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Sample records for acquisition mechanisms nutrient

  1. Mechanical damage to pollen aids nutrient acquisition in Heliconius butterflies (Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, Harald W; Eberhard, Monika J B; Eberhard, Stefan H; Hikl, Anna-Laetitia; Huber, Werner; Gilbert, Lawrence E

    2009-12-01

    Neotropical Heliconius and Laparus butterflies actively collect pollen onto the proboscis and extract nutrients from it. This study investigates the impact of the processing behaviour on the condition of the pollen grains. Pollen samples (n = 72) were collected from proboscides of various Heliconius species and Laparus doris in surrounding habitats of the Tropical Research Station La Gamba (Costa Rica). Examination using a light microscope revealed that pollen loads contained 74.88 ± 53.67% of damaged Psychotria pollen, 72.04 ± 23.4% of damaged Psiguria/Gurania pollen, and 21.35 ± 14.5% of damaged Lantana pollen (numbers represent median ± first quartile). Damaged pollen grains showed deformed contours, inhomogeneous and/or leaking contents, or they were empty. Experiments with Heliconius and Laparus doris from a natural population in Costa Rica demonstrated that 200 min of pollen processing behaviour significantly increased the percentage of damaged pollen of Psychotria compared to pollen from anthers (P = 0.015, Z = -2.44, Mann-Whitney U-test). Examination of pollen loads from green house reared Heliconius butterflies resulted in significantly greater amounts of damaged Psiguria pollen after 200 min of processing behaviour compared to pollen from flowers (P < 0.001, Z = -4.583, Mann-Whitney U-test). These results indicate that pollen processing functions as extra oral digestion whereby pollen grains are ruptured to make the content available for ingestion.

  2. Nutrient Acquisition and Metabolism by Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eStahl

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is able to colonize numerous different hosts and compete against the gut microbiota. To do this, it must be able to efficiently acquire sufficient nutrients from its environment to support its survival and rapid growth in the intestine. However, despite almost 50 years of research, many aspects as to how C. jejuni accomplishes this feat remain poorly understood. C. jejuni lacks many of the common metabolic pathways necessary for the use of glucose, galactose, or other carbohydrates upon which most other microbes thrive. It does however make efficient use of citric acid cycle intermediates and various amino acids. C. jejuni readily uses the amino acids aspartate, glutamate, serine, and proline, with certain strains also possessing additional pathways allowing for the use of glutamine and asparagine. More recent work has revealed that some C. jejuni strains can metabolize the sugar L-fucose. This finding has upset years of dogma that C. jejuni is an asaccharolytic organism. C. jejuni also possesses diverse mechanisms for the acquisition of various transition metals that are required for metabolic activities. In particular, iron acquisition is critical for the formation of iron-sulphur complexes. C. jejuni is also unique in possessing both molybdate and tungsten cofactored proteins and thus has an unusual regulatory scheme for these metals. Together these various metabolic and acquisition pathways help C. jejuni to compete and thrive in wide variety of hosts and environments.

  3. Comparison of nutrient acquisition in exotic plant species and congeneric natives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meisner, A.; Boer, de W.; Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2011-01-01

    1. The ability of exotic plant species to establish and expand in new areas may be enhanced by a relatively high ability to acquire soil nutrients. To test this hypothesis, we predicted that the capacity for nutrient acquisition would be higher in seedlings of exotic species than in seedlings of nat

  4. Comparison of nutrient acquisition in exotic plant species and congeneric natives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meisner, A.; De Boer, W.; Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    1.The ability of exotic plant species to establish and expand in new areas may be enhanced by a relatively high ability to acquire soil nutrients. To test this hypothesis, we predicted that the capacity for nutrient acquisition would be higher in seedlings of exotic species than in seedlings of nati

  5. Use of fluorescent nanoparticles to investigate nutrient acquisition by developing Eimeria maxima macrogametocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frölich, Sonja; Wallach, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The enteric disease coccidiosis, caused by the unicellular parasite Eimeria, is a major and reoccurring problem for the poultry industry. While the molecular machinery driving host cell invasion and oocyst wall formation has been well documented in Eimeria, relatively little is known about the host cell modifications which lead to acquisition of nutrients and parasite growth. In order to understand the mechanism(s) by which nutrients are acquired by developing intracellular gametocytes and oocysts, we have performed uptake experiments using polystyrene nanoparticles (NPs) of 40 nm and 100 nm in size, as model NPs typical of organic macromolecules. Cytochalasin D and nocodazole were used to inhibit, respectively, the polymerization of the actin and microtubules. The results indicated that NPs entered the parasite at all stages of macrogametocyte development and early oocyst maturation via an active energy dependent process. Interestingly, the smaller NPs were found throughout the parasite cytoplasm, while the larger NPs were mainly localised to the lumen of large type 1 wall forming body organelles. NP uptake was reduced after microfilament disruption and treatment with nocodazole. These observations suggest that E. maxima parasites utilize at least 2 or more uptake pathways to internalize exogenous material during the sexual stages of development. PMID:27352801

  6. The contribution of nutrient metal acquisition and metabolism to Acinetobacter baumannii survival within the host

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    Brittany L Mortensen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is a significant contributor to intensive care unit (ICU mortality causing numerous types of infection in this susceptible ICU population, most notably ventilator-associated pneumonia. The substantial disease burden attributed to A. baumannii and the rapid acquisition of antibiotic resistance make this bacterium a serious health care threat. A. baumannii is equipped to tolerate the hostile host environment through modification of its metabolism and nutritional needs. Among these adaptations is the evolution of mechanisms to acquire nutrient metals that are sequestered by the host as a defense against infection. Although all bacteria require nutrient metals, there is diversity in the particular metal needs among species and within varying tissue types and bacterial lifecycles. A. baumannii is well-equipped with the metal homeostatic systems required for the colonization of a diverse array of tissues. Specifically, iron and zinc homeostasis is important for A. baumannii interactions with biotic surfaces and for growth within vertebrates. This review discusses what is currently known regarding the interaction of A. baumannii with vertebrate cells with a particular emphasis on the contributions of metal homeostasis systems. Overall, published research supports the utility of exploiting these systems as targets for the development of much-needed antimicrobials against this emerging infectious threat.

  7. Nutrient limitation in tropical savannas across multiple scales and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Adam F A

    2016-02-01

    Nutrients have been hypothesized to influence the distribution of the savanna biome through two possible mechanisms. Low nutrient availability may restrict growth rates of trees, thereby allowing for intermittent fires to maintain low tree cover; alternatively, nutrient deficiency may even place an absolute constraint on the ability of forests to form, independent of fire. However, we have little understanding of the scales at which nutrient limitation operates, what nutrients are limiting, and the mechanisms that influence how nutrient limitation regulates savanna-forest transitions. Here, I review literature, synthesize existing data, and present a simple calculation of nutrient demand to evaluate how nutrient limitation may regulate the distribution of the savanna biome. The literature primarily supports the hypothesis that nutrients may interact dynamically with fire to restrict the transition of savanna into forest. A compilation of indirect metrics of nutrient limitation suggest that nitrogen and phosphorus are both in short supply and may limit plants. Nutrient demand calculations provided a number of insights. First, trees required high rates of nitrogen and phosphorus supply relative to empirically determined inputs. Second, nutrient demand increased as landscapes approached the transition point between savanna and forest. Third, the potential for fire-driven nutrient losses remained high throughout transitions, which may exaggerate limitation and could be a key feedback stabilizing the savanna biome. Fourth, nutrient limitation varied between functional groups, with fast-growing forest species having substantially greater nutrient demand and a higher susceptibility to fire-driven nutrient losses. Finally, African savanna trees required substantially larger amounts of nutrients supplied at greater rates, although this varied across plant functional groups. In summary, the ability of nutrients to control transitions emerges at individual and landscape

  8. Words, rules, and mechanisms of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D; Bonatti, Luca L

    2016-01-01

    We review recent artificial language learning studies, especially those following Endress and Bonatti (Endress AD, Bonatti LL. Rapid learning of syllable classes from a perceptually continuous speech stream. Cognition 2007, 105:247-299), suggesting that humans can deploy a variety of learning mechanisms to acquire artificial languages. Several experiments provide evidence for multiple learning mechanisms that can be deployed in fluent speech: one mechanism encodes the positions of syllables within words and can be used to extract generalization, while the other registers co-occurrence statistics of syllables and can be used to break a continuum into its components. We review dissociations between these mechanisms and their potential role in language acquisition. We then turn to recent criticisms of the multiple mechanisms hypothesis and show that they are inconsistent with the available data. Our results suggest that artificial and natural language learning is best understood by dissecting the underlying specialized learning abilities, and that these data provide a rare opportunity to link important language phenomena to basic psychological mechanisms. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  9. Age of acquisition: its neural and computational mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Arturo E; Li, Ping

    2007-07-01

    The acquisition of new skills over a life span is a remarkable human ability. This ability, however, is constrained by age of acquisition (AoA); that is, the age at which learning occurs significantly affects the outcome. This is most clearly reflected in domains such as language, music, and athletics. This article provides a perspective on the neural and computational mechanisms underlying AoA in language acquisition. The authors show how AoA modulates both monolingual lexical processing and bilingual language acquisition. They consider the conditions under which syntactic processing and semantic processing may be differentially sensitive to AoA effects in second-language acquisition. The authors conclude that AoA effects are pervasive and that the neural and computational mechanisms underlying learning and sensorimotor integration provide a general account of these effects.

  10. Ectopic expression of amaranth seed storage albumin modulates photoassimilate transport and nutrient acquisition in sweetpotato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Shubhendu; Agrawal, Lalit; Mishra, Divya; Buragohain, Alak Kumar; Unnikrishnan, Mullath; Mohan, Chokkappan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Storage proteins in plants, because of high nutrient value, have been a subject of intensive investigation. These proteins are synthesized de novo in the cytoplasm and transported to the storage organelles where they serve as reservoir of energy and supplement of nitrogen during rapid growth and development. Sweetpotato is the seventh most important food crop worldwide, and has a significant contribution to the source of nutrition, albeit with low protein content. To determine the behaviour of seed storage proteins in non-native system, a seed albumin, AmA1, was overexpressed in sweetpotato with an additional aim of improving nutritional quality of tuber proteins. Introduction of AmA1 imparted an increase in protein and amino acid contents as well as the phytophenols. The proteometabolomics analysis revealed a rebalancing of the proteome, with no significant effects on the global metabolome profile of the transgenic tubers. Additionally, the slower degradation of starch and cellulose in transgenic tubers, led to increased post-harvest durability. Present study provides a new insight into the role of a seed storage protein in the modulation of photoassimilate movement and nutrient acquisition. PMID:27147459

  11. Unbalanced Bilingual Acquisition as a Mechanism of Grammatical Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Stephen; Yip, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Bilingual first language acquisition (BFLA) has been considered a possible mechanism of contact-induced change in several recent studies (Siegel, 2008, p. 117; Satterfield, 2005, p. 2075; Thomason, 2001, p. 148; Yip & Matthews, 2007, p.15). There is as yet little consensus on the question, with divergent views regarding both BFLA at the individual…

  12. The Wayside Mechanic: An Analysis of Skill Acquisition in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Stephen Douglas

    This study describes and analyzes the nature of skill acquisition process in one indigenous, informal training system--the apprenticeship of the wayside mechanics workshops in Koforidua, Ghana. Chapter 2 places apprenticeships training in the wider context of artisanship and training. It traces the history of the West African craft shop and its…

  13. Enhancement of faba bean competitive ability by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is highly correlated with dynamic nutrient acquisition by competing wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Xu; Bei, Shuikuan; Li, Chunjie; Dong, Yan; Li, Haigang; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Fusuo; ZHANG, JUNLING

    2015-01-01

    The mechanistic understanding of the dynamic processes linking nutrient acquisition and biomass production of competing individuals can be instructive in optimizing intercropping systems. Here, we examine the effect of inoculation with Funneliformis mosseae on competitive dynamics between wheat and faba bean. Wheat is less responsive to mycorrhizal inoculation. Both inoculated and uninoculated wheat attained the maximum instantaneous N and P capture approximately five days before it attained ...

  14. Net root growth and nutrient acquisition in response to predicted climate change in two contrasting heathland species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndal, M.F.; Merrild, M.P.; Michelsen, A.;

    2013-01-01

    to elevated CO2. The species-specific response to the treatments suggests different sensitivity to global change factors, which could result in changed plant competitive interactions and belowground nutrient pool sizes in response to future climate change.......Accurate predictions of nutrient acquisition by plant roots and mycorrhizas are critical in modelling plant responses to climate change.We conducted a field experiment with the aim to investigate root nutrient uptake in a future climate and studied root production by ingrowth cores, mycorrhizal...... colonization, and fine root N and P uptake by root assay of Deschampsia flexuosa and Calluna vulgaris.Net root growth increased under elevated CO2, warming and drought, with additive effects among the factors. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization increased in response to elevated CO2, while ericoid mycorrhizal...

  15. Differences in root distribution, nutrient acquisition and nutrient utilization by tropical forage species grown in degraded hillside soil conditions¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulfo Gómez-Carabalí

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Low nutrient availability, especially phosphorus (P and nitrogen (N supply is the major limitation to forage production in acid infertile soils of the tropics. A field study was conducted at the farm ‘La Esperanza’ located in Mondomo, Department of Cauca, in the coffee growing zone of Colombia. The main objective was to determine differences in root distribution, nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S acquisition and nutrient utilization of one C4 forage grass (Brachiaria dictyoneura and two C3 forage legumes (Arachis pintoi and Centrosema macrocarpum grown under two fertilization levels, cultivated either in monoculture or in association and harvested at four different ages.There were no significant differences in root biomass among the grass and legumes and their combinations. The native vegetation had the lowest root biomass; while the introduced grass (B. dictyoneura had the highest root length density among all materials at all depths and ages and the native vegetation had the highest specific root length. As expected, nutrient uptake increased with age and with high fertilization in all species. Centrosema macrocarpun had the highest N and Ca uptake among all plant materials tested. Uptake of P, K and Mg was greater in the grass B. dictyoneura than in the other plant species and combination planting at all ages. On the other hand, the grass had the lowest Ca uptake. The grass and its mixture with the legumes A. pintoi and C. macrocarpun had the highest S uptake. A highly significant (p<0.001correlation was found between root length density (depths 0-10 and 10-20 cm and N and P uptake. Nutrient use efficiency (g of forage produced for g of nutrient uptake increased with age until 38 weeks. At 55 weeks a sharp decline was observed in nutrient use efficiency. N, Ca and P use efficiency values were higher with the grass than with the two legumes tested. K use efficiency was similar among the three species. For Mg and S the grass had the highest

  16. Fluid mechanical responses to nutrient depletion in fungi and biofilmsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Michael P.

    2014-10-01

    In both fungi and bacterial biofilms, when nutrients are depleted, the organisms cannot physically migrate to find a new source, but instead must develop adaptations that allow them to survive. This paper reviews our work attempting to discover design principles for these adaptations. We develop fluid mechanical models, and aim to understand whether these suggest organizing principles for the observed morphological diversity. Determining whether a proposed organizing principle explains extant biological designs is fraught with difficulty: simply because a design principle predicts characteristics similar to an organism's morphology could just as well be accidental as revealing. In each of the two sets of examples, we adopt different strategies to develop understanding in spite of this difficulty. Within the fungal phylum Ascomycota, we use the large observed diversity of different morphological solutions to the fundamental fluid mechanical problem to measure how far each solution is from a design optimum, thereby measuring how far the extant designs deviate from the hypothesized optimum. This allows comparing different design principles to each other. For biofilms, we use engineering principles to make qualitative predictions of what types of adaptations might exist given the physicochemical properties of the repertoire of proteins that bacteria can create, and then find evidence for these adaptations in experiments. While on the surface this paper addresses the particular adaptations used by the fungal phylum Ascomycota and bacterial biofilms, we also aim to motivate discussion of different approaches to using design principles, fluid mechanical or otherwise, to rationalize observed engineering solutions in biology.

  17. Plant nutrient acquisition strategies in tundra species: at which soil depth do species take up their nitrogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpens, Juul; Heijmans, Monique; Nauta, Ake; van Huissteden, Corine; van Rijssel, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic is warming at unprecedented rates. Increased thawing of permafrost releases nutrients locked up in the previously frozen soils layers, which may initiate shifts in vegetation composition. The direction in which the vegetation shifts will co-determine whether Arctic warming is mitigated or accelerated, making understanding successional trajectories urgent. One of the key factors influencing the competitive relationships between plant species is their access to nutrients, in particularly nitrogen (N). We assessed the depth at which plant species took up N by performing a 15N tracer study, injecting 15(NH4)2SO4 at three depths (5, 15, 20 cm) into the soil in arctic tundra in north-eastern Siberia in July. In addition we explored plant nutrient acquisition strategy by analyzing natural abundances of 15N in leaves. We found that vascular plants took up 15N at all injection depths, irrespective of species, but also that species showed a clear preference for specific soil layers that coincided with their functional group (graminoids, dwarf shrubs, cryptogams). Graminoids took up most 15N at 20 cm depth nearest to the thaw front, with grasses showing a more pronounced preference than sedges. Dwarf shrubs took up most 15N at 5 cm depth, with deciduous shrubs displaying more preference than evergreens. Cryptogams did not take up any of the supplied 15N . The natural 15N abundances confirmed the pattern of nutrient acquisition from deeper soil layers in graminoids and from shallow soil layers in both deciduous and evergreen dwarf shrubs. Our results prove that graminoids and shrubs differ in their N uptake strategies, with graminoids profiting from nutrients released at the thaw front, whereas shrubs forage in the upper soil layers. The above implies that graminoids, grasses in particular, will have a competitive advantage over shrubs as the thaw front proceeds and/or superficial soil layers dry out. Our results suggest that the vertical distribution of nutrients

  18. Enhancement of faba bean competitive ability by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is highly correlated with dynamic nutrient acquisition by competing wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xu; Bei, Shuikuan; Li, Chunjie; Dong, Yan; Li, Haigang; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Fusuo; Zhang, Junling

    2015-01-01

    The mechanistic understanding of the dynamic processes linking nutrient acquisition and biomass production of competing individuals can be instructive in optimizing intercropping systems. Here, we examine the effect of inoculation with Funneliformis mosseae on competitive dynamics between wheat and faba bean. Wheat is less responsive to mycorrhizal inoculation. Both inoculated and uninoculated wheat attained the maximum instantaneous N and P capture approximately five days before it attained the maximum instantaneous biomass production, indicating that wheat detected the competitor and responded physiologically to resource limitation prior to the biomass response. By contrast, the instantaneous N and P capture by uninoculated faba bean remained low throughout the growth period, and plant growth was not significantly affected by competing wheat. However, inoculation substantially enhanced biomass production and N and P acquisition of faba bean. The exudation of citrate and malate acids and acid phosphatase activity were greater in mycorrhizal than in uninoculated faba bean, and rhizosphere pH tended to decrease. We conclude that under N and P limiting conditions, temporal separation of N and P acquisition by competing plant species and enhancement of complementary resource use in the presence of AMF might be attributable to the competitive co-existence of faba bean and wheat.

  19. Nutrient tasting and signaling mechanisms in the gut V. Mechanisms of immunologic sensation of intestinal contents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, F

    2012-02-03

    Immune perception of intestinal contents reflects a functional dualism with systemic hyporesponsiveness to dietary antigens and resident microflora (oral tolerance) and active immune responses to mucosal pathogens. This facilitates optimal absorption of dietary nutrients while conserving immunologic resources for episodic pathogenic challenge. Discrimination between dangerous and harmless antigens within the enteric lumen requires continual sampling of the microenvironment by multiple potential pathways, innate and adaptive recognition mechanisms, bidirectional lymphoepithelial signaling, and rigorous control of effector responses. Errors in these processes disrupt mucosal homeostasis and are associated with food hypersensitivity and mucosal inflammation. Mechanisms of mucosal immune perception and handling of dietary proteins and other antigens have several practical and theoretical implications including vaccine design, therapy of systemic autoimmunity, and alteration of enteric flora with probiotics.

  20. Ecosystem adaptation to scarce nutrient resources: Do forest ecosystems shift from acquisition to recycling of phosphorus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, F.; Kaupenjohann, M.

    2011-12-01

    Friederike Lang(1, Nicole Wellbrock(2, Martin Kaupenjohann(1 (1) Department of Soil Science, TU Berlin, 10587 Berlin, Germany; (2) vTI Eberswalde Agricultural food production is essential to our existence, yet we are using up the Earths stocks of phosphorus (P) for the fertilizer production (Cordell, 2009). Forest ecosystems that developed on marginal soil have developed highly efficient strategies for the uptake, usage and recycling of P, which might inspire solutions for the problem of P scarcity in agriculture. However, these efficient forest strategies are hardly investigated yet. Current literature concepts on the adaptation to low soil-P supply are mainly refined to individual organisms (e.g. the concept of uptake efficiency, Sattelmacher et al., 1994, and utilisation efficiency of plants, Compton and Cole, 1998). At the ecosystem level, however, low mineral-P supply requires an evolution of the system towards closed biogeochemical cycling (the concept of cycling efficiency). At the ecosystem level nutrient efficiency becomes rather a matter of transfer and distribution of resources among species, generations and soil components than of the capability of single organisms to acquire P sources. We plead for introducing the term ecosystem nutrition to cover this topic. Our general hypothesis is that P depletion of soils drives the development of forest ecosystems from geochemical P acquiring systems (mobilisation of P from the mineral phase) to biogeochemical P recycling systems (recycling of P from soil organic matter). We conclude that fundamental knowledge in the area of ecosystem nutrition is essential for forestry to mitigate the consequences of increasing N deposition, climate change and intensification of forest usage, which most likely interfere with essential nutrition strategies of forest ecosystems. Transfer of the knowledge on nutrition strategies and resource management of near-natural ecosystems to/in agricultural systems may finally contribute to

  1. Biochars Derived from Gasified Feedstocks Increase the Growth and Improve Nutrient Acquisition of Triticum aestivum (L. Grown in Agricultural Alfisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin M. Trippe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biochars are produced by low-oxygen gasification or pyrolysis of organic waste products, and can be co-produced with energy, achieving waste diversion and delivering a soil amendment that can improve agricultural yields. Although many studies have reported the agronomic benefits of biochars produced from pyrolysis, few have interrogated the ability of gasified biochars to improve crop productivity. An earlier study described the ability of a biochar that was derived from gasified Kentucky bluegrass (KB seed screenings to impact the chemistry of acidic agricultural soils. However, that study did not measure the effects of the biochar amendment on plant growth or on nutrient acquisition. To quantify these effects we conducted a greenhouse study that evaluated wheat grown in agricultural soils amended with either the KB-based biochar or a biochar derived from a blend of woody mixed-waste. Our studies indicated that biochar amended soils promoted the growth of wheat in these agricultural alfisols. Our elemental analysis indicated that an attenuation of metal toxicity was likely responsible for the increased plant growth. The results of our study are placed in the context of our previous studies that characterized KB-sourced biochar and its effects on soil chemistry.

  2. Event triggered data acquisition in the Rock Mechanics Laboratory upgrades and revisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, R.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geomechanics Dept.

    1997-06-01

    This paper describes updates and revisions to the data acquisition computer program DATAVG which has served as the basic data collection system for the Sandia National Laboratories Geomechanics Department, Rock Mechanics Laboratory since late 1992. DATAVG was first described in Event Triggered Data Acquisition in the Rock Mechanics Laboratory, [Hardy, 1993]. DATAVG has been modified to incorporate numerous user-requested enhancements and a few bug fixes. In this paper these changes to DATAVG are described.

  3. Effects and Mechanisms of P and K Nutrients on Yield and Protein Content of Fodder Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xiang-ru; YU Tie-qiao

    2002-01-01

    Effects and mechanisms of P and K nutrients on yield and protein content of Weiyou 56, a fodder hybrid rice combination, were studied through pot experiment and biochemical analysis. The results showed that the increase of P and K nutrients enhanced the activities of PEP carboxylase (PEPC), glutamine synthase (GS) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) in leaves, sucrose synthase (SS), ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADPGP) and GS in grains, and the chlorophyll content in leaves, soluble sugar and starch content in grains,protein N and total N content in leaves and grains. Howerer, they decreased soluble sugar content in leaves and led to an increase of protein content in brown rice, biomass, grain yield and harvest index. Excessive P nutrients slightly reduced SPS and ADPG activity in leaves and grains respectively.

  4. Multiple symbiont acquisition strategies as an adaptive mechanism in the coral Stylophora pistillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byler, Kristen A; Carmi-Veal, Maya; Fine, Maoz; Goulet, Tamar L

    2013-01-01

    In obligate symbioses, the host's survival relies on the successful acquisition and maintenance of symbionts. Symbionts can either be transferred from parent to offspring via direct inheritance (vertical transmission) or acquired anew each generation from the environment (horizontal transmission). With vertical symbiont transmission, progeny benefit by not having to search for their obligate symbionts, and, with symbiont inheritance, a mechanism exists for perpetuating advantageous symbionts. But, if the progeny encounter an environment that differs from that of their parent, they may be disadvantaged if the inherited symbionts prove suboptimal. Conversely, while in horizontal symbiont acquisition host survival hinges on an unpredictable symbiont source, an individual host may acquire genetically diverse symbionts well suited to any given environment. In horizontal acquisition, however, a potentially advantageous symbiont will not be transmitted to subsequent generations. Adaptation in obligate symbioses may require mechanisms for both novel symbiont acquisition and symbiont inheritance. Using denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR, we identified the dinoflagellate symbionts (genus Symbiodinium) hosted by the Red Sea coral Stylophora pistillata throughout its ontogenesis and over depth. We present evidence that S. pistillata juvenile colonies may utilize both vertical and horizontal symbiont acquisition strategies. By releasing progeny with maternally derived symbionts, that are also capable of subsequent horizontal symbiont acquisition, coral colonies may acquire physiologically advantageous novel symbionts that are then perpetuated via vertical transmission to subsequent generations. With symbiont inheritance, natural selection can act upon the symbiotic variability, providing a mechanism for coral adaptation.

  5. Multiple symbiont acquisition strategies as an adaptive mechanism in the coral Stylophora pistillata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen A Byler

    Full Text Available In obligate symbioses, the host's survival relies on the successful acquisition and maintenance of symbionts. Symbionts can either be transferred from parent to offspring via direct inheritance (vertical transmission or acquired anew each generation from the environment (horizontal transmission. With vertical symbiont transmission, progeny benefit by not having to search for their obligate symbionts, and, with symbiont inheritance, a mechanism exists for perpetuating advantageous symbionts. But, if the progeny encounter an environment that differs from that of their parent, they may be disadvantaged if the inherited symbionts prove suboptimal. Conversely, while in horizontal symbiont acquisition host survival hinges on an unpredictable symbiont source, an individual host may acquire genetically diverse symbionts well suited to any given environment. In horizontal acquisition, however, a potentially advantageous symbiont will not be transmitted to subsequent generations. Adaptation in obligate symbioses may require mechanisms for both novel symbiont acquisition and symbiont inheritance. Using denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR, we identified the dinoflagellate symbionts (genus Symbiodinium hosted by the Red Sea coral Stylophora pistillata throughout its ontogenesis and over depth. We present evidence that S. pistillata juvenile colonies may utilize both vertical and horizontal symbiont acquisition strategies. By releasing progeny with maternally derived symbionts, that are also capable of subsequent horizontal symbiont acquisition, coral colonies may acquire physiologically advantageous novel symbionts that are then perpetuated via vertical transmission to subsequent generations. With symbiont inheritance, natural selection can act upon the symbiotic variability, providing a mechanism for coral adaptation.

  6. Reconciling genetic evolution and the associative learning account of mirror neurons through data-acquisition mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotem, Arnon; Kolodny, Oren

    2014-04-01

    An associative learning account of mirror neurons should not preclude genetic evolution of its underlying mechanisms. On the contrary, an associative learning framework for cognitive development should seek heritable variation in the learning rules and in the data-acquisition mechanisms that construct associative networks, demonstrating how small genetic modifications of associative elements can give rise to the evolution of complex cognition.

  7. MDAS2: A Data Acquisition System for the Soil Mechanic Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Soil Mechanic Laboratory in CIEMAT is working to characterize a bentonite which may be use in the storage of radioactive waste. The bentonite is studied with several tests, frequently used in soil mechanics. This document describes the data acquisition system used in one of these experiments

  8. Rhizosphere in space and time – challenges for designing the most relevant root traits for efficient nutrient acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Hinsinger, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    [début du texte]The rhizosphere, i.e. the soil volume that is influenced by the activities of living roots, has been largelydocumented for its pivotal role in plant nutrition, and thus ecological significance in terrestrial ecosystems (e.g.Hinsinger et al., 2009). The number of studies on the fate of nutrients in the rhizosphere, especiallyphosphorus amongst major nutrients, iron and zinc amongst micronutrients, has considerably increased overthe past decades, as revealed by the published lit...

  9. Carbon acquisition by Cyanobacteria: Mechanisms, Comparative Genomics and Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Aaron; Hagemann, Martin; Bauwe, Hermann; Kahlon, Shira; Ogawa, Teruo

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we mainly focus on the mechanisms of inorganic carbon uptake, photorespiration, and the regulation between the metabolic fluxes involved in photoautotrophic, photomixotrophic and heterotrophic growth. We identify the genes involved, their regulation and phylogeny. Living in an environment where the CO₂ concentration is considerably lower than required to saturate their carboxylating enzyme, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), cyanobacteria acquired the CO₂ concentrating mechanism (CCM) that enables them to accumulate CO₂ at the carboxylation site. All the cyanobacteria examined to date are able to fix CO₂ into carbohydrates. However, in addition to variance in the range of physical growth conditions, cyanobacteria also vary substantially in their ability to consume organic carbon from their surroundings. Many strains are obligate photoautotrophs where the sole carbon source is CO₂, while others are able to perform photomixotrophic or even heterotrophic growth using a wide variety of organic substances (c.f. Rippka et al., 1979; Stal and Moezelaar, 1997b). Cyanobacteria constitute a unique case where the anabolic and catabolic carbohydrate metabolisms function in the same cellular compartment. In addition, the photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport pathways share components in the thylakoid membranes. Despite its importance to our understanding of cyanobacterial metabolism, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the shifts between photoautotrophic, heterotrophic and photomixotrophic modes of growth, and their regulation; between the different pathways of carbohydrate breakdown- glycolysis, fermentation, the oxidative pentose phosphate, the Krebs cycle and the photorespiratory pathways. In this chapter we shall briefly focus on recent advances in our understanding of the CCM and carbon metabolism in cyanobacteria.

  10. Carbon Acquisition by Cyanobacteria: Mechanisms, Comparative Genomics, and Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Aaron; Hagemann, Martin; Bauwe, Hermann; Kahlon, Shira; Ogawa, Teruo

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we mainly focus on the mechanisms of inorganic carbon uptake, photorespiration, and the regulation between the metabolic fluxes involved in photoautotrophic, photomixotrophic and heterotrophic growth. We identify the genes involved, their regulation and phylogeny. Living in an environment where the CO₂ concentration is considerably lower than required to saturate their carboxylating enzyme, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), cyanobacteria acquired the CO₂ concentrating mechanism (CCM) that enables them to accumulate CO₂ at the carboxylation site. All the cyanobacteria examined to date are able to fix CO₂ into carbohydrates. However, in addition to variance in the range of physical growth conditions, cyanobacteria also vary substantially in their ability to consume organic carbon from their surroundings. Many strains are obligate photoautotrophs where the sole carbon source is CO₂, while others are able to perform photomixotrophic or even heterotrophic growth using a wide variety of organic substances (c.f. Rippka et al., 1979; Stal and Moezelaar, 1997b). Cyanobacteria constitute a unique case where the anabolic and catabolic carbohydrate metabolisms function in the same cellular compartment. In addition, the photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport pathways share components in the thylakoid membranes. Despite its importance to our understanding of cyanobacterial metabolism, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the shifts between photoautotrophic, heterotrophic and photomixotrophic modes of growth, and their regulation; between the different pathways of carbohydrate breakdown- glycolysis, fermentation, the oxidative pentose phosphate, the Krebs cycle and the photorespiratory pathways. In this chapter we shall briefly focus on recent advances in our understanding of the CCM and carbon metabolism in cyanobacteria.

  11. Defining planktonic protist functional groups on mechanisms for energy and nutrient acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, Aditee; Flynn, Kevin J.; Tillmann, Urban;

    2016-01-01

    for significant changes in trophic dynamics depending on the protist functional type description. Accordingly, to better reflect the role of mixotrophy, we recommend that as important tools for explanatory and predictive research, aquatic food-web and biogeochemical models need to redefine the protist groups......Arranging organisms into functional groups aids ecological research by grouping organisms (irrespective of phylogenetic origin) that interact with environmental factors in similar ways. Planktonic protists traditionally have been split between photoautotrophic “phytoplankton” and phagotrophic...... “microzooplankton”. However, there is a growing recognition of the importance of mixotrophy in euphotic aquatic systems, where many protists often combine photoautotrophic and phagotrophic modes of nutrition. Such organisms do not align with the traditional dichotomy of phytoplankton and microzooplankton...

  12. Cross-species comparison of genes related to nutrient sensing mechanisms expressed along the intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikkie van der Wielen

    Full Text Available Intestinal chemosensory receptors and transporters are able to detect food-derived molecules and are involved in the modulation of gut hormone release. Gut hormones play an important role in the regulation of food intake and the control of gastrointestinal functioning. This mechanism is often referred to as "nutrient sensing". Knowledge of the distribution of chemosensors along the intestinal tract is important to gain insight in nutrient detection and sensing, both pivotal processes for the regulation of food intake. However, most knowledge is derived from rodents, whereas studies in man and pig are limited, and cross-species comparisons are lacking.To characterize and compare intestinal expression patterns of genes related to nutrient sensing in mice, pigs and humans.Mucosal biopsy samples taken at six locations in human intestine (n = 40 were analyzed by qPCR. Intestinal scrapings from 14 locations in pigs (n = 6 and from 10 locations in mice (n = 4 were analyzed by qPCR and microarray, respectively. The gene expression of glucagon, cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor, taste receptor T1R3, sodium/glucose cotransporter, peptide transporter-1, GPR120, taste receptor T1R1, GPR119 and GPR93 was investigated. Partial least squares (PLS modeling was used to compare the intestinal expression pattern between the three species.The studied genes were found to display specific expression patterns along the intestinal tract. PLS analysis showed a high similarity between human, pig and mouse in the expression of genes related to nutrient sensing in the distal ileum, and between human and pig in the colon. The gene expression pattern was most deviating between the species in the proximal intestine. Our results give new insights in interspecies similarities and provide new leads for translational research and models aiming to modulate food intake processes in man.

  13. α8β1 integrin regulates nutrient absorption through an Mfge8-PTEN dependent mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifeh-Soltani, Amin; Ha, Arnold; Podolsky, Michael J; McCarthy, Donald A; McKleroy, William; Azary, Saeedeh; Sakuma, Stephen; Tharp, Kevin M; Wu, Nanyan; Yokosaki, Yasuyuki; Hart, Daniel; Stahl, Andreas; Atabai, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Coordinated gastrointestinal smooth muscle contraction is critical for proper nutrient absorption and is altered in a number of medical disorders. In this work, we demonstrate a critical role for the RGD-binding integrin α8β1 in promoting nutrient absorption through regulation of gastrointestinal motility. Smooth muscle-specific deletion and antibody blockade of α8 in mice result in enhanced gastric antral smooth muscle contraction, more rapid gastric emptying, and more rapid transit of food through the small intestine leading to malabsorption of dietary fats and carbohydrates as well as protection from weight gain in a diet-induced model of obesity. Mechanistically, ligation of α8β1 by the milk protein Mfge8 reduces antral smooth muscle contractile force by preventing RhoA activation through a PTEN-dependent mechanism. Collectively, our results identify a role for α8β1 in regulating gastrointestinal motility and identify α8 as a potential target for disorders characterized by hypo- or hyper-motility. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13063.001 PMID:27092791

  14. Standard guide for evaluating data acquisition systems used in cyclic fatigue and fracture mechanics testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers how to understand and minimize the errors associated with data acquisition in fatigue and fracture mechanics testing equipment. This guide is not intended to be used instead of certified traceable calibration or verification of data acquisition systems when such certification is required. It does not cover static load verification, for which the user is referred to the current revision of Practices E 4, or static extensometer verification, for which the user is referred to the current revision of Practice E 83. The user is also referred to Practice E 467. 1.2 The output of the fatigue and fracture mechanics data acquisition systems described in this guide is essentially a stream of digital data. Such digital data may be considered to be divided into two types- Basic Data, which are a sequence of digital samples of an equivalent analog waveform representing the output of transducers connected to the specimen under test, and Derived Data, which are digital values obtained from the Basic D...

  15. EXTERNAL CORPORATE GOVERNANCE MECHANISMS: MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS ON THE BRAZILIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Augusto Parente Monteiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to answer the following question: What is the effectiveness of mergers and acquisitions in the Brazilian market as external corporate governance mechanism? The main objective of the study is to verify if mergers and acquisitions operations in Brazilian market may act as an external mechanism of corporate governance, replacing managers and, as a consequence of changes in management, improving financial performance. The study is exploratory, qualitative in its approach, supported by documentary research on secondary data concerning an intentional sample of Brazilian companies aiming to identify the effect of M&A operations on the corporate governance structure of the acquired firm and on its financial results. Data obtained on the website of the Brazilian Securities and Exchange Commission (CVM, related to Brazilian M&A operations in the period 2005-2010, were analyzed. Although M&A operations in Brazil were found to have disciplinary nature in our sample of firms in the studied period, our results are inconclusive regarding the effectiveness of these transactions and external governance mechanisms.

  16. Phytotoxic Mechanism of Nanoparticles: Destruction of Chloroplasts and Vascular Bundles and Alteration of Nutrient Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhan, Le Van; Ma, Chuanxin; Rui, Yukui; Liu, Shutong; Li, Xuguang; Xing, Baoshan; Liu, Liming

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on determining the phytotoxic mechanism of CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs): destroying chloroplasts and vascular bundles and altering absorption of nutrients on conventional and Bt-transgenic cottons. Experiments were designed with three concentrations of CeO2 NPs including: 0, 100 and 500 mg·L(-1), and each treatment was three replications. Results indicate that absorbed CeO2 nanoparticles significantly reduced the Zn, Mg, Fe, and P levels in xylem sap compared with the control group and decreased indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations in the roots of conventional cotton. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that CeO2 NPs were absorbed into the roots and subsequently transported to the stems and leaves of both conventional and Bt-transgenic cotton plants via xylem sap. In addition, the majority of aggregated CeO2 NPs were attached to the external surface of chloroplasts, which were swollen and ruptured, especially in Bt-transgenic cotton. The vascular bundles were destroyed by CeO2 nanoparticles, and more damage was observed in transgenic cotton than conventional cotton. PMID:26108166

  17. [Research advances on controlled-release mechanisms of nutrients in coated fertilizers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haijun; Wu, Zhijie; Liang, Wenju; Xie, Hongtu

    2003-12-01

    Using encapsulation techniques to coat easily soluble fertilizers is an important way to improve fertilizer use efficiency while reduce environmental hazards. Based on a wide range of literature collection on coated fertilizer research, the theories, processes, and characters of nutrient controlled-release from coated fertilizer were discussed, and the factors affecting nutrient controlled-release and the mathematical simulations on it were reviewed. The main tendencies related to this research in China were also put forward.

  18. [Research advances on controlled-release mechanisms of nutrients in coated fertilizers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haijun; Wu, Zhijie; Liang, Wenju; Xie, Hongtu

    2003-12-01

    Using encapsulation techniques to coat easily soluble fertilizers is an important way to improve fertilizer use efficiency while reduce environmental hazards. Based on a wide range of literature collection on coated fertilizer research, the theories, processes, and characters of nutrient controlled-release from coated fertilizer were discussed, and the factors affecting nutrient controlled-release and the mathematical simulations on it were reviewed. The main tendencies related to this research in China were also put forward. PMID:15031946

  19. The acquisition of prepositions in Serbian: Factors and mechanisms of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Maja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The study proceeds from the results of the previous studies showing that the distributional characteristics (frequency of language input are crucial for the acquisition of prepositions (Savić & Anđelković, 2005, in preparation. The authors analyze deviations in the distribution of prepositions in children's spontaneous speech from the prediction made on the basis of the distributional characteristics of prepositions in adult language. The results show that, in comparison with adult language, only the prepositions "kod" (at, by, near, beside and "sa" (with, from, off deviate from the prediction. It was also found out that the unexpectedly early and frequent use of the preposition "kod" in child speech stemmed from the frequent use of this preposition in child-directed speech. On the other hand, the preposition "sa", which is very frequent in child-directed speech, is not present in children's production at the earliest age, because its homonymy makes it cognitively complex. The analysis of the reasons for such a deviation provided a basis for the discussion about the possible factors and mechanisms of development: the distributional characteristics of adult language are the major factor of acquisition, but the effects of conceptual and structural complexity were recorded as well.

  20. Agronomic evaluation of a fertiliser with D-CODER technology, a new mechanism for the slow release of nutrients

    OpenAIRE

    Arrobas, Margarida; Rodrigues, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    D-CODER is a fertilizer with a new slow-release mechanism consisting of an organomineral matrix that releases the nutrients only in the presence of growing plants. Pot and field experiments were carried out to study the release pattern of N from D-CODER. The experiments included grown and bare soil plots. The fertilizer treatments were DCODER, ammonium nitrate (ANpreplant), and the control. A fourth treatment was added to the cultivated plots, consisting of splitting the ammoni...

  1. Responses of soil nutrient to driving mechanism in Taihu Lake basin in last 20 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study is to understand the changing law of soil nutrient quality in Taihu Lake basin, Yangtze Delta in last 20 years, and reveal the relationship between soil nutrient changes and human driving forces in regional level over long period of time. Experiment on long-term collecting samples was conducted to study changes of soil organic matter, total N, available N, available P and available K in Dongting town, Wuxi city during the last 20 years. The paper analyses the co-relationship of the fluctuation of soil nutrient and state policy, cultivating practice, agricultural input, and per hectare agricultural net income. The results showed that at first the content of soil organic matter increased, then decreased, and increased again. The content of total N and available N steadily increased. The content of available K and available P steadily decreased. The authors found that the influence of state policy and cultivating practice on soil nutrient quality index (SNQI) is obvious, agricultural input and SNQI are positively correlated, and per hectare agricultural net income and SNQI are negatively correlated.

  2. Mechanisms for success after long-term nutrient enrichment in a boreal forest understory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Nahanni Grainger

    Full Text Available Global levels of reactive nitrogen are predicted to rise in the coming decades as a result of increased deposition from the burning of fossil fuels and the large-scale conversion of nitrogen into a useable form for agriculture. Many plant communities respond strongly to increases in soil nitrogen, particularly in northern ecosystems where nitrogen levels are naturally very low. An experiment in northern Canada that was initiated in 1990 has been investigating the effects of long-term nutrient enrichment (fertilizer added annually on a boreal forest understory community. We used this experiment to investigate why some species increase in abundance under nutrient enrichment whereas others decline. We focused on four species that differed in their responses to fertilization: Mertensia paniculata and Epilobium angustifolium increased in abundance, Achillea millefolium remained relatively constant and Festuca altaica declined. We hypothesized that the two species that were successful in the new high-nutrient, light-limited environment would be taller, have higher specific leaf area, change phenology by growing earlier in the season and be more morphologically plastic than their less successful counterparts. We compared plant height, specific leaf area, growth spurt date and allocation to leaves in plants grown in control and fertilized plots. We demonstrated that each of the two species that came to dominate fertilized plots has a different combination of traits and responses that likely gave them a competitive advantage; M. paniculata has the highest specific leaf area of the four species whereas E. angustifolium is tallest and exhibits morphological plasticity when fertilized by increasing biomass allocation to leaves. These results indicate that rather than one strategy determining success when nutrients become available, a variety of traits and responses may contribute to a species' ability to persist in a nutrient-enriched boreal forest

  3. On the Acquisition of Some Basic Word Spelling Mechanisms in a Deep (French) and a Shallow (Spanish) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Maria Soledad; Alegria, Jesus; Marin, Javier

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to compare the time course of the acquisition of two basic spelling mechanisms in Spanish, a shallow system, and French, a deep system. The first was lexical. It relies on the orthographic lexicon, a hypothetical structure containing the orthographic representations of words accessible for word spelling. To evaluate…

  4. Proximal gastric response to small intestinal nutrients is abnormal in mechanically ventilated critically iii patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nam Q Nguyen; Robert J Fraser; Marianne Chapman; Laura K Bryant; Richard H Holloway; Rosalie Vozzo; Christine Feinle-Bisset

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the response of the proximal stomach to small intestinal nutrients in critically iii patients.METHODS: Proximal gastric motility was measured in 13 critically iii patients (49.3 ± 4.7 years) and 12 healthy volunteers (27.7 ± 2.9 years) using a barostat technique.Recordings were performed at baseline, during a 60-min intra-duodenal infusion of Ensure(R) (2 kcal/min), and for 2 h following the infusion. Minimum distending pressure (MDP), intra-bag volume and fundic wave activity were determined.RESULTS: The MDP was higher in patients (11.7 ± 1.1 vs 7.8 ± 0.7 mmHg; P < 0.01). Baseline intrabag volumes were similar in the 2 groups. In healthy subjects, a 'bimodal' proximal gastric volume response was observed. In patients, the initial increase in proximal gastric volume was small and delayed, but eventually reached a maximal volume similar to that of healthy subjects. In healthy subjects, the proximal gastric volume rapidly returned to baseline level after nutrient infusion (median 18 min). In contrast, the recovery of volume to baseline was delayed in critically ill patients (median 106 min). In 6 patients, the volume had not returned to baseline level 2 hours after nutrient infusion.In patients, fundic volume waves were less frequent (P < 0.05) and had lower amplitude (P < 0.001), compared to healthy subjects.CONCLUSION: In critical illness, proximal gastric motor responses to small intestinal nutrient stimulation are abnormal.

  5. Seasonal and interannual variability of physical and biological dynamics at the shelfbreak front of the Middle Atlantic Bight: nutrient supply mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. He

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution, 3-dimensional coupled biophysical model is used to simulate ocean circulation and ecosystem variations at the shelfbreak front of the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB. Favorable comparisons between satellite observations and model hindcast solutions from January 2004 to November 2007 indicate the model has intrinsic skills in resolving fundamental physical and biological dynamics at the MAB shelfbreak. Seasonal and interannual variability of ocean physical and biological states and their driving mechanisms are further analyzed. The domain-wide upper water column nutrient content is found to peak in late winter-early spring. Phytoplankton spring bloom starts 1–2 months later, followed by zooplankton bloom in early summer. Our analysis shows the variability of shelfbreak nutrient supply is controlled by local mixing that deepens the mixed layer and injects deep ocean nutrients into the upper water column and alongshore nutrient transport by the shelfbreak jet and associated currents. Nutrient vertical advection associated with the shelfbreak bottom boundary layer convergence is another significant contributor. Spring mean nutrient budget diagnostics along the Nantucket transect are compared between nutrient rich 2004 and nutrient poor 2007. Physical advection and diffusion play the major role in determining strong interannual variations in shelfbreak nutrient content. The biological (source minus sink term is very similar between these two years.

  6. The dilemmas of the gourmet fly: The molecular and neuronal mechanism of feeding and nutrient decision making in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel M Itskov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To survive and successfully reproduce animals need to maintain a balanced intake of nutrients and energy. The nervous system of insects has evolved multiple mechanisms to regulate feeding behaviour. When animals are faced with the choice to feed, several decisions must be made: whether or not to eat, how much to eat, what to eat and when to eat. Using Drosophila melanogaster substantial progress has been achieved in understanding the neuronal and molecular mechanisms controlling feeding decisions. These feeding decisions are implemented in the nervous system on multiple levels, from alterations in the sensitivity of peripheral sensory organs to the modulation of memory systems. This review discusses methodologies developed in order to study insect feeding, the effects of neuropeptides and neuromodulators on feeding behaviour, behavioural evidence supporting the existence of internal energy sensors, neuronal and molecular mechanisms controlling protein intake and finally the regulation of feeding by circadian rhythms and sleep. From the discussed data a conceptual framework starts to emerge which aims to explain the molecular and neuronal processes maintaining the stability of the internal milieu.

  7. Pea-barley intercropping for efficient symbiotic N-2-fixation, soil N acquisition and use of other nutrients in European organic cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gooding, M.; Ambus, Per;

    2009-01-01

    Complementarity in acquisition of nitrogen (N) from soil and N-2-fixation within pea and barley intercrops was studied in organic field experiments across Western Europe (Denmark, United Kingdom, France, Germany and Italy). Spring pea and barley were sown either as sole crops, at the recommended ...... highly resilient. It is concluded that pea-barley intercropping is a relevant cropping strategy to adopt when trying to optimize N-2-fixation inputs to the cropping system.......Complementarity in acquisition of nitrogen (N) from soil and N-2-fixation within pea and barley intercrops was studied in organic field experiments across Western Europe (Denmark, United Kingdom, France, Germany and Italy). Spring pea and barley were sown either as sole crops, at the recommended...... recovery was greater in the pea-barley intercrops than in the sole Crops Suggesting a high degree of complementarity over a wide range of growing conditions. Complementarity was partly attributed to greater soil mineral N acquisition by barley, forcing pea to rely more on N-2-fixation. At all sites...

