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Sample records for acquisition healthy subjects

  1. The effect of baclofen and diazepam on motor skill acquisition in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Petersen, Tue Hvass

    2011-01-01

    Antispastic medication is often used in the clinic together with physiotherapy. However, some of the antispastic drugs, e.g., baclofen and diazepam, may influence the plastic mechanisms that are necessary for motor learning and hence efficient physiotherapy. In the present study, we consequently...... or decreasing ankle dorsiflexor torque. Subjects trained for a total of 30 min. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the primary motor cortex leg area was applied to elicit motor evoked potentials in the anterior tibial muscle (TA). Coupling between populations of TA motor units was calculated in the frequency...

  2. Required time delay from 99mTc-HMPAO injection to SPECT data acquisition: healthy subjects and patients with rCBF pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Gerda; de Nijs, Robin; Hogh-Rasmussen, Esben;

    2008-01-01

    Procedure Guidelines for Brain Perfusion SPET using (99m)Tc-labeled Radiopharmaceuticals recommend a time delay of 90 min between injection of (99m)Tc-HMPAO and data acquisition. This time delay is difficult to comply within the daily routine and present a problem, particularly with the elderly or demented...... patients. This study investigates in patients with perfusion deficits and in healthy subjects if the quality of the SPECT image is affected by lowering the time delay between (99m)Tc-HMPAO injection and data acquisition to 30 or 60 min....

  3. Required time delay from (99m)Tc-HMPAO injection to SPECT data acquisition: healthy subjects and patients with rCBF pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, G.; de, Nijs R.; Hogh-Rasmussen, E.

    2008-01-01

    and 90 min after (99m)Tc-HMPAO injection, and the patients were scanned 30 and 90 or 60 and 90 min after (99m)Tc-HMPAO injection. For evaluation of differences between the images obtained at various time points after injection, two different methods were used. The z-map method was used to subtract images...... 42-84 years) with normal cerebral blood flow distribution and 31 patients (17 females; mean age 67; range 38-84) with reduced rCBF distribution were included. Images were obtained with a three-headed Philips IRIX SPECT scanner with high-resolution collimators. The healthy subjects were scanned 30, 60...

  4. Acquisition in different and special subject areas

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Linda S

    2013-01-01

    Learn how acquisitions librarians successfully serve specialized users! In this book, you'll find profiles, methods, and processes for acquisitions in specialized subject areas, such as local and regional poetry, oceanography, educational information in electronic formats, popular fiction, regional and ethnic materials, and more. Seasoned acquisitions librarians share their experiences in gathering the hard-to-find materials their libraries' highly specialized clients need to access. You'll also examine issues surrounding the acquisition of new reference tools that are vital in today's emergi

  5. Nocturnal bruxing events in healthy geriatric subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, J P; Phillips, B A; Berry, D T; Cook, Y; Paesani, D; Galante, J

    1990-09-01

    Thirty healthy geriatric subjects were studied during a single night of sleep in a sleep laboratory. Unilateral masseter muscle activity was recorded in addition to the standard polysomnographic study. The geriatric subjects in this study exhibited fewer bruxing events than other subjects reported in the literature. Certain conditions that have not been previously investigated, such as sleep position, type of bruxing event, and relationship to the state of the dentition, are reported.

  6. Prostacyclin (epoprostenol) induces headache in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienecke, Troels; Olesen, Jes; Oturai, Peter S

    2008-01-01

    and vasodilatation of cranial vessels. A stable analog of PGI(2) epoprostenol (10 ng/kg/min) was infused for 25 min into 12 healthy subjects in a cross-over, double-blind study. Headache intensity was scored on a verbal rating scale from 0 to 10. In addition, we recorded mean flow in the middle cerebral artery (V...

