin (pigments and isoflavonoids). In the wild-type strain, we identified enzymes to utilize cellulose, sorbitol, and other carbon sources that have been lost in the high penicillin producer strains. Changes in the levels of a few specific proteins correlated well with the improved penicillin

  13. Wheat straw lignin degradation induction to aromatics by por Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium chrysogenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltierra-Trejo Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw is a recalcitrant agricultural waste; incineration of this material represents an important environmental impact. Different reports have been made regarding the use of the structural components of wheat straw, i.e. cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin; however, lignin has been less exploited because it is largely considered the recalcitrant part. Residual wheat straw lignin (REWSLI has a potential biotech-nological value if depolymerization is attained to produce aromatics. Ligninolytic mitosporic fungus represent an alternative where very little research has been done, even though they are capable of depol-ymerize REWSLI in simple nutritional conditions in relatively short periods, when compared to basidio-mycetes. The aim of this research was to study the depolymerization activity of Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp on semipurified REWSLI as the sole carbon source to produce aromatics. The depoly-merization capacity was determined by the activity of the laccase, lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase enzymes. The generated aromatics derived from the REWSLI depolymerization were identi-fied by gas chromatography. Obtained results revealed that Penicillium chrysogenum depolymerized the lignin material by 34.8% during the 28-day experimentation period. Laccase activity showed the largest activity with 111 U L-1 in a seven-day period, this enzyme induction was detected in a smaller period than that required by basidiomycetes to induce it. Moreover, the enzymatic activity was produced with-out the addition of an extra carbon source as metabolic inductor. Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp generated guaiacol, vanillin, and hydroxybenzoic, vanillinic, syringic and ferulic acid with a maximum weekly production of 3.5, 3.3, 3.2, 3.3, 10.1 and 21.9 mg mL-1, respectively.

  14. The antifungal activity of the Penicillium chrysogenum protein PAF disrupts calcium homeostasis in Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Ulrike; Chu, Meiling; Read, Nick D; Marx, Florentine

    2010-09-01

    The antifungal protein PAF from Penicillium chrysogenum exhibits growth-inhibitory activity against a broad range of filamentous fungi. Evidence from this study suggests that disruption of Ca(2+) signaling/homeostasis plays an important role in the mechanistic basis of PAF as a growth inhibitor. Supplementation of the growth medium with high Ca(2+) concentrations counteracted PAF toxicity toward PAF-sensitive molds. By using a transgenic Neurospora crassa strain expressing codon-optimized aequorin, PAF was found to cause a significant increase in the resting level of cytosolic free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](c)). The Ca(2+) signatures in response to stimulation by mechanical perturbation or hypo-osmotic shock were significantly changed in the presence of PAF. BAPTA [bis-(aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid], a Ca(2+) selective chelator, ameliorated the PAF toxicity in growth inhibition assays and counteracted PAF induced perturbation of Ca(2+) homeostasis. These results indicate that extracellular Ca(2+) was the major source of these PAF-induced effects. The L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker diltiazem disrupted Ca(2+) homeostasis in a similar manner to PAF. Diltiazem in combination with PAF acted additively in enhancing growth inhibition and accentuating the change in Ca(2+) signatures in response to external stimuli. Notably, both PAF and diltiazem increased the [Ca(2+)](c) resting level. However, experiments with an aequorin-expressing Deltacch-1 deletion strain of N. crassa indicated that the L-type Ca(2+) channel CCH-1 was not responsible for the observed PAF-induced elevation of the [Ca(2+)](c) resting level. This study is the first demonstration of the perturbation of fungal Ca(2+) homeostasis by an antifungal protein from a filamentous ascomycete and provides important new insights into the mode of action of PAF.

  15. Substrate cycles in Penicillium chrysogenum quantified by isotopic non-stationary flux analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Zheng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penicillium chrysogenum, the main production strain for penicillin-G, has a high content of intracellular carbohydrates, especially reduced sugars such as mannitol, arabitol, erythritol, as well as trehalose and glycogen. In previous steady state 13C wash-in experiments a delay of labeling enrichments in glycolytic intermediates was observed, which suggests turnover of storage carbohydrates. The turnover of storage pools consumes ATP which is expected to reduce the product yield for energy demanding production pathways like penicillin-G. Results In this study, a 13C labeling wash-in experiment of 1 hour was performed to systematically quantify the intracellular flux distribution including eight substrate cycles. The experiments were performed using a mixed carbon source of 85% CmolGlc/CmolGlc+EtOH labeled glucose (mixture of 90% [1-13C1] and 10% [U-13C6] and 15% ethanol [U-13C2]. It was found, that (1 also several extracellular pools are enriched with 13C labeling rapidly (trehalose, mannitol, and others, (2 the intra- to extracellular metabolite concentration ratios were comparable for a large set of metabolites while for some carbohydrates (mannitol, trehalose, and glucose the measured ratios were much higher. Conclusions The fast enrichment of several extracellular carbohydrates and a concentration ratio higher than the ratio expected from cell lysis (2% indicate active (e.g. ATP consuming transport cycles over the cellular membrane. The flux estimation indicates, that substrate cycles account for about 52% of the gap in the ATP balance based on metabolic flux analysis.

  16. Isolation and identification of Penicillium chrysogenum strain Y5 and its copper extraction characterization from waste printed circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ming-Chen; Bao, Peng; Liu, A-Juan; Zhang, Shi-Shi; Peng, Tang-Jian; Shen, Li; Yu, Run-Lan; Wu, Xue-Ling; Li, Jiao-Kun; Liu, Yuan-Dong; Chen, Miao; Qiu, Guan-Zhou; Zeng, Wei-Min

    2018-03-21

    Biohydrometallurgy is generally considered as a green technology for the recycling of industrial solid waste. In this study, an indigenous fungal strain named Y5 with the ability of high-yielding organic acids was isolated and applied in bioleaching of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs). The strain Y5 was identified as Penicillium chrysogenum by morphological and molecular identification. Meanwhile, we investigated that an optimal set of culturing conditions for the fungal growth and acids secretion was 15 g/L glucose with initial pH 5.0, temperature 25°C and shaking speed 120 rpm in shaken flasks culture. Moreover, three bioleaching processes such as one-step, two-step and spent medium processes were conducted to extract copper from waste PCBs. Spent medium bioleaching showed higher copper extraction percentage and it was 47% under 5%(w/v) pulp density. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation combining with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) showed that the leached metal ions did not obviously damage the hypha cells. All above results indicated that P.chrysogenum strain Y5 has the tolerance to metal ions, suggesting its potential in recycling of metals from waste PCBs in industry. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. D-galactose catabolism in Penicillium chrysogenum: Expression analysis of the structural genes of the Leloir pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónás, Ágota; Fekete, Erzsébet; Németh, Zoltán; Flipphi, Michel; Karaffa, Levente

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we analyzed the expression of the structural genes encoding the five enzymes comprising the Leloir pathway of D-galactose catabolism in the industrial cell factory Penicillium chrysogenum on various carbon sources. The genome of P. chrysogenum contains a putative galactokinase gene at the annotated locus Pc13g10140, the product of which shows strong structural similarity to yeast galactokinase that was expressed on lactose and D-galactose only. The expression profile of the galactose-1-phosphate uridylyl transferase gene at annotated locus Pc15g00140 was essentially similar to that of galactokinase. This is in contrast to the results from other fungi such as Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma reesei and A. niger, where the ortholog galactokinase and galactose-1-phosphate uridylyl transferase genes were constitutively expressed. As for the UDP-galactose-4-epimerase encoding gene, five candidates were identified. We could not detect Pc16g12790, Pc21g12170 and Pc20g06140 expression on any of the carbon sources tested, while for the other two loci (Pc21g10370 and Pc18g01080) transcripts were clearly observed under all tested conditions. Like the 4-epimerase specified at locus Pc21g10370, the other two structural Leloir pathway genes - UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (Pc21g12790) and phosphoglucomutase (Pc18g01390) - were expressed constitutively at high levels as can be expected from their indispensable function in fungal cell wall formation.

  18. Purification and characterization of delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase from Penicillium chrysogenum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilgaard, Hanne Birgitte; Kristiansen, K.N.; Henriksen, Claus Maxel

    1997-01-01

    delta-(L-alpha-Aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase (ACVS) from Penicillium chrysogenum was purified to homogeneity by a combination of (NH4)(2)SO4 precipitation, protamine sulphate treatment, ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The mole......delta-(L-alpha-Aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase (ACVS) from Penicillium chrysogenum was purified to homogeneity by a combination of (NH4)(2)SO4 precipitation, protamine sulphate treatment, ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration and hydrophobic interaction chromatography....... The molecular mass of ACVS was estimated with native gradient gel electrophoresis and SDS/PAGE. The native enzyme consisted of a single polymer chain with an estimated molecular mass of 470 kDa. The denatured enzyme had an estimated molecular mass of 440 kDa. The influence of different reaction parameters...... such as substrates, cofactors and pH on the activity of the purified ACVS was investigated. The K-m values for the three precursor substrates La-aminoadipic acid, L-cysteine and L-valine were determined as 45, 80 and 80 mu M respectively, and the optimal assay concentration of ATP was found to be 5 mM (with 20 mM Mg...

  19. Effect of Origanum heracleoticum L. essential oil on food-borne Penicillium aurantiogriseum and Penicilium chrysogenum isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čabarkapa Ivana S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Molds are ubiquitously distributed in nature and their spores can be found in the atmosphere even at high altitudes. The difficulty of controlling these undesirable molds, as well as the growing interest of the consumers in natural products, have been forcing the industry to find new alternatives for food preservation. The modern trends in nutrition suggest the limitation of synthetic food additives or substitution with natural ones. Aromatic herbs are probably the most important source of natural antimicrobial agents. Origanum heracleoticum L. essential oil has been known as an interesting source of antimicrobial compounds to be applied in food preservation. In the this work, we have investigated the effect of essential oil obtained from O. heracleoticum on growth of six isolates of Penicillium aurantiogriseum and four isolates of Penicillium chrysogenum isolated from meat plant for traditional Petrovacka sausage (Petrovská klobása production. The findings reveal that the essential oil of O. heracleoticum provides inhibition of all of fungal isolates tested. O. heracleoticum L. essential oil exhibited higher antifungal activity against the isolates of P. chrysogenum than the isolates of P. aurantiogriseum. O. heracleoticum essential oil showed a MIC value ranging from 25 to 100 μL/mL. The fungi cultivated in the medium with higher concentration of essential oil showed certain morphological changes. The alterations included lack of sporulation and loss of pigmentation.

  20. An approach to prevent aggregation during the purification and crystallization of wild type acyl coenzyme A : Isopenicillin N acyltransferase from Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, Hiromi; Hensgens, Charles M.H.; Laan, Jan Metske van der; Sutherland, John D.; Hart, Darren J.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2005-01-01

    Acyl coenzyme A: isopenicillin N acyltransferase (AT) from Penicillium chrysogenum is an enzyme of interest for the biosynthesis of β-lactam antibiotics. Severe aggregation problems with wild type AT have, however, prevented significant progress in the structure–function analysis of this enzyme for

  1. Acremoxanthone E, a novel member of heterodimeric polyketides with a bicyclo[3.2.2]nonene ring, produced by Acremonium camptosporum W. GAMS (Clavicipitaceae) endophytic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez-González, Claudio; Murià-González, M Jordi; Anaya, Ana Luisa; Hernández-Bautista, Blanca E; Hernández-Ortega, Simón; González, María C; Glenn, Anthony E; Hanlin, Richard T; Macías-Rubalcava, Martha L

    2015-01-01

    Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the organic mycelium extract of the endophytic fungus Acremonium camptosporum W. Gams (Clavicipitaceae), isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae), led to the isolation of six major heterodimeric polyketides, including one not previously characterized acremoxanthone derivative. In addition, the already known acremoxanthone C, acremonidins A and B, and acremoxanthones A and B were obtained. The structure of the new compound was established by extensive NMR studies, including DEPT, COSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC methods. The trivial name proposed for this compound is acremoxanthone E. In addition, the structure of acremoxanthone C was unequivocally established for the first time, through X-ray crystal-structure analysis. The anti-oomycete activities of the pure compounds were tested against four economically important phytopathogenic oomycetes. Inhibitory concentration for 50% diameter growth reduction, IC50 , values for the four phytopathogens ranged from 6 to 38 μM. Also, in parallel, the cytotoxic activities against six cancer cell lines were evaluated showing IC50 values similar to those of cisplatin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on three different groups of heterodimeric polyketides, linked by a bicyclo[3.2.2]nonene, such as xanthoquinodins, acremonidins, and acremoxanthones, which are isolated from an endophytic fungus. In addition, a common biosynthetic origin could be proposed. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  2. Low-shear-modeled microgravity-grown Penicillium chrysogenum-mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles with enhanced antimicrobial activity and its anticancer effect in human liver cancer and fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheet, Sunirmal; Sathishkumar, Yesupatham; Sivakumar, Allur Subramaniyam; Shim, Kwan Seob; Lee, Yang Soo

    2017-10-01

    Gravitational force and shear forces induce various changes in gene expression and metabolite production of microorganisms. Previous reports have shown that there are differences in the expression of different sets of proteins and enzymes under microgravity conditions compared to normal gravity. The aim of this study is to utilize culture filtrates of Penicillium chrysogenum grown under microgravity and normal conditions to synthesize silver nanoparticles and to examine whether there is any difference between their physiochemical and biological function. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, and TEM. Biological functional studies such as antimicrobial activity, cytotoxic studies, and anticancer activity were carried out. Antimicrobial activity was tested using antibiotic susceptibility testing by Kirby-Bauer method and cytotoxicity tests were carried out using 3T3-L1 normal fibroblasts cells and Hep-G2 cancer cell lines. Interestingly, our results indicated that microgravity-synthesized silver nanoparticles possess enhanced antibacterial activity and cytotoxic effect against cancer cells compared to normal gravity-synthesized silver nanoparticle. This work highlighted the importance of gravitational vector on the fungal enzyme profiles and their role in silver nanoparticle synthesis with enhanced biological activity.

  3. The use of real-time PCR to study Penicillium chrysogenum growth kinetics on solid food at different water activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arquiza, J M R Apollo; Hunter, Jean

    2014-09-18

    Fungal growth on solid foods can make them unfit for human consumption, but certain specialty foods require fungi to produce their characteristic properties. In either case, a reliable way of measuring biomass is needed to study how various factors (e.g. water activity) affect fungal growth rates on these substrates. Biochemical markers such as chitin, glucosamine or ergosterol have been used to estimate fungal growth, but they cannot distinguish between individual species in mixed culture. In this study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) protocol specific for a target fungal species was used to quantify its DNA while growing on solid food. The measured amount of DNA was then related to the biomass present using an experimentally determined DNA-to-biomass ratio. The highly sensitive rt-PCR biomass assay was found to have a wide range, able to quantify the target DNA within a six orders-of-magnitude difference. The method was used to monitor germination and growth of Penicillium chrysogenum spores on a model porous food (cooked wheat flour) at 25°C and different water activities of 0.973, 0.936, and 0.843. No growth was observed at 0.843, but lag, exponential and stationary phases were identified in the growth curves for the higher water activities. The calculated specific growth rates (μ) during the exponential phase were almost identical, at 0.075/h and 0.076/h for aw=0.973 and 0.936, respectively. The specificity of the method was demonstrated by measuring the biomass of P. chrysogenum while growing together with Aspergillus niger on solid media at aw=0.973. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolation and optimization of pectinase enzyme production one of useful industrial enzyme in Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, Penicilium chrysogenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    akram songol

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pectinase enzyme is one of the most important industrial enzymes which isolated from a wide variety of microorganisms such as bacteria and filamentous fungi. This enzyme has been usually used in the fruit and textile industry. In this study, the isolation and optimization of pectinase-producing fungi on decaying rotten fruits were studied. Materials and methods: Isolation and screening of pectinase producing fungi performed through plate culture on pectin medium and staining with Lugol's iodine solution. The best strains were identified by ITS1, 4 sequencing as Aspergillus fumigatus, Rhizopus oryzae, Penicilium chrysogenum. The enzyme production was optimized by application of the five factorial design, each at three levels. These factors are carbon sources (whey, glucose and stevia, ammonium sulfate, manganese sulfate, temperature, and pH. Pectinase concentration was measured by the Miller method. Results: The results indicate that optimum condition for enzyme production for three fungi strains was obtained at 32 °C, pH = 6, 3g / L manganese sulfate, 2.75g / L of ammonium sulfate and 10g / L of each carbon source. The best experiment in obtaining the optimum enzyme contained 1.328 mg / ml of glucose for Aspergillus niger 1.284 and 1.039 mg / ml of whey for Rhizopus oryzae and Penicilium chrysogenum. Molecular weight of enzyme was about 40 and 37 kDa which was obtained by SDS- PAGE. Discussion and conclusion: The results indicate that three strains could grow in a wide range of carbon source, pH and temperature, which could be a good candidate for industrial application.

  5. Microculture model studies on the effect of sorbic acid on Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Ulocladium atrum at different pH levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirdal, I M; Eklund, T

    1993-02-01

    The minimum growth-inhibitory concentration of sorbic acid has been determined for Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Ulocladium atrum at pH 4.1-7.6 by using a microculture technique. This technique had earlier been applied to bacteria and Candida albicans and gave very reliable minimum inhibitory values. This investigation has shown that it is suitable also for determination of mould growth. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of sorbic acid were at the tested pH levels 1-230 mmol l-1 for P. chrysogenum, 0.3-18.0 mmol l-1 for C. cladosporioides and 0.2-33.0 mmol l-1 for U. atrum. A mathematical model for combined inhibition by dissociated and undissociated acid, which gave a good description of the minimum inhibitory concentration data earlier obtained for bacteria and Candida albicans, was suitable also for moulds. Both dissociated and undissociated acid contributed to growth inhibition.

  6. Bioremediation of soil contaminated by waste motor oil in 55000 and 65000 and phytoremediation by Sorghum bicolor inoculated with Burkholderia cepacia and Penicillium chrysogenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Yáñez Juan Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In soil spill a high concentration of waste motor oil (WMO it´s causing lost soil fertility, which is solved by remediation, but is expensive and polluting, an ecological alternative is bioremediation (BR by biostimulation follow by phytoremediation (PY with Sorghum bicolor using Burkholderia cepacia and Penicillium chrysogenum, promoting growth plant microorganisms (PGPM at concentration value below to the maximum according to NOM-138 SEMARNAT/SS-2003 de 4400 ppm/Kg soil. The objectives of this research were a bioremediation of soil contaminated by high WMO concentrations by biostimulation with mineral solution and Vicia sativa as green manure (GM, and subsequent b phytoremediation by S. bicolor with B. cepacia and P. chrysogenum to reduce remaining WMO at concentration below to maximum according to NOM-138 SEMARNAT/SS-2003. The results showed that biostimulation with mineral solution and V. sativa reduced WMO from 55000 to 33400 ppm, and from 65000 to 24300 ppm. Follow by PY by S. bicolor with B. cepacia and P. chrysogenum decreased WMO from 33400 ppm to 210 ppm, and from 24300 ppm to 360 ppm, compared to soil as negative control in which WMO did not change by natural attenuation. This suggests that to integrate BR and PY is an ecological option instead to apply chemical technique expensive and causing environmental pollution.

  7. The RAVEN toolbox and its use for generating a genome-scale metabolic model for Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Agren

    Full Text Available We present the RAVEN (Reconstruction, Analysis and Visualization of Metabolic Networks Toolbox: a software suite that allows for semi-automated reconstruction of genome-scale models. It makes use of published models and/or the KEGG database, coupled with extensive gap-filling and quality control features. The software suite also contains methods for visualizing simulation results and omics data, as well as a range of methods for performing simulations and analyzing the results. The software is a useful tool for system-wide data analysis in a metabolic context and for streamlined reconstruction of metabolic networks based on protein homology. The RAVEN Toolbox workflow was applied in order to reconstruct a genome-scale metabolic model for the important microbial cell factory Penicillium chrysogenum Wisconsin54-1255. The model was validated in a bibliomic study of in total 440 references, and it comprises 1471 unique biochemical reactions and 1006 ORFs. It was then used to study the roles of ATP and NADPH in the biosynthesis of penicillin, and to identify potential metabolic engineering targets for maximization of penicillin production.

  8. The RAVEN toolbox and its use for generating a genome-scale metabolic model for Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agren, Rasmus; Liu, Liming; Shoaie, Saeed; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Nookaew, Intawat; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    We present the RAVEN (Reconstruction, Analysis and Visualization of Metabolic Networks) Toolbox: a software suite that allows for semi-automated reconstruction of genome-scale models. It makes use of published models and/or the KEGG database, coupled with extensive gap-filling and quality control features. The software suite also contains methods for visualizing simulation results and omics data, as well as a range of methods for performing simulations and analyzing the results. The software is a useful tool for system-wide data analysis in a metabolic context and for streamlined reconstruction of metabolic networks based on protein homology. The RAVEN Toolbox workflow was applied in order to reconstruct a genome-scale metabolic model for the important microbial cell factory Penicillium chrysogenum Wisconsin54-1255. The model was validated in a bibliomic study of in total 440 references, and it comprises 1471 unique biochemical reactions and 1006 ORFs. It was then used to study the roles of ATP and NADPH in the biosynthesis of penicillin, and to identify potential metabolic engineering targets for maximization of penicillin production.

  9. New chlorinated diphenyl ethers and xanthones from a deep-sea-derived fungus Penicillium chrysogenum SCSIO 41001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Feng; Zhou, Li-Man; Chen, Sheng-Tian; Yang, Bin; Liao, Sheng-Rong; Kong, Fan-Dong; Lin, Xiu-Ping; Wang, Fa-Zuo; Zhou, Xue-Feng; Liu, Yong-Hong

    2018-03-01

    Seven new compounds, including four new chlorinated diphenyl ethers, namely chrysines A-D (1-4), one new dichlorinated xanthone, chrysoxanthone (5), dichloroorcinol (6), and one new benzeneacetic acid derivative, 3-isopentyl-4-hydroxy phenylacetic acid methyl ester (7), along with fourteen known compounds (8-21), were isolated from a deep-sea-derived fungus Penicillium chrysogenum SCSIO 41001. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic methods and X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis. All of the isolated compounds (1-21) were evaluated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity using PNPG method. Among them, nine compounds (2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 13, 17, and 18) exhibited inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase with IC 50 values of 0.35, 0.20, 0.04, 0.16, 0.15, 0.09, 0.14, 0.14, and 0.12mM, respectively (IC 50 0.28mM for the positive control acarbose). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Influence of the dissolved oxygen concentration on the penicillin biosynthetic pathway in steady-state cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Claus Maxel; Nielsen, Jens Bredal; Villadsen, John

    1997-01-01

    The influence the of dissolved oxygen concentration on penicillin biosynthesis was studied in steady-state continuous cultures of a high-yielding strain of Penicillium chrysogenum operated at a dilution rate of 0.05 h-l. The dissolved oxygen concentration was varied between 0.019 and 0.344 m......M (corresponding to 7% and 131% air saturation at 1 bar) solely through manipulations of the inlet gas composition. At dissolved oxygen concentrations above 0.06-0.08 mM, a constant specific penicillin productivity of around 22 (mu mol/g of DW)/h is maintained. At lower oxygen concentrations, the specific...... penicillin productivity decreases, and a value of 17 (mu mol/g of DW)/h was obtained when the dissolved oxygen concentration was 0.042 mM. A further lowering of the dissolved oxygen concentration to 0.019 mM resulted in the loss of penicillin production. However, penicillin productivity was instantly...

  11. Switching industrial production processes from complex to defined media: method development and case study using the example of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, Andreas E; Spadiut, Oliver; Herwig, Christoph

    2012-06-22

    Filamentous fungi are versatile cell factories and widely used for the production of antibiotics, organic acids, enzymes and other industrially relevant compounds at large scale. As a fact, industrial production processes employing filamentous fungi are commonly based on complex raw materials. However, considerable lot-to-lot variability of complex media ingredients not only demands for exhaustive incoming components inspection and quality control, but unavoidably affects process stability and performance. Thus, switching bioprocesses from complex to defined media is highly desirable. This study presents a strategy for strain characterization of filamentous fungi on partly complex media using redundant mass balancing techniques. Applying the suggested method, interdependencies between specific biomass and side-product formation rates, production of fructooligosaccharides, specific complex media component uptake rates and fungal strains were revealed. A 2-fold increase of the overall penicillin space time yield and a 3-fold increase in the maximum specific penicillin formation rate were reached in defined media compared to complex media. The newly developed methodology enabled fast characterization of two different industrial Penicillium chrysogenum candidate strains on complex media based on specific complex media component uptake kinetics and identification of the most promising strain for switching the process from complex to defined conditions. Characterization at different complex/defined media ratios using only a limited number of analytical methods allowed maximizing the overall industrial objectives of increasing both, method throughput and the generation of scientific process understanding.

  12. Sexual reproduction and mating-type–mediated strain development in the penicillin-producing fungus Penicillium chrysogenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Julia; Hoff, Birgit; O’Gorman, Céline M.; Wolfers, Simon; Klix, Volker; Binger, Danielle; Zadra, Ivo; Kürnsteiner, Hubert; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Dyer, Paul S.; Kück, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum is a filamentous fungus of major medical and historical importance, being the original and present-day industrial source of the antibiotic penicillin. The species has been considered asexual for more than 100 y, and despite concerted efforts, it has not been possible to induce sexual reproduction, which has prevented sexual crosses being used for strain improvement. However, using knowledge of mating-type (MAT) gene organization, we now describe conditions under which a sexual cycle can be induced leading to production of meiotic ascospores. Evidence of recombination was obtained using both molecular and phenotypic markers. The identified heterothallic sexual cycle was used for strain development purposes, generating offspring with novel combinations of traits relevant to penicillin production. Furthermore, the MAT1-1–1 mating-type gene, known primarily for a role in governing sexual identity, was also found to control transcription of a wide range of genes with biotechnological relevance including those regulating penicillin production, hyphal morphology, and conidial formation. These discoveries of a sexual cycle and MAT gene function are likely to be of broad relevance for manipulation of other asexual fungi of economic importance. PMID:23307807

  13. Sexual reproduction and mating-type-mediated strain development in the penicillin-producing fungus Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Julia; Hoff, Birgit; O'Gorman, Céline M; Wolfers, Simon; Klix, Volker; Binger, Danielle; Zadra, Ivo; Kürnsteiner, Hubert; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Dyer, Paul S; Kück, Ulrich

    2013-01-22

    Penicillium chrysogenum is a filamentous fungus of major medical and historical importance, being the original and present-day industrial source of the antibiotic penicillin. The species has been considered asexual for more than 100 y, and despite concerted efforts, it has not been possible to induce sexual reproduction, which has prevented sexual crosses being used for strain improvement. However, using knowledge of mating-type (MAT) gene organization, we now describe conditions under which a sexual cycle can be induced leading to production of meiotic ascospores. Evidence of recombination was obtained using both molecular and phenotypic markers. The identified heterothallic sexual cycle was used for strain development purposes, generating offspring with novel combinations of traits relevant to penicillin production. Furthermore, the MAT1-1-1 mating-type gene, known primarily for a role in governing sexual identity, was also found to control transcription of a wide range of genes with biotechnological relevance including those regulating penicillin production, hyphal morphology, and conidial formation. These discoveries of a sexual cycle and MAT gene function are likely to be of broad relevance for manipulation of other asexual fungi of economic importance.

  14. Casein phosphopeptides and CaCl2increase penicillin production and cause an increment in microbody/peroxisome proteins in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Santos, Rebeca; Kosalková, Katarina; García-Estrada, Carlos; Barreiro, Carlos; Ibáñez, Ana; Morales, Alejandro; Martín, Juan-Francisco

    2017-03-06

    Transport of penicillin intermediates and penicillin secretion are still poorly characterized in Penicillium chrysogenum (re-identified as Penicillium rubens). Calcium (Ca 2+ ) plays an important role in the metabolism of filamentous fungi, and casein phosphopeptides (CPP) are involved in Ca 2+ internalization. In this study we observe that the effect of CaCl 2 and CPP is additive and promotes an increase in penicillin production of up to 10-12 fold. Combination of CaCl 2 and CPP greatly promotes expression of the three penicillin biosynthetic genes. Comparative proteomic analysis by 2D-DIGE, identified 39 proteins differentially represented in P. chrysogenum Wisconsin 54-1255 after CPP/CaCl 2 addition. The most interesting group of overrepresented proteins were a peroxisomal catalase, three proteins of the methylcitrate cycle, two aminotransferases and cystationine β-synthase, which are directly or indirectly related to the formation of penicillin amino acid precursors. Importantly, two of the enzymes of the penicillin pathway (isopenicillin N synthase and isopenicillin N acyltransferase) are clearly induced after CPP/CaCl 2 addition. Most of these overrepresented proteins are either authentic peroxisomal proteins or microbody-associated proteins. This evidence suggests that addition of CPP/CaCl 2 promotes the formation of penicillin precursors and the penicillin biosynthetic enzymes in peroxisomes and vesicles, which may be involved in transport and secretion of penicillin. Penicillin biosynthesis in Penicillium chrysogenum is one of the best characterized secondary metabolism processes. However, the mechanism by which penicillin is secreted still remains to be elucidated. Taking into account the role played by Ca 2+ and CPP in the secretory pathway and considering the positive effect that Ca 2+ exerts on penicillin production, the analysis of global protein changes produced after CPP/CaCl 2 addition is very helpful to decipher the processes related to the

  15. A Penicillium chrysogenum-based expression system for the production of small, cysteine-rich antifungal proteins for structural and functional analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonderegger, Christoph; Galgóczy, László; Garrigues, Sandra; Fizil, Ádám; Borics, Attila; Manzanares, Paloma; Hegedüs, Nikoletta; Huber, Anna; Marcos, Jose F; Batta, Gyula; Marx, Florentine

    2016-11-11

    Small, cysteine-rich and cationic antifungal proteins (APs) from filamentous ascomycetes, such as NFAP from Neosartorya fischeri and PAF from Penicillium chrysogenum, are promising candidates for novel drug development. A prerequisite for their application is a detailed knowledge about their structure-function relation and mode of action, which would allow protein modelling to enhance their toxicity and specificity. Technologies for structure analyses, such as electronic circular dichroism (ECD) or NMR spectroscopy, require highly purified samples and in case of NMR milligrams of uniformly 15 N-/ 13 C-isotope labelled protein. To meet these requirements, we developed a P. chrysogenum-based expression system that ensures sufficient amount and optimal purity of APs for structural and functional analyses. The APs PAF, PAF mutants and NFAP were expressed in a P. chrysogenum ∆paf mutant strain that served as perfect microbial expression factory. This strain lacks the paf-gene coding for the endogenous antifungal PAF and is resistant towards several APs from other ascomycetes. The expression of the recombinant proteins was under the regulation of the strong paf promoter, and the presence of a paf-specific pre-pro sequence warranted the secretion of processed proteins into the supernatant. The use of defined minimal medium allowed a single-step purification of the recombinant proteins. The expression system could be extended to express PAF in the related fungus Penicillium digitatum, which does not produce detectable amounts of APs, demonstrating the versatility of the approach. The molecular masses, folded structures and antifungal activity of the recombinant proteins were analysed by ESI-MS, ECD and NMR spectroscopy and growth inhibition assays. This study demonstrates the implementation of a paf promoter driven expression cassettes for the production of cysteine-rich, cationic, APs in different Penicillium species. The system is a perfect tool for the generation of

  16. Functional Aspects of the Solution Structure and Dynamics of PAF, a Highly Stable Antifungal Protein from Penicillium chrysogenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batta, Gyula; Barna, Teréz; Gáspári, Zoltán; Sándor, Szabolcs; Kövér, Katalin E.; Binder, Ulrike; Sarg, Bettina; Kaiserer, Lydia; Chhillar, Anil Kumar; Eigentler, Andrea; Leiter, Éva; Hegedüs, Nikoletta; Pócsi, István; Lindner, Herbert; Marx, Florentine

    2015-01-01

    Summary PAF is a promising antimycotic without toxic effects on mammalian cells and therefore may be a drug candidate against the often lethal Aspergillus infections in human. The pathogenesis of PAF on sensitive fungi involves G-protein coupled signaling followed by apoptosis. Here, the solution structure of this small, cationic, antifungal protein from Penicillium chrysogenum is determined by solution NMR. We proved that PAF belongs to the SCOP fold class of its closest homologue AFP from Aspergillus giganteus. PAF comprises five β—strands forming two orthogonally packed β—sheets sharing a common interface. The ambiguity in the assignment of two disulfide bonds of three was investigated by NMR dynamics combined with restrained molecular dynamics calculations. The clue could not be resolved: two ensembles with different disulfide patterns and the one with no S-S bond exhibit essentially the same fold. 15N relaxation dispersion and interference experiments did not reveal disulfide bond rearrangements via slow exchange. The measured order parameters and the 3.0 ns correlation time is appropriate for a compact monomeric protein of this size. We demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis that the highly conserved and positively charged lysine-rich domain region on the surface enhances the toxicity of PAF. However, the efficacy of the OB fold is reduced in PAF compared to AFP, due to less solvent exposed aromatic regions explaining the absence of chitobiose binding. The present work lends further support to the understanding of the documented substantial differences between the mode of action of two highly homologous antifungal proteins. PMID:19459942

  17. Degeneration of penicillin production in ethanol-limited chemostat cultivations of Penicillium chrysogenum: A systems biology approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daran Jean-Marc

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In microbial production of non-catabolic products such as antibiotics a loss of production capacity upon long-term cultivation (for example chemostat, a phenomenon called strain degeneration, is often observed. In this study a systems biology approach, monitoring changes from gene to produced flux, was used to study degeneration of penicillin production in a high producing Penicillium chrysogenum strain during prolonged ethanol-limited chemostat cultivations. Results During these cultivations, the biomass specific penicillin production rate decreased more than 10-fold in less than 22 generations. No evidence was obtained for a decrease of the copy number of the penicillin gene cluster, nor a significant down regulation of the expression of the penicillin biosynthesis genes. However, a strong down regulation of the biosynthesis pathway of cysteine, one of the precursors of penicillin, was observed. Furthermore the protein levels of the penicillin pathway enzymes L-α-(δ-aminoadipyl-L-α-cystenyl-D-α-valine synthetase (ACVS and isopenicillin-N synthase (IPNS, decreased significantly. Re-cultivation of fully degenerated cells in unlimited batch culture and subsequent C-limited chemostats did only result in a slight recovery of penicillin production. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the observed degeneration is attributed to a significant decrease of the levels of the first two enzymes of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway, ACVS and IPNS. This decrease is not caused by genetic instability of the penicillin amplicon, neither by down regulation of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway. Furthermore no indications were obtained for degradation of these enzymes as a result of autophagy. Possible causes for the decreased enzyme levels could be a decrease of the translation efficiency of ACVS and IPNS during degeneration, or the presence of a culture variant impaired in the biosynthesis of functional proteins of these enzymes

  18. The Penicillium chrysogenum aclA gene encodes a broad-substrate-specificity acyl-coenzyme A ligase involved in activation of adipic acid, a side-chain precursor for cephem antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, Martijn J.; Gombert, Andreas K.; Fekken, Susan; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Van den Berg, Marco A.; Kiel, Jan A. K. W.; Jekel, Peter A.; Janssen, Dick B.; Pronk, Jack T.; Van der Klei, Ida J.; Daran, Jean-Marc

    Activation of the cephalosporin side-chain precursor to the corresponding CoA-thioester is an essential step for its incorporation into the P-lactam backbone. To identify an acyl-CoA ligase involved in activation of adipate, we searched in the genome database of Penicillium chrysogenum for putative

  19. Properties of Carry Value Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryakanta Pal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carry Value Transformation (CVT is a model of discrete deterministic dynamical system. In the present study, it has been proved that (1 the sum of any two nonnegative integers is the same as the sum of their CVT and XOR values. (2 the number of iterations leading to either CVT=0 or XOR=0 does not exceed the maximum of the lengths of the two addenda expressed as binary strings. A similar process of addition of modified Carry Value Transformation (MCVT and XOR requires a maximum of two iterations for MCVT to be zero. (3 an equivalence relation is shown to exist on Z×Z which divides the CV table into disjoint equivalence classes.

  20. Motifs in the C-terminal region of the Penicillium chrysogenum ACV synthetase are essential for valine epimerization and processivity of tripeptide formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaobin; García-Estrada, Carlos; Vaca, Inmaculada; Martín, Juan-Francisco

    2012-02-01

    The first step in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway is the non-ribosomal condensation of L-α-aminoadipic acid, L-cysteine and L-valine into the tripeptide δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (ACV). This reaction is catalysed by the multienzyme ACV synthetase (ACVS), which is encoded in the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum by the pcbAB gene. This enzyme contains at least ten catalytic domains. The precise role of the C-terminal domain of this multidomain NRPS still remains obscure. The C-terminal region of ACVS bears the epimerase and the thioesterase domains and may be involved in the epimerization of LLL-ACV to LLD-ACV and in the hydrolysis of the thioester bond. In this work, the conserved motifs (3371)EGHGRE(3376) (located in the putative epimerase domain) and (3629)GWSFG(3633) (located in the thioesterase domain) were changed by site-directed-mutagenesis to LGFGLL and GWAFG, respectively. In addition, the whole thioesterase domain (230 amino acids) and the different parts of this domain were deleted. The activity of these mutant enzymes was assessed in vivo by two different procedures: i) through the quantification of bisACV produced by the fungus and ii) by quantifying the benzylpenicillin production using tailored strains of P. chrysogenum, which lack the pcbAB gene, as host strains. All indicated mutant enzymes showed lower or null activity than the control strain confirming that E3371, H3373, R3375 and E3376 belong to the epimerase active centre. Different fragments included in the C-terminal region of ACVS control thioester hydrolysis. Overexpression of the sequence encoding the ACVS integrated thioesterase domain as a separate (stand-alone) transcriptional unit complemented mutants lacking the integrated thioesterase domain, although with low ACV releasing activity, suggesting that the stand-alone thioesterease interacts with the other ACVS domains. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Fusarinines and dimerum acid, mono- and dihydroxamate siderophores from Penicillium chrysogenum, improve iron utilization by strategy I and strategy II plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hördt, W; Römheld, V; Winkelmann, G

    2000-03-01

    Cucumber, as a strategy I plant, and Maize as a strategy II plant, were cultivated in hydroponic culture in the presence of a ferrated siderophore mixture (1 microM) from a culture of Penicillium chrysogenum isolated from soil. The siderophore mixture significantly improved the iron status of these plants as measured by chlorophyll concentration to the same degree as a 100-fold higher FeEDTA supply. Analysis of the siderophore mixture from P. chrysogenum by HPLC and electrospray mass spectrometry revealed that besides the trihydroxamates, coprogen and ferricrocin, large amounts of dimerum acid and fusarinines were present which represent precursor siderophores or breakdown products of coprogen. In order to prove the iron donor properties of dimerum acid and fusarinines for plants, purified coprogen was hydrolyzed with ammonia and the hydrolysis products consisting of dimerum acid and fusarinine were used for iron uptake by cucumber and maize. In short term experiments radioactive iron uptake and translocation rates were determined using ferrioxamine B, coprogen and hydrolysis products of coprogen. While the trihydroxamates revealed negligible or intermediate iron uptake rates by both plant species, the fungal siderophore mixture and the ammoniacal hydrolysis products of coprogen showed high iron uptake, suggesting that dimerum acid and fusarinines are very efficient iron sources for plants. Iron reduction assays using cucumber roots or ascorbic acid also showed that iron bound to hydrolysis products of coprogen was more easily reduced compared to iron bound to trihydroxamates. Ligand exchange studies with epi-hydroxymugineic acid and EDTA showed that iron was easily exchanged between coprogen hydrolysis products and phytosiderophores or EDTA. The results indicate that coprogen hydrolysis products are an excellent source for Fe nutrition of plants.

  2. How honey bees carry pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matherne, Marguerite E.; Anyanwu, Gabriel; Leavey, Jennifer K.; Hu, David L.

    2017-11-01

    Honey bees are the tanker of the skies, carrying thirty percent of their weight in pollen per foraging trip using specialized orifices on their body. How do they manage to hang onto those pesky pollen grains? In this experimental study, we investigate the adhesion force of pollen to the honeybee. To affix pollen to themselves, honey bees form a suspension of pollen in nectar, creating a putty-like pollen basket that is skewered by leg hairs. We use tensile tests to show that the viscous force of the pollen basket is more than ten times the honeybee's flight force. This work may provide inspiration for the design of robotic flying pollinators.

  3. Loren Shriver carries Olympic torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    KSC Shuttle Operations Manager Loren J. Shriver proudly displays the Olympic torch that he carried to the top of Launch Pad 39A as his contribution to the July 7, 1996 KSC Olympic torch relay effort. Nineteen other KSC runners also participated in the relay effort at the Center. The Olympic torch arrived at KSC at 1:40 p.m. and traveled a 20-mile course to the pad and then out to the KSC visitor Center. The Space Shuttle Atlantis is behind Shriver, poised for the STS-79 mission, which will feature the fourth docking of the Shuttle with the Russian Mir space station.

  4. Why do dolphins carry sponges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Janet; Sargeant, Brooke L; Watson-Capps, Jana J; Gibson, Quincy A; Heithaus, Michael R; Connor, Richard C; Patterson, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Tool use is rare in wild animals, but of widespread interest because of its relationship to animal cognition, social learning and culture. Despite such attention, quantifying the costs and benefits of tool use has been difficult, largely because if tool use occurs, all population members typically exhibit the behavior. In Shark Bay, Australia, only a subset of the bottlenose dolphin population uses marine sponges as tools, providing an opportunity to assess both proximate and ultimate costs and benefits and document patterns of transmission. We compared sponge-carrying (sponger) females to non-sponge-carrying (non-sponger) females and show that spongers were more solitary, spent more time in deep water channel habitats, dived for longer durations, and devoted more time to foraging than non-spongers; and, even with these potential proximate costs, calving success of sponger females was not significantly different from non-spongers. We also show a clear female-bias in the ontogeny of sponging. With a solitary lifestyle, specialization, and high foraging demands, spongers used tools more than any non-human animal. We suggest that the ecological, social, and developmental mechanisms involved likely (1) help explain the high intrapopulation variation in female behaviour, (2) indicate tradeoffs (e.g., time allocation) between ecological and social factors and, (3) constrain the spread of this innovation to primarily vertical transmission.

  5. Why do dolphins carry sponges?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Mann

    Full Text Available Tool use is rare in wild animals, but of widespread interest because of its relationship to animal cognition, social learning and culture. Despite such attention, quantifying the costs and benefits of tool use has been difficult, largely because if tool use occurs, all population members typically exhibit the behavior. In Shark Bay, Australia, only a subset of the bottlenose dolphin population uses marine sponges as tools, providing an opportunity to assess both proximate and ultimate costs and benefits and document patterns of transmission. We compared sponge-carrying (sponger females to non-sponge-carrying (non-sponger females and show that spongers were more solitary, spent more time in deep water channel habitats, dived for longer durations, and devoted more time to foraging than non-spongers; and, even with these potential proximate costs, calving success of sponger females was not significantly different from non-spongers. We also show a clear female-bias in the ontogeny of sponging. With a solitary lifestyle, specialization, and high foraging demands, spongers used tools more than any non-human animal. We suggest that the ecological, social, and developmental mechanisms involved likely (1 help explain the high intrapopulation variation in female behaviour, (2 indicate tradeoffs (e.g., time allocation between ecological and social factors and, (3 constrain the spread of this innovation to primarily vertical transmission.