  8. Runoff characteristics and nutrient loss mechanism from plain farmland under simulated rainfall conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruimin; Wang, Jiawei; Shi, Jianhan; Chen, Yaxin; Sun, Chengchun; Zhang, Peipei; Shen, Zhenyao

    2014-01-15

    In recent years, nonpoint source (NPS) pollution has become the main contributor to water quality problems. Research on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses from farmland and the factors that influence these losses is very meaningful both for increasing the crop yield and for improving environmental water quality. To explore the mechanism by which N and P are lost from farmland in the North China Plain (NCP), 16 simulated rainfalls were conducted in 14 experimental fields (each of which had different conditions) in the NCP from July to August in 2010. The results showed that the rainfall intensity, the antecedent soil moisture content, and the vegetation cover status were the main factors that affected the surface runoff in the NCP. The runoff volume increased with the increasing rainfall intensity and the increasing soil moisture content, and decreased with the increasing vegetation cover. These factors also significantly affected the losses of P and N. The losses of P and N were positively correlated with the rainfall intensity and the antecedent soil moisture content, and negatively correlated with the vegetation cover. A longer and more intense rainfall resulted in a higher loss of N and P. Dissolved nitrogen was the predominant form of N loss. For phosphorous, the predominant loss form was greatly influenced by the rainfall intensity, the vegetation cover, and the antecedent soil moisture content. Most of phosphorus existed as dissolved phosphorus in Baizhuang (BZ) and as particulate phosphorus in Tangcheng (TC) and Fentai (FT). The minimum requirements for runoff occurrence in experimental regions were a rainfall depth of 5.1mm, a rainfall intensity of 50mm/h, and an antecedent soil moisture of approximately 29.6%.

  9. 基于LabVIEW的力学应变采集软件设计%design of mechanical strain acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴忠锴; 马铁华; 梁志剑

    2012-01-01

    Text programming language are characterized by complex and long time of developing, combined with the needs of the mechanics of materials strain data acquisition, The data acquisition and control software was designed using LabVIEW2010o The USB communication interface between hardware and PC was realized by taking DLL. using queue and thread technology adjust the speed of data transmission , ensure that the data is not lost, aviod the program to paralyze because of long data acquisition , improve the reliability of program, it follow the modular design idea to facilitate future improvement and maintenance ,Experiments show that the system can complete real-time strain acquisition, processing, display, storage and data readback.The software have advantages of simple interface, short development cycle, stable performance and easy maintenance, achieve good result in teaching practice%针对文本编程语言复杂,开发周期长的特点,结合材料力学应变数据采集实验的需要,存LabVIEW2010平台下设计了数据采集控制软件。调用动态链接库DLL实现下位机与上位机USB通信,利用队列技术、多线程技术调节了数据传递速度、保证数据不丢失,避免由于长时间数据采集造成的程序瘫痪,提高了程序可靠性,遵循模块化的设计思想,方便以后改进和维护,实验表明可以完成对应变信号实时采集、处理显示、存储及数据回放的功能。软件接口简单、开发周期短、性能稳定、易于维护,用于教学实践中,取得较好效果。

  10. MDAS2: A Data Acquisition System for the Soil Mechanic Laboratory; Sistema MDAS2 para Toma de Datos en el Laboratorio de Mecanica de Suelos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J.; Barcala, J. M. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The soil Mechanic Laboratory in CIEMAT is working to characterize a bentonite which may be use in the storage of radioactive waste. The bentonite is studied with several tests, frequently used in soil mechanics. This document describes the data acquisition system used in one of these experiments.

  11. The Acquisition of Past Tense in English/Norwegian Bilingual Children Single versus Dual Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Jensvoll

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In a study of three Norwegian/English bilingual siblings, their strategies for acquiring past tense of verbs in both languages were examined. Elicitation tests were performed in both languages and the children’s performance and error patterns were examined. These results were then compared to data from monolingual English and Norwegian speaking children. The results are discussed within the framework of the Single Mechanism Account Hypothesis, a Connectionist approach, and the Dual Mechanism Account Hypothesis, a Generative Approach. The current study suggests support for the Dual Mechanism Approach Hypothesis. It seems that the children in the current study did in fact create rules for past tense which they could apply by default.

  12. The molecular mechanism of Zinc acquisition by the neisserial outer-membrane transporter ZnuD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmettes, Charles; Ing, Christopher; Buckwalter, Carolyn M.; El Bakkouri, Majida; Chieh-Lin Lai, Christine; Pogoutse, Anastassia; Gray-Owen, Scott D.; Pomès, Régis; Moraes, Trevor F.

    2015-08-01

    Invading bacteria from the Neisseriaceae, Acinetobacteriaceae, Bordetellaceae and Moraxellaceae families express the conserved outer-membrane zinc transporter zinc-uptake component D (ZnuD) to overcome nutritional restriction imposed by the host organism during infection. Here we demonstrate that ZnuD is required for efficient systemic infections by the causative agent of bacterial meningitis, Neisseria meningitidis, in a mouse model. We also combine X-ray crystallography and molecular dynamics simulations to gain insight into the mechanism of zinc recognition and transport across the bacterial outer-membrane by ZnuD. Because ZnuD is also considered a promising vaccine candidate against N. meningitidis, we use several ZnuD structural intermediates to map potential antigenic epitopes, and propose a mechanism by which ZnuD can maintain high sequence conservation yet avoid immune recognition by altering the conformation of surface-exposed loops.

  13. The integrity of lexical acquisition mechanisms in autism spectrum disorders: A research review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Sudha; Luyster, Rhiannon J

    2016-08-01

    Research on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has rapidly expanded in recent years, yielding important developments in both theory and practice. While we have gained important insights into how children with ASD differ from typically developing (TD) children in terms of phenotypic features, less has been learned about if and how development in ASD differs from typical development in terms of underlying mechanisms of change. This article aims to provide a review of processes subserving lexical development in ASD, with the goal of identifying contributing factors to the heterogeneity of language outcomes in ASD. The focus is on available evidence of the integrity or disruption of these mechanisms in ASD, as well as their significance for vocabulary development; topics include early speech perception and preference, speech segmentation, word learning, and category formation. Significant gaps in the literature are identified and future directions are suggested. Autism Res 2016, 9: 810-828. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The integrity of lexical acquisition mechanisms in autism spectrum disorders: A research review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Sudha; Luyster, Rhiannon J

    2016-08-01

    Research on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has rapidly expanded in recent years, yielding important developments in both theory and practice. While we have gained important insights into how children with ASD differ from typically developing (TD) children in terms of phenotypic features, less has been learned about if and how development in ASD differs from typical development in terms of underlying mechanisms of change. This article aims to provide a review of processes subserving lexical development in ASD, with the goal of identifying contributing factors to the heterogeneity of language outcomes in ASD. The focus is on available evidence of the integrity or disruption of these mechanisms in ASD, as well as their significance for vocabulary development; topics include early speech perception and preference, speech segmentation, word learning, and category formation. Significant gaps in the literature are identified and future directions are suggested. Autism Res 2016, 9: 810-828. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26688218

  15. Short-term effect of soil disturbance by mechanical weeding on plant available nutrients in an organic vs conventional rotations experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, D.; Leblanc, S.; Fillmore, S A E

    2006-01-01

    The question whether soil disturbance from mechanical weeding in organic systems affects nutrient release from organic matter in compost-amended soil was examined in a long-term organic-versus-conventional rotational cropping system experiment over three years. The experimental design included continuous snap beans, and a fully phased snap beans/fall rye crop rotation sequence. Treatments were combinations of yearly applied fertiliser (synthetic fertiliser, 1× compost, 3× compost) and weed co...

  16. Mechanism of Children's Language Acquisition%儿童语言获得机制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓峰

    2012-01-01

    语言是儿童生长过程中掌握的最复杂的符号系统,语言的发展几乎影响到儿童发展的所有方面。多年来,心理学家和语言学家们对儿童语言获得这一问题进行了持续的研究,从不同的角度试图解释儿童语言的获得。先后形成了经典条件作用范式观点、操作条件作用范式观点、认知发展的观点、普遍性观点、成熟观点、"先天论"的观点、精进或调谐理论等研究成果,而从人类进化的宏观视角阐述与分析儿童语言获得机制又给我们提供了一种新的方法论。%Language is the childreng growth process of mastering the most complex system of signs, language development, affecting vir- tually all aspects of child development. Over the years, psychologists and linguists on the issue of child language were sustained re- search, from different perspectives trying to explain child language acquisition. Has formed a classical conditioning paradigm point of view, the role of operating conditions paradigm point of view, cognitive development point of view, universal point of view, mature point of view, "nativism" point of view, streamlining or tuning theory research, macro - evolution from human Theoretical Perspective and analysis of child language acquisition mechanism gave us a new methodology.

  17. Mechanism of acquisition of chromosomal markers by plasmids in Haemophilus influenzae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setlow, J.K.; Cabrera-Juarez, E.; Griffin, K.

    1984-11-01

    The hybrid plasmid pNov1 readily acquired genetic information from the chromosome of wild-type, but not rec-2, cells. Most of the recombination had taken place 1 h after entrance of the plasmid into the cell, as judged by transformation of rec-2 by lysates made from wild-type cells exposed to pNova. Measurement of physical transfer from radioactively labeled cellular DNA to plasmids recombining in wild-type cells failed, since there was little more radioactivity in plasmids from such cells than from labeled rec-2 recipients, in which no recombination took place. EcoRI digestion of pNov1 divided the DNA into a 1.7-kilobase-pair fragment containing the novobiocin resistance marker and a 13-kilobase-pair fragment containing all of the original vector and considerable portions homologous to the chromosome. Transformation by the large fragment alone resulted in a plasmid the size of the original pNov1. The hypothesis to explain the data is that genetic transfer from chromosome to plasmid took place by a copy choice mechanism.

  18. Evidence of a mycorrhizal mechanism for the adaptation of Andropogon gerardii to high and low-nutrient prairies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, P. A.; Miller, R. M.; Jastrow, J. D.; Rivetta, C. V.; Bever, J. D.; Environmental Research; Indiana Univ.

    2001-01-01

    Andropogon gerardii seed obtained from Kansas and Illinois was grown in a controlled environment in their own and each other's soils, with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Each ecotype grew comparatively better in its own soil indicating adaptation to its soil of origin. Overall, A. gerardii benefited more from AMF in low-nutrient Kansas soil than Illinois soil. The two ecotypes, however, did not benefit equally from mycorrhizal infection. The Kansas excotype was three times more responsive to mycorrhizal infection in the Kansas soil than was the Illinois ecotype. Our results indicate that plant adaptation to the nutrient levels of their local soils is likely to be due, at least in part, to a shift in their dependence on mycorrhizal fungi. The Illinois ecotype of A. gerardii has evolved a reduced dependence upon these fungi and greater reliance on a more highly branched root system. In contrast, the Kansas ecotype had a significantly coarser root system and invested proportionately greater carbon in the symbiotic association with AMF as measured by spore production. This study provides the first demonstration that plants can adapt to changing soil nutrient levels by shifting their dependence on AMF. This result has broad implications for our understanding of the role of these fungi in agricultural systems.

  19. Contribution of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutrient conditions to Fe-removal mechanisms in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaweera, Mahesh W; Kasturiarachchi, Jagath C; Kularatne, Ranil K A; Wijeyekoon, Suren L J

    2008-05-01

    Severe contamination of water resources including groundwater with iron (Fe) due to various anthropogenic activities has been a major environmental problem in industrial areas of Sri Lanka. Hence, the use of the obnoxious weed, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in constructed wetlands (floating aquatic macrophyte-based plant treatment systems) to phytoremediate Fe-rich wastewaters seems to be an appealing option. Although several studies have documented that hyacinths are good metal-accumulating plants none of these studies have documented the ability of this plant grown under different nutrient conditions to remove heavy metals from wastewaters. This paper, therefore, reports the phytoremediation efficiencies of water hyacinth grown under different nutrient conditions for Fe-rich wastewaters in batch-type constructed wetlands. This study was conducted for 15 weeks after 1-week acclimatization by culturing young water hyacinth plants (average height of 20+/-2cm) in 590L capacity fiberglass tanks under different nutrient concentrations of 1-fold [28 and 7.7mg/L of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP), respectively], 2-fold, 1/2-fold, 1/4-fold and 1/8-fold with synthetic wastewaters containing 9.27Femg/L. Another set-up of hyacinths containing only Fe as a heavy metal but without any nutrients (i.e., 0-fold) was also studied. A mass balance was carried out to investigate the phytoremediation efficiencies and to determine the different mechanisms governing Fe removal from the wastewaters. Fe removal was largely due to phytoremediation mainly through the process of rhizofiltration and chemical precipitation of Fe2O3 and FeOH3 followed by flocculation and sedimentation. However, chemical precipitation was more significant especially during the first 3 weeks of the study. Plants grown in the 0-fold set-up showed the highest phytoremediation efficiency of 47% during optimum growth at the 6th week with a highest accumulation of 6707Femg/kg dry

  20. Acquisition of teleological descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, David W.

    1992-03-01

    Teleology descriptions capture the purpose of an entity, mechanism, or activity with which they are associated. These descriptions can be used in explanation, diagnosis, and design reuse. We describe a technique for acquiring teleological descriptions expressed in the teleology language TeD. Acquisition occurs during design by observing design modifications and design verification. We demonstrate the acquisition technique in an electronic circuit design.

  1. Pharmacological mechanisms and effects of amino acid nutrients%氨基酸型营养素药理学机制及作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田锋; 王新颖

    2013-01-01

    氨基酸型营养素不仅参与合成机体蛋白质,还调节患者免疫功能和代谢.氨基酸型营养素包括:谷氨酰胺,能改善肠屏障功能,减轻炎性反应,促进免疫功能恢复,但不同疾病的临床应用仍无一致结论;精氨酸,两种代谢方式相互竞争,对不同疾病具体影响仍需进一步研究;亮氨酸,主要促进肌肉蛋白质合成,对代谢的影响尚存争议;蛋氨酸和半胱氨酸,能促进伤口愈合,对脂质代谢的益处正受重视.本综述回顾上述氨基酸型营养素对机体作用的有益生理机制及其临床应用,并简单介绍不同营养素间及营养素同机体的相互影响.%Common amino acid nutrients mainly contain glutamine,arginine,leucine,methionine and cysteine,which are not only the components participating in body protein synthesis,but also regulate the patients' immune system and metabolism.Glutamine can improve the intestinal barrier,reduce inflammatory reaction,and promote immunity recovery,but the clinical effects of different patients with different diseases are still lack of clear conclusions.The catabolism of arginine can produce NO,promoting the inflammatory reaction,and can also generate omithine,alleviating inflammatory reaction and promoting wound healing.Two competing ways coexist,but the specific effects on different diseases have no clear conclusions yet.Leucine promotes muscle protein synthesis mainly through mTOR pathway,however,the influence on metabolism is still debating.Sulfurcontaining amino acids methionine and cysteine can promote the synthesis of connective tissue and collagen conducive to wound healing,and their beneficial effects on lipid metabolism are of value.The purpose of this review is to cover potential beneficial physiological mechanisms of amino acid nutrients,to describe their results of clinical applications and to evaluate the interactions among individual nutrients or between individual nutrients and body.

  2. 间套作改善作物矿质营养的机理研究进展%Advances in the mechanism of improving crop mineral nutrients in intercropping and relay intercropping systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付学鹏; 吴凤芝; 吴瑕; 刘丹

    2016-01-01

    [Objectives]Crop mineral nutrients can be improved in intercropping and relay intercropping systems. In recent years, productivity of crops has been investigated, and the mechanism of efficient utilization of mineral nutrients in intercropping and relay intercropping systems has been focused on.Dynamics of rhizosphere mineral nutrients contents and crop mineral nutrient acquisition in intercropping or relay intercropping systems were summarized in this paper.[Major advances]1 ) The ammonium nitrogen and amino acid nitrogen in the root exudates of crops is the nitrogen sources for the adjacent crops, and the nitrogen fixation of leguminous crops is enhanced attributing to the induction of root exudates, so as to increasing nitrogen nutrient content in rhizosphere. 2) Organic acids in root exudates can mobilize insoluble phosphorus, iron and potassium in the rhizosphere, and enhance the availabilities of mineral nutrients for crops.3) Root architecture and gene expression related to mineral nutrients uptakes are changed in intercropping or relay intercropping.The changes may be mediated by root exudates or above-ground interspecific interactions.The below-ground niche complementarity and enhanced gene expression may contribute to the efficient utilization of mineral nutrients.4 ) The arbuscular mycorrhizal which would potentially create networks originating from crops by means of hyphal anastomoses is facilitative for the nutrition transfer among crops.5 ) Soil biodiversity ( soil fauna and microbes ) which positively contributes to nutrients uptakes can be influenced by intercropping and relay intercropping.Some specific function microbes such as phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria are attracted and accumulated in the rhizosphere as a result of variation of microbes metabolism, thus increasing the mineral nutrients bioavailability.6) The soil enzyme activities ( such as urease, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase) are increased in intercropping and relay

  3. Design and operation of the data acquisition and reduction system used in the applied mechanics division for mechanical tests and the post accident heat removal experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design and use of a powerful data acquisition system based on a multi-user minicomputer. The system acquires data simultaneously from a number of different types of instruments and front-end microcomputers, performs some signal processing and generates alarm levels to the experimental plant, while running one or more programs (remote consoles) to provide presentations of the collected data in graphical form, or to support assignments of alarm values. A data base has been created and general programs for data manipulation, plotting and mathematical analysis have been written and documented. This work continues to provide more specialized computation for new applications. Essentially no knowledge of computers is required for data acquisition, file management and initiation of programs. This paper is divided into four parts: laboratory environment; system configuration; software potential; and basic criteria for reliable use of the system

  4. Early root overproduction not triggered by nutrients decisive for competitive success belowground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M Padilla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Theory predicts that plant species win competition for a shared resource by more quickly preempting the resource in hotspots and by depleting resource levels to lower concentrations than its competitors. Competition in natural grasslands largely occurs belowground, but information regarding root interactions is limited, as molecular methods quantifying species abundance belowground have only recently become available. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In monoculture, the grass Festuca rubra had higher root densities and a faster rate of soil nitrate depletion than Plantago lanceolata, projecting the first as a better competitor for nutrients. However, Festuca lost in competition with Plantago. Plantago not only replaced the lower root mass of its competitor, but strongly overproduced roots: with only half of the plants in mixture than in monoculture, Plantago root densities in mixture were similar or higher than those in its monocultures. These responses occurred equally in a nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor soil layer, and commenced immediately at the start of the experiment when root densities were still low and soil nutrient concentrations high. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that species may achieve competitive superiority for nutrients by root growth stimulation prior to nutrient depletion, induced by the presence of a competitor species, rather than by a better ability to compete for nutrients per se. The root overproduction by which interspecific neighbors are suppressed independent of nutrient acquisition is consistent with predictions from game theory. Our results emphasize that root competition may be driven by other mechanisms than is currently assumed. The long-term consequences of these mechanisms for community dynamics are discussed.

  5. 羟基酪醇作为线粒体营养素的调控机制%The regulation mechanism of hydroxytyrosol as a mitochondrial nutrient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗成; 刘健康

    2012-01-01

    地中海饮食,特别是橄榄油,赋予了地中海周边国家人民对于退行性疾病的强力抵抗,尤其是心血管疾病和肿瘤的发生率以及致死率相对更低.羟基酪醇是橄榄油中的多酚类化合物之一,在防治紫外辐射、糖尿病、老年性视网膜黄斑病变、心血管疾病以及肿瘤等方面都具有重要的生物学效应.将具体阐述羟基酪醇作为一种线粒体营养素(如通过调节线粒体的动态变化以及Nrf2介导的抗氧化酶的诱导等)如何促进其有益功能.%Mediterranean diets, especially olive oil, play a vital role in resistance to degenerative diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and cancer, promoting a relatively lower incidence and mortality. As one of polyphenolic compounds in olive oil, hydroxytyrosol exhibits excellent biological effects on resistance to many diseases, such as UV radiation, diabetes, age-related macular disease, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, etc. This review will focus on the regulation mechanism of hydroxytyrosol as a mitochondrial nutrient through promoting mitochondrial dynamics and Nrf2-mediated antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes induction.

  6. Balanced bilingualism and early age of second language acquisition as the underlying mechanisms of a bilingual executive control advantage: Why variations in bilingual experiences matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Quin eYow

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies revealed inconsistent evidences of a bilingual advantage in executive processing. One potential source of explanation is the multifaceted experience of the bilinguals in these studies. This study seeks to test whether bilinguals who engage in language selection more frequently would perform better in executive control tasks than those bilinguals who engage in language selection less frequently. We examined the influence of the degree of bilingualism (i.e., language proficiency, frequency of use of two languages, and age of second language acquisition on executive functioning in bilingual young adults using a comprehensive battery of executive control tasks. Seventy-two 18- to 25-year-old English-Mandarin bilinguals performed four computerized executive function tasks (Stroop, Eriksen flanker, number-letter switching and n-back task that measure the executive function components: inhibition, mental-set shifting, and information updating and monitoring. Results from multiple regression analyses, structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping supported the positive association between age of second language acquisition and the interference cost in the Stroop task. Most importantly, we found a significant effect of balanced bilingualism (balanced usage of and balanced proficiency in two languages on the Stroop and number-letter task (mixing cost only, indicating that a more balanced use and a more balanced level of proficiency in two languages resulted in better executive control skills in the adult bilinguals. We did not find any significant effect of bilingualism on flanker or n-back task. These findings provided important insights to the underlying mechanisms of the bilingual cognitive advantage hypothesis, demonstrating that regular experience with extensive practice in controlling attention to their two language systems results in better performance in related executive functions such as inhibiting prepotent responses and global

  7. Balanced bilingualism and early age of second language acquisition as the underlying mechanisms of a bilingual executive control advantage: why variations in bilingual experiences matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yow, W Quin; Li, Xiaoqian

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies revealed inconsistent evidences of a bilingual advantage in executive processing. One potential source of explanation is the multifaceted experience of the bilinguals in these studies. This study seeks to test whether bilinguals who engage in language selection more frequently would perform better in executive control tasks than those bilinguals who engage in language selection less frequently. We examined the influence of the degree of bilingualism (i.e., language proficiency, frequency of use of two languages, and age of second language acquisition) on executive functioning in bilingual young adults using a comprehensive battery of executive control tasks. Seventy-two 18- to 25-years-old English-Mandarin bilinguals performed four computerized executive function (EF) tasks (Stroop, Eriksen flanker, number-letter switching, and n-back task) that measure the EF components: inhibition, mental-set shifting, and information updating and monitoring. Results from multiple regression analyses, structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping supported the positive association between age of second language acquisition and the interference cost in the Stroop task. Most importantly, we found a significant effect of balanced bilingualism (balanced usage of and balanced proficiency in two languages) on the Stroop and number-letter task (mixing cost only), indicating that a more balanced use and a more balanced level of proficiency in two languages resulted in better executive control skills in the adult bilinguals. We did not find any significant effect of bilingualism on flanker or n-back task. These findings provided important insights to the underlying mechanisms of the bilingual cognitive advantage hypothesis, demonstrating that regular experience with extensive practice in controlling attention to their two language systems results in better performance in related EFs such as inhibiting prepotent responses and global set-shifting. PMID:25767451

  8. Balanced bilingualism and early age of second language acquisition as the underlying mechanisms of a bilingual executive control advantage: why variations in bilingual experiences matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yow, W Quin; Li, Xiaoqian

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies revealed inconsistent evidences of a bilingual advantage in executive processing. One potential source of explanation is the multifaceted experience of the bilinguals in these studies. This study seeks to test whether bilinguals who engage in language selection more frequently would perform better in executive control tasks than those bilinguals who engage in language selection less frequently. We examined the influence of the degree of bilingualism (i.e., language proficiency, frequency of use of two languages, and age of second language acquisition) on executive functioning in bilingual young adults using a comprehensive battery of executive control tasks. Seventy-two 18- to 25-years-old English-Mandarin bilinguals performed four computerized executive function (EF) tasks (Stroop, Eriksen flanker, number-letter switching, and n-back task) that measure the EF components: inhibition, mental-set shifting, and information updating and monitoring. Results from multiple regression analyses, structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping supported the positive association between age of second language acquisition and the interference cost in the Stroop task. Most importantly, we found a significant effect of balanced bilingualism (balanced usage of and balanced proficiency in two languages) on the Stroop and number-letter task (mixing cost only), indicating that a more balanced use and a more balanced level of proficiency in two languages resulted in better executive control skills in the adult bilinguals. We did not find any significant effect of bilingualism on flanker or n-back task. These findings provided important insights to the underlying mechanisms of the bilingual cognitive advantage hypothesis, demonstrating that regular experience with extensive practice in controlling attention to their two language systems results in better performance in related EFs such as inhibiting prepotent responses and global set-shifting.

  9. Linking Heterotrophic Metabolism and Nutrient Uptake in Headwater Streams

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Travis Michael

    2007-01-01

    Autotrophs and heterotrophs differ in their demand, acquisition and use of materials, but fundamentally nutrient demand is inherently linked to metabolism based on the stoichiometry of biochemical reactions. The differences between these two groups of organisms confound straightforward regression approaches to quantifying the relationship between nutrient demand and metabolism at an ecosystem level. We address how nutrient demand in headwater streams changes with shifts in organic matter su...

  10. Knowledge Transfers following Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens

    2001-01-01

    Prior relations between the acquiring firm and the target company pave the way for knowledge transfers subsequent to the acquisitions. One major reason is that through the market-based relations the two actors build up mutual trust and simultaneously they learn how to communicate. An empirical...... study of 54 Danish acquisitions taking place abroad from 1994 to 1998 demonstrated that when there was a high level of trust between the acquiring firm and the target firm before the take-over, then medium and strong tie-binding knowledge transfer mechanisms, such as project groups and job rotation...

  11. A new electrical and mechanically detonatable shear wave source for near surface (0-30 m) seismic acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, J. M.; Lorenzo, J. M.; Harris, J. B.

    2013-04-01

    We present a new, impulsive, horizontal shear source capable of performing long shot profiles in a time-efficient and repeatable manner. The new shear source is ground-coupled by eight 1/2″ (1.27 cm) × 2″ (5.08 cm) steel spikes. Blank shotshells (12-gauge) used as energy sources can be either mechanically or electrically detonated. Electrical fuses have a start time repeatability of shotshell holder is surrounded by a protective 6″ (15.24 cm)-thick barrel, a push-and-twist-locked breach, and a safety pin. We conducted field tests at the 17th Street Canal levee breach site in New Orleans, Louisiana (30.017° N 90.121° W) and at an instrumented test borehole at Millsaps College in Jackson, Mississippi (32.325° N 93.182° W) to compare our new source and a traditional hammer impact source. The new shear source produces a broader-band of frequencies (30-100 Hz cf. 30-60 Hz). Signal generated by the new shear source has signal-to-noise ratios equivalent to ~ 3 stacked hammer blows to the hammer impact source. Ideal source signals must be broadband in frequency, have a high SNR, be consistent, and have precise start times; all traits of the new shear source.

  12. Octopamine connects nutrient cues to lipid metabolism upon nutrient deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jun; Ma, Yi-Cheng; Yang, Zhong-Shan; Zou, Cheng-Gang; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Starvation is probably the most common stressful situation in nature. In vertebrates, elevation of the biogenic amine norepinephrine levels is common during starvation. However, the precise role of norepinephrine in nutrient deprivation remains largely unknown. We report that in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, up-regulation of the biosynthesis of octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart of norepinephrine, serves as a mechanism to adapt to starvation. During nutrient deprivation, the nuclear receptor DAF-12, known to sense nutritional cues, up-regulates the expression of tbh-1 that encodes tyramine β-hydroxylase, a key enzyme for octopamine biosynthesis, in the RIC neurons. Octopamine induces the expression of the lipase gene lips-6 via its receptor SER-3 in the intestine. LIPS-6, in turn, elicits lipid mobilization. Our findings reveal that octopamine acts as an endocrine regulator linking nutrient cues to lipolysis to maintain energy homeostasis, and suggest that such a mechanism may be evolutionally conserved in diverse organisms. PMID:27386520

  13. Lowbush blueberries, Vaccinium angustifolium, modulate the functional potential of nutrient utilization and DNA maintenance mechanisms in the rat proximal colon microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Lacombe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The core gut microbiota encodes for a metabolic capacity that often surpasses the metabolic potential of its host. Lowbush wild blueberries (LWB are a rich source of bioactive compounds, and the gut microbiota is an important modulator of their activity. The objective of this research is to study the effect of a diet enriched with LWB on the gastrointestinal microbiota’s metabolic potential. Methods: Nine three-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups. The control group (N=4 was placed on the AIN93 diet, and the treatment group (N=5 was fed the same diet with 8% (w/w LWB powder substituting for dextrose. The animals consumed the diets for six weeks, after which they were sacrificed. Functional profiles and metabolic potential of the colon microbiota in response to diet were analyzed using deep whole genome sequencing (WGS. Results: Proteins predicted from WGS DNA sequences were assigned to 3,746 COG, 5,577 KEGG, and 4,474 Pfam families. Statistical comparisons of the protein-coding genes revealed significant changes in 25 Gene Ontology (GO, 186 KEGG, and 20 Pfam protein families representing 2.1%, 3.3%, and 0.02% of all hits identified, respectively. Overall, the combined inquires into these databases represented an emphasis on membrane trafficking, DNA regulation, modification and repair, and nutrient metabolism. Protein families that significantly increased by the enrichment of LWBs were involved with amino acid metabolism, 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase, metal ion binding, glutamate synthase, REDOX homeostasis, and aryl transferases. In Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(6:228-241 contrast, protein families involved with integrase/recombinase, reverse transcriptase, and transposon/transposase were at a lower abundance. Conclusions: The results from this study reflect the potential impact that LWBs have on the functional repertoire of bacterial communities in the proximal colon. The results

  14. 机械产品专利作用结构知识提取方法研究%Acquisition Method for Principle Solution of Mechanical Patent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛驰; 邱清盈; 冯培恩; 邓坤

    2013-01-01

    机械产品专利包含了产品改进和创新的技术知识,对专利知识有效提取和合理表示是利用专利知识辅助产品创新的关键技术之一.分析了现有专利技术方案提取方法和知识表示所存在的问题,提出了针对英文专利包括技术对象和技术关系两方面提取任务的专利作用结构知识提取方法,建立了基于可扩展标记语言结构XSD表示和统一建模语言UML的专利作用结构知识表示模型.研究了机械产品专利语言的特点,采用最大熵原理和专利术语词典识别提取技术对象,通过建立组成类动词库识别核心动词提取技术关系.该专利作用结构知识表示模型具有表达直观和提取过程计算机自动处理等特点.结合专利实例,提出了从专利中提取专利作用结构知识,写入XSD结构化文档,最后转化为专利作用结构表示图的获取过程.%The problems of the existed acquisition method and representation method for patent technical solution were discussed. A new knowledge acquisition method for mechanical patent's principle solution including the acquisition task of technical object and technical relationship was proposed. Based on extensible markup language schema definition ( XSD) and unified modeling language ( UML) , the representation model of patent technical solution was built up. According to the characteristics of mechanical patent's text, technical object with the method of maximum entropy principle and patent term dictionary was acquired. The composition verb database was established and technical relationship was acquired. This method has some advantages such as the intuitionistic representation of the patent knowledge and the feature that the knowledge was automatically processed by computer. A whole process involved the steps like acquiring the principle knowledge from patent documents, writing the knowledge into XSD and transforming XSD to the representation model was illustrated with a

  15. Mergers & Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    This dissertation is a legal dogmatic thesis, the goal of which is to describe and analyze the current state of law in Europe in regard to some relevant selected elements related to mergers and acquisitions, and the adviser’s counsel in this regard. Having regard to the topic of the dissertation ...... and fiscal neutrality, group-related issues, holding-structure issues, employees, stock exchange listing issues, and corporate nationality....

  16. 生物质炭对土壤养分淋溶的影响及潜在机理研究进展%Effects of biochar on soil nutrients leaching and potential mechanisms: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉学; 吕豪豪; 石岩; 王耀锋; 钟哲科; 杨生茂

    2015-01-01

    soil nutrient (especially nitrogen and phosphorus) leaching were reviewed.On that basis,four related action mechanisms were clarified,including direct adsorption of nutrients by biochar due to its micropore structure or surface charge,influencing nutrient leaching through increasing soil waterholding capacity,influencing nutrient cycling through the interaction with soil microbes,and preferential transport of absorbed nutrients by fine biochar particles.At last future research directions for better understanding the interactions between biochar and nutrient leaching in the soil were pro-posed.

  17. New insights into carbon acquisition and exchanges within the coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis under NH4+ and NO3- supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Leïla; Maguer, Jean-François; Grover, Renaud; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine

    2015-08-01

    Anthropogenic nutrient enrichment affects the biogeochemical cycles and nutrient stoichiometry of coastal ecosystems and is often associated with coral reef decline. However, the mechanisms by which dissolved inorganic nutrients, and especially nitrogen forms (ammonium versus nitrate) can disturb the association between corals and their symbiotic algae are subject to controversial debate. Here, we investigated the coral response to varying N : P ratios, with nitrate or ammonium as a nitrogen source. We showed significant differences in the carbon acquisition by the symbionts and its allocation within the symbiosis according to nutrient abundance, type and stoichiometry. In particular, under low phosphate concentration (0.05 µM), a 3 µM nitrate enrichment induced a significant decrease in carbon fixation rate and low values of carbon translocation, compared with control conditions (N : P = 0.5 : 0.05), while these processes were significantly enhanced when nitrate was replaced by ammonium. A combined enrichment in ammonium and phosphorus (N : P = 3 : 1) induced a shift in nutrient allocation to the symbionts, at the detriment of the host. Altogether, these results shed light into the effect of nutrient enrichment on reef corals. More broadly, they improve our understanding of the consequences of nutrient loading on reef ecosystems, which is urgently required to refine risk management strategies. PMID:26203006

  18. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... beneficial nutrients. For example, fruits and vegetables not only offer important vitamins and minerals, but also provide ... ingredient of a nutrient-dense diet. They not only provide vitamins and minerals but also fiber. Dr. ...

  19. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bales, Ph.D., R.D.: So what nutrient density does is allow you to choose between closely ... enough calories for the day, either way, nutrient density is a very important concept.

  20. Improving crop nutrient efficiency through root architecture modifications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinxin Li; Rensen Zeng; Hong Liao

    2016-01-01

    Improving crop nutrient efficiency becomes an essential consideration for environmentally friendly and sustainable agriculture. Plant growth and development is dependent on 17 essential nutrient elements, among them, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are the two most important mineral nutrients. Hence it is not surprising that low N and/or low P availability in soils severely constrains crop growth and productivity, and thereby have become high priority targets for improving nutrient efficiency in crops. Root exploration largely determines the ability of plants to acquire mineral nutrients from soils. Therefore, root architecture, the 3-dimensional configuration of the plant’s root system in the soil, is of great importance for improving crop nutrient efficiency. Furthermore, the symbiotic associations between host plants and arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi/rhizobial bacteria, are additional important strategies to enhance nutrient acquisition. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the current understanding of crop species control of root architecture alterations in response to nutrient availability and root/microbe symbioses, through gene or QTL regulation, which results in enhanced nutrient acquisition.

  1. Improving crop nutrient efficiency through root architecture modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxin; Zeng, Rensen; Liao, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Improving crop nutrient efficiency becomes an essential consideration for environmentally friendly and sustainable agriculture. Plant growth and development is dependent on 17 essential nutrient elements, among them, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are the two most important mineral nutrients. Hence it is not surprising that low N and/or low P availability in soils severely constrains crop growth and productivity, and thereby have become high priority targets for improving nutrient efficiency in crops. Root exploration largely determines the ability of plants to acquire mineral nutrients from soils. Therefore, root architecture, the 3-dimensional configuration of the plant's root system in the soil, is of great importance for improving crop nutrient efficiency. Furthermore, the symbiotic associations between host plants and arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi/rhizobial bacteria, are additional important strategies to enhance nutrient acquisition. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the current understanding of crop species control of root architecture alterations in response to nutrient availability and root/microbe symbioses, through gene or QTL regulation, which results in enhanced nutrient acquisition.

  2. Improving crop nutrient efficiency through root architecture modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxin; Zeng, Rensen; Liao, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Improving crop nutrient efficiency becomes an essential consideration for environmentally friendly and sustainable agriculture. Plant growth and development is dependent on 17 essential nutrient elements, among them, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are the two most important mineral nutrients. Hence it is not surprising that low N and/or low P availability in soils severely constrains crop growth and productivity, and thereby have become high priority targets for improving nutrient efficiency in crops. Root exploration largely determines the ability of plants to acquire mineral nutrients from soils. Therefore, root architecture, the 3-dimensional configuration of the plant's root system in the soil, is of great importance for improving crop nutrient efficiency. Furthermore, the symbiotic associations between host plants and arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi/rhizobial bacteria, are additional important strategies to enhance nutrient acquisition. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the current understanding of crop species control of root architecture alterations in response to nutrient availability and root/microbe symbioses, through gene or QTL regulation, which results in enhanced nutrient acquisition. PMID:26460087

  3. Intestinal sensing of nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolhurst, Gwen; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona M

    2012-01-01

    Ingestion of a meal triggers a range of physiological responses both within and outside the gut, and results in the remote modulation of appetite and glucose homeostasis. Luminal contents are sensed by specialised chemosensitive cells scattered throughout the intestinal epithelium. These enteroendocrine and tuft cells make direct contact with the gut lumen and release a range of chemical mediators, which can either act in a paracrine fashion interacting with neighbouring cells and nerve endings or as classical circulating hormones. At the molecular level, the chemosensory machinery involves multiple and complex signalling pathways including activation of G-protein-coupled receptors and solute carrier transporters. This chapter will discuss our current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying intestinal chemosensation with a particular focus on the relatively well-characterised nutrient-triggered secretion from the enteroendocrine system. PMID:22249821

  4. Root morphology and mycorrhizal symbioses together shape nutrient foraging strategies of temperate trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weile; Koide, Roger T; Adams, Thomas S; DeForest, Jared L; Cheng, Lei; Eissenstat, David M

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthesis by leaves and acquisition of water and minerals by roots are required for plant growth, which is a key component of many ecosystem functions. Although the role of leaf functional traits in photosynthesis is generally well understood, the relationship of root functional traits to nutrient uptake is not. In particular, predictions of nutrient acquisition strategies from specific root traits are often vague. Roots of nearly all plants cooperate with mycorrhizal fungi in nutrient acquisition. Most tree species form symbioses with either arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) or ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi. Nutrients are distributed heterogeneously in the soil, and nutrient-rich "hotspots" can be a key source for plants. Thus, predicting the foraging strategies that enable mycorrhizal root systems to exploit these hotspots can be critical to the understanding of plant nutrition and ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycling. Here, we show that in 13 sympatric temperate tree species, when nutrient availability is patchy, thinner root species alter their foraging to exploit patches, whereas thicker root species do not. Moreover, there appear to be two distinct pathways by which thinner root tree species enhance foraging in nutrient-rich patches: AM trees produce more roots, whereas EM trees produce more mycorrhizal fungal hyphae. Our results indicate that strategies of nutrient foraging are complementary among tree species with contrasting mycorrhiza types and root morphologies, and that predictable relationships between below-ground traits and nutrient acquisition emerge only when both roots and mycorrhizal fungi are considered together.

  5. Integration of root phenes for soil resource acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Matthew York

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Suboptimal availability of water and nutrients is a primary limitation to plant growth in terrestrial ecosystems. The acquisition of soil resources by plant roots is therefore an important component of plant fitness and agricultural productivity. Plant root systems comprise a set of phenes, or traits, that interact. Phenes are the units of the plant phenotype, and phene states represent the variation in form and function a particular phene may take. Root phenes can be classified as affecting resource acquisition or utilization, influencing acquisition through exploration or exploitation, and in being metabolically influential or neutral. These classifications determine how one phene will interact with another phene, whether through foraging mechanisms or metabolic economics. Phenes that influence one another through foraging mechanisms are likely to operate within a phene module, a group of interacting phenes, that may be co-selected. Examples of root phene interactions discussed are: 1 root hair length × root hair density, 2 lateral branching × root cortical aerenchyma, 3 adventitious root number × adventitious root respiration and basal root growth angle, 4 nodal root number × root cortical aerenchyma, and 5 basal root growth angle × root hair length and density. Progress in the study of phenes and phene interactions will be facilitated by employing simulation modeling and near-isophenic lines that allow the study of specific phenes and phene combinations within a common phenotypic background. Developing a robust understanding of the phenome at the organismal level will require new lines of inquiry into how phenotypic integration influences plant function in diverse environments. A better understanding of how root phenes interact to affect soil resource acquisition will be an important tool in the breeding of crops with superior stress tolerance and reduced dependence on intensive use of inputs.

  6. 2016 NAIP Acquisition Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Planned States for 2016 NAIP acquisition and acquisition status layer (updated daily). Updates to the acquisition seasons may be made during the season to...

  7. The Construction of Social Contradiction Dissolving Mechanism of Group Petition on Land-acquisition and Resident-resettlement%征地拆迁群访事件矛盾化解机制的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯楚将; 莫岳云

    2012-01-01

      The group petition on land-acquisition and resident-resettlement is a frequent social phenomenon in re -cent years.To build up unblocked channels for public interest expression and break the institutional barriers are the most urgent issues to dissolve the dilemma of frequent group petition on land -acquisition and resident-resettlement. This article brings the coping mechanism in three different stages according to the actual basis of group petition on land-acquisition and resident -resettlement, including the early warning mechanism before the event , the disposal and dissolving mechanism during the event and multiple -channel dissolving mechanism based on law after the e -vent, aiming to construct one long-time effective mechanism from the democratic and scientific views .%  征地拆迁群访事件是近年来频发的社会现象。疏通群众利益诉求渠道,破除体制性梗阻,是化解征地拆迁群访事件频发困局的当务之急。本文根据征地拆迁群访事件的实际,提出了事前、事中、事后三个不同阶段的应对机制,包括事前的预警机制、事中的处置和化解机制,以及事后以法律为核心的多渠道解决机制等,力图从民生和科学的角度构建行之有效的长效机制

  8. First language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodluck, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews current approaches to first language acquisition, arguing in favor of the theory that attributes to the child an innate knowledge of universal grammar. Such knowledge can accommodate the systematic nature of children's non-adult linguistic behaviors. The relationships between performance devices (mechanisms for comprehension and production of speech), non-linguistic aspects of cognition, and child grammars are also discussed. WIREs Cogn Sci 2011 2 47-54 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.95 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  9. Syntax acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2012-03-01

    Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By 3- or 4-years-old, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the nature versus nurture debate about how knowledge is acquired in any cognitive domain. One perspective dates back to Plato's dialog 'The Meno'. In this dialog, the protagonist, Socrates, demonstrates to Meno, an aristocrat in Ancient Greece, that a young slave knows more about geometry than he could have learned from experience. By extension, Plato's Problem refers to any gap between experience and knowledge. How children fill in the gap in the case of language continues to be the subject of much controversy in cognitive science. Any model of language acquisition must address three factors, inter alia: 1. The knowledge children accrue; 2. The input children receive (often called the primary linguistic data); 3. The nonlinguistic capacities of children to form and test generalizations based on the input. According to the famous linguist Noam Chomsky, the main task of linguistics is to explain how children bridge the gap-Chomsky calls it a 'chasm'-between what they come to know about language, and what they could have learned from experience, even given optimistic assumptions about their cognitive abilities. Proponents of the alternative 'nurture' approach accuse nativists like Chomsky of overestimating the complexity of what children learn, underestimating the data children have to work with, and manifesting undue pessimism about children's abilities to extract information based on the input. The modern 'nurture' approach is often referred to as the usage-based account. We discuss the usage-based account first, and then the nativist account. After that, we report and discuss the findings of several

  10. Syntax acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2012-03-01

    Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By 3- or 4-years-old, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the nature versus nurture debate about how knowledge is acquired in any cognitive domain. One perspective dates back to Plato's dialog 'The Meno'. In this dialog, the protagonist, Socrates, demonstrates to Meno, an aristocrat in Ancient Greece, that a young slave knows more about geometry than he could have learned from experience. By extension, Plato's Problem refers to any gap between experience and knowledge. How children fill in the gap in the case of language continues to be the subject of much controversy in cognitive science. Any model of language acquisition must address three factors, inter alia: 1. The knowledge children accrue; 2. The input children receive (often called the primary linguistic data); 3. The nonlinguistic capacities of children to form and test generalizations based on the input. According to the famous linguist Noam Chomsky, the main task of linguistics is to explain how children bridge the gap-Chomsky calls it a 'chasm'-between what they come to know about language, and what they could have learned from experience, even given optimistic assumptions about their cognitive abilities. Proponents of the alternative 'nurture' approach accuse nativists like Chomsky of overestimating the complexity of what children learn, underestimating the data children have to work with, and manifesting undue pessimism about children's abilities to extract information based on the input. The modern 'nurture' approach is often referred to as the usage-based account. We discuss the usage-based account first, and then the nativist account. After that, we report and discuss the findings of several

  11. Improving Acquisition Outcomes with Contextual Ambidexterity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meglio, Olimpia; King, David R.; Risberg, Annette

    2015-01-01

    The results of research on mergers and acquisitions often point to a need to improve acquisition outcomes and lessen the organizational turmoil that can often follow integration efforts. We assert that viewing acquisition integration through the lens of contextual ambidexterity may improve...... acquisition outcomes in two ways: by providing an integrated solution to the economic and social tensions in acquisitions, and by enabling managers to effectively confront the competing needs of task and human integration. We also posit that by building on contextual ambidexterity, we can extend...... the possibilities for both research and practice regarding task and human integration in acquisitions. We also emphasize the role of an integration manager and integration mechanisms in enabling contextual ambidexterity for successful acquisition integration. Finally, we identify implications for research...

  12. Mitochondria in response to nutrients and nutrient-sensitive pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzer, Claudia; Tiefenböck, Stefanie K; Frei, Christian

    2010-11-01

    Mitochondria are abundant cellular organelles, and are required for the generation of energy through oxidative catabolism. Equally important, mitochondria also provide substrates for de novo synthesis of fatty acids and multiple amino acids. Mitochondrial functions must therefore be tightly linked to cellular nutrient availability. This review focuses on the current knowledge of how nutrients affect mitochondria. In particular, we describe how the transcriptional profile of the nucleus is altered to mediate this control, and the transcription factors that are involved. In addition, we summarize recent progress in our understanding of how transcription-independent mechanisms, most notably through the cellular energy sensor mTOR, are used to adapt mitochondrial functions in respect to cellular metabolic needs.

  13. Nutrient acquisition and secondary metabolites in plant pathogenic fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida

    called autophagy, is crucial. In this ph.d project autophagy and dipeptide transport in Fg and Bgh is assessed with respect to pathology, developmental processes and mycotoxins production. Several techniques within molecular biology, bioinformatics, microbiology, analytical chemistry and plant pathology...

  14. Data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the inception of the International Cooperative Group on Cyclic Crack Growth (ICCGR), it was recognised that its main objective was ultimately to provide a reliable and consistent data base on environmental cracking rates in pressure vessel steels, together with suitable analysis, as a basis for improvements or modification as required of ASME Section XI Appendix A. Therefore, a forum was provided for presentation of new experimental results from corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion crack growth experiments in Task Group I. This enabled early opportunity to peer review, a chance to see how individual laboratory results fitted into the developing international picture, opportunity to redirect national programmes more precisely on to areas of greatest uncertainty and to provide the raw material for the Mechanisms and Applications task groups to work with. Over the last 10 years, there has been a gradual shift of emphasis. In the early years, much effort was devoted to the development of acceptable testing practices such as monitoring techniques for remotely sensing crack extension in specimens contained in autoclaves and for checking the environmental conditions experienced by the test specimens. Latterly, experimental work has been clearly focused on the principal parameters affecting environmental cracking rates, notably steel sulphur content and morphology. The main achievements in these areas are reviewed below, highlighting the main points from earlier reviews and developments since. (author)

  15. Nutrient Control Seminars

    Science.gov (United States)

    These Nutrient Control Seminars will present an extensive state-of-the-technology review of the engineering design and operation of nitrogen and phosphorous control technologies and techniques applied at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). These seminars will present ...

  16. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eat. Are they primarily nutrient-dense, like these, [ photos of melon, red bell pepper, oatmeal ] or are they mostly calorie dense, like these? [ photos of butter crackers, bacon, coffee cake ] Some older ...

  17. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... coffee cake ] Some older adults answer the question this way: Richard: In the summertime, like now, fruit ... high in nutrients and low in calories. Eating this way is especially important as you age. Dr. ...

  18. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eat lots of them every day, usually in dishes that Richard prepares. Richard: When we are eating ... 100 calories that you obtain from a fruit dish, you might have only a few nutrients and ...

  19. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... put some cheese in it. And with my diet, an ounce of cheese is okay. Narrator: Richard ... of all ages, older adults should consume a diet that includes a variety of nutrients from a ...

  20. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... consume, it’s important to think about the nutrient value of the foods you eat. Dr. Connie W. ... foods, the one that is the best nutritional value for you. So for 100 calories that you ...

  1. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of butter crackers, bacon, coffee cake ] Some older adults answer the question this way: Richard: In the ... is okay. Narrator: Richard and Gloria are older adults who choose to eat nutrient-dense foods, foods ...

  2. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you eat. Are they primarily nutrient-dense, like these, [ photos of melon, red bell pepper, oatmeal ] or are they mostly calorie dense, like these? [ photos of butter crackers, bacon, coffee cake ] Some ...

  3. Language Acquisition without an Acquisition Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William

    2012-01-01

    Most explanatory work on first and second language learning assumes the primacy of the acquisition phenomenon itself, and a good deal of work has been devoted to the search for an "acquisition device" that is specific to humans, and perhaps even to language. I will consider the possibility that this strategy is misguided and that language…

  4. Late gestational nutrient restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Nørgaard, Peder;

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 50% nutrient restriction during the last 6 weeks of gestation on twin-pregnant ewes' plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acid, ß-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations and the effects on lamb birth weight and ewes' lactation performance. Plasma...... changes in feed intake and energy balance. It is concluded that severely reduced nutrient availability in late gestation affects fetal growth in utero and has a prolonged negative effect on lactation performance....

  5. Nutrient Driven Topology Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Satha, Ganarupan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate how a biological structure changes its shape and boundary under different cases of load if flow of nutrients is included, since nutrient flow has not been taken into account in previous studies. In order to simulate such a scenario we construct a model by using topology optimization (the SIMP model) and a balance law which is suitable for biological structures. Moreover, the model is derived by using an analogy with the dissipation inequality and Colem...

  6. Interplay of nutrients and microbial metabolites in intestinal immune homeostasis: distinct and common mechanisms of immune regulation in the small bowel and colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrigoue, Jacqueline; Das, Anuk; Mora, J Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa is the largest body surface exposed to the environment. While there are common features when comparing immune responses along the intestinal mucosa, the small bowel and colon exhibit striking differences in their mechanisms driving immune regulation. The vitamin A (VA) metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (RA) signaling via RA nuclear receptors plays a key role in immune homeostasis in the small bowel, and recent work indicates that RA is required for establishing immune tolerance to dietary antigens in the upper intestinal tract by inducing α4β7(+)CCR9(+) gut-tropic TREG. In contrast, microbiota-specific TREG in the colon do not appear to require RA, but can be regulated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), microbial metabolites that signal through the G protein-coupled receptor GPR43. Moreover, TREG do not need CCR9 to home to the colon, but utilize another G protein-coupled receptor, GPR15, which is upregulated by SCFA. Thus, the mechanisms governing intestinal tolerance to dietary antigens in the upper digestive tract differ from those controlling tolerance to the microbiota in the colon, with RA and SCFA playing key complementary roles in their respective compartments. In addition to VA and SCFA, recent studies have highlighted the roles of other dietary and microbial metabolites that influence immune cell homeostasis across the small and large bowel including dietary ligands for aryl hydrocarbon receptor and microbiota-modified bile acids. Understanding the complex and dynamic interplay between dietary metabolites and commensal microbiota within the intestinal microenvironment could therefore inform novel strategies for the treatment of food allergies and inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:25227295

  7. Calo trigger acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  8. Nutrient balance at chain level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, W.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Oenema, J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    A nutrient balance approach is often used to quantify losses of nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, that contribute to environmental problems such as eutrophication. A nutrient balance generally is computed at farm level, implying that nutrient losses related to pre-farm processes, such a

  9. Developing a nutrient recovery process for recovering nutrients in anaerobic digestate in low income countries

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that 2.7 billion people worldwide are served by on-site sanitation facilities that require faecal sludge management. Anaerobic digestion is a treatment mechanism that can provide faecal sludge management, methane production and an effluent digestate rich in nutrients. However, there is a paucity of information regarding the composition of the input faecal sludge which hinders the advancement of anaerobic digestion treatment and downstream nutrient recovery to...

  10. 城市偏向视角下的征地价格扭曲:机理、测度与特征%Distortion of Land Acquisition Price from the Perspective of Urban Bias: Mechanism, Measurement, and Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭术魁; 王斯亮

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the mechanism of distortion of land acquisition price, then to measure distortion degrees of the nation, three regions, and 18 provincial-level administrative regions from 2005 to 2011, and at last to analyze characteristics and its influence factors. Methods include statistical models, comparative analysis, and econometric analysis. Research results show that: 1)the distortion of land acquisition price is a policy tool which is formed in the institution soil of urban-rural land flow controlled, and is to serve the endogenous development logic of urban bias; 2)the distortion of land acquisition price showed a fluctuated upward trend, rose from 80.94% in 2005 to 88.00% in 2011, the main reason for increase was that the conversion market value of agricultural land grew faster than the land acquisition price; 3)there were also obvious regional differences in the distortion of land acquisition price, that is the Eastern Region was high-level and high growth, the Central Region was relative high level but low growth, no regularity inthe Western Region, but the differences was first expanded till 2008 then narrowed; 4)the degree of distortion increases with the development of economy and land lease market, while adjusting the compensation standard for accelerating land acquisition market reform, and increasing land acquisition amount through new urban construction land planning, both are helpful to mitigate distortion. The research concludes that existing methods to improve the land acquisition compensation standards for mitigating the distortion of land acquisition price was somehow useless, the fundamental policy is to get rid of the development concept of urban bias, to promote market-oriented reform of rural land and the form of a unified urban and rural construction land market, at the same time to explore how to construct the dynamic adjustment mechanism for land acquisition compensation linked with state-owned construction

  11. Relevance of nutrient media composition for hydrogen production in Chlamydomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Ballester, David; Jurado-Oller, Jose Luis; Fernandez, Emilio

    2015-09-01

    Microalgae are capable of biological H2 photoproduction from water, solar energy, and a variety of organic substrates. Acclimation responses to different nutrient regimes finely control photosynthetic activity and can influence H2 production. Hence, nutrient stresses are an interesting scenario to study H2 production in photosynthetic organisms. In this review, we mainly focus on the H2-production mechanisms in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the physiological relevance of the nutrient media composition when producing H2. PMID:25952745

  12. Maternal Voluntary Exercise during Pregnancy Enhances the Spatial Learning Acquisition but not the Retention of Memory in Rat Pups via a TrkB-mediated Mechanism: The Role of Hippocampal BDNF Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar M Akhavan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: The effect of maternal voluntary exercise on hippocampal BDNF level in rat offspring was studied. In addition, the possible role of hippocampal BDNF receptors in maternal exercise induced enhancement of learning in the rat pups was investigated.   Materials and Methods: Pregnant rats have been randomly assigned to sedentary control or voluntary exercise groups. Each of the exercising pregnant rats was given access to a cage that was equipped with a running wheel until the end of their pregnancy. On post natal day (PND 36, two groups consisted of 7 male rat pups in each group from sedentary or exercised mothers were sacrificed and the hippocampus was dissected for BDNF proteins level determination. Also, bilateral injection of K252a to the hippocampus was used to block the hippocampal BDNF action on PND59 in the rat pups. Results: Voluntary exercise during pregnancy significantly increased the level of BDNF protein in the hippocampus of the rat pups on PND36 compared to the control group (P=0.048. Inhibiting BDNF action abolished the exercise-induced improvement of learning acquisition in offspring in training trials (P=0.0001. No difference was observed in the platform location latency and the time spent in the target in the probe test between two groups. Conclusion : This study demonstrates that voluntary exercise during pregnancy via a TrkB-mediated mechanism enhances the spatial learning acquisition, however, not the retention of memory in the rat pups.

  13. Glutamate prevents intestinal atrophy via luminal nutrient sensing in a mouse model of total parenteral nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Weidong; Feng, Yongjia; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2014-01-01

    Small intestine luminal nutrient sensing may be crucial for modulating physiological functions. However, its mechanism of action is incompletely understood. We used a model of enteral nutrient deprivation, or total parenteral nutrition (TPN), resulting in intestinal mucosal atrophy and decreased...

  14. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... variety of beneficial nutrients. For example, fruits and vegetables not only offer important vitamins and minerals, but also provide phytochemicals, natural compounds like beta carotene and lycopene that may promote good health. Dr. Connie W. Bales, Ph.D., R.D.: ...

  15. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Narrator: Think about the foods you eat. Are they primarily nutrient-dense, like these, [ photos of melon, red bell pepper, oatmeal ] or are they mostly ... the summertime, like now, fruit is my favorite food. So I eat probably more fruit than anything ...

  16. 不同营养下混合菌种微生物污垢生长机理与交互作用%Growth and interaction mechanism of multi-strain biofouling under different nutrient levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨倩鹏; 陈晓东; 田磊; 史琳

    2013-01-01

    再生水源热泵能有效回用废热,但再生水换热器的微生物污垢问题一直没有完全解决,严重影响换热效率和系统安全.利用长期监测并且进行16S rRNA鉴定得到的再生水及其污垢中两种主要代表菌属芽孢杆菌属和气单胞菌属,在实验室内配制模拟流体进行混合菌种微生物污垢实验.通过在特制的机理流道上进行不同菌种比例和不同营养物质浓度的污垢生长实验,得出芽孢杆菌属和气单胞菌属的单独生长规律和混合生长规律,总结了混合生长时两种菌属的协同和抑制规律,同时考察了营养物质浓度对生长规律和交互作用的影响.结果表明:芽孢杆菌属成垢能力较强,细胞分裂速度高,耐贫营养能力强;气单胞菌属成垢能力弱于芽孢杆菌属,但分泌物生成速率高,可以与芽孢杆菌属协同生长;两种菌属交互作用在不同阶段和条件下,协同与抑制作用共存并轮流占据主导.%Heat pump system is an effective method for heat recovery of a treated sewage source, but biofouling on heat exchanger is still a problem to be solved, and may affect seriously efficiency and security of the system. By long term monitoring and 16S rRNA identification, two major bacteria genus, Bacillus sp. and Aeromonas sp. , were selected for multi-strain biofouling experiment of a model fluid in laboratory. By the experiment of foul growth performed on a purpose made channel at various bacteria ratios and nutrient levels, the regular patterns of single and mixed microbe growth of Bacillus sp. and Aeromonas sp. were revealed, their synergy and inhibition interaction summarized, and the effect of nutrient levels on their growth mechanism and interaction also investigated. The results indicated that the Bacillus sp. has strong ability in biofouling, in high multiple rates, and high tolerance to poor nutrient level. The biofouling of Aeromonas sp. is weak relatively, but high secretion rate that may

  17. 油茶苗期生物量积累及营养分配规律研究%Mechanism of biomass accumulation and nutrient distribution in Camellia oleifera at seedling growth stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐健; 李娜; 欧阳洁英; 曹继钊; 覃其云

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The present experiment was conducted to study the mechanism of biomass accumulation and distribution of nutrients in Camellia oleifera at seedling growth stage. [ Method ]The growth indicators and biomass and nutrient contents of leaf, stem and root of 150 Camellia oleifera plants were determined at seedling growth stage. [Result]The results showed higher biomass in aboveground plant parts, amongst which leaves had the highest biomass accumulation. The seedlings were grouped into various grades according to their length, amongst these groups, the seedlings with height ranging from 14.00-15.90 cm were highest in number (38.67%) and their biomass occupied the highest percentage (34.19%). The root, stem, and leaves of plant were found to accumulate highest N content, followed by K and Ca contents, Cu and B were the lowest. The N and Mn contents showed highest accumulation in leaves, while P, K, Cu, Zn, Fe and B contents accumulated more in the roots. The variance analysis results indicated significant differences in N, K, Mg, Cu, Mn and B contents in root, stem and leaves. [Conclusion]The leaf of Camellia oleifera had the highest biomass at seedling stage and the plant biomass increased significantly with the growth of seedlings. Significantly different uptake and accumulation of different nutrient elements in root, stem and leaves will help in understanding the growth and development of Camellia oleifera in relation to particular element, and provide the reference on fertilization at seedling stage.%了解油茶苗期不同器官生物量积累及营养元素分布情况.对150株油茶苗期各种生长性状指标、生物量及营养元素含量进行测定.油茶苗期各单株生物量均以地上部分占绝对优势,其中叶片生物量积累最高;不同苗高分级苗木株数及其生物量近似于正态分布,其中14.00~15.90 cm苗高分级株数和生物量百分比最高,分别为38.67%和34.19%.在油茶根、茎、叶中均以N

  18. 苗间锄草机器人信息获取方法的研究%Information acquisition method for mechanical intra-row weeding robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春龙; 黄小龙; 刘卫东; 张妍; 李南; 张俊雄; 李伟

    2012-01-01

    该文以移栽类蔬菜用苗间锄草机器人信息获取方法为研究对象,根据锄草机器人对实时性的要求,研究了以最小耗时和最大包容准确度为目标的信息获取方法.在RGB空间内利用植物G分量值的优势去除土壤等背景干扰,根据机器人前进方向上蔬菜苗株次序排列及苗株与杂草在形态特征和分布规律上的差异,设计了图像行像素直方图的参数组合方法,确定了苗株中心沿机器人前进方向的一维坐标.试验表明,锄草机器人前进速度在0~3 km/h时,苗株一维坐标检测平均误差为±5 mm,算法平均耗时小于20 ms.该方法能够满足系统实时检测的技术要求,为锄草机器人田间作业奠定了基础.%In order to study the information acquisition method of intra-row weeding robot for transplanted vegetables, an algorithm was developed based on fast operation speed and most accredited accuracy. Green plants could be segmented from background directly using the advantage of G component in RGB color space. As the crop seedlings grow in order and have different shape and distribution from weeds, individual crop plants could be located in the robot's moving direction through the histogram analysis of plant-pixels vertical to the crop rows. According to the experiment, when the robot moved with a speed from 0 to 3 km/h, the average error of the locating algorithm was ±5 mm and the average processing time was less than 20 ms. The developed method can meet the technical requirement of the weeding robot, and lay a foundation for the field work of weeding robot.

  19. Technological Similarity, Post-acquisition R&D Reorganization, and Innovation Performance in Horizontal Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo G.; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    2014-01-01

    &D personnel. We rely on PLS techniques to test our theoretical model using detailed information on 31 horizontal acquisitions in high- and medium-tech industries. Our results indicate that in horizontal acquisitions, technological similarity negatively affects post-acquisition innovation performance......This paper aims to disentangle the mechanisms through which technological similarity between acquiring and acquired firms influences innovation in horizontal acquisitions. We develop a theoretical model that links technological similarity to: (i) two key aspects of post-acquisition reorganization...... of acquired R&D operations – the rationalization of the R&D operations and the replacement of the R&D top manager, and (ii) two intermediate effects that are closely associated with the post-acquisition innovation performance of the combined firm – improvements in R&D productivity and disruptions in R...

  20. Plant nutrient transporter regulation in arbuscular mycorrhizas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burleigh, Stephen; Bechmann, I.E.

    2002-01-01

    This review discusses the role arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi play in the regulation of plant nutrient transporter genes. Many plant nutrient transporter genes appear to be transcriptionally regulated by a feed-back mechanism that reduces their expression when the plant reaches an optimal level of...... nutrition. Their down-regulation in mycorrhizal roots, therefore, would be predicted as a result of symbiotic function. A variety of studies on Pi- Zn- and ammonium- or nitrate-transporter genes from two plant species indirectly support this model. For example, one study showed that the expression of the...... high-affinity Pi-transporter MtPT2 within mycorrhizal roots of Medicago truncatula was inversely correlated with the concentration of P within the shoots, which suggested that P supply from the fungus influenced this gene's expression. However, there is some evidence that these plant nutrient...

  1. Insects, infestations and nutrient fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalzik, B.

    2012-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are characterized by a high temporal and spatial variability in the vertical transfer of energy and matter within the canopy and the soil compartment. The mechanisms and controlling factors behind canopy processes and system-internal transfer dynamics are imperfectly understood at the moment. Seasonal flux diversities and inhomogeneities in throughfall composition have been reported from coniferous and deciduous forests, and in most cases leaf leaching has been considered as principle driver for differences in the amount and quality of nutrients and organic compounds (Tukey and Morgan 1963). Since herbivorous insects and the processes they initiate received less attention in past times, ecologists now emphasize the need for linking biological processes occurring in different ecosystem strata to explain rates and variability of nutrient cycling (Bardgett et al. 1998, Wardle et al. 2004). Consequently, herbivore insects in the canopies of forests are increasingly identified to play an important role for the (re)cycling and availability of nutrients, or, more generally, for the functioning of ecosystems not only in outbreak situations but also at endemic (non-outbreak) density levels (Stadler et al. 2001, Hunter et al. 2003). Before, little attention was paid to insect herbivores when quantifying element and energy fluxes through ecosystems, although the numerous and different functions insects fulfill in ecosystems (e.g. as pollinators, herbivores or detritivores) were unanimously recognized (Schowalter 2000). Amongst the reasons for this restraint was the argument that the total biomass of insects tends to be relatively low compared to the biomass of trees or the pool of soil organic matter (Ohmart et al. 1983). A second argument which was put forward to justify the inferior role of insects in nutrient cycling were the supposed low defoliation losses between 5-10% of the annual leaf biomass, or net primary production, due to insect herbivory under

  2. Acclimation of Emiliania huxleyi (1516) to nutrient limitation involves precise modification of the proteome to scavenge alternative sources of N and P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKew, Boyd A; Metodieva, Gergana; Raines, Christine A; Metodiev, Metodi V; Geider, Richard J

    2015-10-01

    Limitation of marine primary production by the availability of nitrogen or phosphorus is common. Emiliania huxleyi, a ubiquitous phytoplankter that plays key roles in primary production, calcium carbonate precipitation and production of dimethyl sulfide, often blooms in mid-latitude at the beginning of summer when inorganic nutrient concentrations are low. To understand physiological mechanisms that allow such blooms, we examined how the proteome of E. huxleyi (strain 1516) responds to N and P limitation. We observed modest changes in much of the proteome despite large physiological changes (e.g. cellular biomass, C, N and P) associated with nutrient limitation of growth rate. Acclimation to nutrient limitation did however involve significant increases in the abundance of transporters for ammonium and nitrate under N limitation and for phosphate under P limitation. More notable were large increases in proteins involved in the acquisition of organic forms of N and P, including urea and amino acid/polyamine transporters and numerous C-N hydrolases under N limitation and a large upregulation of alkaline phosphatase under P limitation. This highly targeted reorganization of the proteome towards scavenging organic forms of macronutrients gives unique insight into the molecular mechanisms that underpin how E. huxleyi has found its niche to bloom in surface waters depleted of inorganic nutrients. PMID:26119724

  3. Nutrients in the nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Niphong, Rachel; Ferguson, Richard B.; Palm, Cheryl; Osmond, Deanna L.; Baron, Jill S.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer has enabled modern agriculture to greatly improve human nutrition during the twentieth century, but it has also created unintended human health and environmental pollution challenges for the twenty-first century. Averaged globally, about half of the fertilizer-N applied to farms is removed with the crops, while the other half remains in the soil or is lost from farmers’ fields, resulting in water and air pollution. As human population continues to grow and food security improves in the developing world, the dual development goals of producing more nutritious food with low pollution will require both technological and socio-economic innovations in agriculture. Two case studies presented here, one in sub-Saharan Africa and the other in Midwestern United States, demonstrate how management of nutrients, water, and energy is inextricably linked in both small-scale and large-scale food production, and that science-based solutions to improve the efficiency of nutrient use can optimize food production while minimizing pollution. To achieve the needed large increases in nutrient use efficiency, however, technological developments must be accompanied by policies that recognize the complex economic and social factors affecting farmer decision-making and national policy priorities. Farmers need access to affordable nutrient supplies and support information, and the costs of improving efficiencies and avoiding pollution may need to be shared by society through innovative policies. Success will require interdisciplinary partnerships across public and private sectors, including farmers, private sector crop advisors, commodity supply chains, government agencies, university research and extension, and consumers.

  4. Robotization in Seismic Acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacquière, G.; Berkhout, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The amount of sources and detectors in the seismic method follows "Moore’s Law of seismic data acquisition", i.e., it increases approximately by a factor of 10 every 10 years. Therefore automation is unavoidable, leading to robotization of seismic data acquisition. Recently, we introduced a new sour

  5. Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risberg, Annette

    Introduction to the study of mergers and acquisitions. This book provides an understanding of the mergers and acquisitions process, how and why they occur, and also the broader implications for organizations. It presents issues including motives and planning, partner selection, integration......, employee experiences and communication. Mergers and acquisitions remain one of the most common forms of growth, yet they present considerable challenges for the companies and management involved. The effects on stakeholders, including shareholders, managers and employees, must be considered as well...... by editorial commentaries and reflects the important organizational and behavioural aspects which have often been ignored in the past. By providing this in-depth understanding of the mergers and acquisitions process, the reader understands not only how and why mergers and acquisitions occur, but also...

  6. Data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topic of this paper deals with a multi parametric acquisition system developed around a four input Analog to Digital Converter working in CAMAC Standard. The acquisition software is built in MS Visual C++ on a standard PC with a USB interface. It has a visual interface which permits Start/Stop of the acquisition, setting the type of acquisition (True/Live time), the time and various menus for primary data acquisition. The spectrum is dynamically visualized with a moving cursor indicating the content and position. The microcontroller PIC16C765 is used for data transfer from ADC to PC; The microcontroller and the software create an embedded system which emulates the CAMAC protocol programming, the 4 input ADC for operating modes ('zero suppression', 'addressed' and 'sequential') and handling the data transfers from ADC to its internal memory. From its memory the data is transferred into the PC by the USB interface. The work is in progress. (authors)

  7. STIS target acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Steve; Downes, Ron; Katsanis, Rocio; Crenshaw, Mike; McGrath, Melissa; Robinson, Rich

    1997-01-01

    We describe the STIS autonomous target acquisition capabilities. We also present the results of dedicated tests executed as part of Cycle 7 calibration, following post-launch improvements to the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) flight software. The residual pointing error from the acquisitions are < 0.5 CCD pixels, which is better than preflight estimates. Execution of peakups show clear improvement of target centering for slits of width 0.1 sec or smaller. These results may be used by Guest Observers in planning target acquisitions for their STIS programs.

  8. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartog, J P Den

    1961-01-01

    First published over 40 years ago, this work has achieved the status of a classic among introductory texts on mechanics. Den Hartog is known for his lively, discursive and often witty presentations of all the fundamental material of both statics and dynamics (and considerable more advanced material) in new, original ways that provide students with insights into mechanical relationships that other books do not always succeed in conveying. On the other hand, the work is so replete with engineering applications and actual design problems that it is as valuable as a reference to the practicing e

  9. Acquisition IT Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Øhrgaard, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The IT integration of acquisitions consists an important challenge for the many acquiring organizations. Complementing existing research, this paper searches for explanation to differences in acquirers’ abilities for acquisition IT integration in the external of the acquirer, by a study of the use...... of temporary agency workers. Following an analytic induction approach, theoretically grounded in the re-source-based view of the firm, we identify the complimentary and supplementary roles consultants can assume in acquisition IT integration. Through case studies of three acquirers, we investigate how...... the acquirers appropriate the use of agency workers as part of its acquisition strategy. For the investigated acquirers, assigning roles to agency workers is contingent on balancing the needs of knowledge induction and knowledge retention, as well as experience richness and in-depth under-standing. Composition...

  10. FWS Approved Acquisition Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data layer depicts the external boundaries of lands and waters that are approved for acquisition by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in North...

  11. USB data acquisition solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Serges Lemo; Zhu June

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction In recent years, USB has evolved from a simple, low-speed peripheral bus for mice, keyboards, and other computer accessories to the bus of choice for more demanding applications, including data acquisition (DAQ).

  12. Software Switching for Data Acquisition

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; , David

    2016-01-01

    In this talk we discuss the feasibility of replacing telecom-class routers with a topology of commodity servers acting as software switches in data acquisition. We extend the popular software switch, Open vSwitch, with a dedicated, throughput-oriented buffering mechanism. We compare the performance under heavy many-to-one congestion to typical Ethernet switches and evaluate the scalability when building larger topologies, exploiting the integration with software-defined networking technologies. Please note that David Malone will speak on behalf of Grzegorz Jereczek.

  13. Measuring translation competence acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco Jutorán, Mariana; Hurtado Albir, Amparo

    2002-01-01

    The following article describes the development of instruments for measuring the process of acquiring translation competence in written translation. Translation competence and its process of acquisition are firstly described, and then the lack of empirical research in our field is tackled. Thirdly, three measuring instruments especially developed to measure translation competence acquisition are presented: (i) to measure notions about translation, (ii) to measure students’ behaviour when face...

  14. Hindalco: The Novelis Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    S. R. Vishwanath

    2013-01-01

    The case documents a high profile cross border acquisition by an Indian company. In 2007, Hindalco, an Indian metals company, announced the acquisition of Novelis, a global leader in the production of aluminum rolled products with operations in four continents comprising 34 operating facilities in 11 countries. The key issue in the case is how to value a loss making enterprise with messy operations. Students are required to assess the strategic motives of the firms and perform a valuation ana...

  15. Plants adapted to nutrient limitation allocate less biomass into stems in an arid-hot grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bangguo; Ji, Zhonghua; Fan, Bo; Wang, Xuemei; He, Guangxiong; Shi, Liangtao; Liu, Gangcai

    2016-09-01

    Biomass allocation can exert a great influence on plant resource acquisition and nutrient use. However, the role of biomass allocation strategies in shaping plant community composition under nutrient limitations remains poorly addressed. We hypothesized that species-specific allocation strategies can affect plant adaptation to nutrient limitations, resulting in species turnover and changes in community-level biomass allocations across nutrient gradients. In this study, we measured species abundance and the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in leaves and soil nutrients in an arid-hot grassland. We quantified species-specific allocation parameters for stems vs leaves based on allometric scaling relationships. Species-specific stem vs leaf allocation parameters were weighted with species abundances to calculate the community-weighted means driven by species turnover. We found that the community-weighted means of biomass allocation parameters were significantly related to the soil nutrient gradient as well as to leaf stoichiometry, indicating that species-specific allocation strategies can affect plant adaptation to nutrient limitations in the studied grassland. Species that allocate less to stems than leaves tend to dominate nutrient-limited environments. The results support the hypothesis that species-specific allocations affect plant adaptation to nutrient limitations. The allocation trade-off between stems and leaves has the potential to greatly affect plant distribution across nutrient gradients. PMID:27101947

  16. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Feike Auke Dijkstra; Yolima eCarrillo; Elise ePendall; Morgan, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. These interactive effects may be of particular relevance in understanding the sustained increase in plant growth and nutrient supply i...

  17. Iron acquisition mechanisms of Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jeannette Dan; Ellis, A.E.; Barnes, A.C.;

    2005-01-01

    strains and was lacking from negative strains. While a weak catechol reaction was detectable in CAS+ culture supernatants, the CAS reaction was, to some extent, heat sensitive, questioning whether the positive reaction was caused only by siderophores. The ability to grow in vitro under iron......-restricted conditions did not correlate with the CAS reactivity, as growth of both CAS+ and CAS- strains was similarly impaired under iron restriction induced by 2,2 dipyridyl. Suppressed growth under these conditions was restored by addition of FeCl3, haemoglobin and transferrin for both CAS+ and CAS- strains...

  18. Biotechnology of nutrient uptake and assimilation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Arredondo, Damar L; Leyva-González, Marco A; Alatorre-Cobos, Fulgencio; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Plants require a complex balance of mineral nutrients to reproduce successfully. Because the availability of many of these nutrients in the soil is compromised by several factors, such as soil pH, cation presence, and microbial activity, crop plants depend directly on nutrients applied as fertilizers to achieve high yields. However, the excessive use of fertilizers is a major environmental concern due to nutrient leaching that causes water eutrophication and promotes toxic algae blooms. This situation generates the urgent need for crop plants with increased nutrient use efficiency and better-designed fertilization schemes. The plant biology revolution triggered by the development of efficient gene transfer systems for plant cells together with the more recent development of next-generation DNA and RNA sequencing and other omics platforms have advanced considerably our understanding on the molecular basis of plant nutrition and how plants respond to nutritional stress. To date, genes encoding sensors, transcription factors, transporters, and metabolic enzymes have been identified as potential candidates to improve nutrient use efficiency. In addition, the study of other genetic resources, such as bacteria and fungi, allows the identification of alternative mechanisms of nutrient assimilation, which are potentially applicable in plants. Although significant progress in this respect has been achieved by conventional breeding, in this review we focus on the biotechnological approaches reported to date aimed at boosting the use of the three most limiting nutrients in the majority of arable lands: nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron. PMID:24166442

  19. Nutrients and neurodevelopment: lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Horacio F; Visentin, Silvana

    2016-10-01

    Nutrients, lipids in particular, make up the central nervous system structure and play major functional roles: they stimulate development, migration, and nerve cell differentiation. They are part of gray matter, white matter, nerve nuclei, and synaptogenesis. Breast milk contains lipids which are crucial for infant brain development. The lipid profile of breast milk was used as a guideline for the development of breast milk substitutes. However, to date, no substitute has matched it. Complementary feeding should include docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, other polyunsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, and complex lipids found in milk fat. The lipid composition of breast milk depends on maternal intake and nutritional status during pregnancy and breast-feeding. It has a great impact on development. Our goal is to review scientific literature regarding the role of lipids on infant brain development and the importance of breast milk lipid composition, maternal diet, and complementary feeding. PMID:27606648

  20. Post-Acquisition IT Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Yetton, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The extant research on post-acquisition IT integration analyzes how acquirers realize IT-based value in individual acquisitions. However, serial acquirers make 60% of acquisitions. These acquisitions are not isolated events, but are components in growth-by-acquisition programs. To explain how...... serial acquirers realize IT-based value, we develop three propositions on the sequential effects on post-acquisition IT integration in acquisition programs. Their combined explanation is that serial acquirers must have a growth-by-acquisition strategy that includes the capability to improve...... IT integration capabilities, to sustain high alignment across acquisitions and to maintain a scalable IT infrastructure with a flat or decreasing cost structure. We begin the process of validating the three propositions by investigating a longitudinal case study of a growth-by-acquisition program....

  1. Innovations in Defense Acquisition: Asymmetric Information and Incentive Contract Design

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Coughlan; Gates, William

    2010-01-01

    Sponsored Report (for Acquisition Research Program) This report continues a research stream initiated in 2007 to apply mechanism design concepts to the DoD''s acquisition transactions. Recognizing the central importance of private information and incentives, mechanism design reflects the decisions made by individuals and institutions based on the information they possess and the incentives they face. The designer chooses the mechanism (institutional structure) that promotes the desired o...

  2. Present Status and Future Development of HL-2A Data Acquisition System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENLiaoyuan; LUOCuiwen; PANLi; YANGYang; XUZhengyu; HANQian

    2002-01-01

    HL-2A data acquisition system (DAS) was developed and used in engineering tests last year. The main parts of the system include the experiment network, the data acquisition and processing mechanisms, and the graph and character display equipments.

  3. Nutrient Needs of Young Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenberg, Barbara; Hemmelgarn, Melinda

    1991-01-01

    Explains the nutritional requirements of children and adolescents, and the physiological roles of the major nutrients. Details the nutrient needs of young athletes, including pre- and postgame meals and fluid replacement. Discusses eating disorders and obesity. Advocates a diet rich in complex carbohydrates. (BC)

  4. Modeling the Distinct Phases of Skill Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenison, Caitlin; Anderson, John R.

    2016-01-01

    A focus of early mathematics education is to build fluency through practice. Several models of skill acquisition have sought to explain the increase in fluency because of practice by modeling both the learning mechanisms driving this speedup and the changes in cognitive processes involved in executing the skill (such as transitioning from…

  5. VERITAS Data Acquisition

    CERN Document Server

    Hays, E

    2007-01-01

    VERITAS employs a multi-stage data acquisition chain that extends from the VME readout of custom 500 MS/s flash ADC electronics to the construction of telescope events and ultimately the compilation of information from each telescope into array level data. These systems provide access to the programming of the channel level triggers and the FADCs. They also ensure the proper synchronization of event information across the array and provide the first level of data quality monitoring. Additionally, the data acquisition includes features to handle the readout of special trigger types and to monitor channel scaler rates. In this paper we describe the software and hardware components of the systems and the protocols used to communicate between the VME, telescope, and array levels. We also discuss the performance of the data acquisition for array operations.

  6. Use of Select Nutrients to Foster Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses how to be healthy through one's diet. Lists 20 nutrients necessary for one's well being and explains role of each nutrient. Describes how nutrients complement one another and asserts that the right combination of nutrients can sometimes substitute for medication. Also lists 20 diagnostic categories of problems and suggests nutrients to…

  7. The Effects of Foreign Language Motivation in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Miao-ru

    2013-01-01

    Foreign language motivation is regarded as one source of individual differences in second language acquisition. Learn-ing motivation is a dynamic mechanism which gives rise to learning activities. Learners ’motivation is a decisive factor for the suc-cess of second language acquisition.

  8. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Chester, W

    1979-01-01

    When I began to write this book, I originally had in mind the needs of university students in their first year. May aim was to keep the mathematics simple. No advanced techniques are used and there are no complicated applications. The emphasis is on an understanding of the basic ideas and problems which require expertise but do not contribute to this understanding are not discussed. How­ ever, the presentation is more sophisticated than might be considered appropri­ ate for someone with no previous knowledge of the subject so that, although it is developed from the beginning, some previous acquaintance with the elements of the subject would be an advantage. In addition, some familiarity with element­ ary calculus is assumed but not with the elementary theory of differential equations, although knowledge of the latter would again be an advantage. It is my opinion that mechanics is best introduced through the motion of a particle, with rigid body problems left until the subject is more fully developed. Howev...

  9. Merger and acquisition medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, G S

    1997-01-01

    This discussion of the ramifications of corporate mergers and acquisitions for employees recognizes that employee adaptation to the change can be a long and complex process. The author describes a role the occupational physician can take in helping to minimize the potential adverse health impact of major organizational change.

  10. Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Barry; Harrington, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A distinction is drawn between representational and processing models of second-language acquisition. The first approach is derived primarily from linguistics, the second from psychology. Both fields, it is argued, need to collaborate more fully, overcoming disciplinary narrowness in order to achieve more fruitful research. (GLR)

  11. [Acquisition of arithmetic knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on contemporary research on the number counting and arithmetical competencies that emerge during infancy, the preschool years, and the elementary school. I provide a brief overview of the evolution of children's conceptual knowledge of arithmetic knowledge, the acquisition and use of counting and how they solve simple arithmetic problems (e.g. 4 + 3). PMID:18198117

  12. Interaction and Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红叶

    2016-01-01

    Based on Long's Interaction Hypothesis (IH), the paper examines the aspects of interaction that might facilitate natu-ralistic language development and goes further to propose features of interaction that could encourage classroom second lan-guage acquisition, in the hope that improved classroom interation will enhance teaching effectiveness in language classroom.

  13. Competencies: requirements and acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuenn, A.C.; Meng, C.M.; Peters, Z.; Verhagen, A.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is given the key task to prepare the highly talented among the young to fulfil highly qualified roles in the labour market. Successful labour market performance of graduates is generally associated with the acquisition of the correct competencies. Education as an individual investme

  14. Acquisitions List No. 42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    The "Acquisitions List" of demographic books and articles is issued every two months by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library. Divided into two parts, the first contains a list of books most recently acquired by the Library, each one annotated and also marked with the Library call number. The second part consists of a list of annotated articles,…

  15. Acquisitions List No. 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    The "Acquisitions List" of demographic books and articles is issued every two months by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library. Divided into two parts, the first contains a list of books most recently acquired by the Library, each one annotated and also marked with the Library call number. The second part consists of a list of annotated articles,…

  16. Leaf mineral nutrient remobilization during leaf senescence and modulation by nutrient deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eMaillard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants have to cope with fluctuating mineral resource availability. However strategies such as stimulation of root growth, increased transporter activities, and nutrient storage and remobilization have been mostly studied for only a few macronutrients. Leaves of cultivated crops (Zea mays, Brassica napus, Pisum sativum, Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare and tree species (Quercus robur, Populus nigra, Alnus glutinosa grown under field conditions were harvested regularly during their life span and analysed to evaluate the net mobilization of 13 nutrients during leaf senescence. While N was remobilized in all plant species with different efficiencies ranging from 40% (maize to 90% (wheat, other macronutrients (K-P-S-Mg were mobilized in most species. Ca and Mn, usually considered as having low phloem mobility were remobilized from leaves in wheat and barley. Leaf content of Cu-Mo-Ni-B-Fe-Zn decreased in some species, as a result of remobilization. Overall, wheat, barley and oak appeared to be the most efficient at remobilization while poplar and maize were the least efficient. Further experiments were performed with rapeseed plants subjected to individual nutrient deficiencies. Compared to field conditions, remobilization from leaves was similar (N-S-Cu or increased by nutrient deficiency (K-P-Mg while nutrient deficiency had no effect on Mo-Zn-B-Ca-Mn, which seemed to be non-mobile during leaf senescence under field conditions. However, Ca and Mn were largely mobilized from roots (-97 and -86% of their initial root contents, respectively to shoots. Differences in remobilization between species and between nutrients are then discussed in relation to a range of putative mechanisms.

  17. Foreign Acquisition, Wages and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    effect to differ depending on whether the targeted firms were domestic multinational or non-multinationals before the foreign takeover. This paper also allows for the acquisition effect to differ depending on whether the acquisition is horizontal or vertical. The result shows that foreign acquisition has...... no effects on overall, skilled or less-skilled wage growth neither in targeted Swedish MNEs nor in targeted Swedish non-MNEs and neither if the acquisition was motivated by vertical or horizontal motives. However, the results indicate that both targeted Swedish MNEs and non-MNEs have better growth in TFP...... after vertical foreign acquisition only but no such impact from horizontal foreign acquisition....

  18. Foreign Acquisition, Wages and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2011-01-01

    effect to differ depending on whether the targeted firms were domestic multinational or non-multinationals before the foreign takeover. This paper also allows for the acquisition effect to differ depending on whether the acquisition is horizontal or vertical. The result shows that foreign acquisition has...... no effects on overall, skilled or less-skilled wage growth neither in targeted Swedish MNEs nor in targeted Swedish non-MNEs and neither if the acquisition was motivated by vertical or horizontal motives. However, the results indicate that both targeted Swedish MNEs and non-MNEs have better growth in TFP...... after vertical foreign acquisition only but no such impact from horizontal foreign acquisition....

  19. Theories of early language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, K

    1997-07-01

    What features of brain processing and neural development support linguistic development in young children? To what extent is the profile and timing of linguistic development in young children determined by a pre-ordained genetic programme? Does the environment play a crucial role in determining the patterns of change observed in children growing up? Recent experimental, neuroimaging and computational studies of developmental change in children promise to contribute to a deeper understanding of how the brain becomes wired up for language. In this review, the muttidisciplinary perspectives of cognitive neuroscience, experimental psycholinguistics and neural network modelling are brought to bear on four distinct areas in the study of language acquisition: early speech perception, word recognition, word learning and the acquisition of grammatical inflections. It is suggested that each area demonstrates how linguistic development can be driven by the interaction of general learning mechanisms, highly sensitive to particular statistical regularities in the input, with a richly structured environment which provides the necessary ingredients for the emergence of linguistic representations that support mature language processing. Similar epigenetic principles, guiding the emergence of linguistic structure, apply to all these domains, offering insights into phenomena ranging from the precocity of young infant's sensitivity to speech contrasts to the complexities of the problem facing the young child learning the arabic plural.

  20. Sample Acquisition Techniques for Exobiology Flight Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Carle, Glenn C.; Stratton, David M.; Valentin, Jose R.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Exobiology Flight Experiments involve complex analyses conducted in environments far different than those encountered in terrestrial applications. A major part of the analytical challenge is often the selection, acquisition, delivery and, in some cases, processing of a sample suitable for the analytical requirements of the mission. The added complications of severely limited resources and sometimes rigid time constraints combine to make sample acquisition potentially a major obstacle for successful analyses. Potential samples come in a wide range including planetary atmospheric gas and aerosols (from a wide variety of pressures), planetary soil or rocks, dust and ice particles streaming off of a comet, and cemetery surface ice and rocks. Methods to collect and process sample are often mission specific, requiring continual development of innovative concepts and mechanisms. These methods must also maintain the integrity of the sample for the experimental results to be meaningful. We present here sample acquisition systems employed from past missions and proposed for future missions.

  1. Nutrient limitation and physiology mediate the fine-scale (de)coupling of biogeochemical cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appling, Alison P; Heffernan, James B

    2014-09-01

    Nutrients in the environment are coupled over broad timescales (days to seasons) when organisms add or withdraw multiple nutrients simultaneously and in ratios that are roughly constant. But at finer timescales (seconds to days), nutrients become decoupled if physiological traits such as nutrient storage limits, circadian rhythms, or enzyme kinetics cause one nutrient to be processed faster than another. To explore the interactions among these coupling and decoupling mechanisms, we introduce a model in which organisms process resources via uptake, excretion, growth, respiration, and mortality according to adjustable trait parameters. The model predicts that uptake can couple the input of one nutrient to the export of another in a ratio reflecting biological demand stoichiometry, but coupling occurs only when the input nutrient is limiting. Temporal nutrient coupling may, therefore, be a useful indicator of ecosystem limitation status. Fine-scale patterns of nutrient coupling are further modulated by, and potentially diagnostic of, physiological traits governing growth, uptake, and internal nutrient storage. Together, limitation status and physiological traits create a complex and informative relationship between nutrient inputs and exports. Understanding the mechanisms behind that relationship could enrich interpretations of fine-scale time-series data such as those now emerging from in situ solute sensors.

  2. Nutrient and Coliform Loading (NCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of available fecal coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci bacteria, and nutrient loading data. Loading for contaminants other than fecal coliform...

  3. RF merger and acquisition market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya V. Vidishcheva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article gives brief characteristic of merger and acquisition market situation in Russia, brings in overview of bargains in 2009–2010. Russian merger and acquisition market is in early stage of development.

  4. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  5. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  6. Sugar Cane Nutrient Distribution Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Molecular Absorption Spectrometry (UV-Vis), and Flame Photometry techniques were applied to measure plant nutrient concentrations of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mn, N, Na and P in sugar-cane root, stalk and leaves. These data will be used to explore the behavior of element concentration in different parts of the sugar-cane to better understand the plant nutrient distribution during its development.

  7. Icy Soil Acquisition Device for the 2007 Phoenix Mars Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Philip; Wilson, Jack; Davis, Kiel; Shiraishi, Lori; Burke, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    The Icy Soil Acquisition Device is a first of its kind mechanism that is designed to acquire ice-bearing soil from the surface of the Martian polar region and transfer the samples to analytical instruments, playing a critical role in the potential discovery of existing water on Mars. The device incorporates a number of novel features that further the state of the art in spacecraft design for harsh environments, sample acquisition and handling, and high-speed low torque mechanism design.

  8. Unsupervised Language Acquisition

    CERN Document Server

    De Marcken, C

    1996-01-01

    This thesis presents a computational theory of unsupervised language acquisition, precisely defining procedures for learning language from ordinary spoken or written utterances, with no explicit help from a teacher. The theory is based heavily on concepts borrowed from machine learning and statistical estimation. In particular, learning takes place by fitting a stochastic, generative model of language to the evidence. Much of the thesis is devoted to explaining conditions that must hold for this general learning strategy to arrive at linguistically desirable grammars. The thesis introduces a variety of technical innovations, among them a common representation for evidence and grammars, and a learning strategy that separates the ``content'' of linguistic parameters from their representation. Algorithms based on it suffer from few of the search problems that have plagued other computational approaches to language acquisition. The theory has been tested on problems of learning vocabularies and grammars from unse...

  9. Amplitudes, acquisition and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloor, Robert

    1998-12-31

    Accurate seismic amplitude information is important for the successful evaluation of many prospects and the importance of such amplitude information is increasing with the advent of time lapse seismic techniques. It is now widely accepted that the proper treatment of amplitudes requires seismic imaging in the form of either time or depth migration. A key factor in seismic imaging is the spatial sampling of the data and its relationship to the imaging algorithms. This presentation demonstrates that acquisition caused spatial sampling irregularity can affect the seismic imaging and perturb amplitudes. Equalization helps to balance the amplitudes, and the dealing strategy improves the imaging further when there are azimuth variations. Equalization and dealiasing can also help with the acquisition irregularities caused by shot and receiver dislocation or missing traces. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  11. Based on Private Benefits of Control Perspective to Study the Success of Mergers and Acquisitions Paradox Formation Mechanism%控制权私利下并购成功悖论形成机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于成永; 施建军

    2012-01-01

    The success paradox has been puzzling the enterprise M&A theory and practice for a long time. This article based on the perspective of the private benefits of control studied success paradox formation mechanism, and got three conclusions: First, no matter incentive based or selfinterest based consisting main ly of private benefits of control, it can be advantageous to people having the right of control, therefore, the company will actively implement M&A; Second is in the selfinterest of private benefits of control, M&A is not conducive to medi um and small shareholders interest, so the performance of merging enterprises is negative; Third is to stimulate mainly private benefits of control, M&A is not necessarily conducive to minority shareholders. Shareholders increase public bene fits is to improve the performance of mergers and acquisitions. The fact that the performance of merging enterprises is zero or negative implies that it is neces sary to redesign the system to enhance the total revenue sharing in line with the controlling interest.%并购成功悖论一直困绕着企业并购理论与实务界。本文从控制权私利视角研究了成功悖论形成机制,得到三点结论:一是无论激励为主还是自利为主的控制权私利均有利于控制权人,因而,控制人控制的企业会积极实施并购;二是在自利为主的控制权私利下,并购必然不利于中小股东利益,因而主并方并购绩效为负值;三是以激励为主的控制权私利下,并购并不必然有利于中小股东,提升大小股东共有收益,并保证中小股东得到应有收益份额才有利于改善并购绩效。主并方并购绩效多为零或负值说明制度上重新设计以保障提升共有收益更符合控制权人利益是必要的。

  12. Competencies: requirements and acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Kuenn, A.C.; Meng, C.M.; Peters, Z.; Verhagen, A.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is given the key task to prepare the highly talented among the young to fulfil highly qualified roles in the labour market. Successful labour market performance of graduates is generally associated with the acquisition of the correct competencies. Education as an individual investment in human capital is a viewpoint dating back to the 17th century and the writings of Sir William Petty (1662), and includes later work by Adam Smith (1776). The idea was formalized and brought in...

  13. Trigger and data acquisition

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The lectures address some of the issues of triggering and data acquisition in large high-energy physics experiments. Emphasis is placed on hadron-collider experiments that present a particularly challenging environment for event selection and data collection. However, the lectures also explain how T/DAQ systems have evolved over the years to meet new challenges. Some examples are given from early experience with LHC T/DAQ systems during the 2008 single-beam operations.

  14. First Language Acquisition and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena

    2011-01-01

    "First language acquisition" commonly means the acquisition of a single language in childhood, regardless of the number of languages in a child's natural environment. Language acquisition is variously viewed as predetermined, wondrous, a source of concern, and as developing through formal processes. "First language teaching" concerns schooling in…

  15. Second language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffs, Alan

    2011-05-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) is a field that investigates child and adult SLA from a variety of theoretical perspectives. This article provides a survey of some key areas of concern including formal generative theory and emergentist theory in the areas of morpho-syntax and phonology. The review details the theoretical stance of the two different approaches to the nature of language: generative linguistics and general cognitive approaches. Some results of key acquisition studies from the two theoretical frameworks are discussed. From a generative perspective, constraints on wh-movement, feature geometry and syllable structure, and morphological development are highlighted. From a general cognitive point of view, the emergence of tense and aspect marking from a prototype account of inherent lexical aspect is reviewed. Reference is made to general cognitive learning theories and to sociocultural theory. The article also reviews individual differences research, specifically debate on the critical period in adult language acquisition, motivation, and memory. Finally, the article discusses the relationship between SLA research and second language pedagogy. Suggestions for further reading from recent handbooks on SLA are provided. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 277-286 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.106 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  16. Complexity in language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alexander; Lappin, Shalom

    2013-01-01

    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems-in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. Second, we claim that the real problem for language learning is the computational complexity of constructing a hypothesis from input data. Studying this problem allows for a more direct approach to the object of study--the language acquisition device-rather than the learnable class of languages, which is epiphenomenal and possibly hard to characterize. The learnability results informed by complexity studies are much more insightful. They strongly suggest that target grammars need to be objective, in the sense that the primitive elements of these grammars are based on objectively definable properties of the language itself. These considerations support the view that language acquisition proceeds primarily through data-driven learning of some form.

  17. Optimizing Nutrient Uptake in Biological Transport Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronellenfitsch, Henrik; Katifori, Eleni

    2013-03-01

    Many biological systems employ complex networks of vascular tubes to facilitate transport of solute nutrients, examples include the vascular system of plants (phloem), some fungi, and the slime-mold Physarum. It is believed that such networks are optimized through evolution for carrying out their designated task. We propose a set of hydrodynamic governing equations for solute transport in a complex network, and obtain the optimal network architecture for various classes of optimizing functionals. We finally discuss the topological properties and statistical mechanics of the resulting complex networks, and examine correspondence of the obtained networks to those found in actual biological systems.

  18. ROLES OF DOPAMINE D1 AND D2 RECEPTORS IN THE ACQUISITION AND EXPRESSION OF FAT-CONDITIONED FLAVOR PREFERENCES IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, J.A.D. Dela; Icaza-Cukali, D.; Taybali, H.; Sampson, C.; Galanopoulos, V.; Bamshad, D.; Touzani, K.; Sclafani, A.; Bodnar, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Sugars and fats elicit innate and learned flavor preferences with the latter mediated by flavor-flavor (orosensory) and flavor-nutrient (post-ingestive) processes. Systemic dopamine (DA) D1 (SCH23390: SCH) and D2 (raclopride: RAC), but not opioid antagonists blocked the acquisition and expression of flavor-flavor preferences conditioned by sugars. In addition, systemic D1, but not D2 or opioid antagonists blocked the acquisition of flavor-nutrient preferences conditioned by intragastric (IG) ...