  6. Influence of the adipate and dissolved oxygen concentrations on the beta-lactam production during continuous cultivations of a Penicillium chrysogenum strain expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robin, Jarno Jacky Christian; Bonneau, S.; Schipper, D.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of adipate concentration and dissolved oxygen on production of adipoyl-7-aminodeacetoxycephalosporanic acid (ad-7-ADCA) by a recombinant strain of Penicillium chrysogenum expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus was studied in glucose-limited continuous cultures....... from 15 to 7%AS, r(p) (total) increased to 25 mumol g DW-1 h(-1), mainly due to a two-fold increase in the adipoyl-6-aminopenicillanic acid (ad-6-APA) specific productivity....

  7. Novelties that change carrying capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Douglas H

    2012-09-01

    Comparative developmental studies have revealed a rich array of details about the patterns and processes of morphological change in animals and increasingly in plants. But, applying these insights to the study of major episodes of evolutionary innovation requires understanding how these novel morphologies become established and sufficiently abundant (either as individuals within a species or as a clade of species) to be preserved in the fossil record, and, in many cases, to influence ecological processes. Evolutionary novelties may: (1) disappear without changing the species; (2) be associated with the generation (through selection or drift) of a new species; and if the latter (3) may or may not become ecologically significant. Only the latter are commonly preserved in the fossil record. These alternatives mirror the distinction among historians of technology between innovation and invention. Here, I argue that specific sorts of evolutionary inventions drive ecological transformation, essentially constructing an environment for themselves and ancillary organisms through ecological spillover effects, increasing the "carrying capacity" of an ecosystem. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. ISOLATION OF A NEW PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM STRAIN BF02 FROM AGRICULTURAL SOIL OF RURAL INDIA PRODUCING A THERMOSTABLE LOW KM CELLOBIASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samudra Prosad Banik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A new strain of Penicillium chrysogenum producing a low Km, thermostable cellobiase was isolated from agricultural soil of rural West Bengal, India. The culture filtrate showed strong antibacterial activity against gram positive organisms, gave two cellobiase activity bands on native PAGE zymography and two peaks on sephacryl S200 gel chromatography. The higher molecular weight peak had a higher specific activity and was characterised further. It gave three bands corresponding to 130 kDa, 65 kDa and 55 kDa in SDS-PAGE and showed a Km of 0.196 mM against p- nitrophenyl β-D glucopyranoside. It was highly thermostable and retained full activity after one hour incubation at 55°C with temperature optima of 75°C. Its pH stability ranged between 4.5 and 8.5 with optimal activity at pH 5 and it retained more than 65% activity in presence of 100 mM guanidium hydrochloride and 2 M urea. Apart from Zn+2 and Hg+2, enzyme activity was not affected by other metal ions and in presence of Mg+2 and Mn+2, activity was boosted. It also retained more than 80% activity in presence of 0.5% glucose. This is one of the very few reports of an efficient cellobiase from the Penicillium genus which can be utilised for biotechnological applications.

  9. The Penicillium chrysogenum antifungal protein PAF, a promising tool for the development of new antifungal therapies and fungal cell biology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, F; Binder, U; Leiter, E; Pócsi, I

    2008-02-01

    In recent years the interest in antimicrobial proteins and peptides and their mode of action has been rapidly increasing due to their potential to prevent and combat microbial infections in all areas of life. A detailed knowledge about the function of such proteins is the most important requirement to consider them for future application. Our research in recent years has been focused on the low molecular weight, cysteine-rich and cationic antifungal protein PAF from Penicillium chrysogenum, which inhibits the growth of opportunistic zoo-pathogens including Aspergillus fumigatus, numerous plant-pathogenic fungi and the model organism Aspergillus nidulans. So far, the experimental results indicate that PAF elicits hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane and the activation of ion channels, followed by an increase in reactive oxygen species in the cell and the induction of an apoptosis-like phenotype. Detailed knowledge about the molecular mechanism of action of antifungal proteins such as PAF contributes to the development of new antimicrobial strategies that are urgently needed.

  10. Sulfate-activating enzymes of Penicillium chrysogenum. The ATP sulfurylase.adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate complex does not serve as a substrate for adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renosto, F.; Martin, R.L.; Segel, I.H.

    1989-01-01

    At a noninhibitory steady state concentration of adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS), increasing the concentration of Penicillium chrysogenum ATP sulfurylase drives the rate of the APS kinase-catalyzed reaction toward zero. The result indicates that the ATP sulfurylase.APS complex does not serve as a substrate for APS kinase, i.e. there is no ''substrate channeling'' of APS between the two sulfate-activating enzymes. APS kinase had no effect on the [S]0.5 values, nH values, or maximum isotope trapping in the single turnover of ATP sulfurylase-bound [ 35 S]APS. Equimolar APS kinase (+/- MgATP or APS) also had no effect on the rate constants for the inactivation of ATP sulfurylase by phenylglyoxal, diethylpyrocarbonate, or N-ethylmaleimide. Similarly, ATP sulfurylase (+/- ligands) had no effect on the inactivation of equimolar APS kinase by trinitrobenzene sulfonate, diethylpyrocarbonate, or heat. (The last promotes the dissociation of dimeric APS kinase to inactive monomers.) ATP sulfurylase also had no effect on the reassociation of APS kinase subunits at low temperature. The cumulative results suggest that the two sulfate activating enzymes do not associate to form a ''3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthetase'' complex

  11. Should women carry their antenatal records?

    OpenAIRE

    Draper, J; Field, S; Thomas, H; Hare, M J

    1986-01-01

    A study of women's views on carrying their medical records during their pregnancy was conducted in Cambridge in 1982. Eighty eight women who were given their full records were compared with a control group of 83 women who carried the traditional cooperation card, both groups answering postal questionnaires about the advantages and disadvantages of carrying their respective records. Most women found advantages in carrying the complete record, although it was too large to carry for practical pu...

  12. Energetics of load carrying in Nepalese porters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Guillaume J; Schepens, Bénédicte; Willems, Patrick A; Heglund, Norman C

    2005-06-17

    Nepalese porters routinely carry head-supported loads equal to 100 to 200% of their body weight (Mb) for many days up and down steep mountain footpaths at high altitudes. Previous studies have shown that African women carry head-supported loads of up to 60% of their Mb far more economically than army recruits carrying equivalent loads in backpacks. Here we show that Nepalese porters carry heavier loads even more economically than African women. Female Nepalese porters, for example, carry on average loads that are 10% of their Mb heavier than the maximum loads carried by the African women, yet do so at a 25% smaller metabolic cost.

  13. Local Dynamic Stability Associated with Load Carrying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Current study confirmed the sensitivity of local dynamic stability measure in load carrying situation. It was concluded that load carrying tasks were associated with declined local dynamic stability, which may result in increased risk of fall accident. This finding has implications in preventing fall accidents associated with occupational load carrying.

  14. Comparative performance of different scale-down simulators of substrate gradients in Penicillium chrysogenum cultures: the need of a biological systems response analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan; Zhao, Junfei; Haringa, Cees; Tang, Wenjun; Xia, Jianye; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang; Deshmukh, Amit T; van Gulik, Walter; Heijnen, Joseph J; Noorman, Henk J

    2018-05-01

    In a 54 m 3 large-scale penicillin fermentor, the cells experience substrate gradient cycles at the timescales of global mixing time about 20-40 s. Here, we used an intermittent feeding regime (IFR) and a two-compartment reactor (TCR) to mimic these substrate gradients at laboratory-scale continuous cultures. The IFR was applied to simulate substrate dynamics experienced by the cells at full scale at timescales of tens of seconds to minutes (30 s, 3 min and 6 min), while the TCR was designed to simulate substrate gradients at an applied mean residence time (τc) of 6 min. A biological systems analysis of the response of an industrial high-yielding P. chrysogenum strain has been performed in these continuous cultures. Compared to an undisturbed continuous feeding regime in a single reactor, the penicillin productivity (q PenG ) was reduced in all scale-down simulators. The dynamic metabolomics data indicated that in the IFRs, the cells accumulated high levels of the central metabolites during the feast phase to actively cope with external substrate deprivation during the famine phase. In contrast, in the TCR system, the storage pool (e.g. mannitol and arabitol) constituted a large contribution of carbon supply in the non-feed compartment. Further, transcript analysis revealed that all scale-down simulators gave different expression levels of the glucose/hexose transporter genes and the penicillin gene clusters. The results showed that q PenG did not correlate well with exposure to the substrate regimes (excess, limitation and starvation), but there was a clear inverse relation between q PenG and the intracellular glucose level. © 2018 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Statistical optimization of cellulases production by Penicillium chrysogenum QML-2 under solid-state fermentation and primary application to chitosan hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Sang, Qing

    2012-03-01

    Solid-state fermentation conditions for cellulases production by a newly isolated Penicillium chrysogenum QML-2 were investigated using statistical methods. At first, significant variables for cellulases production including (NH(4))(2)SO(4), initial pH and inoculum size were screened by using Plackett-Burman Design. Then the optimal regions of the significant variables were investigated by using the method of steepest ascent. Finally, central composite design and response surface analysis were adopted to determine the optimal values of the significant variables and investigate the combined effects of each variable's pair on cellulases production. The results showed that the optimal ranges of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) concentration, initial pH and inoculum size for three types of cellulases activities were 1.97-2.15 g, pH 4.32-4.41 and 13.3-13.7% (v/w), respectively. Using the mixture of corn stover powder and wheat bran (CSP/WB, 1/1) as carbon source, the optimization resulted in 370.15, 101.76 and 321.56 U/g for maximal endoglucanase activity, filter paper activity and β-glucosidase activity, respectively. Compared with maximum values of cellulases activities (endoglucanase activity 85.21 U/g, filter paper activity 16.62 U/g and β-glucosidase activity 67.68 U/g) obtained under unoptimized conditions, the optimization resulted in 3.34, 5.12 and 3.75 folds improvement for endoglucanase activity, filter paper activity and β-glucosidase activity, respectively. For chitosan hydrolysis, the crude cellulases had the optimal temperature of 55°C, pH of 4.4 and exhibited Michaelis constant (K (m)) value of 8.34 mg/ml and maximum velocity (V (max)) of 2.21 μmol glucosamine/min by 1 ml of the crude cellulases.

  16. Measuring Social carrying Capacity: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    López-Bonilla, Jesús Manuel; López-Bonilla, Luis Miguel

    2007-01-01

    The tourist carrying capacity commands a growing interest given that it is closely linked with sustainable tourist development. The justification of the utility of this concept is given by means of a simple and efficient methodological proposal, by analysing the social carrying capacity. To this end, an empirical application is carried out in the Western Andalusia. In some of the cases analysed, the satisfaction of the tourist is found to decline when the levels of the tourist use are higher ...

  17. Bivalve carrying capacity in coastal ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dame, R.F.; Prins, T.C.

    1998-01-01

    carrying capacity of suspension feeding bivalves in 11 coastal and estuarine ecosystems is examined. Bivalve carrying capacity is defined in terms of water mass residence time, primary production time and bivalve clearance time. Turnover times for the 11 ecosystems are compared both two and three

  18. The Concept of Carrying Capacity in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Zelenka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carrying capacity is often pragmatically, theoretically as well as purely intuitively considered as a concept in the context of tourism sustainability. The carrying capacity application has the greatest potential in protected areas, in frequently visited cultural and natural attractions, and in relation to sustaining of the lifestyle of the local community and tourism destination potential in general. Despite its importance, partial applications, determination of basic theoretical principles, and specifying connection to the other theoretical concepts in tourism (particularly destination life cycle, LAC concept, visitors management, there still is a rightful opinion of some authors suggesting that there is no consistent theory of tourism carrying capacity. This theory would be the base for sophisticated practical carrying capacity applications. This paper is therefore focused on introduction of the theoretical concept of carrying capacity, which can be discussed and possibly further elaborated.

  19. Properties of information carrying waves in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shea, E.M.

    2004-01-01

    Recently we studied the effects of information carrying waves propagating through isotropic cosmologies. By information carrying we mean that the waves have an arbitrary dependence on a function. We found that the waves introduce shear and anisotropic stress into the universe. We then constructed explicit examples of pure gravity wave perturbations for which the presence of this anisotropic stress is essential and the null hypersurfaces playing the role of the histories of the wavefronts in the background space-time are shear free. Motivated by this result we now prove that these two properties are true for all information carrying waves in isotropic cosmologies

  20. Population growth and earth's human carrying capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J E

    1995-07-21

    Earth's capacity to support people is determined both by natural constraints and by human choices concerning economics, environment, culture (including values and politics), and demography. Human carrying capacity is therefore dynamic and uncertain. Human choice is not captured by ecological notions of carrying capacity that are appropriate for nonhuman populations. Simple mathematical models of the relation between human population growth and human carrying capacity can account for faster-than-exponential population growth followed by a slowing population growth rate, as observed in recent human history.

  1. Gun Carrying by High School Students in Boston, MA: Does Overestimation of Peer Gun Carrying Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Vriniotis, Mary; Johnson, Renee M.; Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates: (1) whether high school students overestimate gun carrying by their peers, and (2) whether those students who overestimate peer gun carrying are more likely to carry firearms. Data come from a randomly sampled survey conducted in 2008 of over 1700 high school students in Boston, MA. Over 5% of students reported carrying a…

  2. Biodegradation of phenol in static cultures by Penicillium chrysogenum ERK1: catalytic abilities and residual phototoxicity Biodegradación de fenol en cultivos estáticos por Penicillium chrysogenum ERK1: habilidades catalíticas y fitotoxicidad residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika A Wolskm

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A phenol-degrading fungus was isolated from crop soils. Molecular characterization (using internal transcribed spacer, translation elongation factor and beta-tubulin gene sequences and biochemical characterization allowed to identify the fungal strain as Penicillium chrysogenum Thorn ERK1. Phenol degradation was tested at 25 °C under resting mycelium conditions at 6, 30, 60, 200, 350 and 400 mg/l of phenol as the only source of carbon and energy. The time required for complete phenol degradation increased at different initial phenol concentrations. Maximum specific degradation rate (0.89978 mg of phenol/day/mg of dry weight was obtained at 200 mg/l. Biomass yield decreased at initial phenol concentrations above 60 mg/l. Catechol was identified as an intermediate metabolite by HPLC analysis and catechol dioxygenase activity was detected in plate assays, suggesting that phenol metabolism could occur via ortho fission of catechol. Wheat seeds were used as phototoxicity indicators of phenol degradation products. It was found that these products were not phytotoxic for wheat but highly phytotoxic for phenol. The high specific degradation rates obtained under resting mycelium conditions are considered relevant for practical applications of this fungus in soil decontamination processes.Un aislamiento fúngico capaz de degradar fenol como única fuente de carbono y energía fue aislado de suelos agrícolas. La caracterización molecular (basada en el empleo de secuencias de espaciadores de transcriptos internos, de factores de la elongación de la traducción y del gen de la beta-tubulina y la caracterización bioquímica permitieron identificar a esta cepa como Penicillium chrysogenum Thom ERK1. Se estudió la degradación de fenol a 25 °C en cultivos estáticos con 6, 30, 60, 200, 350 y 400 mg/l de fenol inicial. El tiempo requerido para completar la degradación de fenol aumentó al elevarse las concentraciones iniciales de dicho compuesto. La m

  3. Optimal growth trajectories with finite carrying capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravelli, F.; Sindoni, L.; Caccioli, F.; Ududec, C.

    2016-08-01

    We consider the problem of finding optimal strategies that maximize the average growth rate of multiplicative stochastic processes. For a geometric Brownian motion, the problem is solved through the so-called Kelly criterion, according to which the optimal growth rate is achieved by investing a constant given fraction of resources at any step of the dynamics. We generalize these finding to the case of dynamical equations with finite carrying capacity, which can find applications in biology, mathematical ecology, and finance. We formulate the problem in terms of a stochastic process with multiplicative noise and a nonlinear drift term that is determined by the specific functional form of carrying capacity. We solve the stochastic equation for two classes of carrying capacity functions (power laws and logarithmic), and in both cases we compute the optimal trajectories of the control parameter. We further test the validity of our analytical results using numerical simulations.

  4. An Optical Carry Chain Fast Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Al-Dabass

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant problem in Arithmetic Unit design and particularly for systolic arrays remains the speed attainable in achieving high speed addition. The root of the problem is carry propagation and a method is presented which is relatively independent of word length. The problem is addressed by the description of a suggested radical design involving a hybrid optical and electronic approach. The method of carry chain addition through pass gates is explained and a suggested implementation utilising Fabry-Perott resonators, optical waveguides and voltage controlled couplers is described. The design is suitable for n-stage modular expansion.

  5. Parallelization of Reversible Ripple-carry Adders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Axelsen, Holger Bock

    2009-01-01

    The design of fast arithmetic logic circuits is an important research topic for reversible and quantum computing. A special challenge in this setting is the computation of standard arithmetical functions without the generation of \\emph{garbage}. Here, we present a novel parallelization scheme......{O}(m\\cdot k)$. The underlying mechanisms of the parallelization scheme are formally proven correct. We also show designs for garbage-less reversible comparison circuits. We compare the circuit costs of the resulting ripple-block carry adder with known optimized reversible ripple-carry adders in measures...

  6. Abstraction carrying code and resource-awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Hermenegildo, Manuel V.; Albert Albiol, Elvira; López García, Pedro; Puebla Sánchez, Alvaro Germán

    2005-01-01

    Proof-Carrying Code (PCC) is a general approach to mobile code safety in which the code supplier augments the program with a certifícate (or proof). The intended benefit is that the program consumer can locally validate the certifícate w.r.t. the "untrusted" program by means of a certifícate checker—a process which should be much simpler, eíñcient, and automatic than generating the original proof. Abstraction Carrying Code (ACC) is an enabling technology for PCC in which an abstract mod...

  7. Carrying capacity: maintaining outdoor recreation quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Lime; George H. Stankey

    1971-01-01

    A discussion of (1) what is meant by the concept of recreational carrying capacity; (2) what is known about capacities in terms of both how resources and experience of visitors are affected by recreational use; and (3) what alternative procedures the administrator can use to manage both resources and visitors for capacity.

  8. Error propagation in energetic carrying capacity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Stafford, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation objectives derived from carrying capacity models have been used to inform management of landscapes for wildlife populations. Energetic carrying capacity models are particularly useful in conservation planning for wildlife; these models use estimates of food abundance and energetic requirements of wildlife to target conservation actions. We provide a general method for incorporating a foraging threshold (i.e., density of food at which foraging becomes unprofitable) when estimating food availability with energetic carrying capacity models. We use a hypothetical example to describe how past methods for adjustment of foraging thresholds biased results of energetic carrying capacity models in certain instances. Adjusting foraging thresholds at the patch level of the species of interest provides results consistent with ecological foraging theory. Presentation of two case studies suggest variation in bias which, in certain instances, created large errors in conservation objectives and may have led to inefficient allocation of limited resources. Our results also illustrate how small errors or biases in application of input parameters, when extrapolated to large spatial extents, propagate errors in conservation planning and can have negative implications for target populations.

  9. Construction of expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to construct expression vectors carrying mouse peroxisomal protein gene (PEP-cDNA) in prokaryotic and mammalian expression vectors in ... pGEX6p2-PEP and pUcD3-FLAG-PEP constructed vectors were transformed into the one shot TOP10 and JM105 bacterial competent cells, respectively.

  10. Transgenic cassava lines carrying heterologous alternative oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afuape

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... Organized embryogenic callus development: In our experiment, somatic embryos were developed from leaf lobes collected from transgenic cassava lines carrying the AtAOX1a gene. Immature leaf lobes measuring about 1 to 6 mm obtained from about six weeks old in vitro derived plants were used.

  11. Magnetoacoustic waves in current-carrying plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, M.H.

    1980-04-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental investigations of the characteristics of magnetoacoustic waves in non-uniform, current-carrying plasmas are reviewed. Dissipative MHD and collisionless theories are considered. Also discussed is the use of magnetoacoustic waves in plasma diagnostics and plasma heating

  12. Microfluidic device for carrying out a reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iordanov, V.; Bastemeijer, J.; Bossche, A.; Sarro, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    A device for carrying out a reaction, which device comprises a wafer provided with a group of at least two wells. The wells are thermally separate from each other by means of a groove in a layer of the device, while parts separated by the groove are locally connected by bridges. In this way a device

  13. Transgenic cassava lines carrying heterologous alternative oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Messenger RNA was extracted from selected PCR-positive lines for reverse transcription-PCR analysis for gene expression. To screen positive lines for gene function, leaf lobes from two transgenic lines with a line carrying an empty vector and the wild type were subjected to somatic embryogenesis (SE), a known oxidative ...

  14. Development of Oxygen-Carrying Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1942-10-16

    lth-ugh nc suggestion w:.s nude th t the oxygen in tiu compounds night be carried reversibly they c.ppeared worth investig. ting. The - llylamine...revolution every nine- teen minutes. The accompanying diagram ehovs the machine in its first form. The driv~ and Rear reduction mechanism of this

  15. The indole alkaloid meleagrin, from the olive tree endophytic fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, as a novel lead for the control of c-Met-dependent breast cancer proliferation, migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, Mohamed S; Mohyeldin, Mohamed M; Ebrahim, Hassan Y; Elsayed, Heba E; Houssen, Wael E; Haggag, Eman G; Soliman, Randa F; El Sayed, Khalid A

    2016-01-15

    Fungi of the genus Penicillium produce unique and chemically diverse biologically active secondary metabolites, including indole alkaloids. The role of dysregulated hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, c-Met, in the development and progression of breast carcinoma is documented. The goal of this work is to explore the chemistry and bioactivity of the secondary metabolites of the endophytic Penicillium chrysogenum cultured from the leaf of the olive tree Olea europea, collected in its natural habitat in Egypt. This fungal extract showed good inhibitory activities against the proliferation and migration of several human breast cancer lines. The CH2Cl2 extract of P. chrysogenum mycelia was subjected to bioguided chromatographic separation to afford three known indole alkaloids; meleagrin (1), roquefortine C (2) and DHTD (3). Meleagrin inhibited the growth of the human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, MDA-468, BT-474, SK BR-3, MCF7 and MCF7-dox, while similar treatment doses were found to have no effect on the growth and viability of the non-tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells MCF10A. Meleagrin also showed excellent ATP competitive c-Met inhibitory activity in Z-Lyte assay, which was further confirmed via molecular docking studies and Western blot analysis. In addition, meleagrin treatment caused a dose-dependent inhibition of HGF-induced cell migration, and invasion of breast cancer cell lines. Meleagrin treatment potently suppressed the invasive triple negative breast tumor cell growth in an orthotopic athymic nude mice model, promoting this unique natural product from hit to a lead rank. The indole alkaloid meleagrin is a novel lead c-Met inhibitory entity useful for the control of c-Met-dependent metastatic and invasive breast malignancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Like an eagle carries its young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Georg Wünch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The picture of an eagle carrying its young on its wings (Dt 32:11 is a powerful and encouraging image of trust and security in God. It is particularly relevant for Western culture, where the eagle is a prominent symbol of power and strength. In recent years, though, the translation of the Hebrew term רֶשֶׁנ as ‘eagle’ has come into question and modern exegetes claim that it is more accurately translated as ‘vulture’. But can this really be a symbol of comfort? Furthermore, do eagles (or vultures even carry their young on their wings? This article intends to shed some light on these questions. Keywords: Old Testament; Deuteronomy; Eagle; Vulture

  17. Proof-Carrying Code with Correct Compilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Andrew W.

    2009-01-01

    In the late 1990s, proof-carrying code was able to produce machine-checkable safety proofs for machine-language programs even though (1) it was impractical to prove correctness properties of source programs and (2) it was impractical to prove correctness of compilers. But now it is practical to prove some correctness properties of source programs, and it is practical to prove correctness of optimizing compilers. We can produce more expressive proof-carrying code, that can guarantee correctness properties for machine code and not just safety. We will construct program logics for source languages, prove them sound w.r.t. the operational semantics of the input language for a proved-correct compiler, and then use these logics as a basis for proving the soundness of static analyses.

  18. Development of pellet chain for charge carrying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.H.; Ko, S.K.; Choi, B.H.; Hong, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of pellet chain and charge induction components which are used for charge carrying in electrostatic accelerators. It has very simple structure, and its fabrication cost is low. As the results of the test, first, mechanical vibration is reduced for operation and torsional stress due to belt twisting is removed completely. Second, after insertion of the material with high dielectric constant in charge induction assembly, the capacitance between pellets and inductor is increased. Third, for measurement of the life time of chain, it is continuously on the operation

  19. Cryptococcus neoformans carried by Odontomachus bauri ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Santos de Jesus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common causative agent of cryptococcosis worldwide. Although this fungus has been isolated from a variety of organic substrates, several studies suggest that hollow trees constitute an important natural niche for C. neoformans. A previously surveyed hollow of a living pink shower tree (Cassia grandis positive for C. neoformans in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was chosen for further investigation. Odontomachus bauri ants (trap-jaw ants found inside the hollow were collected for evaluation as possible carriers of Cryptococcus spp. Two out of 10 ants were found to carry phenoloxidase-positive colonies identified as C. neoformans molecular types VNI and VNII. The ants may have acted as a mechanical vector of C. neoformans and possibly contributed to the dispersal of the fungi from one substrate to another. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the association of C. neoformans with ants of the genus Odontomachus.

  20. Azobenzene derivatives carrying a nitroxide radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuji, Shin'ichi; Fujino, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Satoko; Akutsu, Hiroki; Yamada, Jun-ichi; Gurman, Vladimir S; Kh Vorobiev, Andrey

    2007-03-16

    Several trans-azobenzene derivatives carrying a nitroxide (aminoxyl) radical (2a, 6a-12a) were prepared, and their photoisomerization reactions to the corresponding cis-isomers were investigated. Although no fruitful results could be obtained for the photoisomerizations of the derivatives with para-subsituents (9a-12a), the unsubstututed derivatives at the para-position (2a, 6a, 7a, 8a) were found to show photoisomerizations by irradiation to give the corresponding cis-isomers (2b, 6b, 7b, 8b), being isolated as relatively stable solid materials, and the change of the intermolecular magnetic interactions was apparently observed by the structural change for each photochromic couple.

  1. DETECTING VESSELS CARRYING MIGRANTS USING MACHINE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sfyridis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Political instability, conflicts and inequalities result into significant flows of people worldwide, moving to different countries in search of a better life, safety or to be reunited with their families. Irregular crossings into Europe via sea routes, despite not being new, have recently increased together with the loss of lives of people in the attempt to reach EU shores. This highlights the need to find ways to improve the understanding of what is happening at sea. This paper, intends to expand the knowledge available on practices among smugglers and contribute to early warning and maritime situational awareness. By identifying smuggling techniques and based on anomaly detection methods, behaviours of interest are modelled and one class support vector machines are used to classify unlabelled data and detect potential smuggling vessels. Nine vessels are identified as potentially carrying irregular migrants and refugees. Though, further inspection of the results highlights possible misclassifications caused by data gaps and limited knowledge on smuggling tactics. Accepted classifications are considered subject to further investigation by the authorities.

  2. Detecting Vessels Carrying Migrants Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfyridis, A.; Cheng, T.; Vespe, M.

    2017-10-01

    Political instability, conflicts and inequalities result into significant flows of people worldwide, moving to different countries in search of a better life, safety or to be reunited with their families. Irregular crossings into Europe via sea routes, despite not being new, have recently increased together with the loss of lives of people in the attempt to reach EU shores. This highlights the need to find ways to improve the understanding of what is happening at sea. This paper, intends to expand the knowledge available on practices among smugglers and contribute to early warning and maritime situational awareness. By identifying smuggling techniques and based on anomaly detection methods, behaviours of interest are modelled and one class support vector machines are used to classify unlabelled data and detect potential smuggling vessels. Nine vessels are identified as potentially carrying irregular migrants and refugees. Though, further inspection of the results highlights possible misclassifications caused by data gaps and limited knowledge on smuggling tactics. Accepted classifications are considered subject to further investigation by the authorities.

  3. Voltage-carrying states in superconducting microstrips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuivinga, M.E.C.

    1983-01-01

    When the critical current is exceeded in a superconducting microstrip, voltage-carrying states with a resistance significantly below the normal state resistance can occur. Phase-slip centers (PSC) appear at about the critical temperature. These are successive local voltage units which manifest themselves as strip-like increments in voltage in the I-V characteristic. For temperatures off the critical temperature the PSC regime degenerates into a region of normal material, a so-called hot spot. These two phenomena, PSC and hot spots, form the subject of this thesis. To gain a better understanding of the phase-slip center process, an experiment was designed to measure local values of the quasi-particle and pair potential. The results of local potential and gap measurements at a PSC in aluminium are presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to pair-breaking interactions which can shorten the relaxation time. A non-linear differential equation is derived which describes the development of a PSC into a normal hot spot under the influence of Joule heating. It incorporates the temperature rise due to the dissipative processes occurring in the charge imbalance tails. Numerical solutions are presented for a set of parameters, including those for aluminium and tin. Subsequently, they are compared with experiments. (Auth.)

  4. Biofouling control using microparticles carrying a biocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, C; Rosmaninho, R; Simoes, M; Pereira, M C; Bastos, M M S M; Nunes, O C; Coelho, M; Melo, L F

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a new technological approach to minimize the use of antimicrobial (AMB) agents and their deleterious effects, based on the principle of drug-delivery systems whereby the AMB chemicals are transported on microparticles. The efficacy of microparticles carrying the quaternary ammonium compound (QAC), benzyldimethyldodecyl ammonium chloride (BDMDAC), was assessed against Pseudomonas fluorescens in both the planktonic and the biofilm state. The microparticles were prepared using a layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique. Oppositely charged molecules of polyethyleneimine (PEI), sodium polystyrene sulfonate (PSS), and BDMDAC were assembled on polystyrene (PS) cores. BDMDAC-coated particles were observed by CryoSEM and their composition analyzed by X-ray microanalysis. Zeta potential measurements indicated that changes in surface charge were compatible with a BDMDAC/particle interaction. This biocidal carrier structure had significant stability, verified by the release of only 15% of the BDMDAC when immersed in water for 18 months. Biocidal carrier activity was evaluated by determining the survival ratio of P. fluorescens planktonic and biofilm cells after different exposure periods to BDMDAC-coated particles. Tests with biofilm cells were also performed with the free QAC. An efficient AMB effect (minimum bactericidal concentration) against suspended cells was found for a concentration of 9.2 mg l(-1) of BDMDAC on coated particles after incubation for 30 min and 6.5 mg l(-1) of BDMDAC on coated particles after 60 min. Exposure of biofilms to PS-PEI/PSS/BDMDAC (0.87 mg l(-1)) resulted in a decrease in viability of 60.5% and 66.5% of the total biofilm population for 30 and 60 min exposure times, respectively. Exposure for 60 min to 6.33 mg l(-1) and 11.75 mg l(-1) of BDMDAC in PS-PEI/PSS/BDMDAC particles promoted inactivation of 80.6% and 87.2% of the total population, respectively. The AMB effects obtained with the application of free BDMDAC were

  5. The Penicillium chrysogenum aclA gene encodes a broad-substrate-specificity acyl-coenzyme A ligase involved in activation of adipic acid, a side-chain precursor for cephem antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetsier, Martijn J; Gombert, Andreas K; Fekken, Susan; Bovenberg, Roel A L; van den Berg, Marco A; Kiel, Jan A K W; Jekel, Peter A; Janssen, Dick B; Pronk, Jack T; van der Klei, Ida J; Daran, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    Activation of the cephalosporin side-chain precursor to the corresponding CoA-thioester is an essential step for its incorporation into the beta-lactam backbone. To identify an acyl-CoA ligase involved in activation of adipate, we searched in the genome database of Penicillium chrysogenum for putative structural genes encoding acyl-CoA ligases. Chemostat-based transcriptome analysis was used to identify the one presenting the highest expression level when cells were grown in the presence of adipate. Deletion of the gene renamed aclA, led to a 32% decreased specific rate of adipate consumption and a threefold reduction of adipoyl-6-aminopenicillanic acid levels, but did not affect penicillin V production. After overexpression in Escherichia coli, the purified protein was shown to have a broad substrate range including adipate. Finally, protein-fusion with cyan-fluorescent protein showed co-localization with microbody-borne acyl-transferase. Identification and functional characterization of aclA may aid in developing future metabolic engineering strategies for improving the production of different cephalosporins.

  6. Predicting stretcher carriage: Investigating variations in bilateral carry tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Ben; Middleton, Kane J; Carstairs, Greg L; Billing, Daniel C; Caldwell, Joanne N

    2016-07-01

    Carrying a casualty on a stretcher is a critical task within military and emergency service occupations. This study evaluated the impact of manipulating carry speed and the object type in bilateral carries on the ability to predict performance and reflect the physical and physiological requirements of a unilateral stretcher carry. We demonstrated that three task-related predictive tests; a jerry can carry performed at 4.5 km h(-1)or 5.0 km h(-1) and a kettle-bell carry performed at 5.0 km h(-1) were strongly predictive of the physical and physiological demands of an individual participating as part of a four-person stretcher carry team. Therefore, bilateral predictive assessments have the utility for predicting the suitability of employees to effectively and safely conduct a four-person unilateral stretcher carry. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimation and Determination of Carrying Capacity in Loblolly Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Sheng-I

    2016-01-01

    Stand carrying capacity is the maximum size of population for a species under given environmental conditions. Site resources limit the maximum volume or biomass that can be sustained in forest stands. This study was aimed at estimating and determining the carrying capacity in loblolly pine. Maximum stand basal area (BA) that can be sustained over a long period of time can be regarded as a measure of carrying capacity. To quantify and project stand BA carrying capacity, one approach is to use ...

  8. 46 CFR 111.105-35 - Vessels carrying coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels carrying coal. 111.105-35 Section 111.105-35...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-35 Vessels carrying coal. (a) The following are Class II, Division 1, (Zone 10 or Z) locations on a vessel that carries coal: (1) The interior of each coal...

  9. Synthesis of PAF, an antifungal protein from P. chrysogenum, by native chemical ligation: native disulfide pattern and fold obtained upon oxidative refolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váradi, Györgyi; Tóth, Gábor K; Kele, Zoltán; Galgóczy, László; Fizil, Ádám; Batta, Gyula

    2013-09-16

    The folding of disulfide proteins is of considerable interest because knowledge of this may influence our present understanding of protein folding. However, sometimes even the disulfide pattern cannot be unequivocally determined by the available experimental techniques. For example, the structures of a few small antifungal proteins (PAF, AFP) have been disclosed recently using NMR spectroscopy but with some ambiguity in the actual disulfide pattern. For this reason, we carried out the chemical synthesis of PAF. Probing different approaches, the oxidative folding of the synthetic linear PAF yielded a folded protein that has identical structure and antifungal activity as the native PAF. In contrast, unfolded linear PAF was inactive, a result that may have implications concerning its redox state in the mode of action.

  10. Assessing the stability in dry mycelial fertilizer of Penicillium chrysogenum as soil amendment via fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra: organic matter's transformation and maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Cai, Chen; Li, Guomin; Liu, Huiling

    2017-12-01

    Utilization as dry mycelial fertilizer (DMF) produced from penicillin fermentation fungi mycelium (PFFM) with an acid-heating pretreatment is a potential way. To study the transformation and stability of water-extractable organic matter in DMF-amended soil via fluorescence regional integration (FRI) of fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM), a soil experiment in pot was carried out. The results showed that residual penicillin (about 32 mg/kg) was almost degraded in the first 5 days, indicating that the drug pollution was in control. The pH value, DOC, DON, and DOC/DON presented a classical profile, but germination index (GI) leveled off about 0.13 till day 13 in DMF-12% treatment due to the severe phytotoxicity. The addition of DMF significantly increased the soil microbial populations in contrast to the CON treatment. The EEM showed that the protein-like and microbial byproduct-like matters vanished on the 25th and 33rd days, whereas the fulvic-like substances appeared on the 7th day. The humic-like substances existed in original samples but their content greatly enhanced finally. The FRI results showed that P V, n /P III, n reached the highest value of 1.84 on the 25th day, suggesting that DMF maintained stable in amended soil. Because of its consistency with the results of GI and DOC/DON, the EEM-FRI has a potential to evaluate the stability of DMF in soil.

  11. Training to Increase Safe Tray Carrying Among Cocktail Servers

    OpenAIRE

    Scherrer, Megan D; Wilder, David A

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of training on proper carrying techniques among 3 cocktail servers to increase safe tray carrying on the job and reduce participants' risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. As participants delivered drinks to their tables, their finger, arm, and neck positions were observed and recorded. Each participant received individual safety training that focused on proper carrying positions and techniques after baseline data were collected. A multiple baseline design acr...

  12. Production of 8,11-dihydroxy and 8-hydroxy unsaturated fatty acids from unsaturated fatty acids by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing 8,11-linoleate diol synthase from Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ji; Seo, Min-Ju; Shin, Kyung-Chul; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2017-03-01

    Hydroxy unsaturated fatty acids can be used as antimicrobial surfactants. 8,11-Linoleate diol synthase (8,11-LDS) catalyzes the conversion of unsaturated fatty acid to 8-hydroperoxy unsaturated fatty acid, and it is subsequently isomerized to 8,11-dihydroxy unsaturated fatty acid by the enzyme. The optimal reaction conditions of recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Penicillium chrysogenum 8,11-LDS for the production of 8,11-dihydroxy-9,12(Z,Z)-octadecadienoic acid (8,11-DiHODE), 8,11-dihydroxy-9,12,15(Z,Z,Z)-octadecatrienoic acid (8,11-DiHOTrE), 8-hydroxy-9(Z)-hexadecenoic acid (8-HHME), and 8-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (8-HOME) were pH 7.0, 25°C, 10 g/L linoleic acid, and 20 g/L cells; pH 6.0, 25°C, 6 g/L α-linolenic acid, and 60 g/L cells; pH 7.0, 25°C, 8 g/L palmitoleic acid, and 25 g/L cells; and pH 8.5, 30°C, 6 g/L oleic acid, and 25 g/L cells, respectively. Under these optimized conditions, the recombinant cells produced 6.0 g/L 8,11-DiHODE for 60 min, with a conversion of 60% (w/w) and a productivity of 6.0 g/L/h; 4.3 g/L 8,11-DiHOTrE for 60 min, with a conversion of 72% (w/w) and a productivity of 4.3 g/L/h; 4.3 g/L 8-HHME acid for 60 min, with a conversion of 54% (w/w) and a productivity of 4.3 g/L/h; and 0.9 g/L 8-HOME for 30 min, with a conversion of 15% (w/w) and a productivity of 1.8 g/L/h. To best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the biotechnological production of 8,11-DiHODE, 8,11-DiHOTrE, 8-HHME, and 8-HOME. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:390-396, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  13. Organization and carrying out the triathlon competitions in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Vodlozerov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim is analyzing of system of organization and carrying out the triathlon competitions in Ukraine in accordance with rules of triathlon international federation. Material & Methods: comparative analysis of process of organization and carrying out the triathlon competitions in the world and Ukraine was carried out on basis of specialist literature studying, normative base of sports organizations (triathlon federation. Results: inconsistencies were identified in competitions carried out in cold season, particularity of triathlon that intends overcoming the combined distance without time durations between stages. Conclusions: recommendation in eliminate inconsistencies that affect to performance of triathlon competitions in Ukraine was suggested.

  14. The Population Growth and Carrying Capacity in Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariyanto; Hadi, Sudharto P.; Buchori, Imam

    2018-02-01

    Population growth and development of city activities take some lands to carry them. As a result, land use competition happens among persons, society or sector. Land necessity for settlement, industry, or sector has taken over farm land, therefore farm land has been converted intensively and massively. Chronologically, population growth will cause land necessity increase. Unproductive land, especially farm land will be converted. Furthermore, farm land conversion will cause carrying capacity change. Carrying capacity has certain bio capacity. With the population growth, it will increase resource consumption; on the other side, farm land conversion will decrease carrying capacity. The objective of the study is to know about the influence of population growth towards carrying capacity (bio capacity) in Semarang city. Land consumption per capita is indeed influenced by city population, the higher the population is, the lower the land consumption per capita. With the population growth, it will influence carrying capacity. Carrying capacity here is the ratio of area to population. Analytical descriptive method is applied in the study with all sub-districts in Semarang city as the analysis unit. Population here is sub-district area and population per sub-district in Semarang city. Population growth data period is from 2000 until 2015. Main variables of the study are area per sub-district, population, population growth, carrying capacity. Result of the study shows significant influence of carrying capacity decrease, especially some outskirts in Semarang city. This condition happens because the outskirts in Semarang city tend to have dense population growth. Range of carrying capacity in Semarang city is from 0,007 to 0,117 of 0 to 1. Almost all sub-districts in Semarang city show miserable condition, except Mijen and Tugu. The conclusion of the study is that population will decrease carrying capacity. Therefore, the government should control population growth by paying

  15. Hand-carried echocardiography by hospitalists: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Brian P; Candotti, Carolina; Margeta, Bosko; Mba, Benjamin; Kumapley, Rudolf; Asmar, Abdo; Franco-Sadud, Ricardo; Baru, Joshua; Acob, Christine; Borkowsky, Shane; Evans, Arthur T

    2011-08-01

    Hospitalists can use hand-carried echocardiography for accurate point-of-care information, but patient outcome data for its application are sparse. We performed an unblinded, parallel-group randomized trial between July 2008 and March 2009 at one teaching hospital in Chicago, Illinois. We randomly assigned adult general medicine inpatients referred for standard echocardiography with indications investigatable by hand-carried echocardiography to care guided by hand-carried echocardiography or usual care. The main outcome measure was length of stay on the referring hospitalist's service. Secondary outcomes included a before-after analysis of reported changes in management due to hand-carried echocardiography and the diagnostic accuracy of hand-carried echocardiography. The difference in length of stay between 226 participants randomized to care guided by hand-carried echocardiography (geometric mean 46.1 hours, interquartile range 29.0-70.9 hours) and 227 participants randomized to usual care (46.9 hours, interquartile range 34.1-68.3 hours) corresponded to a 1.7% reduction in length of stay that was not statistically significant (95% confidence interval, -12.1 to 9.8%). In post hoc subgroup analyses, care guided by hand-carried echocardiography reduced length of stay in participants who were referred for heart failure (P=.0008). Among participants who underwent both hand-carried and standard echocardiography, hospitalists changed management due to hand-carried echocardiography in 37%. Despite the favorable diagnostic accuracy of hand-carried echocardiography, most changes to the timing of hospital discharge occurred after standard echocardiography. Hospitalist care guided by hand-carried echocardiography for unselected general medicine patients does not meaningfully affect length of stay. Whether or not it affects care quality remains unstudied. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 25 CFR 23.51 - Grant carry-over authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grant carry-over authority. 23.51 Section 23.51 Indians... Uniform Grant Administration Provisions and Requirements § 23.51 Grant carry-over authority. Unless... two years beyond the initial grant funding period and must be utilized only for the intent, purpose...

  17. 46 CFR 98.30-3 - Vessels carrying MPTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels carrying MPTs. 98.30-3 Section 98.30-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL... Vessels carrying MPTs. Each MPT on a vessel to which this part applies must bear, on a metal or other...