  19. Maximizing root/rhizosphere efficiency to improve crop productivity and nutrient use efficiency in intensive agriculture of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianbo; Li, Chunjian; Mi, Guohua; Li, Long; Yuan, Lixing; Jiang, Rongfeng; Zhang, Fusuo

    2013-03-01

    Root and rhizosphere research has been conducted for many decades, but the underlying strategy of root/rhizosphere processes and management in intensive cropping systems remain largely to be determined. Improved grain production to meet the food demand of an increasing population has been highly dependent on chemical fertilizer input based on the traditionally assumed notion of 'high input, high output', which results in overuse of fertilizers but ignores the biological potential of roots or rhizosphere for efficient mobilization and acquisition of soil nutrients. Root exploration in soil nutrient resources and root-induced rhizosphere processes plays an important role in controlling nutrient transformation, efficient nutrient acquisition and use, and thus crop productivity. The efficiency of root/rhizosphere in terms of improved nutrient mobilization, acquisition, and use can be fully exploited by: (1) manipulating root growth (i.e. root development and size, root system architecture, and distribution); (2) regulating rhizosphere processes (i.e. rhizosphere acidification, organic anion and acid phosphatase exudation, localized application of nutrients, rhizosphere interactions, and use of efficient crop genotypes); and (3) optimizing root zone management to synchronize root growth and soil nutrient supply with demand of nutrients in cropping systems. Experiments have shown that root/rhizosphere management is an effective approach to increase both nutrient use efficiency and crop productivity for sustainable crop production. The objectives of this paper are to summarize the principles of root/rhizosphere management and provide an overview of some successful case studies on how to exploit the biological potential of root system and rhizosphere processes to improve crop productivity and nutrient use efficiency.

  20. Language acquisition is model-based rather than model-free.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Felix Hao; Mintz, Toben H

    2016-01-01

    Christiansen & Chater (C&C) propose that learning language is learning to process language. However, we believe that the general-purpose prediction mechanism they propose is insufficient to account for many phenomena in language acquisition. We argue from theoretical considerations and empirical evidence that many acquisition tasks are model-based, and that different acquisition tasks require different, specialized models.

  1. TOR Signaling and Nutrient Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrenel, Thomas; Caldana, Camila; Hanson, Johannes; Robaglia, Christophe; Vincentz, Michel; Veit, Bruce; Meyer, Christian

    2016-04-29

    All living organisms rely on nutrients to sustain cell metabolism and energy production, which in turn need to be adjusted based on available resources. The evolutionarily conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase is a central regulatory hub that connects environmental information about the quantity and quality of nutrients to developmental and metabolic processes in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. TOR is activated by both nitrogen and carbon metabolites and promotes energy-consuming processes such as cell division, mRNA translation, and anabolism in times of abundance while repressing nutrient remobilization through autophagy. In animals and yeasts, TOR acts antagonistically to the starvation-induced AMP-activated kinase (AMPK)/sucrose nonfermenting 1 (Snf1) kinase, called Snf1-related kinase 1 (SnRK1) in plants. This review summarizes the immense knowledge on the relationship between TOR signaling and nutrients in nonphotosynthetic organisms and presents recent findings in plants that illuminate the crucial role of this pathway in conveying nutrient-derived signals and regulating many aspects of metabolism and growth.

  2. Data acquisition system DAPHNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAPHNE is a data acquisition system which is being created to satisfy the needs of the accelerator based experimental research program of the division in particular the one at ATLAS. It is CAMAC based with a hardware front end consisting of multiple single board processors in a Multibus cage to provide a parallel processing capability. The host computer, a VAX 750, will provide for data logging, histogram memory space, and user interaction. The first DAPHNE system is being designed and constructed for use by ATLAS and is expected to be ready by late spring, 1985

  3. Early object rule acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, D E

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate a grounded theory of early object rule acquisition. The grounded theory approach and computer coding were used to analyze videotaped samples of an infant's and a toddler's independent object play, which produced the categories descriptive of three primary types of object rules; rules of object properties, rules of object action, and rules of object affect. This occupational science theory offers potential for understanding the role of objects in human occupations, for development of instruments, and for applications in occupational therapy early intervention. PMID:2048625

  4. Nutrient density: principles and evaluation tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2014-05-01

    Nutrient profiling is the technique of rating or classifying foods on the basis of their nutritional value. Foods that supply relatively more nutrients than calories are defined as nutrient dense. Nutrient profile models calculate the content of key nutrients per 100 g, 100 kcal, or per serving size of food. For maximum effectiveness, nutrient profile models need to be transparent, based on publicly accessible nutrient composition data, and validated against independent measures of a healthy diet. These rigorous scientific standards were applied to the development of the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF) family of nutrient profile models. First, the NRF models included nutrients to encourage as well as nutrients to limit. Second, NRF model performance was repeatedly tested against the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), an independent measure of a healthy diet. HEI values were calculated for participants in the 1999-2002 NHANES. Models based on 100 kcal and serving sizes performed better than those based on 100 g. Formulas based on sums and means performed better than those based on ratios. The final NRF9.3 index was based on 9 beneficial nutrients (protein; fiber; vitamins A, C, and E; calcium; iron; potassium; and magnesium) and on 3 nutrients to limit (saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium). Higher NRF9.3 scores were associated with lower energy density and more nutrient-rich diets. The nutrient density of foods, paired with a comprehensive program of consumer education, can become the foundation of dietary recommendations and guidelines.

  5. Hungry for Nutrient Data? Navigating the USDA Nutrient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) is the major source of food composition data in the United States, providing the foundation for most food composition databases in the public and private sectors. Most nutrition professionals are familiar with the basics of the SR onlin...

  6. Unsupervised Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marcken, Carl

    1996-11-01

    This thesis presents a computational theory of unsupervised language acquisition, precisely defining procedures for learning language from ordinary spoken or written utterances, with no explicit help from a teacher. The theory is based heavily on concepts borrowed from machine learning and statistical estimation. In particular, learning takes place by fitting a stochastic, generative model of language to the evidence. Much of the thesis is devoted to explaining conditions that must hold for this general learning strategy to arrive at linguistically desirable grammars. The thesis introduces a variety of technical innovations, among them a common representation for evidence and grammars, and a learning strategy that separates the ``content'' of linguistic parameters from their representation. Algorithms based on it suffer from few of the search problems that have plagued other computational approaches to language acquisition. The theory has been tested on problems of learning vocabularies and grammars from unsegmented text and continuous speech, and mappings between sound and representations of meaning. It performs extremely well on various objective criteria, acquiring knowledge that causes it to assign almost exactly the same structure to utterances as humans do. This work has application to data compression, language modeling, speech recognition, machine translation, information retrieval, and other tasks that rely on either structural or stochastic descriptions of language.

  7. Data-acquisition systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyborski, D.R.; Teh, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    Up to now, DAPHNE, the data-acquisition system developed for ATLAS, was used routinely for experiments at ATLAS and the Dynamitron. More recently, the Division implemented 2 MSU/DAPHNE systems. The MSU/DAPHNE system is a hybrid data-acquisition system which combines the front-end of the Michigan State University (MSU) DA system with the traditional DAPHNE back-end. The MSU front-end is based on commercially available modules. This alleviates the problems encountered with the DAPHNE front-end which is based on custom designed electronics. The first MSU system was obtained for the APEX experiment and was used there successfully. A second MSU front-end, purchased as a backup for the APEX experiment, was installed as a fully-independent second MSU/DAPHNE system with the procurement of a DEC 3000 Alpha host computer, and was used successfully for data-taking in an experiment at ATLAS. Additional hardware for a third system was bought and will be installed. With the availability of 2 MSU/DAPHNE systems in addition to the existing APEX setup, it is planned that the existing DAPHNE front-end will be decommissioned.

  8. Aircraft Data Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena BALMUS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of digital systems instead of analog ones has created a major separation in the aviation technology. Although the digital equipment made possible that the increasingly faster controllers take over, we should say that the real world remains essentially analogue [4]. Fly-by-wire designers attempting to control and measure the real feedback of an aircraft were forced to find a way to connect the analogue environment to their digital equipment. In order to manage the implications of this division in aviation, data optimization and comparison has been quite an important task. The interest in using data acquisition boards is being driven by the technology and design standards in the new generation of aircraft and the ongoing efforts of reducing weight and, in some cases addressing the safety risks. This paper presents a sum of technical report data from post processing and diversification of data acquisition from Arinc 429 interface on a research aircraft platform. Arinc 429 is by far the most common data bus in use on civil transport aircraft, regional jets and executive business jets today. Since its introduction on the Boeing 757/767 and Airbus aircraft in the early 1980s hardly any aircraft has been produced without the use of this data bus. It was used widely by the air transport indu

  9. 营养物质刺激肠道L细胞分泌GLP-1的机制%The mechanisms of nutrient-stimulated GLP-1 secretion from intestinal L-cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓兢; 武晓泓

    2011-01-01

    在营养物质的刺激作用下,肠上皮的L细胞分泌胰高血糖素样肽-1( GLP-1),后者具有控制餐后血糖和食欲的重要作用.这些营养物质包括糖类物质、蛋白质、脂类物质,其中糖类物质刺激L细胞分泌GLP-1的机制包括ATP敏感的K通道(KATP通道)、钠-葡萄糖协同转运体(SGLT)1、味觉受体通路;蛋白质刺激L细胞分泌GLP-1的机制可能为电压门控的Ca2通道、Na+ -K+-2CI -同向转运体、促离子型γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)受体、Na+耦联转运体所致的细胞膜去极化;脂类物质刺激L细胞分泌GILP-1的机制可能与脂肪酸敏感的G蛋白耦联受体(GRPs)有关.%In response to the stimulation of nutrients,glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted from the intestinal epithelial L-cells,which is important to postprandial plasma glucagon modulation and appetite control.The nutrients include carbohydrates,proteins and lipids.Carbohydrates stimulate GLP-1 release from L-cells by ATP-sensitive K+ channel( KATP channel),sodium-glucose cotransporter(SGLT) 1 and taste receptor pathways.Proteins stimulate GLP-1 release from L-cells by plasma membrane depolarization which is initiated by voltage gated Ca2 + -channels,Na+ -K + -2Cl - cotransporters,ionotropic GABA receptor and Na + -coupled transporters,while lipids stimulate GLP-1 release from L-cells by fatty acids-sensitive G-protein coupled receptors.

  10. Impact of glyphosate resistant corn, glyphosate applications, and tillage on soil nutrient ratios, exoenzyme activities, and nutrient acquisition ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report results of the last two years of a 7-year (2008-2014) field experiment designed to test the null hypothesis that applications of glyphosate on glyphosate resistant corn (Zea mays L.) as a routine weed control practice under both conventional and reduced tillage practices would have no effe...

  11. Collection assessment and acquisitions budgets

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sul H

    2013-01-01

    This invaluable new book contains timely information about the assessment of academic library collections and the relationship of collection assessment to acquisition budgets. The rising cost of information significantly influences academic libraries'abilities to acquire the necessary materials for students and faculty, and public libraries'abilities to acquire material for their clientele. Collection Assessment and Acquisitions Budgets examines different aspects of the relationship between the assessment of academic library collections and the management of library acquisition budgets. Librar

  12. Recycling nutrients in algae biorefinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Alba, L.; Vos, M.P.; Torri, C.; Fabbri, D.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Brilman, D.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    Algal fuel cells: Repeated nutrient recycling is demonstrated by reusing the aqueous phase obtained from the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae. This is achieved, for the first time, by performing a complete set of four continuous growth–HTL cycles. Results show similar growth rates in ea

  13. Nutrients for the aging eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmussen HM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Helen M Rasmussen,1 Elizabeth J Johnson2 1Educational Studies, Lesley University, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Carotenoid and Health Laboratory, Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: The incidence of age-related eye diseases is expected to rise with the aging of the population. Oxidation and inflammation are implicated in the etiology of these diseases. There is evidence that dietary antioxidants and anti-inflammatories may provide benefit in decreasing the risk of age-related eye disease. Nutrients of interest are vitamins C and E, β-carotene, zinc, lutein, zeaxanthin, and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. While a recent survey finds that among the baby boomers (45–65 years old, vision is the most important of the five senses, well over half of those surveyed were not aware of the important nutrients that play a key role in eye health. This is evident from a national survey that finds that intake of these key nutrients from dietary sources is below the recommendations or guidelines. Therefore, it is important to educate this population and to create an awareness of the nutrients and foods of particular interest in the prevention of age-related eye disease. Keywords: nutrition, aging, eye health

  14. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizospher...

  15. Saharan dust nutrients promote Vibrio bloom formation in marine surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrich, Jason R.; Ebling, Alina M.; Landing, William M.; Joyner, Jessica L.; Kemp, Keri M.; Griffin, Dale W.; Lipp, Erin K.

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio is a ubiquitous genus of marine bacteria, typically comprising a small fraction of the total microbial community in surface waters, but capable of becoming a dominant taxon in response to poorly characterized factors. Iron (Fe), often restricted by limited bioavailability and low external supply, is an essential micronutrient that can limit Vibrio growth. Vibrio species have robust metabolic capabilities and an array of Fe-acquisition mechanisms, and are able to respond rapidly to nutrient influx, yet Vibrio response to environmental pulses of Fe remains uncharacterized. Here we examined the population growth of Vibrioafter natural and simulated pulses of atmospherically transported Saharan dust, an important and episodic source of Fe to tropical marine waters. As a model for opportunistic bacterial heterotrophs, we demonstrated that Vibrio proliferate in response to a broad range of dust-Fe additions at rapid timescales. Within 24 h of exposure, strains of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio alginolyticus were able to directly use Saharan dust–Fe to support rapid growth. These findings were also confirmed with in situ field studies; arrival of Saharan dust in the Caribbean and subtropical Atlantic coincided with high levels of dissolved Fe, followed by up to a 30-fold increase of culturable Vibrio over background levels within 24 h. The relative abundance of Vibrio increased from ∼1 to ∼20% of the total microbial community. This study, to our knowledge, is the first to describe Vibrio response to Saharan dust nutrients, having implications at the intersection of marine ecology, Fe biogeochemistry, and both human and environmental health.

  16. Variations of nutrient elements and its effect on ecological environment off the Changjiang estuarine waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of the data obtained in two cruises during October 1997 and May 1998, the concentration distribution and the variation of present species of nutrient elements in the water masses are described. The transform mechanism of present species of nutrients and role of differmt water masses, frontal area and thermohaline transition layer on convergence or divergence and the biogeochemical cycle of nutrient elements off the Changjiang Estuary are studied. Meanwhile, the environmental capacityof nutrients is primarily estimated: they are 1.803 × 104t DIN and 6.18 × 102t PO43- - P in autumn, and 4.20 × 102t PO43- -p in spring.

  17. Distributed Data Acquisition For Biomechanics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myklebust, J.; Geisler, M.; Prieto, T.; Weiss, R.

    1987-01-01

    Biomechanics research at the Medical College of Wisconsin is directed to the determination of the mechanisms of head and spine injury and the evaluation of surgical treatments for these injuries. This work involves mechanical testing of components of the spine (disks, vertebral bodies, and ligaments) as well as testing of composite spines and in situ evaluation of intact human cadavers (1,3). Other studies utilize experimental animals to measure neurologic and physiologic effects due to injury producing loads and accelerations (2). An integrated system has been developed to facilitate the acquisition and analysis of the diverse types of data from these experiments.

  18. Experience of Canadian and Chinese Acquisitions in Kazakhstan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Muratbekova-Touron, Maral

    2011-01-01

    in achieving post-acquisition social integration than a culturally close one. We ascribe this to the fact that although both acquirers made extensive use of both formal and informal social integration mechanisms, they favored different types. We also specify other contextual variables which may explain......Our intention is to explore and describe the nature and the role of social integration mechanisms that moderate relationships between cultural distance and social integration. We followed one company, currently named KazOil, over 10 years and during two consecutive acquisitions by very different...... MNCs (Hurricane and CNPC) from two different national cultures (Canada and China, respectively). We found differences in the levels of post-acquisition social integration of the two acquisitions. Surprisingly, a more culturally distant MNC from a national culture perspective was more successful...

  19. Language Acquisition in Computers

    CERN Document Server

    Belzner, Megan; Roman, Jorge H

    2012-01-01

    This project explores the nature of language acquisition in computers, guided by techniques similar to those used in children. While existing natural language processing methods are limited in scope and understanding, our system aims to gain an understanding of language from first principles and hence minimal initial input. The first portion of our system was implemented in Java and is focused on understanding the morphology of language using bigrams. We use frequency distributions and differences between them to define and distinguish languages. English and French texts were analyzed to determine a difference threshold of 55 before the texts are considered to be in different languages, and this threshold was verified using Spanish texts. The second portion of our system focuses on gaining an understanding of the syntax of a language using a recursive method. The program uses one of two possible methods to analyze given sentences based on either sentence patterns or surrounding words. Both methods have been i...

  20. Plasmid acquisition in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juergensmeyer, Margaret A.; Juergensmeyer, Elizabeth A.; Guikema, James A.

    1995-01-01

    In microgravity, bacteria often show an increased resistance to antibiotics. Bacteria can develop resistance to an antibiotic after transformation, the acquisition of DNA, usually in the form of a plasmid containing a gene for resistance to one or more antibiotics. In order to study the capacity of bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics in microgravity, we have modified the standard protocol for transformation of Escherichia coli for use in the NASA-flight-certified hardware package, The Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA). Here we report on the ability of E. coli to remain competent for long periods of time at temperatures that are readily available on the Space Shuttle, and present some preliminary flight results.

  1. Theories of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, H J; Howell, R W

    1971-03-01

    Prior to the advent of generative grammar, theoretical approaches to language development relied heavily upon the concepts ofdifferential reinforcement andimitation. Current studies of linguistic acquisition are largely dominated by the hypothesis that the child constructs his language on the basis of a primitive grammar which gradually evolves into a more complex grammar. This approach presupposes that the investigator does not impose his own grammatical rules on the utterances of the child; that the sound system of the child and the rules he employs to form sentences are to be described in their own terms, independently of the model provided by the adult linguistic community; and that there is a series of steps or stages through which the child passes on his way toward mastery of the adult grammar in his linguistic environment. This paper attempts to trace the development of human vocalization through prelinguistic stages to the development of what can be clearly recognized as language behavior, and then progresses to transitional phases in which the language of the child begins to approximate that of the adult model. In the view of the authors, the most challenging problems which confront theories of linguistic acquisition arise in seeking to account for structure of sound sequences, in the rules that enable the speaker to go from meaning to sound and which enable the listener to go from sound to meaning. The principal area of concern for the investigator, according to the authors, is the discovery of those rules at various stages of the learning process. The paper concludes with a return to the question of what constitutes an adequate theory of language ontogenesis. It is suggested that such a theory will have to be keyed to theories of cognitive development and will have to include and go beyond a theory which accounts for adult language competence and performance, since these represent only the terminal stage of linguistic ontogenesis.

  2. Impoverishment of Soil Nutrients in Gully Erosion Areas in Yuanmou Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jian-guo; Li Hui-xia; He Xiao-rong; Sheng Xin-ju; Fan Jian-rong; Zhu Bo

    2003-01-01

    The impoverishment of soil nutrients of nine gully head areas in Yuanmou Basin is assessed through an integrated evaluation method established on the basis of Fuzzy mathematics and multivariate mathematical theory. Results show that soil erosion of gully erosion area in Yuanmou basin has resulted in severe impoverishment of soil nutrients. All gully head areas are at high leves of impoverishment except for one at middle. By probing into and analyzing the mechanism of impoverishment of soil nutrients, we find that soil erosion has led to impoverishment of soil nutrients in a way of compacting soil, heightening position of obstacle horizon, and reducing the content of organic matter, as well as the direct loss of nutrient elements. Finally, this paper points out that soil and water conservation arming at the prevention of soil erosion is the most effective way against impoverishment of soil nutrients in Yuanmou basin.

  3. Internal Control, Auditing, and the Automated Acquisitions System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Carol Pitts

    1990-01-01

    Discusses issues and procedures involved in auditing the automated acquisitions system at Ohio State University Libraries. The audit process is explained, internal controls within the system are identified, general control mechanisms such as limited electronic access are discussed, and application control mechanisms that relate to specific…

  4. Nutrient management for rice production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nutrient removed by the crops far exceeds the amounts replenished through fertilizer, causing a much greater strain on the native soil reserves. The situation is further aggravated in countries like India, where sub-optimal fertilizer used by the farmers is a common phenomenon rather than an exception. The total consumption of nutrients of all crops in India, even though reached 15 million tons in 1997, remains much below the estimated nutrient removal of 25 million tons (Swarup and Goneshamurthy, 1998). The gap between nutrient removal supplied through fertilizer has widened further in 2000 to 34 million tons of plant nutrients from the soil against an estimated fertilizer availability of 18 million tons (Singh and Dwivedi, 1996). Nitrogen is the nutrient which limits the most the rice production worldwide. In Asia, where more than 90 percent of the world's rice is produced, about 60 percent of the N fertilizer consumed is used on rice (Stangel and De Dutta, 1985). Conjunctive use of organic material along with fertilizer has been proved an efficient source of nitrogen. Organic residue recycling is becoming an increasingly important aspect of environmentally sound sustainable agriculture. Returning residues like green manure to the soil is necessary for maintaining soil organic matter, which is important for favourable soil structure, soil water retention and soil microbial flora and fauna activities. Use of organic manures in conjunction or as an alternative to chemical fertilizer is receiving attention. Green manure, addition to some extent, helps not only in enhancing the yield but also in improving the physical and chemical nature of soils. The excessive application of chemical fertilizers made it imperative that a part of inorganic fertilizer may be substituted with the recycling of organic wastes. Organic manure has been recorded to enhance the efficiency and reduce the requirement of chemical fertilizers. Partial nitrogen substitution through organic

  5. First and Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任海燕

    2007-01-01

    Though there are similarities between child first language acquisition and adult second language acquisition,this paper explores the differences between these two processes from several aspects and gives the suggestions that how we language teachers teach L2 students well in language teaching.

  6. Language Acquisition, Pidgins and Creoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wode, Henning

    1981-01-01

    Suggests that structural universals between different-based pidgins result from universal linguo-cognitive processing strategies which are employed in learning languages. Some of the strategies occur in all types of acquisition, and others are more applicable to L2 type acquisition. Past research is discussed, and some exemplary data are given.…

  7. Smart data acquisition system for utilities metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ileana, I.; Risteiu, M.; Tulbure, A.; Rusu, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper approaches the task of automatically reading and recognition of registered data on the utility meters of the users and is a part of a more complex project of our team concerning the remote data acquisition from industrial processes. A huge amount of utility meters in our country is of mechanical type without remote acquiring facilities and as an intermediate solution we propose an intelligent optical acquisition system which will store the read values in desktop and mobile devices. The main requirements of such a system are: portability, data reading accuracy, fast processing and energy independence. The paper analyses several solutions (including Artificial Neural Networks approach) tested by our team and present the experimental results and our conclusions.

  8. A Lossless Network for Data Acquisition

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)698154; The ATLAS collaboration; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    The bursty many-to-one communication pattern, typical for data acquisition systems, is particularly demanding for commodity TCP/IP and Ethernet technologies. We expand the study of lossless switching in software running on commercial-off-the-shelf servers, using the ATLAS experiment as a case study. In this paper we extend the popular software switch, Open vSwitch, with a dedicated, throughput-oriented buffering mechanism for data acquisition. We compare the performance under heavy congestion on typical Ethernet switches to a commodity server acting as a switch. Our results indicate that software switches with large buffers perform significantly better. Next, we evaluate the scalability of the system when building a larger topology of interconnected software switches, exploiting the integration with software-defined networking technologies. We build an IP-only leaf-spine network consisting of eight software switches running on separate physical servers as a demonstrator.

  9. Watching the brain during meaning acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestres-Missé, Anna; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F

    2007-08-01

    Acquiring the meaning of a new word in a foreign language can be achieved either by rote memorizing or, similar to meaning acquisition during infancy, by extracting it from context. Little is known about the brain mechanisms involved in word learning. Here we demonstrate, using event-related brain potentials, the rapid development of a brain signature related to lexical and semantic processing during contextual word learning. Healthy volunteers engaged in a simple word-learning task were required to discover the meaning of a novel word from a context during silent reading. After 3 exposures, brain potentials to novel words in meaningful contexts were indistinguishable from real words, although this acquisition effect was not observed for novel words, for which sentence contexts allowed no meaning derivation. Furthermore, when the learned novel words were presented in isolation, an activation of their corresponding meaning was observed, although this process was slower than for real words.

  10. Incidental Lexicon Acquisition through Playful Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Wilhelm Ansteeg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an educational game which aids learners with foreign lexicon acquisition while entertaining them at the same time. An overview over existing language learning tools is given, and a general platform for educational games for second language acquisition (SLA is described. It introduces a specific prototype video game which teaches Italian vocabulary to the user. The application puts learning at the core of its game mechanics and combines it with a narrative and role-playing elements. In a user study, the game is compared to two other learning methods with focus on long term retention of vocabulary and enjoyment of the exercise. The game is found to perform within 10% of the efficiency of pure vocabulary learning exercises, while being considerably more enjoyable to the user.

  11. The COMPASS data acquisition system

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, H; Grünemaier, A; Heinsius, F H; Hoffmann, M; Karstens, F; Kastaun, W; Königsmann, K C; Niebuhr, M; Risken, R; Schmidt, T; Schmitt, H; Schweimler, A; Hodenberg, M V; Urban, H J

    2002-01-01

    A fully pipelined and massively parallel data acquisition system has been developed for the COMPASS experiment at CERN. The main requirements are to read 250000 detector channels at a trigger rate of up to 100 kHz. Such high rates are only possible when using a hit selection mechanism on the front-end combined with dead-time free readout. For this purpose, a time-to-digital converter (TDC) chip has been developed and is used for all time measurement applications in COMPASS. Distributed, field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based readout-driver modules handle parallel front-end initialization, synchronous trigger and control-signal distribution, and local event building at a processing speed of 160 Mbyte/s. Each of the 160 readout-driver modules connects to 16 front-end boards through independent twisted pair cables (CAT 7, 600 MHz) or optical fibers using an industrial (ESCON), self synchronizing link at 40 Mbyte/s. Automatic configuration through unique module and link identification ensures the flexibility ...

  12. Zinc: an essential but elusive nutrient123

    OpenAIRE

    Janet C. King

    2011-01-01

    Zinc is essential for multiple aspects of metabolism. Physiologic signs of zinc depletion are linked with diverse biochemical functions rather than with a specific function, which makes it difficult to identify biomarkers of zinc nutrition. Nutrients, such as zinc, that are required for general metabolism are called type 2 nutrients. Protein and magnesium are examples of other type 2 nutrients. Type 1 nutrients are required for one or more specific functions: examples include iron, vitamin A,...

  13. What a Dinner Party! Mechanisms and Functions of Interkingdom Signaling in Host-Pathogen Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Kendall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical signaling between cells is an effective way to coordinate behavior within a community. Although cell-to-cell signaling has mostly been studied in single species, it is now appreciated that the sensing of chemical signals across kingdoms can be an important regulator of nutrient acquisition, virulence, and host defense. In this review, we focus on the role of interkingdom signaling in the interactions that occur between bacterial pathogens and their mammalian hosts. We discuss the quorum-sensing (QS systems and other mechanisms used by these bacteria to sense, respond to, and modulate host signals that include hormones, immune factors, and nutrients. We also describe cross talk between these signaling pathways and strategies used by the host to interfere with bacterial signaling, highlighting the complex bidirectional signaling networks that are established across kingdoms.

  14. 48 CFR 234.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 234..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION 234.004 Acquisition strategy. (1) See 209.570 for policy applicable to acquisition strategies that consider the use of lead...

  15. 48 CFR 3034.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Acquisition strategy. See (HSAR) 48 CFR 3009.570 for policy applicable to acquisition strategies that consider... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 3034.004 Section 3034.004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY,...

  16. 48 CFR 34.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 34... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 34.004 Acquisition strategy. The program manager, as specified in agency procedures, shall develop an acquisition strategy tailored to the...

  17. 48 CFR 434.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 434.004 Section 434.004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 434.004 Acquisition strategy. (a) The...

  18. Modeling global nutrient export from watersheds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Bouwman, A.F.; Seitzinger, S.

    2012-01-01

    We describe how global models can be used to analyze past and future trends in nutrient export from watersheds and how such models can be used to analyze causes and effects of coastal eutrophication. Future nutrient inputs to coastal waters may be higher than today, and nutrient ratios may depart fr

  19. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  20. DATA ACQUISITION (DAQ)

    CERN Multimedia

    Gerry Bauer

    The CMS Storage Manager System The tail-end of the CMS Data Acquisition System is the Storage Manger (SM), which collects output from the HLT and stages the data at Cessy for transfer to its ultimate home in the Tier-0 center. A SM system has been used by CMS for several years with the steadily evolving software within the XDAQ framework, but until relatively recently, only with provisional hardware. The SM is well known to much of the collaboration through the ‘MiniDAQ’ system, which served as the central DAQ system in 2007, and lives on in 2008 for dedicated sub-detector commissioning. Since March of 2008 a first phase of the final hardware was commissioned and used in CMS Global Runs. The system originally planned for 2008 aimed at recording ~1MB events at a few hundred Hz. The building blocks to achieve this are based on Nexsan's SATABeast storage array - a device  housing up to 40 disks of 1TB each, and possessing two controllers each capable of almost 200 MB/sec throughput....

  1. The acquisition of polysynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithun, M

    1989-06-01

    Polysynthetic languages can present special extraction puzzles to children, due to the length of their words. A number of hypotheses concerning children's strategies for acquiring morphology, originally proposed on the basis of their approaches to somewhat simpler systems, are confirmed by observations of five children acquiring Mohawk. Among the Mohawk children, the earliest segmentation of words was phonological rather than morphological: stressed syllables, usually penultimate or antepenultimate, were extracted first. Ultimate syllables were then added, confirming the salience of the ends of words. During this time, distinctions expressed by adults in affixes were either omitted or expressed analytically. Acquisition then moved leftward by syllables. When most utterances were long enough to include pronominal prefixes as well as roots, morphological structure was apparently discovered. It is not surprising that the pronouns should trigger this awareness, since they are frequent, appearing with every verb and most nouns, they are functional, and they are semantically transparent. From this point on, the children acquired affixes primarily according to their utility and semantic transparency rather than their phonological shape or position. PMID:2760128

  2. Nutrient cycling in mango trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinara Xavier de Almeida

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of nutrient amounts both shedding and demanding replacement in the maintenance of productivity of fruit trees require studies on element dynamics within the many ecosystem components generally made up of nutrient cycling. Thus, it was the objective of this study to evaluate the nutrient biochemical cycling in a mango tree (Mangifera indica L. orchard, Palmer variety. Macronutrients [nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, and sulfur (S] had their contents evaluated in leaves at different stages: new, mature, senescent, and litter. First exploratory analysis was performed for main components which preserve the multivariate structure shown by the data. It was possible to observe the association of new leaves with N, P, K, Mg, and S; senescent leaves and the leaves from the litter were associated to Ca, while mature leaves, to K. As a complement, taking the independent variables into consideration, Tukey test (p?0.01 showed that the averages of N, P, and Ca differ between the new and the mature leaves; average of Mg in new leaves differs from the others, and S does not differ along the stages. Also observed was the re-translocation of 41%, 63% and 57% of N, P, and K, respectively, when comparison was made among the contents of the elements in mature leaves as well as in litter, which indicates that the biochemical cycling is important for the mango tree cultivation.

  3. Zinc piracy as a mechanism of Neisseria meningitidis for evasion of nutritional immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Stork

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria functions as a permeability barrier that protects these bacteria against harmful compounds in the environment. Most nutrients pass the outer membrane by passive diffusion via pore-forming proteins known as porins. However, diffusion can only satisfy the growth requirements if the extracellular concentration of the nutrients is high. In the vertebrate host, the sequestration of essential nutrient metals is an important defense mechanism that limits the growth of invading pathogens, a process known as "nutritional immunity." The acquisition of scarce nutrients from the environment is mediated by receptors in the outer membrane in an energy-requiring process. Most characterized receptors are involved in the acquisition of iron. In this study, we characterized a hitherto unknown receptor from Neisseria meningitidis, a causative agent of sepsis and meningitis. Expression of this receptor, designated CbpA, is induced when the bacteria are grown under zinc limitation. We demonstrate that CbpA functions as a receptor for calprotectin, a protein that is massively produced by neutrophils and other cells and that has been shown to limit bacterial growth by chelating Zn²⁺ and Mn²⁺ ions. Expression of CbpA enables N. meningitidis to survive and propagate in the presence of calprotectin and to use calprotectin as a zinc source. Besides CbpA, also the TonB protein, which couples energy of the proton gradient across the inner membrane to receptor-mediated transport across the outer membrane, is required for the process. CbpA was found to be expressed in all N. meningitidis strains examined, consistent with a vital role for the protein when the bacteria reside in the host. Together, our results demonstrate that N. meningitidis is able to subvert an important defense mechanism of the human host and to utilize calprotectin to promote its growth.

  4. 翠菊根系养分捕获形态塑性及其生理机制%Root nutrient foraging of morphological plasticity and physiological mechanism in Callistephus chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董佳; 牟溥

    2012-01-01

    养分捕获塑性机制.%Aims Previous studies discovered unusual plasticity in root growth of Callistephus chinensis, in that fewer fine roots grow in pulse soil nutrient patches than in unfertilized patches. Our goal is to interpret this event via experimentation following the theory of plant physiological ecology. The experiment tested the following hypotheses: NO3 -, NH4+ and method of application 1) significantly affect root growth and 2) significantly affect root hormones and 3) root hormones (auxin (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinin (zeatin riboside + zeatin) (CK. (ZR + Z))) significantly affect root architecture (indicated by the length of the 1st order fine roots, the inter 1st order root length and the density of the 1st order fine lateral roots). Methods The water culture approach was employed with treatments of two fertilizers (NO3- and NH4+), two methods of application (stable vs. pulse, i.e., pulse shift to high N concentration from low and mid concentration) and low, mid and high concentrations of the fertilizers (NO3-: 0.2, 1.0 and 18.0 mmol·L-1; NH4+: 0.2, 4.0 and 20.0 mmol·L-1). The experiment lasted 35 days after the treatments, the plants were harvested by the end of the experiment and all concerned parameters were measured including root mass, the above-mentioned root architecture parameters and the contents of root hormones. Important findings The experimental treatments affected root mass and root hormones with different significances. The high concentrations of NO3- and NH4+ both greatly lowered the root mass and IAA. Values were lower in the NH4+ culture than in the NO3- one. Pulse shift treatment lowered both further. CK (ZR + Z) contents did not respond to the concentrations and the methods of application, but to NO3- or NH4+ the latter led much lower CK (ZR + Z) contents than the former. Root mass had positive regression relationships with 1st order root length and the density of the fine lateral roots, had a linear regression relationship with IAA, a negative

  5. Nutrient Shielding in Clusters of Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrentovich, Maxim O; Nelson, David R

    2013-01-01

    Cellular nutrient consumption is influenced by both the nutrient uptake kinetics of an individual cell and the cells' spatial arrangement. Large cell clusters or colonies have inhibited growth at the cluster's center due to the shielding of nutrients by the cells closer to the surface. We develop an effective medium theory that predicts a thickness $\\ell$ of the outer shell of cells in the cluster that receives enough nutrient to grow. The cells are treated as partially absorbing identical spherical nutrient sinks, and we identify a dimensionless parameter $\

  6. Nerveless and gutsy: intestinal nutrient sensing from invertebrates to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Aliaga, Irene

    2012-08-01

    The increasingly recognized role of gastrointestinal signals in the regulation of food intake, insulin production and peripheral nutrient storage has prompted a surge of interest in studying how the gastrointestinal tract senses and responds to nutritional information. Identification of metabolically important intestinal nutrient sensors could provide potential new drug targets for the treatment of diabetes, obesity and gastrointestinal disorders. From a more fundamental perspective, the study of intestinal chemosensation is revealing novel, non-neuronal modes of communication involving differentiated epithelial cells. It is also identifying signalling mechanisms downstream of not only canonical receptors but also nutrient transporters, thereby supporting a chemosensory role for "transceptors" in the intestine. This review describes known and proposed mechanisms of intestinal carbohydrate, protein and lipid sensing, best characterized in mammalian systems. It also highlights the potential of invertebrate model systems such as C. elegans and Drosophila melanogaster by summarizing known examples of molecular evolutionary conservation. Recently developed genetic tools in Drosophila, an emerging model system for the study of physiology and metabolism, allow the temporal, spatial and high-throughput manipulation of putative intestinal sensors. Hence, fruit flies may prove particularly suited to the study of the link between intestinal nutrient sensing and metabolic homeostasis. PMID:22248674

  7. Data acquisition techniques using PC

    CERN Document Server

    Austerlitz, Howard

    1991-01-01

    Data Acquisition Techniques Using Personal Computers contains all the information required by a technical professional (engineer, scientist, technician) to implement a PC-based acquisition system. Including both basic tutorial information as well as some advanced topics, this work is suitable as a reference book for engineers or as a supplemental text for engineering students. It gives the reader enough understanding of the topics to implement a data acquisition system based on commercial products. A reader can alternatively learn how to custom build hardware or write his or her own software.

  8. SWRL: Rule Acquisition Using Ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Plinere, D; Borisovs, A

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays rule-based systems are very common. The use of ontology-based systems is becoming ever more popular, especially in addition to the rule-based one. The most widely used ontology development platform is Protégé. Protégé provides a knowledge acquisition tool, but still the main issue of the ontologybased rule system is rule acquisition. This paper presents an approach to using SWRL rules Tab, a plug-in to Protégé, for rule acquisition. SWRL rules Tab transforms conj...

  9. Proposal for a method to estimate nutrient shock effects in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo Nuno F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plating methods are still the golden standard in microbiology; however, some studies have shown that these techniques can underestimate the microbial concentrations and diversity. A nutrient shock is one of the mechanisms proposed to explain this phenomenon. In this study, a tentative method to assess nutrient shock effects was tested. Findings To estimate the extent of nutrient shock effects, two strains isolated from tap water (Sphingomonas capsulata and Methylobacterium sp. and two culture collection strains (E. coli CECT 434 and Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 were exposed both to low and high nutrient conditions for different times and then placed in low nutrient medium (R2A and rich nutrient medium (TSA. The average improvement (A.I. of recovery between R2A and TSA for the different times was calculated to more simply assess the difference obtained in culturability between each medium. As expected, A.I. was higher when cells were plated after the exposition to water than when they were recovered from high-nutrient medium showing the existence of a nutrient shock for the diverse bacteria used. S. capsulata was the species most affected by this phenomenon. Conclusions This work provides a method to consistently determine the extent of nutrient shock effects on different microorganisms and hence quantify the ability of each species to deal with sudden increases in substrate concentration.

  10. Generalized Nutrient Taxes Can Increase Consumer Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishai, David

    2015-11-01

    Certain nutrients can stimulate appetite making them fattening in a way that is not fully conveyed by the calorie content on the label. For rational eaters, this information gap could be corrected by more labeling. As an alternative, this paper proposes a set of positive and negative taxes on the fattening and slimming nutrients in food rather than on the food itself. There are conditions under which this tax plus subsidy system could increase welfare by stopping unwanted weight gain while leaving the final retail price of food unchanged. A nutrient tax system could improve welfare if fattening nutrients, net of their effect on weight, are inferior goods and the fiscal cost of administering the tax is sufficiently low. More data on the price elasticity of demand for nutrients as well as data on how specific nutrients affect satiety and how total calorie intake would be necessary before one could be sure a nutrient tax would work in practice. PMID:25241653

  11. Generalized Nutrient Taxes Can Increase Consumer Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishai, David

    2015-11-01

    Certain nutrients can stimulate appetite making them fattening in a way that is not fully conveyed by the calorie content on the label. For rational eaters, this information gap could be corrected by more labeling. As an alternative, this paper proposes a set of positive and negative taxes on the fattening and slimming nutrients in food rather than on the food itself. There are conditions under which this tax plus subsidy system could increase welfare by stopping unwanted weight gain while leaving the final retail price of food unchanged. A nutrient tax system could improve welfare if fattening nutrients, net of their effect on weight, are inferior goods and the fiscal cost of administering the tax is sufficiently low. More data on the price elasticity of demand for nutrients as well as data on how specific nutrients affect satiety and how total calorie intake would be necessary before one could be sure a nutrient tax would work in practice.

  12. Nutrient management strategies on Dutch dairy farms : an empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondersteijn, C.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Key Words: MINAS; nitrogen surplus; phosphate surplus; nutrient efficiency; nutrient productivity; financial consequences; strategic management; perceived environmental uncertainty; nutrient management planning; dairy farming; The Netherlands.Agricultural nutrients are a possible pollutant of (groun

  13. Gene Acquisition Convergence between Entomopoxviruses and Baculoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Thézé

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organisms from diverse phylogenetic origins can thrive within the same ecological niches. They might be induced to evolve convergent adaptations in response to a similar landscape of selective pressures. Their genomes should bear the signature of this process. The study of unrelated virus lineages infecting the same host panels guarantees a clear identification of phyletically independent convergent adaptation. Here, we investigate the evolutionary history of genes in the accessory genome shared by unrelated insect large dsDNA viruses: the entomopoxviruses (EPVs, Poxviridae and the baculoviruses (BVs. EPVs and BVs have overlapping ecological niches and have independently evolved similar infection processes. They are, in theory, subjected to the same selective pressures from their host’s immune responses. Their accessory genomes might, therefore, bear analogous genomic signatures of convergent adaption and could point out key genomic mechanisms of adaptation hitherto undetected in viruses. We uncovered 32 homologous, yet independent acquisitions of genes originating from insect hosts, different eukaryotes, bacteria and viruses. We showed different evolutionary levels of gene acquisition convergence in these viruses, underlining a continuous evolutionary process. We found both recent and ancient gene acquisitions possibly involved to the adaptation to both specific and distantly related hosts. Multidirectional and multipartite gene exchange networks appear to constantly drive exogenous gene assimilations, bringing key adaptive innovations and shaping the life histories of large DNA viruses. This evolutionary process might lead to genome level adaptive convergence.

  14. Rapid Material Appearance Acquisition Using Consumer Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Filip

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A photo-realistic representation of material appearance can be achieved by means of bidirectional texture function (BTF capturing a material’s appearance for varying illumination, viewing directions, and spatial pixel coordinates. BTF captures many non-local effects in material structure such as inter-reflections, occlusions, shadowing, or scattering. The acquisition of BTF data is usually time and resource-intensive due to the high dimensionality of BTF data. This results in expensive, complex measurement setups and/or excessively long measurement times. We propose an approximate BTF acquisition setup based on a simple, affordable mechanical gantry containing a consumer camera and two LED lights. It captures a very limited subset of material surface images by shooting several video sequences. A psychophysical study comparing captured and reconstructed data with the reference BTFs of seven tested materials revealed that results of our method show a promising visual quality. Speed of the setup has been demonstrated on measurement of human skin and measurement and modeling of a glue dessication time-varying process. As it allows for fast, inexpensive, acquisition of approximate BTFs, this method can be beneficial to visualization applications demanding less accuracy, where BTF utilization has previously been limited.

  15. Platform attitude data acquisition system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Afzulpurkar, S.

    A system for automatic acquisition of underwater platform attitude data has been designed, developed and tested in the laboratory. This is a micro controller based system interfacing dual axis inclinometer, high-resolution digital compass...

  16. Portable Data Acquisition System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have developed a portable data acquisition system (PDAT) that can be easily transported and set up at remote locations to display and archive...

  17. FOLIAR NUTRIENT CONTENTS AND FRUIT YIELD IN CUSTARD APPLE PROGENIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foliar nutrient contents are evaluated in several fruit trees with many objectives. Leaf analysis constitutes a way of evaluating the nutritional requirements of crops. Due to the positive impact that fertilizers have on crop yields, researchers frequently try to evaluate the correlations between yield and foliar nutrient contents. This work's objective was to present fruit yields from the 4th to the 6th cropping seasons, evaluate foliar nutrient contents (on the 5th cropping season, and estimate the correlations between these two groups of traits for 20 half-sibling custard apple tree progenies. The progenies were evaluated in a random block design with five replicates and four plants per plot. One hundred leaves were collected from the middle third of the canopy (in height of each of four plants in each plot. The leaves were collected haphazardly, i.e., in a random manner, but without using a drawing mechanism. In the analysis of variance, the nutrient concentrations in the leaves from plants of each plot were represented by the average of four plants in the plot. Fruit yield in the various progenies did not depend on cropping season; progeny A4 was the most productive. No Spearman correlation was found between leaf nutrient concentrations and fruit yield. Increased nutrient concentrations in the leaves were progeny-dependent, i.e., with regard to Na (progenies FE5 and JG1, Ca (progeny A4, Mg (progeny SM7, N (progeny A3, P (progeny M, and K contents (progeny JG3. Spearman's correlation was negative between Na-Mg, Na-Ca, and Mg-P contents, and positive between Mg-Ca and N-K contents.

  18. Tracer technology in nutrient management strategies for sustainable crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of tracers in soil-plant studies has been found to provide quantitative and accurate data, which are essential for understanding the dynamics of soil nutrients and for evaluating the efficiency of fertilizer sources and other management practices. Although there is fairly good understanding of the management of inorganic fertilizers for crop production in acid soils, much less information is available on the management of organic forms of these nutrients, while data on interactions of the two forms is very much limited. Understanding the underlying processes in these strategies using conventional methods is most often difficult, but isotope tracers (both radioactive and stable isotopes) have been found to be useful in unraveling the mechanisms associated with nutrient availability, fertilizer use efficiency, losses and residual effects, as well as the role. of legumes in farming systems, and in identifying varietal differences in nutrient use efficiency. The first extensive use of isotope as tracers in plant nutrition was made in the 1940s. The radioactive isotope of P (32P) was used to study the utilization of P fertilizers by various crops in a series of greenhouse experiments (1) and field trials (2). In Malaysian, the use of isotopes to study nutrient management for crop production started in 1969 when the Rubber Research Institute was involved in study the root activity of rubber trees (3). The next attempt in using isotopes to study nutrient management problems only started in 1980s with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT). Some of the relevant findings and their links to the development and implementation of sustainable land, management strategies for crop production are highlighted. (Author)

  19. Knowledge acquisition in distance education

    OpenAIRE

    Kavakli, Manolya; Thorne, Jason

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes knowledge structuring as a learning strategy in design education. Given that education is the knowledge transfer from one intelligent system to another, we discuss two main characteristics of education: knowledge acquisition and knowledge structuring. In this paper we apply knowledge acquisition methods used by knowledge engineers as an active learning strategy in computer supported design education1. Students as the users of the Internet (large knowledge base) should be ...

  20. English Acquisition in Classroom Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周自强

    2013-01-01

    In the course of learning English in classroom, students cultivate their ability to use the language. But that ability does not mean they are able to acquire that language in a communicative way, because the acquisition of language in classroom is mainly for the purpose of learning. It starts and ends in a particular circumstance-the classroom. In that case, analyzed and dis-cussed is the universal feature of English acquisition in classroom and its effects on practical use respectively.

  1. Language Acquisition and Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红

    2007-01-01

    Language is at the center of human life.This essay tries to seek similarities and differences between language acquisition and language learning from the theory achievements of some linguists.On this basis,it is pointed out that language acquisition is the effect of sub consciousness,while language learning is connected with conscious system.Thereby this paper analyzes the interaction between them and the influence on the present situation of foreign language teaching in China.

  2. Language Acquisition and Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红

    2007-01-01

    Language is at the center of human life. This essay tries to seek similarities and differences between language acquisition and language learning from the theory achievements of some linguists. On this basis, it is pointed out that language acquisition is the effect of sub consciousness, while language learning is connected with conscious system. Thereby this paper analyzes the interaction between them and the influence on the present situation of foreign language teaching in China.

  3. Manganese acquisition by Lactobacillus plantarum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archibald, F.S.; Duong, M.N.

    1984-04-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum has an unusually high Mn(II) requirement for growth and accumulated over 30 mM intracellular Mn(II). The acquisition of Mn(II) by L. plantarum occurred via a specific active transport system powered by the transmembrane proton gradient. The Mn(II) uptake system has a K/sub m/ of 0.2 ..mu..M and a V/sub max/ of 24 nmol mg/sup -1/ of protein min/sup -1/. Above a medium Mn(II) concentration of 200 ..mu..M, the intracellular Mn(II) level was independent of the medium Mn(II) and unresponsive to oxygen stresses but was reduced by phosphate limitation. At a pH of 5.5, citrate, isocitrate, and cis-aconitate effectively promoted MN(II) uptake, although measurable levels of 1,5-(/sup 14/C)citrate were not accumulated. When cells were presented with equimolar Mn(II) and Cd(II), Cd(II) was preferentially taken up by the Mn(II) transport system. Both Mn(II) and Cd(II) uptake were greatly increased by Mn(II) starvation. Mn(II) uptake by Mn(II)-starved cells was subject to a negative feedback regulatory mechanism functioning less than 1 min after exposure of the cells to Mn(II) and independent of protein synthesis. When presented with a relatively large amount of exogenous Mn(II), Mn(II)-starved cells exhibited a measurable efflux of their internal Mn(II), but the rate was only a small fraction of the maximal Mn(II) uptake rate.

  4. Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify and analyze concepts for the acquisition of data in support of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the criteria for design as presented in the Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition/Monitoring System Description Document, by way of the Input Transmittal, Performance Confirmation Input Criteria (CRWMS M and O 1999c). (2) Identify and describe existing and potential new trends in data acquisition system software and hardware that would support the PC plan. The data acquisition software and hardware will support the field instruments and equipment that will be installed for the observation and perimeter drift borehole monitoring, and in-situ monitoring within the emplacement drifts. The exhaust air monitoring requirements will be supported by a data communication network interface with the ventilation monitoring system database. (3) Identify the concepts and features that a data acquisition system should have in order to support the PC process and its activities. (4) Based on PC monitoring needs and available technologies, further develop concepts of a potential data acquisition system network in support of the PC program and the Site Recommendation and License Application

  5. Carbon rhizodeposition by plants of contrasting strategies for resource acquisition: responses to various nitrogen fertility regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptist, Florence; Aranjuelo, I.; Lopez-Sangil, L.; Rovia, P.; Nogués, S.

    2010-05-01

    Rhizodeposition by plants is one of the most important physiological mechanisms related to carbon and nitrogen cycling which is also believed to vary along the acquisition-conservation continuum. However, owing to methodological difficulties (i.e. narrow zone of soil around roots and rapid assimilation by soil microbes), root exudation and variations between species are one of the most poorly understood belowground process. Although previous approaches such as hydroponic culture based system, permit the chemical analysis of exudates, the fact that this protocol is qualitative, conditions its utility (see review in Phillips et al. 2008). Others techniques based on pulse-labelling approach have been developed to quantify rhizodeposition but are rarely sufficient to uniformly label all plant inputs to soil. Consequently with this typical pulse chase methods, recent assimilates are labeled but the recalcitrant carbon will not be labeled and therefore the contribution of this carbon will not be considered. Hence, traditional pulse labelling is not a quantitative means of tracing carbon due to inhomogeneous labelling and so limits greatly comparative studies of rhizodeposition fluxes at the interspecific level. In this study we developped a new protocole based on a long-term (3 months) steady state 13C labelling in order (1) to quantify rhizodeposition fluxes for six graminoid species caracterized by contrasted nutrient acquisition strategies and (2) to investigate to what extent various level of nitrogen fertility regimes modulate rhizodeposition fluxes. This method will enable to quantify under natural soil conditions both the accumulation of 13C in the soil but also the quantity that has been respired by the microorganisms during a given time and so will give an integrated picture of rhizodeposition fluxes for each species under each nitrogen fertility level. Results are currently being processed and will be presented at the conference. References: Phillips RP, Erlitz

  6. Nutrient balance on Nebraska livestock confinement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, R; Lesoing, G

    1999-01-01

    Managing the environmental risk associated with livestock production is a significant challenge. Nitrogen and phosphorus are commonly implicated as the sources of ground and surface water quality problems associated with livestock production. The degree of imbalance between these nutrient inputs and the managed nutrient outputs for a livestock operation defines the magnitude of potential environmental risk and provides insight as to the underlying causes of these challenges. A nitrogen and phosphorus balance was constructed for 33 Nebraska confinement livestock operations. Twenty-five and 17 of these operations experienced significant nitrogen and phosphorus imbalances, respectively (50% more nutrient inputs than outputs). Nutrient inputs on many livestock operations were observed to be two to four times greater than nutrient outputs as managed crop and livestock products. Size of the livestock operation and the degree of integration of livestock with a cropping operation provided only limited explanation of the variation in nutrient balance observed among the individual operations. Management options that contribute to a more favorable nutrient balance were also identified. Management decisions related to feeding program and exporting of manure nutrients to off-farm users were observed to have a substantial impact on the nutrient imbalance. For modern livestock production systems to successfully respond to nutrient-related environmental problems, management strategies must be implemented that address the commonly experienced imbalances of nitrogen and phosphorus. PMID:15526781

  7. Brain foods: the effects of nutrients on brain function

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    It has long been suspected that the relative abundance of specific nutrients can affect cognitive processes and emotions. Newly described influences of dietary factors on neuronal function and synaptic plasticity have revealed some of the vital mechanisms that are responsible for the action of diet on brain health and mental function. Several gut hormones that can enter the brain, or that are produced in the brain itself, influence cognitive ability. In addition, well-established regulators o...

  8. Genetic influences on the acquisition and inhibition of fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Julia; Neubert, Jörg; Lindner, Katja; Ernst, Florian D; Homuth, Georg; Weike, Almut I; Hamm, Alfons O

    2015-12-01

    As a variant of the Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm the conditional discrimination design allows for a detailed investigation of fear acquisition and fear inhibition. Measuring fear-potentiated startle responses, we investigated the influence of two genetic polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR and COMT Val(158)Met) on fear acquisition and fear inhibition which are considered to be critical mechanisms for the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. 5-HTTLPR s-allele carriers showed a more stable potentiation of the startle response during fear acquisition. Homozygous COMT Met-allele carriers, which had demonstrated delayed extinction in previous investigations, show deficient fear inhibition in presence of a learned safety signal. Thus, our results provide further evidence that 5-HTTLPR and COMT Val(158)Met genotypes influence the vulnerability for the development of anxiety disorders via different mechanisms.

  9. Vigorous Root Growth Is a Better Indicator of Early Nutrient Uptake than Root Hair Traits in Spring Wheat Grown under Low Fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yaosheng; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Magid, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    A number of root and root hair traits have been proposed as important for nutrient acquisition. However, there is still a need for knowledge on which traits are most important in determining macro- and micronutrient uptake at low soil fertility. This study investigated the variations in root growth vigor and root hair length (RHL) and density (RHD) among spring wheat genotypes and their relationship to nutrient concentrations and uptake during early growth. Six spring wheat genotypes were gro...

  10. Neural regulation of intestinal nutrient absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Fadi H; Saadé, Nayef E

    2011-10-01

    The nervous system and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract share several common features including reciprocal interconnections and several neurotransmitters and peptides known as gut peptides, neuropeptides or hormones. The processes of digestion, secretion of digestive enzymes and then absorption are regulated by the neuro-endocrine system. Luminal glucose enhances its own absorption through a neuronal reflex that involves capsaicin sensitive primary afferent (CSPA) fibres. Absorbed glucose stimulates insulin release that activates hepatoenteric neural pathways leading to an increase in the expression of glucose transporters. Adrenergic innervation increases glucose absorption through α1 and β receptors and decreases absorption through activation of α2 receptors. The vagus nerve plays an important role in the regulation of diurnal variation in transporter expression and in anticipation to food intake. Vagal CSPAs exert tonic inhibitory effects on amino acid absorption. It also plays an important role in the mediation of the inhibitory effect of intestinal amino acids on their own absorption at the level of proximal or distal segment. However, chronic extrinsic denervation leads to a decrease in intestinal amino acid absorption. Conversely, adrenergic agonists as well as activation of CSPA fibres enhance peptides uptake through the peptide transporter PEPT1. Finally, intestinal innervation plays a minimal role in the absorption of fat digestion products. Intestinal absorption of nutrients is a basic vital mechanism that depends essentially on the function of intestinal mucosa. However, intrinsic and extrinsic neural mechanisms that rely on several redundant loops are involved in immediate and long-term control of the outcome of intestinal function.

  11. 48 CFR 7.402 - Acquisition methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition methods. 7.402... ACQUISITION PLANNING Equipment Lease or Purchase 7.402 Acquisition methods. (a) Purchase method. (1) Generally, the purchase method is appropriate if the equipment will be used beyond the point in time...

  12. Control of microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R D

    1994-11-01

    Controlling microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions involves different techniques when targeting the nutrient solution, hardware surfaces in contact with the solution, or the active root zone. This review presents basic principles and applications of a number of treatment techniques, including disinfection by chemicals, ultrafiltration, ultrasonics, and heat treatment, with emphasis on UV irradiation and ozone treatment. Procedures for control of specific pathogens by nutrient solution conditioning also are reviewed.

  13. Demand for Nutrients: The Household Production Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Rebecca H.; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Brown, Mark G.

    1998-01-01

    This study uses the household production theory to study the demand for nutrients, i.e., households purchase a combination of food items from the market and produce the needed nutrients from these food items. By following the traditional household production approach, shadow prices for nutrients in food consumption are calculated. The cost function that generates the shadow prices appears plausible in terms of its elasticities of substitution and factor demand. After obtaining the calculated ...

  14. Methane productivity and nutrient recovery from manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.B.

    2003-07-01

    The efficient recovery of energy and improvements in the handling of nutrients from manure have attracted increased research focus during recent decades. Anaerobic digestion is a key process in any strategy for the recovery of energy, while slurry separation is an important component in an improved nutrient-handling strategy. This thesis is divided into two parts: the first deals mainly with nutrient recovery strategies and the second examines biological degradation processes, including controlled anaerobic digestion. (au)

  15. Nutrient and energy sensing in skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, Atul S.

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient overload and physical inactivity often leads to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Acute over-nutrition can induce insulin resistance, while physical exercise enhances skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. Like every living cell, skeletal muscle senses nutrient and energy signals and to adjust metabolic flux. This thesis focuses on some of the key nutrient and energy sensing (exercise/contraction-induced) pathways in skeletal muscle that regulate metabol...

  16. Sustaining an Acquisition-based Growth Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Toppenberg, Gustav; Shanks, Graeme

    Value creating acquisitions are a major challenge for many firms. Our case study of Cisco Systems shows that an advanced Enterprise Architecture (EA) capability can contribute to the acquisition process through a) preparing the acquirer to become ‘acquisition ready’, b) identifying resource...... complementarity, c) directing and governing the integration process, and d) post-acquisition evaluation of the achieved integration and proposing ways forward. Using the EA capability in the acquisition process improves Cisco’s ability to rapidly capture value from its acquisitions and to sustain its acquisition...

  17. BlackBerry’s acquisition by Samsung : mergers & acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Carmelino, José Diogo Leal

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this dissertation is to study a recent market rumor about BlackBerry’s acquisition by the rival company Samsung and whether this deal would be good for both parties. The main goal is not only to understand if they will have a higher value together but also to understand how this Merger & Acquisition (M&A) deal would affect the entire industry. In a recent past, Samsung was discussing with Apple the leadership of the market. They had big judicial fights related with pate...

  18. Nutrient availability moderates transpiration in Ehrharta calycina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Michael D; Hoffmann, Vera; Verboom, G Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Transpiration-driven 'mass-flow' of soil-water can increase nutrient flow to the root surface. Here it was investigated whether transpiration could be partially regulated by nutrient status. Seeds of Ehrharta calycina from nine sites across a rainfall gradient were supplied with slow-release fertilizer dibbled into the sand surrounding the roots and directly available through interception, mass-flow and diffusion (dubbed 'interception'), or sequestered behind a 40-microm mesh and not directly accessible by the roots, but from which nutrients could move by diffusion or mass-flow (dubbed 'mass-flow'). Although mass-flow plants were significantly smaller than interception plants as a consequence of nutrient limitation, they transpired 60% faster, had 90% higher photosynthesis relative to transpiration (A/E), and 40% higher tissue P, Ca and Na concentrations than plants allowed to intercept nutrients directly. Tissue N and K concentrations were similar for interception and mass-flow plants. Transpiration was thus higher in the nutrient-constrained 'mass-flow' plants, increasing the transport of nutrients to the roots by mass-flow. Transpiration may have been regulated by N availability, resulting in similar tissue concentration between treatments. It is concluded that, although transpiration is a necessary consequence of photosynthetic CO(2) uptake in C(3) plants, plants can respond to nutrient limitation by varying transpiration-driven mass-flow of nutrients. PMID:18537891

  19. Dynamics of soil nutrients in larch plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Deren; Chen Jinglian

    1999-01-01

    The annual dynamic changes of soil nutrients were measured in pure larch plantation and in mixed larch plantation in the arboretum of Inner Mongolia Academy of Forestry Science, Huhehaote. The results showed that soil nutrients in pure larch plantations changed rapidly in July and August. The variation of soil nutrients is more stable in mixed larch plantation. Compared with the pure larch plantation, the content of soil nutrients in mixed larch plantation obviously increased. The soil degradation occurred in the pure larch plantation, and related to the forest age.

  20. Numerical simulations of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wulp, Simon A; Damar, Ario; Ladwig, Norbert; Hesse, Karl-J

    2016-09-30

    The present application of numerical modelling techniques provides an overview of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay. A hydrological model simulated river discharges with a total of 90 to 377m(3)s(-1) entering Jakarta Bay. Daily total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads ranged from 40 to 174tons and 14 to 60tons, respectively. Flow model results indicate that nutrient gradients are subject to turbulent mixing by tides and advective transport through circulation driven by wind, barotropic and baroclinic pressure gradients. The bulk of nutrient loads originate from the Citarum and Cisadane rivers flowing through predominantly rural areas. Despite lower nutrient loads, river discharges from the urban area of Jakarta exhibit the highest impact of nutrient concentrations in the near shore area of Jakarta Bay and show that nutrient concentrations were not only regulated by nutrient loads but were strongly regulated by initial river concentrations and local flow characteristics.

  1. Neural correlates for the acquisition of natural language syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tettamanti, Marco; Alkadhi, Hatem; Moro, Andrea; Perani, Daniela; Kollias, Spyros; Weniger, Dorothea

    2002-10-01

    Some types of simple and logically possible syntactic rule never occur in human language grammars, leading to a distinction between grammatical and nongrammatical syntactic rules. Comparison of the neuroanatomical correlates underlying the acquisition of grammatical and nongrammatical rules can provide relevant evidence on the neural processes dedicated to language acquisition in a given developmental stage. Until present no direct evidence on the neural mechanisms subserving language acquisition at any developmental stage has been supplied. We used fMRI in investigating the acquisition of grammatical and nongrammatical rules in the specified sense in 14 healthy adults. Grammatical rules compared with nongrammatical rules specifically activated a left hemispheric network including Broca's area, as shown by direct comparisons between the two rule types. The selective role of Broca's area was further confirmed by time x condition interactions and by proficiency effects, in that higher proficiency in grammatical rule usage, but not in usage of nongrammatical rules, led to higher levels of activation in this area. These findings provide evidence for the neural mechanisms underlying language acquisition in adults. PMID:12377145

  2. Computational models of syntactic acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Charles

    2012-03-01

    The computational approach to syntactic acquisition can be fruitfully pursued by integrating results and perspectives from computer science, linguistics, and developmental psychology. In this article, we first review some key results in computational learning theory and their implications for language acquisition. We then turn to examine specific learning models, some of which exploit distributional information in the input while others rely on a constrained space of hypotheses, yet both approaches share a common set of characteristics to overcome the learning problem. We conclude with a discussion of how computational models connects with the empirical study of child grammar, making the case for computationally tractable, psychologically plausible and developmentally realistic models of acquisition. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:205-213. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1154 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  3. Invertebrate response to nutrient-driven epiphytic load increase in Posidonia oceanica meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejón-Silvo, Inés; Domínguez, Marta; Terrados, Jorge; Tomas, Fiona; Morales-Nin, Beatriz

    2012-10-01

    Nutrient increases in coastal systems are becoming a world-wide concern since they promote strong structural and functional changes in shallow ecosystems. Increased nutrient availability in the water column may strongly enhance the leaf epiphytic communities of key habitat-forming species such as seagrasses through a bottom-up mechanism, competing for light and nutrients with the leaves. Epiphytes support an abundant and diverse community of resident invertebrates which fuel higher trophic levels in Posidonia oceanica food webs. We evaluated the response of seagrass, epiphytes and the invertebrate community to an experimental increase of water column nutrient availability. Nutrient increase was followed by a rise of epiphyte biomass. The increase in epiphytic biomass promoted invertebrate abundance, but appeared to have negative effects on P. oceanica shoot size. On the other hand, the increase in invertebrate abundance did not seem to control epiphytic biomass, which was not reversed to pre-nutrient enrichment levels. This work suggests that the abundance of invertebrate populations is limited by epiphyte biomass, through food or habitat provision, in P. oceanica systems and points to nutrients as the main driver of epiphyte biomass during summer. The results illustrate the control mechanisms at community level in P. oceanica meadows and the possible responses of a threatened ecosystem to human impact such as eutrophication.

  4. Solar light, seawater temperature, and nutrients, which one is more important in affecting phytoplankton growth?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Zhenqing; Yang Dongfang

    2009-01-01

    Based on research results on the impacts of solar light, seawater temperature, and nutrient available to phytoplankton growth and changes in phytoplankton physiology and assemblage, we discussed the order of influence of these factors. By clarifying the mechanisms and processes of the impacts by these factors, we have determined the rising order of the importance as solar light, seawater temperature, and nutrient silicon (Si). Therefore, for human interests in sustaining economic development, the first thing to be considered is the input of nutrient Si into the ocean, followed by seawater temperature change.

  5. 78 FR 67928 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... purposes, and helps protect tribal culture and ways of life (e.g., housing for tribal citizens, energy and... Secretary acquired title to land in trust. See 61 FR 18082 (Apr. 24, 1996). The Department had determined... for issuing trust acquisition decisions. 78 FR 32214. BIA then extended the original comment...

  6. Motivation in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ya

    2015-01-01

    Second language acquisition is a complex process which involves various factors. The factors can be put into two cate⁃gories:social factors and learner factors. Each category includes a number of factors. The factors such as motivation, age, learning strategies and others such as personality, aptitude are also mutually related. Among all of those factors, motivation plays a very im⁃portant role in the second language acquisition. In this essay, the author will discuss the key factors that affect the outcome of the process.

  7. Data Acquisition and Flux Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebmann, C.; Kolle, O; Heinesch, B;

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, the basic theory and the procedures used to obtain turbulent fluxes of energy, mass, and momentum with the eddy covariance technique will be detailed. This includes a description of data acquisition, pretreatment of high-frequency data and flux calculation.......In this chapter, the basic theory and the procedures used to obtain turbulent fluxes of energy, mass, and momentum with the eddy covariance technique will be detailed. This includes a description of data acquisition, pretreatment of high-frequency data and flux calculation....

  8. Parametric Variation in Acquisition and Diachronic Change: A Response to the Commentaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Jurgen M.

    2011-01-01

    The starting hypothesis of the keynote article (KA) is that language acquisition plays an essential role in processes leading to grammatical change. Consequently, a minimal requirement, to be met by explanations of diachronic change is that they rely on mechanisms which are operative in acquisition. The KA is therefore an appeal for…

  9. Linguistic Diversity in First Language Acquisition Research: Moving beyond the Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Barbara F.; Forshaw, William; Nordlinger, Rachel; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The field of first language acquisition (FLA) needs to take into account data from the broadest typological array of languages and language-learning environments if it is to identify potential universals in child language development, and how these interact with socio-cultural mechanisms of acquisition. Yet undertaking FLA research in remote…

  10. Influence of Physiological Stress on Nutrient Stoichiometry in Larval Amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschman, Lucas J; Haslett, Savhannah; Fritz, Kelley A; Whiles, Matt R; Warne, Robin W

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to environmental stressors alters animal phenotypes as well as nutrient metabolism, assimilation, and excretion. While stress-induced shifts in nutrient processes are known to alter organismal carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stoichiometry, there has been little exploration of how environmental factors influence phosphorous (P). A better understanding of how P cycling varies with animal physiological state may provide insight into across-scale processes, because P is essential to animal function and ecological processes such as production and decomposition. We tested the effects of predator stress and exogenous glucocorticoids on C∶N∶P stoichiometry of larval amphibians. Glucocorticoids altered nutrient stoichiometry, apparently by modulating ossification and renal function. This reduced whole-body P and significantly increased N∶P. Additionally, elevated glucocorticoids caused a long-term reduction in P excretion. This reduction may reflect an initial unmeasured loss of P that glucocorticoids induce over acute timescales. In contrast, exposure to predator cues had no effect on larval C∶N∶P stoichiometry, which highlights that different stressors have varied effects on the endocrine stress response. Predation, in particular, is ubiquitous in the environment; thus, larvae responding to predators have conserved mechanisms that likely prevent or minimize physiological disruption. These results demonstrate the differing physiological roles of N and P, distinct nutrient demands associated with amphibian metamorphosis, and the contrasting effects that different environmental factors have on the physiological stress response. Our results also suggest that anthropogenic changes to the environment that induce chronic stress in amphibians could affect the biogeochemistry of nutrient-poor environments where they may act as keystone species. PMID:27327181

  11. Overfishing and nutrient pollution interact with temperature to disrupt coral reefs down to microbial scales

    OpenAIRE

    Zaneveld, Jesse R.; Burkepile, Deron E.; Shantz, Andrew A.; Pritchard, Catharine E.; McMinds, Ryan; Payet, Jérôme P.; Welsh, Rory; Correa, Adrienne M. S.; Nathan P Lemoine; Rosales, Stephanie; Fuchs, Corinne; Maynard, Jeffrey A; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2016-01-01

    International audience Losses of corals worldwide emphasize the need to understand what drives reef decline. Stressors such as overfishing and nutrient pollution may reduce resilience of coral reefs by increasing coral–algal competition and reducing coral recruitment, growth and survivorship. Such effects may themselves develop via several mechanisms, including disruption of coral microbiomes. Here we report the results of a 3-year field experiment simulating overfishing and nutrient pollu...

  12. Microscale nutrient patches produced by zooplankton

    OpenAIRE

    John T. LEHMAN; Scavia, Donald

    1982-01-01

    Both track autoradiography and grain-density autoradiography show that individual zooplankton create miniature patches of dissolved nutrients and that algae exploit those regions to absorb phosphate. The patches are short lived and can be dispersed artificially by small-scale turbulence. Our data support a simple model of encounters between algae and nutrient plumes produced by swimming zooplankton.

  13. Nutrient and energy recovery from urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: urine, urine treatment, nutrient recovery, microbial fuel cells, energy production from urine, membrane capacitive deionization. In conventional wastewater treatment plants large amounts of energy are required for the removal and recovery of nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and phosphorus). Nitro

  14. Nutrient Management: Water Quality/Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient management programs must have a positive impact on water quality. The challenge for producers is to understand the nutrient balance in the soil and to reduce the risk of surface runoff of manure. The challenge for science is to increase our understanding of the value of manure in the soil a...

  15. Systematically enhanced subarctic Pacific stratification and nutrient utilization during glacials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, K. P.; Ravelo, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The modern subarctic North Pacific is characterized as a high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) area, but evidence for increased nutrient utilization during the last glacial indicates that this region is highly dynamic. As such, this HNLC area is of particular interest in regard to understanding changes in the biological pump and carbon sequestration and predicting how biogeochemical processes will influence, or be influenced by, future climate change. While it has been suggested that changes in iron supply and/or ocean stratification could explain fluctuations in nutrient utilization and productivity in the subarctic Pacific, short records of nutrient utilization have previously hindered the evaluation of these potential mechanisms over long timescales. Here we present new, high-resolution records of bulk sediment δ15N from 0-1.2 Ma from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Exp. 323 Site U1342, which are used to calculate Δδ15N (U1342 δ15Nbulk - ODP Site 1012 δ15Nbulk) as a nitrate utilization proxy. The unprecedented length and resolution of this new record allows us, for the first time, to determine orbital-scale systematic behavior in subarctic Pacific nutrient utilization over many glacial/interglacial cycles. Spectral analyses demonstrate that enhanced nutrient utilization was paced by climate on Milankovitch orbital cycles since the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT; ~800 ka). Nitrate utilization maxima is statistically correlated with glacial maxima and enhanced dust/iron availability (represented by existing records of EPICA ice core dust, Southern Pacific Ocean sediment iron, and China loess) but shows low correlation to primary productivity, suggesting that stratification has systematically exerted an important control on subarctic Pacific nutrient utilization since the MPT. These findings imply that the presence of iron helped to change the region into a nitrate-limited, rather than iron-limited, region during glacials and that stratification, which

  16. A lysosome-centered view of nutrient homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mony, Vinod K; Benjamin, Shawna; O'Rourke, Eyleen J

    2016-01-01

    Lysosomes are highly acidic cellular organelles traditionally viewed as sacs of enzymes involved in digesting extracellular or intracellular macromolecules for the regeneration of basic building blocks, cellular housekeeping, or pathogen degradation. Bound by a single lipid bilayer, lysosomes receive their substrates by fusing with endosomes or autophagosomes, or through specialized translocation mechanisms such as chaperone-mediated autophagy or microautophagy. Lysosomes degrade their substrates using up to 60 different soluble hydrolases and release their products either to the cytosol through poorly defined exporting and efflux mechanisms or to the extracellular space by fusing with the plasma membrane. However, it is becoming evident that the role of the lysosome in nutrient homeostasis goes beyond the disposal of waste or the recycling of building blocks. The lysosome is emerging as a signaling hub that can integrate and relay external and internal nutritional information to promote cellular and organismal homeostasis, as well as a major contributor to the processing of energy-dense molecules like glycogen and triglycerides. Here we describe the current knowledge of the nutrient signaling pathways governing lysosomal function, the role of the lysosome in nutrient mobilization, and how lysosomes signal other organelles, distant tissues, and even themselves to ensure energy homeostasis in spite of fluctuations in energy intake. At the same time, we highlight the value of genomics approaches to the past and future discoveries of how the lysosome simultaneously executes and controls cellular homeostasis.

  17. Nutrient Uptake by Protocells: A Liposome Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnard, Pierre-Alain; Deamer, David W.

    2001-02-01

    Over the past decade, several liposome-based models for protocells have been developed. For example, liposome systems composed of polymerase enzymes encapsulated with their substrates have demonstrated that complex compartmentalized reactions can be carried out under conditions in which polymeric products are protected from degradation by hydrolytic enzymes present in the external medium. However, such systems do not have nutrient uptake mechanisms, which would be essential for primitive cells lacking the highly evolved nutrient transport processes present in all contemporary cells. In this report, we explore passive diffusion of solutes across lipid bilayers as one possible uptake mechanism. We have established conditions under which ionic substrates as large as ATP can permeate bilayers at rates capable of supplying an encapsulated template-dependent RNA polymerase. Furthermore, while allowing the permeation of monomer substrates such as ATP, bilayer vesicles selectively retained polymerization products as small as dimers and as large as a transfer RNA. These observations demonstrate that passive diffusion could be used by the earliest forms of cellular life for transport of important nutrients such as amino acids, phosphate, and phosphorylated organic solutes.

  18. 企业国际并购知识吸收能力提升机制研究%Research on Exaltation Mechanism of Absorptive Capacity about Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁力军; 孟凡臣

    2011-01-01

    Absorptive capacity is a research hotspot in recent years, and it is not only the core factor which could form and enhance technological capability of enterprises, but the key to obtain sustainable competitive advantage for modern enterprises. As complex organizations, cross-border mergers and acquisitions process is complex organizational behavior, coupled with cultural barriers, technical barriers, organizational barriers and knowledge distance, will affect directly or indirectly Absorptive capacity in cross-border M&As, thus affect the performance of knowledge transfer and M&As strategy. Under the cross-cultural, cross-organizational, cross-environmental background, it is critical to analyze objectively and systematically absorptive capacity status in cross-border M&As. Based on knowledge management, enterprises capacity, organizational learning, international M&As and complex theory, etc, the research proposed the absorptive capacity content, knowledge factors and effect factors in accordance with M&A characteristics. At the same time, the research employed system dynamics method to construct knowledge simulation model of absorptive capacity, further proposed future research directions and priorities.%知识吸收能力是近年来的研究热点,是形成和提升企业技术能力的核心要素,也是现代企业取得持续竞争优势的关键。由于国际并购是一种复杂性组织的复杂组织行为,加之文化障碍、技术障碍、组织障碍和知识距离的客观存在,将会对国际并购中的知识吸收能力产生直接或间接的影响,从而影响知识转移的效果和并购战略效果。在跨文化、跨组织、跨环境背景下,客观、系统地分析国际并购企业自身的知识吸收能力状况是至关重要的。研究将基于知识管理、企业能力、组织学习、国际并购和复杂性等学科理论,提出符合国际并购特点的知识吸收能力内涵、知识要素及影

  19. The SINQ data acquisition environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maden, D. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    The data acquisition environment for the neutron scattering instruments supported by LNS at SINQ is described. The intention is to provide future users with the necessary background to the computing facilities on site rather than to present a user manual for the on-line system. (author) 5 figs., 6 refs.

  20. Soviet Studies in Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul R., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Article surveys the special theories and empirical studies of language acquisition carried out by Soviet psychologists, especially in the period since 1950. The basic principles of materialism, historicism and social reference characteristic of Soviet Marxist psychology are placed in contrast to certain current tendencies in American linguistics.…

  1. More Mergers,More Acquisitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ A new round of corporate mergers and acquisitions(M&As)is on the way.On September 6,the State Council announced that it would require companies in the automobile,iron and steel,cement,machinery manufacturing,electrolytic aluminum and rare earth industries to accelerate M&As.

  2. More Mergers,More Acquisitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China aims to maintain sound development of the national economy through M&As Anew round of corporate mergers and acquisitions (M&As) is on the way. On September 6, the State Council announced that it would require companies in the automobile, iron and steel, cement, machinery manufacturing, electro- lytic aluminum and rare earth industries to accelerate M&As.

  3. Input and Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周笑盈

    2011-01-01

    The behaviorist, the mentalist and the interactionist have different emphases on the role input in Second Language Acquisition. In order to protrude the importance of second language teaching, it is indispensible to discuss the characteristics of input and to explore its effects.

  4. Analog Input Data Acquisition Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    DAQ Master Software allows users to easily set up a system to monitor up to five analog input channels and save the data after acquisition. This program was written in LabVIEW 8.0, and requires the LabVIEW runtime engine 8.0 to run the executable.

  5. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  6. Global identification of genes related to nutrient deficiency in intervertebral disc cells in an experimental nutrient deprivation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Sudo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intervertebral disc degeneration is a significant cause of degenerative spinal diseases. Nucleus pulposus (NP cells reportedly fail to survive in large degenerated discs with limited nutrient availability. Therefore, understanding the regulatory mechanism of the molecular response of NP cells to nutrient deprivation may reveal a new strategy to treat disc degeneration. This study aimed to identify genes related to nutrient deprivation in NP cells on a global scale in an experimental nutrient deprivation model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rat NP cells were subjected to serum starvation. Global gene expression was profiled by microarray analysis. Confirmation of the selected genes was obtained by real-time polymerase chain reaction array analysis. Western blotting was used to confirm the expression of selected genes. Functional interactions between p21(Cip1 and caspase 3 were examined. Finally, flow cytometric analyses of NP cells were performed. Microarray analysis revealed 2922 differentially expressed probe sets with ≥1.5-fold changes in expression. Serum starvation of NP cells significantly affected the expression of several genes involved in DNA damage checkpoints of the cell cycle, including Atm, Brca1, Cdc25, Gadd45, Hus1, Ppm1D, Rad 9, Tp53, and Cyclin D1. Both p27(Kip1 and p53 protein expression was upregulated in serum-starved cells. p21(Cip1 expression remained in NP cells transfected with short interfering RNA targeting caspase 3 (caspase 3 siRNA. Both G1 arrest and apoptosis induced by serum starvation were inhibited in cells transfected with caspase 3 siRNA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Nutrient deprivation in NP cells results in the activation of a signaling response including DNA damage checkpoint genes regulating the cell cycle. These results provide novel possibilities to improve the success of intervertebral disc regenerative techniques.

  7. Mechanisms of deterioration of nutrients. [of freeze dried foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.; Flink, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Methods which produce freeze dried foods of improved quality were examined with emphasis on storage stability. Specific topics discussed include: microstructure of freeze dried systems, investigation of structural changes in freeze dried systems, artificial food matrices, osmotic preconcentration to yield improved quality freeze dried fruits, and storage stability of osmotically preconcentrated freeze dried fruits.

  8. Effects of nutrient intake on sympathoadrenal activity and thermogenic mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A V; Christensen, N J; Simonsen, L;

    1990-01-01

    in white adipose tissue, the liver and the heart. The second thermogenic component of carbohydrate occurs later when the blood glucose concentration decreases towards baseline levels. This elicits an increased secretion of adrenaline from the adrenal medulla, and the circulating level exceeds...

  9. Buffer Gas Acquisition and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Lueck, Dale E.; Jennings, Paul A.; Callahan, Richard A.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The acquisition and storage of buffer gases (primarily argon and nitrogen) from the Mars atmosphere provides a valuable resource for blanketing and pressurizing fuel tanks and as a buffer gas for breathing air for manned missions. During the acquisition of carbon dioxide (CO2), whether by sorption bed or cryo-freezer, the accompanying buffer gases build up in the carbon dioxide acquisition system, reduce the flow of CO2 to the bed, and lower system efficiency. It is this build up of buffer gases that provide a convenient source, which must be removed, for efficient capture Of CO2 Removal of this buffer gas barrier greatly improves the charging rate of the CO2 acquisition bed and, thereby, maintains the fuel production rates required for a successful mission. Consequently, the acquisition, purification, and storage of these buffer gases are important goals of ISRU plans. Purity of the buffer gases is a concern e.g., if the CO, freezer operates at 140 K, the composition of the inert gas would be approximately 21 percent CO2, 50 percent nitrogen, and 29 percent argon. Although there are several approaches that could be used, this effort focused on a hollow-fiber membrane (HFM) separation method. This study measured the permeation rates of CO2, nitrogen (ND, and argon (Ar) through a multiple-membrane system and the individual membranes from room temperature to 193K and 10 kpa to 300 kPa. Concentrations were measured with a gas chromatograph that used a thermoconductivity (TCD) detector with helium (He) as the carrier gas. The general trend as the temperature was lowered was for the membranes to become more selective, In addition, the relative permeation rates between the three gases changed with temperature. The end result was to provide design parameters that could be used to separate CO2 from N2 and Ar.

  10. The acquisition of particle verbs in Dutch

    OpenAIRE

    Schippers, R.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the acquisition of particle verbs in Dutch. Based on longitudinal child data it shows how children acquire lexical categories V, A and P and how they acquire the complex predicate status of particle verbs. It shows that the acquisition of categories A and P is dependent on the acquisition of category V and that the acquisition of category V is tightly connected to the acquisition of verb-second. It is the acquisition of this verb-second that also leads to the ac...

  11. Data Acquisition for Modular Biometric Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor); Grodsinsky, Carlos M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A modular system for acquiring biometric data includes a plurality of data acquisition modules configured to sample biometric data from at least one respective input channel at a data acquisition rate. A representation of the sampled biometric data is stored in memory of each of the plurality of data acquisition modules. A central control system is in communication with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules through a bus. The central control system is configured to collect data asynchronously, via the bus, from the memory of the plurality of data acquisition modules according to a relative fullness of the memory of the plurality of data acquisition modules.

  12. New actions for old nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lifschitz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to present information regarding new effects for certain nutrients other than those traditionally known. Zinc has been found to prevent and reduce the duration of common colds. In developing countries, zinc has been shown to reduce the duration and severity of diarrhea and even decrease relapses. Iron supplementation in iron defi cient children, has been shown to improve several aspects of brain function. In studies where iron was given to the mother, 3 of 5 randomized, controlled trials showed a benefi cial effect of iron supplementation on the Psychomotor Development Index at some time points, whereas 2 did not. The chances for infants supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid in the fi rst year of life of having at least 1 event of allergic manifestation or upper respiratory infection or at least 1 event of wheezing/asthma, wheezing/asthma/atopic dermatitis, any allergy, or an upper respiratory tract infection during the fi rst 3 years of life were signifi cantly lower than in the non supplemented group. Epidemiological studies have established a relationship between low levels of serum vitamin D and reduced lung function in healthy adults and asthma onset and severity in children. There was a trend for an independent association between higher levels of maternal circulating 25(OHD3 levels in pregnancy and decreased odds of lower respiratory tract infections in offspring.

  13. Modeling the distinct phases of skill acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenison, Caitlin; Anderson, John R

    2016-05-01

    A focus of early mathematics education is to build fluency through practice. Several models of skill acquisition have sought to explain the increase in fluency because of practice by modeling both the learning mechanisms driving this speedup and the changes in cognitive processes involved in executing the skill (such as transitioning from calculation to retrieval). In the current study, we use hidden Markov modeling to identify transitions in the learning process. This method accounts for the gradual speedup in problem solving and also uncovers abrupt changes in reaction time, which reflect changes in the cognitive processes that participants are using to solve math problems. We find that as participants practice solving math problems they transition through 3 distinct learning states. Each learning state shows some speedup with practice, but the major speedups are produced by transitions between learning states. In examining and comparing the behavioral and neurological profiles of each of these states, we find parallels with the 3 phases of skill acquisition proposed by Fitts and Posner (1967): a cognitive, an associative, and an autonomous phase. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26551626

  14. Modeling the distinct phases of skill acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenison, Caitlin; Anderson, John R

    2016-05-01

    A focus of early mathematics education is to build fluency through practice. Several models of skill acquisition have sought to explain the increase in fluency because of practice by modeling both the learning mechanisms driving this speedup and the changes in cognitive processes involved in executing the skill (such as transitioning from calculation to retrieval). In the current study, we use hidden Markov modeling to identify transitions in the learning process. This method accounts for the gradual speedup in problem solving and also uncovers abrupt changes in reaction time, which reflect changes in the cognitive processes that participants are using to solve math problems. We find that as participants practice solving math problems they transition through 3 distinct learning states. Each learning state shows some speedup with practice, but the major speedups are produced by transitions between learning states. In examining and comparing the behavioral and neurological profiles of each of these states, we find parallels with the 3 phases of skill acquisition proposed by Fitts and Posner (1967): a cognitive, an associative, and an autonomous phase. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Interactions between nutrients and organic micro-pollutants in shallow freshwater ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessink, I.; Koelmans, A.A.; Brock, T.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of nutrients and toxicants in aquatic ecosystems may interact in several ways. Here, we (a) present an overview of reported mechanisms that may play a role in these interactions, and (b) compare these reported mechanisms against the results of a suite of experiments performed with organic mi

  16. Soil organic matter studies and nutrient cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short account is given of biomass and soil organic matter (SOM) development in the geological past, from Hadean via Archaean and Proterozoic, to present day Phanerozoic, with its much reduced atmospheric CO2, enriched O2, a stratospheric ozone belt that supports the evolution of terrestrial life and, currently, a carbon sink (by photosynthesis, chemical weathering, precipitation in oceans) that exceeds the carbon source (by respiration, volcanism, ejection from subduction zones). Radiation and isotope use in studies of SOM and nutrient cycling relies mainly on: (1) Scanning the turnover of uniformly 14C or 13C labelled biomass. (2) Measurement of the SOM-C residence time by natural 14C tests. (3) Use of the whole set of labelled plant nutrients, especially 32P, 33P and 42K for tracer studies, e.g. for A or L value tests. (4) Most importantly, use of 15N labelled nitrogen fertilizer and natural 15N to reveal the N dynamics in the soil-plant system as well as to assess, via isotope fractionation, the contribution of atmospheric N in the diazotrophic system's nitrogen collection. (5) Thin layer scanning of soil profiles for natural 14C and 13C, the latter to indicate the changes in photosynthesis resulting from climate or land use changes (C3 forest with a 13C value of -25 per mille → C4 savannah grasses with a 13C value of - 10 per mille). The 13C and 18O measurements in semi-arid calcretes (about 1000 Pg C) reflect the mechanism of formation (ad ascensum-ad descensum-catena). (6) Owing to 13C enrichment in residual SOM, 13C in wetlands is used to indicate emission of methane, which is depleted in 13C to -60 per mille. (7) Nitrogen-15 labelling of nitrification and denitrification is used to reveal the N2O emission from soil related sources, about 7 Tg/a. The NH3-N emission from soil + fertilizer + livestock + motor vehicles amounts to 22-35 Tg N/a. The N release from fires, shifting agriculture, firewood and agricultural wastes is about 15-46 Tg N/a (C:N 100

  17. Nutrient Lossed in Soils on Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGLIN; WANGJI-ZENG; 等

    1995-01-01

    The soil nutrient losses due to excessive soil loss on Loess Plateau were studied by means of runoff plots and systematical determination of soil nutrients both in sediments and runoff.The results show that the amounts of nutrient losses depended on the amounts of ersoion sediments.Along with sediment,11-197kg nitrogen/hectare and 9-174kg phosphorus/hectare were lost,accounting for 92.46-99.47 percent of the total amount of nitrogen loss and 99.85-99.99 percent of the total amount of phosphorus loss respectively.The nutrient losses,very small in runoff,were mainly attributed to erosion of a few rainstorms during a year.The nutrient level in sediment was mostly higher than that in the original soil.Planting grass evidently redued the losses of soil nutrients.The N level was lower in runoff than in rainfall so that the N loss from runoff could be made up by rainfall.Fertilizer application to crops raised the nutrient level in runoff.

  18. Degradation of Soil Nutrients in Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A total of 2190 soil nutrient data in the Second National Soil Survey of China were collected to assess the degradation of soil nutrients in the hilly region of Southeast China. The definition of soil nutrient degradation is suggested firstly, then the evaluation criteria are set up and the current status of degradation of red soil and latosol is assessed. The percentages of areas in four grades of soil nutrient degradation, i.e., slightly deficient, medium deficient, severely deficient and extremely deficient, were 21.3%, 43.3%, 16.2% and 3.0% for soil total N; 0.7%, 6.4%, 16.7% and 76.2% for soil available P; and 25.4%, 26.3%, 8.6% and 5.0% for soil available K, respectively. The severity of soil nutrient degradation was in the order of P > N > K. The major factors leading to the degradation of soil nutrients in quantity include soil erosion, leaching and the consumption by crops. And the principal factor affecting the degradation of soil nutrients in availability is the fixation of N, P and K, especially the fixation of phosphorus. The average amount of P fixed by soils is 408 mg kg-1, and upland soils can fix more P than paddy soils.

  19. Transcriptional regulator-mediated activation of adaptation genes triggers CRISPR de novo spacer acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Tao; Li, Yingjun; Wang, Xiaodi;

    2015-01-01

    , it was demonstrated that the transcription level of csa1, cas1, cas2 and cas4 was significantly enhanced in a csa3a-overexpression strain and, moreover, the Csa1 and Cas1 protein levels were increased in this strain. Furthermore, we demonstrated the hyperactive uptake of unique spacers within both CRISPR loci......Acquisition of de novo spacer sequences confers CRISPR-Cas with a memory to defend against invading genetic elements. However, the mechanism of regulation of CRISPR spacer acquisition remains unknown. Here we examine the transcriptional regulation of the conserved spacer acquisition genes in Type I...... in the presence of the csa3a overexpression vector. The spacer acquisition process is dependent on the CCN PAM sequence and protospacer selection is random and non-directional. These results suggested a regulation mechanism of CRISPR spacer acquisition where a single transcriptional regulator senses the presence...

  20. 48 CFR 307.104-70 - Acquisition strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 307... AND ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Acquisition Planning 307.104-70 Acquisition strategy... designated by the HHS CIO, DASFMP, the CAO, or the cognizant HCA) shall prepare an acquisition strategy...

  1. Phosphate addition enhanced soil inorganic nutrients to a large extent in three tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feifei; Lu, Xiankai; Liu, Lei; Mo, Jiangming

    2015-01-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition may constrain soil phosphorus (P) and base cation availability in tropical forests, for which limited evidence have yet been available. In this study, we reported responses of soil inorganic nutrients to full factorial N and P treatments in three tropical forests different in initial soil N status (N-saturated old-growth forest and two less-N-rich younger forests). Responses of microbial biomass, annual litterfall production and nutrient input were also monitored. Results showed that N treatments decreased soil inorganic nutrients (except N) in all three forests, but the underlying mechanisms varied depending on forests: through inhibition on litter decomposition in the old-growth forest and through Al(3+) replacement of Ca(2+) in the two younger forests. In contrast, besides great elevation in soil available P, P treatments induced 60%, 50%, 26% increases in sum of exchangeable (K(+)+Ca(2+)+Mg(2+)) in the old-growth and the two younger forests, respectively. These positive effects of P were closely related to P-stimulated microbial biomass and litter nutrient input, implying possible stimulation of nutrient return. Our results suggest that N deposition may result in decreases in soil inorganic nutrients (except N) and that P addition can enhance soil inorganic nutrients to support ecosystem processes in these tropical forests.

  2. Kellwood Company Finalizes Acquisition of ADAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Town and Country-based apparel company Kellwood Company announced its acquisition of ADAM according to Michael Kramer,Chief Executive Officer and President of Kellwood.This acquisition is the first in

  3. Nutrient content of some winter grouse foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treichler, R.R.; Stow, R.W.; Nelson, A.L.

    1946-01-01

    Seventeen preferred grouse foods were collected during the late winter and analyzed for nutrient content. The results include moisture, crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, nitrogenfree extract, ash, calcium, phosphorus, and gross energy content expressed both on moisture free and fresh bases.....The preferred winter foods of grouse are characterized by a high content of dry substance and of nitrogen-free extract......On the basis of nutrient content, the foods examined are well qualified as sources of energy and other essential nutrients required for maintenance of grouse during the winter season.

  4. International User Acquisition Processes of Mobile Games

    OpenAIRE

    Kesto, Kiira

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is about the user acquisition of mobile games, more specifically marketing them in different regions of the world. The main research question was “How to successfully market to different parts of the world from the point of view of user acquisition”. The objective of the thesis was to research the differences in user acquisition marketing in different regions of the world. The focus was on bought media, specifically user acquisition done through user acquisition agencies and netwo...

  5. Including secondary illumination in seismic acquisition design

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, A.(State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, USA); Blacquière, G.

    2013-01-01

    A subsurface image obtained from seismic data is influenced by the acquisition geometry, as it contains an acquisition foot-print which can obscure the true reflection response of the subsurface. Hence, the acquisition geometry should be designed in such a way that it allows high-quality images and fulfils the criteria for reservoir characterization. A comprehensive and quantitative assessment of 3-D acquisition geometries, taking into account the effects of the overburden, is provided by the...

  6. Developing Program Management Leadership for Acquisition Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Neil McCown

    2011-01-01

    Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program) Recent reform measures in acquisition processes support the acquisition community''s long-established goal of providing warfighters with the highest quality and most cost-effective weapons systems. Since the role of the Program Manager remains pivotal to overall program success or failure, efforts to reform the acquisition community must supplement and expand traditional expectations of PMs, focusing on four key concepts: ensuring leader...

  7. Acquisition in USTRANSCOM: an organizational assessment

    OpenAIRE

    John Sykes; Shane Ross; Josh Frederick

    2009-01-01

    Sponsored Report (for Acquisition Research Program) This research analyzed United States Transportation Command Acquisition (TCAQ) using the GAO Framework for Assessing the Acquisition Function at Federal Agencies. In 2008, the USTRANSCOM applied for and received head-of-agency authority to manage its acquisition programs, resulting in TCAQ restructuring to include the program management function. The objective of this research was to compare organizational structure, processes and critica...

  8. Implementation of local area network extension for instrumentation standard trigger capabilities in advanced data acquisition platforms

    OpenAIRE

    López Navarro, Juan Manuel; Ruiz González, Mariano; Barrera Lopez de Turiso, Eduardo; Arcas Castro, Guillermo de; Vega, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Synchronization mechanisms are an essential part of the real-time distributed data acquisition systems (DASs) used in fusion experiments. Traditionally, they have been based on the use of digital signals. The approach known as local area network extension for instrumentation (LXI) provides a set of very powerful synchronization and trigger mechanisms. The Intelligent Test Measurement System (ITMS) is a new platform designed to implement distributed data acquisition and fast data processing fo...

  9. Comet-Narval acquisition notice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bris, J.; Sellem, R.; Artiges, J.C. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, (IN2P3/CNRS), Service d' Electronique Physique, 91 - Orsay (France); Clavelin, J.F.; Du, S.; Grave, X.; Hubert, O. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, (IN2P3/CNRS), Service Informatique de l' Institut, 91 - Orsay (France); Sauvage, J.; Roussiere, B. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, (IN2P3/CNRS), Div. de Recherche, Groupe Noyaux Exotiques, Structure et Reaction, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    The COMET cards (encoding and time marking) serve to determine the energies and the time correlations of radiations detected during a multiparameter experiment while avoiding any extra specific module like coincidence circuits or delays) to set this time correlation. For each detected radiation, the arrival time information as well as the amplitude of the detected signal, are encoded. The results of these amplitude and time coding are associated to create an event. In this way, each detector is an independent source which provides a building block of the general information obtained by all the detectors. The COMET cards are associated with a NARVAL data acquisition system. This document is the instruction booklet of the COMET-NARVAL acquisition system.

  10. Music and Early Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony K. Brandt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Language is typically viewed as fundamental to human intelligence. Music, while recognized as a human universal, is often treated as an ancillary ability—one dependent on or derivative of language. In contrast, we argue that it is more productive from a developmental perspective to describe spoken language as a special type of music. A review of existing studies presents a compelling case that musical hearing and ability is essential to language acquisition. In addition, the authors challenge the prevailing view that music cognition matures more slowly than language and is more difficult; instead, the authors present evidence that music learning matches the speed and effort of language acquisition. We conclude that music merits a central place in our understanding of human development.