  18. 46 CFR 111.105-45 - Vessels carrying agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels carrying agricultural products. 111.105-45... ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-45 Vessels carrying agricultural products. (a) The following areas are Class II, Division 1, (Zone 10 or Z) locations on vessels...

  19. Optimising the allocation of groundwater carrying capacity in a data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An analysis model of groundwater carrying capacity was then established and is solved with the Lagrange multiplier method. A case study of groundwater resource carrying capacity in 2010 and 2015 in the Yaoba Oasis irrigation district, Alxa Left Prefecture, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, was performed.

  20. Ecological Carrying Capacity of Saanane Island Proposed National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study on ecological carrying capacity of Saanane Island aimed at assessing stocking capacity of the island to provide guidance to the introduction of animals to enhance its ecological value and tourism potential. To evaluate the ecological carrying capacity of the Island, wet and dry season data were collected in 2014 ...

  1. [Fitness, carrying capacity and competition in an ecosystem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, J; Wöhrmann, K

    1975-01-01

    In this paper a model is introduced in which fitness, carrying capacity and competition are considered. Thereby as well genetic as ecological parameters were assumed to become active. It results from the investigations that: 1. Competition may compensate the influence of genotypic fitness. 2. The carrying capacity has a more important influence on the construction of a population than the genotypic fitness. 3. As well competition as carrying capacity are parameters which do influence not only the size of the populations but also the genotypic construction of the populations. Therefore for a description of populations it is necessary to take into account a polyfactorial system with genotypic fitness, carrying capacity and competition. The model proposed has been compared with those described in the literature. The importance of population fitness and by it the genetic load has been discussed considering ecological parameters such as competition and carrying capacity.

  2. The flexible application of carrying capacity in ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Chapman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carrying capacity encompasses a broad collection of approaches used to better understand biotic interactions in ecosystems and is often applied with no explicit regard to its historical origin. In this paper, we reviewed the primary literature to examine how carrying capacity is applied in ecology. We focused our review on ecosystem studies—studies that frame their results at the ecosystem level—published after the 1950s and highlight emerging trends of this concept. We found that while carrying capacity offers some underlying commonalities, a wide range of definitions and approaches hinders a unified framework to better understand biotic ecosystem interactions. Not surprisingly, these studies most often use K—the number of individuals that the environment “can support” in a given area—to define carrying capacity, despite considerable ambiguity and uncertainty in this approach. Furthermore, the studies that we reviewed spanned several levels of ecological organization: molecules to communities and up to landscapes. To add further complexity, it is not clear whether carrying capacity was intended as a dynamic concept subject to temporal variability as it was often applied in the reviewed studies. We found that carrying capacity is most often applied to studies in conservation biology, rangeland and wildlife management, aquaculture, and fisheries biology. We explore ecosystem level responses to implications of “carrying capacity” overshoot and discuss proposed mechanisms that govern ecosystem carrying capacity. We discuss the usefulness of the concept and end with suggestions to improve carrying capacity's general application in ecosystem studies. Keywords: Carrying capacity, Conservation biology, Ecosystems, Ecosystem management, Natural resources

  3. US Public Opinion on Carrying Firearms in Public Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Teret, Stephen P; Azrael, Deborah; Miller, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    To estimate US public opinion, overall and by gun ownership status, about the public places where legal gun owners should be allowed to carry firearms. We fielded an online survey among 3949 adults, including an oversample of gun owners and veterans, in April 2015. We used cross-tabulations with survey weights to generate nationally representative estimates. Fewer than 1 in 3 US adults supported gun carrying in any of the specified venues. Support for carrying in public was consistently higher among gun owners than among non-gun owners. Overall, support for carrying in public was lowest for schools (19%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 16.7, 21.1), bars (18%; 95% CI = 15.9, 20.6), and sports stadiums (17%; 95% CI = 15.0, 19.5). Most Americans, including most gun owners, support restricting public places legal gun owners can carry firearms. These views contrast sharply with the current trend in state legislatures of expanding where, how, and by whom guns can be carried in public. Recent state laws and proposed federal legislation that would force states to honor out-of-state concealed carry permits are out of step with American public opinion.

  4. Correlates of gun-carrying among adolescents in south Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, S J; Farley, T A; Powell, K E; Rolka, H R; Horan, J M

    1996-01-01

    In the majority of episodes of fatal interpersonal violence, the weapon used is a firearm. Amid frequent reports of youths carrying weapons, including firearms, we conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for being charged with gun-carrying and gun-carrying, per se, among adolescents in Jefferson Parish, Louisiana. Cases were defined as incidents of gun-carrying among adolescents juvenile court from January 1, 1992, through April 15, 1993. For each case, we randomly drew three age-, gender-, and school-matched control subjects from the enrollment rosters of the Jefferson Parish public schools and administered a questionnaire. The data set comprised 38 case subjects and 103 matched control subjects. Thirty (29%) control subjects reported gun-carrying. Both case subjects and gun-carrying control subjects reported self-defense (40%) as the main reason for gun-carrying. Most case subjects (25 [66%]) were African Americans, but only 8 (27%) gun-carrying and 27 (37%) non-gun-carrying control subjects were African Americans. Case subjects were significantly more likely than gun-carrying control subjects to report being African American (odds ratio [OR] = 5.3, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.6, 17.5). In crude analyses, case subjects were more likely than non-gun-carrying control subjects to report adult-male unemployment among households with adult men, to foresee a likelihood to be shot in school, to have seen a shooting, to use marijuana, to watch television > 6 hours per day, and to be African American. After the effect estimates were adjusted in conditional logistic regression modeling, case subjects were more likely than non-gun-carrying control subjects to report adult-male unemployment among households with adult men, using marijuana, and watching television > 6 hours per day (OR = 8.6, 95% CI = 1.2, 61,2; OR = 11.7, 95% CI = 2, 70.2; and OR = 6.5, 95% CI = 0.8, 51.9, respectively). Gun-carrying control subjects were significantly more likely than

  5. Identification of the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase responsible for biosynthesis of the potential anti-cancer drug sansalvamide in Fusarium solani

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romans-Fuertes, Patricia; Sondergaard, Teis Esben; Sandmann, Manuela Ilse Helga

    2016-01-01

    for sansalvamide. Sansalvamide is structurally related to the cyclic hexadepsipeptide destruxin, which both contain an α-hydroxyisocaproic acid (HICA) unit. A gene cluster responsible for destruxin production has previously been identified in Metarhizium robertsii together with a hypothetical biosynthetic pathway....... Using comparative bioinformatic analyses of the catalytic domains in the destruxin and sansalvamide NRPSs, we were able to propose a model for sansalvamide biosynthesis. Orthologues of the gene clusters were also identified in species from several other genera including Acremonium chrysogenum...

  6. Estimating the recreational carrying capacity of a lowland river section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Stefan; Pusch, Martin T

    2012-01-01

    Recreational boating represents a major human use of inland waters in many regions. However, boating tourism may affect the ecological integrity of surface waters in multiple ways. In particular, surface waves produced by boating may disturb freshwater invertebrates, such as interrupting the filtration activity of benthic mussels. As mussels may significantly contribute to self-purification, disturbance may have crucial impacts on water quality, and thus on water tourism. In this paper we calculate the carrying capacity of a river section for sustainable boating tourism based on the preservation of water quality. This approach is complemented by spatial and social approaches for carrying capacity estimates. The ecological carrying capacity significantly decreases with lower water levels during summer. Hence, the analysis of variables that influence the river's carrying capacity allows the formation of recommendations for management measures that integrate social, touristic and ecological aspects.

  7. Hand Sanitizers Carry Unproven Claims to Prevent MRSA Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Hand Sanitizers Carry Unproven Claims to Prevent MRSA Infections Share ... Flickr. Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Some hand sanitizers and antiseptic products come with claims that they ...

  8. Optimising the allocation of groundwater carrying capacity in a data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-08-26

    scarce region, Oasis irrigation district. Introduction. The concept of carrying ... a united definition of WRCC. Though different researchers .... data and the mining of useful information implied in the data, a new evaluation criterion of ...

  9. 46 CFR 122.340 - Vessels carrying vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vehicles freely in the event of fire or other disaster. The decks, where necessary, must be distinctly... smoking or carrying of lighted or smoldering pipes, cigars, cigarettes, or similar items in the deck area...

  10. 46 CFR 185.340 - Vessels carrying vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and away from the vehicles freely in the event of fire or other disaster. The decks, where necessary... precautions to prevent smoking or carrying of lighted or smoldering pipes, cigars, cigarettes, or similar...

  11. Foreign exchange predictability and the carry trade: a decomposition approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anatolyev, Stanislav; Gospodinov, N.; Jamali, I.; Liu, X.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 42, June (2017), s. 199-211 ISSN 0927-5398 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : exchange rate forecasting * carry trade * return decomposition Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Finance Impact factor: 0.979, year: 2016

  12. Regression equations for circular CFST columns carrying capacity evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatulia Glib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the last decades, a considerable amount of experimental studies have been carried out by numerous researchers across the world with the purpose to study the carrying capacity of concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST columns and evaluation of their stressed-strained state. The array of the obtained results have allowed designing a mathematical model to determine the maximum carrying capacity value of such constructions using the methods of mathematical statistics. The authors obtained three types of regression equations for short and long circular CFST columns with different geometrical and physical properties under axial compression. Statistical quality of the obtained models was verified by both regression equation quality in general and statistical significance of the equation parameters. The comparison of the obtained carrying capacity values with the results calculated by Eurocode 4 and AIJ methodologies allows making a conclusion on the sufficient calculation accuracy of the designed mathematical models.

  13. Effects of feeding cassava pulp fermented with Acremonium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acer

    2017-01-27

    id. Introduction. The broiler industry is currently facing fluctuations in feed costs as the result of the rising prices of conventional feedstuffs. This has encouraged poultry nutritionists to search for alternative feed ingredients.

  14. Effects of feeding cassava pulp fermented with Acremonium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acer

    2017-01-27

    Jan 27, 2017 ... media for growing the fungus (Sugiharto et al., 2015). This feedstuff, therefore, may not only be an alternative to maize in poultry diets, but also be a carrier for A. charticola. Probiotic administration is associated with improved chemical, nutritional, and sensorial properties of broiler meat (Liu et al., 2012).

  15. Assessment of feeding value of vegetable-carried pineapple fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compared the sun-drying characteristics of five blends each (w/w; 1:1, 1:1.5, 1:2, 1:2.5, 1:3) of wheat offal-carried pineapple waste (WO:PW) and brewers' dried grains-carried pineapple waste (BDG:PW), assessed the blends for their nutrient contents and the feeding value of the optimum blends with Red Sokoto ...

  16. Integrated Coastal Zone Planning Based on Environment Carrying Capacity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miharja, M.; Arsallia, S.

    2017-07-01

    Coastal zone is a crucial area in terms of planning development. It holds high economic value, which affect to increasing number of inhabitants living in the area. As a result, this condition influences environmental degradation. Thus, in every attempt towards coastal zone development, it is crucial to always refer to environment carrying capacity. Carrying capacity is the limit of a certain coastal zone capability to support all human created activities, in which all ecological performances are maintained at sustainable level. The failure to establish strong and clear method and regulation on carrying capacity analysis will lead to a very risky coastal zone development, which in turn would threat the area’s sustainability. This paper discusses method for analysing carrying capacity of coastal zone as important input for the area development plan. Two key parameters, i.e. land and clean water carrying capacities are discussed to form carrying capacity analytical method. Furthermore, an empirical data of Ambon Bay, Moluccas Province, is used to illustrate the operationalization of the method.

  17. Carrying capacity: the tradition and policy implications of limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Deane Abernethy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Within just the last few centuries, science and technology have enlarged human capabilities and population size until humans now take, for their own use, nearly half of the Earth's net terrestrial primary production. An ethical perspective suggests that potentials to alter, or further increase, humanity's use of global resources should be scrutinized through the lenses of self-interested foresightedness and respect for non-human life. Without overtly invoking ethics, studies of the carrying capacity achieve just this objective. Carrying capacity is an ecological concept that expresses the relationship between a population and the natural environment on which it depends for ongoing sustenance. Carrying capacity assumes limits on the number of individuals that can be supported at a given level of consumption without degrading the environment and, therefore, reducing future carrying capacity. That is, carrying capacity addresses long-term sustainability. Worldviews differ in the importance accorded to the carrying capacity concept. This paper addresses three worldviews - ecological, romantic, and entrepreneurial - and explores the ethics and the policy implications of their contrasting perspectives.

  18. Antarctic rocks from continental Antarctica as source of potential human opportunistic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Vívian N; Oliveira, Fabio S; Carvalho, Camila R; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2017-09-01

    We assessed the diversity of culturable fungi associated with rocks of continental Antarctica to evaluate their physiological opportunistic virulence potential in vitro. The seventy fungal isolates obtained were identified as nine species of Acremonium, Byssochlamys, Cladosporium, Debaryomyces, Penicillium, and Rhodotorula. Acremonium sp., D. hansenii, P. chrysogenum, P. citrinum, P. tardochrysogenum, and R. mucilaginosa were able to grow at 37 °C; in addition, B. spectabilis displayed a high level of growth at 37 and 45 °C. Thirty-one isolates of P. chrysogenum, P. citrinum, and P. tardochrysogenum were able to produce partial haemolysis on blood agar at 37 °C. Acremonium sp., P. citrinum, and P. tardochrysogenum showed spore sizes ranging from 2.81 to 5.13 µm diameters at 37 °C. Of these, P. chrysogenum and P. tardochrysogenum displayed macro- and micro morphological polymorphism. Our results suggest that rocks of the ultra-extreme cold and dry environment of Antarctica harbour cryptic fungi phylogenetically close to opportunistic pathogenic and mycotoxigenic taxa with physiologic virulence characteristics in vitro.

  19. Carrying capacity of water resources in Bandung Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marganingrum, D.

    2018-02-01

    The concept of carrying capacity is widely used in various sectors as a management tool for sustainable development processes. This idea has also been applied in watershed or basin scale. Bandung Basin is the upstream of Citarum watershed known as one of the national strategic areas. This area has developed into a metropolitan area loaded with various environmental problems. Therefore, research that is related to environmental carrying capacity in this area becomes a strategic issue. However, research on environmental carrying capacity that has been done in this area is still partial either in water balance terminology, land suitability, ecological footprint, or balance of supply and demand of resources. This paper describes the application of the concept of integrated environmental carrying capacity in order to overcome the increasing complexity and dynamic environmental problems. The sector that becomes the focus of attention is the issue of water resources. The approach method to be carried out is to combine the concept of maximum balance and system dynamics. The dynamics of the proposed system is the ecological dynamics and population that cannot be separated from one another as a unity of the Bandung Basin ecosystem.

  20. [Ecological carrying capacity and Chongming Island's ecological construction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaiyun; Zou, Chunjing; Kong, Zhenghong; Wang, Tianhou; Chen, Xiaoyong

    2005-12-01

    This paper overviewed the goals of Chongming Island's ecological construction and its background, analyzed the current eco-economic status and constraints of the Island, and put forward some scientific issues on its ecological construction. It was suggested that for the resources-saving and sustainable development of the Island, the researches on its ecological construction should be based on its ecological carrying capacity, fully take the regional characteristics into consideration, and refer the successful development modes at home and abroad. The carrying capacity study should ground on systemic and dynamic views, give a thorough evaluation of the Island's present carrying capacity, simulate its possible changes, and forecast its demands and risks. Operable countermeasures to promote the Island's carrying capacity should be worked out, new industry structure, population scale, and optimized distribution projects conforming to regional carrying capacity should be formulated, and effective ecological security alarming and control system should be built, with the aim of providing suggestions and strategic evidences for the decision-making of economic development and sustainable environmental resources use of the region.

  1. Evaluation of carrying capacity and territorial environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ruggiero

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Land use has a great impact on environmental quality, use of resources, state of ecosystems and socio-economic development. Land use can be considered sustainable if the environmental pressures of human activities do not exceed the ecological carrying capacity. A scientific knowledge of the capability of ecosystems to provide resources and absorb waste is a useful and innovative means of supporting territorial planning. This study examines the area of the Province of Bari to estimate the ecosystems’ carrying capacity, and compare it with the current environmental pressures exerted by human activities. The adapted methodology identified the environmentally sustainable level for one province.

  2. General relativistic galvano-gravitomagnetic effect in current carrying conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmedov, B.J.

    1998-11-01

    The analogy between general relativity and electromagnetism suggests that there is a galvano-gravitomagnetic effect, which is the gravitational analogue of the Hall effect. This new effect takes place when a current carrying conductor is placed in a gravitomagnetic field and the conduction electrons moving inside the conductor are deflected transversally with respect to the current flow. In connection with this galvano-gravitomagnetic effect, we explore the possibility of using current carrying conductors for detecting the gravitomagnetic field of the Earth. (author)

  3. Carry trade as a speculative investment strategy in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bungin Sanja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is analyses causes and the consequences of a speculative investment carry trade strategy in the exchange market in Serbia. The presence of such type of investor is related to high yields of risk free securities denominated in dinars, as well as the perception of future movements of dinar exchange rate related to currency that serves as source of investment. The consequences of carry trade may significantly influence exchange rate movements when monetary policy has limited facilities to combat negative and sudden shocks.

  4. Development of heavy load carrying vehicle for nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terabayashi, Yasuharu; Oono, Hiroo; Aizu, Takao; Kawaguchi, Kaname; Yamanaka, Masayuki; Hirobe, Tamio; Inagaki, Yoshiaki.

    1985-01-01

    In nuclear power stations, in order to carry out sound and stable operation, the routine inspection and regular inspection of machinery and equipment are performed, therefore, the transportation of heavy things is frequently carried out. Especially, the transportation of heavy things over the steps of passages and stairs requires much labor. Therefore, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. and Chubu Plant Service Co., Ltd. carried out the research on the development of a vehicle for transporting heavy components of nuclear power plants. In this research, it was aimed at developing a vehicle which can carry heavy components and get over a step, climb and descend stairs, and run through a narrow passage having many curves as well as running on flat ground. For this purpose, the actual state of the transportation of heavy things was investigated during the regular inspection of a nuclear power station, and on the basis of this results, a prototype vehicle was made and tested. Thereafter, a transporting vehicle of actual scale was made and tested. The investigation of actual state and the examination of the fundamental concept, the design, trial manufacture and verifying test are reported. (Kako, I.)

  5. The KB WOT Fisheries Programme carried out in 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damme, van C.J.G.; Verver, S.W.

    2017-01-01

    The KB WOT Fisheries programme is established to maintain and develop the expertise needed to carry out the statutory obligations of the Netherlands in fisheries monitoring and advice. It is also a flexible program which responds to changes over time in WOT requirements, fisheries management and

  6. Application of Load Carrying Sandwich Elements in Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Fisker; Schultz, Jacob Pagh; Berggreen, Carl Christian

    2005-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibilities and drawbacks when applying sandwich as opposed to single skin composites in the flanges of the load carrying spar in a future 180 m wind turbine rotor. FEA is applied to investigate two basic designs with single skin and sandwich flanges respectively...

  7. Charges and Fields in a Current-Carrying Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzic, Dragan V.

    2012-01-01

    Charges and fields in a straight, infinite, cylindrical wire carrying a steady current are determined in the rest frames of ions and electrons, starting from the standard assumption that the net charge per unit length is zero in the lattice frame and taking into account a self-induced pinch effect. The analysis presented illustrates the mutual…

  8. Carrying capacity of Chaetoceros gracilis in Homa Lagoon and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility for nutrient limitation to affect C. gracilis was assessed from two different ecosystems (Izmir Bay and Homa Lagoon). Our goal was to determine the growth rate of all nutrients and the maximum levels of the C. gracilis phytoplankton biomass (the maximum biomass carrying capacity) on the extent of its full ...

  9. Anthelmintic activity procedure The anthelmintic assay was carried ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian adult earthworms Pheretima posthuma. The worms were procured from local supplier at Shimoga at the time of carrying out the experiment. The worms were washed with normal saline to remove all fecal matter used for the anthelmintic study. The earthworms of 4 -6 cm in length and 0.3-0.4 cm in width were used for ...

  10. Cognitive Load in Voice Therapy Carry-Over Exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwarsson, Jenny; Morris, David Jackson; Balling, Laura Winther

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The cognitive load generated by online speech production may vary with the nature of the speech task. This article examines 3 speech tasks used in voice therapy carry-over exercises, in which a patient is required to adopt and automatize new voice behaviors, ultimately in daily spontaneous...

  11. The effect of manufacturing tolerances on the load carrying capacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper deals with simplified 3D finite element (FE) analysis on the effect of manufacturing tolerances on the load carrying capacity of large diameter bearings based on Hertz theory. The nonlinear connector elements are used to model the rolling elements. This model enables us to evaluate the contact load on ...

  12. Stress Carry-Over and College Student Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Daphne E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using a stress carry-over perspective, this study examines the relationship between stress stemming from school and family domains and physical and mental health outcomes. Methods: The study sample included 268 undergraduate men and women from a Midwestern university. Participants completed an anonymous online questionnaire. OLS…

  13. Foreign exchange predictability and the carry trade: a decomposition approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anatolyev, Stanislav; Gospodinov, N.; Jamali, I.; Liu, X.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 42, June (2017), s. 199-211 ISSN 0927-5398 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : exchange rate forecasting * carry trade * return decomposition Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Finance Impact factor: 0.979, year: 2016

  14. El naturalismo americano: Theodore Dreiser y Sister Carrie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores G. ALONSO MULAS

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Para situar a un escritor, como Theodore Dreiser, y especialmente su novela Sister Carrie dentro de un movimiento literario y de una etapa determinada de la historia americana, es necesario dar un breve repaso al naturalismo, llegado a América a través de Stephen Crane

  15. How to carry out a clinical audit project

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    improve patient care and outcomes through systematic review of care against explicit criteria and implementation of change. Aspects of the structure, processes and outcomes of care are selected and systematically evaluated against explicit criteria. ... on admission or perhaps refusal to have the investigations carried out.

  16. Carrying capacity of a heterogeneous lake for migrating swans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gyimesi, A.

    2010-01-01

    One way to express the value of a natural habitat is its capacity to harbour a particular target species. In the case of migratory birds, the cumulative number of birds that can be accommodated at a site for a given period of time (‘bird-days’) became an accepted currency for this carrying capacity.

  17. An apparatus for carrying and transporting a product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ostayen, R.A.J.; Munnig Schmidt, R.H.; Hong, P.V.

    2014-01-01

    An apparatus for carrying and transporting a product, comprising a conveyor having a surface, which surface is during use directed towards the product and is provided with inlet openings and outlet openings for a medium for supporting and providing the product with traction, wherein the surface is

  18. Can we measure carrying capacity with foraging behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Douglas W; Mukherjee, Shomen

    2007-03-01

    Carrying capacity is one of the most important, yet least understood and rarely estimated, parameters in population management and modeling. A simple behavioral metric of carrying capacity would advance theory, conservation, and management of biological populations. Such a metric should be possible because behavior is finely attuned to variation in environment including population density. We connect optimal foraging theory with population dynamics and life history to develop a simple model that predicts this sort of adaptive density-dependent change in food consumption. We then confirm the model's unexpected and manifold predictions with field experiments. The theory predicts reproductive thresholds that alter the marginal value of energy as well as the value of time. Both effects cause a pronounced discontinuity in quitting-harvest rate that we revealed with foraging experiments. Red-backed voles maintained across a range of high densities foraged at a lower density-dependent rate than the same animals exposed to low-density treatments. The change in harvest rate is diagnostic of populations that exceed their carrying capacity. Ecologists, conservation biologists, and wildlife managers may thus be able to use simple and efficient foraging experiments to estimate carrying capacity and habitat quality.

  19. Random noise characterization on the carrying capacities of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The process of the survival of species dependent on a limited resource in a polluted environment which isnot a new idea can be described by the technique of a mathematical modelling. We have utilised the technique of a numerical simulation to study the impact of environmental random noise on the carrying capacities of ...

  20. A METHOD OF SECURITY SCANNING OF CARRY-ON ITEMS, AND A CARRY-ON ITEMS SECURITY SCANNING SYSTEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A security scanning system (1) comprises a first stage module (3) having at least one X-ray source (6) and at least three first detectors (7) that are line-shaped and arranged in mutually different orientations and have at least dual energy resolution. A group of carry-on items (4) on a carrier...... are scanned simultaneously in the first stage module solely by transmission contrast radiography generating projections of two-dimensional image data. A processing device (9) reconstructs a 3D representation of the carry-on items and analyzes the 3D representation to determine whether further scanning...

  1. Carrying guns in public: legal and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, Jon S

    2013-03-01

    In District of Columbia v. Heller, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Second Amendment protects an individual's right to own handguns in the home for protection, invalidating a Washington, D.C. law banning most handgun possession. The Heller decision, however, provided lower courts with little guidance regarding how to judge the constitutionality of gun laws other than handgun bans. Nevertheless, lower courts have upheld the vast majority of federal, state, and local gun laws challenged since Heller. One area in which some lower courts have disagreed has been the constitutionality of laws regulating the ability to carry firearms in public. This issue may be the next to be addressed by the Supreme Court under its evolving Second Amendment jurisprudence. Courts should carefully consider the negative public health and safety implications of gun carrying in public as they weigh the constitutionality of these laws. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  2. Experiments on criticality carried out from 1975 till 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinicke, W.; Tischer, A.; Weber, W.J.

    1981-11-01

    The report on hand includes the experiments on criticality published from 1975 till 1980. About 90 experiments with the most important related data are listed. They are capable of being called up, with the data base system KRITEXP, by 14 different descriptors or printed in any arrangement or order. This is the basis for a global or purposeful verification of the calculating method for criticality safety. The proof of reliability of the calculations for the criticality analysis are immediately relevant for the licencing procedure under atomic law for all plants of the nuclear fuel cycle where nuclear fuels are handled. Since no criticality experiments are being carried out in the Federal Republic of Germany, the data collection on hand will help to fill this gap with regard to the assessment of experiments carried out in other countries. (orig.) [de

  3. [Evolvement of ecological footprint model representing ecological carrying capacity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shu-yan; Xie, Gao-di

    2007-06-01

    Ecological footprint (EF) is an important index of ecological carrying capacity. The original EF model is excellent in simplicity, aggregation, comparability, and lifelikeness in presenting results, but short in predictability, configuration, and applicability. To overcome these shortcomings, many researches were conducted to modify and promote the EF model, and developed it from static with single time scale to diversified ones, which included: 1) time series EF model, 2) input-output analysis based EF model, 3) integrated assessment incorporated EF model, 4) land disturbance degree based EF model, and 5) life cycle analysis based EF model, or component EF model. The function of EF as a measurement of ecological carrying capacity was significantly improved, but its accuracy and integrality still need to be advanced.

  4. Different Ways of Carrying Bags in Mental Retarded Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saideh-Sadat Mortazavi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available School as an educational and social center is linked with various aspects of child’s growth. The impact of objects, tools, and lifestyle on the development of human performance is not hidden from anyone [1].Tasell Lauri, the head of Cairo Praktive in Australia, in a paper warned parents about bags as a tool that students carry every day, and he is believes that many spinal disorders in adults is caused by childhood trauma. Studies on children and patients with special needs and such as myelomenangocele, cerebral palsy, and neurofibromatosis precisely show abnormal growth of spinal disorders, muscle imbalance, wrong posture [2]. Carrying stationery in an inappropriate tool can cause irreversible effects.

  5. Parallel Optimization of a Reversible (Quantum) Ripple-Carry Adder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Axelsen, Holger Bock

    2008-01-01

    ) ripple-carry adder. We optimize this design with a novel parallelization scheme wherein m parallel k-bit CDKM-adders are combined to form a reversible mk-bit ripple-block carry adder with logic depth O(m+k) for a minimal logic depth O(\\sqrt{mk}), thus improving on the mk-bit CDKM-adder logic depth O......(mk). We also show designs for garbage-less reversible set-less-than circuits. We compare the circuit costs of the CDKM and parallel adder in measures of circuit delay, width, gate and transistor count, and find that the parallelized adder offers significant speedups at realistic word sizes with modest...... parallelization overhead....

  6. Gluteus medius and thigh muscles electromyography during load carrying walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Šťastný

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the electromyographic (EMG peak amplitude changes of gluteus medius (Gmed, vastus medialis (VMO, vastus lateralis (VL and biceps femoris (BF during load carrying walking due to the increased load. The percentage of maximum isometric voluntary contractions (%MVIC of both limbs and 3D kinematic of lower limbs were detected on eighteen resistance-trained men (mean age ± SD, 31 ± 3.4 years while carrying loads of 25, 50 and 75% of their body mass (BM. The repeated measurement ANOVA was used to evaluate the differences in muscles %MVIC and 3D kinematics at all load conditions. Significant differences were found for Gmed %MVIC (F3,99 = 19.8, p < 0.001. Gmed activity was significantly different between load carrying walking with 25% of BM (mean ± SD, 20 ± 12%MVIC, 50% of BM (32 ± 17%MVIC and 75% of BM (45 ± 26%MVIC condition. Differences were found in hip flexion at Gmed EMG peak (F3,96 = 14, p < 0.001, between 25% of BM (18 ± 11° and 50% of BM (29 ± 7°. No significant differences were found for thigh muscles, when thigh muscle activity did not exceed 30%MVIC even at 75% of BM condition. Load carrying walking is an exercise which activates Gmed more than thigh muscles. This exercise increases the Gmed activity along with increased loads and it should be regarded as a complex Gmed strengthening exercise. This exercise is recommended for strengthening the Gmed with low activation of VL and VMO.

  7. Digitization Projects Carried out by the Mathematical Institute Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Ognjanovič, Zoran; Mijajlovič, Žarco

    2004-01-01

    In this paper some current digitization projects carried out by the Mathematical Institute of Serbian Academy of Science and Arts Belgrade and the Faculty of Mathematics Belgrade are described. The projects concern developing of a virtual library of retro-digitized books and an Internet data base and presentation of electronic editions of some leading Serbian journals in science and arts, and the work on the South-Eastern European Digitization Initiative (SEEDI).

  8. Hydrodynamic pressure, carrying capacities, friction forces in biobearing gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzcholski, Krzysztof Ch

    2009-01-01

    The present paper deals with the calculations of the pressure distributions, carrying capacities and friction forces derivations in a super- thin layer of biological synovial fluid inside the slide biobearing gap limited by a spherical, conical, cylindrical, parabolic, hyperbolic bone heads. There are also described unsteady and random flow conditions of the bio-bearing lubrication with the changes of the dynamic viscosity of the synovial fluid in the gap height in general.

  9. The calming effect of maternal carrying in different mammalian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca eEsposito

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Attachment theory postulates that mothers and their infants possess some basic physiological mechanisms that favour their dyadic interaction and bonding. Many studies have focused on the maternal physiological mechanisms that promote attachment (e.g. mothers’ automatic responses to infant faces and/or cries, and relatively less have examined infant physiology. Thus, the physiological mechanisms regulating infant bonding behaviors remain largely undefined. This review elucidates some of the neurobiological mechanisms governing social bonding and cooperation in humans by focusing on maternal carrying and its beneficial effect on mother-infant interaction in mammalian species (e.g. in humans, big cats and rodents. These studies show that infants have a specific calming response to maternal carrying. A human infant carried by his/ her walking mother exhibits a rapid heart rate decrease, and immediately stops voluntary movement and crying compared to when he/ she is held in a sitting position. Furthermore, strikingly similar responses were identified in mouse rodents, who exhibit immobility, diminished ultra-sonic vocalizations and heart rate. In general, the studies described in the current review demonstrate the calming effect of maternal carrying to be comprised of a complex set of behavioral and physiological components, each of which has a specific postnatal time window and is orchestrated in a well-matched manner with the maturation of the infants. Such reactions could have been evolutionarily adaptive in mammalian mother-infant interactions. The findings have implications for parenting practices in developmentally normal populations. In addition, we propose that infants’ physiological response may be useful in clinical assessments as we discuss possible implications on early screening for child psychopathology (e.g. Autism Spectrum Disorders, and Perinatal Brain Disorders.

  10. Superpositions of light fields carrying orbital angular momentum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OF LIGHT FIELDS CARRYING ORBITAL ANGULAR MOMENTUM By Angela Dudley A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the academic requirements for the PhD degree of Science in the School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban... this dissertation for submission. _________________________________ Prof Andrew Forbes On this_______day of____________________________2012 iv Declaration 2 - Plagiarism I, ???????????????. declare that 1...

  11. Plant Agricultural Streptomycin Formulations Do Not Carry Antibiotic Resistance Genes▿

    OpenAIRE

    Rezzonico, Fabio; Stockwell, Virginia O.; Duffy, Brion

    2009-01-01

    Streptomycin is used in plant agriculture for bacterial disease control, particularly against fire blight in pome fruit orchards. Concerns that this may increase environmental antibiotic resistance have led to bans or restrictions on use. Experience with antibiotic use in animal feeds raises the possible influence of formulation-delivered resistance genes. We demonstrate that agricultural streptomycin formulations do not carry producer organism resistance genes. By using an optimized extracti...

  12. On Kolmogorov Complexity and the Costs of Carrying out Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Justin Smith

    2000-01-01

    It is common to model costs of carrying out strategies in games in relation to the complexity, in some sense, of the strategies. We show a particularly general definition of complexity for this purpose, one that subsumes many alternatives as special cases. We explore how this definition can be used and developed, and illustrate with applications to the analysis of two player finite repeated games.

  13. Apollo 11 Astronaut Aldrin Carries Equipment on Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The first manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 11, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon, while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon in the Sea of Tranquility. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew set up experiments, collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth, planted the U.S Flag, and left a message for all mankind. In this photograph, Aldrin walks past some rocks, easily carrying scientific equipment which would have been too heavy to carry on Earth. The two packages made up the Early Apollo Scientific Experiment Package (EASEP) on Apollo 11. On the left is the Passive Seismic Experiment Package (PSEP) and on the right is the Laser Ranging Retroreflector (LRR).

  14. Magnetohydrodynamic sausage waves in current-carrying coronal tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahari, Karam

    2017-09-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) sausage waves in a coronal loop consisting of a core with longitudinal magnetic field and a current-carrying annulus with azimuthal magnetic field in the presence of plasma pressure are studied. As the plasma pressure is introduced to the loop a narrow band of infinite slow waves appear in the dispersion diagram, and the oscillation frequency of the fast sausage waves increases. In the loops with thinner annulus, more fast sausage waves with higher radial mode numbers are supported by the loop, and the fast sausage waves have smaller cut off wave numbers. The eigenfunction of the long wavelength fast sausage wave supported by the current-carrying loop, in the case of low density contrast, is similar to the eigenfunction of the slow sausage wave in a straight homogeneous loop with the maximum frequency of the frequency band. Other slow sausage waves both in a straight homogeneous loop and a current-carrying loop do not perturb the surrounding environment substantially.

  15. Violence and weapon carrying in music videos. A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRant, R H; Rich, M; Emans, S J; Rome, E S; Allred, E; Woods, E R

    1997-05-01

    The positive portrayal of violence and weapon carrying in televised music videos is thought to have a considerable influence on the normative expectations of adolescents about these behaviors. To perform a content analysis of the depictions of violence and weapon carrying in music videos, including 5 genres of music (rock, rap, adult contemporary, rhythm and blues, and country), from 4 television networks and to analyze the degree of sexuality or eroticism portrayed in each video and its association with violence and weapon carrying, as an indicator of the desirability of violent behaviors. Five hundred eighteen videos were recorded during randomly selected days and times of the day from the Music Television, Video Hits One, Black Entertainment Television, and Country Music Television networks. Four female and 4 male observers aged 17 to 24 years were trained to use a standardized content analysis instrument. Interobserver reliability testing resulted in a mean (+/- SD) percentage agreement of 89.25% +/- 7.10% and a mean (+/- SD) kappa of 0.73 +/- 0.20. All videos were observed by rotating 2-person, male-female teams that were required to reach agreement on each behavior that was scored. Music genre and network differences in behaviors were analyzed with chi 2 tests. A higher percentage (22.4%) of Music Television videos portrayed overt violence than Video Hits One (11.8%), Country Music Television (11.8%), and Black Entertainment Television (11.5%) videos (P = .02). Rap (20.4%) had the highest portrayal of violence, followed by rock (19.8%), country (10.8%), adult contemporary (9.7%), and rhythm and blues (5.9%) (P = .006). Weapon carrying was higher on Music Television (25.0%) than on Black Entertainment Television (11.5%), Video Hits One (8.4%), and Country Music Television (6.9%) (P music videos are between 3 and 4 minutes long, these data indicate that even modest levels of viewing may result in substantial exposure to violence and weapon carrying, which is

  16. Estimating cetacean carrying capacity based on spacing behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle E Braithwaite

    Full Text Available Conservation of large ocean wildlife requires an understanding of how they use space. In Western Australia, the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae population is growing at a minimum rate of 10% per year. An important consideration for conservation based management in space-limited environments, such as coastal resting areas, is the potential expansion in area use by humpback whales if the carrying capacity of existing areas is exceeded. Here we determined the theoretical carrying capacity of a known humpback resting area based on the spacing behaviour of pods, where a resting area is defined as a sheltered embayment along the coast. Two separate approaches were taken to estimate this distance. The first used the median nearest neighbour distance between pods in relatively dense areas, giving a spacing distance of 2.16 km (± 0.94. The second estimated the spacing distance as the radius at which 50% of the population included no other pods, and was calculated as 1.93 km (range: 1.62-2.50 km. Using these values, the maximum number of pods able to fit into the resting area was 698 and 872 pods, respectively. Given an average observed pod size of 1.7 whales, this equates to a carrying capacity estimate of between 1187 and 1482 whales at any given point in time. This study demonstrates that whale pods do maintain a distance from each other, which may determine the number of animals that can occupy aggregation areas where space is limited. This requirement for space has implications when considering boundaries for protected areas or competition for space with the fishing and resources sectors.

  17. Physical fitness of young women: carrying simulated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Restorff, W

    2000-06-01

    An evaluation of physical fitness prior to employment appears to be mandatory for several occupations in order to protect the employee from overburdening and the employer from placing excess demands on the employee. One such occupation seems to be that of the field medical specialist who needs special physical strength since terrain conditions deny wheel-assisted transport of stretcher patients. The anthropometric and isometric force data of a total of 62 female and 48 male recruits for the medical service of the Bundeswehr were evaluated, together with their ability to carry a patient on a stretcher (weight = 14 kg) within a gymnasium. Initially the 'casualties' were simulated by sandbags weighing 60, 70, 80 and 90 kg each on stretchers; subsequently equivalent-weight water cans were used. The tests were administered at the beginning and at the end of the general Basic Military Training (BMT). While all males were able to carry the simulated 90 kg patient, only 22 out of 62 female recruits were able to do so at the beginning of BMT. At the end, the number had improved to 29 out of 55 women soldiers completing training. At the beginning of BMT 22.5% of the women soldiers were unable to rescue a simulated 70 kg patient; at the end of BMT the number had fallen to 18%. The isometric force values as measured revealed the hand grip strength as the best predictor for the capacity to carry simulated 90 kg patients. It is, therefore, suggested that a hand strength test be administered prior to field medical specialist training in order to channel unsuitable candidates into other training schemes.

  18. Care for patients carrying out dialysis therapy at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Akio

    2012-01-01

    The goal of home dialysis is to more successfully reintegrate dialysis patients with high activities in daily life (ADL) into society as compared to hemodialysis (HD), which is carried out at a dialysis facility. By achieving this goal, this therapy can prove to be more effective than renal plantation, which has been carried out only in a few cases in Japan. Since self-management forms the basis of home dialysis, dialysis complications can be reduced by arranging meals, fluid management and dialysis schedule according to the lifestyle of the patient himself. In addition, long-term survival rate with health conditions similar to that of a healthy person can be increased. On the other hand, the goal of home dialysis for dialysis patients with a lower ADL is to strengthen the family bond, and improve quality of life and life prognosis, since nursing and support from family members are essential to ensure a long-term survival rate and ADL. For safe operation of home dialysis, which can be more effective than HD carried out in dialysis facilities, it is important for doctors, nurses, clinical engineers, social workers and all other members of the dialysis staff to work together as a united team. The type of nursing varies depending on period (during conservative treatment of end-stage renal disease, during the introduction and maintenance of dialysis, and when changing to end-stage renal disease replacement therapy). It also varies depending on whether continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis or home hemodialysis is implemented. The important points of nursing in home dialysis for each treatment period, depending on whether by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and home hemodialysis, are summarized here. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Killing cancer cells by targeted drug-carrying phage nanomedicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacoby Iftach

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic administration of chemotherapeutic agents, in addition to its anti-tumor benefits, results in indiscriminate drug distribution and severe toxicity. This shortcoming may be overcome by targeted drug-carrying platforms that ferry the drug to the tumor site while limiting exposure to non-target tissues and organs. Results We present a new form of targeted anti-cancer therapy in the form of targeted drug-carrying phage nanoparticles. Our approach is based on genetically-modified and chemically manipulated filamentous bacteriophages. The genetic manipulation endows the phages with the ability to display a host-specificity-conferring ligand. The phages are loaded with a large payload of a cytotoxic drug by chemical conjugation. In the presented examples we used anti ErbB2 and anti ERGR antibodies as targeting moieties, the drug hygromycin conjugated to the phages by a covalent amide bond, or the drug doxorubicin conjugated to genetically-engineered cathepsin-B sites on the phage coat. We show that targeting of phage nanomedicines via specific antibodies to receptors on cancer cell membranes results in endocytosis, intracellular degradation, and drug release, resulting in growth inhibition of the target cells in vitro with a potentiation factor of >1000 over the corresponding free drugs. Conclusion The results of the proof-of concept study presented here reveal important features regarding the potential of filamentous phages to serve as drug-delivery platform, on the affect of drug solubility or hydrophobicity on the target specificity of the platform and on the effect of drug release mechanism on the potency of the platform. These results define targeted drug-carrying filamentous phage nanoparticles as a unique type of antibody-drug conjugates.

  20. Astronaut Edgar Mitchell carries penetrometer attached to handle during EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot, carries the penetrometer attached to an extension handle during extravehicular activity on the lunar surface. The geophone alignment flag is attached to the penetrometer. Several components of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) are in the background. The shadow of Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander, who took this photograph, is in the foreground, near several prints made by lunar overshoes of the two astronauts and a long track made by a wheel of the Modularized Equipment Transporter (MET).

  1. Nonlinear vibration of an axially loaded beam carrying rigid bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Barry

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the nonlinear vibration due to mid-plane stretching of an axially loaded simply supported beam carrying multiple rigid masses. Explicit expressions and closed form solutions of both linear and nonlinear analysis of the present vibration problem are presented for the first time. The validity of the analytical model is demonstrated using finite element analysis and via comparison with the result in the literature. Parametric studies are conducted to examine how the nonlinear frequency and frequency response curve are affected by tension, rotational inertia, and number of intermediate rigid bodies.

  2. Plant agricultural streptomycin formulations do not carry antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzonico, Fabio; Stockwell, Virginia O; Duffy, Brion

    2009-07-01

    Streptomycin is used in plant agriculture for bacterial disease control, particularly against fire blight in pome fruit orchards. Concerns that this may increase environmental antibiotic resistance have led to bans or restrictions on use. Experience with antibiotic use in animal feeds raises the possible influence of formulation-delivered resistance genes. We demonstrate that agricultural streptomycin formulations do not carry producer organism resistance genes. By using an optimized extraction procedure, Streptomyces 16S rRNA genes and the streptomycin resistance gene strA were not detected in agricultural streptomycin formulations. This diminishes the likelihood for one potential factor in resistance development due to streptomycin use.