  11. DANSS Experiment Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Hons, Zdenek

    2016-01-01

    DANSS (Detector of the reactor AntiNeutrino based on Solid Scintillator) is a project aiming to measure a spectrum of reactor antineutrinos using inverse beta decay (IBD) in a plastic scintillator. The detector is located close to an industrial nuclear reactor core and is covered by passive and active shielding. It is expected to detect about 15000 IBD events per day. Light from the detector is sensed by PMT and SiPM. This paper describes the data acquisition system used for data readout of the 50 detector PMT channels and active shielding. Theoretical approach to the data acquisition is described and two possible solutions using QDCs and digitizers are discussed. Also described are the results of the DAQ performance during routine data taking operation of the detector.

  12. The ALICE data acquisition system

    CERN Document Server

    Carena, F; Chapeland, S; Chibante Barroso, V; Costa, F; Dénes, E; Divià, R; Fuchs, U; Grigore, A; Kiss, T; Simonetti, G; Soós, C; Telesca, A; Vande Vyvre, P; Von Haller, B

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design, the construction, the commissioning and the operation of the Data Acquisition (DAQ) and Experiment Control Systems (ECS) of the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The DAQ and the ECS are the systems used respectively for the acquisition of all physics data and for the overall control of the experiment. They are two computing systems made of hundreds of PCs and data storage units interconnected via two networks. The collection of experimental data from the detectors is performed by several hundreds of high-speed optical links. We describe in detail the design considerations for these systems handling the extreme data throughput resulting from central lead ions collisions at LHC energy. The implementation of the resulting requirements into hardware (custom optical links and commercial computing equipment), infrastructure (racks, cooling, power distribution, control room), and software led to many innovative solutions which are described together with ...

  13. COLDEX New Data Acquisition Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Grech, Christian

    2015-01-01

    COLDEX (COLD bore EXperiment) is an experiment of the TE-VSC group installed in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) which mimics a LHC type cryogenic vacuum system. In the framework of the High Luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC project), COLDEX has been recommissioned in 2014 in order to validate carbon coatings performances at cryogenic temperature with LHC type beams. To achieve this mission, a data acquisition system is needed to retrieve and store information from the different experiment’s systems (vacuum, cryogenics, controls, safety) and perform specific calculations. This work aimed to completely redesign, implement, test and operate a brand new data acquisition framework based on communication with the experiment’s PLCs for the devices potentially available over network. The communication protocol to the PLCs is based on data retrieval both from CERN middleware infrastructures (CMW, JAPC) and on a novel open source Simatic S7 data exchange package over TCP/IP (libnodave).

  14. A review of spelling acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Cohn, Abigail C.

    2013-01-01

    This review article discusses how empirical data on the acquisition of spelling by children inform the question of the psycholinguistic validity of the phoneme, a concept central (at least implicitly) to most phonological theories. The paper reviews data on children's early spelling attempts...... is offered suggesting that orthographic and phonological knowledge develop together into a hierarchy of representations. While the idea of multidimensional phonological representations has been previously entertained in psycholinguistic literature, none of the previous proposals has explicitly incorporated...... literacy factors into modeling phonological knowledge. In this article, we show that the spelling acquisition data support and are best accounted for by models allowing for a hierarchy of representations, that learning to read and write has a profound effect on the phonological knowledge of an adult...

  15. Music and Early Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Anthony; Gebrian, Molly; Slevc, L. Robert

    2012-01-01

    Language is typically viewed as fundamental to human intelligence. Music, while recognized as a human universal, is often treated as an ancillary ability – one dependent on or derivative of language. In contrast, we argue that it is more productive from a developmental perspective to describe spoken language as a special type of music. A review of existing studies presents a compelling case that musical hearing and ability is essential to language acquisition. In addition, we challenge the prevailing view that music cognition matures more slowly than language and is more difficult; instead, we argue that music learning matches the speed and effort of language acquisition. We conclude that music merits a central place in our understanding of human development. PMID:22973254

  16. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology. (author) 10 refs

  17. Data Acquisition and Mass Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Vyvre, P.

    2004-08-01

    The experiments performed at supercolliders will constitute a new challenge in several disciplines of High Energy Physics and Information Technology. This will definitely be the case for data acquisition and mass storage. The microelectronics, communication, and computing industries are maintaining an exponential increase of the performance of their products. The market of commodity products remains the largest and the most competitive market of technology products. This constitutes a strong incentive to use these commodity products extensively as components to build the data acquisition and computing infrastructures of the future generation of experiments. The present generation of experiments in Europe and in the US already constitutes an important step in this direction. The experience acquired in the design and the construction of the present experiments has to be complemented by a large R&D effort executed with good awareness of industry developments. The future experiments will also be expected to follow major trends of our present world: deliver physics results faster and become more and more visible and accessible. The present evolution of the technologies and the burgeoning of GRID projects indicate that these trends will be made possible. This paper includes a brief overview of the technologies currently used for the different tasks of the experimental data chain: data acquisition, selection, storage, processing, and analysis. The major trends of the computing and networking technologies are then indicated with particular attention paid to their influence on the future experiments. Finally, the vision of future data acquisition and processing systems and their promise for future supercolliders is presented.

  18. Music and Early Language Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony K. Brandt; Robert eSlevc; Molly eGebrian

    2012-01-01

    Language is typically viewed as fundamental to human intelligence. Music, while recognized as a human universal, is often treated as an ancillary ability—one dependent on or derivative of language. In contrast, we argue that it is more productive from a developmental perspective to describe spoken language as a special type of music. A review of existing studies presents a compelling case that musical hearing and ability is essential to language acquisition. In addition, the authors chall...

  19. Music and Early Language Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Anthony; Gebrian, Molly; Slevc, L Robert

    2012-01-01

    Language is typically viewed as fundamental to human intelligence. Music, while recognized as a human universal, is often treated as an ancillary ability – one dependent on or derivative of language. In contrast, we argue that it is more productive from a developmental perspective to describe spoken language as a special type of music. A review of existing studies presents a compelling case that musical hearing and ability is essential to language acquisition. In addition, we challenge the pr...

  20. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Corban, J.E. [Guided Systems Technologies, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

  1. Meta-tool support for knowledge acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge acquisition is a major bottleneck in expert system development. Specialized, or domain-oriented, knowledge acquisition tools can provide efficient support in restricted domains. However, the principal drawback with specialized knowledge acquisition tools is that the tool cost per expert system developed is typically high. Meta-level environments is an approach to support knowledge engineers in developing such knowledge acquisition tools. Meta-tools, i.e. tools for creating knowledge acquisition tools, can be used to specify and automatically generate knowledge acquisition tools for single domains and even single applications. This thesis presents an abstract architecture approach to the specification of knowledge acquisition tools. In this framework knowledge acquisition tools can be specified according to an abstract model of the target tool architecture. DOTS is a meta-tool that supports the abstract-architecture specification scheme. Knowledge engineers can use DOTS to specify and generate domain-oriented knowledge acquisition tools that can be used by domain experts directly. Two implementations of knowledge acquisition tools for different domains are presented in this thesis. These tools are representatives of knowledge acquisition tools that are desirable to generate form meta-tools. One of them was hand-crafted and specialized to the domain of protein purification planning. The other emerged form an evaluation of DOTS by developing a knowledge acquisition tool in a different domain (troubleshooting laboratory equipment). Results from this evaluation are also reported. (144 refs.) (au)

  2. Pro farmer, pro industry land acquisition act

    OpenAIRE

    Varma, Vijaya Krushna Varma

    2015-01-01

    Varma suggests a new land acquisition act which is pro farmer, pro industry and pro development, and which leads to faster economic growth. My suggestions for new land acquisition act consist of 6 segments 1. Land acquisition 2. Categorisation of Land allotment 3. Time table for completion of projects 4. Compensation 5. Rehabilitation 6. Land management

  3. Including secondary illumination in seismic acquisition design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, A.; Blacquière, G.

    2013-01-01

    A subsurface image obtained from seismic data is influenced by the acquisition geometry, as it contains an acquisition foot-print which can obscure the true reflection response of the subsurface. Hence, the acquisition geometry should be designed in such a way that it allows high-quality images and

  4. 48 CFR 970.2301 - Sustainable acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sustainable acquisition. 970.2301 Section 970.2301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY..., Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2301 Sustainable...

  5. Photovoltaic module parameters acquisition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Photovoltaic five-parameter model is proposed using Matlab® and Simulink. • The model acquisits input sparse data matrix from stigmatic measurement. • Computer simulations lead to continuous I–V and P–V characteristics. • Extrapolated I–V and P–V characteristics are in hand. • The model allows us to predict photovoltaics exploitation in different conditions. - Abstract: This paper presents basic procedures for photovoltaic (PV) module parameters acquisition using MATLAB and Simulink modelling. In first step, MATLAB and Simulink theoretical model are set to calculate I–V and P–V characteristics for PV module based on equivalent electrical circuit. Then, limited I–V data string is obtained from examined PV module using standard measurement equipment at standard irradiation and temperature conditions and stated into MATLAB data matrix as a reference model. Next, the theoretical model is optimized to keep-up with the reference model and to learn its basic parameters relations, over sparse data matrix. Finally, PV module parameters are deliverable for acquisition at different realistic irradiation, temperature conditions as well as series resistance. Besides of output power characteristics and efficiency calculation for PV module or system, proposed model validates computing statistical deviation compared to reference model

  6. Data acquisition for sensor systems

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, H Rosemary

    1997-01-01

    'Data acquisition' is concerned with taking one or more analogue signals and converting them to digital form with sufficient accu­ racy and speed to be ready for processing by a computer. The increasing use of computers makes this an expanding field, and it is important that the conversion process is done correctly because information lost at this stage can never be regained, no matter how good the computation. The old saying - garbage in, garbage out - is very relevant to data acquisition, and so every part of the book contains a discussion of errors: where do they come from, how large are they, and what can be done to reduce them? The book aims to treat the data acquisition process in depth with less detailed chapters on the fundamental principles of measure­ ment, sensors and signal conditioning. There is also a chapter on software packages, which are becoming increasingly popular. This is such a rapidly changing topic that any review of available pro­ grams is bound to be out of date before the book re...

  7. A Poroelastic Model Describing Nutrient Transport and Cell Stresses Within a Cyclically Strained Collagen Hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Benjamin L.; Galie, Peter A.; Stegemann, Jan P.; Grotberg, James B.

    2013-01-01

    In the creation of engineered tissue constructs, the successful transport of nutrients and oxygen to the contained cells is a significant challenge. In highly porous scaffolds subject to cyclic strain, the mechanical deformations can induce substantial fluid pressure gradients, which affect the transport of solutes. In this article, we describe a poroelastic model to predict the solid and fluid mechanics of a highly porous hydrogel subject to cyclic strain. The model was validated by matching the predicted penetration of a bead into the hydrogel from the model with experimental observations and provides insight into nutrient transport. Additionally, the model provides estimates of the wall-shear stresses experienced by the cells embedded within the scaffold. These results provide insight into the mechanics of and convective nutrient transport within a cyclically strained hydrogel, which could lead to the improved design of engineered tissues. PMID:24209865

  8. Overfishing and nutrient pollution interact with temperature to disrupt coral reefs down to microbial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaneveld, Jesse R; Burkepile, Deron E; Shantz, Andrew A; Pritchard, Catharine E; McMinds, Ryan; Payet, Jérôme P; Welsh, Rory; Correa, Adrienne M S; Lemoine, Nathan P; Rosales, Stephanie; Fuchs, Corinne; Maynard, Jeffrey A; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2016-01-01

    Losses of corals worldwide emphasize the need to understand what drives reef decline. Stressors such as overfishing and nutrient pollution may reduce resilience of coral reefs by increasing coral-algal competition and reducing coral recruitment, growth and survivorship. Such effects may themselves develop via several mechanisms, including disruption of coral microbiomes. Here we report the results of a 3-year field experiment simulating overfishing and nutrient pollution. These stressors increase turf and macroalgal cover, destabilizing microbiomes, elevating putative pathogen loads, increasing disease more than twofold and increasing mortality up to eightfold. Above-average temperatures exacerbate these effects, further disrupting microbiomes of unhealthy corals and concentrating 80% of mortality in the warmest seasons. Surprisingly, nutrients also increase bacterial opportunism and mortality in corals bitten by parrotfish, turning normal trophic interactions deadly for corals. Thus, overfishing and nutrient pollution impact reefs down to microbial scales, killing corals by sensitizing them to predation, above-average temperatures and bacterial opportunism.

  9. Overfishing and nutrient pollution interact with temperature to disrupt coral reefs down to microbial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaneveld, Jesse R; Burkepile, Deron E; Shantz, Andrew A; Pritchard, Catharine E; McMinds, Ryan; Payet, Jérôme P; Welsh, Rory; Correa, Adrienne M S; Lemoine, Nathan P; Rosales, Stephanie; Fuchs, Corinne; Maynard, Jeffrey A; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2016-01-01

    Losses of corals worldwide emphasize the need to understand what drives reef decline. Stressors such as overfishing and nutrient pollution may reduce resilience of coral reefs by increasing coral-algal competition and reducing coral recruitment, growth and survivorship. Such effects may themselves develop via several mechanisms, including disruption of coral microbiomes. Here we report the results of a 3-year field experiment simulating overfishing and nutrient pollution. These stressors increase turf and macroalgal cover, destabilizing microbiomes, elevating putative pathogen loads, increasing disease more than twofold and increasing mortality up to eightfold. Above-average temperatures exacerbate these effects, further disrupting microbiomes of unhealthy corals and concentrating 80% of mortality in the warmest seasons. Surprisingly, nutrients also increase bacterial opportunism and mortality in corals bitten by parrotfish, turning normal trophic interactions deadly for corals. Thus, overfishing and nutrient pollution impact reefs down to microbial scales, killing corals by sensitizing them to predation, above-average temperatures and bacterial opportunism. PMID:27270557

  10. MANGROVE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS AND CORAL REEFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the consequences of the declining global cover of mangroves due to anthropogenic disturbance necessitates consideration of how mangrove-derived nutrients contribute to threatened coral reef systems. We sampled potential sources of organic matter and a suite of sessi...

  11. Nutrient enrichment increases mortality of mangroves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients.

  12. Recovery of agricultural nutrients from biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Daniel E; Yang, Yu; McNamara, Patrick J; Mayer, Brooke K

    2016-09-01

    This review lays the foundation for why nutrient recovery must be a key consideration in design and operation of biorefineries and comprehensively reviews technologies that can be used to recover an array of nitrogen, phosphorus, and/or potassium-rich products of relevance to agricultural applications. Recovery of these products using combinations of physical, chemical, and biological operations will promote sustainability at biorefineries by converting low-value biomass (particularly waste material) into a portfolio of higher-value products. These products can include a natural partnering of traditional biorefinery outputs such as biofuels and chemicals together with nutrient-rich fertilizers. Nutrient recovery not only adds an additional marketable biorefinery product, but also avoids the negative consequences of eutrophication, and helps to close anthropogenic nutrient cycles, thereby providing an alternative to current unsustainable approaches to fertilizer production, which are energy-intensive and reliant on nonrenewable natural resource extraction. PMID:26948442

  13. Fertilizer-dependent efficiency of Pseudomonads for improving growth, yield, and nutrient use efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaharoona, Baby; Naveed, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Zahir, Zahir A

    2008-05-01

    Acquisition of nutrients by plants is primarily dependent on root growth and bioavailability of nutrients in the rooting medium. Most of the beneficial bacteria enhance root growth, but their effectiveness could be influenced by the nutrient status around the roots. In this study, two 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase containing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. fluorescens biotype F were tested for their effect on growth, yield, and nutrient use efficiency of wheat under simultaneously varying levels of all the three major nutrients N, P, and K (at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of recommended doses). Results of pot and field trials revealed that the efficacy of these strains for improving growth and yield of wheat reduced with the increasing rates of NPK added to the soil. In most of the cases, significant negative linear correlations were recorded between percentage increases in growth and yield parameters of wheat caused by inoculation and increasing levels of applied NPK fertilizers. It is highly likely that under low fertilizer application, the ACC-deaminase activity of PGPR might have caused reduction in the synthesis of stress (nutrient)-induced inhibitory levels of ethylene in the roots through ACC hydrolysis into NH(3) and alpha-ketobutyrate. The results of this study imply that these Pseudomonads could be employed in combination with appropriate doses of fertilizers for better plant growth and savings of fertilizers.

  14. Nutrient budgets for large Chinese estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Liu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese rivers deliver about 5–10% of global freshwater input and 15–20% of the global continental sediment to the world ocean. We report the riverine fluxes and concentrations of major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon in the rivers of the contiguous landmass of China and Korea in the northeast Asia. The rivers are generally enriched with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN and depleted in dissolved inorganic phosphate (PO43− with very high DIN: PO43− concentration ratios. DIN, phosphorus, and silicon levels and loads in rivers are mainly affected by agriculture activities and urbanization, anthropogenic activities and adsorption on particulates, and rock types, climate and physical denudation intensity, respectively. Nutrient transports by rivers in the summer are 3–4 times higher than those in the winter with the exception of NH4+. The flux of NH4+ is rather constant throughout the year due to the anthropogenic sources such as the sewer discharge. As nutrient composition has changed in the rivers, ecosystems in estuaries and coastal sea have also changed in recent decades. Among the changes, a shift of limiting nutrients from phosphorus to nitrogen for phytoplankton production with urbanization is noticeable and in some areas silicon becomes the limiting nutrient for diatom productivity. A simple steady-state mass-balance box model was employed to assess nutrient budgets in the estuaries. The major Chinese estuaries export <15% of nitrogen, <6% of phosphorus required for phytoplankton production and ~4% of silicon required for diatom growth in the Chinese Seas (Bohai, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea. This suggests that land-derived nutrients are largely confined to the immediate estuaries, and ecosystem in the coastal sea beyond the estuaries is mainly supported by other nutrient sources such as regeneration, open ocean and

  15. Nutrient and energy recovery from urine

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntke, P.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: urine, urine treatment, nutrient recovery, microbial fuel cells, energy production from urine, membrane capacitive deionization. In conventional wastewater treatment plants large amounts of energy are required for the removal and recovery of nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and phosphorus). Nitrogen (N) compounds are removed as inert nitrogen gas and phosphorus (P) is for example removed as iron phosphate. About 80% of the N and 50% of the P in wastewater originate from urine1, but urine on...

  16. Nutrient Requirements of Ruminants in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kearl, Leonard C.

    1982-01-01

    This book was assembled using the latest information for compiling the nutrient requirements of sheep, goats, cattle and water buffalo. Because of the complexity of the interactions between an animal, its diet, its physiological state, and the environment; the values depicting the nutrient requirements are estimates and not absolutes. These values, however, are considered to be adequate to meet the minimum requirements of healthy animals maintained in a thermoneutral environment. The mean ...

  17. 48 CFR 832.1106 - EFT mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EFT mechanisms. 832.1106 Section 832.1106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Electronic Funds Transfer 832.1106 EFT mechanisms. (a) The Assistant...

  18. Shoot Apex Demand Determines Assimilate and Nutrients Partitioning and Nutrient-uptake Rate in Tobacco Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Our previous experiment revealed that apex-removed plants have larger root systems but a lower K+-uptake rates than intact tobacco plants.Since the apex is not only e center of growth and metabolism,but also an important place of auxin synthesis and export,the aims of this study were to distinguish whether the apex demand or auxin synthesized in the apex regulates assimilate and nutrients partitioning within plant,and to explain the reason for the lower K+-uptake rate of the apex-ramoved plant.In comparison with the control plant,covering the shoot apex with a black transparent plastic bag reduced net increases In dry matter and nutrients;however,the distribution of the dry matter and nutrients between shoot and roots and nutrient-uptake rates were not changed.Removal of the shoot apex shifted the dry mass and nutrients distributions to roots,and reduced the rate of nutrient uptake.Application of 1-naphthylacetic acid(NAA) could partly replace the role of the removed apex,stimulated assimilate and nutrient deposition into the treated tissue,and enhanced the reduced plasma membrane ATPase activity of roots to the control level.However,treatment of the apex-removed plants with NAA could not rescue the reduced nutrient uptake rate and the shifted assimilates and nutrients partitioning caused by excision of the apex.Higher nutrient uptake rate of the intact plants could not be explained by root growth parameters,such as total root surface area and number of root tips.The results from the present study indicate that strong apex demand determined assimilatas and nutrients partitioning and nutrient-uptake rate in tobacco(Nicotiana tabacum)plants.

  19. Foreign acquisition, plant survival, and employment growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger

    2010-01-01

    endogeneity of acquisition using IV and propensity score matching approaches suggest that acquisition by foreign owners increases the lifetime of the acquired plants only if the plant was an exporter. The effect is robust to controlling for domestic acquisitions and differs between horizontal and vertical...... acquisitions. We find robust positive employment growth effects only for exporters and only if the takeover is vertical.......This paper analyzes the effect of foreign acquisition on survival and employment growth of targets using data on Swedish manufacturing plants.We separate targeted plants into those within Swedish MNEs, Swedish exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. The results, controlling for possible...

  20. Managing IT Integration Risk in Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Kettinger, William J.

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses a framework for evaluating risk of information technology (IT) integration in acquisitions. Topics include the use of the experience of serial acquirer Trelleborg AB to show the merits of the framework for managing the risk and to determine low-risk acquisitions, the importa......, the importance of managing IT integration risk, and various risk areas for acquisition IT integration.......The article discusses a framework for evaluating risk of information technology (IT) integration in acquisitions. Topics include the use of the experience of serial acquirer Trelleborg AB to show the merits of the framework for managing the risk and to determine low-risk acquisitions...

  1. Reinventing the Platform Core Through Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppenberg, Gustav; Henningsson, Stefan; Eaton, Ben

    2016-01-01

    the acquisition and integration of companies presenting innovative technologies of relevance to the platform core. Using a revelatory case study of Cisco Systems, we develop the explanatory notion of ‘coring acquisition’. In this type of acquisition value is created through the acquisition of companies...... that provide products external to the acquirer that can be assimilated into the platform core. This creates value through the transformational process that we term ‘coring’. We also analyze how the benefits of coring acquisitions are contingent on challenges concerning the integration of acquisitions offering...

  2. Effect of two natural light regimes and nutrient addition on the forest herb Begonia decandra (Begoniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, R A

    2000-01-01

    The effect of two natural light-growing conditions (understory versus light gaps) and the interaction with nutrient availability (through fertilization) were studied in the understory herb Begonia decandra, in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico. Sixteen potted plants obtained from cuttings were randomly chosen and distributed in each of eighth forest environments (four light gaps and four understories), for a total of 128 plants. Fertilizer was applied to half of the plants in each site. After seven months in the two given microenvironments, increased light and fertilization resulted in greater growth and some changes in the biomass allocation patterns. All measured variables responded similarly to reported changes for tree seedlings and saplings from other tropical and subtropical regions. Total growth parameters (height, biomass and leaf area) were very sensitive to increases in the main resource (light). The addition of nutrients was less important in producing changes in the allocation variables (root to shoot ratio, leaf area ratio, and specific leaf mass) under conditions of high light availability. Changes due to nutrient levels were relatively greater on plants grown under under-story conditions. Also, small light differences among sites can cause significant changes in the variables related to total growth. Lastly, plant mortality in the nutrient treatments was found to be independent of mortality in two forest light environments. Some hypotheses about resource acquisition and plant growth are not supported by this data.

  3. Nutrient additions to mitigate for loss of Pacific salmon: consequences for stream biofilm and nutrient dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcarelli, Amy M.; Baxter, Colden V.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Mitigation activities designed to supplement nutrient and organic matter inputs to streams experiencing decline or loss of Pacific salmon typically presuppose that an important pathway by which salmon nutrients are moved to fish (anadromous and/or resident) is via nutrient incorporation by biofilms and subsequent bottom-up stimulation of biofilm production, which is nutrient-limited in many ecosystems where salmon returns have declined. Our objective was to quantify the magnitude of nutrient incorporation and biofilm dynamics that underpin this indirect pathway in response to experimental additions of salmon carcasses and pelletized fish meal (a.k.a., salmon carcass analogs) to 500-m reaches of central Idaho streams over three years. Biofilm standing crops increased 2–8-fold and incorporated marine-derived nutrients (measured using 15N and 13C) in the month following treatment, but these responses did not persist year-to-year. Biofilms were nitrogen (N) limited before treatments, and remained N limited in analog, but not carcass-treated reaches. Despite these biofilm responses, in the month following treatment total N load was equal to 33–47% of the N added to the treated reaches, and N spiraling measurements suggested that as much as 20%, but more likely 2–3% of added N was taken up by microbes. Design of biologically and cost-effective strategies for nutrient addition will require understanding the rates at which stream microbes take up nutrients and the downstream distance traveled by exported nutrients.

  4. Subcellular nutrient element localization and enrichment in ecto- and arbuscular mycorrhizas of field-grown beech and ash trees indicate functional differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Seven

    Full Text Available Mycorrhizas are the chief organ for plant mineral nutrient acquisition. In temperate, mixed forests, ash roots (Fraxinus excelsior are colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM and beech roots (Fagus sylvatica by ectomycorrhizal fungi (EcM. Knowledge on the functions of different mycorrhizal species that coexist in the same environment is scarce. The concentrations of nutrient elements in plant and fungal cells can inform on nutrient accessibility and interspecific differences of mycorrhizal life forms. Here, we hypothesized that mycorrhizal fungal species exhibit interspecific differences in mineral nutrient concentrations and that the differences correlate with the mineral nutrient concentrations of their associated root cells. Abundant mycorrhizal fungal species of mature beech and ash trees in a long-term undisturbed forest ecosystem were the EcM Lactarius subdulcis, Clavulina cristata and Cenococcum geophilum and the AM Glomus sp. Mineral nutrient subcellular localization and quantities of the mycorrhizas were analysed after non-aqueous sample preparation by electron dispersive X-ray transmission electron microscopy. Cenococcum geophilum contained the highest sulphur, Clavulina cristata the highest calcium levels, and Glomus, in which cations and P were generally high, exhibited the highest potassium levels. Lactarius subdulcis-associated root cells contained the highest phosphorus levels. The root cell concentrations of K, Mg and P were unrelated to those of the associated fungal structures, whereas S and Ca showed significant correlations between fungal and plant concentrations of those elements. Our results support profound interspecific differences for mineral nutrient acquisition among mycorrhizas formed by different fungal taxa. The lack of correlation between some plant and fungal nutrient element concentrations may reflect different retention of mineral nutrients in the fungal part of the symbiosis. High mineral concentrations

  5. Acquisition system for the CLIC Module

    CERN Document Server

    Vilalte, Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    The status of R&D activities for CLIC module acquisition are discussed [1]. LAPP is involved in the design of the local CLIC module acquisition crate, described in the document Study of the CLIC Module Front-End Acquisition and Evaluation Electronics [2]. This acquisition system is a project based on a local crate, assigned to the CLIC module, including several mother boards. These motherboards are foreseen to hold mezzanines dedicated to the different subsystems. This system has to work in radiation environment. LAPP is involved in the development of Drive Beam stripline position monitors read-out, described in the document Drive Beam Stripline BPM Electronics and Acquisition [3]. LAPP also develops a generic acquisition mezzanine that allows to perform all-around acquisition and components tests for drive beam stripline BPM read-out.

  6. Acquisitions by EMNCs in Developed Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabbiosi, Larissa; Elia, Stefano; Bertoni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Building on an organisational learning perspective, we argue that emerging market firms’ international experience and home-country characteristics are core sources of learning. Furthermore, we argue that these factors constitute important determinants of emerging market firms’ acquisition behaviour....... As suggested by the internationalisation process model, our results show that emerging market firms undertake acquisitions in developed countries in an incremental fashion. Acquisition experience in developed markets increases the likelihood of exploitative expansion, while acquisition experience in developing...... in developed countries (south-north acquisitions). We test our hypotheses on a sample of 808 south-north acquisitions. The acquisitions were undertaken in Europe, Japan and North America (Canada and the US) between 1999 and 2008 by firms from the emerging economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China...

  7. Optimizing Productivity of Food Crop Genotypes in Low Nutrient Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global climate change is likely to exacerbate plant abiotic stress in the coming decades by increasing water stress and by accelerating soil fertility degradation. To respond to this set of challenges, there is a need to develop agricultural systems with significantly greater productivity and resilience that at the same time use limited natural resources more efficiently. Low phosphorus (N) and nitrogen (P) availabilities are primary limitations to productivity in low input agriculture, and fertilizers are primary resource inputs in intensive agriculture. A critical feature of future agricultural systems will be new crop varieties with improved conversion of soil resources to yields. These new cultivars would have improved productivity in low input systems and decreased input requirements in high input systems. Many scientists are currently turning their attention to roots, the hidden half of the plant, as central to their efforts to produce crops with better yields without causing environmental damage. Several root traits are known to be associated with P and N acquisition efficiency in low N and P soils. These root traits include root hairs, root length, root branching and root density. The identification of root traits for enhanced P and N acquisition is enabling crop breeders to develop new genotypes with better yields in low fertility soils of Africa, Asia and Latin America. However, in order to use a trait as a selection criterion for crop improvement, either direct phenotypic selection or through marker assisted selection, it is necessary to develop protocols to measure accurately the root traits that enhance N and P acquisition in the glasshouse and in the field, which can provide robust and rapid evaluation of many root systems' architectural traits in targeted production environments using different crops. The objective of the Coordinated Research Project on Optimizing Productivity of Food Crop Genotypes in Low Nutrient Soils was to develop integrated

  8. Nonredundant Roles of Iron Acquisition Systems in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Eric D; Wyckoff, Elizabeth E; Mey, Alexandra R; Fisher, Carolyn R; Payne, Shelley M

    2015-12-07

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the severe diarrheal disease cholera, thrives in both marine environments and the human host. To do so, it must encode the tools necessary to acquire essential nutrients, including iron, under these vastly different conditions. A number of V. cholerae iron acquisition systems have been identified; however, the precise role of each system is not fully understood. To test the roles of individual systems, we generated a series of mutants in which only one of the four systems that support iron acquisition on unsupplemented LB agar, Feo, Fbp, Vct, and Vib, remains functional. Analysis of these mutants under different growth conditions showed that these systems are not redundant. The strain carrying only the ferrous iron transporter Feo grew well at acidic, but not alkaline, pH, whereas the ferric iron transporter Fbp promoted better growth at alkaline than at acidic pH. A strain defective in all four systems (null mutant) had a severe growth defect under aerobic conditions but accumulated iron and grew as well as the wild type in the absence of oxygen, suggesting the presence of an additional, unidentified iron transporter in V. cholerae. In support of this, the null mutant was only moderately attenuated in an infant mouse model of infection. While the null mutant used heme as an iron source in vitro, we demonstrate that heme is not available to V. cholerae in the infant mouse intestine.

  9. Language Change and Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorbjörg Hróarsdóttir

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present diachronic changes in terms of the conditions of first language acquisition. Grammars, seen as mental organs, may change between two generations. A change is initiated when (a population of learners converge on a grammatical system which differs in at least one parameter value from the system internalized by the speakers of the previous generation. Learnability issues then connect to both language acquisition and language change, and understanding language changes depends on understanding how children acquire their native language. Acquisition is a process in which Universal Grammar (UG interacts with a context-specific set of Primary Linguistic Data (PLD: the linguistic input to the child-learner and uses these PLD as the source for triggers or cues that map the innate (preexperience knowledge to a mature grammar. If a certain phenomenon has survived through many generations, it must have been reflected clearly in the PLD. Then, if we note that it has changed, something in the language performance of the previous generation must have changed, and thereby paved the way for a new interpretation. Innovation leading to linguistic variation in the PLD and gradual changes in PLD play a central role in the explanation here: the immediate cause of a grammar change must lie in some alternation in the PLD. We will look at how the language spoken in a certain community (E-language may gradually become different from the language that originally served as the triggering experience. These changes in the E-language also mean changes in the input available to the child-learners of the next generation and a motivation for a different parameter setting has arisen.

  10. SILEX acquisition and tracking sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockshott, Robert A.; Purll, David J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes the Acquisition Sensor Detection Unit (ASDU) and the Tracking Sensor Detection Unit (TSDU) developed by Sira Ltd to be flown in the European Space Agency's SILEX (Semi-conductor Inter satellite Link Experiment) terminals. These units were designed, manufactured and qualified by Sira under contract to Matra Marconi Space. Stringent vibration, thermal stability and video waveform noise and timing specifications were critical elements in the design. The ASDU consists of an optical head containing a 385 X 288 CCD and video buffer, and separate electronics box containing clock decoding electronics, CCD clock drivers and video amplifiers. The ASDU operates at a frame rate of 33 or 135 Hz and its noise performance allows the brightest pixel to be detected with an accuracy of +/- 0.5 pixel for input powers in the range 9 - 55 pW (33 Hz) or 16 - 240 pW (135 Hz) during acquisition. Using the ASDU signal, the SILEX pointing, acquisition and tracking system controls the pointing mirrors to centralize the beam, at which point it falls within the smaller TSDU field of view. The TSDU comprises a single 480 g unit containing a 43 mm focal length lens, a 14 X 14 CCD, and clock receiver and video amplifier electronics. During tracking the central 4 CCD pixels are used as a quadrant detector, and the TSDU has demonstrated a noise equivalent angle of 2.7 (mu) rad (1 (sigma) half cone, 180 pW optical input power) at a frame rate of 8 kHz.

  11. Effects of nutrient loading on Anabaena flos-aquae biofilm: biofilm growth and nutrient removals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Wei, Qun; Tu, Xiaojie; Zhu, Yuxuan; Chen, Yanfei; Guo, Lina; Zhou, Jun; Sun, Hongyun

    2016-01-01

    Effects of three different nutrient loadings (low nutrient loading, medium nutrient loading and high nutrient loading, denoted as LNS, MNS and HNS, respectively) on the structure and functions of algal biofilm using Anabaena flos-aquae were investigated using synthetic wastewater. Nutrients removal efficiencies, biofilm thickness, microalgae dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and exopolysaccharide (EPS) productions were examined. Results showed that the changes of nutrient concentration were insignificant after 4 days of experiment for the case of HNS condition; 9 days for the case of MNS condition, and 6 days for the case of LNS condition, respectively. The biofilm thickness, nutrient removal efficiencies, algae DHA and EPS productions increased with the increase of nutrient loadings in synthetic wastewater. For the case of HNS condition, the microalgal biofilm exhibited the best performance in terms of C, N and P removal efficiencies, reaching the removal rates of 68.45, 3.56 and 1.61 mg·L(-1)·d(-1) for C, N, P, respectively. This was likely because, fact with the high nutrient loading, the high biological activity could be achieved, thus resulting in high nutrient removals. The thickness of the biofilm in HNS condition was 75 μm, which was closely related to EPS production. DHA and EPS concentrations were 7.24 and 1.8 × 10(-2) mg·mm(-2), respectively. It was also shown that apart from the nutrient loading, the structure and functions of microalgal biofilm were also influenced by other factors, such as illumination and temperature. PMID:27438243

  12. L'acquisition immobiliere internationale

    OpenAIRE

    Wautelet, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter an attempt is made to describe the law of cross-border real estate acquisition. This is done first by analyzing the cross-border real estate sale (looking in particular at which law applies to the substance of the real estate agreement and what requirements apply in order to conclude a valid agreement as to the formal requirements). In a second stage, an analysis is made of the legal aspects of real estate financing, looking at the impact of mandatory provisions regarding mort...

  13. DEAP-3600 Data Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    DEAP-3600 is a dark matter experiment using liquid argon to detect Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). The DEAP-3600 Data Acquisition (DAQ) has been built using a combination of commercial and custom electronics, organized using the MIDAS framework. The DAQ system needs to suppress a high rate of background events from 39Ar beta decays. This suppression is implemented using a combination of online firmware and software-based event filtering. We will report on progress commissioning the DAQ system, as well as the development of the web-based user interface.

  14. Sinopec to Accelerate Overseas Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    As part of its strategic move to expand portfolio of overseas oil and gas reserves, Sinopec Group is now stepping up its efforts for acquisition of a Canadian oil and gas company. Daylight Energy Ltd. has recently agreed to be acquired by China's Sinopec International Petroleum Exploration and Production Corp. (SIPEPC) for about C$2.2 billion (US$2.1 billion). The deal for Calgary, Alberta-based Daylight is for C$10.08 per share.

  15. Employment effects of foreign acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Karpaty, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    that the employment of skilled labor increasesmore than that of less-skilled labor. Our results indicate that the positive employment effects are more pronounced in acquired non-MNEs than in Swedish MNEs. Furthermore, we observe shifts in skill intensities toward higher shares of skilled labor in non-MNEs taken over......This paper investigates the employment effects of foreign acquisitions in acquired firms in Swedish manufacturing during the 1990s; a period characterized by a dramatic increase in foreign ownership. We find some evidence of positive employment effects in acquired firms and it seems...

  16. Variation in wood nutrients along a tropical soil fertility gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineman, Katherine D; Turner, Benjamin L; Dalling, James W

    2016-07-01

    Wood contains the majority of the nutrients in tropical trees, yet controls over wood nutrient concentrations and their function are poorly understood. We measured wood nutrient concentrations in 106 tree species in 10 forest plots spanning a regional fertility gradient in Panama. For a subset of species, we quantified foliar nutrients and wood density to test whether wood nutrients scale with foliar nutrients at the species level, or wood nutrient storage increases with wood density as predicted by the wood economics spectrum. Wood nutrient concentrations varied enormously among species from fourfold in nitrogen (N) to > 30-fold in calcium (Ca), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P). Community-weighted mean wood nutrient concentrations correlated positively with soil Ca, K, Mg and P concentrations. Wood nutrients scaled positively with leaf nutrients, supporting the hypothesis that nutrient allocation is conserved across plant organs. Wood P was most sensitive to variation in soil nutrient availability, and significant radial declines in wood P indicated that tropical trees retranslocate P as sapwood transitions to heartwood. Wood P decreased with increasing wood density, suggesting that low wood P and dense wood are traits associated with tree species persistence on low fertility soils. Substantial variation among species and communities in wood nutrient concentrations suggests that allocation of nutrients to wood, especially P, influences species distributions and nutrient dynamics in tropical forests. PMID:26922861

  17. Immigrants in Spain: skills acquisition and development. A regional study

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Emparanza, Ignacio; Espinosa, Alexandra M.

    2002-01-01

    The consequences of international migration for development in countries of origin and destination remain hotly debated. The immigration flows could be considered an appropriate mechanism to contribute to the development of origin countries if they recognize the qualifications of immigrants or contribute to the acquisition of skills. Correspondence analysis is used to determine the relation between education level, job position and legal situation of immigrants in Spain. The results indicate ...

  18. Controlling software acquisition: is supplier's software process capability determination enough?

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbrini, Fabrizio; Fusani, Mario; Lami, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Innovation in automotive is principally due to the market-driven demand of electronic devices on the vehicles. Car manufacturers usually acquire software-intensive components from different suppliers, and they need to carefully manage such acquisitions to avoid losses in terms of time and quality of the final product. In the last decade, in Europe, many car manufacturers adopted Automotive SPICE-based mechanisms to face such a situation. In this paper we discuss the results achieved by adopti...

  19. Linking abnormal mitosis to the acquisition of DNA damage

    OpenAIRE

    Ganem, Neil J.; Pellman, David

    2012-01-01

    Cellular defects that impair the fidelity of mitosis promote chromosome missegregation and aneuploidy. Increasing evidence reveals that errors in mitosis can also promote the direct and indirect acquisition of DNA damage and chromosome breaks. Consequently, deregulated cell division can devastate the integrity of the normal genome and unleash a variety of oncogenic stimuli that may promote transformation. Recent work has shed light on the mechanisms that link abnormal mitosis with the develop...

  20. Acquisition, Transport, and Storage of Iron by Pathogenic Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Dexter H.

    1999-01-01

    Iron is required by most living systems. A great variety of means of acquisition, avenues of uptake, and methods of storage are used by pathogenic fungi to ensure a supply of the essential metal. Solubilization of insoluble iron polymers is the first step in iron assimilation. The two methods most commonly used by microorganisms for solubilization of iron are reduction and chelation. Reduction of ferric iron to ferrous iron by enzymatic or nonenzymatic means is a common mechanism among pathog...

  1. Nutrient omission in Bt cotton affects soil organic carbon and nutrients status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladakatti, Y. R.; Biradar, D. P.; Satyanarayana, T.; Majumdar, K.; Shivamurthy, D.

    2012-04-01

    Studies carried out at the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, in medium black soils assessed the effect of nutrient omission in Bt cotton and its effect on the soil organic carbon (SOC) and available nutrients at the end of second consecutive year of nutrient omission. The study also assessed the extent of contribution of the macro and micronutrients towards seed cotton yield. The experiment consisting 11 treatments omitting a nutrient in each treatment including an absolute control without any nutrients was conducted in a Randomised Block Design with three replications. Cotton crop sufficiently fertilized with macro and micro nutrients (165 : 75 : 120 NPK kg ha-1 and 20 kg each of CaSO4, and MgSO4, 10 kg of S, 20 kg each of ZnSO4, FeSO4 and 0.1 per cent Boron twice as foliar spray) was taken as a standard check to assess the contribution of each nutrient in various nutrient omission treatments. Soils of each treatment were analysed initially and after each crop of cotton for SOC and available nutrient status. Results indicated that the SOC decreased after each crop of cotton in absolute control where no nutrients were applied (0.50 % to 0.38 %) and also in the N omission treatment (0.50 % to 0.35 %). But there was no significant impact of omission of P, K and other nutrients on soil organic carbon. Soil available N, P and K in the soil were reduced as compared to the initial soil status after first and second crop of cotton in the respective treatment where these nutrients were omitted. The soil available N, P and K were reduced to the extent of 61 kg ha-1, 7.1 kg ha-1 and 161.9 kg ha-1 in the respective nutrient omission treatment at end of second crop of cotton as compared to the initial status of these nutrients in the soil. This might be due to the mining of these nutrients from the soil nutrient pool with out addition of these nutrients extraneously. The nutrient status of N, P and K remained almost similar in omission of other nutrients

  2. Inorganic carbon acquisition in red tide dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Björn; Richter, Klaus-Uwe; Riebesell, Ulf; Hansen, Per Juel

    2006-05-01

    Carbon acquisition was investigated in three marine bloom-forming dinollagellates-Prorocentrum minimum, Heterocapsa triquetra and Ceratium lineatum. In vivo activities of extracellular and intracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA), photosynthetic O2 evolution, CO2 and HCO3- uptake rates were measured by membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) in cells acclimated to low pH (8.0) and high pH (8.5 or 9.1). A second approach used short-term 14C-disequilibrium incubations to estimate the carbon source utilized by the cells. All three species showed negligible extracellular CA (eCA) activity in cells acclimated to low pH and only slightly higher activity when acclimated to high pH. Intracellular CA (iCA) activity was present in all three species, but it increased only in P. minimum with increasing pH. Half-saturation concentrations (K1/2) for photosynthetic O2 evolution were low compared to ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) kinetics. Moreover, apparent affinities for inorganic carbon (Ci) increased with increasing pH in the acclimation, indicating the operation of an efficient CO2 concentration mechanism (CCM) in these dinoflagellates. Rates of CO2 uptake were comparably low and could not support the observed rates of photosynthesis. Consequently, rates of HCO3- uptake were high in the investigated species, contributing more than 80% of the photosynthetic carbon fixation. The affinity for HCO3- and maximum uptake rates increased under higher pH. The strong preference for HCO3- was also confirmed by the 14C-disequilibrium technique. Modes of carbon acquisition were consistent with the 13C-fractionation pattern observed and indicated a strong species-specific difference in leakage. These results suggest that photosynthesis in marine dinoflagellates is not limited by Ci even at high pH, which may occur during red tides in coastal waters. PMID:17087465

  3. Fast detection of nutrient limitation in macroalgae and seagrass with nutrient-induced fluorescence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. den Haan; J. Huisman; F. Dekker; J.L. ten Brinke; A.K. Ford; J. van Ooijen; F.C. van Duyl; M.J.A. Vermeij; P.M. Visser

    2013-01-01

    Background Rapid determination of which nutrients limit the primary production of macroalgae and seagrasses is vital for understanding the impacts of eutrophication on marine and freshwater ecosystems. However, current methods to assess nutrient limitation are often cumbersome and time consuming. Fo

  4. Fast Detection of Nutrient Limitation in Macroalgae and Seagrass with Nutrient-Induced Fluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Haan, J.; Huisman, J.; Dekker, F.; ten Brinke, J.L.; Ford, A.K.; van Ooijen, J.; van Duyl, F.C.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Visser, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Rapid determination of which nutrients limit the primary production of macroalgae and seagrasses is vital for understanding the impacts of eutrophication on marine and freshwater ecosystems. However, current methods to assess nutrient limitation are often cumbersome and time consuming. F

  5. Sample Acquisition and Instrument Deployment (SAID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Robert C.

    1994-11-01

    This report details the interim progress for contract NASW-4818, Sample Acquisition and Instrument Deployment (SAID), a robotic system for deploying science instruments and acquiring samples for analysis. The system is a conventional four degree of freedom manipulator 2 meters in length. A baseline design has been achieved through analysis and trade studies. The design considers environmental operating conditions on the surface of Mars, as well as volume constraints on proposed Mars landers. Control issues have also been studied, and simulations of joint and tip movements have been performed. A passively braked shape memory actuator with the ability to measure load has been developed. The wrist also contains a mechanism which locks the lid output to the bucket so that objects can be grasped and released for instrument deployment. The wrist actuator has been tested for operational power and mechanical functionality at Mars environmental conditions. The torque which the actuator can produce has been measured. Also, testing in Mars analogous soils has been performed.

  6. Fishing down nutrients on coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgeier, Jacob E; Valdivia, Abel; Cox, Courtney; Layman, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Fishing is widely considered a leading cause of biodiversity loss in marine environments, but the potential effect on ecosystem processes, such as nutrient fluxes, is less explored. Here, we test how fishing on Caribbean coral reefs influences biodiversity and ecosystem functions provided by the fish community, that is, fish-mediated nutrient capacity. Specifically, we modelled five processes of nutrient storage (in biomass) and supply (via excretion) of nutrients, as well as a measure of their multifunctionality, onto 143 species of coral reef fishes across 110 coral reef fish communities. These communities span a gradient from extreme fishing pressure to protected areas with little to no fishing. We find that in fished sites fish-mediated nutrient capacity is reduced almost 50%, despite no substantial changes in the number of species. Instead, changes in community size and trophic structure were the primary cause of shifts in ecosystem function. These findings suggest that a broader perspective that incorporates predictable impacts of fishing pressure on ecosystem function is imperative for effective coral reef conservation and management. PMID:27529748

  7. Nutrients affecting brain composition and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    This review examines the changes in brain composition and in various brain functions, including behavior, that can follow the ingestion of particular foods or nutrients. It details those that are best understood: the increases in serotonin, catecholamine, or acetylcholine synthesis that can occur subsequent to food-induced increases in brain levels of tryptophan, tyrosine, or choline; it also discusses the various processes that must intervene between the mouth and the synapse, so to speak, in order for a nutrient to affect neurotransmission, and it speculates as to additional brain chemicals that may ultimately be found to be affected by changes in the availability of their nutrient precursors. Because the brain chemicals best known to be nutrient dependent overlap with those thought to underlie the actions of most of the drugs used to treat psychiatric diseases, knowledge of this dependence may help the psychiatrist to understand some of the pathologic processes occurring in his/her patients, particularly those with appetitive symptoms. At the very least, such knowledge should provide the psychiatrist with objective criteria for judging when to take seriously assertions that particular foods or nutrients do indeed affect behavior (e.g., in hyperactive children). If the food can be shown to alter neurotransmitter release, it may be behaviorally-active; however, if it lacks a discernible neurochemical effect, the likelihood that it really alters behavior is small.

  8. Fishing down nutrients on coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgeier, Jacob E.; Valdivia, Abel; Cox, Courtney; Layman, Craig A.

    2016-08-01

    Fishing is widely considered a leading cause of biodiversity loss in marine environments, but the potential effect on ecosystem processes, such as nutrient fluxes, is less explored. Here, we test how fishing on Caribbean coral reefs influences biodiversity and ecosystem functions provided by the fish community, that is, fish-mediated nutrient capacity. Specifically, we modelled five processes of nutrient storage (in biomass) and supply (via excretion) of nutrients, as well as a measure of their multifunctionality, onto 143 species of coral reef fishes across 110 coral reef fish communities. These communities span a gradient from extreme fishing pressure to protected areas with little to no fishing. We find that in fished sites fish-mediated nutrient capacity is reduced almost 50%, despite no substantial changes in the number of species. Instead, changes in community size and trophic structure were the primary cause of shifts in ecosystem function. These findings suggest that a broader perspective that incorporates predictable impacts of fishing pressure on ecosystem function is imperative for effective coral reef conservation and management.

  9. The ALICE data acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Chapeland, S.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Costa, F.; Dénes, E.; Divià, R.; Fuchs, U.; Grigore, A.; Kiss, T.; Simonetti, G.; Soós, C.; Telesca, A.; Vande Vyvre, P.; von Haller, B.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we describe the design, the construction, the commissioning and the operation of the Data Acquisition (DAQ) and Experiment Control Systems (ECS) of the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The DAQ and the ECS are the systems used respectively for the acquisition of all physics data and for the overall control of the experiment. They are two computing systems made of hundreds of PCs and data storage units interconnected via two networks. The collection of experimental data from the detectors is performed by several hundreds of high-speed optical links. We describe in detail the design considerations for these systems handling the extreme data throughput resulting from central lead ions collisions at LHC energy. The implementation of the resulting requirements into hardware (custom optical links and commercial computing equipment), infrastructure (racks, cooling, power distribution, control room), and software led to many innovative solutions which are described together with a presentation of all the major components of the systems, as currently realized. We also report on the performance achieved during the first period of data taking (from 2009 to 2013) often exceeding those specified in the DAQ Technical Design Report.