  3. Necking down of sausages in current-carrying plasma pinches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trubnikov, B.A.; Zhdanov, S.K.

    1986-07-01

    The evolution of long-wave perturbations is shown to be equivalent, for various unstable media, to the dynamics of a gas with a negative adiabatic index ..gamma... This evolution is described (for various values at N) by the quasi-Chaplygin system of equations Several examples of such media are considered, including a ''Chaplygin gas'' (N = 3), drops on a ceiling or ''solitons which have broken'' (N = 0), necks in a current-carrying plasma pinch with a skin effect, for both incompressible and compressible models (N = 2), and the breakup of liquid jets into drops (N = 3/2). A principle for selecting evolutionary solutions corresponding to the absence of perturbations in the limit t ..-->.. -infinity is formulated. In the cases N = 0 and N = 2, a hodograph transformation reduces system (1) to a magnetostatic equation (..delta..A)/sub phi/ = -(4..pi../c)j/sub phi/ and all the instability modes are equivalent to multipoles of circular currents which are localized on a circle. Exact solutions are given for periodic and isolated (localized) perturbations. The breakup of a medium into distinct blobs, in particular, the rupture of necks in a current-carrying plasma pinch, is demonstrated.

  4. Langkawi Island, Social Aspect and the Carrying Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Diana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aptitude to convince a range of preferences has facilitated the island tourism attractions to achieve international recognition and at present KILIM Geopark is enjoyed by a prominent percentage of individuals wide-reaching. Conventional knowledge has that the island attractions are operating on the limited immobile resources, of which, have raised the scholars’ concerns over the carrying capacity issue. When analyzing carrying capacity, scholars have traditionally focused on the environmental part, hence, this working paper is motivated to convey onto the table issues relating to the social characteristics. This particular paper employed the self-administered questionnaire survey instrument which was structured to answer the two-fold objective specifically the tourists’ satisfaction level with their tourism experience and knowledge gap in relation to improving the island tourism. Targeting the tourists with minimum age of 18, this working paper collects information on the tourists’ perception towards hospitality, facilities and safety issues. In addition, this working paper comes to scrutinize different results of demographic factors as compared to what have been documented by earlier studies. Besides, it is learned that ‘safety issue’ variable plays an important role when it comes to the following factors: tourist arrival, access to facilities and tourism experience.

  5. Necking down of sausages in current-carrying plasma pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trubnikov, B.A.; Zhdanov, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of long-wave perturbations is shown to be equivalent, for various unstable media, to the dynamics of a gas with a negative adiabatic index γ. This evolution is described (for various values at N) by the quasi-Chaplygin system of equations Several examples of such media are considered, including a ''Chaplygin gas'' (N = 3), drops on a ceiling or ''solitons which have broken'' (N = 0), necks in a current-carrying plasma pinch with a skin effect, for both incompressible and compressible models (N = 2), and the breakup of liquid jets into drops (N = 3/2). A principle for selecting evolutionary solutions corresponding to the absence of perturbations in the limit t → -∞ is formulated. In the cases N = 0 and N = 2, a hodograph transformation reduces system (1) to a magnetostatic equation (ΔA)/sub phi/ = -(4π/c)j/sub phi/ and all the instability modes are equivalent to multipoles of circular currents which are localized on a circle. Exact solutions are given for periodic and isolated (localized) perturbations. The breakup of a medium into distinct blobs, in particular, the rupture of necks in a current-carrying plasma pinch, is demonstrated

  6. c-Myc-Induced Extrachromosomal Elements Carry Active Chromatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Smith

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Murine Pre-13 lymphocytes with experimentally activated MycER show both chromosomal and extrachromosomal gene amplification. In this report, we have elucidated the size, structure, functional components of c-Myc-induced extrachromosomal elements (EEs. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that EEs isolated from MycER-activated Pre-B+ cells are an average of 10 times larger than EEs isolated from non-MycER-activated control Pre-B- cells. We demonstrate that these large c-Myc-induced EEs are associated with histone proteins, whereas EEs of non-MycER-activated Pre B- cells are not. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses using pan -histone-specific, histone H3 phosphorylation-specific, histone H4 acetylation-specific antibodies indicate that a significant proportion of EEs analyzed from MycER-activated cells harbors transcriptionally competent and/or active chromatin. Moreover, these large, c-Myc-induced EEs carry genes. Whereas the total genetic make-up of these c-Myc-induced EEs is unknown, we found that 30.2% of them contain the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR gene, whereas cyclin C (CCNC was absent. In addition, 50% of these c-Myc-activated Pre-B+ EEs incorporated bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, identifying them as genetic structures that self-propagate. In contrast, EEs isolated from non-Myc-activated cells neither carry the DHFR gene nor incorporate BrdU, suggesting that c-Myc deregulation generates a new class of EEs.

  7. Opa protein repertoires of disease-causing and carried meningococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Martin J; Buckee, Caroline; McCarthy, Noel D; Ibarz Pavón, Ana Belén; Jolley, Keith A; Faust, Saul; Gray, Stephen J; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Levin, Michael; Kroll, J Simon; Maiden, Martin C J; Pollard, Andrew J

    2008-09-01

    The meningococcal Opa proteins play an important role in pathogenesis by mediating invasion of human cells. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether carried and disease-associated meningococci possess different Opa repertoires and whether the diversity of these proteins is associated with clinical severity of disease. Opa repertoires in 227 disease-associated meningococci, isolated in the United Kingdom over a period of 6 years, were compared to the repertoires in 190 asymptomatically carried meningococci isolated in the United Kingdom from a contemporary, nonepidemic period. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) was employed to investigate the association between Opa repertoires and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) genotypes. Associations with clinical severity were also analyzed statistically. High levels of diversity were observed in opa alleles, variable regions, and repertoires, and MDS revealed that MLST genotypes were strongly associated with particular Opa repertoires. Individual Opa proteins or repertoires were not associated with clinical severity, though there was a trend toward an association with the opaD locus. Meningococcal Opa repertoire is strongly linked to MLST genotype irrespective of epidemiological sampling and therefore correlates with invasiveness. It is not, however, strongly associated with severity of meningococcal disease.

  8. Oxygen carrying perfluorochemical emulsion as an adjuvant to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teicher, B.A.; Rose, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of a perfluorochemical emulsion which as an excellent carrying capacity for oxygen to enhance the ability of radiation therapy to delay the growth of Lewis lung tumor was examined. There was a highly significant effect produced by the addition of perfluorochemical emulsion and carbogen breathing in combination with irradiation. With single dose x-ray treatment the dose of perfluorochemical emulsion was varied from 0.05-0.6 ml addition to the blood volume of the animals. The dose response effect was very broad peaking at 0.3-0.4 ml which gave a dose modifying effect of 2.8 +- 0.6 with 1000 rad of x-rays. The addition of 0.3 ml of perfluorochemical free annex solution with carbogen breathing produced a small enhancement in tumor growth delay addition of the same volume of the complete emulsion increased the tumor growth delay time about 3-fold compared to the annex solution. When the perfluorochemical emulsion was added to a fractionated course of radiation therapy a dose modifying effect of 1.8 +- 0.3 was obtained. Oxygen carrying perfluorochemical emulsions may provide a nontoxic clinically useful means of increasing the effectiveness of radiation therapy and of certain chemotherapeutic agents

  9. Extinguishing experiments of sodium fires carried out by TNO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, G.J.A.M.; Rulkens, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    For the collection of burning sodium from the components and pipes of the secondary circuit of SNR 300, spill-trays are foreseen which are connected to dump tanks. These spill-trays are covered with a sieve in order to reduce the flow of air to the sodium in the spill-tray and hence to reduce the burning rate. In order to further minimize the consequences of a large sodium fire for the components, the licensing authority required as a back-up the installation of a remotely operated distribution system by means of which an extinguishing powder can be sprayed upon the spill-trays. Experiments were carried out in which the effectiveness of different extinguishing powders in combination with the sieve covered spill-trays were tested in a comparative manner. Attention was paid to the question whether such a spray system would have also additional benefits in the case of smaller sodium leaks. To this purpose three commercially available extinguishing powders were tested, one on a sodium chloride, two on a carbonate base. Also the effectiveness of the sieves proper with respect to reducing the burning rate was tested without applying any extinguishing powders. Finally for a reference some tests were done on open spill-trays, i.e. spill-trays not covered with a sieve.The investigations which were carried out in 1976-1977 were limited to fire experiments, aspects of transport of the powder in the distribution system were not investigated

  10. Elastic-plastic load-carrying capacity of steel members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhas Pavol

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The load-carrying capacity of steel structures and members subjected mostly to bending depends in large measure on local stability of their compressed flanges and bending webs in decided cross-sections and areas. Depending on local stability, the elastic or plastic, eventually the elastic-plastic analysis and design can be applied. The actual standards for design of steel structures contain relatively detailed rules for elastic analysis by the elastic theory and for plastic analysis by the plastic theory. The elastic-plastic analysis and design of steel members are meanwhile still problematic from theory, standard and application point of view. The real elastic-plastic behavior of the steel members is complicated strength and stability problem. Therefore, the representative experimental knowledge and results about the real elastic-plastic behavior and mechanisms of failure of the steel members have been very important from the scientific and applied aspects. The author of paper realized in previous time the wide experimental research within the range of this intention. The paper contains selected knowledge and results of the previous experimental-theoretical investigation of the elastic-plastic local stability of the steel members subjected mostly to bending. The adequate slenderness – strain relation and methodology for practical calculation of the elastic-plastic bending load-carrying capacity of the steel cross-sections and members are presented in the paper.

  11. Assessment of Carrying Capacity of Timber Element Using SBRA Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal

    2017-10-01

    Wood as a building material has a significant perspective in the context of nonrenewable energy sources and production of greenhouse gas emissions. The subject of this paper is to verify the carrying capacity of the timber element using the probabilistic method Simulation Based Reliability Assessment (SBRA). The simulation is performed for one million cycles. Key factors decreasing the strength of wooden material at the time include the duration of the loads, and combinations thereof. Inconsiderable factor affecting the strength of wood is also the humidity. Continuous beam with three fields (length 15 m, glued laminated timber, and strength class GL 36 according to the DIN EN 1194) is placed in an environment with a thermal-humidity regime of the 2nd class according to the EC 5. Average life of carrying timber structure is estimated to be 50 years. The simulation results show that there is no risk of failure of wood during the first year. The probability of failure is common in the 10 years of its life. Then, wooden element already meets only a reduced level of reliability.

  12. Modelling of carry-over in recovery furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, Reza [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Metallurgy

    2000-04-01

    Development of mathematical modelling of the combustion process in the furnace of recovery boilers is the subject of this work. This work as a continuation of many years of modelling efforts carried out at KTH/Vaerme- och Ugnsteknik focussed particularly on: char bed modelling; droplets-wall interaction modelling; and carry-over modelling. The char bed model has been studied. Droplets/parcels were considered as a single reactor working independently of the other droplets. The mass of the droplets was not distributed uniformly but induced in the landing place. The droplets hitting the char bed will stick to it and they are alive and part of the calculation. In this way the distribution of the mass on the char bed is only dependent on the parameters which effect flight history such as droplet/parcel diameter, boilers flow field, etc. The droplet- wall interaction model has been studied and found to be very important for obtaining the correct temperature distribution in the recovery furnace. The new approach is based on removal of droplets which hits the wall in the upper part of the recovery boiler from carryover calculation. This model has been proposed and implemented into the GRFM (General Recovery Furnace Model). The carryover modelling effort was based on mass balance in which the number and physical statistics of the droplets/parcel were estimated and the amount of unburned mass was calculated. All of the above listed models were tested together with all other models of heat and mass transfer processes in recovery furnaces using a GRFM. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the industrial recovery boiler (63 kg/s, 82 bar, 480 deg C) were performed. The number of grid was 232,000 and the number of air ports in this simulation was 178. The air entering the furnace by these ports has different flow rates. Flow and temperature fields as well as species distributions were calculated. The results show good agreement with previously published data and modelling

  13. Time dependent variation of carrying capacity of prestressed precast beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tuan D.; Konečný, Petr; Matečková, Pavlína

    2018-04-01

    The article deals with the evaluation of the precast concrete element time dependent carrying capacity. The variation of the resistance is inherited property of laboratory as well as in-situ members. Thus the specification of highest, yet possible, laboratory sample resistance is important with respect to evaluation of laboratory experiments based on the test machine loading capabilities. The ultimate capacity is evaluated through the bending moment resistance of a simply supported prestressed concrete beam. The probabilistic assessment is applied. Scatter of random variables of compressive strength of concrete and effective height of the cross section is considered. Monte Carlo simulation technique is used to investigate the performance of the cross section of the beam with changes of tendons’ positions and compressive strength of concrete.

  14. MRSA carrying mecC in captive mara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Harrison, Ewan M; Moodley, Arshnee

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To characterize the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), virulence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus ST130 isolated from mara (Dolichotis patagonum), a large rodent species native to South America and kept in captivity at Copenhagen Zoo. METHODS......: The presence of mecC was confirmed by PCR in 15 S. aureus ST130 isolated from mara during a previous study. WGS was performed on two randomly selected isolates to characterize their genomes with respect to SCCmec, virulence and resistance gene content. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested using commercial...... broth microdilution tests. RESULTS: All the isolates belonged to spa type t528 ST130 and carried mecC. Based on WGS, mecC was 100% identical to the prototype sequence of S. aureus strain LGA251. The sequence of SCCmec type XI in the mara isolates had 23 SNPs compared with the one described in LGA251...

  15. A portable virtual machine target for proof-carrying code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franz, Michael; Chandra, Deepak; Gal, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Virtual Machines (VMs) and Proof-Carrying Code (PCC) are two techniques that have been used independently to provide safety for (mobile) code. Existing virtual machines, such as the Java VM, have several drawbacks: First, the effort required for safety verification is considerable. Second and more...... are the sizes of the proofs and the fact that the certified code is no longer machine-independent. In this paper, we describe work in progress on combining these approaches. Our hybrid safe-code solution uses a virtual machine that has been designed specifically to support proofcarrying code, while...... simultaneously providing efficient justin-time compilation and target-machine independence. In particular, our approach reduces the complexity of the required proofs, resulting in fewer proof obligations that need to be discharged at the target machine....

  16. Carry Trade e Risco Cambial: um Conto de Dois Fatores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Luiz Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Retornos da estratégia de carry trade tem sido explicados usando-se funções de utilidade inseparáveis no tempo que permitem prêmios de risco voláteis. Tipicamente tais funções mimetizam as preferências de economia fechada que dependem de bens duráveis e não duráveis. Este trabalho retorna a uma classificação mais tradicional, em macroeconomia internacional, de consumo entre bens domésticos e importados. O modelo é aplicado para países que representam 98,2% do volume mundial do comércio bilateral de câmbio. Reporta-se uma melhora acentuada na significância dos betas de consumo.

  17. Carrying capacity of the eastern ecological gradient of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, F E; Campbell, D J; Thom, D J

    1989-01-01

    Kenya's rate of natural population increase exceeds 4.0%/year. At this rate, Kenya's population of 23.5 million will expand to 35 million by the year 2000. Rural migrants are being forced out of the highlands into marginal arid and semiarid regions to the east and south in the eastern ecological gradient including Meru, Kitui, Machakos, and Kajiado districts. The people have become victims of marginalization by which the productivity of a unit of land declines relative to the demands of its occupants. The concept of carrying capacity means the number of people a given area can sustain over the long term. In Maasailand, 3.5 standard stock units (450 kg each) are required per adult equivalent for full subsistence, about 7 cows/person. For the Maasai pastoralists, carrying capacities were examined at 2 levels of subsistence: 100% from the herds and 80% from the herds; 2 technological levels; and population-growth rates of 2%, 2.5%, and 3%/annum. Using the median, 3.5%/year, population-growth scenario these districts will have almost 5 million inhabitants in the year 2000. Poverty at technology level I for 40% of them, or for 2 million people, is implausible. Technology level II implies that current rural-development programs will succeed with technological innovations for farm households, access to credit, and markets for their produce. Level II is likely to prevail toward the end of the century for the majority of farmers. Level III necessitates best agricultural and livestock technology as well as the best management. At most, 25% of the households of the eastern ecological gradient could enter this realm by the year 2000. Current strategies of voluntary family planning, rural development emerging from an antiquated extension system, inability to address inequity in land distribution, and laissez-faire resource management are inadequate to deal with the pace of change.

  18. Tumor uptake of /sup 67/Ga-carrying liposomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogihara, Izumi; Kojima, Shuji; Kubodera, Akiko; Jay, M.

    1986-02-01

    The in vivo distribution, excretion, and tumor localization of liposome-encapsulated /sup 67/Ga in normal and Ehrlich tumor (solid form)-bearing mice were studied. In normal mice, multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) were taken up mainly be the liver and spleen, whereas small, unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) exhibited a broader tissue distribution. When /sup 67/Ga was encapsulated in MLVs or SUVs, the excretion of the radiotracer in the urine and feces was less than that observed for free tracer at 72 h after i.v. administration. In tumor-bearing mice, SUVs were formed to accumulate preferentially in tumors. The tumor uptake of neutral, positive, and negative SUVs was 10%-13% of the administered dose per gram of tumor tissue at 24 h after their injection. These values were about three times higher than those found for free /sup 67/Ga-nitrilotriacetic acid trisodium salt (NTA) or /sup 67/Ga-citrate. Significant differences in tumor uptake due to different surface charges of liposomes were not observed. Enhanced tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-muscle ratios were also observed at 24 h after injection. These results suggest that /sup 67/Ga-carrying liposomes may be a useful for tumor imaging.

  19. Tumor uptake of 67Ga-carrying liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogihara, Izumi; Kojima, Shuji; Kubodera, Akiko; Jay, M.

    1986-01-01

    The in vivo distribution, excretion, and tumor localization of liposome-encapsulated 67 Ga in normal and Ehrlich tumor (solid form)-bearing mice were studied. In normal mice, multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) were taken up mainly be the liver and spleen, whereas small, unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) exhibited a broader tissue distribution. When 67 Ga was encapsulated in MLVs or SUVs, the excretion of the radiotracer in the urine and feces was less than that observed for free tracer at 72 h after i.v. administration. In tumor-bearing mice, SUVs were formed to accumulate preferentially in tumors. The tumor uptake of neutral, positive, and negative SUVs was 10%-13% of the administered dose per gram of tumor tissue at 24 h after their injection. These values were about three times higher than those found for free 67 Ga-nitrilotriacetic acid trisodium salt (NTA) or 67 Ga-citrate. Significant differences in tumor uptake due to different surface charges of liposomes were not observed. Enhanced tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-muscle ratios were also observed at 24 h after injection. These results suggest that 67 Ga-carrying liposomes may be a useful for tumor imaging. (orig.)

  20. Fatigue Analysis of Load-Carrying Fillet Welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Tychsen, Jesper; Andersen, Jens Ulfkjær

    2006-01-01

    The fatigue strength of load-carrying fillet welds is, in most codes of practice, performed neglecting the influence of bending in the weld throat section. However, some commonly applied structural details give rise to significant bending in the weld throat section. An example of such a detail is....... Using the test results, it is shown that the new definition of fatigue stress can be used for a wide range of DOB with a low standard deviation of the resulting SN curve....... is a doubler plate connection, which is often applied in connection with modifications of offshore structures. As a part of the present work, fatigue tests have been performed with test specimens fabricated by the current industry standard for welded offshore steel structures. The fatigue tests show...... that the degree of bending (DOB) has an influence on the fatigue lifetime. The fatigue lifetime decreases significantly when increasing the bending stress. In order to take into account the effect of the bending, a new fatigue stress definition applicable for fillet welds failing through the weld is presented...

  1. Single-electron states near a current-carrying core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masale, M.

    2004-01-01

    The energy spectrum of an electron confined near a current-carrying core is obtained as a function of the azimuthal applied magnetic field within the effective-mass approximation. The double degeneracy of the non-zero electron's axial wave number (k z ) states is lifted by the current-induced magnetic field while that of the non-zero azimuthal quantum number (m) states is preserved. A further analysis is the evaluations of the oscillator strengths for optical transitions involving the lowest-order pair of the electron's energy subbands within the dipole approximation. The radiation field is taken as that of elliptically polarized light incident along the core axis. In this polarization and within the dipole approximation, the allowed transitions are only those governed by the following specific selection rules. The azimuthal quantum numbers of the initial and final states must differ by unity while the electron's axial wave number is conserved. The azimuthal magnetic field is also found to lift the multiple degeneracies of the k z ≠0 interaction integrals as well as those of the oscillator strengths for optical transitions

  2. Roadmap and performance carried out during Ciemat site decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinones, Javier; Diaz Diaz, Jose Luis

    2005-01-01

    Ciemat (Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology) located in the heart of the Ciudad Universitaria of Madrid, occupies a property of 20 Ha. Since its creation in 1951 as JEN, and in 1986 renowned as Ciemat, it has involved on R and D projects in the field of Energy and Environment, i.e., Nuclear Fission, Nuclear Fusion, Fossils Fuels, Renewable Energy. As a consequence of the R and D projects developed between 1951 - 1986 on Nuclear Fission field (fuel design, fabrication, characterization on irradiated fuels, safety studies, etc) and to the diversification of the goals as well, it is necessary to Decommissioning and Dismantling (D and D) from nuclear facilities (nuclear reactor, Hot Cells, Irradiation facility), buildings and soils. Preparations for D and D included a staged shutdown of operations, planning documentation and licensing for decommissioning. As a prerequisite to Ciemat application for a decommissioning license and nuclear environmental assessment was carried out according to Spanish Nuclear Council (CSN) and approval of the site decommissioning project was obtained in 2000 and valid until December 31, 2006. Since 2001 - 2003 is underway and focussed on the radiological characterization of the site (divided in pieces of ground), when each piece of ground is characterized a planning for D and D is presented to CSN in order to obtain a license for actuation. Nowadays several pieces of ground are decontaminated and modifications have been done in order to achieve a safe state of storage-with-surveillance. Later phases have planned waste management improvements for selected wastes already on temporally storage, eventually followed by final decommissioning of facilities and buildings and cleaning of contaminants from soils and removal of waste from the site. This paper describes the planning, nuclear and environment assessment and descriptions of decommissioning activities currently underway at Ciemat. (Author)

  3. Estimating landscape carrying capacity through maximum clique analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Therese; Warrington, Greg; Schwenk, W. Scott; Dinitz, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    Habitat suitability (HS) maps are widely used tools in wildlife science and establish a link between wildlife populations and landscape pattern. Although HS maps spatially depict the distribution of optimal resources for a species, they do not reveal the population size a landscape is capable of supporting--information that is often crucial for decision makers and managers. We used a new approach, "maximum clique analysis," to demonstrate how HS maps for territorial species can be used to estimate the carrying capacity, N(k), of a given landscape. We estimated the N(k) of Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapillus) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) in an 1153-km2 study area in Vermont, USA. These two species were selected to highlight different approaches in building an HS map as well as computational challenges that can arise in a maximum clique analysis. We derived 30-m2 HS maps for each species via occupancy modeling (Ovenbird) and by resource utilization modeling (bobcats). For each species, we then identified all pixel locations on the map (points) that had sufficient resources in the surrounding area to maintain a home range (termed a "pseudo-home range"). These locations were converted to a mathematical graph, where any two points were linked if two pseudo-home ranges could exist on the landscape without violating territory boundaries. We used the program Cliquer to find the maximum clique of each graph. The resulting estimates of N(k) = 236 Ovenbirds and N(k) = 42 female bobcats were sensitive to different assumptions and model inputs. Estimates of N(k) via alternative, ad hoc methods were 1.4 to > 30 times greater than the maximum clique estimate, suggesting that the alternative results may be upwardly biased. The maximum clique analysis was computationally intensive but could handle problems with < 1500 total pseudo-home ranges (points). Given present computational constraints, it is best suited for species that occur in clustered distributions (where the problem can be

  4. Tensorial spacetime geometries carrying predictive, interpretable and quantizable matter dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera Hernandez, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Which tensor fields G on a smooth manifold M can serve as a spacetime structure? In the first part of this thesis, it is found that only a severely restricted class of tensor fields can provide classical spacetime geometries, namely those that can carry predictive, interpretable and quantizable matter dynamics. The obvious dependence of this characterization of admissible tensorial spacetime geometries on specific matter is not a weakness, but rather presents an insight: it was Maxwell theory that justified Einstein to promote Lorentzian manifolds to the status of a spacetime geometry. Any matter that does not mimick the structure of Maxwell theory, will force us to choose another geometry on which the matter dynamics of interest are predictive, interpretable and quantizable. These three physical conditions on matter impose three corresponding algebraic conditions on the totally symmetric contravariant coefficient tensor field P that determines the principal symbol of the matter field equations in terms of the geometric tensor G: the tensor field P must be hyperbolic, time-orientable and energy-distinguishing. Remarkably, these physically necessary conditions on the geometry are mathematically already sufficient to realize all kinematical constructions familiar from Lorentzian geometry, for precisely the same structural reasons. This we were able to show employing a subtle interplay of convex analysis, the theory of partial differential equations and real algebraic geometry. In the second part of this thesis, we then explore general properties of any hyperbolic, time-orientable and energy-distinguishing tensorial geometry. Physically most important are the construction of freely falling non-rotating laboratories, the appearance of admissible modified dispersion relations to particular observers, and the identification of a mechanism that explains why massive particles that are faster than some massless particles can radiate off energy until they are slower than all

  5. Tensorial spacetime geometries carrying predictive, interpretable and quantizable matter dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera Hernandez, Sergio

    2012-02-15

    Which tensor fields G on a smooth manifold M can serve as a spacetime structure? In the first part of this thesis, it is found that only a severely restricted class of tensor fields can provide classical spacetime geometries, namely those that can carry predictive, interpretable and quantizable matter dynamics. The obvious dependence of this characterization of admissible tensorial spacetime geometries on specific matter is not a weakness, but rather presents an insight: it was Maxwell theory that justified Einstein to promote Lorentzian manifolds to the status of a spacetime geometry. Any matter that does not mimick the structure of Maxwell theory, will force us to choose another geometry on which the matter dynamics of interest are predictive, interpretable and quantizable. These three physical conditions on matter impose three corresponding algebraic conditions on the totally symmetric contravariant coefficient tensor field P that determines the principal symbol of the matter field equations in terms of the geometric tensor G: the tensor field P must be hyperbolic, time-orientable and energy-distinguishing. Remarkably, these physically necessary conditions on the geometry are mathematically already sufficient to realize all kinematical constructions familiar from Lorentzian geometry, for precisely the same structural reasons. This we were able to show employing a subtle interplay of convex analysis, the theory of partial differential equations and real algebraic geometry. In the second part of this thesis, we then explore general properties of any hyperbolic, time-orientable and energy-distinguishing tensorial geometry. Physically most important are the construction of freely falling non-rotating laboratories, the appearance of admissible modified dispersion relations to particular observers, and the identification of a mechanism that explains why massive particles that are faster than some massless particles can radiate off energy until they are slower than all

  6. [Ecotourism carrying capacity of Hangzhou Xixi National Wetland Park in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Rong, Liang

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, an integrated estimation on the ecotourism carrying capacity of Hangzhou Xixi National Wetland Park in China was made from the aspects of ecological carrying capacity, spatial carrying capacity, facility carrying capacity, management carrying capacity, and psychological carrying capacity. The results indicated that the tourism carrying capacity of the Park was 4 145 - 6 450 persons per day. The rational distance between man and bird was first adopted to determine the ecotourism carrying capacity of wetland, which provided an effective solution both to fully ensure bird safety and to appropriately develop wetland tourism. The estimation of psychological carrying capacity based on tourist satisfaction degree reflected more objectively the extent the tourist demands satisfied at the planning, construction and management of tour places. Such an integrated estimation method based on the distance between man and bird and the tourist satisfaction degree could be of practical and instructive significances in the planning and management of wetland parks.

  7. Moment of the Legal Termination of the Organization and/or Carrying out Gambling Which is Carried Out in the Information Communication Network Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris R. Avetisyan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Both for the legal doctrine, and for law enforcement the category "moment of the termination of a crime" is determined by the general concept of the moment of legal completion of criminal encroachment. In article the content of this category for the organization and carrying out the gamblings which are carried out on the Internet is specified. In the conclusion author concluds that the moment of the termination of the organization and carrying out gamblings out of a gambling zone should be regarded as an independent objective sign.

  8. Sdelki carry trade ne roskosh, a sredstvo nakoplenija / Darius Gecevicius, Dmitri Fokin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gecevicius, Darius

    2007-01-01

    Strateegia carry trade kasutamisest valuutaturgudel. Carry trade on tehing, mis enamasti toimub valuutaturul, kus investor laenab raha sisse valuutas, mille intressid on madalamad ning paigutab selle valuutas, kus intressid on kõrgemad. Diagramm

  9. Free vibrations of a multi-span Timoshenko beam carrying multiple ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The literature regarding the free vibration analysis of Bernoulli–Euler single-span beams carrying a number of spring-mass system and Bernoulli–Euler multi-span beams carrying multiple spring-mass systems are plenty, but on Timoshenko multi-span beams carrying multiple spring-mass systems is fewer. This paper aims ...

  10. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying motor...

  11. 46 CFR 25.45-2 - Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire... REQUIREMENTS Cooking, Heating, and Lighting Systems § 25.45-2 Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire. (a) No fuel may be used in any cooking system on any vessel carrying passengers for hire...

  12. 25 CFR 161.204 - How are carrying capacities and stocking rates established?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... WATER NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS General Provisions § 161.204 How are carrying capacities... on each range or management unit. (c) BIA will review the carrying capacity of the grazing units on a... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are carrying capacities and stocking rates...

  13. The energetic costs of load-carrying and the evolution of bipedalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J C; Payne, R C; Chamberlain, A T; Jones, R K; Sellers, W I

    2008-05-01

    The evolution of habitual bipedalism is still a fundamental yet unsolved question for paleoanthropologists, and carrying is popular as an explanation for both the early adoption of upright walking and as a positive selection pressure once a terrestrial lifestyle had been adopted. However, to support or reject any hypothesis that suggests carrying efficiency was an important selective pressure, we need quantitative data on the costs of different forms of carrying behavior, especially infant-carrying since reduction in the grasping capabilities of the foot would have prevented infants from clinging on for long durations. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the mode of load carriage influences the energetic cost of locomotion. Oxygen consumption was measured in seven female participants walking at a constant speed while carrying four different 10-kg loads (a weighted vest, 5-kg dumbbells carried in each hand, a mannequin infant carried on one hip, and a 10-kg dumbbell carried in a single hand). Oxygen consumption was also measured during unloaded standing and unloaded walking. The results show that the weighted vest requires the least amount of energy of the four types of carrying and that, for this condition, humans are as efficient as mammals in general. The balanced load was carried with approximately the predicted energy cost. However, the asymmetrical conditions were considerably less efficient, indicating that, unless infant-carrying was the adaptive response to a strong environmental selection pressure, this behavior is unlikely to have been the precursor to the evolution of bipedalism.

  14. Literature review on land carrying capacity of the coordinated development of population, resources, environment and economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao

    2017-10-01

    Land carrying capacity is an important index of evaluation on land resources. And the land carrying capacity is also very important for guiding regional plans and promoting sustainable development of regional economy. So it is significant to clarify the land carrying capacity in the sequence of events which helps the decision makers understand and grasp the knowledge of land carrying capacity more clearly and make the right judgment and decision. Based on the theory of population, resources, environment and economy, the method of reviewing literatures is used in this paper to summarize the theory of the land carrying capacity and the researching methods of the land carrying capacity, as well as the problems existing in the study of land carrying capacity.

  15. Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST273 Carrying blaNDM-7and ST656 Carrying blaNDM-1in Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Andrew; Roa, Marylette; Evangelista, Michael A; Sulit, Arielle Kae; Lagamayo, Evelina; Torres, Brian C; Klinzing, David C; Daroy, Maria Luisa G; Navoa-Ng, Josephine; Sucgang, Richard; Zechiedrich, Lynn

    2016-10-01

    We sought to determine the epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and to investigate the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in two teaching hospitals in Manila, Philippines. We screened 364 Enterobacteriaceae for carbapenem resistance between 2012 and 2013 and detected four carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates from three different patients. We used whole genome sequencing to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles and confirmed the presence of carbapenemase genes by multiplex PCR. We used multilocus sequence typing and PCR-based replicon typing to genetically characterize the carbapenem-resistant isolates. The carbapenemase gene bla NDM was detected in K. pneumoniae isolates from two patients. The first patient had ventilator-associated pneumonia and lumbar shunt infection from K. pneumoniae ST273 carrying bla NDM-7 . The second patient had asymptomatic genitourinary colonization with K. pneumoniae ST656 carrying bla NDM-1 . The third patient had a gluteal abscess with K. pneumoniae ST1 that did not carry a carbapenemase gene, but did carry bla DHA-1 , bla OXA-1 , and bla SHV-1 . In this study, we report the first cases of bla NDM -carrying pathogens in the Philippines and add to the growing evidence of the worldwide spread of ST273 and NDM-7, a more efficient carbapenem hydrolyzer than NDM-1.

  16. Estimating Recreational Carrying Capacity of Gheisary Protected Area in Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sheikh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is now certain that to ensure a long term sustainable development, protected areas, the favored destinations for ecotourism, required a well written planning management. Each destination however has limited capability which is called “carrying capacity” to invite visitors. Physical, real (ecological and effective (manageable are different kinds of carrying capacity. The current study presented these varieties of carrying capacities for Gheisary protected area, stretched over 10,000 ha in Cheharmahal- & Bakhtiary province. The physical carrying capacity was measured using an ecotourism-based zoning followed by imposing periodic, pedologic, climatic and vegetative limitations, based on the minimum area needed for each person. Real carrying capacity was then calculated according to the physical carrying capacity. The results showed that the intensive recreation zone with surface of 1,292 ha had the annual physical carrying capacity of 2,079,227 and real carrying capacity of 18,465 people. The values for the extensive recreation zone with surface of 2,378 ha were 2,478,832 and 1,215 respectively. The study has also speculated the embedded management strength and recreation convenience of the area and concluded that effective carrying capacity can only enjoy 10% of the real carrying capacity, which were 1,968 people.

  17. Kinetic characteristics of the gait of a musician carrying or not his instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bolli Mota

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrity of the locomotor system can be compromised by the transport of certain objects, especially when done in an inadequate manner. Due to their weight and size, the transport of musical instruments can contribute to body dysfunctions in musicians who frequently have to carry their instruments, influencing balance andbody posture. Thus, the soil reaction force was investigated during the gait of a musician carrying or not his instrument. Two AMTI (Advanced Mechanical Technologies, Inc. platforms were used for kinetic data acquisition. A total of 40 measurements were obtainedfor gait and balance: 20 without carrying the instrument and 20 while carrying the instrument. The t test showed significant differences between the two situations for all variables analyzed. The results suggest that the locomotor system suffers alterationswhen carrying any kind of load, as was the case here in which the subject carried 7.75% of his own weight.

  18. A model to estimate aquaculture carrying capacity in three areas of the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarzan Legović

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A model was developed to estimate the production carrying capacity of water bodies based on nutrient inputs from aquaculture and other sources, flushing rates, and the risk of algal blooms for three different areas of the Philippines – Bolinao (marine site, Dagupan (brackishwater site and Taal Lake (freshwater site. The results suggest that aquaculture production in the Taal Lake was greater than the sustainable carrying capacity. Aquaculture structures in Bolinao were close to carrying capacity during average tidal exchange but greater than the carrying capacity during low tidal exchange and no winds.Aquaculture production in the Dagupan estuary has not overcome its carrying capacity even during low flow. However, during very low flow and no tidal flushing, carrying capacity has been overcome.

  19. Evaluation of Ecological Carrying Capacity of Henan Province under the Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Xiao-ping

    2010-01-01

    Based on the overview of social economy of Henan Province, I probe into the concept and evaluation of ecological carrying capacity. By using the ecological footprint analysis and the data of various kinds of land supply of Henan Province from 2000 to 2008, the ecological carrying capacity of Henan Province is analyzed. It is unveiled that inharmonious population, natural resources and economic resources affects the efficiency of the sustainable development of ecological carrying capacity of H...

  20. Concept and Connotation of Water Resources Carrying Capacity in Water Ecological Civilization Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Zhilong; Song, Xiaoyu; Feng, Xianghua

    2018-01-01

    Water ecological civilization construction is based on the water resources carrying capacity, guided by the sustainable development concept, adhered to the human-water harmony thoughts. This paper has comprehensive analyzed the concept and characteristics of the carrying capacity of water resources in the water ecological civilization construction, and discussed the research methods and evaluation index system of water carrying capacity in the water ecological civilization construction, finally pointed out that the problems and solutions of water carrying capacity in the water ecological civilization construction and put forward the future research prospect.

  1. New insights in the role of working memory in carry and borrow operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke Imbo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides a state-of-the-art overview concerning the role of working memory in carry and borrow operations in mental arithmetic. The role of the executive working-memory component is discussed, alongside the contribution of the phonological and visuo-spatial working-memory components. Moreover, a broad view on various carry characteristics (such as the number of carry/borrow operations and the value of the carry and various operations (addition, subtraction, and multiplication is provided. Finally, some ideas for further research are offered.

  2. Modeling of predictive muscular strength for sustained one-handed carrying task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai Way; Wang, Chien Wen; Yu, Ruifeng

    2015-01-01

    Manual materials handling (MMH) tasks are common. They are considered major contributors of musculoskeletal injuries and are the sources of financial burden for industries in terms of lost work days and worker compensation costs. One-handed carrying is common and could result in arm fatigue. The purpose of this study was to establish predictive models for one-handed carrying strength considering weight handed and handedness conditions. Twenty male subjects were recruited for the study. The subject carried a weight of 6 or 12 kg using either dominant or non-dominant hand lasting a time period of 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, or 4 minutes. The results showed that handedness (p carrying strength. Predictive models of single arm carrying strength were established under handedness and weight conditions. The MADs of these models ranged from 0.39 to 2.19 kgf. The exponential function based predictive models may be adopted to describe the single arm carrying strength with reasonable predictive errors. The trend of the carrying strength after carrying a load for a certain period may be employed to describe muscular fatigue for sustained carrying tasks.

  3. Specifying the Role of Exposure to Violence and Violent Behavior on Initiation of Gun Carrying: A Longitudinal Test of Three Models of Youth Gun Carrying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Richard; Pridemore, William Alex; Bolland, John

    2012-01-01

    Two waves of longitudinal data from 1,049 African American youth living in extreme poverty are used to examine the impact of exposure to violence (Time 1) and violent behavior (Time 1) on first time gun carrying (Time 2). Multivariate logistic regression results indicate that (a) violent behavior (Time 1) increased the likelihood of initiation of…

  4. Elemental content of the placenta: A comparison between two high-risk obstetrical populations, adult women carrying multiples and adolescents carrying singletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Angelis, Paolo; Miller, Richard K; Darrah, Thomas H; Katzman, Philip J; Pressman, Eva K; Kent, Tera R; O'Brien, Kimberly O

    2017-10-01

    The placenta is responsible for the exchange of nutrients and for preventing harmful compounds from entering the fetal circulation. With increasing industrialization, exposures to commercial and toxic metals become a concern for both pregnant women and those planning a pregnancy. The understanding of transport mechanisms and pharmacokinetics for most inorganic elements is incomplete and limited to normal term deliveries. To obtain novel data on 46 inorganic elements in placentae from two high-risk obstetric populations, women carrying multiples and adolescents carrying singletons, evaluating differences, if present, and identifying predictors of placental content. Placental tissue was collected from adolescents carrying singletons and adults carrying multiples. Elemental content was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Multivariate regression and factor analyses were used. With the exception of Au and Pt, almost all placentae contained quantifiable concentrations of each element analyzed. All placentae contained the essential elements Ca, Fe, Mg, Se and Zn, which clustered together onto the same factor. Most elements were higher in placentae from women carrying multiples. Differences in placental content disappeared after adjusting for maternal age. Rare earth elements (REEs) clustered together and remained higher in the multiples even after adjusting for maternal age. Human placentae contain a wide range of elements, including REEs. Ranges differed considerably between cohorts. Elements with similar chemical properties, like REEs or nutritionally essential elements, clustered together. Maternal age, and therefore longer environmental exposure, was significantly associated with elevated element concentrations in the placenta. Placental concentrations of several metals that are known to be nutritionally essential (e.g., Fe, Ca, Mg, and Zn) did not differ significantly between cohorts, suggesting tight regulation, whereas

  5. Carry A. Nation: "The Famous and Original Bar Room Smasher" Curriculum Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka.

    Carry Nation's personality, religious beliefs, and marriages to Charles Gloyd and, after his death, to David Nation all formed her into the reformer for which she became known. Carry Nation was involved in a variety of reform causes including prohibition, anti-smoking, women's health, and suffrage. Her prohibition reform efforts took place after…

  6. 75 FR 17313 - Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Carry-Over Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... RIN 0970-AC40 Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Carry-Over Funds AGENCY: Administration.... SUMMARY: This final rule implements the statutory change to section 404(e) of the Social Security Act as... Territories to use Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program funds carried over from a prior year...

  7. Examining Adolescent Suicidal Behaviors in Relation to Gun Carrying and Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Andrea; Bauman, Sheri; Ritter, Marissa; Anand, Payal

    2017-01-01

    Guided by the interpersonal theory of suicide, this study examines the associations between gun carrying, bullying, and suicidal behaviors among high school students. Arizona Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were completed by 2,677 students in 2011; 9.0% reported suicide attempt in the past year, 5.5% carried a gun in the past 30 days, 8.5% were…

  8. Neutralization of bactericidal activity related to antimicrobial carry-over in broiler carcass rinse samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical antimicrobial interventions used as poultry processing aids may have potential for carry-over into whole poultry carcass buffered peptone water (BPW) rinses collected for the recovery of viable Salmonella. Such carry-over may lead to false negative indications due to continuing bactericidal...

  9. 46 CFR 25.45-1 - Heating and lighting systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heating and lighting systems on vessels carrying... UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Cooking, Heating, and Lighting Systems § 25.45-1 Heating and lighting systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire. (a) No fuel may be used in any heating or lighting system on...

  10. 42 CFR 71.56 - African rodents and other animals that may carry the monkeypox virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the monkeypox virus. 71.56 Section 71.56 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... and other animals that may carry the monkeypox virus. (a) What actions are prohibited? What animals... transmitting or carrying the monkeypox virus. Such products include, but are not limited to, fully taxidermied...

  11. Energetic cost of carrying loads: have African women discovered an economic way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloiy, G M; Heglund, N C; Prager, L M; Cavagna, G A; Taylor, C R

    When travelling in East Africa one is often surprised at the prodigious loads carried by the women of the area. It is not uncommon to see women of the Luo tribe carrying loads equivalent to 70% of their body mass balanced on the top of their heads (Fig. 1). Women of the Kikuyu tribe carry equally large loads supported by a strap across their foreheads; this frequently results in a permanently grooved skull. Recent experiments on running horses, humans, dogs and rats showed that the energy expended in carrying a load increased in direct proportion to the weight of the load for each animal at each speed, that is, carrying a load equal to 20% of body weight increased the rate of energy consumption by 20% (ref. 1). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether these African women use specialized mechanisms for carrying very large loads cheaply. We found that both the Luo and Kikuyu women could carry loads of up to 20% of their body weight without increasing their rate of energy consumption. For heavier loads there was a proportional increase in energy consumption, that is, a 30% load increased energy consumption by 10%, a 40% load by 20% and so on. We suggest that some element of training and/or anatomical change since childhood may allow these women to carry heavy loads economically.