  10. The ALICE data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Chapeland, S.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Costa, F. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Dénes, E. [Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Center, Budapest (Hungary); Divià, R.; Fuchs, U. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Grigore, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Politehnica Univesity of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania); Kiss, T. [Cerntech Ltd., Budapest (Hungary); Simonetti, G. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ‘M. Merlin’, Bari (Italy); Soós, C.; Telesca, A.; Vande Vyvre, P. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Haller, B. von, E-mail: bvonhall@cern.ch [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2014-03-21

    In this paper we describe the design, the construction, the commissioning and the operation of the Data Acquisition (DAQ) and Experiment Control Systems (ECS) of the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The DAQ and the ECS are the systems used respectively for the acquisition of all physics data and for the overall control of the experiment. They are two computing systems made of hundreds of PCs and data storage units interconnected via two networks. The collection of experimental data from the detectors is performed by several hundreds of high-speed optical links. We describe in detail the design considerations for these systems handling the extreme data throughput resulting from central lead ions collisions at LHC energy. The implementation of the resulting requirements into hardware (custom optical links and commercial computing equipment), infrastructure (racks, cooling, power distribution, control room), and software led to many innovative solutions which are described together with a presentation of all the major components of the systems, as currently realized. We also report on the performance achieved during the first period of data taking (from 2009 to 2013) often exceeding those specified in the DAQ Technical Design Report.

  11. Web-based data acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡旭东; 俞红; 陈鹰

    2002-01-01

    The research work on Web-based long-distance data acquisition (DAQ) is valuable for application to tele-detection machine faults. With an expert system for machine fault detection, faults in a distantly located machine can be diagnosed through the internet. The distant user logs on to the expert system Web page, fills in the requirements, and starts-up the diagnose process. The system then connects to the DAQ server that is installed in the machine, samples data required for diagnoses through the internet, and sends back diagnose results. In such a long-distance system, Web-based DAQ plays an important role by automatic sampling and transferring of data through the internet. We have built an experimental data acquisition system using a National Instruments AT-MIO-16E-10 board running under Ch language environment. In this experimental example, the user can acquire data online. The principle of this experimental method is introduced in this paper. A detailed programming technique is described with an example.

  12. Nutrient allocations and metabolism in two Collembola with contrasting reproduction and growth strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas; Ventura, Marc; Damgaard, Christian;

    2009-01-01

    1.  Physiological mechanisms such as allocation and release of nutrients are keys to understanding an animal's adaptation to a particular habitat. This study investigated how two detrivores with contrasting life-history traits allocated carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) to growth, reproduction and meta......1.  Physiological mechanisms such as allocation and release of nutrients are keys to understanding an animal's adaptation to a particular habitat. This study investigated how two detrivores with contrasting life-history traits allocated carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) to growth, reproduction...... in tissue, growth and reproduction for 28 days. In addition, we measured the composition of C, N and phosphorus (P) to gain complementary information on the stoichiometry underlying life-history traits and nutrient allocation. 3.  For P. minuta, the smallest and most fecund of the two species, the tissue...... budgets and life-history traits in small invertebrates such as Collembola....

  13. Effects of Nutrient Limitation on Pigments in Thalassiosira weissflogii and Prorocentrum donghaiense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Jun Hou; Bang-Qin Huang; Zhen-Rui Cao; Ji-Xin Chen; Hua-Sheng Hong

    2007-01-01

    The response of Prorocentrum donghaiense and Thalassiosira weissflogii pigments under nitrate (N) and phosphate (P) limitation were studied using HPLC and in vlvo fluorescence protocols in batch cultures. For P. donghalense,the pigment ratio was kept stable under different nutrient conditions from the results of HPLC. For T. weissflogii,there was a lower ratio of chlorophyllide to Chi a during the exponential phase, but the reverse during the stationary phase. Different members of the phytoplankton had different pigments response mechanisms under nutrient limitation. From the results of in vivo fluorescence, the ratio of peridinin to Chl a for P. donghaiense increased in nutrient-free culture, while it was kept stable for nutrient-limited cultures during the exponential phase. For T.weissflogii, the ratio of fucoxanthin to Chl a for each culture increased during the exponential phase, but the ratio under N limitation was apparently lower than that for P limitation during the stationary phase. The results indicate that both pigment ratios from HPLC and In vivo fluorescence of T. weissflogii were changed greatly under different nutrient conditions, which suggests that both ratios could be used as indicators of algal physiological status in different nutrient conditions.

  14. Mussel farming as a nutrient reduction measure in the Baltic Sea: consideration of nutrient biogeochemical cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadmark, J; Conley, D J

    2011-07-01

    Nutrient loads from the land to the sea must be reduced to combat coastal eutrophication. It has been suggested that further mitigation efforts are needed in the brackish Baltic Sea to decrease nutrients, especially in eutrophic coastal areas. Mussel farming is a potential measure to remove nutrients directly from the sea. Mussels consume phytoplankton containing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P); when the mussels are harvested these nutrients are removed from the aquatic system. However, sedimentation of organic material in faeces and pseudo-faeces below a mussel farm consumes oxygen and can lead to hypoxic or even anoxic sediments causing an increased sediment release of ammonium and phosphate. Moreover, N losses from denitrification can be reduced due to low oxygen and reduced numbers of bioturbating organisms. To reveal if mussel farming is a cost-effective mitigation measure in the Baltic Sea the potential for enhanced sediment nutrient release must be assessed.

  15. Nutrient Availability from Poultry Litter Co-Products

    OpenAIRE

    Middleton, Amanda Jo

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a nutrient of concern in the Chesapeake Bay watershed due to nutrient imbalances in areas with confined animal feeding operations. By converting poultry litter to an ash via thermal conversion, nutrients are concentrated and are economical to ship out of nutrient surplus watersheds to nutrient deficient regions, such as the corn-belt. We initiated incubation and field studies on sandy loam soils to test P and potassium (K) availability from poultry litter ash (PLA). Four PLA...

  16. Merger and Acquisition Market: from World Experience to National Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrechana Svitlana I.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in identification of tendencies and prospects of development of the merger and acquisition market of Ukraine in the context of influence of the world M and A experience upon this process under conditions of globalisation. In the result of the study the article analyses the most significant merger and acquisition operations that took place in the world practice and in Ukraine in recent years. The article reveals and deeply assesses the variety of motives and mechanisms of their realisation from the position of practice of developed countries and trans-national corporations and also domestic associations of enterprises. It shows that transactions of tough or forced character of acquisition prevail in Ukraine, specific features of which are not only the reduced cost but also direct belonging of buyers to oligarchic-political structures. It explains negative influence of these specific features upon volume and activity of the national M and A market. It formulates and offers a system of state and economic subjects measures, immediate application of which would allow creation of favourable conditions for development of the national merger and acquisition market.

  17. Nutrient exchange and release experiment and its simulation study in lake water-sediment interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Lian-qing; HAO Zhen-chun

    2006-01-01

    The sediment distributed and insolated under lake was collected for experiments. The nutrient layer distribution conditions of sampled sediment and its physical and chemical characteristics were analyzed to simulate and assess the influence degree to lake water quality. Based on the dynamic water exchanging experiments the nutrient release process in sediment and influence mechanism to substance exchanging on water-sediment interface was studied, and the correlation between the changing content of total phosphors and total nitrogen in sediment and covered water were analyzed for setting up a simulation model. At the same time the influence degree is explained in detail. The experimental results indicated that even if clean water without nutrient contents was used for water exchangement so as to decrease pollution or prevent eutrophication, however owing to the vertical nutrient distribution in lake sediment, it will lead to the increasing release amount greatly especially when the organic nutrient contained in sediment turns into inorganic status because of isolation. Besides the release process of total phosphate (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) were modeled and each nutrient's exchanging equation at interface caused by covered water nutrient concentration changing was set up. According to the simulating prediction, TP and TN content of cover water will also sustain a steady higher level in a long period. The nutrient release amount of sediment is not only affected by the covered water concentration but also connects with accumulative time. The experiments provide the fundamental theoretical and practical basis for taking ecological restoration project. And research is helpful to prevent or restore lake eutrophication.

  18. Nutrient exchange and release experiment and its simulation study in lake water-sediment interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lian-Qing; Hao, Zhen-Chun

    2006-01-01

    The sediment distributed and insolated under lake was collected for experiments. The nutrient layer distribution conditions of sampled sediment and its physical and chemical characteristics were analyzed to simulate and assess the influence degree to lake water quality. Based on the dynamic water exchanging experiments the nutrient release process in sediment and influence mechanism to substance exchanging on water-sediment interface was studied, and the correlation between the changing content of total phosphors and total nitrogen in sediment and covered water were analyzed for setting up a simulation model. At the same time the influence degree is explained in detail. The experimental results indicated that even if clean water without nutrient contents was used for water exchangement so as to decrease pollution or prevent eutrophication, however owing to the vertical nutrient distribution in lake sediment, it will lead to the increasing release amount greatly especially when the organic nutrient contained in sediment turns into inorganic status because of isolation. Besides the release process of total phosphate (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) were modeled and each nutrient's exchanging equation at interface caused by covered water nutrient concentration changing was set up. According to the simulating prediction, TP and TN content of cover water will also sustain a steady higher level in a long period. The nutrient release amount of sediment is not only affected by the covered water concentration but also connects with accumulative time. The experiments provide the fundamental theoretical and practical basis for taking ecological restoration project. And research is helpful to prevent or restore lake eutrophication. PMID:17294663

  19. Growth Culture Conditions and Nutrient Signaling Modulating Yeast Chronological Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The manipulation of nutrient-signaling pathways in yeast has uncovered the impact of environmental growth conditions in longevity. Studies using calorie restriction show that reducing glucose concentration of the culture media is sufficient to increase replicative and chronological lifespan (CLS. Other components of the culture media and factors such as the products of fermentation have also been implicated in the regulation of CLS. Acidification of the culture media mainly due to acetic acid and other organic acids production negatively impacts CLS. Ethanol is another fermentative metabolite capable of inducing CLS reduction in aged cells by yet unknown mechanisms. Recently, ammonium was reported to induce cell death associated with shortening of CLS. This effect is correlated to the concentration of NH4+ added to the culture medium and is particularly evident in cells starved for auxotrophy-complementing amino acids. Studies on the nutrient-signaling pathways regulating yeast aging had a significant impact on aging-related research, providing key insights into mechanisms that modulate aging and establishing the yeast as a powerful system to extend knowledge on longevity regulation in multicellular organisms.

  20. Usefulness of Models in Precision Nutrient Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Manevski, Kiril; Zhenjiang, Zhou;

    characterize soil condition by mapping a variety of physical-chemical properties including salinity, water content, texture, bulk density. vis–NIR spectroscopy shows the potential for use directly for the characterisation of soil quality, or soil fertility as the spectra contain information on soil organic......Modern agriculture increasingly applies new methods and technologies to increase production and nutrient use efficiencies and at the same time reduce leaching of nutrients and greenhouse gas emissions. GPS based ECa-measurement equipment, ER or EM instrumentations, are used to spatially...... and mineral composition. Mapping of crop status and the spatial-temporal variability within fields with red-infrared reflection are used to support decision on split fertilisation and more precise dosing. The interpretation and use of these various data in precise nutrient management is not straightforward...

  1. Tree root systems and nutrient mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Jim; Rob, Harrison; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten;

    of nutrient elements essential for forest growth and resilience. Research and techniques have signifi cantly advanced since Olof Tamm’s 1934 base mineral index for Swedish forest soils, and basic nutrient budget estimates for whole-tree harvesting systems of the 1970s. Recent research in areas that include...... of potential sustainability of nutrient supplies for biomass harvesting and other intensive forest management systems will advance understanding of these important ecosystem properties, processes, and services....... some of the world’s most productive intensively managed forests, including Brazil and the Southeast and Pacifi c Northwest regions of the United States, have shown that root systems are often several meters in depth, and often extend deeper than soil is sampled. Large amounts of carbon are also...

  2. Multi spectral scaling data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear spectroscopy applications, it is often desired to acquire data at high rate with high resolution. With the availability of low cost computers, it is possible to make a powerful data acquisition system with minimum hardware and software development, by designing a PC plug-in acquisition board. But in using the PC processor for data acquisition, the PC can not be used as a multitasking node. Keeping this in view, PC plug-in acquisition boards with on-board processor find tremendous applications. Transputer based data acquisition board has been designed which can be configured as a high count rate pulse height MCA or as a Multi Spectral Scaler. Multi Spectral Scaling (MSS) is a new technique, in which multiple spectra are acquired in small time frames and are then analyzed. This paper describes the details of this multi spectral scaling data acquisition system. 2 figs

  3. Nutrient limitations to secondary forest regrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Martinelli, Luiz A.

    The old, highly weathered soils of the lowland forest within the Amazon Basin generally exhibit conservative P cycles and leaky N cycles. This generalization applies to mature forests, but accelerating land use change is altering Amazonian landscapes. About 16% of the original forest area has been cleared, and about 160,000 km2 is in secondary forest cover. Secondary forests are common in agricultural regions, but few persist in one place for much more than 5 years. The nutrients within ephemeral forests are important for smallholder traditional slash-and-burn agriculture and in alternatives developed to conserve nutrients. Forest clearing causes an initial loss of nutrients through timber harvesting, fire, erosion, soil gaseous emissions, and hydrologic leaching, with N losses exceeding P losses. In contrast, the Ca, Mg, and K present in woody biomass are largely conserved as ash following fire, redistributing these nutrients to the soil. After the initial postclearing pulse of nutrient availability, rates of N cycling and loss consistently decline as cattle pastures age. Fertilization experiments have demonstrated that growth of young forests in abandoned agricultural land is nutrient limited. Several N cycling indicators in a secondary forest chronosequence study also demonstrated a conservative N cycle in young forests. Variable N limitation in young forests helps explain a negative relationship observed between the burn frequency during previous agricultural phases and the rate of forest regrowth. Recuperation of the N cycle gradually occurs during decades of secondary forest succession, such that mature lowland forests eventually recover abundant N relative to a conservative P cycle.

  4. On Vocabulary Acquisition by Chinese Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔莉; 南二丽

    2006-01-01

    It is admitted that vocabulary acquisition, as the smallest unit in English leaning, is the most basic, decisive yet difficult part. Yet vocabulary acquisition has always obsessed and fascinated Chinese learners of English. This paper mainly presents a discussion of English vocabulary acquisition by Chinese learners in the respect of vocabulary size and correct use. Through the analysis of the problems existing in the present vocabulary learning and teaching, author also presents some learning strategies to expand vocabulary size.

  5. Acquisition From Financial and Acconuting Aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina Bandalovic; Jozo Krajina

    2008-01-01

    Acquisition as a management instrument of making business has dynamically started to affect the Croatian market. The managers of many private companies have recognized the advantages of a company’s external growth and modern management of business combinations. It is a known fact that company acquisition as a strategy demands big and responsible managerial decisions. The author of this article focuses on some of the factors which infl uence the procedure and the outcome of an acquisition proc...

  6. Mergers and acquisitions: valuation and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of various aspects of mergers and acquisition transactions in the petroleum industry were presented. Incentives to mergers and acquisitions were reviewed and discussed, among them value opportunity, critical size, incremental tax pools, financial distress, shareholder dissatisfaction, strategic infrastructure position, complementary assets, and undeveloped land inventory. Current trends in mergers and acquisitions were highlighted. An industry checklist for risk assessments discussing financial position, engineering forecasts, and taxation was also included

  7. AcquisitionFootprintAttenuationDrivenbySeismicAttributes

    OpenAIRE

    Cuellar-Urbano Mayra; Chávez-Pérez Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition footprint, one of the major problems that PEMEX faces in seismic imaging, is noise highly correlated to the geometric array of sources and receivers used for onshore and offshore seismic acquisitions. It prevails in spite of measures taken during acquisition and data processing. This pattern, throughout the image, is easily confused with geological features and misguides seismic attribute computation. In this work, we use seismic data from PEMEX Exploración y Producción to show th...

  8. Review of L2 Vocabulary Acquisition Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先军

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary is important in language and language acquisition, but it did not catch as much attention as it deserved for a long time. In this thesis, I’ll go through changes of vocabulary studied in linguistics and language teaching as well as rise of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies. Several aspects of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies will then be reviewed.Issues that need to be further studied will at last be put forward.

  9. Review of L2 Vocabulary Acquisition Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先军

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary is important in language and language acquisition, but it did not catch as much attention as it deserved for a long time. In this thesis, I’ll go through changes of vocabulary studied in linguistics and language teaching as well as rise of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies. Several aspects of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies will then be reviewed .Issues that need to be further studied will at last be put forward.

  10. Thermal post-treatment alters nutrient release from a controlled-release fertilizer coated with a waterborne polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zijun; Du, Changwen; Li, Ting; Shen, Yazhen; Zhou, Jianmin

    2015-09-01

    Controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) use a controlled-release technology to enhance the nutrient use efficiency of crops. Many factors affect the release of nutrients from the waterborne polymer-coated CRF, but the effects of thermal post-treatments remain unclear. In this study, a waterborne polyacrylate-coated CRF was post-treated at different temperatures (30 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C) and durations (2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h) after being developed in the Wurster fluidized bed. To characterize the polyacrylate membrane, and hence to analyze the mechanism of nutrient release, Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were employed. The nutrient-release model of CRF post-treated at 30 °C was the inverse “L” curve, but an increased duration of the post-treatment had no effect. The nutrient-release model was “S” curve and nutrient-release period was enhanced at higher post-treatment temperatures, and increased post-treatment duration lengthened slowed nutrient release due to a more compact membrane and a smoother membrane surface as well as a promoted crosslinking action. CRF equipped with specified nutrient-release behaviors can be achieved by optimizing the thermal post-treatment parameters, which can contribute to the development and application of waterborne polymer-coated CRF and controlled-release technologies.

  11. Nutrient balances in the forest energy cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Sweden, recycling of stabilised wood-ashes to forests is considered to compensate for nutrient removals from whole-tree harvesting (i.e. use of harvest residues - slash - for energy purposes). This study has analysed nutrient fluxes through the complete forest energy cycle and estimated mass balances of nutrients in harvested biomass with those in ashes, to investigate the realism in large-scale nutrient compensation with wood-ash. Expected nutrient fluxes from forests through energy plants were calculated based on nutrient and biomass data of forest stands in the Nordic countries, and from data on nutrient fluxes through CFB-plants. The expected stoichiometric composition of wood-ashes was compared with the composition of CFB-fly ashes from various Swedish energy plants. Nutrient contents for different tree fractions were calculated to express the average nutrient concentrations in slash and stems with bark, respectively. A nutrient budget synthesis of the effects of whole-tree harvesting on base cation turnover in the following stand was presented for two experimental sites. Major conclusions from the study are: In the CFB-scenario, where the bottom ash is deposited and only the fly ash can be applied to forests, the fly ash from the slash do not meet the demands for nutrient compensation for slash harvesting. Stem material (50% wood, 50% bark) must be added at equivalent amounts, as the slash to produce the amounts of fly ash needed for compensation of slash harvesting. In the scenario where more stem material was added (75% of total fuel load), the amounts of fly ashes produced hardly compensated for nutrient removals with both stem and slash harvesting. The level of nutrient compensation was lowest for potassium. The stoichiometric nutrient composition of CFB-fly ashes from Swedish energy plants is not similar with the nutrient composition of tree biomass. The higher Ca/P ratio in ashes is only partly explained by the mixture of fuels (e.g. increasing bark

  12. The role of submerged macrophytes and macroalgae in nutrient cycling: A budget approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Lucienne R. D.; Snow, Gavin C.; Adams, Janine B.; Bate, Guy C.; Yang, Sheng-Chi

    2015-03-01

    This study used a budget approach to determine the effect of submerged macrophytes and macroalgae on the storage of N and P in an estuary. Above and below ground tissue content of nitrogen and phosphorus were determined for the various macrophyte species. The mouth of the estuary was artificially breached in February 2011 with a volume of 0.3 × 106 m3 and closed a week later. A 1:100 year flood with volume close to 3 × 106 m3 breached the mouth naturally in June 2011 flushing water and sediment out of the estuary. In order to track the change in the nutrient acquisition of the submerged macrophytes and macroalgae over a closed-mouth state, the nutrient budget was constructed for the period February 2011 to July 2011, from the time the mouth closed until it opened again. Relative to other inputs the sediment contributed 30% of the TN and 40% TP toward the nutrient budget, while the submerged macrophytes and macroalgae stored 20-30 % TN and 30-38 % TP. The river and precipitation contributed less than 3% of the TN and TP input. It was previously thought that the sediments of South African temporarily open/closed estuaries did not have the necessary organic stock to fuel primary production. However this research showed this to be incorrect. Submerged macrophytes and macroalgae significantly influenced nutrient cycling and this is the first detailed account of incorporating vegetation into a nutrient budget without relying solely on C:N:P ratios.

  13. From promise to application: root traits for enhanced nutrient capture in rice breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissuwa, Matthias; Kretzschmar, Tobias; Rose, Terry J

    2016-06-01

    Improving nutrient uptake is an objective in crop breeding, especially in tropical areas where infertile soils dominate and farmers may not have the resources to improve soil fertility through fertilizer application. Scientific endeavors to understand the genetic basis of nutrient acquisition have mostly followed reverse genetic approaches. This has undoubtedly led to improved understanding of basic principles in root development and nutrient transport. However, little evidence suggests that the genes identified are actively utilized in breeding programs, and the bottleneck has been the failure to establish links between allelic variation for identified genes and performance in the field. Screening experiments typically reveal large genotypic variation in performance under nutrient deficiency, strongly suggesting the presence of superior alleles for genes controlling root growth and/or nutrient uptake processes. Progress in sequencing technology has enabled characterizations of allelic variation across whole genomes and an international effort has recently culminated in the sequencing of 3000 rice genomes from the International Rice Research Institute genebank. Queries of the 3000 rice sequence database offer immediate possibilities to assess the extent to which allelic variation exists for candidate genes. By selecting subsets of accessions, allelic effects can be tested, diagnostic markers developed, and new donors identified. Technological and conceptual advances in phenotyping of root traits offer improved possibilities to assure that trait-allele associations are established in ways that link to field performance. Genotype-to-phenotype relationships can thus be predicted and tested with unprecedented precision, facilitating the discovery and transfer of beneficial nutrition-related alleles and associated markers into existing breeding pipelines. PMID:27036129

  14. Pragmatic Transfer in Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷

    2011-01-01

    Pragmatic.transfer is a common phenomenon that exists in Second Language Acquisition. It is an increasingly important .research of interlanguage pragmatics in the last two decades. Based on the characteristics , it plays an important role in the success of cultural communication and Second Language Acquisition. Based on presenting the concept of pragmatic transfer, this paper presents the concept of pragmatic transfer in second language acquisition and introduces the classification of pragmatic transfer. Then, this paper proposes some suggestions to avoid negative pragmatic transfer in second language acquisition. It is hoped that this paper can help second language learners to develop their communicative competence and avoid pragmatic failures in intercultural communication.

  15. Acquisition in different and special subject areas

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Linda S

    2013-01-01

    Learn how acquisitions librarians successfully serve specialized users! In this book, you'll find profiles, methods, and processes for acquisitions in specialized subject areas, such as local and regional poetry, oceanography, educational information in electronic formats, popular fiction, regional and ethnic materials, and more. Seasoned acquisitions librarians share their experiences in gathering the hard-to-find materials their libraries' highly specialized clients need to access. You'll also examine issues surrounding the acquisition of new reference tools that are vital in today's emergi

  16. Emerging Market Firms’ Acquisitions in Advanced Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stucchi, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    markets. These antecedents can influence emerging market firms’ capacities to absorb or exploit technological and/or marketing advantages in advanced markets. In order to be successful, emerging market firms have to undertake those upmarket acquisitions that best “fit” their antecedents. Four mutually......This study draws upon the resource-based view and the institution-based view of the firm to provide a comprehensive overview of how different resource-, institution- and industry-based antecedents affect the motivations guiding the acquisitions that emerging market firms undertake in advanced...... exclusive acquisition strategies are derived, which are then illustrated using examples of Indian firms’ acquisitions in advanced markets....

  17. Knowledge Acquisition for Content Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Reiter, E R; Osman, L; Roff, Y; Reiter, Ehud; Cawsey, Alison; Osman, Liesl; Roff, Yvonne

    1997-01-01

    An important part of building a natural-language generation (NLG) system is knowledge acquisition, that is deciding on the specific schemas, plans, grammar rules, and so forth that should be used in the NLG system. We discuss some experiments we have performed with KA for content-selection rules, in the context of building an NLG system which generates health-related material. These experiments suggest that it is useful to supplement corpus analysis with KA techniques developed for building expert systems, such as structured group discussions and think-aloud protocols. They also raise the point that KA issues may influence architectural design issues, in particular the decision on whether a planning approach is used for content selection. We suspect that in some cases, KA may be easier if other constructive expert-system techniques (such as production rules, or case-based reasoning) are used to determine the content of a generated text.

  18. Language acquisition is language change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Goro, Takuya; Thornton, Rosalind

    2006-01-01

    According to the theory of Universal Grammar, the primary linguistic data guides children through an innately specified space of hypotheses. On this view, similarities between child-English and adult-German are as unsurprising as similarities between cousins who have never met. By contrast, experience-based approaches to language acquisition contend that child language matches the input, with nonadult forms being simply less articulated versions of the forms produced by adults. This paper reports several studies that provide support for the theory of Universal grammar, and resist explanation on experience-based accounts. Two studies investigate English-speaking children's productions, and a third examines the interpretation of sentences by Japanese speaking children. When considered against the input children are exposed to, the findings of these and other studies are consistent with the continuity hypothesis, which supposes that child language can differ from the language spoken by adults only in ways that adult languages can differ from each other.

  19. Optimality theory in phonological acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J A; Gierut, J A

    1999-12-01

    This tutorial presents an introduction to the contemporary linguistic framework known as optimality theory (OT). The basic assumptions of this constraint-based theory as a general model of grammar are first outlined, with formal notation being defined and illustrated. Concepts unique to the theory, including "emergence of the unmarked," are also described. OT is then examined more specifically within the context of phonological acquisition. The theory is applied in descriptions of children's common error patterns, observed inter- and intrachild variation, and productive change over time. The particular error patterns of fronting, stopping, final-consonant deletion, and cluster simplification are considered from an OT perspective. The discussion concludes with potential clinical applications and extensions of the theory to the diagnosis and treatment of children with functional phonological disorders.

  20. Electric vehicle data acquisition system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mathias; Winther-Jensen, Mads; Pedersen, Anders Bro;

    2014-01-01

    and industrial applications, e.g. research in electric vehicle driving patterns, vehicle substitutability analysis and fleet management. The platform is based on a embedded computer running Linux, and features a high level of modularity and flexibility. The system operates independently of the make of the car......, by using the On-board Diagnostic port to identify car model and adapt its software accordingly. By utilizing on-board Global Navigation Satellite System, General Packet Radio Service, accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer, the system not only provides valuable data for research in the field of electric......A data acquisition system for electric vehicles is presented. The system connects to the On-board Diagnostic port of newer vehicles, and utilizes the in-vehicle sensor network, as well as auxiliary sensors, to gather data. Data is transmitted continuously to a central database for academic...

  1. Data acquisition and control network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have participated in the construction of the CELLO detector on the PETRA e+e- Collider in Hamburg in order to test some of the current high energy physics theories. Some 60.000 channels collecting the detector informations are connected to the main computer through the CAMAC acquisition system and specialized ROMULUS subsystems. Each of these subsystems is monitored by its dedicated microprocessor using a CAMAC dataway spy module. All these microprocessors are connected to the main computer through a ''STAR'' type network. Data are read out by the main computer (PDP11-45) and concentrated in a circular type buffer. They are then filtered and transfered to a PDP11-55, also in the network, for storing

  2. Characterization of nutrient deficiency in Hancornia speciosa Gomes seedlings by omitting micronutrients from the nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layara Alexandre Bessa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Mangaba tree is a fruit tree belonging to the Apocynaceae family and is native to Brazil. The production of seedlings of this species is limited by a lack of technical and nutritional expertise. To address this deficiency, this study aimed to characterize the visual symptoms of micronutrient deficiency and to assess growth and leaf nutrient accumulation in H. speciosa seedlings supplied with nutrient solutions that lack individual micronutrients. H. speciosa plants were grown in nutrient solution in a greenhouse according to a randomized block design, with four replicates. The treatments consisted of a group receiving complete nutrient solution and groups treated with a nutrient solution lacking one of the following micronutrients: boron (B, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, and molybdenum (Mo. The visual symptoms of nutrient deficiency were generally easy to characterize. Dry matter production was affected by the omission of micronutrients, and the treatment lacking Fe most limited the stem length, stem diameter, root length, and number of leaves in H. speciosa seedlings as well as the dry weight of leaves, the total dry weight, and the relative growth in H. speciosa plants. The micronutrient contents of H. speciosa leaves from plants receiving the complete nutrient solution treatment were, in decreasing order, Fe>Mn>Cu>Zn>B.

  3. Auctions with Costly Information Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    CRÉMER, Jacques; Spiegel, Yossi; Charles Z. Zheng

    2009-01-01

    We characterize optimal selling mechanisms in auction environments where bidders must incur a cost to learn their valuations. These mechanisms specify for each period, as a function of the bids in previous periods, which new potential buyers should be asked to bid. In addition, these mechanisms must induce the bidders to acquire information about their valuations and to reveal this information truthfully. Using a generalized Groves principle, we prove a very general full extraction of the sur...

  4. Autonomous Surface Sample Acquisition for Planetary and Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D. P.

    2007-08-01

    network, and constitute the science targets for our autonomous sample acquisition work. Our PAT Lab. terrain has been designed to support our new rover chassis which is based upon the ExoMars rover Concept-E mechanics which were investigated during the ESA ExoMars Phase A study. The rover has 6 wheel drives, 6 wheels steering, and a 6 wheel walking capability. Mounted on the rover chassis is the UWA robotic arm and mast. We have designed and built a PanCam system complete with a computer controlled pan and tilt mechanism. The UWA PanCam is based upon the ExoMars PanCam (Phase A study) and hence supports two Wide Angle Cameras (WAC - 64 degree FOV), and a High Resolution Camera (HRC - 5 degree FOV). WAC separation is 500 mm. Software has been developed to capture images which form the data input into our on-board autonomous surface sample acquisition algorithms.

  5. Fast detection of nutrient limitation in macroalgae and seagrass with nutrient-induced fluorescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost den Haan

    Full Text Available Rapid determination of which nutrients limit the primary production of macroalgae and seagrasses is vital for understanding the impacts of eutrophication on marine and freshwater ecosystems. However, current methods to assess nutrient limitation are often cumbersome and time consuming. For phytoplankton, a rapid method has been described based on short-term changes in chlorophyll fluorescence upon nutrient addition, also known as Nutrient-Induced Fluorescence Transients (NIFTs. Thus far, though, the NIFT technique was not well suited for macroalgae and seagrasses.We developed a new experimental setup so that the NIFT technique can be used to assess nutrient limitation of benthic macroalgae and seagrasses. We first tested the applicability of the technique on sea lettuce (Ulva lactuca cultured in the laboratory on nutrient-enriched medium without either nitrogen or phosphorus. Addition of the limiting nutrient resulted in a characteristic change in the fluorescence signal, whereas addition of non-limiting nutrients did not yield a response. Next, we applied the NIFT technique to field samples of the encrusting fan-leaf alga Lobophora variegata, one of the key algal species often involved in the degradation of coral reef ecosystems. The results pointed at co-limitation of L. variegata by phosphorus and nitrogen, although it responded more strongly to phosphate than to nitrate and ammonium addition. For turtle grass (Thalassia testudinum we found the opposite result, with a stronger NIFT response to nitrate and ammonium than to phosphate.Our extension of the NIFT technique offers an easy and fast method (30-60 min per sample to determine nutrient limitation of macroalgae and seagrasses. We successfully applied this technique to macroalgae on coral reef ecosystems and to seagrass in a tropical inner bay, and foresee wider application to other aquatic plants, and to other marine and freshwater ecosystems.

  6. Acquisition workforce strategy: the challenge Defense (DOD) faces to improve its acquisition workforce

    OpenAIRE

    Chapple, Christopher W.; Faire, Michel J.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project is to examine the Defense's (DoD's) FY 2010 Acquisition Workforce Improvement Strategy. The project will outline developments that generated the need for DoD's Acquisition Workforce Improvement Strategy and DoD's efforts to address its acquisition workforce's ability to manage and oversee its services contracts. This project will also examine the implementation and effectiveness of DoD's Acquisition Workforce improvement initiatives to see if plans will meet inte...

  7. Uncertainty Propagation in an Ecosystem Nutrient Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New aspects and advancements in classical uncertainty propagation methods were used to develop a nutrient budget with associated error for a northern Gulf of Mexico coastal embayment. Uncertainty was calculated for budget terms by propagating the standard error and degrees of fr...

  8. Modelling Nutrient Uptake of Sweet Pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Brajeul, E.; Elings, A.; Garate, A.; Heuvelink, E.

    2005-01-01

    Models simulating dry matter production have been developed for a large number of greenhouse crops during the past decades. This paper describes how plant-nutrient relationships can be incorporated in a model for greenhouse crops, with sweet pepper as an example. Based on climatic data, the model si

  9. External nutrient sources for Lake Tanganyika

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, V.T.; Nyamushahu, S.; Roijackers, R.M.M.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed the external nutrient sources for Lake Tanganyika from August 1994 to August 1995. The physico-chemical characteristics of the three largest inflowing rivers (Rusizi, Malagarasi, and Lufubu) and the wet atmospheric deposition in Bujumbura (Burundi), Kigoma (Tanzania), and Mpulung

  10. Closing Domestic Nutrient Cycles Using Microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasconcelos Fernandes, T.; Shresthat, R.; Suit, Y.; Papini, G.; Zeeman, G.; Vet, L.E.M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Lamers, P.P.

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates that microalgae can effectively recover all P and N from anaerobically treated black water (toilet wastewater). Thus, enabling the removal of nutrients from the black water and the generation of a valuable algae product in one step. Screening experiments with green microalgae

  11. Breast milk nutrient content and infancy growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prentice, Philippa; Ong, Ken K.; Schoemaker, Marieke H.; Tol, van Eric A.F.; Vervoort, Jacques; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Dunger, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Benefits of human breast milk (HM) in avoiding rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity could relate to its nutrient content. We tested the hypothesis that differential HM total calorie content (TCC) or macronutrient contents may be associated with infancy growth. Methods: HM hindmilk sam

  12. Roots, plant production and nutrient use efficiency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigen, de P.; Noordwijk, van M.

    1987-01-01

    The role of roots in obtaining high crop production levels as well as a high nutrient use efficiency is discussed. Mathematical models of diffusion and massflow of solutes towards roots are developed for a constant daily uptake requirement. Analytical solutions are given for simple and more complica

  13. Biological Nutrient Removal in Compact Biofilm Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassin, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The removal of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus from both domestic and industrial wastewaters is imperative since they potentially harm the environment. One of the main consequences of excessive availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in aquatic ecosystems (freshwater, marine and estuarine)

  14. Nutrient Digestion and Utilization in Farm Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebreab, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; France, J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present current research in modelling nutrient digestion and utilization in cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry and fish. The book is organised into six sections that cover a range of topics and modelling approaches; these are (i) absorption and passage; (ii) growth and devel

  15. NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  16. 75 FR 8272 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Acquisition Strategies To Ensure Competition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Regulation Supplement; Acquisition Strategies To Ensure Competition Throughout the Life Cycle of Major... Reform Act of 2009, section 202, Acquisition Strategies to Ensure Competition throughout the Lifecycle of... requirements. Section 202 directs the Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) to ensure that the acquisition strategy...

  17. The Status of Functional Categories in Child Second Language Acquisition: Evidence from the Acquisition of CP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haznedar, Belma

    2003-01-01

    Examines the status of the functional categories in child second language (L2) acquisition of English. Results from longitudinally-collected data are reported, presenting counterevidence for recent hypotheses on early L2 acquisition that assume the following: (1) structure building approach according to which the acquisition of functional…

  18. 76 FR 30362 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Acquisition of Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Acquisition of Helium AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General... previously approved information collection requirement concerning acquisition of helium. Public comments are... Collection 9000- 0113, Acquisition of Helium, by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov :...

  19. 75 FR 19167 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-41; Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulations; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-41; Introduction; FAR Case 2009-005... Acquisition Circular 2005-41; Introduction AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services... Government is $25 million or more in order to promote economy and efficiency in Federal procurement. The...

  20. 75 FR 54524 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Acquisition Strategies To Ensure Competition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...DoD is adopting as final, without change, an interim rule amending the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to implement the Weapon Systems Acquisition Reform Act of 2009, to improve the organization and procedures of DoD for the acquisition of major weapon...

  1. Recapturing nutrients from dairy waste using biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkhot, D.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Berhe, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    Biochar or biomass derived black carbon is known to be highly resistant to decomposition with half-life periods ranging from hundreds of years to millennia. It is also reported to enhance soil productivity due to high nutrient retention and favorable effects on soil pH, water retention capacity as well as microbial population. Brazilian Terra Preta soils have shown the potential of biochar for long-term carbon sequestration capacity and productivity of soil and many researchers have now focused on utilizing this phenomenon to create fertile, carbon-rich soils, called Terra Preta Nova. Although the highly adsorptive nature of biochar is well characterized, the potential for using biochar in environmental cleanup efforts is relatively unexplored. Dairy waste is a source of significant water pollution because it introduces excess nutrients such as phosphates and nitrates into the soil and water system. Since many soils have limited capacity to retain nitrate and phosphate, especially for long periods of time, the utility of dairy waste manure to enhance soil fertility and nutrient availability to plants is limited. Here, we present results from a project that we started to determine the potential of biochar to recover the excess nutrients from dairy flushed manure. In this initial study, a commercially available biochar amendment was ground and used in a batch sorption experiment with the dairy flushed manure from a local dairy in Merced, California. Four manure dilutions viz. 10, 25, 50 and 100%, and three shaking times, viz. 1, 12 and 24 hours were used for this study. We then calculated the amount of ammonia, nitrate and phosphate adsorbed by the biochar using differences in nutrient concentrations before and after the sorption experiment. Biochar showed significant capacity of adsorbing these nutrients, suggesting a potential for controlling the dairy pollution. The resulting enriched biochar can potentially act as a slow release fertilizer and enhance soil

  2. Effects of cadmium on uptake and translocation of nutrient elements in different welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuhui; Zhou, Qixing; Sun, Xiaoyin; Ren, Wenjie

    2016-03-01

    The concentration of nutrient elements is an important quality characteristic of vegetables, and the variation in accumulation among cultivars can provide clues about the mechanism of low accumulation of heavy metals. Pot-culture experiments were arranged under four cadmium (Cd) treatments (CK, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0mg/kg) to explore influences of Cd on the accumulation of nutrient elements in 25 welsh onion cultivars. There were significant positive correlations (ponion. PMID:26471532

  3. Urea encapsulation in modified starch matrix for nutrients retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Muhammad Yasin; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Ariff, Mohd. Hazwan Bin Mohd.; Ariwahjoedi, Bambang

    2014-10-01

    It has been estimated that 20-70% of the used urea goes to the environment via leaching, nitrification and volatilization which not only harms the environment but also reduces the urea efficiency. By coating the urea granules, the farmers can achieve high urea performance through controlling the excess release of nitrogen. Up until now, different materials have been tested for nutrients retention. However, most of them are either expensive or unfriendly to the environment. Being cheap and biodegradable materials, the starches may also be used to coat the urea fertilizer for controlling the nutrients release. However, the pure starches do not meet the standards set by many industrial processes due to their slow tacking and too low viscosities and should be modified for getting smooth, compact and mechanically stronger coatings. In these studies, the tapioca starch was modified by reacting it with urea and different masses of borax. The prepared solutions were used to coat the urea granules of 3.45 mm average diameter. Different volumes (1, 1.5 and 2 mL) of each solution were used to coat 30 g of urea fluidized above the minimum level of fluidization. It was noticed that the coating thickness, percent coating, dissolution rate and percent release follow an increasing trend with an increase of solution volume; however, some random results were obtained while investigating the solution volume effects on the percent release. It was seen that the nutrients percent release over time increases with an increase in solution volume from 1 to 1.5 mL and thereafter reaches to a steady state. It confirms that the 1.5 mL of solution for 30 g urea samples will give the optimized coating results.

  4. Nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatites: synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.

    1999-01-01

    Incorporation of Mg, S, and plant-essential micronutrients into the structure of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) may be advantageous for closed-loop systems, such as will be required on Lunar and Martian outposts, because these apatites can be used as slow-release fertilizers. Our objective was to synthesize HA with Ca, P, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo, B, and Cl incorporated into the structure, i.e., nutrient-substituted apatites. Hydroxyapatite, carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHA), nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatite (NHA), and nutrient-substituted carbonate hydroxyapatite (NCHA) were synthesized by precipitating from solution. Chemical and mineralogical analysis of precipitated samples indicated a considerable fraction of the added cations were incorporated into HA, without mineral impurities. Particle size of the HA was in the 1 to 40 nm range, and decreased with increased substitution of nutrient elements. The particle shape of HA was elongated in the c-direction in unsubstituted HA and NHA but more spherical in CHA and NCHA. The substitution of cations and anions in the HA structure was confirmed by the decrease of the d[002] spacing of HA with substitution of ions with an ionic radius less than that of Ca or P. The DTPA-extractable Cu ranged from 8 to 8429 mg kg-1, Zn ranged from 57 to 1279 mg kg-1, Fe from 211 to 2573 mg kg-1, and Mn from 190 to 1719 mg kg-1, depending on the substitution level of each element in HA. Nutrient-substituted HA has the potential to be used as a slow-release fertilizer to supply micronutrients, S, and Mg in addition to Ca and P.

  5. MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF CORPORATE FINANCE IN UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Lagutina, K.

    2010-01-01

    In the article financial problems of mergers, acquisitions and joinings in the corporate sector of the economy of Ukraine are considered. Prospects of the development of ukrainian corporate finance are depicted. Ways of improvement of financial mechanism of M&A are proposed. Relation between the effectiveness of M&A mechanism and the level of development of the stock market is established.

  6. 48 CFR 873.105 - Acquisition planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... team should include the small business advocate representing the contracting activity or a higher level... identify interested businesses. It is the responsibility of the contracting officer to ensure the... documentation of the acquisition plan, the contracting officer may conduct an acquisition strategy meeting...

  7. Teacher Trainees' Information Acquisition in Lesson Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanni, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies have addressed teacher trainees' information acquisition in the context of a task. The paper reports findings from an empirical study on teacher trainees' use of information (seeking) channels and sources, and their modes of information acquisition in lesson planning. Method: Semi-structured (retrospectively held)…

  8. 78 FR 45168 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... of Energy (DOE) published a proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register (78 FR 35195) to amend the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to add export control requirements applicable to the... Parts 925, 952 and 970 RIN 1991-AB99 Acquisition Regulations: Export Control AGENCY: Department...

  9. Mergers & Acquisitions: Counseling and Choice of Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    MERGERS & ACQUISITIONS: Counseling and Choice of Method describes and analyzes the current state of law in Europe in regard to some relevant selected elements related to mergers and acquisitions, and the adviser’s counsel in this regard. The focus is aimed and maintained at application...

  10. Managing in a merger and acquisition era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdren, R C

    1990-01-01

    Medical group administrators are quickly learning what big business has known for years-mergers and acquisitions represent a new and powerful option. If this option is to be employed successfully, however, group management has to understand the terms and be prepared well before merger or acquisition talk begins.

  11. 16 CFR 801.4 - Secondary acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... corporation. B's voting securities are cancelled, and B's shareholders are to receive cash in return. Since S... acquired, by virtue of § 801.2(d)(2) “A” is an acquiring person only. The acquisition of the minority... thereby gains control of that subsidiary, B will make secondary acquisitions of any minority holdings...

  12. 77 FR 59339 - Acquisition of Commercial Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 212 Acquisition of Commercial Items CFR Correction 212.504 In Title 48 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 2 (Parts 201--299), revised as of...

  13. EBT data acquisition and analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burris, R.D.; Greenwood, D.E.; Stanton, J.S.; Geoffroy, K.A.

    1980-10-01

    This document describes the design and implementation of a data acquisition and analysis system for the EBT fusion experiment. The system includes data acquisition on five computers, automatic transmission of that data to a large, central data base, and a powerful data retrieval system. The system is flexible and easy to use, and it provides a fully documented record of the experiments.

  14. Child Language Acquisition: Contrasting Theoretical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambridge, Ben; Lieven, Elena V. M.

    2011-01-01

    Is children's language acquisition based on innate linguistic structures or built from cognitive and communicative skills? This book summarises the major theoretical debates in all of the core domains of child language acquisition research (phonology, word-learning, inflectional morphology, syntax and binding) and includes a complete introduction…

  15. Application of Krashen's L2 Acquisition Hypothesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范丽

    2008-01-01

    In the search for better approaches to teaching in China,Krashen's second language acquisition theory comes into their sight.In this essay some problems with existing teaching practice are first of all listed.Then Krmhen's second language acquisition theories are introduced.In the third part,a detailed instruction of the theory is given.

  16. Programmatic Ahistoricity in Second Language Acquisition Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that, despite some perceptions, second language acquisition theory has a history. Disputes arguments that might be formulated to support the notion that second language acquisition theory has no relevant earlier history, enumerates consequences of maintaining this belief, and speculates about benefits to the field that might accrue from…

  17. Data acquisition at JET: Experience and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the evolution of the data acquisition process at JET since June 1983. The evolution of Software, Hardware and volume of data is reviewed. The analysis of the performance of a multicomputer data acquisition system has required modelling of the various components. The effects of data compression have recently been analyzed and included in the model. Guidelines for future projects are derived

  18. 75 FR 10567 - Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... proposed rule published on October 13, 2009 in the Federal Register (74 FR 52541). The document is also... Commerce 48 CFR Chapter 13 Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR); Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... Chapter 13 RIN 0605-AA26 Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR) AGENCY: Department of Commerce...

  19. The acquisition of particle verbs in Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, R.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the acquisition of particle verbs in Dutch. Based on longitudinal child data it shows how children acquire lexical categories V, A and P and how they acquire the complex predicate status of particle verbs. It shows that the acquisition of categories A and P is dependen

  20. Second Language Acquisition and Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tragant, Elsa; Muñoz, Carmen

    2004-01-01

    After discussing the ties between language teaching and second language acquisition research, the present paper reviews the role that second language acquisition research has played on two recent pedagogical proposals. First, communicative language teaching, advocated in the early eighties, in which focus on the code was excluded, and then the…

  1. Acquisitions and Real Options : The Greenfield Alternative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouthers, Keith D.; Dikova, Desislava

    2010-01-01

    P>Although acquisitions are a popular way to enter new markets, empirical evidence tends to indicate few benefits accrue to acquiring firms. This might be the case because firms use acquisitions when they should be employing an alternative mode of expansion. Applying real options theory to this issu

  2. Input and Intake in Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents an approach for a productive way forward in the study of language acquisition, sealing the rift between claims of an innate linguistic hypothesis space and powerful domain general statistical inference. This approach breaks language acquisition into its component parts, distinguishing the input in the environment from…

  3. Child Second Language Acquisition of Syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Usha

    1995-01-01

    Reviews recent research in universal grammar-based child second language acquisition (SLA) research, arguing that child SLA studies can better explore the role of biological factors in language acquisition and strengthen the links between SLA and linguistic theory. (129 references) (MDM)

  4. New Dimensions in Second Language Acquisition Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Roger W., Ed.

    The following papers are included: (1) "Some Common Goals for Second and First Language Acquisition Research" by Kenji Hakuta; (2) "Research on the Measurement of Affective Variables: Some Remaining Questions" by John W. Oller, Jr.; (3) "The Effects of Neurological Age on Nonprimary Language Acquisition" by Thomas Scovel; (4) "Exceptions to…

  5. 外加阴离子吸附剂对复合污染黄土淋洗过程养分淋失的减缓机制(Ⅱ)%Study on the Mechanism to Ease the Leaching Effect of Nutrient in the Multi-Contaminated Loess Washing Process with the Addition of Anion Adso rbent (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范春辉; 高雅琳; 张颖超; 常敏

    2016-01-01

    The soil washing technology is commonly used to remediate contaminated soils because of its advantages of low cost , ease handling and environmental‐friendly .However ,it should be noticed that the nutrient might leach simultaneously from soil in the washing process ,and the technical solution of the issue will greatly accelerate the application process of washing technolo‐gy in site remediation .This paper aims to reveal the regulating mechanism of synthesized anion adsorbent from straw on nutrient leaching potential through approaches of adsorption equilibrium models (isotherms and kinetics) and spectral analysis instru‐ments (SEM and FTIR) .The results showed :the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo second order kinetic equation fit better the ad‐sorption behavior of nitrate and phosphate .The maximum adsorption capacity (qm ) ,calculated with Langmuir isotherm ,are 7.507 5 and 4.194 6 mg · g -1 ,respectively ,and the reaction belongs to the monolayer and favorable adsorption with chemical adsorption the rate‐determining step .The activation energy of adsorption for nitrate and phosphate at 298 K are 42.25 and 39.38 kJ · mol-1 ,respectively ,and the reaction is spontaneous and endothermic .The purified water and KOH solution are effective for the regeneration of anion adsorbent ,the desorption effect is better for the assistance of ultrasonic sound and longer desorption time .The surface of anion adsorbent after adsorption is covered with particles ,while less spray‐like component appears after de‐sorption with purified water .The movement of vibration peaks in FTIR spectra indicates the effect of electrostatic interaction in the reaction .The adsorption of nitrate and phosphate on anion adsorbent involves simultaneously the effects of physical and chemical adsorption .%化学淋洗法是常用的污染场地修复方法,其经济性、简便性、安全性等指标较其他方法有较大优势。化学淋洗法存在的弊端之一是淋洗过程

  6. Acquisition, learning, or development of language? Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Ornat, Susana; Gallo, Pilar

    2004-11-01

    In 1957, Skinner, in his "Verbal Behavior", proposed an explanation on how a language is learned. In 1959, Chomsky strongly argued the non-learnability of language, establishing in the field of developmental psycholinguistics the substitution of the term "learning" for that of "acquisition". Currently, the constructivist models describe language acquisition as a process of ontogenetic, gradual, complex, and adaptive change. This new theoretical framework has been especially useful for rereading Verbal Behavior because it facilitates recovering the Skinnerian learning mechanisms. This can be observed in the recent research trends that recapture reinforcement and imitation (echoic responses), although they are now located in the initial phases of the process and are included in a cognitive dynamic that, by gradually increasing its complexity, can achieve grammar. The new constructivist theoretical framework, by retrieving the functional and referential aspects of language, can also take advantage of the classic Skinnerian proposal about the pragmatic types of verbal behavior, providing it with new meaning. PMID:15581237

  7. IT Consultants in Acquisition IT Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Øhrgaard, Christian

    2016-01-01

    strategic IT initiatives and how companies can draw effectively on their services. The paper investigates the use of consultants in relation to one type of major strategic IT initiative: acquisition IT integration. Acquisition IT integration, which is the integration of the acquirer’s and target......’s IT following a corporate acquisition, presents a difficult but crucial IT challenge for the many acquiring organizations. Through a comparative case study of four acquirers, theoretically grounded in the resource-based view of the firm, it is analyzed how acquirers draw on external consultants to realize...... acquisition IT integration. Two complementary and two supplementary roles consultants assume in these projects are identified. Additionally, three characteristics of the acquisition IT integration strategy are identified that influence how the acquirers assign different roles to IT consultants. The resulting...

  8. Nutrient deifciency limits population development, yield formation, and nutrient uptake of direct sown winter oilseed rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yin; LIU Tao; LI Xiao-kun; REN Tao; CONG Ri-huan; LU Jian-wei

    2015-01-01

    Direct-sowing establishment method has great signiifcance in improving winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) production and guaranteeing edible oil security in China. However, nutrient responses on direct sown winter oilseed rape (DOR) performance and population development dynamic are stil not wel understood. Therefore, ifve on-farm experiments were conducted in the reaches of the Yangtze River (RYR) to determine the effects of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) deifciencies on population density, dry matter production, nutrient uptake, seed yield, and yield components of DOR plants. Four fertilization treatments included the balanced NPK application treatment (NPK, 180 kg N, 39.3 kg P, 100 kg K, and 1.8 kg borax ha–1) and three nutrient deifciency treatments based on the NPK treatment, i.e.,–N,–P, and–K. The results indicated that DOR population density declined gradual y throughout the growing season, especial y at over-wintering and pod-development stages. Nutrient deifciency decreased nutrient concentration in DOR plants, limited dry matter production and nutrient uptake, and thereby exacerbated density reduction during plants growth. The poor individual growth and reduced population density together decreased seed yield in the nutrient deifciency treatment. Averaged across al the experiments, seed yield reduced 61% by N deifciency, 38.3% by P deifciency, and 14.4% by K deifciency. The negative effects of nutrient deifciency on DOR performances fol owed the order of–N>–P>–K, and the effects were various among different nutrient deifciencies. Although N deifciency improved DOR emergence, but it seriously limited dry matter production and nutrient uptake, which in turn led to substantial plants death and therefore resulted in a very low harvested density. The P deifciency signiifcantly reduced initial density, limited plants growth, and exacerbated density reduction. The K deifciency mainly decreased individual growth and yield, but

  9. Plant traits mediate consumer and nutrient control on plant community productivity and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Anu; Harrison, Susan; Tuomi, Maria

    2012-12-01

    The interactive effects of consumers and nutrients on terrestrial plant communities, and the role of plant functional traits in mediating these responses, are poorly known. We carried out a six-year full-factorial field experiment using mammalian herbivore exclusion and fertilization in two habitat types (fertile and infertile alpine tundra heaths) that differed in plant functional traits related to resource acquisition and palatability. Infertile habitats were dominated by species with traits indicative of a slow-growing strategy: high C:N ratio, low specific leaf area, and high condensed tannins. We found that herbivory counteracted the effect of fertilization on biomass, and that this response differed between the two habitats and was correlated with plant functional traits. Live biomass dominated the treatment responses in infertile habitats, whereas litter accumulation dominated the treatment responses in fertile habitats and was strongly negatively associated with resident community tannin concentration. Species richness declined under herbivore exclusion and fertilization in fertile habitats, where litter accumulation was greatest. Community means of plant C:N ratio predicted treatment effects on diversity: fertilization decreased and herbivory increased dominance in communities originally dominated by plants with high C:N, while fertilization increased and herbivory diminished dominance in communities where low C:N species were abundant. Our results highlight the close interdependence between consumer effects, soil nutrients, and plant functional traits and suggest that plant traits may provide an improved understanding of how consumers and nutrients influence plant community productivity and diversity.

  10. Nutrient stripping: the global disparity between food security and soil nutrient stocks

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Davey L; Cross, Paul; Withers, Paul J. A.; DeLuca, Thomas H; Robinson, David A; Quilliam, Richard S.; Harris, Ian M.; Chadwick, David R.; Edwards-Jones, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    1. The Green Revolution successfully increased food production but in doing so created a legacy of inherently leaky and unsustainable agricultural systems. Central to this are the problems of excessive nutrient mining. If agriculture is to balance the needs of food security with the delivery of other ecosystem services, then current rates of soil nutrient stripping must be reduced and the use of synthetic fertilisers made more efficient. 2. We explore the global extent of the problem, with...

  11. 48 CFR 1.102-3 - Acquisition team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition team. 1.102-3... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 1.102-3 Acquisition team. The purpose of defining the Federal Acquisition Team (Team) in the Guiding Principles is to ensure that participants in...

  12. Host control and nutrient trading in a photosynthetic symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Andrew D; Minter, Ewan J A; Sørensen, Megan E S; Lowe, Christopher D; Cameron, Duncan D; Brockhurst, Michael A; Jamie Wood, A

    2016-09-21

    Photosymbiosis is one of the most important evolutionary trajectories, resulting in the chloroplast and the subsequent development of all complex photosynthetic organisms. The ciliate Paramecium bursaria and the alga Chlorella have a well established and well studied light dependent endosymbiotic relationship. Despite its prominence, there remain many unanswered questions regarding the exact mechanisms of the photosymbiosis. Of particular interest is how a host maintains and manages its symbiont load in response to the allocation of nutrients between itself and its symbionts. Here we construct a detailed mathematical model, parameterised from the literature, that explicitly incorporates nutrient trading within a deterministic model of both partners. The model demonstrates how the symbiotic relationship can manifest as parasitism of the host by the symbionts, mutualism, wherein both partners benefit, or exploitation of the symbionts by the hosts. We show that the precise nature of the photosymbiosis is determined by both environmental conditions (how much light is available for photosynthesis) and the level of control a host has over its symbiont load. Our model provides a framework within which it is possible to pose detailed questions regarding the evolutionary behaviour of this important example of an established light dependent endosymbiosis; we focus on one question in particular, namely the evolution of host control, and show using an adaptive dynamics approach that a moderate level of host control may evolve provided the associated costs are not prohibitive. PMID:26925812

  13. Salinization Enhances Mobilization of Nutrients from Sediments to Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, S.; Kaushal, S.; Hohman, S.; Coplin, J.; Duan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Many regions of the U.S. and elsewhere are experiencing increased salinization of freshwater due to the widespread application of road salts. Increased salinization has the potential to release stored nutrients from sediments, decrease biodiversity, and perturb water quality. We conducted laboratory experiments to investigate the potential effects of road salt (NaCl) on nutrient mobilization from sediments to stream water. Sediments and stream water were incubated from 2 urbanizing watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay in the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan area. Stream sediment was incubated from 11 routinely monitored streams exhibiting a land use gradient within the Baltimore Ecosystem Study Long-Term Ecological Research (BES LTER) site and Anacostia River watershed. Our results indicate that salinization increased the release of soluble reactive phosphorus and total dissolved nitrogen at all sites. The release of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved inorganic carbon varied between sites, and these differential responses may be due to: stream sediment composition, organic matter content, and ambient water quality. The magnitude and frequency of road salt application may be amplified in the near future due to the interactive effects of climate variability and urbanization, and our research suggests this can have water quality and ecological implications for freshwater ecosystems. Further research is necessary to elucidate driving mechanisms of changes in sediment biogeochemical cycles in response to salinization and the temporal response of freshwater ecosystems.

  14. Linking runoff and erosion dynamics to nutrient fluxes in a degrading dryland landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, Katerina; Lister, Debbie; Wainwright, John; Parsons, Anthony J.

    2012-12-01

    Current theories of land degradation assume that shifts in vegetation communities result in changes to the rates and patterns of water and sediment movement, which are vectors of nutrient redistribution. This nutrient redistribution is hypothesized to reinforce, through positive feedbacks, progressive vegetation changes toward a more degraded ecosystem. A key component of this theory, which is currently poorly resolved, is the relative role of runoff and erosion in driving nutrient fluxes from different vegetation types. We address this gap through a series of field-based, rainfall-simulation experiments designed to explore plant-level dynamics of runoff- and erosion-driven nutrient fluxes of N, P and K species. Our results highlight important linkages between physical and biogeochemical processes that are controlled by plant structure. We found that: 1) the magnitude of sediment-bound nutrient export is determined by the grain-size distribution of the eroded sediment and the total sediment yield; 2) the partitioning of nutrients in dissolved and sediment-bound form is determined by the availability and concentration of different nutrient species in the soil or rainfall; 3) these processes varied according to vegetation type and resulted in stark differences between degrading and invading plant communities. Specifically, we observed that grassland areas consistently exported the highest yields of sediment-bound N, P and K despite producing similar erosion rates to shrub and intershrub areas. Our results have implications for better understanding how grassland areas are being replaced by shrubs and provide insights into the mechanisms of continuing land degradation in drylands.

  15. Nutrient release, recovery and removal from waste sludge of a biological nutrient removal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Zheng, Shu-Jian; Pei, Li-Ying; Ke, Li; Peng, Dang-Cong; Xia, Si-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The uncontrolled release of nutrients from waste sludge results in nitrogen and phosphorus overloading in wastewater treatment plants when supernatant is returned to the inlet. A controlled release, recovery and removal of nutrient from the waste sludge of a Biological Nutrient Removal system (BNR) are investigated. Results showed that the supernatant was of high mineral salt, high electrical conductivity and poor biodegradability, in addition to high nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations after the waste sludge was hydrolysed through sodium dodecyl sulphate addition. Subsequently, over 91.8% of phosphorus and 10.5% of nitrogen in the supernatants were extracted by the crystallization method under the conditions of 9.5 pH and 400 rpm. The precipitate was mainly struvite according to X-ray diffraction and morphological examination. A multistage anoxic-oxic Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) was then adopted to remove the residual carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in the supernatant. The MBBR exhibited good performance in simultaneously removing carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus under a short aeration time, which accounted for 31.25% of a cycle. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that nitrifiers presented mainly in floc, although higher extracellular polymeric substance content, especially DNA, appeared in the biofilm. Thus, a combination of hydrolysis and precipitation, followed by the MBBR, can complete the nutrient release from the waste sludge of a BNR system, recovers nutrients from the hydrolysed liquor and removes nutrients from leftovers effectively. PMID:25176308

  16. Can radiocaesium be used as a tracer for vegetal nutrients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the evaluation of nutrient fluxes and radioactive contaminants in forest and agricultural ecosystems. Several studies on forest ecosystems have been carried out, mostly in Europe, after the Chernobyl accident. These studies have been performed mainly in the development of models for predicting the radiocaesium behavior in the soil and plant compartments of forest systems. However, research on the use of radiocaesium as a tracer for vegetal nutrients has shown that, despite the fact that caesium is a weakly hydrated alkaline metal and has chemical similarities to potassium and ammonium, this is still a complex problem requiring, then, more experimental results. Additionally, very little is known about the mechanisms involved in the radionuclide uptake and retention by tropical plants. In order to contribute to the understanding of the relative behavior of caesium, potassium and ammonium and to investigate whether radiocaesium can be used as a tracer for vegetal nutrients, the Laboratory of Radioecology (LARA) of the Federal Fluminense University has been performing analysis of 137Cs, 40K and NH4concentrations in several vegetal compartments of agricultural tropical plants, such as guava (Psidium guajava), mango (Mangifera indica), avocado (Persea americana), pomegranate (Punica granatum), papaya (Carica Papaya), banana (Musa paradisiaca), manioc (Manihot Esculenta), and chili pepper (Capsicum fructescens) trees. Measurements of 137Cs, 40K and NH4concentrations show that these elements can be very mobile within a plant, exhibiting the highest values of concentration in the growing parts of the trees: fruits, leaves, twigs, barks and the outer growth layers. On the other hand, our results indicate that for wood trees (such as guava, mango, avocado, pomegranate and chili pepper trees) do both caesium and the vegetal nutrients have simultaneously higher concentrations in the youngest rather than in the oldest parts

  17. What drives interannual variability of hypoxia in Chesapeake Bay: Climate forcing versus nutrient loading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Lee, Younjoo J.; Testa, Jeremy M.; Li, Yun; Ni, Wenfei; Kemp, W. Michael; Di Toro, Dominic M.

    2016-03-01

    Oxygen depletion in estuaries is a worldwide problem with detrimental effects on many organisms. Although nutrient loading has been stabilized for a number of these systems, seasonal hypoxia persists and displays large year-to-year variations, with larger hypoxic volumes in wetter years and smaller hypoxic volumes in drier years. Data analysis points to climate as a driver of interannual hypoxia variability, but nutrient inputs covary with freshwater flow. Here we report an oxygen budget analysis of Chesapeake Bay to quantify relative contributions of physical and biogeochemical processes. Vertical diffusive flux declines with river discharge, whereas longitudinal advective flux increases with river discharge, such that their total supply of oxygen to bottom water is relatively unchanged. However, water column respiration exhibits large interannual fluctuations and is correlated with primary production and hypoxic volume. Hence, the model results suggest that nutrient loading is the main mechanism driving interannual hypoxia variability in Chesapeake Bay.

  18. Nontronite and Montmorillonite as Nutrient Sources for Life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickol, R. L.; Craig, P. I.; Kral, T. A.

    2016-05-01

    Methanogens were grown in media containing bicarbonate buffer, nontronite or montmorillonite clay, and hydrogen gas. No other nutrients were added. These results suggest that martian clays may provide adequate nutrients to support organism growth.

  19. Soil microbial nutrient constraints along a tropical forest elevation gradient: a belowground test of a biogeochemical paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Nottingham

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aboveground primary productivity is widely considered to be limited by phosphorus (P availability in lowland tropical forests and by nitrogen (N availability in montane tropical forests. However, the extent to which this paradigm applies to belowground processes remains unresolved. We measured indices of soil microbial nutrient status in lowland, sub-montane and montane tropical forests along a natural gradient spanning 3400 m in elevation in the Peruvian Andes. With increasing elevation there were marked increases in soil concentrations of total N, total P, and readily-extractable P, but a decrease in N mineralization determined by in situ resin bags. Microbial carbon (C and N increased with increasing elevation, but microbial C:N:P ratios were relatively constant, suggesting homeostasis. The activity of hydrolytic enzymes, which are rich in N, decreased with increasing elevation, while the ratios of enzymes involved in the acquisition of N and P increased with increasing elevation, further indicating a shift in the relative demand for N and P by microbial biomass. We conclude that soil microorganisms shift investment in nutrient acquisition from P to N between lowland and montane tropical forests, suggesting that different nutrients regulate soil microbial metabolism and the soil carbon balance in these ecosystems.

  20. Mobile field data acquisition in geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golodoniuc, Pavel; Klump, Jens; Reid, Nathan; Gray, David

    2016-04-01

    module also features an interactive GIS component allowing to enter field observations as annotations to a map. The open communication protocols and file formats used by FAIMS modules allow easy integration with existing spatial data infrastructures and third-party applications, such as ArcGIS. The remoteness of the focus areas in the Capricorn region required reliable mechanisms for data replication and an added level of redundancy. This was achieved through the use of the FAIMS Server without adding a tightly coupled dependency on it - the mobile devices could continue to work independently in the case the server fails. To support collaborative fieldwork, "FAIMS on a Truck" offers networked collaboration within a field team using mobile applications as asynchronous rich clients. The framework runs on compatible Android devices (e.g., tablets, smart phones) with the network infrastructure supported by a FAIMS Server. The server component is installed in a field vehicle to provide data synchronisation between multiple mobile devices, backup and data transfer. The data entry process was streamlined and followed the workflow that field crews were accustomed to with added data validation capabilities. The use of a common platform allowed us to adopt the framework within multiple disciplines, improve data acquisition times, and reduce human-introduced errors. We continue to work with other research groups and continue to explore the possibilities to adopt the technology in other applications, e.g., agriculture.

  1. Nonrecirculating Hydroponic System Suitable for Uptake Studies at Very Low Nutrient Concentrations 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschick, Vincent P.; Kay, Lou Ellen

    1991-01-01

    We describe the mechanical, electronic, hydraulic, and structural design of a nonrecirculating hydroponic system. The system is particularly suited to studies at very low nutrient concentrations, for which on-line concentration monitoring methods either do not exist or are costly and limited to monitoring relatively few individual plants. Solutions are mixed automatically to chosen concentrations, which can be set differently for every pump fed from a master supply of deionized water and nutrient concentrates. Pumping rates can be varied over a 50-fold range, up to 400 liters per day, which suffices to maintain a number of large, post-seedling plants in rapid growth at (sub)micromolar levels of N and P. The outflow of each pump is divided among as many as 12 separate root chambers. In each chamber one may monitor uptake by individual plant roots or segments thereof, by measuring nutrient depletion in batch samples of solution. The system is constructed from nontoxic materials that do not adsorb nutrient ions; no transient shifts of nitrate and phosphate concentrations are observable at the submicromolar level. Nonrecirculation of solutions limits problems of pH shifts, microbial contamination, and cumulative imbalances in unmonitored nutrients. We note several disadvantages, principally related to high consumption of deionized water and solutes. The reciprocating pumps can be constructed inexpensively, particularly by the researcher. We also report previously unattainable control of passive temperature rise of chambers exposed to full sunlight, by use of white epoxy paint. PMID:16668100

  2. Nonrecirculating hydroponic systems suitable for uptake studies at very low nutrient concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutschick, V.P.; Kay, L.E. (New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces (USA))

    1991-04-01

    The authors describe the mechanical, electronic, hydraulic, and structural design of a nonrecirculating hydroponic system. The system is particularly suited to sutides at very low nutrient concentratons, for which on-line concentration monitoring methods either do not exist or are costly and limited to monitoring relatively few indivitual plants. Solutions are mised automatically to chosen concentrations, which can be set differently for every pump fed from a master supply of deionized water and nutrient concentrates. Pumping rates can be varied over a 50-fold range, up to 400 liters per day, which suffices to maintain a number of large, post-seedling plants in rapid growth at (sub)micromolar levels of N and P. The outflow of each pump is divided among as many as 12 separate root chambers. In each changer one may monitor uptake by individual plant roots or segments thereof, by measuring nutrient depletion in batch samples of solution. The system is constructed from nontoxic materials that do not adsorb nutrient ions; no transient shifts of nitrate and phosphate concentrations are observable at the submicromolar level. Nonrecirculaton of solution limits porblems of pH shifts, microbial contamination, and cumulative imbalances in unmonitored nutrients. They note several disadvantages, principally related to high consumption of deionized water and solutes. The reciprocating pumps can be constructed inexpensively, particularly by the researcher. They also report previously unattainable control of passive temperature rise of chambers exposed to full sunlight, by use of white epoxy paint.

  3. Responses in root physiological characteristics of Vallisneria natans (Hydrocharitaceae to increasing nutrient loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai X.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We selected the submerged macrophyte Vallisneria natans (Lour. Hara for investigating the effects of nutrient loadings (nitrogen (N-phosphorus (P in mg·L-1: (1 0.5, 0.05; (2 1.0, 0.1; (3 5.0, 0.5; (4 10.0, 1.0 on root physiological characteristics using sand culture during the growth season (June to October. Results showed that the best root growth was in macrophytes exposed to moderate nutrient conditions (N-P 2, in 1.0 and 0.10 mg· L-1, and high nutrient loadings induced declines in root growth. Analysis of root antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD and catalase (CAT activities, protein content and cell ultrastructure revealed that the root of V. natans was subject to the stress of senescence during the end of the growth season. Moreover, high nutrient loadings increased oxidative stress in aging roots of V. natans, and made the cell ultrastructure of roots vulnerable to damage during senescence. The results for the changes in CAT activity suggest that CAT can serve as an important component of antioxidant defense mechanism in aging roots of V. natans to protect against nutrient loading induced oxidative injury in the early period.

  4. Mycorrhizas effects on nutrient interception in two riparian grass species

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Asghari; Timothy Richard Cavagnaro

    2014-01-01

    Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on plant growth and soil nutrient depletion are well known, but their roles as nutrient interceptor in riparian areas are less clear. The effects of AM fungi on growth, soil nutrient depletion and nutrient leaching were investigated in columns with two riparian grass species. Mycorrhizal and non mycorrhizal (NM) plants were grown in a mixture of riparian soil and sand (60% and 40%, w/w respectively) for 8 weeks under glasshouse conditions. Mycorrhi...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING IN AGRICULTURE: NUTRIENT ACCOUNTING AND OTHER ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    URFI, P.; ZS BACSI; SÁRDI, K.; P POLGÁR; SOMOGYI, T.

    2002-01-01

    While traditional accounting focuses on accounting for capital assets, costs, yields valued and sold in the market, environmental accounting intends to do the same with non-marketed capital assets, costs and yields, that is, externalities. The farm level nutrient balances are based on an input-output comparison, in which the nutrients entering the farm within inputs are compared to nutrients leaving the farm within the sold products. The method considers the amounts of nutrients entering the ...

  6. Nutrient recycling from bio-digestion waste as green fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Vaneeckhaute, Céline; Michels, Evi; Tack, Filip; Meers, Erik

    2012-01-01

    In the transition from a fossil to a bio-based economy, it has become an important challenge to maximally recuperate valuable nutrients coming from waste streams. Nutrient resources are rapidly depleting, significant amounts of fossil energy are used for the production of chemical fertilizers, whereas costs for energy and fertilizers are increasing. In the meantime, biogas production through anaerobic digestion produces nutrient-rich digestates. In high-nutrient regions, these products cannot...

  7. The acquisition process of musical tonal schema: Implications from connectionist modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie eMatsunaga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Using connectionist modeling, we address fundamental questions concerning the acquisition process of musical tonal schema of listeners. Compared to models of previous studies, our connectionist model (LeNTS was better equipped to fulfill three basic requirements. Specifically, LeNTS was equipped with a learning mechanism, bound by culture-general properties, and trained by sufficient melody materials. When exposed to Western music, LeNTS acquired musical ‘scale’ sensitivity early and ‘harmony’ sensitivity later. The order of acquisition of scale and harmony sensitivities shown by LeNTS was consistent with the culture-specific acquisition order shown by musically westernized children. The implications of these results for the acquisition process of a tonal schema of listeners are as follows: (a the acquisition process may entail small and incremental changes, rather than large and stage-like changes, in corresponding neural circuits; (b the speed of schema acquisition may mainly depend on musical experiences rather than maturation; and (c the learning principles of schema acquisition may be culturally invariant while the acquired tonal schemas are varied with exposed culture-specific music.

  8. Intracellular Uropathogenic E. coli Exploits Host Rab35 for Iron Acquisition and Survival within Urinary Bladder Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Neha; Bist, Pradeep; Fenlon, Shannon N; Pulloor, Niyas Kudukkil; Chua, Christelle En Lin; Scidmore, Marci A; Carlyon, Jason A; Tang, Bor Luen; Chen, Swaine L; Sukumaran, Bindu

    2015-08-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) are common and morbid infections with limited therapeutic options. Previous studies have demonstrated that persistent intracellular infection of bladder epithelial cells (BEC) by UPEC contributes to recurrent UTI in mouse models of infection. However, the mechanisms employed by UPEC to survive within BEC are incompletely understood. In this study we aimed to understand the role of host vesicular trafficking proteins in the intracellular survival of UPEC. Using a cell culture model of intracellular UPEC infection, we found that the small GTPase Rab35 facilitates UPEC survival in UPEC-containing vacuoles (UCV) within BEC. Rab35 plays a role in endosomal recycling of transferrin receptor (TfR), the key protein responsible for transferrin-mediated cellular iron uptake. UPEC enhance the expression of both Rab35 and TfR and recruit these proteins to the UCV, thereby supplying UPEC with the essential nutrient iron. Accordingly, Rab35 or TfR depleted cells showed significantly lower intracellular iron levels and reduced ability to support UPEC survival. In the absence of Rab35, UPEC are preferentially trafficked to degradative lysosomes and killed. Furthermore, in an in vivo murine model of persistent intracellular infection, Rab35 also colocalizes with intracellular UPEC. We propose a model in which UPEC subverts two different vesicular trafficking pathways (endosomal recycling and degradative lysosomal fusion) by modulating Rab35, thereby simultaneously enhancing iron acquisition and avoiding lysosomal degradation of the UCV within bladder epithelial cells. Our findings reveal a novel survival mechanism of intracellular UPEC and suggest a potential avenue for therapeutic intervention against recurrent UTI.

  9. Porous membrane utilization in plant nutrient delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Hinkle, C. R.; Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M., III

    1987-01-01

    A spacecraft hydroponic plant growth unit of tubular configuration, employing a microporous membrane as a capilary interface between plant roots and a nutrient solution, is presented. All three of the experimental trials undertaken successfully grew wheat from seed to harvest. Attention is given to the mass/seed, number of seeds/head, ratio of seed dry mass to total plant dry mass, production of tillers, and mass of seed/plant. Dry matter production is found to be reduced with increasing suction pressure; this is true for both average seed and average total dry matter/plant. This may be due to a reduction in water and nutrient availability through the microporous membrane.

  10. Algal response to nutrient enrichment in a forested oligotrophic stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veraart, A.J.; Romani, A.M.; Tornes, E.; Sabater, S.

    2008-01-01

    Nutrient input in streams alters the density and species composition of attached algal communities in open systems. However, in forested streams, the light reaching the streambed (rather than the local nutrient levels) may limit the growth of these communities. A nutrient-enrichment experiment in a

  11. Nutrient export in tile drainage: Comparing manure injection to fertigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subsurface tile drainage of agricultural land is implicated as a major source of nutrients to the Mississippi River. To protect water quality, land application of manure should maximize crop nutrient use and minimize nutrient loss. Weather constraints and regulations restrict the period during which...

  12. Nutrient-gene interactions in benefit-risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesketh, J.; Wybranska, I.; Dommels, Y.E.M.; King, M.; Elliot, R.; Pico, C.; Keijer, J.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals respond differently to nutrients and foods. This is reflected in different levels of benefits and risks at the same intake of a nutrient and, consequently, different `windows of benefit' in terms of nutrient intake. This has led recently to the concept of `personalised nutrition'. Geneti

  13. Nutrient deficiencies of agricultural crops in Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; Bourke, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea the population is growing faster than the area under cultivation. As a result, land use is being intensified and soil nutrient depletion may occur, resulting in nutrient deficiencies of agricultural crops. This paper reviews nutrient deficiencies in the agricultural crops of Papu

  14. Biogeochemistry of Nutrient Elements in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Based on the biogeochemical studies on nutrient elements in the Changjiang estuary,the main results and recent progresses are reviewed in this paper, such as the nutrient fluxes into the sea, the mixing behaviors, the distribution characteristics and transportation as well as the biogeochemical behaviors of nutrients in the plume frontal region. The exploring directions and research emphases in the future are proposed.

  15. DETERMINANTS OF NUTRIENT DEMAND: A NONPARAMETRIC ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ramezani, Cyrus A.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of socioeconomic variables on nutrient intake is studied using nonparametric procedures that admit estimation of multivariate functions. The analysis indicates a nonlinear relation between intake, age, education, and income. Specifically, intake rises with income reaching an inflection point beyond which it is essentially flat. Socioeconomic variables influence intake primarily at lower income levels. Nonparametric procedures prove useful in avoiding ad hoc specifications that w...

  16. Obesity: Interactions of Genome and Nutrients Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Doo, Miae; Kim, Yangha

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has become one of the major public health problems all over the world. Recent novel eras of research are opening for the effective management of obesity though gene and nutrient intake interactions because the causes of obesity are complex and multifactorial. Through GWASs (genome-wide association studies) and genetic variations (SNPs, single nucleotide polymorphisms), as the genetic factors are likely to determine individuals’ obesity predisposition. The understanding of genetic appr...

  17. Nutrients, Foods, and Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S.; Andrew T Chan

    2015-01-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigation have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grain have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, fo...

  18. Biological Nutrient Removal in Compact Biofilm Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bassin, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The removal of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus from both domestic and industrial wastewaters is imperative since they potentially harm the environment. One of the main consequences of excessive availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in aquatic ecosystems (freshwater, marine and estuarine) is the overgrowth of algae and other aquatic plants, a phenomenon designated as eutrophication. Algae and aquatic plants induce depletion of oxygen in water basins, resulting in massive death of e...

  19. Multi-user data acquisition environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The typical data acquisition environment involves data collection and monitoring by a single user. However, in order to support experiments on the Mars facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have had to create a multi-user data acquisition environment where any user can control the data acquisition and several users can monitor and analyze data being collected in real time. This paper describes how we accomplished this on an HP A600 computer. It focuses on the overall system description and user communication with the tasks within the system. Our current implementation is one phase of a long-term software development project

  20. SSC/BCD data acquisition system proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsotti, E.; Bowden, M.; Swoboda, C. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States)

    1989-04-01

    The proposed new data acquisition system architecture takes event fragments off a detector over fiber optics and to a parallel event building switch. The parallel event building switch concept, taken from the telephone communications industry, along with expected technology improvements in fiber-optic data transmission speeds over the next few years, should allow data acquisition system rates to increase dramatically and exceed those rates needed for the SSC. This report briefly describes the switch architecture and fiber optics for a SSC data acquisition system.

  1. Acquisition of speech rhythm in first language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyanskaya, Leona; Ordin, Mikhail

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of English rhythm in speech produced by children and adults revealed that speech rhythm becomes increasingly more stress-timed as language acquisition progresses. Children reach the adult-like target by 11 to 12 years. The employed speech elicitation paradigm ensured that the sentences produced by adults and children at different ages were comparable in terms of lexical content, segmental composition, and phonotactic complexity. Detected differences between child and adult rhythm and between rhythm in child speech at various ages cannot be attributed to acquisition of phonotactic language features or vocabulary, and indicate the development of language-specific phonetic timing in the course of acquisition.

  2. LHC beam instrumentation detectors and acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of some of the detectors and acquisition systems being developed for measuring and controlling beam parameters in the LHC. The two largest systems concern the measurement of beam position, with over 1000 monitors, and beam loss, with over 3000 monitors. For the beam position system a novel wide band time normaliser has been developed to allow bunch-by-bunch 40MHz acquisitions with a dynamic range greater than 30dB and an overall linearity of better than 1%. Also mentioned will be the acquisition system for the fast beam current transformers and the development of CdTe detectors for luminosity monitoring. [author

  3. Evaluation of Resource Acquisition Approaches : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Neill, Maura L.; Mortimer, Tom; Palermini, Debbi; Nelson, Kari

    1991-09-12

    Over the last few years, Bonneville has been addressing this need and has developed numerous ways of acquiring resources. Four of these Approaches, the Competitive Acquisition, Billing Credits, and Targeted Acquisition Programs, and the Cowlitz Falls Hydroelectric Project, were the subject of this evaluation project. Each Approach is currently in different stages of a process, and Bonneville felt it was an appropriate time that an evaluation be conducted. The purpose of this evaluation is to analyze the various Approaches` processes, to learn what`s working and what`s not, and to offer recommendations as to how Bonneville might improve their resources acquisition efforts. The evaluation was conducted with no preconceived biases.

  4. Yield Gap, Indigenous Nutrient Supply and Nutrient Use Efficiency for Maize in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinpeng Xu

    Full Text Available Great achievements have been attained in agricultural production of China, while there are still many difficulties and challenges ahead that call for put more efforts to overcome to guarantee food security and protect environment simultaneously. Analyzing yield gap and nutrient use efficiency will help develop and inform agricultural policies and strategies to increase grain yield. On-farm datasets from 2001 to 2012 with 1,971 field experiments for maize (Zea mays L. were collected in four maize agro-ecological regions of China, and the optimal management (OPT, farmers' practice (FP, a series of nutrient omission treatments were used to analyze yield gap, nutrient use efficiency and indigenous nutrient supply by adopting meta-analysis and ANOVA analysis. Across all sites, the average yield gap between OPT and FP was 0.7 t ha-1, the yield response to nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K were 1.8, 1.0, and 1.2 t ha-1, respectively. The soil indigenous nutrient supply of N, P, and K averaged 139.9, 33.7, and 127.5 kg ha-1, respectively. As compared to FP, the average recovery efficiency (RE of N, P, and K with OPT increased by percentage point of 12.2, 5.5, and 6.5, respectively. This study indicated that there would be considerable potential to further improve yield and nutrient use efficiency in China, and will help develop and inform agricultural policies and strategies, while some management measures such as soil, plant and nutrient are necessary and integrate with advanced knowledge and technologies.

  5. Yield Gap, Indigenous Nutrient Supply and Nutrient Use Efficiency for Maize in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinpeng; Liu, Xiaoyan; He, Ping; Johnston, Adrian M.; Zhao, Shicheng; Qiu, Shaojun; Zhou, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Great achievements have been attained in agricultural production of China, while there are still many difficulties and challenges ahead that call for put more efforts to overcome to guarantee food security and protect environment simultaneously. Analyzing yield gap and nutrient use efficiency will help develop and inform agricultural policies and strategies to increase grain yield. On-farm datasets from 2001 to 2012 with 1,971 field experiments for maize (Zea mays L.) were collected in four maize agro-ecological regions of China, and the optimal management (OPT), farmers’ practice (FP), a series of nutrient omission treatments were used to analyze yield gap, nutrient use efficiency and indigenous nutrient supply by adopting meta-analysis and ANOVA analysis. Across all sites, the average yield gap between OPT and FP was 0.7 t ha-1, the yield response to nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) were 1.8, 1.0, and 1.2 t ha-1, respectively. The soil indigenous nutrient supply of N, P, and K averaged 139.9, 33.7, and 127.5 kg ha-1, respectively. As compared to FP, the average recovery efficiency (RE) of N, P, and K with OPT increased by percentage point of 12.2, 5.5, and 6.5, respectively. This study indicated that there would be considerable potential to further improve yield and nutrient use efficiency in China, and will help develop and inform agricultural policies and strategies, while some management measures such as soil, plant and nutrient are necessary and integrate with advanced knowledge and technologies. PMID:26484543

  6. Molecular pharmacology of promiscuous seven transmembrane receptors sensing organic nutrients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Johansen, Lars Dan; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2009-01-01

    in taste tissue, the gastrointestinal tract, endocrine glands, adipose tissue, and/or kidney. These receptors thus hold the potential to act as sensors of food intake, regulating, for example, release of incretin hormones from the gut, insulin/glucagon from the pancreas, and leptin from adipose tissue......A number of highly promiscuous seven transmembrane (7TM) receptors have been cloned and characterized within the last few years. It is noteworthy that many of these receptors are activated broadly by amino acids, proteolytic degradation products, carbohydrates, or free fatty acids and are expressed....... The promiscuous tendency in ligand recognition of these receptors is in contrast to the typical specific interaction with one physiological agonist seen for most receptors, which challenges the classic "lock-and-key" concept. We here review the molecular mechanisms of nutrient sensing of the calcium...

  7. From the knowledge acquisition bottleneck to the knowledge acquisition overflow: A brief French history of knowledge acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Aussenac-Gilles, Nathalie; Gandon, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    International audience This article is an account of the evolution of the French-speaking research community on knowledge acquisition and knowledge modelling echoing the complex and cross-disciplinary trajectory of the field. In particular, it reports the most significant steps in the parallel evolution of the web and the knowledge acquisition paradigm, which finally converged with the project of a semantic web. As a consequence of the huge amount of available data in the web, a paradigm s...

  8. Potential Effects of Nutrient Profiles on Nutrient Intakes in the Netherlands, Greece, Spain, USA, Israel, China and South-Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Annet J C Roodenburg; Anke Schlatmann; Mariska Dötsch-Klerk; Robert Daamen; Jie Dong; Marta Guarro; Margarita Stergiou; Nazeeia Sayed; Eunice Ronoh; Léon Jansen; Jacob C Seidell

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Nutrient profiling is defined as the science of categorising foods based on their nutrient composition. The Choices Programme is a nutrient profile system with criteria that determine whether foods are eligible to carry a "healthier option" stamp. The Daily Menu Method which has been developed to evaluate these criteria is described here. This method simulates the change in calculated nutrient intakes which would be the result of consumers changing their diets in favour of food ...

  9. A Relational Approach to the Acquisition Decision-Making Process in the Military Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Minculete

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The market relations of military organizations focus on the acquisition of material goods and/or services. Nonetheless, the importance of the decisions related to the supply process is sometimes minimized. This attitude is so harmful for the effi cacy and effi ciency of the activities conducted by the military structure that at times it can have a negative impact on the management staff too. Problems may occur because the acquisition process must unfold performance-oriented; its main objective is the purchasing of material goods and/or services meant to ensure the smooth operation of the activities of the military organization. In case this cannot be achieved, it is highly probable that the mission of the organization itself is compromised. The present article explores the constitutive elements of the acquisition decision-making situation, certainty, uncertainty and risk connected to the purchasing mechanism, as well as the stages of the acquisition decision-making process

  10. Coupling of the spatial-temporal distributions of nutrients and physical conditions in the southern Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qin-Sheng; Yu, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Bao-Dong; Fu, Ming-Zhu; Xia, Chang-Shui; Liu, Lu; Ge, Ren-Feng; Wang, Hui-Wu; Zhan, Run

    2016-04-01

    depletion of nutrients in the central SYS and the upwelled transport in the boundary of the YSCWM resulted in a spatial transfer of the high Chl-a zone, varying generally from the central SYS to the boundary of the YSCWM from spring to summer, and the nutrient flux associated with this upwelling could contribute significantly to local primary production. This study deepens our understanding of the mechanisms influencing the distribution and transport of nutrients in the SYS.

  11. High performance data acquisition with InfiniBand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the new experiments at FAIR new concepts of data acquisition systems have to be developed like the distribution of self-triggered, time stamped data streams over high performance networks for event building. In this concept any data filtering is done behind the network. Therefore the network must achieve up to 1 GByte/s bi-directional data transfer per node. Detailed simulations have been done to optimize scheduling mechanisms for such event building networks. For real performance tests InfiniBand has been chosen as one of the fastest available network technology. The measurements of network event building have been performed on different Linux clusters from four to over hundred nodes. Several InfiniBand libraries have been tested like uDAPL, Verbs, or MPI. The tests have been integrated in the data acquisition backbone core software DABC, a general purpose data acquisition library. Detailed results are presented. In the worst cases (over hundred nodes) 50% of the required bandwidth can be already achieved. It seems possible to improve these results by further investigations

  12. Is the rhizosphere priming effect an important mechanism for nitrogen mineralisation in soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Conor; Baggs, Elizabeth; Morley, Nicholas; Wall, David; Paterson, Eric

    2015-04-01

    In soil, nitrogen is mobilised from soil organic matter (SOM) to pools more readily available to plants (mineralisation), mediated by the microbial biomass. Multiple mechanisms underpin this process, including the priming effect (PE) which is increasingly recognised as an important driver of N mineralisation. The PE is where microbes utilize labile carbon from roots (root exudates or senescing plant material) for energy and subsequently mineralise SOM for nutrients, inevitably mobilising nutrients from SOM to plant available pools. However, the mechanism and regulators underpinning PE's are virtually unknown. This work investigates the importance of priming for N mineralisation. We hypothesized that 1) addition of labile C would increase gross N mineralisation and plant N uptake, and that this is soil-specific; 2) the stoichiometry of primed and basal mineralisation fluxes would be different, indicative of these processes being functionally distinct; and 3) the presence of fertilizer nitrogen and grazing would reduce primed and basal mineralisation and reduce plant uptake of SOM derived N. To do this we coupled continuous steady-state 13C labelling and 15N isotope dilution to measure specific gross C and N fluxes from two contrasting soils. Addition of carbon increased gross C and N fluxes from SOM, but the effect was soil-specific. The C-to-N ratio of the flux from 'primed' SOM was much lower than that of the basal flux indicating that the release of labile carbon from plant roots functions as a nutrient acquisition response, increasing mineralisation of SOM. Addition of N fertiliser resulted in negative priming of SOM, but overall and in both soils, the plant accessed more SOM-derived N. Grazing and priming were closely coupled, with grazing increasing SOM priming. Our results demonstrate that priming effects are an integral component of N mineralisation and should be incorporated into nitrogen cycling models.

  13. Nutrient losses from cattle co-digestate slurry during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Perazzolo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among environmental issues related to intensive livestock activity, emissions to air from manure management are of increasing concern. Thus the knowledge of the effect of treatment application on subsequent emissions from manure is required to assess the environment impact of management solutions. This work addresses the effect of anaerobic digestion and phase separation on emissions during storage by studying nitrogen losses from lab-scale stores and field pilot-scale stores of a co-digestate cattle slurry and its respective separated fractions. Lab-scale experiment was carried in temperature-controlled room where each fraction (untreated, separated liquid and separated solid was stored in duplicate for a period of 32 days in 30 L vessel. Pilot-scale experiment was carried out both during the cold season and during warm season for 90 days of storage. In both experimentations samples of the manure were analysed periodically for total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, total ammonia nitrogen, dry matter and volatile solids and pH. These analyses allow estimating nitrogen losses in different storage conditions. Effects of mechanical separation and season were assessed by ANOVA (Wilcoxon test, P<0.05. In temperature controlled conditions nitrogen losses measured account for 13% and 26% of TKN for unseparated and separated slurries respectively. In field conditions during cold season nutrient losses were limited. On average unseparated and separated slurries lost respectively 6.8% and 12.6% of their initial TKN content. Much higher were the TKN losses from the slurries examined in warm season where losses raised up to 40% of the initial TKN content. Generally mechanical separation increases nutrient losses, but the differences were not significant in field conditions. The results highlighted that nutrient losses, in particular the nitrogen ones, can be considerable especially during summer storage. The latter, in case of separated slurries, are mainly related

  14. Pore Water Circulation in Isolated Wetlands: Implications to Internal Nutrient Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadha, J. H.; Perkins, D. B.; Jawitz, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    The potential of wetland soils to accumulate and release pollutants including nutrients has been the motivation for numerous studies related to measuring the concentration, fate, and transport mechanisms of these substances in soils. While external nutrient loading from anthropogenic sources such as agricultural and cattle areas can be addressed through the implementation of Best Management Practices (BMPs), and interception strategies such as construction of storm-water treatment areas (STAs) in Florida, internal loading through shallow sediments has prevented the rapid improvement of water quality in numerous watersheds in South Florida, including the Lake Okeechobee drainage basin. The internal release of nutrients can occur via two different yet equally important mechanisms: advection and diffusion. These processes may mix the pore water not only within the sediment but also with the overlying water column over short periods of time (e.g., days or weeks). This provides sufficient time for diagenesis to alter the reactive chemical components of nutrients that may ultimately increase the nutrient fluxes to the overlying water column. The objectives of this research are to present a plausible and testable technique to collect pore water samples from saturated wetland soils, and to evaluate the importance of pore water circulation as a mechanism for mobilizing nutrients into the water column from within shallow sediments in isolated wetlands. Pore water sampling can be a difficult task to perform in low permeable wetland soils using standard sampling devices such as pore water equilibrators (peepers) and mechanical vises (Rheeburg squeezers). However, our attempt at using Multisamplers, which is in fact a multi-level piezometer capable of collecting up to ten pore water samples to a depth of 110 cm below the soil-water interface in a single deployment, proved to be a success. The ability to collect samples from multiple depths from a single location is an important

  15. IT-based Value Creation in Serial Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Yetton, Philip

    2013-01-01

    serial acquirers realize IT-based value, we integrate and model the findings on individual acquisitions from the extant literature, and extend that model to explain the effects of sequential acquisitions in a growth-by-acquisition strategy. This extended model, drawing on the Resource-Based Theory......The extant research on post-acquisition IT integration analyzes how acquirers realize IT-based value in individual acquisitions. However, serial acquirers make 60% of acquisitions. These acquisitions are not isolated events, but are components in growth-by-acquisition programs. To explain how...

  16. A Study on Human Resource Fusion Mechanism of Technology Sourcing OFDI Enterprises-The Case of Geely’s Acquisition to Volvo%技术寻求型OFDI企业人力资源融合机理研究--以吉利收购沃尔沃为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛琴; 申俊喜

    2015-01-01

    文章采用探索性单案例研究方法,以吉利并购沃尔沃的案例为样本,运用动态视角探讨技术寻求型OFDI人力资源融合的演化机理。研究结果表明:技术寻求型OFDI人力资源成功融合过程中,需要低调谦虚的态度,构建参与不主导的平等关系;留住人才、激励人才与培养人才,实施人才本土化管理,以促进技术溢出。在融合的不同阶段,会有不同的矛盾与沟壑,需要运用中国传统智慧的沟通艺术,由外而内,和风细雨地有效化解,以构建母子企业员工新的心理契约。研究拓展了人力资源从整合到融合的基本认知,对开发人力资源融合理论体系和指导我国企业技术寻求型OFDI实践具有参考价值。%This paper,employing exploratory single case study method and taking the case of Geely’s acquisition to Volvo as a sample,explores the evolution mechanism of human resource fusion of technology sourcing OFDI from the dynamic perspec⁃tive. The study results show that we need a low-key and modest attitude,and build the equal participation relationship which has no dominant party in order to achieve the successful fusion process of technology sourcing OFDI human resource. We should also retain,motivate and foster talents,and implement talent localization management to promote technology spill⁃overs. There will be different contradictions and gaps in the different stages of fusion,we need to use Chinese traditional wis⁃dom of communication art to effectively resolve them from the outside to the inside in order to form the new psychological con⁃tract of parent subsidiary enterprise employees. The study expands the basic cognition of human resource development from in⁃tegration to fusion,and has the reference value for the development of human resource fusion theory system and guiding tech⁃nology sourcing OFDI enterprises in China.

  17. Layered Plant-Growth Media for Optimizing Gaseous, Liquid and Nutrient Requirements: Modeling, Design and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinse, R.; Jones, S. B.; Bingham, G.; Bugbee, B.

    2006-12-01

    nutrients. The experiment required a specific geometry for the acquisition of ERT data using the heat-pulse water-content sensor's steel needles as electrodes. ERT data were analyzed using the sensed water contents and deriving pore-water resistivities using Archie's law. This design should provide a more optimal root-zone environment by maintaining a more uniform water content and on-demand supply of water than designs with one particle size at all column heights. The monitoring capability offers an effective means to describe the relationship between root-system performance and plant growth.

  18. A marine meteorological data acquisition system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, E.; Vithayathil, G.

    A marine meteorological data acquisition system has been developed for long term unattended measurements at remote coastal sites, ocean surface platforms and for use on board research vessels. The system has an open and modular configuration...

  19. Foreign acquisition, plant survival, and employment growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger

    the lifetime of the acquired plants only if the plant was an exporter.  The effect differs depending on whether the acquisition is horizontal or vertical.  We also find robust positive employment growth effects only for exporters, and only if the takeover is vertical, not horizontal.......This paper analyses the effect of foreign acquisition on survival probability and employment growth of target plant using data on Swedish manufacturing plants during the period 1993-2002.  An improvement over previous studies is that we take into account firm level heterogeneity by separating...... the targeted plants into those within Swedish MNEs, Swedish exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms before foreign takeover. The results, controlling for possible endogeneity of the acquisition dummy using an IV and propensity score matching approach suggest that acquisition by foreign owners increases...

  20. Low Cost Data Acquisition System for Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Sharma Gaurav Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the engineering education in India is increasing, so the demand of quality projects and quality research at the students level is also increasing. To make good hardware projects most of the time we need to acquire real time data. This acquisition is done through the dedicated device which is called Data Acquisition Device. In India there are very less no. of companies which are making the Data Acquisition Devices and the available devices are very costly for the students. Hence, there is need to provide students a cost effective or low cost device which can suite according to their proposed work. In this paper we have designed and implemented a prototype of Data Acquisition Device (DAQ using AVR microcontroller. The software for the DAQ device has been mode on MATLAB and LabView and the device has been tested for different tasks and under different conditions