  12. Effects of Sprint Training With or Without Ball Carry in Elite Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Laurent B; Barr, Matt; Haff, G Gregory

    2015-09-01

    To compare the effects of sprint training with or without ball carry on the sprint performance of elite rugby league players. Twenty-four elite rugby league players were divided into a ball-carry group (BC; n = 12) and a no-ball-carry group (NBC; n = 12). The players of the BC group were required to catch and carry the ball under 1 arm during each sprint, whereas the NBC group performed sprints without carrying a ball. The 8-wk training intervention took place during the precompetitive phase of the season and consisted of 2 sessions/wk. Sprint performance was measured before and after the training intervention with 40-m linear sprints performed under 2 conditions: with and without ball carry. Split times of 10, 20, and 40 m were recorded for further analysis. A 3-way (group × time × condition) factorial ANOVA was performed to compare changes in sprint performance with and without the ball, before and after the training intervention for both BC and NBC training groups Results: The BC and NBC groups experienced similar improvements in 10-, 20-, and 40-m sprint times and accelerations, regardless of the condition under which the sprint tests were performed (P = .19). Sprint training while carrying a rugby ball is as effective as sprint training without carrying a rugby ball for improving the sprint performance of elite rugby league players.

  13. 46 CFR 98.30-4 - Vessels carrying portable tanks other than MPTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels carrying portable tanks other than MPTs. 98.30-4 Section 98.30-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS... Portable Tanks § 98.30-4 Vessels carrying portable tanks other than MPTs. (a) Each portable tank, other...

  14. Gun Cultures or Honor Cultures? Explaining Regional and Race Differences in Weapon Carrying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felson, Richard B.; Pare, Paul-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    We use the National Violence against Women (and Men) Survey to examine the effects of region and race on the tendency to carry weapons for protection. We find that Southern and Western whites are much more likely than Northern whites to carry guns for self-protection, controlling for their risk of victimization. The difference between Southern and…

  15. Effect of Gun Carrying on Perceptions of Risk Among Adolescent Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, Thomas A; Reid, Joan A; Collins, Megan Eileen; Mulvey, Edward P

    2016-02-01

    We observed how perceptions of risks, costs, crime rewards, and violence exposure change as individual gun-carrying behavior changes among high-risk adolescents. We analyzed a longitudinal study (2000-2010) of serious juvenile offenders in Maricopa County, Arizona, or Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, assessing within-person changes in risk and reward perceptions, and violence exposure as individuals initiated or ceased gun carrying. Despite being associated with heightened exposure to violence, gun carrying was linked to lower perceptions of risks and costs and higher perceived rewards of offending. Gun carrying was not time-stable, as certain individuals both started and stopped carrying during the study. Within-person changes in carrying guns were associated with shifting perceptions of risks, costs, and rewards of crime, and changes in exposure to violence in expected directions. Gun carrying reduces perceptions of risks associated with offending while increasing actual risk of violence exposure. This suggests that there is an important disconnect between perceptions and objective levels of safety among high-risk youths. Gun-carrying decisions may not only be influenced by factors of protection and self-defense, but also by perceptions of risks and reward associated with engaging in crime more generally.

  16. Carrying capacity of the succulent valley bushveld of the eastern Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dense bushveld (high ecological status) had higher overall carrying capacity than open bushveld (low ecological status). Carrying capacity changed considerably depending on annual rainfall and this was complicated because the more degraded the veld the greater the variation. Maximum long-term grass production ...

  17. Free vibrations of a multi-span Timoshenko beam carrying multiple ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    natural frequency values and mode shapes for a beam carrying any number of spring masses. Naguleswaran (2002, 2003) obtained the natural frequency values of the beams on up to five resilient supports including ends and carrying several particles by using EBT and obtained a fourth-order determinant equated to zero.

  18. 12 CFR 615.5090 - Reduction in carrying value of collateral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reduction in carrying value of collateral. 615... FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Collateral § 615.5090 Reduction in carrying value of collateral. When the bank or Farm Credit Administration determines that a loan did not...

  19. 77 FR 59408 - Finding of Equivalence; Alternate Pressure Relief Valve Settings on Certain Vessels Carrying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) Section VIII with respect to...; Alternate Pressure Relief Valve Settings on Certain Vessels Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk AGENCY: Coast...-ENG Policy Letter 04-12, ``Alternative Pressure Relief Valve Settings on Vessels Carrying Liquefied...

  20. 36 CFR 702.8 - Use and carrying of food and beverages in Library buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.8 Use and carrying of food and beverages in Library buildings. Consumption of food and beverages in Library buildings is prohibited except at point of purchase or other authorized eating places. Under no circumstances may food or beverages be carried to the bookstacks or other...

  1. 46 CFR 98.25-5 - How anhydrous ammonia may be carried.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How anhydrous ammonia may be carried. 98.25-5 Section 98... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-5 How anhydrous ammonia may be carried. (a) Anhydrous ammonia shall be..., except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) When anhydrous ammonia is to be...

  2. Form and Function of Carrying Tools in Traditional and Contemporary Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendriana Werdhaningsih

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Javanese Traditional Carrying Tools are categorized into two kinds based used of materials: anyaman made of woven bamboo or rattan and the other was made of cloth. The Traditional Javanese Carrying Tools that were made of bamboo/ rattan is actually a kind of container with different shapes. The types of goods that were brought was related to the shapes of the containers, demonstrate the type of interactions between the carrier and the goods. The Traditional Carrying Tools made of cloth have the flexibility in terms of being the containers of the carried goods. Selendang is used to carry goods, including the bamboo/ rattan containers and to carry babies. It can be used rumpled and straightened depends on the technical needs of carrying tools preferred by the user. In contemporary culture, the form and design of carrying tools more less construct by fashion and trends besides those practical used. Some product are being 'classic', some other are being 'fad'. Both products, traditional and contemporary have their own style, uniqueness, and own context. Analyzing both in design point of view is important as evaluation process, to finding new problems that will be starting point to create new products. Indonesia is well known for its abundant richness in traditions, which include the culture, the art, and the traditional products. Such treasure of traditions can inspire the development and invention of various kinds of artwork and current products.

  3. Comparative analysis of environmental carrying capacity of the Bohai Sea Rim area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lu; Liu, Yi; Chen, Jining; Zhang, Tianzhu; Zeng, Siyu

    2011-11-01

    Environmental carrying capacity is an essential metric for measuring regional sustainability. Although the term "carrying capacity" has been applied for over a century, the concept definition, quantitative methods and comprehensive evaluation remain arguable. This study analyzed the carrying capacity of four environmental elements, including water resources, air, surface water and offshore sea, and integrated them into a comprehensive index to represent overall regional profiles of resources and environment. The method was then applied to thirteen municipalities in the Bohai Sea Rim area, one of the most rapidly developing regions in transition China. The results show that the comprehensive environmental carrying capacity of the municipalities in the south sub-region were largest in 2007, while that of the west municipalities were lowest. The regional economic development exceeded the overall environmental carrying capacity by 36% and the west sub-region area deserves overwhelming attention for future industrial allocation.

  4. Environmental sustainability control by water resources carrying capacity concept: application significance in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuwansyah, M. R.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reviews the use of Water Resources carrying capacity concept to control environmental sustainability with the particular note for the case in Indonesia. Carrying capacity is a capability measure of an environment or an area to support human and the other lives as well as their activities in a sustainable manner. Recurrently water-related hazards and environmental problems indicate that the environments are exploited over its carrying capacity. Environmental carrying capacity (ECC) assessment includes Land and Water Carrying Capacity analysis of an area, suggested to always refer to the dimension of the related watershed as an incorporated hydrologic unit on the basis of resources availability estimation. Many countries use this measure to forecast the future sustainability of regional development based on water availability. Direct water Resource Carrying Capacity (WRCC) assessment involves population number determination together with their activities could be supported by available water, whereas indirect WRCC assessment comprises the analysis of supply-demand balance status of water. Water resource limits primarily environmental carrying capacity rather than the land resource since land capability constraints are easier. WRCC is a crucial factor known to control land and water resource utilization, particularly in a growing densely populated area. Even though capability of water resources is relatively perpetual, the utilization pattern of these resources may change by socio-economic and cultural technology level of the users, because of which WRCC should be evaluated periodically to maintain usage sustainability of water resource and environment.

  5. Estimation of carrying angle based on CT images in preoperative surgical planning for cubitus deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shinsuk; Kim, Eugene

    2009-12-01

    Conventionally, the carrying angle of the elbow is measured using simple two-dimensional radiography or goniometry, which has questionable reliability. This study proposes a novel method for estimating carrying angles using computed tomography that can enhance the reliability of the angle measurement. Data of CT scans from 25 elbow joints were processed to build segmented three-dimensional models. The cross-sectional centerlines of the ulna and the humerus were traced from the 3D models, and the angle between 2 vectors formed from the centerlines of the humerus and the ulna was defined as the "three-dimensional carrying angle." These angles were compared with those measured by simple radiograph. Two cases of angular deformity were underwent surgery based on this preoperative surgical planning, and the postoperative 3D carrying angles were evaluated using the proposed method. The mean value of the calculated three-dimensional carrying angle was 20.7 degrees +/-3.61, while it was 16.3 degrees +/-3.21 based on simple radiography without statistical difference. Based on the 3D carrying angle estimations, 2 surgical cases of cubitus deformities were planned by comparison with the normal contra-lateral elbow. Postoperative angle estimations confirmed that the corrected angles were nearly identical to the planned angles for both cases. The results of this study showed that the carrying angle can be accurately estimated using three-dimensional CT and that the proposed method is useful in evaluating deformities of the elbow with high reliability.

  6. Infant carrying: the role of increased locomotory costs in early tool development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall-Scheffler, C M; Geiger, K; Steudel-Numbers, K L

    2007-06-01

    Among the costs of reproduction, carrying one's infant incurs one of the greatest drains on maternal energy, simply because of the added mass alone. Because of the dearth of archaeological evidence, however, how early bipeds dealt with the additional cost of having to carry infants who were less able to support their body weight against gravity is not particularly well understood. This article presents evidence on the caloric drain of carrying an infant in one's arms versus having a tool with which to sling the infant and carry her passively. The burden of carrying an infant in one's arms is on average 16% greater than having a tool to support the baby's mass and seems to have the potential to be a greater energetic burden even than lactation. In addition, carrying a baby in one's arms shortens and quickens the stride. An anthropometric trait that seems to offset some of the increased cost of carrying a baby in the arms is a wider bi-trochanteric width.

  7. Physical and Emotional Health Problems Experienced by Youth Engaged in Physical Fighting and Weapon Carrying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Sophie D.; Molcho, Michal; Craig, Wendy; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Huynh, Quynh; Kukaswadia, Atif; Aasvee, Katrin; Várnai, Dora; Ottova, Veronika; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Pickett, William

    2013-01-01

    Then aims of the current study were 1) to provide cross-national estimates of the prevalence of physical fighting and weapon carrying among adolescents aged 11–15 years; (2) To examine the possible effects of physical fighting and weapon carrying on the occurrence of physical (medically treated injuries) and emotional health outcomes (multiple health complaints) among adolescents within the theoretical framework of Problem Behaviour Theory. 20,125 adolescents aged 11–15 in five countries (Belgium, Israel, USA, Canada, FYR Macedonia) were surveyed via the 2006 Health Behaviour in School Aged Children survey. Prevalence was calculated for physical fighting and weapon carrying along with physical and emotional measures that potentially result from violence. Regression analyses were used to quantify associations between violence/weapon carrying and the potential health consequences within each country. Large variations in fighting and weapon carrying were observed across countries. Boys reported more frequent episodes of fighting/weapon carrying and medically attended injuries in every country, while girls reported more emotional symptoms. Although there were some notable variations in findings between different participating countries, increased weapon carrying and physical fighting were both independently and consistently associated with more frequent reports of the potential health outcomes. Adolescents engaging in fighting and weapon carrying are also at risk for physical and emotional health outcomes. Involvement in fighting and weapon carrying can be seen as part of a constellation of risk behaviours with obvious health implications. Our findings also highlight the importance of the cultural context when examining the nature of violent behaviour for adolescents. PMID:23437126

  8. Physical and emotional health problems experienced by youth engaged in physical fighting and weapon carrying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie D Walsh

    Full Text Available Then aims of the current study were 1 to provide cross-national estimates of the prevalence of physical fighting and weapon carrying among adolescents aged 11-15 years; (2 To examine the possible effects of physical fighting and weapon carrying on the occurrence of physical (medically treated injuries and emotional health outcomes (multiple health complaints among adolescents within the theoretical framework of Problem Behaviour Theory. 20,125 adolescents aged 11-15 in five countries (Belgium, Israel, USA, Canada, FYR Macedonia were surveyed via the 2006 Health Behaviour in School Aged Children survey. Prevalence was calculated for physical fighting and weapon carrying along with physical and emotional measures that potentially result from violence. Regression analyses were used to quantify associations between violence/weapon carrying and the potential health consequences within each country. Large variations in fighting and weapon carrying were observed across countries. Boys reported more frequent episodes of fighting/weapon carrying and medically attended injuries in every country, while girls reported more emotional symptoms. Although there were some notable variations in findings between different participating countries, increased weapon carrying and physical fighting were both independently and consistently associated with more frequent reports of the potential health outcomes. Adolescents engaging in fighting and weapon carrying are also at risk for physical and emotional health outcomes. Involvement in fighting and weapon carrying can be seen as part of a constellation of risk behaviours with obvious health implications. Our findings also highlight the importance of the cultural context when examining the nature of violent behaviour for adolescents.

  9. State Gun Law Environment and Youth Gun Carrying in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Ziming; Hemenway, David

    2015-11-01

    Gun violence and injuries pose a substantial threat to children and youth in the United States. Existing evidence points to the need for interventions and policies for keeping guns out of the hands of children and youth. (1) To examine the association between state gun law environment and youth gun carrying in the United States, and (2) to determine whether adult gun ownership mediates this association. This was a repeated cross-sectional observational study design with 3 years of data on youth gun carrying from US states. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey comprises data of representative samples of students in grades 9 to 12 from biennial years of 2007, 2009, and 2011. We hypothesized that states with more restrictive gun laws have lower rates of youth gun carrying, and this association is mediated by adult gun ownership. State gun law environment as measured by state gun law score. Youth gun carrying was defined as having carried a gun on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey. In the fully adjusted model, a 10-point increase in the state gun law score, which represented a more restrictive gun law environment, was associated with a 9% decrease in the odds of youth gun carrying (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.91 [95% CI, 0.86-0.96]). Adult gun ownership mediated the association between state gun law score and youth gun carrying (AOR, 0.94 [ 95% CI, 0.86-1.01], with 29% attenuation of the regression coefficient from -0.09 to -0.07 based on bootstrap resampling). More restrictive overall gun control policies are associated with a reduced likelihood of youth gun carrying. These findings are relevant to gun policy debates about the critical importance of strengthening overall gun law environment to prevent youth gun carrying.

  10. Quantifying spatially derived carrying capacity occupation: Framework for characterisation modelling and application to terrestrial acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Margni, M.; Bulle, C.

    *year. This metric resembles that of the ecological footprint method and may be compared to the availability of land or water. The framework was applied to the terrestrial acidification impact category. The geochemical steady-state model PROFILE was used to quantify carrying capacities as deposition levels......The popularity of the ecological footprint method and the planetary boundaries concept shows an increasing interest among decision makers in comparing environmental impacts to carrying capacities of natural systems. Recently carrying capacity-based normalisation references were developed for impact...

  11. Impact of Flexibility Options on Grid Economic Carrying Capacity of Solar and Wind: Three Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we attempt to quantify the benefits of various options of grid flexibility by measuring their impact on two measures: economic carrying capacity and system costs. Flexibility can increase economic carrying capacity and reduce overall system costs. In some cases, options that provide a limited increase in economic carrying capacity can provide significant operational savings, thus demonstrating the need to evaluate flexibility options using multiple metrics. The value of flexibility options varies regionally due to different generation mixes and types of renewables. The more rapid decline in PV value compared to wind makes PV more dependent on adding flexibility options, including transmission and energy storage.

  12. Clinging to their Guns? The New Politics of Gun Carry in Everyday Life

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Alongside a series of high-profile massacres over the past decade, Americans continue to turn to guns as the solution to, rather than the cause of, violent crime. Since the 1970s, most US states have significantly loosened restrictions on gun carrying for self-defense, and today, over 8 million Americans hold permits to carry guns concealed. Contrary to popular images of gun culture, this is not a white-only affair: in Michigan, whites and African Americans are licensed to carry guns at rough...

  13. On-line measurements of liquid carry-over from scrubbers using radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugan, A.; Hassfjell, S.; Finborud, A.

    2004-01-01

    A method to measure liquid carry-over from scrubbers using gamma-emitting tracers is described and results from field tests at two onshore installations are presented. One water/1,2-ethanediol (MEG) and two hydrocarbon liquid (condensate) tracers have been used in the tests. One of the condensate tracers deposited to some extent inside the process pipe, while the other had a too high vapor pressure. The water/MEG tracer showed no MEG carry-over while the carry-over of MEG was documented to be considerable. (author)

  14. Causal assessment of occupational carrying and low back pain: results of a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Eugene K; Roffey, Darren M; Bishop, Paul; Kwon, Brian K; Dagenais, Simon

    2010-07-01

    Occupational low back pain (LBP) is a common musculoskeletal disorder that results in high healthcare use and a heavy societal burden from morbidity and medical costs. The etiology of LBP is unclear, although numerous physical activities in the workplace have been implicated in its development. Determining the causal relationship between LBP and specific occupational activities requires a rigorous methodological approach. To conduct a systematic review of the scientific literature focused on establishing a causal relationship between occupational carrying and LBP. Systematic review of the literature was performed. Studies reporting an association between occupational carrying and LBP. Numerical association between different levels of exposure to occupational carrying and the presence or severity of LBP. A systematic review was performed to identify, evaluate, and summarize the literature related to establishing a causal relationship between occupational carrying and LBP by using the commonly used Bradford-Hill framework. The literature was searched using Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH-ROM) database, gray literature (eg, studies not published in peer-reviewed journals), hand-searching occupational health journals, reference lists of included studies, and content experts. Study quality was evaluated using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Levels of evidence supporting specific Bradford-Hill criteria were evaluated for different categories of carrying and types of LBP outcomes. This search yielded 2,766 citations. A total of nine high-quality studies reported on occupational carrying and LBP, including four case-control studies and five prospective cohort studies. These nine studies reported strong and consistent evidence against a statistical association between carrying and LBP. Three studies assessed dose-response, of which only one reported a dose-response trend that was not statistically

  15. Carrying Capacity Model Applied to Coastal Ecotourism of Baluran National Park, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armono, H. D.; Rosyid, D. M.; Nuzula, N. I.

    2017-07-01

    The resources of Baluran National Park have been used for marine and coastal ecotourism. The increasing number of visitors has led to the increasing of tourists and its related activities. This condition will cause the degradation of resources and the welfare of local communities. This research aims to determine the sustainability of coastal ecotourism management by calculating the effective number of tourists who can be accepted. The study uses the concept of tourism carrying capacity, consists the ecological environment, economic, social and physical carrying capacity. The results of the combined carrying capacity analysis in Baluran National Park ecotourism shows that the number of 3.288 people per day (151.248 tourists per year) is the maximum number of accepted tourists. The current number of tourist arrivals is only 241 people per day (87.990 tourists per year) which is far below the carrying capacity.

  16. Correlates of Weapon Carrying in School among Adolescents in Three Countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stickley, A.; Koyanagi, A.; Koposov, R.; Blatný, Marek; Hrdlička, M.; Schwab-Stone, M.; Ruchkin, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2015), s. 99-108 ISSN 1945-7359 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : adolescent * Czech Republic * Russia * United States * weapon carrying Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.270, year: 2015

  17. Geometry of carrying simplices of 3-species competitive Lotka–Volterra systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baigent, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the existence, uniqueness and Gaussian curvature of the invariant carrying simplices of 3 species autonomous totally competitive Lotka–Volterra systems. Explicit examples are given where the carrying simplex is convex or concave, but also where the curvature is not single-signed. Our method monitors the curvature of an evolving surface that converges uniformly to the carrying simplex, and generally relies on establishing that the Gaussian image of the evolving surface is confined to an invariant cone. We also discuss the relationship between the curvature of the carrying simplex near an interior fixed point and its Split Lyapunov stability. Finally we comment on extensions to general Lotka–Volterra systems that are not competitive. (paper)

  18. Information technologies in carrying out monitoring comparisons of pedagogical higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вадим Валерьевич Гриншкун

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In article various approaches to use of information technologies when carrying out monitoring researches of higher educational institutions are described. Results of researches are considered on the example of indicators of pedagogical university.

  19. Spawner-recruit relationships and fish stock carrying capacity in aquatic ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Myers, R.A.; Bowen, K.G.

    2003-01-01

    Few marine ecologists have addressed important questions about the relative productivity and carrying capacity of different ecosystems required to support fish populations. Whereas many researchers have investigated interannual variability in recruitment within a stock, we asked whether relations...

  20. Works carried out in the south of Cerro Largo district. Uranium prospection programme. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goso, H.

    1978-01-01

    During the carried out work of radimetric preliminary Investigation in the northeast of the uraniferous country were detected radimetric anonalias which are associated to the formation San Gregorio and Tres Islas. Later the works of prospection ratified those anomalies to which they defined in the environs other anomalies. The studies of revision of these conducted anomalies they took to conclude the necessity to carry out a detailed study of the area to that district was denominated Cerro Largo Sur

  1. Modifications carried out in Heavy Water Plant, Tuticorin for maximising productivity (Paper No. 1.6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periakaruppan, M.; Sunderesan, S.; Chellapandi, D.

    1992-01-01

    Many modifications have been carried out in Heavy Water Plant, Tuticorin, after commissioning of the plant in July 1978. During the initial 4/5 years many teething problems were faced and they have been tackled effectively with suitable modifications which resulted in sustained production from the year 1984 onwards. In this paper some modifications carried out and changes in operational procedures adopted which resulted in achieving sustained production year after year since 1984 are described. (author)

  2. Reproductive and life cycle strategies in egg-carrying cyclopoid and free-spawning calanoid copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Sabatini, Marian

    1994-01-01

    Egg-carrying cyclopoid copepods have lower fecundity and feeding rates, and longer egg hatching times, than free-spawning calanoid copepods. Simple demographic considerations suggest that the lower feeding and fecundity of egg-carrying cyclopoids are adaptations to the potentially elevated...... mortality of ovigerous females, while the shorter egg hatching time and higher feeding and fecundity rates found in free-spawning calanoid copepods represent adaptations to the very high mortality rates experienced by suspended eggs....

  3. Sagittal plane lumbar loading when navigating an obstacle and carrying a load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriella, Jeevaka B; Perry, Carolyn J; Hawkins, Kara M; Shanahan, Camille J; Gage, William H; Moore, Anne E

    2016-11-01

    The current study quantified lumbar loading while carrying an anterior load mass and navigating an obstacle. Eight healthy male participants walked down a walkway and crossed an obstacle under three randomised LOAD conditions; empty-box (2 KG), five kilogram (5 KG) and ten kilogram (10 KG). Each walk was assessed at two events: left foot mid-stance (LMS) and right toe-crossing (TC) to characterise any changes from approach to crossing. Measures of interest included: trunk pitch, L4/L5 joint moment, compression, joint anterior-posterior shear and erector spinae activation. Findings demonstrate that obstacle crossing extended posture by 50, 41, 44%, respectively for each carried load magnitude. Further, these results indicate that shear rather than compressive loading may be an important consideration during crossing due to increase by 8, 9, 22% from LMS to TC for each load magnitude tested. These results provide insight into sagittal lumbar loading when navigating an obstacle while carrying a load. Practitioner Summary: The risk of carrying while navigating obstacles on the lumbar spine is not completely understood. The forces at the lumbar spine while simultaneously carrying and obstacle crossing were analysed. Data indicate that carrying and obstacle crossing influence lumbar shear loads, thereby moderately increasing the relative risk at lumbar spine.

  4. Evaluating Beijing's human carrying capacity from the perspective of water resource constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingxuan; Chen, Min; Zhou, Wenhua; Zhuang, Changwei; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2010-01-01

    As the demands on limited water resources intensify, concerns are being raised about the human carrying capacity of these resources. However, few researchers have studied the carrying capacity of regional water resources. Beijing, the second-largest city in China, faces a critical water shortage that will limit the city's future development. We developed a method to quantify the carrying capacity of Beijing's water resources by considering water-use structures based on the proportions of water used for agricultural, industrial, and domestic purposes. We defined a reference structure as 45:22:33 (% of total, respectively), an optimized structure as 40:20:40, and an ideal structure as 50:15:35. We also considered four domestic water quotas: 55, 75, 95, and 115 m3/(person x yr). The urban carrying capacity of 10-12 million was closest to Beijing's actual 2003 population for all three water-use structures with urban domestic water use of 75 m3/(person x yr). However, after accounting for our underlying assumptions, the adjusted carrying capacity is closer to 5-6 million. Thus, Beijing's population in 2003 was almost twice the adjusted carrying capacity. Based on this result, we discussed the ecological and environmental problems created by Beijing's excessive population and propose measures to mitigate these problems.

  5. Carrying capacity of U.S. agricultural land: Ten diet scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J. Peters

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Strategies for environmental sustainability and global food security must account for dietary change. Using a biophysical simulation model we calculated human carrying capacity under ten diet scenarios. The scenarios included two reference diets based on actual consumption and eight “Healthy Diet” scenarios that complied with nutritional recommendations but varied in the level of meat content. We considered the U.S. agricultural land base and accounted for losses, processing conversions, livestock feed needs, suitability of land for crops or grazing, and land productivity. Annual per capita land requirements ranged from 0.13 to 1.08 ha person-1 year-1 across the ten diet scenarios. Carrying capacity varied from 402 to 807 million persons; 1.3 to 2.6 times the 2010 U.S. population. Carrying capacity was generally higher for scenarios with less meat and highest for the lacto-vegetarian diet. However, the carrying capacity of the vegan diet was lower than two of the healthy omnivore diet scenarios. Sensitivity analysis showed that carrying capacity estimates were highly influenced by starting assumptions about the proportion of cropland available for cultivated cropping. Population level dietary change can contribute substantially to meeting future food needs, though ongoing agricultural research and sustainable management practices are still needed to assure sufficient production levels.

  6. Profile of women who carried out smoking cessation treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Caroline Figueira; de Vargas, Divane

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Analyze the profile of women, in health services, who carry out treatment for smoking cessation. METHODS Systematic review that used the following sources of information: Cummulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), Scopus and Web of Science. We included quantitative studies that addressed the characterization of women, in health services, who carried out treatment for smoking cessation, resulting in 12 articles for analysis. The assessment of the methodological quality of the studies was performed using the instrument MAStARI from Joanna Briggs Institute. RESULTS The predominant profile of women who carried out treatment for smoking cessation in health services was composed of white, married, employed, and highly level educated women. Women who carried out the treatment for smoking cessation in specialized services had a more advanced age, were white, were married and had a diagnosis of depression. The quality level of most studies was moderate. CONCLUSIONS The profile of women who carry out treatment for smoking cessation, either in general or specialized health services, is composed of white, married, and highly level educated women. Publications about smoking women are scarce and the lack of Brazilian studies characterizing the profile of women who start treatment for smoking cessation shows the need for studies that explore this subject.

  7. Population pressure and human carrying capacity in selected locations of Machakos and Kitui districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, F E; Thom, D J

    1981-04-01

    The nature and magnitude of population pressure in Machakos and Kitui Districts of Kenya were investigated. Specific study objectives were: 1) to examine the roots and evolution of the problem; 2) to compute carrying capacity for a sample of locations and ecozones in the 2 districts; and 3) to consider agricultural and demographic implications of the findings. Carrying capacity is defined as the number of people and the level of their activities which a region is able to sustain in perpetuity at an acceptable quality of life and without land deterioration. A methodology for calculating human carrying capacity utilizing crude soil, ecological, crop yield, and land use data for 41 locations in Machakos and Kitui Districts is demonstrated. Analysis and a comparison of population carrying capacities within the study area reveals that Machakos has reached a critical level of population pressure. To the north in Mbere and eastward in Kitui there are areas that are not currently experiencing population pressure, but it is likely that as the pressure in western Machakos becomes more acute, movement into these adjacent lands of relatively sparse settlement will increase. Signs of environmental stress resulting from overpopulation are evident throughout Machakos. The methodology used for estimating population pressure provided reasonably accurate carrying capacity estimates, but the methodology could be refined. Vigorous efforts to rejuvenate the land through soil and water conservation have been undertaken, but these have been insufficient and must be increased. Such efforts will fail unless the basic problem of population pressure in the marginal lands is resolved.

  8. Profile of women who carried out smoking cessation treatment: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Figueira Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Analyze the profile of women, in health services, who carry out treatment for smoking cessation. METHODS Systematic review that used the following sources of information: Cummulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS, Scopus and Web of Science. We included quantitative studies that addressed the characterization of women, in health services, who carried out treatment for smoking cessation, resulting in 12 articles for analysis. The assessment of the methodological quality of the studies was performed using the instrument MAStARI from Joanna Briggs Institute. RESULTS The predominant profile of women who carried out treatment for smoking cessation in health services was composed of white, married, employed, and highly level educated women. Women who carried out the treatment for smoking cessation in specialized services had a more advanced age, were white, were married and had a diagnosis of depression. The quality level of most studies was moderate. CONCLUSIONS The profile of women who carry out treatment for smoking cessation, either in general or specialized health services, is composed of white, married, and highly level educated women. Publications about smoking women are scarce and the lack of Brazilian studies characterizing the profile of women who start treatment for smoking cessation shows the need for studies that explore this subject.

  9. Modification Of Carry-Blair Transport Media For Storage Salmonella typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yati Supriatin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine transport media modification as alternative media to replace Carry Blair. One type of transport media that often use to carry faeces specimens suspected to contain Salmonella typhi is Carry-Blair media. Studies have been conducted experimentally by storing Salmonella typhi on alternative transport media with Peptone composition, disodium Phosphate, Sodium chloride, Calcium chloride, which is made using a semi-solid and Carry-Blair as a control. Three variety of storage was done (0 hour,6 hours,9 hours at a temperature 4⁰-8⁰C and then Salmonella typhi was inoculated in Salmonella Shigella Agar using spread plate technique incubated during 24 hours at 37⁰C, counted the number of colonies by the plate count method using the colony counter. The results of ANOVA could be concluded that modification media could be use as alternative media replace Carry-Blair at 6 hours. Based on regression correlation test was assumed that the Salmonella typhi bacteria still life at less than 11 hours 54 minutes.

  10. Occurrence of Enterobacter hormaechei carrying blaNDM-1 and blaKPC-2 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Biwei; Feng, Yu; McNally, Alan; Zong, Zhiyong

    2018-02-01

    Three carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates of the Enterobacter cloacae complex (ECC) were recovered from different patients in a hospital. All 3 isolates carried 2 carbapenemase genes bla KPC-2 and bla NDM-1 . A study was performed to characterize their relatedness and to investigate possible links among the patients. Whole genome sequencing revealed that the isolates were Enterobacter hormaechei and belonged to ST177 of the ECC. There were 19-142 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the isolates, suggesting that the isolates were likely from a central reservoir, which might have existed for some time. bla KPC-2 and bla NDM-1 were carried on 2 different IncF-type plasmids in the isolates. The 3 bla NDM-1 -carrying plasmids were almost identical and were self-transmissible, while the bla KPC-2 -carrying plasmids were only transmissible in the presence of the bla NDM-1 -carrying plasmid. The source of and direct links among them were not identified, suggesting a hospital transmission of a common multidrug resistant strain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The evolution of carrying capacity in constrained and expanding tumour cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlee, Philip; Anderson, Alexander R A

    2015-08-12

    Cancer cells are known to modify their micro-environment such that it can sustain a larger population, or, in ecological terms, they construct a niche which increases the carrying capacity of the population. It has however been argued that niche construction, which benefits all cells in the tumour, would be selected against since cheaters could reap the benefits without paying the cost. We have investigated the impact of niche specificity on tumour evolution using an individual based model of breast tumour growth, in which the carrying capacity of each cell consists of two components: an intrinsic, subclone-specific part and a contribution from all neighbouring cells. Analysis of the model shows that the ability of a mutant to invade a resident population depends strongly on the specificity. When specificity is low selection is mostly on growth rate, while high specificity shifts selection towards increased carrying capacity. Further, we show that the long-term evolution of the system can be predicted using adaptive dynamics. By comparing the results from a spatially structured versus well-mixed population we show that spatial structure restores selection for carrying capacity even at zero specificity, which poses a solution to the niche construction dilemma. Lastly, we show that an expanding population exhibits spatially variable selection pressure, where cells at the leading edge exhibit higher growth rate and lower carrying capacity than those at the centre of the tumour.

  12. Categorical and continuous - disentangling the neural correlates of the carry effect in multi-digit addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dressel Katharina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently it was suggested that the carry effect observed in addition involves both categorical and continuous processing characteristics. Methods In the present study, we aimed at identifying the specific neural correlates associated with processing either categorical or continuous aspects of the carry effect in an fMRI study on multi-digit addition. Results In line with our expectations, we observed two distinct parts of the fronto-parietal network subserving numerical cognition to be associated with either one of these two characteristics. On the one hand, the categorical aspect of the carry effect was associated with left-hemispheric language areas and the basal ganglia probably reflecting increased demands on procedural and problem solving processes. Complementarily, the continuous aspect of the carry effect was associated with increased intraparietal activation indicating increasing demands on magnitude processing as well as place-value integration with increasing unit sum. Conclusions In summary, the findings suggest representations and processes underlying the carry effect in multi-digit addition to be more complex and interactive than assumed previously.

  13. The effect of the spaceship carrying on the biological characters and sod activity of eggplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shiheng; Zhang Ya; Zhu Shuijin; Wang Yanfan

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the space shuttle carrying on the growth and biological characters of eggplant SP 1 population were studied. The results showed that the effect of space shuttle carrying on the growth and development of eggplant SP 1 were very significant on the characters such as the plant height, reproductive development, leaf size, fruit length, fruit quality and fruiting rate etc, especially on the plant development and the fruit size, and it is hopeful to select some good eggplant germplasm or cultivars from the population. The SOD activity showed that the SOD level in the mutant-1 plant was one time more than that in control plant, indicating that the space shuttle carrying may increase the expression of some genes and lead to the great change in morphological characters

  14. First Identification of a Patient Colonized With Klebsiella pneumoniae Carrying blaNDM-1 in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Shin Wu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1 is a novel type of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL. Enterobacteriaceae carrying this NDM-1 encoding gene, blaNDM-1, have been identified worldwide. Bacteria carrying blaNDM-1 are not only resistant to carbapenem, but also highly resistant to many classes of antibiotics, which indicate the importance of prompt identification of these bacteria and implementation of strict infection control measures to prevent their transmission. Here, we report the first identification and management of a patient colonized with Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying blaNDM-1 in Taiwan, who returned from New Delhi where he had been hospitalized for a gun-shot injury.

  15. Estimating the carrying capacity of green mussel cultivation by using net nutrient removal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisunont, Chayarat; Babel, Sandhya

    2016-11-15

    This study aims to evaluate the nutrient removal potential and carrying capacity of green mussel cultivation by using the mass balance model. The developed model takes into consideration the green mussel growth rate, density and chlorophyll a concentration. The data employed in this study were based on culture conditions at Sriracha Fisheries Research Station, Thailand. Results show that net nutrient removal by green mussel is 3302, 380, and 124mg/year/indv for carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus respectively. The carrying capacity of green mussel cultivation was found to be 300indv/m 2 based on chlorophyll a concentration which will not release phosphorus in the water environment beyond the standard (45μg-PO 4 -3 -P/L). Higher chlorophyll a concentration results in lowered green mussel carrying capacity. This model can assist farm operators with possible management strategies for a sustainable mussel cultivation and protection of the marine environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Carrying an anti-nuclear-power badge in the teaching profession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The carrying of an anti-nuclear-power badge by a teacher during school hours violates the order to practice reticence in political activities. At the beginning of 1977 some teachers, the plaintiff as well, carried anti-nuclear-power badges, i.e. a round badge with a stylized red sun on a yellow background with the inscription 'Nuclear power - No, thank you'. Following a general direction by the educational authorities, the headmistress forbade plaintiff on 4.11.77 to visibly carry this badge during lessons. This protest having been without success, action was brought with partial success at the Administrative and Higher Administrative Court. The Federal Administrative Court dismissed the case. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. Correlates of weapon carrying among high school students in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deaths and injuries arising from interpersonal violence among adolescents are major public health concerns in the United States. The bearing of weapons among adolescents is a critical factor in many of these deaths and injuries. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2005 United States Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System Survey data was carried out to examine the variables associated with self-reported history of weapon carrying on school property among high school students. We used logistic regression analysis to assess the associations. Results Of the 13,707 respondents who participated in the survey, 10.2% of males and 2.6% of females reported carrying a weapon on school property. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, males were more likely to report having carried a weapon than females (odds ratio (OR = 5.58; 95% confidence interval (CI [4.23, 7.62]. Self-reported race/ethnicity was also associated with weapon carrying. Other variables positively associated with weapon carrying at school were substance use (OR = 1.77; 95% CI [1.16, 2.68], depression (OR = 1.44; 95% CI [1.10, 1.89], suicidal ideation (OR = 1.64; 95% CI [1.23, 2.19], having had property stolen or deliberately damaged at school (OR = 1.55; 95% CI [1.21, 1.98], having been raped (OR = 1.70; 95% CI [1.22, 2.37], having been threatened or injured with a weapon on school property (OR = 2.19; 95% CI [1.63, 2.95], and having engaged in physical fighting (OR = 2.02; 95% CI [1.56, 2.63]. Conclusion This research identifies factors that are associated with weapon bearing among adolescents in the United States. These factors may be important in the design of interventions aimed at improving school safety and adolescent health.

  18. Missile Captive Carry Monitoring and Helicopter Identification Using a Capacitive Microelectromechanical Systems Accelerometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Mauss, Fredrick J.; Amaya, Ivan A.; Skorpik, James R.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Marotta, Steve

    2012-03-27

    Military missiles are exposed to many sources of mechanical vibration that can affect system reliability, safety, and mission effectiveness. The U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has been developing missile health monitoring systems to assess and improve reliability, reduce life cycle costs, and increase system readiness. One of the most significant exposures to vibration occurs when the missile is being carried by a helicopter or other aviation platform, which is a condition known as captive carry. Recording the duration of captive carry exposure during the missile’s service life can enable the implementation of predictive maintenance and resource management programs. Since the vibration imparted by each class of helicopter varies in frequency and amplitude, tracking the vibration exposure from each helicopter separately can help quantify the severity and harmonic content of the exposure. Under the direction of AMRDEC staff, engineers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a Captive Carry Health Monitor (CCHM) for the Hellfire II missile. The CCHM is an embedded usage monitoring device installed on the outer skin of the Hellfire II missile to record the cumulative hours the host missile has been in captive carry mode. To classify the vibration by class of helicopter, the CCHM analyzes the amplitude and frequency content of the vibration with the Goertzel algorithm to detect the presence of distinctive rotor harmonics. Cumulative usage data are accessible in theater from an external display; monthly usage histograms are accessible through an internal download connector. This paper provides an overview of the CCHM electrical and package design, describes field testing and data analysis techniques used to monitor captive carry identify and the class of helicopter, and discusses the potential application of missile health and usage data for real-time reliability analysis and fleet management.

  19. Botanical Composition, Grass Production, and Carrying Capacity of Pasture in Timor Tengah Selatan District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Se’u

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the botanical composition, grass production, carrying capacity, and potential production of nutrients in pasture located in Timor Tengah Selatan Regency. The experiment was conducted from February to July 2013, using field survey method. The botanical composition, grass production and carrying capacity on real condition were analyzed descriptively, while the grass production and carrying capacity based of cutting arrangement were analyzed by using randomized block factorial design with 3 altitude locations (Sub District of Mollo Utara with altitude of 1007 m above sea level; Sub District of Noebeba, 500 m ASL, and Sub District of Amanuban Selatan, 65 m ASL x 2 cutting intervals (1 and 2 month and 5 replications. The results showed that the grass type dominated the pasture in the Sub District of Mollo Utara, while legum type was more dominant in the pasture in the Sub Districts of Noebeba and Amanuban Selatan. The potential production of dry matter grass in Timor Tengah Selatan Regency based on real condition was 150 to 390 kg/ha/yr, this could accommodate 0.24 to 0.63 AU/ha/yr. The arrangement of cutting interval by 1 month in Mollo Utara and 2 months in Noebeba and Amanuban Selatan could increase (P<0.05 grass production and carrying capacity. The potential productions of grass nutrients were higher in Sub District of Mollo Utara, while potential production of grass dry matter was higher in Sub Districts of Noebeba and Amanuban Selatan. It was concluded that grass dry matter potential production and carrying capacity in Timor Tengah Selatan Regency were low. The arrangement of cutting interval could increase grass dry matter potential production, carrying capacity, nutrition production, and quality of nutrition.

  20. Performance of women with fibromyalgia in walking up stairs while carrying a load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Collado-Mateo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fibromyalgia is a chronic disease characterized by widespread pain and other associated symptoms. It has a relevant impact on physical fitness and the ability to perform daily living tasks. The objective of the study was to analyze the step-by-step-performance and the trunk tilt of women with fibromyalgia in the 10-step stair climbing test compared with healthy controls. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Twelve women suffering from fibromyalgia and eight healthy controls were recruited from a local association. Participants were asked to climb 10 stairs without carrying a load and 10 stairs carrying a load of 5 kg in each hand. Mediolateral trunk tilt was assessed using the “Functional Assessment of Biomechanics (FAB” wireless motion capture device, and the time between steps was assessed via weight-bearing insoles. Results. Trunk tilt in the stair-climbing task carrying a load was significantly higher in women with fibromyalgia when compared to the healthy controls (2.31 (0.63 vs. 1.69 (0.51 respectively. The effect of carrying a load was significantly higher for women with fibromyalgia compared with healthy controls at the intermediate and final part of the task. Discussion. Trunk tilt during stair climbing while carrying a load was higher in women with FM, which could increase the risk of falling. Additionally, women with FM experienced a higher pace slowdown as a consequence of the load, which supports the need of including specific strength and resistance training to physical therapies for this population.

  1. Streptococcus salivarius strains carry either fibrils or fimbriae on the cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, P S; Carter, P L; Fielding, J

    1984-01-01

    Strains of Streptococcus salivarius were screened by negative staining for the presence of surface structures. Two structural subgroups were found, carrying either fibrils or fimbriae, projecting from the cell surface. Eight strains carried a very dense peritrichous array of fibrils of two distinct lengths. Long fibrils had an average length of 175 nm, and short fibrils had an average length of 95 nm. Two strains carried only long fibrils, one strain carried only short fibrils, and another strain carried a lateral tuft of very prominent fibrils of two lengths, with a fibrillar fuzz covering the remainder of the cell surface. In all the strains in which they were present, the long fibrils were unaffected by protease or trypsin treatment. In contrast, the short fibrils were completely digested by protease and partially removed by trypsin. Neither long nor short fibrils were affected structurally by mild pepsin digestion or by lipase. The Lancefield extraction procedure removed both long and short fibrils. These twelve fibrillar strains were therefore divisible into four structural subgroups. Extracts of all the fibrillar strains reacted with group K antiserum. The second main structural subgroup consisted of nine strains of S. salivarius, all of which carried morphologically identical, flexible fimbriae arranged peritrichously over the cell surface. The fimbriae were structurally distinct from fibrils and measured 0.5 to 1.0 micron long and 3 to 4 nm wide, with an irregular outline and no obvious substructure. There was no obvious reduction in the number of fimbriae after protease or trypsin treatment. Extracts of the fimbriated strains did not react with the group K antiserum. The two serological and structural subgroups could also be distinguished by colony morphology. Images PMID:6197404

  2. Conditions for the management of carrying capacity in the parks of Parks&Benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Holmes, Esbern

    2011-01-01

    Growth in the number of visitors is an upcoming problem in nature parks. Nature parks are at the same time facing increasing demand, falling public appropriations and receding focus on their conservation functions. To ensure a balancing of nature protection and economic utilization the concept...... of carrying capacity has received increasing attention among park-authorities all over the world. Carrying capacities understood as limits or standards not to be exceeded to protect a supporting landscape system are not scientifically determined sizes. They are a result of political decision processes among...

  3. Seasonal dynamics in wheel load-carrying capacity of a loam soil in the Swiss Plateau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gut, S.; Chervet, A.; Stettler, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Subsoil compaction is a major problem in modern agriculture caused by the intensification of agricultural production and the increase in weight of agricultural machinery. Compaction in the subsoil is highly persistent and leads to deterioration of soil functions. Wheel load-carrying capacity (WLCC...... and cropping systems (mouldboard ploughing, direct drilling, permanent grassland), and the computed WLCC was compared with real wheel loads to obtain the number of trafficable days (NTD) for various agricultural machines. Wheel load-carrying capacity was higher for the top than the standard tyres...

  4. Introducing carrying capacity-based normalisation in LCA: framework and development of references at midpoint level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2015-01-01

    There is currently a weak or no link between the indicator scores quantified in life cycle assessment (LCA) and the carrying capacity of the affected ecosystems. Such a link must be established if LCA is to support assessments of environmental sustainability and it may be done by developing...... capacity of a reference region divided by its population and thus describes the annual personal share of the carrying capacity.The developed references can be applied to indicator results obtained using commonly applied characterisation models in LCIA. The European NR are generally lower than the global NR...

  5. Cuttings-carried theory and erosion rule in gas drilling horizontal well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Na

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In gas horizontal drilling, the gas with cuttings will go through the annulus at high speed which will lead strong erosion to the drill tools. This paper proposes a cuttings-carried theory and modified the critical cuttings-carried model for the gas-solid flow. Meanwhile, the erosive energy is obtained through simulating the gas-solid mixture in different conditions. The study result has positive significance on the determination of reasonable injection volume by optimizing construction parameters of horizontal well in gas drilling.

  6. Biorheological properties of reconstructed erythrocytes and its function of carrying-releasing oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Gao, Wei; Peng, Weiyan; Xie, Jiaxin; Li, Yaojin

    2009-01-01

    Erythrocyte shape and biomechanical properties have close relation to its physiological function. In this research the erythrocyte was reconstructed with natural structure protein and lipids based on cellular mechanics and hemorheology concepts. The biomechanical properties of the reconstructed erythrocyte were determined with the micropipette aspiration system. The shapes of reconstructed erythrocyte were obtained with electron scanning microscope. The oxygen carrying-releasing function was analyzed with the HEMOX analyzer from TCS, the experimental results indicated that the reconstructed erythrocytes were similar to the natural erythrocyte: having biconcave disc shape, good deformability and carrying-releasing oxygen function.

  7. Risk-premia, Carry-trade Dynamics, and Economic Value of Currency Speculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we derive the dynamics and assess the economic value of currency speculation by formalizing the concept of a trader inaction range. We show that exchange rate returns comprise a time-varying risk-premium and that uncovered interest parity (UIP) holds in a speculative sense. The often......-cited ‘forward bias puzzle’ originates from the omission of the risk-premium in standard UIP tests. Consistent with its popularity among market professionals, the carry-trade strategy can be rationalized as it systematically collects risk-premia, however, the economic value generated by bilateral carry...

  8. On the first tachinid fly (Diptera, Tachinidae carrying Asclepiadoideae pollinaria in the Neotropical Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Shigueo Nihei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available On the first tachinid fly (Diptera, Tachinidae carrying Asclepiadoideae pollinaria in the Neotropical Region. This paper reports the first Neotropical Tachinidae species possibly associated to pollination of Asclepiadoideae: a female of Euacaulona sumichrasti Townsend, 1908 (Diptera, Tachinidae, Phasiinae, Trichopodini carrying pollinaria of Gonolobus parviflorus Decne., 1844 (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asclepiadeae: Gonolobinae attached to its proboscis. The fly specimen was collected in Paraguay, Departamento Canindeyú. The pollinarium is illustrated and described herein. This represents the first anthophilous record to G. parviflorus and to the genus.

  9. EVALUATION OF SHEAR STRENGTH FOR UPPER SLABS OF CAISSON FOUNDATION BASED ON LOAD CARRYING MECHANISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Hisamichi; Tadokoro, Toshiya; Tanimura, Yukihiro; Nishioka, Hidetoshi; Watanabe, Tadatomo; Maruyama, Osamu

    In upper slabs of caisson foundation, a seismic desi gn is difficult with an incr ease in earthquake load. So we carried out loading tests and FEM analysis for upper slabs of caisson foundation. As a result, we proposed a new design method which takes into co nsideration the effective width on the pull out side based on crack pattern of test specimens, which is not considered in the existing design method. Moreover, we proposed a rational design method based on load carrying mechanism for upper slabs of caisson foundation.

  10. Carry-chain propagation delay impacts on resolution of FPGA-based TDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Lei; Yang Junfeng; Song Kezhu

    2014-01-01

    The architecture of carry chains in Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is introduced in this paper. The propagation delay time of the rising and falling edges in the carry chains are calculated according to the architecture and they are predicted not equal in most cases. Tests show that the measuring results of the propagation delay time in EP3C120F484C8N series FPGA of Altera are in line with the inference. The difference of propagation delay time results in different accuracies of Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC). This phenomenon shall be considered in the design of TDC implemented in FPGA. It can ensure better accuracy. (authors)

  11. Process for carrying out a chemical reaction with ionic liquid and carbon dioxide under pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, M.C.; Shariati, A.; Florusse, L.J.; Peters, C.J.; Van Spronsen, J.; Witkamp, G.J.; Sheldon, R.A.; Gutkowski, K.I.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for carrying out a chemical reaction in an ionic liquid as solvent and CO2 as cosolvent, in which process reactants are reacted in a homogeneous phase at selected pressure and temperature to generate a reaction product at least containing an end-product of the

  12. Who Carries the Burden of Reproductive Health and AIDS Programs? - Evidence from OECD Donor Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P. van Dalen (Hendrik)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis paper tries to establish who carries the burden in supporting reproductive health and AIDS programs worldwide. The 1994 International Conference of Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo established goals for the expansion of assistance in matters of reproductive health and

  13. An evaluation of the carrying angle of the elbow joint in adolescents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Department of Anatomy and Orthopedics, Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences,. Pondicherry - 605 502 ... forearm deviates laterally from the long axis of the humerus, with the arm extended and the palm ... for elbow reconstruction. Key words: Carrying angle, elbow joint, adolescent, forearm, humerus, ulna ...

  14. Reduced fertility after the crash of a U.S. bomber carrying nuclear weapons?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, K

    1995-01-01

    A register-based study was performed to elucidate whether workers employed on the Thule air base in the clean-up period after the crash of a U.S. B-52 bomber carrying nuclear bombs had reduced fertility, as measured by the numbers of liveborn children. The highest birth rates were among 25-34-year...

  15. An evaluation of the carrying angle of the elbow joint in adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the elbow carrying angle in normal adolescents of South India and also analyze the data statistically to find out any significant difference in the angle between the different groups of subjects within the study population. Methods: 60 adolescents with ages varying from 17 to 20 years ...

  16. E-Books in Academic Libraries: Results of a Survey Carried out in Sweden and Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceviciute, Elena; Wilson, T. D.; Gudinavicius, Arunas; Šuminas, Andrius

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on a study of e-books issues in academic libraries in two European countries representative of small language markets--Sweden and Lithuania. Method: Questionnaire surveys, using the same instrument, were carried out in Swedish and Lithuanian academic libraries. Analysis: Quantitative analysis was performed using…

  17. 49 CFR 176.192 - Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.192 Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials. (a) Except in an emergency, only cargo handling equipment... load, unload, or handle freight containers containing Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials. (b...

  18. Analyzing changes in productivity and carrying capacity under planned grazing in Madiama Commune, Mali (West Africa)

    OpenAIRE

    Badini, Oumar; Stockle, C.; Jones, J.; Bostick, M.; Kodio, Amadou; Keita, Moussa

    2004-01-01

    This presentation addresses the problems of overgrazing and degradation of pasture land. Policies that can increase pasture productivity and improve the carrying capacity and soil quality of pastures are assessed using CropSyst simulation modeling. Optimal grazing intensity and intervals (rotational grazing) are evaluated and discussed, based on model analysis from the Madiama commune in Mali (West Africa). ME (Management Entity)

  19. Carrying capacity of edge-cracked columns under concentric vertical loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdchi, K.; Anaraki, A.R. Gowhari

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the carrying capacity of edge-cracked columns with different boundary conditions and cross sections subjected to concentric vertical loads. The transfer matrix method, combined with fundamental solutions of the intact columns (e.g. columns with no cracks) is used to obtain the

  20. Construction of a novel lentiviral vector carrying human B-domain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... integration were detected in all cell lines after transfection. A novel lentiviral vector carrying human FVIII³BD was constructed, which was able to transfect different mammalian cell types accompanied by high-level activity. This lentiviral vector may provide a theoretical basis for the gene therapy of patients with hemophilia ...

  1. Meta-analysis of carrying capacity and abundance-area relationships in marine fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantzouni, Irene

    Knowledge on the carrying capacity and the abundance-area relationships of fish is critical to evaluate the impacts of exploitation and climate on the sustainability and also the recovery potential of the populations. Of particular interest is climate change, inducing major consequences for popul...

  2. Towards a strengthening of inspections carried out on pressurised equipment and pipework..

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, St.

    2010-01-01

    Following the fast presidential election, a major restructuring of the administrative landscape was set in motion. Tasks that historically were the responsibility of the Ministry of Industry are now carried out by the Ministry of Sustainable Development, which in particular is responsible for the whole policy to do with the prevention of technological risks. The General Directorate for the Prevention of Risks (Direction generale de la prevention des risques (DGPR)) of this ministry is now responsible for controlling technological risks, opening up new perspectives in terms of managing accidental risks and offering a new opportunity for an 'integrated' approach, making it possible to deal with an industrial installation in all its facets. Within the DGPR, the Office for the Safety of Industrial Equipment (bureau de la securite des equipements industriels (BSEI)) is responsible for the safety of pressurised equipment, as well as pipes carrying gas, inflammable liquids and chemical products. After a quick presentation of the inspections carried out on this equipment, issues to do with their safety will be dealt with and in particular: - the suitability of inspections carried out in the tight of faults that are likely to occur and develop in the structures; - control of ageing; - management of the quality of new equipment. (author)

  3. Think locally, act globally: How research carried out in Brazil helped ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-04-13

    Apr 13, 2018 ... Think locally, act globally: How research carried out in Brazil helped shape global policies. Dr Cesar Victora, recipient of the 2017 John Dirks Canada Gairdner Global Health ... IDRC and DHSC partner to fight antimicrobial resistance in animals. IDRC and the United Kingdom's Global AMR Innovation ...

  4. Summary of R and D work carried out in Sri Lanka for the development of RVNRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunaratne, S.W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and research and development carried out in this particular field. It emphasises types of centrifuge latex used, stability of this centrifuged latex, use of sensitizer, effect of leaching, antioxidants, use of low energy electron beam and training and human resources development in this field

  5. Mitigating the impact of sanitizer carry-over on pathogen monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of sanitizer solutions are utilized in poultry processing to aid in reducing or destroying pathogenic bacteria. Post-treatment pathogen monitoring may lead to false-negative results due to carry-over of sanitizer to the analyzed rinse solution. This study was conducted to determine the suit...

  6. Forewarning Model of Regional Water Resources Carrying Capacity Based on Combination Weights and Entropy Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongxing Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As a new development form for evaluating the regional water resources carrying capacity, forewarning regional water resources of their carrying capacities is an important adjustment and control measure for regional water security management. Up to now, most research on this issue have been qualitative analyses, with a lack of quantitative research. For this reason, an index system for forewarning regional water resources of their carrying capacities and grade standards, has been established in Anhui Province, China, in this paper. Subjective weights of forewarning indices can be calculated using a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, based on an accelerating genetic algorithm, while objective weights of forewarning indices can be calculated by using a projection pursuit method, based on an accelerating genetic algorithm. These two kinds of weights can be combined into combination weights of forewarning indices, by using the minimum relative information entropy principle. Furthermore, a forewarning model of regional water resources carrying capacity, based on entropy combination weight, is put forward. The model can fully integrate subjective and objective information in the process of forewarning. The results show that the calculation results of the model are reasonable and the method has high adaptability. Therefore, this model is worth studying and popularizing.

  7. Charged Particle Dynamics in the Magnetic Field of a Long Straight Current-Carrying Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, A.; Fatuzzo, M.; Toepker, T.

    2015-01-01

    By describing the motion of a charged particle in the well-known nonuniform field of a current-carrying long straight wire, a variety of teaching/learning opportunities are described: 1) Brief review of a standard problem; 2) Vector analysis; 3) Dimensionless variables; 4) Coupled differential equations; 5) Numerical solutions.

  8. Estimated carrying capacity for cattle competing with prairie dogs and forage utilization in western South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. Uresk; Deborah D. Paulson

    1988-01-01

    Carrying capacities for cattle competing with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) were estimated by a linear programming technique for management of cool-season grasses in western South Dakota. Forage utilization was allowed to range from 20% to 80%. Under management for cool-season grasses (western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii...

  9. Influence and selection processes in weapon carrying during adolescence : The roles of status, aggression, and vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jan; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Veenstra, Rene; Steglich, Christian; Isaacs, Jenny; Card, Noel A.; Hodges, Ernest V. E.

    The role of peers in weapon carrying (guns, knives, and other weapons) inside and outside the school was examined in this study. Data stem from a longitudinal study of a high-risk sample of male students (7th to 10th grade; N = 167) from predominantly Hispanic low-socio-economic-status schools in

  10. Is carry-over of grass biomass between years important in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We show that the size of areas burned in three southern African parks is dominated by the amount of rainfall in the immediately preceding summer. Considering mean rainfall from two years previous changes r2 values by <20%. We interpret this to suggest that carry-over of grass from one fire year to another is relatively ...

  11. Carrying Position Independent User Heading Estimation for Indoor Pedestrian Navigation with Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-An Deng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel heading estimation approach for indoor pedestrian navigation using the built-in inertial sensors on a smartphone. Unlike previous approaches constraining the carrying position of a smartphone on the user’s body, our approach gives the user a larger freedom by implementing automatic recognition of the device carrying position and subsequent selection of an optimal strategy for heading estimation. We firstly predetermine the motion state by a decision tree using an accelerometer and a barometer. Then, to enable accurate and computational lightweight carrying position recognition, we combine a position classifier with a novel position transition detection algorithm, which may also be used to avoid the confusion between position transition and user turn during pedestrian walking. For a device placed in the trouser pockets or held in a swinging hand, the heading estimation is achieved by deploying a principal component analysis (PCA-based approach. For a device held in the hand or against the ear during a phone call, user heading is directly estimated by adding the yaw angle of the device to the related heading offset. Experimental results show that our approach can automatically detect carrying positions with high accuracy, and outperforms previous heading estimation approaches in terms of accuracy and applicability.

  12. Could Tourism Carrying Capacity be a useful tool for adapting to climate change?

    OpenAIRE

    Magnan , Alexandre; Duvat , Virginie

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper focuses on coastal areas and aims at providing a first reflection on the potential role of the tourism carrying capacity approach (TCC) in the context of adaptation to climate change (ACC). Could TCC be seen as a pragmatic and already available tool for starting implementing ACC?

  13. Identification and characterization of a Zea mays line carrying a transposon-tagged ENOD40

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compaan, B.; Ruttink, T.; Albrecht, C.; Meeley, R.; Bisseling, T.; Franssen, H.G.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    In Zea mays, two ENOD40 homologous were identified that show only 30% of sequence homology to each other. We identified line e40-mum1 carrying a Mu transposon inserted in ZmENOD40-1, the maize gene that has the highest homology to leguminous ENOD40. The insertion causes a dramatic reduction of the

  14. From "Thoughts and Prayers" to Practice: Narratives of Faculty Sensemaking during Campus-Carry Policy Enactment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cradit, Nathaniel W.

    2017-01-01

    The 2007 mass shooting at Virginia Tech is one part of a decades-long increase in the frequency of gun violence on U.S. college and university campuses (Drysdale, Modzeleski, & Simons, 2010; Ferraro, 2015). The events at Virginia Tech also served as a catalyst for the spread of so-called "campus-carry" laws, or acts of state policy…

  15. Utilization of Wheat Offal-Carried Pineapple Waste in the Diet of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of Wheat Offal-Carried Pineapple Waste in the Diet of West African Dwarf (WAD) Goats. ... Although, the analysis of blood cells (red blood cell, white blood and packed cell volume counts) were significantly different (p<0.05) among the goats fed experimental diets, the counts fell within the normal physiological ...

  16. Ecological Footprints and Appropriated Carrying Capacity: Measuring the Natural Capital Requirements of the Human Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ress, William E.; Wackernagel, Mathis

    1996-01-01

    Contrasts conventional economic rationality with economic principles. Develops an empirical approach based on a reinterpretation of carrying capacity that can account for technological advances and trade. Discusses the necessity of diverting much of the present consumption to investment in the maintenance of natural capital stocks. (AIM)

  17. Proteinase 3 carries small unusual carbohydrates and associates with αlpha-defensins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoega, Morten; Ravnsborg, Tina; Højrup, Peter

    2012-01-01

    with carbohydrates at Asn 102 and 147 carrying unusual small moieties indicating heavy processing. Mass spectrometric analysis and immuno blotting revealed strong association of highly purified PR3 with α-defensins and oligomers hereof. Irreversible inhibition of PR3 by α1-antitrypsin did not affect its association...

  18. 36 CFR 5.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 5.4 Section 5.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. (a) The commercial transportation of passengers by motor vehicles except as authorized under a contract or...

  19. Who Carries the National Flag?: The Politics of Cultural Identity in the Increasingly Multicultural Greek School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheou, Dimitrios; Roussakis, Yiannis; Theocharis, Dimitris

    2006-01-01

    The change in the composition of the school population as a result of the extensive influx of immigrants in Greece has brought in a recurrent controversy on the issue of allowing non-Greek citizen to carry the national flag, the Greek's most cherished national emblem, as a reward for an excellent school performance. When a state legislator, many…

  20. 48 CFR 19.707 - The Small Business Administration's role in carrying out the program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Small Business Administration's role in carrying out the program. 19.707 Section 19.707 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business Subcontracting Program 19.707 The Small Busines...

  1. Successfully carrying out complex learning tasks through guiding teams’ qualitative and quantitative reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slof, Bert; Erkens, Gijsbert; Kirschner, Paul A.; Janssen, Jeroen; Jaspers, Jos

    2011-01-01

    Slof, B., Erkens, G., Kirschner, P. A., Janssen, J., & Jaspers, J. G. M. (2012). Successfully carrying out complex learning tasks through guiding teams' qualitative and quantitative reasoning. Instructional Science, 40, 623-643. DOI: 10.1007/s11251-011-9185-2

  2. Test-retest reliability of lifting and carrying in a 2-day functional capacity evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneman, MF; Dijkstra, PU; Westmaas, M; Goeken, LNH; Göeken, L.N.H.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to establish test-retest reliability of lifting and carrying of a functional capacity evaluation (FCE) on two consecutive days and to verify the need for a 2-day protocol. A cohort of 50 patients (39 men, 11 women) with nonspecific low back pain were evaluated using

  3. High-level methodology for carrying out combined red and blue teams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a combined Red and Blue Team Methodology to guide the process of carrying out such security auditing and penetration testing tasks. Red and Blue Teams consist of various security auditing and penetration testing tasks which serve...

  4. Status clarification and disposal of Carrière’s ivy names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severiano Nava, Herminio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Carrière in 1890 published 34 names and 33 descriptions of a collection of live ivy plants. In this article we present the analysis of his work from a nomenclatural perspective. As a result, the legitimacy and even the validity of specific and some of the infraspecific names published in the work are questioned. In addition to this, and considering the benefits on keeping the nomenclatural stability, Hedera azorica Carrière, is proposed as a nomen conservandum.Carrière en 1890 publicó 34 nombres y 33 descripciones de una colección de plantas vivas de hiedra. En este artículo se presenta el análisis de su obra desde una perspectiva nomenclatural. Como resultado, la legitimidad e incluso la validez de algunos de los nombres específicos e infraespecíficos publicados en la obra son puestas en tela de juicio. Además, teniendo en cuenta los beneficios de mantener la estabilidad nomenclatural, Hedera azorica Carrière se propone como nomen conservandum.

  5. Robust interferometer for the routing of light beams carrying orbital angular momentum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lavery, MPJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors have developed an interferometer requiring only minimal angular alignment for the routing of beams carrying orbital angular momentum. The Mach–Zehnder interferometer contains a Dove prism in each arm where each has a mirror plane around...

  6. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Amino Acid Based Vesicle Carrying Radiosensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ratasha Alia Mohd Rosli; Faizal Mohamed; Muhammad Amir Syafiq Mohd Sah; Irman Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Vesicles has been developed and studied to be used as a medium to transport radiosensitizer in treating cancer cells by increasing its sensitivity effectively towards the radiation given during radiotherapy. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma radiation on amino acid-based vesicle carrying radiosensitizer. Amino acid based vesicles carrying radiosensitizer were synthesized using sonication method with sodium N-lauroylsarcosinate hydrate and decanol being the primary surfactant, while hydrogen peroxide and sodium hyaluronate as the encapsulated radiosensitizer. The synthesized vesicle was then irradiated at radiation doses equivalent to those given during radiotherapy. Irradiated vesicle carrying radiosensitizer were then characterized using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Polarized Light Microscope. Results obtained shows that there were no significant changes in morphology and molecular conformation of the synthesized vesicle after irradiation. Even at higher radiation dose of 100 Gray and 200 Gray, the results remained unchanged. This indicates that the synthesized vesicle carrying radiosensitizer is morphologically and spectroscopically stable even at high radiation doses. (author)

  7. Specific experiments carried out in Germany in order to demonstrate the safety of existing structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutzik, Norbert

    2002-01-01

    Specific experiments are carried out in Germany in order to demonstrate the safety of existing NPPs. HDR research program includes operational loads testing (pressure test, pressure and temperature test, thermal shock, fatigue); extreme loads (earthquake, aircraft crash, external explosion); internal emergency loads (blowdown, hydrogen combustion, fire, thermal shock, water hammer, condensation loads)

  8. Prescription Audit carried out at the Pharmacy Practice Centre of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective descriptive study was carried out from June to November 2004 in a retail pharmacy situated at the School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi within the Kenyatta National Hospital complex. The objective was to evaluate prescribing habits and to determine the frequency of prescribing of commonly used drug ...

  9. CEC paper on an overview of activities carried out by the WGCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinovart, J.

    1994-01-01

    The paper overviews the activities carried out by the WGCS (Working Group Codes and Standards). Summary of conclusions, established in some reports which were finalized in 1992, are outlined for three sub-groups of activity. Two tables summarize the LWR 1992-93 programs are attached. 2 tabs

  10. Like an eagle carries its young | Wünch | HTS Teologiese Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The picture of an eagle carrying its young on its wings (Dt 32:11) is a powerful and encouraging image of trust and security in God. It is particularly relevant for Western culture, where the eagle is a prominent symbol of power and strength. In recent years, though, the translation of the Hebrew term נשֶֶׁר as 'eagle' has come ...

  11. Carrying large fuel loads during sustained bird flight is cheaper than expected

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kvist, A; Lindström, A; Green, M; Piersma, T.; Visser, G.H.

    2001-01-01

    Birds on migration alternate between consuming fuel stores during flights and accumulating fuel stores during stopovers. The optimal timing and length of flights and stopovers for successful migration depend heavily on the extra metabolic power input (fuel use) required to carry the fuel stores

  12. In vivo characteristics of targeted drug-carrying filamentous bacteriophage nanomedicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaks Lilach

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeted drug-carrying phage nanomedicines are a new class of nanomedicines that combines biological and chemical components into a modular nanometric drug delivery system. The core of the system is a filamentous phage particle that is produced in the bacterial host Escherichia coli. Target specificity is provided by a targeting moiety, usually an antibody that is displayed on the tip of the phage particle. A large drug payload is chemically conjugated to the protein coat of the phage via a chemically or genetically engineered linker that provides for controlled release of the drug after the particle homed to the target cell. Recently we have shown that targeted drug-carrying phage nanomedicines can be used to eradicate pathogenic bacteria and cultured tumor cells with great potentiation over the activity of the free untargeted drug. We have also shown that poorly water soluble drugs can be efficiently conjugated to the phage coat by applying hydrophilic aminoglycosides as branched solubility-enhancing linkers. Results With an intention to move to animal experimentation of efficacy, we tested anti-bacterial drug-carrying phage nanomedicines for toxicity and immunogenicity and blood pharmacokinetics upon injection into mice. Here we show that anti-bacterial drug-carrying phage nanomedicines that carry the antibiotic chloramphenicol conjugated via an aminoglycoside linker are non-toxic to mice and are greatly reduced in immunogenicity in comparison to native phage particles or particles to which the drug is conjugated directly and are cleared from the blood more slowly in comparison to native phage particles. Conclusion Our results suggest that aminoglycosides may serve as branched solubility enhancing linkers for drug conjugation that also provide for a better safety profile of the targeted nanomedicine.

  13. Variation in local carrying capacity and the individual fate of bacterial colonizers in the phyllosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remus-Emsermann, Mitja N P; Tecon, Robin; Kowalchuk, George A; Leveau, Johan H J

    2012-01-01

    Using a phyllosphere model system, we demonstrated that the term ‘carrying capacity', as it is commonly used in microbial ecology, needs to be understood as the sum of many ‘local carrying capacities' in order to better explain and predict the course and outcome of bacterial colonization of an environment. Using a green fluorescent protein-based bioreporter system for the quantification of reproductive success (RS) in individual Erwinia herbicola cells, we were able to reconstruct the contribution of individual immigrants to bacterial population sizes on leaves. Our analysis revealed that plant foliage represents to bacteria an environment where individual fate is determined by the local carrying capacity of the site where an immigrant cell lands. With increasing inoculation densities, the RS of most immigrants declined, suggesting that local carrying capacity under the tested conditions was linked to local nutrient availability. Fitting the observed experimental data to an adapted model of phyllosphere colonization indicated that there might exist three types of sites on leaves, which differ in their frequency of occurrence and local carrying capacity. Specifically, our data were consistent with a leaf environment that is characterized by few sites where individual immigrants can produce high numbers of offspring, whereas the remainder of the leaf offered an equal number of sites with low and medium RS. Our findings contribute to a bottom–up understanding of bacterial colonization of leaf surfaces, which includes a quantifiable role of chance in the experience at the individual level and in the outcome at the population level. PMID:22258099

  14. Nanoemulsions and nonwoven fabrics carrying AgNPs: antibacterial but may be cytotoxic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghtader, Farzaneh; Salouti, Mojtaba; Türk, Mustafa; Pişkin, Erhan

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The aim of this study is to prepare nonwoven fabrics carrying silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and to investigate their antibacterial activities and cytotoxicities in parallel. AgNPs were impregnated from their nanoemulsions onto two commercially available nonwoven fabrics: pure-cotton fabrics (PCF) and polyester/viscous fabrics (PVF), by a simple adsorption (dipping) and were then heat stabilized. PCF exhibited stronger antibacterial effects on both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In-vitro cell culture studies demonstrated that AgNPs nanoemulsions and also fabrics carrying them were cytotoxic on L929-fibroblasts in all concentrations used here (6.25-400 ppm) in different extends. Only the fabrics loaded with AgNPs using nanoemulsion with the lowest concentration of 6.25 ppm exhibited low cytotoxicity but were still antibacterial.

  15. Chemical composition shape form and size of suspended solids in the atmosphere carried by rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.; Torre O, J. De la

    2001-01-01

    The interest of this work is to know about shape form, size and chemical composition of the suspended solids in the atmosphere of Toluca city and which are carried by the rains. The harvest of the samples was carried out during january to november 1999. The separation of the particulate matter from the rain water was realized through centrifugation. The solids were analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy to know the shape form and size and the chemical composition was determined by X-ray dispersive energy in general form and of some particles individually analysed. The p H was measured to the solutions and the quantification of some dissolved ions by the Icp technique was realized. The results of the solids showed C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, P, K, Ca, Ti and Fe. Moreover they present sizes which varying from a ten of nanometers until some tens of microns. (Author)

  16. Analysis on economic carrying capacity index of pig breeding in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Bi-Bin; Liu, Jia-Ling; Xu, Yue-Feng

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, factor analysis method was employed to analyze and calculate the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in the last decade, the proportion of research and experiment development (R&D) expenditure equivalent to GDP, urban and rural residents’ pork consumption and explored the scale of Chinese pig breeding on economic carrying capacity index. The result showed that the growth of GDP had led to better techniques and higher field investment, and stronger support like science and technology from the government provided good conditions for large scale of pig breeding. Besides, the substantial increase of pork consumption between rural and urban residents has contributed to the pig breeding in large scale. As a result, the economic carrying capacity index in Chinese pig farming is on the rise.

  17. Assessing the Social Carrying Capacity of Diving Sites in Mabul Island, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liye; Chung, ShanShan

    2015-12-01

    This study has explored social carrying capacity of an underwater environment based on divers' perceived crowding. Two dimensions were assessed, the number of divers seen and the proximity of diver. Data were obtained from a survey of 132 divers dived in Mabul Island, Malaysia during 2013-2014. Photographs depicting four levels of diver number and four levels of diver proximity in different combinations were shown to the respondents for assessing their acceptability. Between the two variables, the "number of divers" was the most influential factor for divers' perceived crowding. Divers would start to feel unacceptably crowded if 8-9 divers were visible to them at one time. Based on this, it is likely that the use level of diving sites in Mabul Island has already exceeded its social carrying capacity. Implications for future research and diving tourism management for Mabul Island are also discussed in the paper.

  18. Carrying pharyngeal of Streptococcus pyogenes and sensitivity profiles in schoolchild from Cartagena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Margarita Villafañe-Ferrer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine the frequency of carrying pharyngeal of Streptococcus pyogenes and their sensitivity profiles in schoolchildren from Cartagena. Analytical cross-sectional study, the sample was composed by 131 children. Strains of Streptococcus pyogenes were identified using conventional methods. Antibiotic sensitivity was determined the Kirby-Bauer methods. A questionnaire was applied in order to identify risk factors associated.19,8% of children were carriers of bacterium. 26 isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes were obtained. To evaluate the sensitivity were found strains sensible to ceftriaxone and erytrhomycin (84,6% each one. 23,1% (6/26 0f isolates were resistant to ampicillin. It not was found association between carrying pharyngeal of Streptococcus pyogenes and risk factors (p>0,05. It were found resistant strains to antibiotics considered of first election for therapy of infectious diseases produced by this bacterium.

  19. The development of Coke Carried-Heat Gasification Coal-Fired Combined Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Xu, Xiangdong

    1999-12-01

    Carried-Heat Partial Gasification Combined cycle is a novel combined cycle which was proposed by Thermal Engineering Department of Tsinghua University in 1992. The idea of the system comes from the situation that the efficiency of the power plants in China is much lower than that of the advanced countries, but the coal consumption is much higher, which brings about the waste of primary energy resources and the pollution of the environment. With the deep study of the gasification technology, Coke Carried-Heat Gasification Coal-Fired Combined Cycle, as the improved system, came into birth in 1996 based on the partial gasification one. At the end of 1997, a new cycle scheme similar to IGCC was created. This paper focuses on several classes combined cycle put forward by Tsinghua University, depending on the plant configuration and carbon conversion, making the solution a viable and attractive option for efficient coal utilization.

  20. University presidents' perceptions and practice regarding the carrying of concealed handguns on college campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H; Thompson, Amy; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Dake, Joseph; Payton, Erica; Teeple, Karen

    2014-01-01

    To assess the perceptions and practices of a national sample of college and university presidents regarding their support for concealed handguns being carried on college campuses. The sample for this study consisted of a national random sample of 900 college or university presidents. In the spring of 2013, a 3-wave mailing procedure was used to ensure an adequate response rate to a valid and reliable questionnaire. The response rate was 46%, more than what was needed based on the power analysis. The vast majority (95%) of respondents were not supportive of carrying concealed handguns on campuses. They perceived there to be more disadvantages than advantages to handguns on campus. However, college administrators were not focused enough on the primary prevention of campus firearm trauma. The findings of this study suggest a number of activities that could be implemented to enhance safety on college and university campuses.

  1. EVALUATION OF SHEAR CARRIED BY STEEL FIBERS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS USING TENSION SOFTENING CURVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongvivatsakul, Pitcha; Watanabe, Ken; Matsumoto, Koji; Niwa, Junichiro

    The aim of this paper is to propose the method for evaluating the shear carried by steel fibers of reinforced concrete with steel fibers (RSF) beams. Ten RSF beams with various steel fiber volume fraction, stirrup ratio and specimen size were tested by a four-point bending test. The crack surface displacement was examined by the image analysis. Length of the diagonal crack was measured. The tension softening curves were used to calculate the stress transferred across the diagonal crack. The contribution of steel fibers on the shear resistance of RSF beams has been investigated based on the fracture mechanics. The shear carried by steel fibers calculated from the proposed method showed good agreement with experimental values.

  2. Nonlinear Oscillations of Elastic Curved Plate Carried to the Associated Masses System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoyev, O. Ye; Dobryshkin, A. Yu; Naing, N. S.

    2017-11-01

    Curved plates are used in many spheres of our life. Often curved plates have an articulated support. Often, the operation of such structures is associated with fluctuations as well as with the systems of attached masses. The vibrations of such structures have not been fully studied yet. In the laboratory of building structures of Komsomolsk-on-Amur State Technical University a test bench was prepared for testing curved plates hinged at the edges and carrying an attached mass or a system of attached masses. The attached mass is represented by a sensor fixed to the body of a curved plate carrying an attached mass. Experimental and theoretical data correlate with each other. Minimal discrepancies were obtained with the minimum attached mass and the maximum discrepancies at the maximum investigated attached mass. Theoretical calculations were performed using the known equations of plate oscillations.

  3. Clonal spread of blaOXA-72-carrying Acinetobacter baumannii sequence type 512 in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Han-Yueh; Hsu, Po-Jui; Chen, Jiann-Yuan; Liao, Po-Cheng; Lu, Chia-Wei; Chen, Chang-Hua; Liou, Ming-Li

    2016-07-01

    This is the first report to show an insidious outbreak of armA- and blaOXA-72-carrying Acinetobacter baumannii sequence type 512 (ST512) at a study hospital in northern Taiwan. Multilocus sequence typing revealed that this was a ST512 clone. All of the isolates with ST512 carried a novel 12,056-bp repGR2 in combination with a repGR12-type plasmid. This plasmid, designated pAB-ML, had one copy of the blaOXA-72 gene that was flanked by XerC/XerD-like sites and conferred resistance to carbapenems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of diversity of plasmids carrying the blaTEM-52 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bielak, Eliza Maria; Bergenholtz, Rikke D.; Jørgensen, Mikael Skaanning

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the diversity of plasmids that carry blaTEM-52 genes among Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica originating from animals, meat products and humans. METHODS: A collection of 22 blaTEM-52-encoding plasmids was characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism...... of self-transfer to a plasmid-free E. coli recipient. CONCLUSIONS: The blaTEM-52 gene found in humans could have been transmitted on transferable plasmids originating from animal sources. Some of the blaTEM-52 plasmids carry replicons that differ from the classical ones. Two novel replicons were detected...... (RFLP), replicon typing (by PCR or replicon sequencing), susceptibility testing, assessment of plasmid ability to self-transfer by conjugation and typing of the genetic environment of the blaTEM-52 gene. Detected IncI1 plasmids underwent further plasmid multilocus sequence typing. RESULTS: RFLP profiles...

  5. Transfer of stem cells carrying engineered chromosomes with XY clone laser system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinko, Ildiko; Katona, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    Current transgenic technologies for gene transfer into the germline of mammals cause a random integration of exogenous naked DNA into the host genome that can generate undesirable position effects as well as insertional mutations. The vectors used to generate transgenic animals are limited by the amount of foreign DNA they can carry. Mammalian artificial chromosomes have large DNA-carrying capacity and ability to replicate in parallel with, but without integration into, the host genome. Hence they are attractive vectors for transgenesis, cellular protein production, and gene therapy applications as well. ES cells mediated chromosome transfer by conventional blastocyst injection has a limitation in unpredictable germline transmission. The demonstrated protocol of laser-assisted microinjection of artificial chromosome containing ES cells into eight-cell mouse embryos protocol described here can solve the problem for faster production of germline transchromosomic mice.

  6. Studies on solid-state physics carried out with the Saclay reactor (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herpin, A.

    1962-01-01

    This paper deals only with solid-state physics experiments carried out on outgoing beams: rather than giving a general review of the work performed, if refers to only a few of the most important studies or those nearest completion. These are being made with the experimental beams of the two Saclay reactors EL-2, with a central flux of 10 13 n/cm 2 , and - since 1958 - EL-3, whose central flux is equal ta 10 14 n/cm 2 . The experiments are being carried out by two separate groups of physicists, employing different techniques, namely neutron diffraction using a crystal spectrometer, and inelastic scattering using a time-of-flight spectrometer. (author) [fr

  7. Studies on Cup Anemometer Performances Carried out at IDR/UPM Institute. Past and Present Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Roibas-Millan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the research derived from a wide experience on cup anemometer calibration works at IDR/UPM Institute (Instituto Universitario de Microgravedad “Ignacio Da Riva” is summarized. This research started in 2008, analyzing large series of calibrations, and is focused on two main aspects: (1 developing a procedure to predict the degradation level of these wind sensors when working on the field and (2 modeling cup anemometer performances. The wear and tear level of this sensor is evaluated studying the output signal and its main frequencies through Fourier analysis. The modeling of the cup anemometer performances is carried out analyzing first the cup aerodynamics. As a result of this process, carried out through several testing and analytical studies since 2010, a new analytical method has been developed. This methodology might represent an alternative to the classic approach used in the present standards of practice such as IEC 64000-12.

  8. Carrying capacity in arid rangelands during droughts: the role of temporal and spatial thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accatino, F; Ward, D; Wiegand, K; De Michele, C

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the carrying capacity is of primary importance in arid rangelands. This becomes even more important during droughts, when rangelands exhibit non-equilibrium dynamics, and the dynamics of livestock conditions and forage resource are decoupled. Carrying capacity is usually conceived as an equilibrium concept, that is, the consumer density that can co-exist in long-term equilibrium with the resource. As one of the first, here we address the concept of carrying capacity in systems, where there is no feedback between consumer and resource in a limited period of time. To this end, we developed an individual-based model describing the basic characteristics of a rangeland during a drought. The model represents a rangeland composed by a single water point and forage distributed all around, with livestock units moving from water to forage and vice versa, for eating and drinking. For each livestock unit we implemented an energy balance and we accounted for the gut-filling effect (i.e. only a limited amount of forage can be ingested per unit time). Our results showed that there is a temporal threshold above which livestock begin to experience energy deficit and burn fat reserves. We demonstrated that such a temporal threshold increases with the number of animals and decreases with the rangeland conditions (amount of forage). The temporal threshold corresponded to the time livestock take to consume all the forage within a certain distance from water, so that the livestock can return to water for drinking without spending more energy than they gain within a day. In this study, we highlight the importance of a time threshold in the assessment of carrying capacity in non-equilibrium conditions. Considering this time threshold could explain contrasting observations about the influence of livestock number on livestock conditions. In case of private rangelands, the herd size should be chosen so that the spatial threshold equals (or exceeds) the length of the drought.

  9. Experiments recently carried out on the photoemission station at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurash Ibrahim; Wu Ziyu; Qian Haijie; Zhang Jing; Abbas, M.I.; Chen Zhigang; Su Run; Liu Fengqin

    2003-01-01

    With a sustained and steady operation of the photoemission station at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, users from different research fields have carried out their investigation on the electronic structure of metal surface-interface, metal doped fullerene as well as colossal magneto-resistance materials utilizing different experimental modes provided by the photoemission station. In this paper authors would present some representative experimental results obtained on the station

  10.  COMMENT ON: DENHAM, “ALYAWARRA KINSHIP, INFANT CARRYING, AND ALLOPARENTING”

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Arising from an initial inquiry about the distribution of levels of inbreeding in Aboriginal Australian (Denham, 2012) societies and subsequent analysis of some small datasets with Dr Denham, I have come to read the paper “Alyawarra kinship, infant carrying, and alloparenting”. It contains interesting observations about patterns of interaction within- and between-social and kinship groups studied by Dr Denham, which have prompted for me some questions and speculations. I should stress that my...

  11. Experiences of carrying out talking therapy in general practice: a qualitative interview study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annette Sofie

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore GPs' experience of carrying out 'talking therapy'. METHODS: Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with 11 Danish GPs sampled purposively. The material was analysed by Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. RESULTS: The participants expressed difficulty......-taught and did not use specific methods systematically despite having learnt them. GPs knew the patients beforehand; talking therapy developed from other treatment, and methodology had to fit into this. Specific methods are possibly not relevant in general practice. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Formulation of a theory...

  12. Transgenic lettuce seedlings carrying hepatitis B virus antigen HBsAg

    OpenAIRE

    Marcondes,Jackson; Hansen,Ekkehard

    2008-01-01

    The obtainment of transgenic edible plants carrying recombinant antigens is a desired issue in search for economic alternatives viewing vaccine production. Here we report a strategy for genetic transformation of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) using the surface antigen HBsAg of hepatitis B virus. Transgenic lettuce seedlings were obtained through the application of a regulated balance of plant growth regulators. Genetic transformation process was acquired by cocultivation of cotyledons wit...

  13. Determination of Foraging Thresholds and Effects of Application on Energetic Carrying Capacity for Waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Energetic carrying capacity of habitats for wildlife is a fundamental concept used to better understand population ecology and prioritize conservation efforts. However, carrying capacity can be difficult to estimate accurately and simplified models often depend on many assumptions and few estimated parameters. We demonstrate the complex nature of parameterizing energetic carrying capacity models and use an experimental approach to describe a necessary parameter, a foraging threshold (i.e., density of food at which animals no longer can efficiently forage and acquire energy), for a guild of migratory birds. We created foraging patches with different fixed prey densities and monitored the numerical and behavioral responses of waterfowl (Anatidae) and depletion of foods during winter. Dabbling ducks (Anatini) fed extensively in plots and all initial densities of supplemented seed were rapidly reduced to 10 kg/ha and other natural seeds and tubers combined to 170 kg/ha, despite different starting densities. However, ducks did not abandon or stop foraging in wetlands when seed reduction ceased approximately two weeks into the winter-long experiment nor did they consistently distribute according to ideal-free predictions during this period. Dabbling duck use of experimental plots was not related to initial seed density, and residual seed and tuber densities varied among plant taxa and wetlands but not plots. Herein, we reached several conclusions: 1) foraging effort and numerical responses of dabbling ducks in winter were likely influenced by factors other than total food densities (e.g., predation risk, opportunity costs, forager condition), 2) foraging thresholds may vary among foraging locations, and 3) the numerical response of dabbling ducks may be an inconsistent predictor of habitat quality relative to seed and tuber density. We describe implications on habitat conservation objectives of using different foraging thresholds in energetic carrying capacity models and

  14. Thermal carrying capacity for a thermally-sensitive species at the warmest edge of its range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ayllón

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic environmental change is causing unprecedented rates of population extirpation and altering the setting of range limits for many species. Significant population declines may occur however before any reduction in range is observed. Determining and modelling the factors driving population size and trends is consequently critical to predict trajectories of change and future extinction risk. We tracked during 12 years 51 populations of a cold-water fish species (brown trout Salmo trutta living along a temperature gradient at the warmest thermal edge of its range. We developed a carrying capacity model in which maximum population size is limited by physical habitat conditions and regulated through territoriality. We first tested whether population numbers were driven by carrying capacity dynamics and then targeted on establishing (1 the temperature thresholds beyond which population numbers switch from being physical habitat- to temperature-limited; and (2 the rate at which carrying capacity declines with temperature within limiting thermal ranges. Carrying capacity along with emergent density-dependent responses explained up to 76% of spatio-temporal density variability of juveniles and adults but only 50% of young-of-the-year's. By contrast, young-of-the-year trout were highly sensitive to thermal conditions, their performance declining with temperature at a higher rate than older life stages, and disruptions being triggered at lower temperature thresholds. Results suggest that limiting temperature effects were progressively stronger with increasing anthropogenic disturbance. There was however a critical threshold, matching the incipient thermal limit for survival, beyond which realized density was always below potential numbers irrespective of disturbance intensity. We additionally found a lower threshold, matching the thermal limit for feeding, beyond which even unaltered populations declined. We predict that most of our study

  15. Fast Multi Operand Decimal Adders using Digit Compressors with Decimal Carry Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dadda, Luigi; Nannarelli, Alberto

    be conceived on the basis of compressors of a number of digits (e.g. three) generating a smaller number of digits (e.g. two) and, simultaneously, a decimal carry to be accounted for by the next (to the left) column. A suitable scheme has been proposed by Vazquez, Antelo and Montuschi, capable not only...... of cells. A comparison is also made between multi-operand adders of different architectures....

  16. Inertial electron instability of current-carrying low-density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basova, S.V.; Varentsova, S.A.; Gordeev, A.V.; Gulin, A.V.; Shuvaev, V.Yu.

    1991-01-01

    Current-carrying low-density plasma instability is investigated taking into account electron inertia at stationary ions. By analytic and numeric methods it is shown that in a constant density plasma the instability occurs under condition that the value H-tilde=H+(m e c/e)dv/dr, where H is the magnetic field, v - electron current velocity, changes the sign as the function of coordinate. Numeric calculations allowed to derive the increments for specific current configurations

  17. Inertial electron instability in low-density current-carrying plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basova, S.V.; Varentsova, S.A.; Gordeev, A.V.; Gulin, A.V.; Shuvaev, V.Yu.

    1991-01-01

    The stability of a low-density current-carrying plasma with finite electron inertia and motionless ions is studied. It is shown analytically and numerically that an instability exists when the quantity H = H + (m e c/e)dv/dr changes sign as a function of position, where H is the magnetic field and v is the current drift velocity of the electrons. The growth rates for specific current configurations are obtained by numerical calculation

  18. Emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying bla(VIM) and bla(KPC) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meletis, G; Tzampaz, E; Protonotariou, E; Sofianou, D

    2010-04-01

    A Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate resistant to imipenem was recovered from a wound sample. The patient, a 57-year-old man, underwent a surgical resection of small bowel and sigmoid colon and was treated with multiple courses of antimicrobials. PCR analysis revealed that the clinical isolate was carrying simultaneously bla(VIM-1), bla(KPC-2), bla(SHV) and bla(TEM) genes. The concomitant presence of these genes is alarming and poses therapeutic as well as infection control problems.

  19. Carrying shopping bags does not alter static postural stability and gait parameters in healthy older females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampouras, Theodoros M; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Food shopping is an important aspect of maintaining independence and social interaction in older age. Carriage of shopping bags alters the body's weight distribution which, depending on load distribution, could potentially increase instability during standing and walking. The study examined the effect of carrying UK style shopping bags on static postural stability and gait in healthy older and young females. Nine older (71.0±6.0 years) and 10 young (26.7±5.2 years) females were assessed in five conditions carrying no bags, one 1.5kg bag in each hand, one 3kg bag in each hand, one 1.5kg bag in preferred hand, one 3kg bag in preferred hand. Antero-posterior and medio-lateral displacement, and 95% ellipse area from a 30s quiet standing were used for postural stability assessment. Stride length and its coefficient of variation, total double support time, step asymmetry and gait stability ratio were calculated from 1min treadmill walking at self-selected speed for gait assessment. Carrying shopping bags did not negatively affect postural stability or gait variables, in either group. Further, in older individuals, a decrease in sway velocity was found when holding bags during the postural stability assessment (pbags, irrespective of the load distribution, may have a stabilising effect during quiet standing. These results should help to alleviate concerns regarding safety of carrying shopping bags and help encourage shopping, both as a social and as a physical activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. CARRYING OF FRENCH VISAS FOR HOLDERS OF CATEGORY 'EF' FRENCH ATTESTATIONS DE FONCTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    1999-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organisation that members of the personnel resident in Switzerland and holding Category 'EF' French Attestations de functions are not obliged to be in possession of French visas. When temporarily travelling through France on OFFICIAL CERN BUSINESS, provided they are carrying the valid Attestation and a valid national passport with them.Relations with the Host States Servicehttp://www.cern.ch/relations/Tel. 72848

  1. Standard protocol for demographic and epidemiological survey to be carried out for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.L.; Datta, D.; Singh, Jitendra; Sardhi, I.V.; Verma, P.C.

    2007-11-01

    This document presents the standard procedures for conducting demographic and epidemiological studies for nuclear facilities. These studies are required to be carried out to prepare baseline data, the impact of the facility and the risk factors for the population residing in the vicinity of facility. This document includes the basic elements of these type surveys, their methodology and statistical analysis of the data collected during demographic and epidemiological surveillance. (author)

  2. BIOSPEX: Biological space experiments, a compendium of life sciences experiments carried on US spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M.; Rummel, J. A. (Editor); Deutsch, S. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    United States space life science experiments, encompassing 27 years of experience beginning with sounding rocket flights carrying primates (1948) to the last U.S. spaceflight, the joint US/USSR Apollo Test Project (1975), are presented. The information for each experiment includes Principal Investigators, the program and mission on which it was flown, the specimens used, the objectives, protocol, equipment, results, conclusions, and bibliographic reference citations for publications derived from each experiment.

  3. Handling and carrying head for nuclear fuel assemblies and installation including this head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaud, R.; Cransac, J.P.; Jogand, P.

    1986-01-01

    The present invention proposes a handling and carrying head ensuring efficiently the cooling of the nuclear fuel asemblies it transports so that any storage in liquid metal in a drum within or adjacent the reactor vessel is suppressed. The invention claims also a nuclear fuel handling installation including the head; it allows a longer time between loading and unloading campaigns and the space surrounding the reactor vessel keeps free without occupying a storage zone within the vessel [fr

  4. Diversity, mobility, and structural and functional evolution of group II introns carrying an unusual 3' extension

    OpenAIRE

    Tourasse, Nicolas J; Stabell, Fredrik B; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    2011-01-01

    Background Group II introns are widespread genetic elements endowed with a dual functionality. They are catalytic RNAs (ribozymes) that are able of self-splicing and they are also mobile retroelements that can invade genomic DNA. The group II intron RNA secondary structure is typically made up of six domains. However, a number of unusual group II introns carrying a unique extension of 53-56 nucleotides at the 3' end have been identified previously in bacteria of the Bacillu...

  5. Social carry-over effects on non-social behavioral variation: mechanisms and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Toivo Niemelä

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The field of animal personality is interested in decomposing behaviors into different levels of variation, with its present focus on the ecological and evolutionary causes and consequences of expressed variation. Recently the role of the social environment, i.e. social partners, has been suggested to affect behavioral variation and induce selection on animal personality. Social partner effects exist because characters of social partners (e.g. size, behavior, affect the behavioral expression of a focal individual. Here, we 1 first review the proximate mechanisms underlying the social partner effects on behavioral expression and the timescales at which such effects might take place. We then 2 discuss how within- and among-individual variation in single behaviors and covariation between multiple behaviors, caused by social partners, can carry-over to non-social behaviors expressed outside the social context. Finally, we 3 highlight evolutionary consequences of social carry-over effects to non-social behaviors and 4 suggest study designs and statistical approaches which can be applied to study the nature and evolutionary consequences of social carry-over effects on non-social behaviors. Understanding the proximate mechanisms underpinning the social partner effects is important since it opens a door for deeper understanding of how social environments can affect behavioral variation and covariation at multiple levels, and the evolution of non-social behaviors (i.e. exploration, activity, boldness that are affected by social interactions.

  6. Bartonelosis humana: antes y después de Daniel Alcides Carrión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Takano Morón

    Full Text Available La presente es una revisión de los aspectos bibliográficos relacionados con el conocimiento de la bartonelosis humana antes y después de la muerte de Daniel Alcides Carrión. Se enfatiza el estímulo que significó el sacrificio de Carrión en el desarrollo de la investigación médica en el Perú, en especial en lo referente a la bartonelosis humana, realizada por investigadores peruanos y de otras partes del mundo. La revisión incluye al área básica del conocimiento sobre la bacteria causante del proceso mórbido, la respuesta del huésped a la infección así como en el comportamiento bifásico de la enfermedad. La bibliografía revisada incluye aportes al conocimiento de la enfermedad, conocida hoy con el epónimo de “Enfermedad de Carrión”, a lo largo de más de un siglo de historia

  7. Hierarchical population model with a carrying capacity distribution for bacterial biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indekeu, J. O.; Sznajd-Weron, K.

    2003-12-01

    In order to describe biological colonies with a conspicuous hierarchical structure, a time- and space-discrete model for the growth of a rapidly saturating local biological population N(x,t) is derived from a hierarchical random deposition process previously studied in statistical physics. Two biologically relevant parameters, the probabilities of birth, B, and of death, D, determine the carrying capacity K. Due to the randomness the population depends strongly on position x and there is a distribution of carrying capacities, Π(K). This distribution has self-similar character owing to the exponential slowing down of the growth, assumed in this hierarchical model. The most probable carrying capacity and its probability are studied as a function of B and D. The effective growth rate decreases with time, roughly as in a Verhulst process. The model is possibly applicable, for example, to bacteria forming a “towering pillar” biofilm, a structure poorly described by standard Eden or diffusion-limited-aggregation models. The bacteria divide on randomly distributed nutrient-rich regions and are exposed to a random local bactericidal agent (antibiotic spray). A gradual overall temperature or chemical change away from optimal growth conditions reduces bacterial reproduction, while biofilm development degrades antimicrobial susceptibility, causing stagnation into a stationary state.

  8. Carry-over effects of smoking cue exposure on working memory performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen J.; Sayette, Michael A.; Fiez, Julie A.; Brough, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of drug cue exposure on working memory performance in cigarette smokers. Adult smokers (N=23) deprived for 12 hr performed a working memory task during which they were exposed to three types of task-irrelevant stimuli: Pictures containing smoking related-content, pictures devoid of smoking content, and a fixation cross. Consistent with prior research, we found that drug cue exposure affected the processing of subsequent items (i.e., carry-over effects). Specifically, we found that working memory performance was worse on trials containing neutral pictures preceded by trials containing smoking cues compared with performance on trials containing neutral pictures preceded by trials not containing smoking-related stimuli. Previously observed effects of smoking cue exposure on cognitive processing were replicated but only after removing trials subject to carry-over effects. These results replicate and extend previous research demonstrating similar effects and highlight the significant methodological and conceptual implications of carry-over effects. PMID:17454718

  9. MODELLING CARRYING CAPACITY FOR THE THANDA PRIVATE GAME RESERVE, SOUTH AFRICA USING LANDSAT 8 MULTISPECTRAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Oumar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rangelands which consist of grasslands, shrublands and savannahs are used by wildlife for habitat and are the main source of forage for livestock. The assessment and monitoring of rangeland condition is one of the most important factors for rangeland scientists in order to calculate the carrying capacity of livestock with consideration for coexisting wildlife. This study assessed the potential of Landsat 8 multispectral bands and broadband vegetation indices to model woody vegetation parameters such as tree equivalents (TE and total leaf mass (LMASS for the Thanda Private Game Reserve using partial least squares regression (PLSR. The PLSR model predicted TE with an R2 value of 0.76 and a root mean square error (RMSE of 1411 TE/ha using an independent test dataset. LMASS was predicted with an R2 value of 0.67 and a RMSE of 853 kg/ha on an independent test dataset. The predictive models were then inverted to map TE and LMASS over the study area. The modelled TE and LMASS layers were integrated with conventional grazing and browse capacity models to map carrying capacity for the Game Reserve. The study indicates the potential of Landsat 8 multispectral data in carrying capacity modelling. The result is significant for rangeland monitoring in Southern Africa using remote sensing technologies.

  10. Twinning in Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cows: Proportion Carried to Term and Calf Sex Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, Peter D; Sorrell, Emma J

    2015-07-07

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the proportion of twins carried to term and the sex ratio of twin calves at birth in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle kept on commercial farms in Devon and Cornwall, England. Ten farms were used in the study. Fifty four cows with twin pregnancies were identified using trans-rectal ultra-sonographic examination between 30 and 70 days of gestation. The farm records were subsequently used to derive the number of calves born. Farm records of 66 additional sets of twin births with the sex of the calves recorded were also identified. Of the 54 cows diagnosed with twin pregnancies, 16 cows (29.6%) aborted or absorbed both fetuses, 11 cows (20.4%) carried one calf to term and 27 cows (50%) carried both calves to term. In the calf sex analysis of the additional 66 sets of twins: 13♂♂ calves (19.7%), 18 ♀♀ calves (27.3%) and 35 ♂♀ calves (53.0%). There was no statistically significant difference from an expected ratio of 1♂♂:2♂♀:1♀♀ ( p = 0.61). This study provides bench marks for the expected abortion/absorption rates following the early ultra-sonographic diagnosis of twin pregnancies in comparable populations and supports earlier observations that the expected sex ratio for twinning approximates to1♂♂:2♂♀:1♀♀.

  11. One-handed load carrying--cardiovascular, muscular and subjective indices of endurance and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbom, A; Hägg, G M; Käll, C

    1992-01-01

    A group of 5 women and 11 men walked on a treadmill, each carrying a weight in the right hand. In separate experiments, the mass was varied to give total exhaustion within 3 min, 5 min, 9 min, and 13 min. In additional experiments 50% and 25% of the masses leading to exhaustion after 5 min were used, and these were stopped after 16 min. Heart rate (fc) and systolic blood pressure (BPs) were measured noninvasively. There was a consistent increase in fc x BPs during the experiments leading to exhaustion, while steady-states were obtained in the nonexhausting trials. An electromyogram (EMG) was recorded with cutaneous electrodes over the flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor digitorum superficialis muscles and the number of zero crossings (ZC) of the EMG signal per time unit were analysed. As the subjects approached exhaustion, the number of ZC declined exponentially, reaching approximately 50% of their initial values. In the nonexhausting experiments, however, the decline was slower and less marked, and during the second half of the experiment the number of ZC increased again. Subjectively, endurance was underestimated by all the subjects. It was concluded that cardiovascular and muscle criteria of fatigue in carrying coincided. Prolonged carrying in one hand of more than 6 kg or 10 kg for young healthy women and men respectively should not be recommended, since it could lead to cardiovascular non steady-states and EMG signs of fatigue.

  12. [Kinetics of carrying and releasing oxygen of red blood cells in hemorrhagic shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ke; Wang, Xiang

    2012-08-01

    This paper focuses on the capacity changes of the red blood cells carrying and releasing oxygen. In order to provide theoretical basis and guidance for the clinical treatment of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock, we investigated cases in the occurrence of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock, and also analyzed the mechanism of physiological cause. Twenty healthy SD rats were used to build the hemorrhagic shock model. Red blood cells were collected at the initial step, at blood lose 20%, 30%, and 40% to determine the red blood cells capacities of carrying and releasing oxygen. The Hemox-analyzer was used to measure the thermodynamic parameters of the P50, the kinetic parameters of Tc50 and Tr50. The 2,3-DPG, pH value, glucose and lactate dehydrogenase changes were also captured and recorded. With the aggravation of shock, P50 and lactate dehydrogenase are continuously increased, Tr50, pH value and glucose are tended to reduce significantly, and Tc50 does not change significantly. With the increase of blood loss, red blood cell capacity to carry oxygen is stable, and the ability to release oxygen is increased, so that the oxygen consumption cannot be satisfied, which causes organ failure.

  13. Manual Loading Distribution During Carrying Behaviors: Implications for the Evolution of the Hominin Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Alastair J M

    2016-01-01

    The human hand is unparalleled amongst primates in its ability to manipulate objects forcefully and dexterously. Previous research has predominantly sought to explain the evolution of these capabilities through an adaptive relationship between more modern human-like anatomical features in the upper limb and increased stone tool production and use proficiency. To date, however, we know little about the influence that other manipulatively demanding behaviors may have had upon the evolution of the human hand. The present study addresses one aspect of this deficiency by examining the recruitment of the distal phalanges during a range of manual transportation (i.e., carrying) events related to hominin behavioral repertoires during the Plio-Pleistocene. Specifically, forces on the volar pad of each digit are recorded during the transportation of stones and wooden branches that vary in weight and size. Results indicate that in most instances, the index and middle fingers are recruited to a significantly greater extent than the other three digits during carrying events. Relative force differences between digits were, however, dependent upon the size and weight of the object transported. Carrying behaviors therefore appear unlikely to have contributed to the evolution of the robust thumb anatomy observed in the human hand. Rather, results suggest that the manual transportation of objects may plausibly have influenced the evolution of the human gripping capabilities and the 3rd metacarpal styloid process.

  14. Carrying away and redistribution of radioisotopes on the Peyne catchment basin. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffa, C.; Danic, F.

    2006-01-01

    The transfers of radioisotopes present in soils and sediments are essentially conditioned by the mobilities of the physical vectors which constitute their supports. The water is the main vector of natural transfer, radioisotopes being associated with it under dissolved or particulate shape. The rainout and the hydrous erosion are responsible in particular for the carrying away and for the redistribution of contaminants following an atmospheric deposit on a catchment basin. However their effect is not the same in any point of the catchment basin. The work begun here aims at elaborating a classification of the grounds sensitivity towards this phenomenon of radioisotopes carrying away. The different factors of sensitivity have been identified: pluviometry, slope, soils occupation and soils nature. The Peyne catchment basin, that presents an important variability of these four parameters, constitutes the experimental site for this study. On this catchment basin, we search to identify the areas the most sensitive to the carrying away of radioisotopes, by combining a theoretical predictive approach based on the cartography and a descriptive approach basing on the sampling and the analysis of soils samples. (N.C.)

  15. Ecological carrying capacity assessment of diving site: A case study of Mabul Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Ye; Chung, Shan-Shan; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2016-12-01

    Despite considered a non-consumptive use of the marine environment, diving-related activities can cause damages to coral reefs. It is imminent to assess the maximum numbers of divers that can be accommodated by a diving site before it is subject to irreversible deterioration. This study aimed to assess the ecological carrying capacity of a diving site in Mabul Island, Malaysia. Photo-quadrat line transect method was used in the benthic survey. The ecological carrying capacity was assessed based on the relationship between the number of divers and the proportion of diver damaged hard corals in Mabul Island. The results indicated that the proportion of diver damaged hard corals occurred exponentially with increasing use. The ecological carrying capacity of Mabul Island is 15,600-16,800 divers per diving site per year at current levels of diver education and training with a quarterly threshold of 3900-4200 per site. Our calculation shows that management intervention (e.g. limiting diving) is justified at 8-14% of hard coral damage. In addition, the use of coral reef dominated diving sites should be managed according to their sensitivity to diver damage and the depth of the reefs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of virulence genes carried by bacteriophages obtained from clinically isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasartova, Djursun; Cavusoglu, Zeynep Burcin; Turegun, Buse; Ozsan, Murat T; Şahin, Fikret

    2016-12-01

    Bacteriophages play an important role in the pathogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) either by carrying accessory virulence factors or several superantigens. Despite their importance, there are not many studies showing the actual distribution of the virulence genes carried by the prophages obtained from the clinically isolated Staphylococcus. In this study, we investigated prophages obtained from methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from hospital- and community-associated (HA-CA) infections for the virulence factors. In the study, 43 phages isolated from 48 MRSA were investigated for carrying toxin genes including the sak, eta, lukF-PV, sea, selp, sek, seg, seq chp, and scn virulence genes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot. Restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to analyze phage genomes to investigate the relationship between the phage profiles and the toxin genes' presence. MRSA strains isolated from HA infections tended to have higher prophage presence than the MRSA strains obtained from the CA infections (97% and 67%, respectively). The study showed that all the phages with the exception of one phage contained one or more virulence genes in their genomes with different combinations. The most common toxin genes found were sea (83%) followed by sek (77%) and seq (64%). The study indicates that prophages encode a significant proportion of MRSA virulence factors.

  17. On the carrying capacity for large ungulates of African savanna ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, H; Duncan, P

    1994-04-22

    The effect of pastoral management on the standing crop biomass of large ungulates, an index of carrying capacity, is analysed at a regional level by using data compiled from published sources covering east and south Africa. The effect of primary production is controlled for by using two environmental factors, rainfall and soil nutrient availability, and the effect of species richness of the ungulate community is evaluated. The results confirm the dominant effect of rainfall, and demonstrate that soil nutrient levels also strongly affect the biomass of large ungulate communities. For a given level of rainfall, on rich soils (high nutrient availability) the biomass of large ungulates is about 20 times as great as on poor soils with low nutrient availability. The model based on rainfall and soil nutrient classes accounts for 87% of the variance in large ungulate biomass. Pastoral and natural ecosystems do not differ significantly in large ungulate biomass; there is therefore currently no evidence that extensive pastoral management increases carrying capacity for large ungulates above the levels observed in natural communities. Species richness, a measure of biodiversity, had a significant but very small effect on the biomass-rainfall relation in the complete data set. When analysed by pastoral management, the effect of this factor was significant for the set of natural ecosystems only. Pastoral management and species richness may therefore have compensatory effects. These results suggest that the carrying capacity is limited at the community, rather than the species, level.

  18. The study of environmental carrying capacity for sustainable tourism in Telaga Warna Telaga Pengilon Nature Park, Dieng Plateu, Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melat Aryasa, Alexander; Nur Bambang, Azis; Muhammad, Fuad

    2017-06-01

    The increasing in quantity of the tourists visiting Telaga Warna Telaga Pengilon Nature Park, Dieng Plateau, Central Java, can cause a potential threat toward the conservation sustainability of the tourist attraction and the surrounding area. The utilization of conservation area for tourist attraction has to be carried out based on the principal of Environmental Carrying Capacity so that it will not affect the ecosystem. This study aims to determine the value of Telaga Warna Telaga Pengilon Nature Park environmental carrying capacity as a conservation area used for tourism activities. The environmental carrying capacities calculated in this study were physical carrying capacity, real carrying capacity, and effective carrying capacity. Results of this research show that the physical carrying capacity of The Telaga Warna Telaga Pengilon Nature Park was 31,302 visitors, the real capacity was 869 visitors/day and the effective carrying capacity was 579 visitors/day. Thus, the sustainable tourism development strategy is needed to manage the everlasting natural resources.

  19. Rural Settlement Development and Environment Carrying Capacity Changes in Progo River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ritohardoyo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Generally the broader rural settlement the heavier population pressure on agricultural land. It indicates that carrying capacity of the rural environment threatened lower. The spatial distribution of the threat in a river basin is quite important as one of the river basin management inputs. Therefore, this article aims at exposing result of research about influence rural population growth and rural settlement land changes to environment carrying capacity. This research was carried out in the rural area in Progo river basin consists 56 sub districts (34 sub districts part of Jawa Tengah Province, and 22 sub districts part of Yogyakarta Special Region. The whole sub districts are such as unit analysis, and research method is based on secondary data analysis. Several data consist Districts Region in Figure 1997 and 2003 (Temanggung, Magelang, Kulon Progo, Sleman and Bantul such as secondary data analysis. Data analysis employs of frequency and cross tabulation, statistics of regression and test. Result of the research shows that population growth of the rural areas in Progo river basin are about 0.72% annum; or the household growth about 3.15% annum as long as five years (1996-2003. Spatial distribution of the population growth in the upper part of the Progo river basin is higher than in the middle and lower part of the basin. The number proportion of farmer in every sub district area in this river basin have increased from 69.95% in 1997 to 70.81% in the year of 2003. It means that work opportunities broadening are still sluggish. However, the number proportion of farmers in the upper part of the Progo river basin is lower than in the middle and lower part of the basin. The rates of settlement land areas changes (0.32 ha/annum as long as five years (1997-2003 is not as fast as the rates of agricultural land areas changes (0.47 ha/annum. Spatial land settlement areas changes in the lower (6.1 ha/annum and middle parts (2.4 ha/annum faster than

  20. Sausage instabilities on top of kinking lengthening current-carrying magnetic flux tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Linden, Jens; You, Setthivoine

    2017-05-01

    We theoretically explore the possibility of sausage instabilities developing on top of a kink instability in lengthening current-carrying magnetic flux tubes. Observations indicate that the dynamics of magnetic flux tubes in our cosmos and terrestrial experiments can involve topological changes faster than time scales predicted by resistive magnetohydrodynamics. Recent laboratory experiments suggest that hierarchies of instabilities, such as kink and Rayleigh-Taylor, could be responsible for initiating fast topological changes by locally accessing two-fluid and kinetic regimes. Sausage instabilities can also provide this coupling mechanism between disparate scales. Flux tube experiments can be classified by the flux tube's evolution in a configuration space described by a normalized inverse aspect-ratio k ¯ and current-to-magnetic flux ratio λ ¯ . A lengthening current-carrying magnetic flux tube traverses this k ¯ - λ ¯ space and crosses stability boundaries. We derive a single general criterion for the onset of the sausage and kink instabilities in idealized magnetic flux tubes with core and skin currents. The criterion indicates a dependence of the stability boundaries on current profiles and shows overlapping kink and sausage unstable regions in the k ¯ - λ ¯ space with two free parameters. Numerical investigation of the stability criterion reduces the number of free parameters to a single one that describes the current profile and confirms the overlapping sausage and kink unstable regions in k ¯ - λ ¯ space. A lengthening, ideal current-carrying magnetic flux tube can therefore become sausage unstable after it becomes kink unstable.

  1. Stress analysis on passenger deck due to modification from passenger ship to vehicle-carrying ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaydi, A.; Sujiatanti, S. H.; Hariyanto, T. R.

    2018-03-01

    Stress is a basic concept in learning about material mechanism. The main focus that needs to be brought to attention in analyzing stress is strength, which is the structural capacity to carry or distribute loads. The structural capacity not only measured by comparing the maximum stress with the material’s yield strength but also with the permissible stress required by the Indonesian Classification Bureau (BKI), which certainly makes it much safer. This final project analyzes stress in passenger deck that experiences modification due to load changes, from passenger load to vehicle one, carrying: 6-wheels truck with maximum weight of 14 tons, a passenger car with maximum weight of 3.5 tons, and a motorcycle with maximum weight of 0.4 tons. The deck structure is modelled using finite element software. The boundary conditions given to the structural model are fix and simple constraint. The load that works on this deck is the deck load which comes from the vehicles on deck with three vehicles’ arrangement plans. After that, software modelling is conducted for analysis purpose. Analysis result shows a variation of maximum stress that occurs i.e. 135 N/mm2, 133 N/mm2, and 152 N/mm2. Those maximum stresses will not affect the structure of passenger deck’s because the maximum stress that occurs indicates smaller value compared to the Indonesian Classification Bureau’s permissible stress (175 N/mm2) as well as the material’s yield strength (235 N/mm2). Thus, the structural strength of passenger deck is shown to be capable of carrying the weight of vehicles in accordance with the three vehicles’ arrangement plans.

  2. A method for prediction of extent of microbial pollution of seawater and carrying capacity of beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocasoy, Günay

    1989-07-01

    The increase in the number of tourists visiting a coast is desired by most of the countries for economic reasons. However, this increase in tourism may cause pollution of the sea. This can be only avoided by proper planning and by predicting the “carrying capacity” of the coast in terms of sea pollution. This is especially important for developing countries where part of the wastewater is discharged without any treatment into the sea. In the present study the beaches were classified according to their use — and consequently the amount of waste discharged into the sea — into four groups: (1) coasts that are used only for swimming and recreational purposes; (2) coasts used simultaneously for dwelling, swimming, and recreational purposes; (3) coasts along which only dwellings exist; and (4) natural and man-made harbors, i.e., coasts used as shelters. During the survey,40,320 observations were made between December 1985 and February 1988 to determine the effect of the number of tourists on seawater quality. The results obtained were analyzed by a multilinear regression program to obtain an empirical equation giving the extent of the sea pollution in terms of coliform concentration as a function of population density and some other environmental factors. The equations derived in this study enable the determination of the carrying capacity of a beach in terms of pollution as well as the expected degree of pollution corresponding to a given population density. Furthermore, it allows the prediction of the extra carrying capacity that can be obtained by improving the waste-disposal conditions.

  3. Modulation of 5' splice site selection using tailed oligonucleotides carrying splicing signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elela Sherif

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously described the use of tailed oligonucleotides as a means of reprogramming alternative pre-mRNA splicing in vitro and in vivo. The tailed oligonucleotides that were used interfere with splicing because they contain a portion complementary to sequences immediately upstream of the target 5' splice site combined with a non-hybridizing 5' tail carrying binding sites for the hnRNP A1/A2 proteins. In the present study, we have tested the inhibitory activity of RNA oligonucleotides carrying different tail structures. Results We show that an oligonucleotide with a 5' tail containing the human β-globin branch site sequence inhibits the use of the 5' splice site of Bcl-xL, albeit less efficiently than a tail containing binding sites for the hnRNP A1/A2 proteins. A branch site-containing tail positioned at the 3' end of the oligonucleotide also elicited splicing inhibition but not as efficiently as a 5' tail. The interfering activity of a 3' tail was improved by adding a 5' splice site sequence next to the branch site sequence. A 3' tail carrying a Y-shaped branch structure promoted similar splicing interference. The inclusion of branch site or 5' splice site sequences in the Y-shaped 3' tail further improved splicing inhibition. Conclusion Our in vitro results indicate that a variety of tail architectures can be used to elicit splicing interference at low nanomolar concentrations, thereby broadening the scope and the potential impact of this antisense technology.

  4. ICESpy009, a Conjugative Genetic Element Carrying mef(E) in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grosso, Maria; Camilli, Romina; Rizzi, Ermanno; Pietrelli, Alessandro; De Bellis, Gianluca; Pantosti, Annalisa

    2016-07-01

    Efflux-mediated macrolide resistance due to mef(E) and mel, carried by the mega element, is common in Streptococcus pneumoniae, for which it was originally characterized, but it is rare in Streptococcus pyogenes In S. pyogenes, mega was previously found to be enclosed in Tn2009, a composite genetic element of the Tn916 family containing tet(M) and conferring erythromycin and tetracycline resistance. In this study, S. pyogenes isolates containing mef(E), apparently not associated with other resistance determinants, were examined to characterize the genetic context of mega. By whole-genome sequencing of one isolate, MB56Spyo009, we identified a novel composite integrative and conjugative element (ICE) carrying mega, designated ICESpy009, belonging to the ICESa2603 family. ICESpy009 was 55 kb long, contained 61 putative open reading frames (ORFs), and was found to be integrated into hylA, a novel integration site for the ICESa2603 family. The modular organization of the ICE was similar to that of members of the ICESa2603 family carried by different streptococcal species. In addition, a novel cluster of accessory resistance genes was found inside a region that encloses mega. PCR mapping targeting ICESpy009 revealed the presence of a similar ICE in five other isolates under study. While in three isolates the integration site was the same as that of ICESpy009, in two isolates the ICE was integrated into rplL, the typical integration site of the ICESa2603 family. ICESpy009 was able to transfer macrolide resistance by conjugation to both S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae, showing the first evidence of the transferability of mega from S. pyogenes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Estimating carrying capacity in a newly colonized sand fly Lutzomyia serrana (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, Erika; Munstermann, Leonard E; Ferro, Cristina

    2002-02-01

    The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia serrana (Damasceno & Arouck) was mass-reared tinder conditions of varying densities in an effort to improve colony production efficiency. To do this, the experimental carrying capacity of a standard rearing chamber was determined, i.e., the optimum population size in relation to density (individuals per unit of space). Rearing chambers of 100 cm3 were populated with 1-50 L. serrana engorged females and an equal number of males. Laboratory conditions were maintained at 23-26 degrees C and 85-95% RH. The following parameters were recorded for each experimental chamber (three replicates): (1) female mortality without oviposition, (2) number of eggs oviposited and (3) number of adults emerging from the egg cohort. Female mortality began to increase substantially in the 26-female chamber, from 5.7% to 15% and finally reaching 60.2% in the 46-50 female chambers. In the chambers containing 1-20 females, egg number and realized adult progeny increased linearly to reach an asymptote. In the 20-50 female chambers, the number of eggs ranged from 420 to 699, and adult production from 306 to 432. The optimum carrying capacity for the 100-cm3 chambers was 22 +/- 2 females. Beyond this number, auto-regulation was initiated, i.e., female mortality without oviposition increased as the number of females per chamber increased. Total number of eggs and adult production was similar in all chambers containing 20-50 females. In conclusion, for optimizing production of mass reared sand flies, determination of the carrying capacity is essential to optimize use of insectary resources, to avoid loss of valuable potentially ovipositing females, and to increase overall production efficiency.

  6. Studies on esterase isozymes and mycelium growth speed of ganoderma lucidum carried by Shenzhou spaceship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Jianjun; Chen Xiangdong; Lan Jin

    2002-01-01

    The esterase isozymes and mycelium growth speed of four Ganoderma lucidum strains carried by Shenzhou spaceship were studied. The results showed that different effects occurred to esterase and mycelium growth speed. The SX, S3 esterase band had changed compared with their control CX, C3, respectively, but there were no differences between SH and CH, S4 and C4. The growth speed of S4 strain was faster than its control C4, SX strain lower than its control CX, and there were no difference between SH and CH, S3 and C3

  7. Evaluation of Robotic Systems to Carry Out Traverse Execution, Opportunistic Science, and Landing Site Evaluation Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Leonard, Matther J.; Pacal, Lee

    2011-01-01

    This report covers the execution of and results from the activities proposed and approved in Exploration Analogs and Mission Development (EAMD) Field Test Protocol HMP2010: Evaluation of Robotic Systems to carry out Traverse Execution, Opportunistic Science, and Landing Site Evaluation Tasks. The field tests documented in this report examine one facet of a larger program of planetary surface exploration. This program has been evolving and maturing for several years, growing from a broad policy statement with a few specified milestones for NASA to an international effort with much higher fidelity descriptions of systems and operations necessary to accomplish this type of exploration.

  8. Excretion pattern of aflatoxins in buffalo milk and carry-over in mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gualla

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Some raw materials, used in animal feeding, can be contaminated by aflatoxins (AF. All the mammals that ingest AFB1, excrete small amounts of the hydroxylated metabolite aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 in their milk (Wood 1991. In the case of cow’s milk, the percentage excreted is 1-3% of that ingested (Veldman et al. 1992. AFM1 has been categorised as a class 2B, possible human carcinogen. AFM1 is associated with the protein fraction of milk and hence it is carried-over to cheese and to other milk products (Brackett and Marth, 1982....

  9. Genetic variation of space flight carried rice and mutant analysis by AFLP molecular marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Zhigang; Zhang Zhiyong; Xiang Yuewu; Zhang Zhixiong; Cai Pingzhong; Wen Chunmiao; Zheng Jiakui

    2006-01-01

    Rice seeds were carried by 'Shenzhou No.3' space shuttle, a mutant with golden chaff, stem and leaf was selected and named Golden 1 after the seeds returned to the earth. Except the golden color, other traits of Golden 1 are no obviously different with its original material H9808. Genetic analysis identified that color variation was control by a pair of recessive gene. The DNA fragments of the mutant were compared with its parent by AFLP molecular markers. Five specific bands were found through a serial selection. (authors)

  10. The relationship between carry trade currencies and equity markets, during the 2003-2012 time period

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitrescu, Andrei; Tuovila, Antti

    2013-01-01

    One of the most popular investment and trading strategies over the last decade, has been the currency carry trade, which allows traders and investors to buy high-yielding currencies in the Foreign Exchange spot market by borrowing, low or zero interest rate currencies in the form of pairs, such as the Australian Dollar/Japanese Yen (AUD/JPY), with the purpose of investing the proceeds afterwards into fixed-income securities.To be able to determine the causality between the returns of equity m...

  11. Review of evaluation on ecological carrying capacity: The progress and trend of methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. F.; Xu, Y.; Liu, T. J.; Ye, J. M.; Pan, B. L.; Chu, C.; Peng, Z. L.

    2018-02-01

    The ecological carrying capacity (ECC) has been regarded as an important reference to indicate the level of regional sustainable development since the very beginning of twenty-first century. By a brief review of the main progress in ECC evaluation methodologies in recent five years, this paper systematically discusses the features and differences of these methods and expounds the current states and future development trend of ECC methodology. The result shows that further exploration in terms of the dynamic, comprehensive and intelligent assessment technologies needs to be provided in order to form a unified and scientific ECC methodology system and to produce a reliable basis for environmental-economic decision-makings.

  12. Special training for drivers of vehicles carrying radioactive materials in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridder, K.

    1993-01-01

    In Germany drivers of vehicles carrying radioactive materials have to undergo special training since midyear 1991. Training is organized in a modular system, which means that the driver can customize his dangerous goods training programme by combining several modules. The contents of the training programme, its organization and supervision as well as the means for checking the successful completion of the programme can be seen from the slides. This paper will close with an outlook on the European development, considering the framework set by the regulations of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) and the European Community (EC). (J.P.N.)

  13. Who should carry the cost of ecosystem service provision? A pan-European citizens’ view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokofieva, Irina; Mavsar, Robert; Bartczak, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The underlying notion of payments for environmental services is that beneficiaries of environmental services (directly or indirectly) financially support their provision by covering at least part of the costs landowners incur to generate them. This so-called “beneficiary-pay principle” is a widely...... accepted concept in theory, the legitimacy of which nevertheless has not yet been challenged in practice. In our study, we conducted an extensive survey in five European countries – Finland, Denmark, Poland, Italy and Spain – with the aim to explore citizens’ opinions of who should carry the costs...

  14. Larval traits carry over to affect post-settlement behaviour in a common coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingeldein, Andrea L; White, J Wilson

    2016-07-01

    Most reef fishes begin life as planktonic larvae before settling to the reef, metamorphosing and entering the benthic adult population. Different selective forces determine survival in the planktonic and benthic life stages, but traits established in the larval stage may carry over to affect post-settlement performance. We tested the hypothesis that larval traits affect two key post-settlement fish behaviours: social group-joining and foraging. Certain larval traits of reef fishes are permanently recorded in the rings in their otoliths. In the bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum), prior work has shown that key larval traits recorded in otoliths (growth rate, energetic condition at settlement) carry over to affect post-settlement survival on the reef, with higher-larval-condition fish experiencing less post-settlement mortality. We hypothesized that this selective mortality is mediated by carry-over effects on post-settlement antipredator behaviours. We predicted that better-condition fish would forage less and be more likely to join groups, both behaviours that would reduce predation risk. We collected 550 recently settled bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum) from three reef sites off St. Croix (USVI) and performed two analyses. First, we compared each settler's larval traits to the size of its social group to determine whether larval traits influenced group-joining behaviour. Secondly, we observed foraging behaviour in a subset of grouped and solitary fish (n = 14) for 1-4 days post-settlement. We then collected the fish and tested whether larval traits influenced the proportion of time spent foraging. Body length at settlement, but not condition, affected group-joining behaviour; smaller fish were more likely to remain solitary or in smaller groups. However, both greater length and better condition were associated with greater proportions of time spent foraging over four consecutive days post-settlement. Larval traits carry over to affect post

  15. Molecular characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates harboring small erm(T)-carrying plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compain, Fabrice; Hays, Constantin; Touak, Gérald; Dmytruk, Nicolas; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Joubrel, Caroline; Poyart, Claire

    2014-11-01

    Among 1,827 group B Streptococcus (GBS) strains collected between 2006 and 2013 by the French National Reference Center for Streptococci, 490 (26.8%) strains were erythromycin resistant. The erm(T) resistance gene was found in six strains belonging to capsular polysaccharides Ia, III, and V and was carried by the same mobilizable plasmid, which could be efficiently transferred by mobilization to GBS and Enterococcus faecalis recipients, thus promoting a broad dissemination of erm(T). Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. A phenotype of atypical apraxia of speech in a family carrying SQSTM1 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutoleau-Bretonnière, Claire; Camuzat, Agnès; Le Ber, Isabelle; Bouya-Ahmed, Kawtar; Guerreiro, Rita; Deruet, Anne-Laure; Evrard, Christelle; Bras, José; Lamy, Estelle; Auffray-Calvier, Elisabeth; Pallardy, Amandine; Hardy, John; Brice, Alexis; Derkinderen, Pascal; Vercelletto, Martine

    2015-01-01

    SQSTM1 mutations, coding for the p62 protein, were identified as a monogenic cause of Paget disease of bone and of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. More recently, SQSTM1 mutations were identified in few families with frontotemporal dementia. We report a new family carrying SQSTM1 mutation and presenting with a clinical phenotype of speech apraxia or atypical behavioral disorders, associated with early visuo-contructional deficits. This study further supports the implication of SQSTM1 in frontotemporal dementia, and enlarges the phenotypic spectrum associated with SQSTM1 mutations.

  17. Gamma-T4 hybrid bacteriophage carrying the thymidine kinase gene of bacteriophage T4.

    OpenAIRE

    Mileham, A J; Murray, N E; Revel, H R

    1984-01-01

    Among 32 lambda-T4 recombinant phages selected for growth on a thymidylate synthetase-deficient (thyA) host, 2 were shown to carry the T4 thymidine kinase (tk) gene. The lambda-T4tk phages contain two T4 HindIII DNA fragments (2.0 and 1.5 kilobases) that hybridize to restriction fragments of T4 DNA, encompassing the tk locus at 60 kilobases on the T4 map. The T4tk insert compensates for the simultaneous host deficiencies of thymidine kinase and thymidylate synthetase in a thymidine kinase-def...

  18. Transgenic lettuce seedlings carrying hepatitis B virus antigen HBsAg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Marcondes

    Full Text Available The obtainment of transgenic edible plants carrying recombinant antigens is a desired issue in search for economic alternatives viewing vaccine production. Here we report a strategy for genetic transformation of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L. using the surface antigen HBsAg of hepatitis B virus. Transgenic lettuce seedlings were obtained through the application of a regulated balance of plant growth regulators. Genetic transformation process was acquired by cocultivation of cotyledons with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring the recombinant plasmid. It is the first description of a lettuce Brazilian variety "Vitória de Verão" genetically modified.

  19. Transgenic lettuce seedlings carrying hepatitis B virus antigen HBsAg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondes, Jackson; Hansen, Ekkehard

    2008-12-01

    The obtainment of transgenic edible plants carrying recombinant antigens is a desired issue in search for economic alternatives viewing vaccine production. Here we report a strategy for genetic transformation of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) using the surface antigen HBsAg of hepatitis B virus. Transgenic lettuce seedlings were obtained through the application of a regulated balance of plant growth regulators. Genetic transformation process was acquired by cocultivation of cotyledons with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring the recombinant plasmid. It is the first description of a lettuce Brazilian variety 'Vitória de Verão' genetically modified.

  20. Train Headway Models and Carrying Capacity of Super-Speed Maglev System

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shiwei; Song, Rui; Eastham, Tony

    Train headway models are established by analyzing the operation of the Transrapid Super-speed Maglev System (TSMS). The variation in the minimum allowable headway for trains of different speeds and consists is studied under various operational constraints. A potential Beijing-Shanghai Maglev line is used as an illustration to undertake capacity analyses with the model and methods. The example shows that the headway models for analyzing the carrying capacity of Maglev systems are very useful for the configurational design of this new transport system.

  1. Method for carrying out endothermic chemical reactions with the use of nuclear reactor cooling gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haese, E.

    1977-01-01

    A process is disclosed for carrying out an endothermic chemical reaction, such as the water-gas reaction, wherein heat is supplied to the reaction from nuclear reactor cooling gases. The invention is characterized in that water vapor and fuel, for example, are passed through a series of heat exchangers and reaction chambers in series, the heat exchangers being disposed within a conduit through which cooling gases from a nuclear reactor flow. When a fuel such as methane, for example, is being dissociated in the endothermic reaction, additional fuel is added to each reaction chamber where heat is supplied from the nuclear reactor cooling medium via a separate heat exchanger for that chamber

  2. Impact of Flexibility Options on Grid Economic Carrying Capacity of Solar and Wind: Three Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we attempt to quantify the benefits of various options of grid flexibility by measuring their impact on two measures: economic carrying capacity and system costs. Flexibility can increase ECC and reduce overall system costs. In some cases, options that provide a limited increase in ECC can provide significant operational savings, thus demonstrating the need to evaluate flexibility options using multiple metrics. The value of flexibility options varies regionally due to different generation mixes and types of renewables. The more rapid decline in PV value compared to wind makes PV more dependent on adding flexibility options, including transmission and energy storage.

  3. Cost optimization of load carrying thin-walled precast high performance concrete sandwich panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodicky, Kamil; Hansen, Sanne; Hulin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes a procedure to find the structurally and thermally efficient design of load-carrying thin-walled precast High Performance Concrete Sandwich Panels (HPCSP) with an optimal economical solution. A systematic optimization approach is based on the selection of material’s performances....... The solution of the optimization problem is performed in the computer package software Matlab® with SQPlab package and integrates the processes of HPCSP design, quantity take-off and cost estimation. The proposed optimization process outcomes in complex HPCSP design proposals to achieve minimum cost of HPCSP....

  4. Synthesis and antimalarial activity of new chloroquine analogues carrying a multifunctional linear side chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniuk, Daniel P.; Whetmore, Eric D.; Rosa, Nicholas; Ekoue-Kovi, Kekeli; Alumasa, John; de Dios, Angel C.; Roepe, Paul D.; Wolf, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We report the synthesis and in vitro antimalarial activity of several new 4-amino-and 4-alkoxy-7-chloroquinolines carrying a linear dibasic side chain. Many of these chloroquine analogues have submicromolar antimalarial activity versus HB3 (chloroquine sensitive) and Dd2 (chloroquine resistant strain of P. falciparum) and low resistance indices were obtained in most cases. Importantly, compounds 11–15 and 24 proved to be more potent against Dd2 than chloroquine. Branching of the side chain structure proved detrimental to the activity against the CQR strain. PMID:19703776

  5. How can we carry out an action-research to improve practice in the science classroom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomé Vázquez Bernal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The work describes a program of action-research carried out with secondary education science teachers. The program persues the professional development through the curricular innovation, taking as promotional agent the action-oriented reflection, lending itself special attention to the socialization of the teachers. Throughout two school years actions directed to such effects were taken, organizing themselves through pedagogical content knowledge. The results show that the teachers, in a slow and gradual form, are incorporating new practical theories to their reflections and work in the classroom.

  6. Ferromagnetism carried by highly delocalized hybrid states in Sc-doped ZnO thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Benali Kanoun, Mohammed

    2012-05-29

    We present first-principles results for Sc-doped ZnOthin films. Neighboring Sc atoms in the surface and/or subsurface layers are found to be coupled ferromagnetically, where only two of the possible configurations induce spin polarization. In the first configuration, the polarization is carried by the Sc d states as expected for transition metaldoping. However, there is a second configuration which is energetically favorable. It is governed by polarized hybrid states of the Zns, O p, and Sc d orbitals. Such highly delocalized states can be an important ingredient for understanding the magnetism of dopedZnOthin films.

  7. Carrying capacities for nature parks as engines for sustainable regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Holmes, Esbern

    as Charter Parks within the European Charter for sustainable tourism in Protected Areas developed by the EUROPARC Federation. Due to the strong political commitments related to European nature protection goals attached to the Natura2000 program, Natura2000 sites overlapping the nature parks have been taken......, it also offers opportunities for the development of a sustainable regional strategy. Here experience with carrying capacity and a balanced land use and regulation within the park can work as a model for a sustainable regional development through an improved landscape and land use design. A one...

  8. Synthesis of nanodiamond derivatives carrying amino functions and quantification by a modified Kaiser test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Jarre

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanodiamonds functionalized with different organic moieties carrying terminal amino groups have been synthesized. These include conjugates generated by Diels–Alder reactions of ortho-quinodimethanes formed in situ from pyrazine and 5,6-dihydrocyclobuta[d]pyrimidine derivatives. For the quantification of primary amino groups a modified photometric assay based on the Kaiser test has been developed and validated for different types of aminated nanodiamond. The results correspond well to values obtained by thermogravimetry. The method represents an alternative wet-chemical quantification method in cases where other techniques like elemental analysis fail due to unfavourable combustion behaviour of the analyte or other impediments.

  9. [How to carry out the translational medicine research effectively in gastrointestinal tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xin-yu; Liu, Feng-lin

    2013-01-01

    As a new concept, the definition of translational medicine remains obscure. The translational medicine connects the bench to bedside, and its importance would be more remarkable. The development of gastrointestinal surgery reflects the idea of translational medicine. To carry out the translational study, the gastrointestinal surgeon must learn how to find subjects from clinical problems, how to collect complete information and tissues, how to collect complete information and tissues, how to collaborate with others from different fields and how to utilize all kinds of resources. By translational studies, gastrointestinal surgeons may further improve the survival of patients with gastrointestinal tumor.

  10. IDENTIFYING ACTIONS NEEDED TO IMPROVE THE CARRYING CAPACITY OF THE UKRAINIAN RAILWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. I. Muzykina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we have touched the problem of high freight traffic of the main railway lines ofUkraine. The analysis of the present condition of these lines is given and their technical equipment is described. The main undertakings directed towards increasing the traffic and carrying capacity of the railways are also considered. The dynamics of the wagon traffic volume and train mass changes related to the mentioned lines over the past years is presented. The possible measures which should secure minimum costs for the wide usage of the trains of increased mass and length are also considered and planed.

  11. Grip force and heart rate responses to manual carrying tasks: effects of material, weight, and base area of the container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien; Tseng, Chia-Yun

    2014-01-01

    This study recruited 16 industrial workers to examine the effects of material, weight, and base area of container on reduction of grip force (ΔGF) and heart rate for a 100-m manual carrying task. This study examined 2 carrying materials (iron and water), 4 carrying weights (4.4, 8.9, 13.3, 17.8 kg), and 2 base areas of container (24 × 24 cm, 35 × 24 cm). This study showed that carrying water significantly increased ΔGF and heart rate as compared with carrying iron. Also, ΔGF and heart rate significantly increased with carrying weight and base area of container. The effects of base area of container on ΔGF and heart rate were greater in carrying water condition than in carrying iron condition. The maximum dynamic effect of water on ΔGF and heart rate occurred when water occupied ~60%-80% of full volume of the container.

  12. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains may carry virulence properties of diarrhoeagenic E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Cecilia M; Salvador, Fábia A; Falsetti, Ivan N; Vieira, Mônica A M; Blanco, Jorge; Blanco, Jesús E; Blanco, Miguel; Machado, Antônia M O; Elias, Waldir P; Hernandes, Rodrigo T; Gomes, Tânia A T

    2008-04-01

    To analyze whether Escherichia coli strains that cause urinary tract infections (UPEC) share virulence characteristics with the diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) pathotypes and to recognize their genetic diversity, 225 UPEC strains were examined for the presence of various properties of DEC and UPEC (type of interaction with HeLa cells, serogroups and presence of 30 virulence genes). No correlation between adherence patterns and serogroups was observed. Forty-five serogroups were found, but 64% of the strains belonged to one of the 12 serogroups (O1, O2, O4, O6, O7, O14, O15, O18, O21, O25, O75, and O175) and carried UPEC virulence genes (pap, hly, aer, sfa, cnf). The DEC genes found were: aap, aatA, aggC, agg3C, aggR, astA, eae, ehly, iha, irp2, lpfA(O113), pet, pic, pilS, and shf. Sixteen strains presented aggregative adherence and/or the aatA sequence, which are characteristics of enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), one of the DEC pathotypes. In summary, certain UPEC strains may carry DEC virulence properties, mostly associated to the EAEC pathotype. This finding raises the possibility that at least some faecal EAEC strains might represent potential uropathogens. Alternatively, certain UPEC strains may have acquired EAEC properties, becoming a potential cause of diarrhoea.

  13. Extrinsic Influence of Environment-Induced Degradation on Load Carrying Capacity of Steel Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Sunil; Patnaik, A.; Payer, J.; Srivatsan, T. S.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the results of a study aimed at evaluating the strength of wide-flanged beams subjected to corrosion-induced damage, modeled using a standard finite element program (ABAQUS) is presented and discussed. Typical beams in consideration were subjected to different cases of corrosion-induced damage, such as non-uniform and varying degree of material loss that simulates pitting corrosion. Many variables, such as (a) shape of pitting damage, (b) location of pits along the length of the beam, (c) number of pits, and (d) depth of pits, were considered to facilitate a better understanding of the load carrying capacity of steel I-beams having damage quite similar to pitting damage to the web. The results are compared with an "as-new" beam for purpose of evaluation of the reduction in strength due to environment-induced deterioration. A "corrosion strength reduction factor (CSRF)" is introduced to help identify the reduction in load carrying capacity as a consequence of both height and depth of the damage due to corrosion. The results are presented in charts for purpose of practical beam design.

  14. Summaries of studies carried out in the NKS/BOK-2 project. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palsson, S.E.

    2002-12-01

    Summaries of studies carried out in the NKSBOK-2 project, Radiological and Environmental Consequences. The structure of the project as such is described in NKS-64, Radiological and Environmental Consequences - Final Report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Project BOK-2. That report also includes compilations based on the summaries presented in this report. The project was carried out 1998-2001 with participants from all the Nordic countries. Representatives from the Baltic States were also invited to some of the meetings and seminars. The project consisted of work on terrestrial and marine radioecology and had a broad scope in order to enable participation of research groups with various fields of interest. The topics included improving assessment of old and recent fallout, use of radionuclides as tracers in Nordic marine areas, improving assessment of internal doses and use of mass spectrometry in radioecology. This report is a compilation of summaries from each research group, 32 papers in all, and gives references to papers published in scientific journals. Some of the studies have been described previously, at least to some degree, in NKS-70, Proceedings of the 8 th Nordic Seminar on Radioecology, 25-28 February 2001, Rovaniemi, Finland. (au)

  15. Piloting and dead reckoning dissociated by fimbria-fornix lesions in a rat food carrying task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whishaw, I Q; Tomie, J A

    1997-12-01

    Control rats and rats with fimbria-fornix (FF) lesions were tested in a foraging task that required that they emerge from either a visible or hidden home base onto an open field to hunt for food pellets, which they then carry back to the home base to eat. Once they were proficient at returning to a location, they and the home base were moved so that they emerged to forage from a new starting position. When the location of a visible home base was moved, both groups of rats learned to make accurate returns. When the location of a hidden home base was moved, control rats first carried the food to the old location and then accurately returned to the new location as their second choice. Thus, as early as a first 'reversal' trial, they displayed spatial memory for both locations while the FF rats perseverated in returning to the old location. In returning to familiar start points, the rats may use distal visual (allothetic) cues and piloting, while when returning to new start points they may use self-movement (ideothetic) cues and dead reckoning. That FF lesions dissociated the two kinds of navigation suggests a role for the hippocampus in navigation based on ideothetic cues.

  16. The Fetal Care Team: Care for Pregnant Women Carrying a Fetus with a Serious Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyet, Margaret; McLean, Amy; Graham, Karen; Antoine, Cheryl; Fossick, Kathy

    Women carrying a fetus with a suspected or known fetal anomaly have complex needs such as emotional and informational support and help with the logistical aspects of arranging care and treatment from numerous specialists. IMPROVEMENT IN QUALITY OF CARE FOR WOMEN CARRYING A FETUS WITH A SUSPECTED OR KNOWN FETAL ANOMALY:: Our fetal care team was initiated in 2012 to meet the needs of this high-risk pregnant population. The fetal care team nurse coordinator supports the woman and her family through all aspects of care during the pregnancy and neonatal period including scheduling appointments with multiple specialists, being there with her as a support person, keeping her updated, making sure she has accurate information about the fetal diagnosis, and helping her to navigate the complex healthcare system. Since the program was started, the number of women enrolled has nearly doubled. Women overwhelmingly are satisfied with the various services and care provided by the nurse coordinators and believe the fetal care team has value for them. We present the development and operations of our fetal care team with a focus on the role of the fetal care team nurse coordinator.

  17. Meta-analysis of carrying capacity and abundance-area relationships in marine fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantzouni, Irene

    Knowledge on the carrying capacity and the abundance-area relationships of fish is critical to evaluate the impacts of exploitation and climate on the sustainability and also the recovery potential of the populations. Of particular interest is climate change, inducing major consequences for popul......Knowledge on the carrying capacity and the abundance-area relationships of fish is critical to evaluate the impacts of exploitation and climate on the sustainability and also the recovery potential of the populations. Of particular interest is climate change, inducing major consequences...... for population dynamics and life histories of marine biota as it progresses in the 21st century. In the present PhD project, a variety of meta-analytic methods was employed to statistically combine data across the north Atlantic distributions of 3 commercially and ecologically important species; cod (Gadus...... fish produced by spawners in a given year which subsequently grow and survive to become vulnerable to fishing gear) have reacted to temperature fluctuations, and in particular to extremes of temperature, throughout the north Atlantic. Meta-analytical methods based on effect sizes were employed...

  18. Fast reconstruction of an unmanned engineering vehicle and its application to carrying rocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Qian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Engineering vehicle is widely used as a huge moving platform for transporting heavy goods. However, traditional human operations have a great influence on the steady movement of the vehicle. In this Letter, a fast reconstruction process of an unmanned engineering vehicle is carried out. By adding a higher-level controller and two two-dimensional laser scanners on the moving platform, the vehicle could perceive the surrounding environment and locate its pose according to extended Kalman filter. Then, a closed-loop control system is formed by communicating with the on-board lower-level controller. To verify the performance of automatic control system, the unmanned vehicle is automatically navigated when carrying a rocket towards a launcher in a launch site. The experimental results show that the vehicle could align with the launcher smoothly and safely within a small lateral deviation of 1 cm. This fast reconstruction presents an efficient way of rebuilding low-cost unmanned special vehicles and other automatic moving platforms.

  19. A review and synthesis of recreation ecology research supporting carrying capacity and visitor use management decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Resource and experiential impacts associated with visitation to wilderness and other similar backcountry settings have long been addressed by land managers under the context of “carrying capacity” decisionmaking. Determining a maximum level of allowable use, below which high-quality resource and experiential conditions would be sustained, was an early focus in the 1960s and 1970s. However, decades of recreation ecology research have shown that the severity and areal extent of visitor impact problems are influenced by an interrelated array of use-related, environmental, and managerial factors. This complexity, with similar findings from social science research, prompted scientists and managers to develop more comprehensive carrying capacity frameworks, including a new Visitor Use Management framework. These frameworks rely on a diverse array of management strategies and actions, often termed a “management toolbox,” for resolving visitor impact problems. This article reviews the most recent and relevant recreation ecology studies that have been applied in wildland settings to avoid or minimize resource impacts. The key findings and their management implications are highlighted to support the professional management of common trail, recreation site, and wildlife impact problems. These studies illustrate the need to select from a more diverse array of impact management strategies and actions based on an evaluation of problems to identify the most influential factors that can be manipulated.

  20. Effect of radiation on transgenic mice carrying a variety of oncogenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Tohru; Hirabayashi, Yoko

    1993-01-01

    We have been trying to see a rule of regulation in proliferation and differentiation of the hemopoietic stem cells, specifically at an in vivo-level of mice that had been transferred a variety of oncogenes into the stem cells. Among the various methods available for transgenes, transgenic mice used in the present purposes are, at this moment, the most efficient way to observe function of gene of interests in hemopoietic stem cells, to which genes are introduced rarely because of two reasons, i.e., their extremely lower frequency in the bone marrow, and their prominent quiescence in cellular kinetics. To use such transgenic mice, we also applied transplantation assay, in which mice, repopulated with bone marrow cells carrying the gene of interests, consisted the gene solely in the hemopoietic system. This system permitted to avoid a possible competitive risk between the leukemogenesis and the carcinogenesis in other organs. In the present article, we introduced first the transplantation assay in which the recipient mice were repopulated with bone marrow cells carrying human c-myc gene; second kinetics of the hemopoietic stem cells in the myc-mice; furthermore, radiation effects on leukemogenesis of the h-c-myc marrow followed by discussion of the results. We also introduced our experimental model for the myelodysplastic syndrome, i.e., a multi-lineage abnormal growth of hemopoietic elements, appeared in the SV40-large T transgenic mice, for the future research studying a mechanism of radiation leukemogenesis. (author)

  1. Hyperspectral Biofilm Classification Analysis for Carrying Capacity of Migratory Birds in the South Bay Salt Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Chen; Kuss, Amber Jean; Ketron, Tyler; Nguyen, Andrew; Remar, Alex Covello; Newcomer, Michelle; Fleming, Erich; Debout, Leslie; Debout, Brad; Detweiler, Angela; hide

    2011-01-01

    Tidal marshes are highly productive ecosystems that support migratory birds as roosting and over-wintering habitats on the Pacific Flyway. Microphytobenthos, or more commonly 'biofilms' contribute significantly to the primary productivity of wetland ecosystems, and provide a substantial food source for macroinvertebrates and avian communities. In this study, biofilms were characterized based on taxonomic classification, density differences, and spectral signatures. These techniques were then applied to remotely sensed images to map biofilm densities and distributions in the South Bay Salt Ponds and predict the carrying capacity of these newly restored ponds for migratory birds. The GER-1500 spectroradiometer was used to obtain in situ spectral signatures for each density-class of biofilm. The spectral variation and taxonomic classification between high, medium, and low density biofilm cover types was mapped using in-situ spectral measurements and classification of EO-1 Hyperion and Landsat TM 5 images. Biofilm samples were also collected in the field to perform laboratory analyses including chlorophyll-a, taxonomic classification, and energy content. Comparison of the spectral signatures between the three density groups shows distinct variations useful for classification. Also, analysis of chlorophyll-a concentrations show statistically significant differences between each density group, using the Tukey-Kramer test at an alpha level of 0.05. The potential carrying capacity in South Bay Salt Ponds is estimated to be 250,000 birds.

  2. Decommissioning of nuclear power stations in community countries carried out and projected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cregut, A.; Gregory, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    The decommissioning of large plants such as nuclear power stations merits an approach requiring the introduction of measures and procedures allowing them to be dealt with efficiently; this efficiency would imply concern for optimum economy of operations while respecting the safety and protection rules inherent in nuclear energy. Consequently, plant owners require: the tactical and policy elements to guide them in their decisions and choices; efficient tools, equipment and processes which meet their needs; information gained from experience of decommissioning already carried out which would provide them with a verified background knowledge when dealing with problems. Since decommissioning experience to date has not made it possible to draw up codes and guidelines, it is important to review the work carried out by Community countries in particular on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. The following paper does not claim to be exhaustive or to make value judgements. Its aim is to list the nuclear power stations shut down in Community countries, to outline the decommissioning levels selected in each case and to underline some interesting aspects of the technical options. In conclusion it will review what appeared to be the difficulties common to the various projects. (author)

  3. A high-resolution programmable Vernier delay generator based on carry chains in FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ke; Li, Xiangyu; Zhu, Rihong

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents an architecture of a high-resolution delay generator implemented in a single field programmable gate array chip by exploiting the method of utilizing dedicated carry chains. It serves as the core component in various physical instruments. The proposed delay generator contains the coarse delay step and the fine delay step to guarantee both large dynamic range and high resolution. The carry chains are organized in the Vernier delay loop style to fulfill the fine delay step with high precision and high linearity. The delay generator was implemented in the EP3SE110F1152I3 Stratix III device from Altera on a self-designed test board. Test results show that the obtained resolution is 38.6 ps, and the differential nonlinearity/integral nonlinearity is in the range of [-0.18 least significant bit (LSB), 0.24 LSB]/(-0.02 LSB, 0.01 LSB) under the nominal supply voltage of 1100 mV and environmental temperature of 2 0°C. The delay generator is rather efficient concerning resource cost, which uses only 668 look-up tables and 146 registers in total.

  4. BACTERIA CARRIED BY CHRYSOMYA MEGACEPHALA (FABRICIUS, 1794 (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE IN SINOP, MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Carneiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae, popularly known as blowfly, has a great capacity for dispersion and, due to factors such as food abundance and favorable climate, it colonizes Brazil completely in a short time. These insects are important to the sectors of epidemiology, public health and forensics, especially due to carrying microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminthes, which are responsible for the spread of diseases such as dysentery, cholera, botulism, typhoid fever, brucellosis, polio, smallpox and tuberculosis. The objective of this study was to verify the diversity of bacteria carried by this species in the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Campus of Sinop during the month of January of 2012. The flies were collected using two traps baited with 100 g of fresh sardines on each and maintained in the field for 24 hours. Twenty specimens of C. megacephala were placed in Petri dishes, to walk for two minutes upon Nutrient Agar (NA. After establishment of the colonies, isolation of the bacteria on the NA medium and their multiplication in test tubes containing the same culture medium was performed, and later sent to identification by gas chromatography. The bacteria encountered were Aquaspirillum polymorphum; Burkholderia ambifaria; Burkholderia anthina; Burkholderia cepacia; Burkholderia cenocepacia; Burkholderia pyrrocinia; Burkholderia stabilis; Paenibacillus macerans; Virgibacillus pantothenticus, Bacillus subtilis e Photorhabdus luminescens luminescens, with the last two species considered of importance in the plant protection sector.

  5. Thermal loss of life and load-carrying capacity of marine induction motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnacinski, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of voltage quality on induction motors is investigated. • Power quality significantly affects machine lifetime and load-carrying capacity. • Permissible load levels for induction motors are proposed. - Abstract: This work deals with the effect of a lowered voltage quality on the thermal loss of life and load-carrying capacity of marine induction cage machines. Results of experimental investigations and computer calculations are presented for two low power induction motors with different properties. One of them has a comparatively strongly-saturated magnetic circuit and is especially exposed to the risk of overheating under overvoltage. The other machine has a comparatively weakly-saturated magnetic circuit, and is especially sensitive to undervoltage. The induction motor lifetime expectancy is also estimated on the basis of the temperature coefficient of power quality, whose value is proportional to the windings temperature rise in induction motors especially sensitive to various power quality disturbances. The dependence of the temperature coefficient of power quality and permissible loads for induction motors supplied with voltages of lowered quality is proposed

  6. Genetic analysis of hantaviruses carried by Myodes and Microtus rodents in Buryatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundkvist Åke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hantavirus genome sequences were recovered from tissue samples of Myodes rufocanus, Microtus fortis and Microtus oeconomus captured in the Baikal area of Buryatia, Russian Federation. Genetic analysis of S- and M-segment sequences of Buryatian hantavirus strains showed that Myodes-associated strains belong to Hokkaido virus (HOKV type while Microtus-associated strains belong to Vladivostok virus (VLAV type. On phylogenetic trees Buryatian HOKV strains were clustered together with M. rufocanus- originated strains from Japan, China and Far-East Russia (Primorsky region. Buryatian Microtus- originated strains shared a common recent ancestor with M. fortis- originated VLAV strain from Far-East Russia (Vladivostok area. Our data (i confirm that M. rufocanus carries a hantavirus which is similar to but distinct from both Puumala virus carried by M. glareolus and Muju virus associated with M. regulus, (ii confirm that M. fortis is the natural host for VLAV, and (iii suggest M. oeconomus as an alternative host for VLAV.

  7. Mechanism of reduction in titers from lentivirus vectors carrying large inserts in the 3'LTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinati, Fabrizia; Arumugam, Paritha; Higashimoto, Tomoyasu; Perumbeti, Anil; Mitts, Kyle; Xia, Ping; Malik, Punam

    2009-09-01

    Self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviruses flanked by the 1.2-kb chicken hypersensitive site-4 (cHS4) insulator element provide consistent, improved expression of transgenes, but have significantly lower titers. The mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Lengthening the lentiviral (LV) vector transgene cassette by an additional 1.2 kb by an internal cassette caused no further reduction in titers. However, when cHS4 sequences or inert DNA spacers of increasing size were placed in the 3'-long terminal repeat (LTR), infectious titers decreased proportional to the length of the insert. The stage of vector life cycle affected by vectors carrying the large cHS4 3'LTR insert was compared to a control vector: there was no increase in read-through transcription with insertion of the 1.2-kb cHS4 in the 3'LTR. Equal amount of full-length viral mRNA was produced in packaging cells and viral assembly/packaging was unaffected, resulting in comparable amounts of intact vector particles produced by either vectors. However, LV vectors carrying cHS4 in the 3'LTR were inefficiently processed following target-cell entry, with reduced reverse transcription and integration efficiency, and hence lower transduction titers. Therefore, vectors with large insertions in the 3'LTR are transcribed and packaged efficiently, but the LTR insert hinders viral-RNA (vRNA) processing and transduction of target cells. These studies have important implications in design of integrating vectors.

  8. Studies on water resources carrying capacity in Tuhai river basin based on ecological footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengshuai; Xu, Lirong; Fu, Xin

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the method of the water ecological footprint (WEF) was used to evaluate water resources carrying capacity and water resources sustainability of Tuhai River Basin in Shandong Province. The results show that: (1) The WEF had a downward trend in overall volatility in Tuhai River Basin from 2003 to 2011. Agricultural water occupies high proportion, which was a major contributor to the WEF, and about 86.9% of agricultural WEF was used for farmland irrigation; (2) The water resources carrying capacity had a downward trend in general, which was mostly affected by some natural factors in this basin such as hydrology and meteorology in Tuhai River Basin; (3) Based on analysis of water resources ecological deficit, it can be concluded that the water resources utilization mode was in an unhealthy pattern and it was necessary to improve the utilization efficiency of water resources in Tuhai River Basin; (4) In view of water resources utilization problems in the studied area, well irrigation should be greatly developed at the head of Yellow River Irrigation Area(YRIA), however, water from Yellow River should be utilized for irrigation as much as possible, combined with agricultural water-saving measures and controlled exploiting groundwater at the tail of YRIA. Therefore, the combined usage of surface water and ground water of YRIA is an important way to realize agricultural water saving and sustainable utilization of water resources in Tuhai River Basin.

  9. [Evaluation of land resources carrying capacity of development zone based on planning environment impact assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shi-Feng; Zhang, Ping; Jiang, Jin-Long

    2012-02-01

    Assessment of land resources carrying capacity is the key point of planning environment impact assessment and the main foundation to determine whether the planning could be implemented or not. With the help of the space analysis function of Geographic Information System, and selecting altitude, slope, land use type, distance from resident land, distance from main traffic roads, and distance from environmentally sensitive area as the sensitive factors, a comprehensive assessment on the ecological sensitivity and its spatial distribution in Zhangzhou Merchants Economic and Technological Development Zone, Fujian Province of East China was conducted, and the assessment results were combined with the planning land layout diagram for the ecological suitability analysis. In the Development Zone, 84.0% of resident land, 93.1% of industrial land, 86.0% of traffic land, and 76. 0% of other constructive lands in planning were located in insensitive and gently sensitive areas, and thus, the implement of the land use planning generally had little impact on the ecological environment, and the land resources in the planning area was able to meet the land use demand. The assessment of the population carrying capacity with ecological land as the limiting factor indicated that in considering the highly sensitive area and 60% of the moderately sensitive area as ecological land, the population within the Zone in the planning could reach 240000, and the available land area per capita could be 134.0 m2. Such a planned population scale is appropriate, according to the related standards of constructive land.

  10. Study on the carry capacity of edible jellyfish fishery in Liaodong Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Kui; Bian, Yongning; Ma, Caihua; Chi, Xupeng; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yuyu

    2016-06-01

    Jellyfish fishing is a special type of fishery that mainly exists in some countries of East and Southeast Asia. China has the largest jellyfish fishery yield in the world with an annual harvest of around 300 thousand tons. Liaodong Bay is the most important jellyfish fishery ground in China. However, due to the high benefits of jellyfish fishery, which leads to illegal and out-of-season jellyfish fishing occurring each year in Liaodong Bay. Illegal jellyfish fishery in Liaodong Bay is a typical example of the tragedy of the commons. The key problem is that fishermen seek to an illegally initiate jellyfish fishing as early as possible. In this paper, basing on the data of edible jellyfish's biology and ecology, we mainly analyzed the history of jellyfish fishery in China, especially in Liaodong bay, and then we calculated the carry capacity of edible jellyfish in Liaodong Bay which is about 300 thousand tons one year. This number is equal to the recent annual yield of edible jellyfish in China. Furthermore, basing on the carry capacity and reasonable quotas price analysis, we set up a Jellyfish fishing quotas and deficit quotas buyback system which could be a suitable and effective solution for jellyfish fishery management and development in Liaodong Bay at the underlying roots. Although China is the first country with edible jellyfish aquaculture, the annual yield of jellyfish aquaculture is only one fifth of jellyfish fishing. So, there is a very bright developing prospect about edible jellyfish aquaculture in China.

  11. MINT's experience in carrying out radiological impact assessment on NORM/TENORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Khairuddin Kontol

    1999-01-01

    NORM and TENORM are occurred naturally in low concentration in our environment and they have been there since this world came into being. However, technological development has changed the situation where excessive exploitation of natural resources has resulted in enhancement of NORM/TENORM concentration in some of the materials. In Malaysia, most of the NORM/TENORM problems are associated with tin mining, mineral sand processing and oil production activities. Previous studies indicate that as a result of these activities, the concentration of NORM in some by-products has increased (enhanced) quite significantly to a level that some of them can become hazardous to health and need to be properly control. Thus, there is a need to carry out a radiological impact assessment on any new activity to prove that the associated exposure risk is low before an approval is given. There are limited national and international regulations and guidelines available that can be used to address radiological problems associated with NORM/TENORM. However, with the necessary expertise and facilities available in MINT, such problems faced by the local industries could be overcome as has been proven in previous consultant work provided by the institute to a few companies. In this paper, MINT's experience in carrying out the consultant work on radiological impact assessment for tin slag disposal, oil sludge treatment and recycling of TENORM contaminated plant components are elaborated and shared with the audience. (Author)

  12. A high-resolution programmable Vernier delay generator based on carry chains in FPGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ke; Li, Xiangyu; Zhu, Rihong

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents an architecture of a high-resolution delay generator implemented in a single field programmable gate array chip by exploiting the method of utilizing dedicated carry chains. It serves as the core component in various physical instruments. The proposed delay generator contains the coarse delay step and the fine delay step to guarantee both large dynamic range and high resolution. The carry chains are organized in the Vernier delay loop style to fulfill the fine delay step with high precision and high linearity. The delay generator was implemented in the EP3SE110F1152I3 Stratix III device from Altera on a self-designed test board. Test results show that the obtained resolution is 38.6 ps, and the differential nonlinearity/integral nonlinearity is in the range of [-0.18 least significant bit (LSB), 0.24 LSB]/(-0.02 LSB, 0.01 LSB) under the nominal supply voltage of 1100 mV and environmental temperature of 20  ° C. The delay generator is rather efficient concerning resource cost, which uses only 668 look-up tables and 146 registers in total.

  13. On the first tachinid fly (Diptera, Tachinidae carrying Asclepiadoideae pollinaria in the Neotropical Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Shigueo Nihei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available On the first tachinid fly (Diptera, Tachinidae carrying Asclepiadoideae pollinaria in the Neotropical Region. This paper reports the first Neotropical Tachinidae species possibly associated to pollination of Asclepiadoideae: a female of Euacaulona sumichrasti Townsend, 1908 (Diptera, Tachinidae, Phasiinae, Trichopodini carrying pollinaria of Gonolobus parviflorus Decne., 1844 (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asclepiadeae: Gonolobinae attached to its proboscis. The fly specimen was collected in Paraguay, Departamento Canindeyú. The pollinarium is illustrated and described herein. This represents the first anthophilous record to G. parviflorus and to the genus.Sobre o primeiro taquinídeo (Diptera, Tachinidae carregando polinários de Asclepiadoideae na Região Neotropical. Esta contribuição relata a primeira espécie neotropical de Tachinidae possivelmente associada à polinização de Asclepiadoideae: uma fêmea de Euacaulona sumichrasti Townsend, 1908 (Diptera, Tachinidae, Phasiinae, Trichopodini transportando dois polinários de Gonolobus parviflorus Decne., 1844 (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asclepiadeae: Gonolobinae presos à sua probóscide. O espécime foi coletado no Paraguai, Departamento Canindeyú. O polinário é ilustrado e caracterizado. Este é o primeiro registro de antofilia para G. parviflorus e para o gênero.

  14. Diversity of sponges (Porifera) from cryptic habitats on the Belize barrier reef near Carrie Bow Cay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rützler, Klaus; Piantoni, Carla; Van Soest, Rob W M; Díaz, M Cristina

    2014-05-29

    The Caribbean barrier reef near Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, has been a focus of Smithsonian Institution (Washington) reef and mangrove investigations since the early 1970s. Systematics and biology of sponges (Porifera) were addressed by several researchers but none of the studies dealt with cryptic habitats, such as the shaded undersides of coral rubble, reef crevices, and caves, although a high species diversity was recognized and samples were taken for future reference and study. This paper is the result of processing samples taken between 1972 and 2012. In all, 122 species were identified, 14 of them new (including one new genus). The new species are Tetralophophora (new genus) mesoamericana, Geodia cribrata, Placospongia caribica, Prosuberites carriebowensis, Timea diplasterina, Timea oxyasterina, Rhaphidhistia belizensis, Wigginsia curlewensis, Phorbas aurantiacus, Myrmekioderma laminatum, Niphates arenata, Siphonodictyon occultum, Xestospongia purpurea, and Aplysina sciophila. We determined that about 75 of the 122 cryptic sponge species studied (61%) are exclusive members of the sciophilic community, 47 (39 %) occur in both, light-exposed and shaded or dark habitats. Since we estimate the previously known sponge population of Carrie Bow reefs and mangroves at about 200 species, the cryptic fauna makes up 38 % of total diversity.

  15. Heterogeneity of vat(E)-carrying plasmids in Enterococcus faecium recovered from human and animal sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simjee, Shabbir; Zhang, Yifan; McDermott, Patrick F; Donabedian, Susan M; Zervos, Marcus J; Meng, Jianghong

    2006-09-01

    In this study, quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D)-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates (33 from poultry farms and 1 from a human outpatient) with Q/D minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 4 microg/mL to 32 microg/mL were analysed. Polymerase chain reaction detected the presence of vat(E) in all isolates. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), 14 distinct PFGE patterns were identified. The human E. faecium isolate was distinguishable from the 33 farm isolates by PFGE. Southern hybridisation localised the vat(E) gene to an 11 kb plasmid and resulted in five plasmid hybridisation types. The vat(E)-carrying plasmid from the human isolate showed a nearly identical hybridisation pattern to a plasmid from a farm isolate. This study showed that the vat(E) gene, conferring resistance to Q/D, was carried on different plasmids in a heterogeneous group of E. faecium, some of which may be acquired by E. faecium capable of infecting humans.

  16. Hypersensitive response to Aphis gossypii Glover in melon genotypes carrying the Vat gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villada, Emilio Sarria; González, Elisa Garzo; López-Sesé, Ana Isabel; Castiel, Alberto Fereres; Gómez-Guillamón, María Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Aphis gossypii Glover causes direct and indirect damage to Cucumis melo L. crops. To decrease the harmful effects of this pest, one of the most economically and environmentally acceptable options is to use genetically resistant melon varieties. To date, several sources of resistance carrying the Vat gene are used in melon breeding programmes that aim to prevent A. gossypii colonization and the subsequent aphid virus transmission. The results suggest that the resistance conferred by this gene is associated with a microscopic hypersensitive response specific against A. gossypii. Soon after aphid infestation, phenol synthesis, deposits of callose and lignin in the cell walls, damage to the plasmalemma, and a micro-oxidative burst were detected in genotypes carrying the Vat gene. According to electrical penetration graph experiments, this response seems to occur after aphid stylets puncture the plant cells and not during intercellular stylet penetration. This type of plant tissue reaction was not detected in melon plants infested with Bemisia tabaci Gennadius nor Myzus persicae Sulzer.

  17. Study of Carrying Capacity Assesment for Natural Fisheries in Jatibarang Reservoir In Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujono, Bambang; Anggoro, Sutrisno

    2018-02-01

    Jatibarang reservoir serves as water supply in dry season and controlling flood in Semarang City. This reservoir is stem Kreo River which cathment areas of 54 km2, pool of area 110 ha and volume is 20 billion m3. This reservoir is potential to develop as natural fisheries area. The goals of this research were to explore existing condition of physical, biological as well as chemical parameter; carrying capacity assessment for natural fisheries; determining appropriate fish species to be developed in Jatibarang reservoir. This research was done in descriptive explorative scheme. Field survey and laboratory analyses were conducted to identify physical, chemical and biological parameters of the water. Physical parameters measured were temperature and water brightness. Chemical parameters measured were pH, DO, phosphate, Ammonia, nitrites and nitrate, while biological parameter measured were chlorophyll-a concentration. Carrying capacity analyses was done referred to the Government Regulation Number 82, 2001 that regulate the management of water quality and water pollution control. Based on the research, it showed that the existing condition of physical, chemical and biological parameters were still good to be used for natural fisheries. Based on TSI index, it classified as eutrofic water. Furthermore, tilapia fish (Oreochromis mossambicus), nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) tawes (Barbonymus gonionotus) and carper fish (Cyprinus carpio) were considered as best species for natural fisheries in Jatibarang Reservoir.

  18. Carry-over of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from feed to milk in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, L A P; Mulder, P P J; Zeilmaker, M J; van den Top, H J; Remmelink, G J; Brandon, E F A; Klijnstra, M; Meijer, G A L; Schothorst, R; Van Egmond, H P

    2011-03-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are toxins present in many plants belonging to the families of Asteraceae, Boraginaceae and Fabaceae. Particularly notorious are pyrrolizidine alkaloids present in ragwort species (Senecio), which are held responsible for hepatic disease in horses and cows and may lead to the death of the affected animals. In addition, these compounds may be transferred to edible products of animal origin and as such be a threat for the health of consumers. To investigate the possible transfer of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from contaminated feed to milk, cows were put on a ration for 3 weeks with increasing amounts (50-200 g day(-1)) of dried ragwort. Milk was collected and sampled twice a day; faeces and urine twice a week. For milk, a dose-related appearance of pyrrolizidine alkaloids was found. Jacoline was the major component in milk despite being a minor component in the ragwort material. Practically no N-oxides were observed in milk, notwithstanding the fact that they constituted over 80% of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids in ragwort. The overall carry-over of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids was estimated to be only around 0.1%, but for jacoline 4%. Notwithstanding the low overall carry-over, this may be relevant for consumer health considering the genotoxic and carcinogenic properties demonstrated for some of these compounds. Analysis of the faeces and urine samples indicated that substantial metabolism of pyrrolizidine alkaloids is taking place. The toxicity and potential transfer of metabolites to milk is unknown and remains to be investigated.

  19. Manipulating individual state during migration provides evidence for carry-over effects modulated by environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legagneux, Pierre; Fast, Peter L F; Gauthier, Gilles; Bêty, Joël

    2012-03-07

    Despite observational evidence of carry-over effects (COEs, events occurring in one season that produce residual effects on individuals the following seasons), to our knowledge no experimental studies have been carried out to explore how COEs might affect reproductive output. We simulated an environmental perturbation affecting spring-staging migrants to investigate COEs in greater snow geese (Anser caerulescens atlanticus). During three consecutive years, 2037 females captured during spring staging (approx. 3000 km south of their Arctic breeding grounds) were maintained in captivity (with or without access to food) for 0-4 days. Duration of captivity (but not food treatment) negatively affected reproductive success, probably through stress response. Reproductive success was reduced by 45-71% in 2 years, but not in a third year with unusually favourable breeding conditions. This unprecedented manipulation indicates that COEs can have a strong effect on individual reproductive success in long-distance migrants, but that this effect can be partly compensated for by good environmental conditions on the breeding ground.

  20. Synthesis and optical properties of pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid carrying a clicked Nile red label

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattawut Yotapan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available DNA or its analogues with an environment-sensitive fluorescent label are potentially useful as a probe for studying the structure and dynamics of nucleic acids. In this work, pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (acpcPNA was labeled at its backbone with Nile red, a solvatochromic benzophenoxazine dye, by means of click chemistry. The optical properties of the Nile red-labeled acpcPNA were investigated by UV–vis and fluorescence spectroscopy in the absence and in the presence of DNA. In contrast to the usual quenching observed in Nile red-labeled DNA, the hybridization with DNA resulted in blue shifting and an enhanced fluorescence regardless of the neighboring bases. More pronounced blue shifts and fluorescence enhancements were observed when the DNA target carried a base insertion in close proximity to the Nile red label. The results indicate that the Nile red label is located in a more hydrophobic environment in acpcPNA–DNA duplexes than in the single-stranded acpcPNA. The different fluorescence properties of the acpcPNA hybrids of complementary DNA and DNA carrying a base insertion are suggestive of different interactions between the Nile red label and the duplexes.