  7. Peripapillary choroidal thickness in healthy Turkish subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbagci H

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hulya Erbagci,1 Burak Oren,2 Seydi Okumus,3 Serhat Kenan,3 Pelin Celemler,3 Ibrahim Erbagci3 1Department of Anatomy, Medical Faculty, Zirve University Emine Bahattin Nakiboglu, Gaziantep, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Kilis State Hospital, Kilis, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Gaziantep, Gaziantep, Turkey Aim: The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the normal peripapillary choroidal thickness (CT, measured by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT, in healthy Turkish volunteers. Materials and methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, 57 eyes of 57 healthy Turkish subjects were enrolled. Each participant underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination and peripapillary CT measurement using EDI-OCT. Results: The mean age of the 25 female and 32 male patients in the study was 30.9±10.6 years (range, 18–56 years. The mean peripapillary CT at the superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal sites was 225±57, 183±47, 220±57, and 233±59 µm, respectively. The inferior peripapillary CT value was significantly lower than the peripapillary CT values (P<0.001 for all, whereas no significant differences were found between the superior, nasal, and temporal peripapillary CT values. Conclusion: The findings of the study revealed that Turkish people had significantly lower peripapillary CT values in the inferior quadrant than in the superior, nasal, and temporal quadrants. Keywords: peripapillary choroidal thickness, enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography, EDI-OCT

  8. Pharmacokinetics of rilmenidine in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genissel, P.; Bromet, N.; Fourtillan, J.B.; Mignot, A.; Albin, H.

    1988-02-24

    Rilmenidine is a novel alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, used in the treatment of mild or moderate hypertension at the oral dose of 1 mg once or twice daily. The pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated after single or repeated administration in healthy subjects, using labeled and unlabeled compounds. Rilmenidine was rapidly and extensively absorbed, with an absolute bioavailability factor close to 1 and a maximal plasma concentration achieved within 2 hours. Rilmenidine was not subject to presystemic metabolism. Distribution was independent of the free fraction because rilmenidine was weakly bound to plasma proteins (less than 10%). The volume of distribution was approximately 5 l.kg-1 (315 liters). Elimination was rapid with a total body plasma clearance of approximately 450 ml.min-1 and an elimination half-life of approximately 8 hours. Renal excretion was the major elimination process (two-thirds of the total clearance). Metabolism was very poor, with a renal elimination of rilmenidine as the parent drug (urinary fraction of rilmenidine was about 65% and no metabolite plasma levels were detected). Linear pharmacokinetics were demonstrated for rilmenidine from 0.5 to 2 mg but, at 3 mg, a slight deviation from linearity was observed. In repeated administration, the linear disposition of rilmenidine with dose was confirmed.

  9. Mechanisms of dyspnea in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigliotti Francesco

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dyspnea is a general term used to characterize a range of different descriptors; it varies in intensity, and is influenced by a wide variety of factors such as cultural expectations and the patient's experiences. Healthy subjects can experience dyspnea in different situations, e.g. at high altitude, after breath-holding, during stressful situations that cause anxiety or panic, and more commonly during strenuous exercise. Discussing the mechanisms of dyspnea we need to briefly take into account the physiological mechanisms underlying the sensation of dyspnea: the functional status of the respiratory muscles, the role of chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors, and how the sense of respiratory motor output reaches a level of conscious awareness. We also need to take into account theories on the pathophysiological mechanisms of the sensation of dyspnea and the possibility that each pathophysiological mechanism produces a distinct quality of breathing discomfort. The terms used by subjects to identify different characteristics of breathing discomfort - dyspnea descriptors - may contribute to understanding the mechanisms of dyspnea and providing the rationale for a specific diagnosis.

  10. Mechanisms of dyspnea in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Dyspnea is a general term used to characterize a range of different descriptors; it varies in intensity, and is influenced by a wide variety of factors such as cultural expectations and the patient's experiences. Healthy subjects can experience dyspnea in different situations, e.g. at high altitude, after breath-holding, during stressful situations that cause anxiety or panic, and more commonly during strenuous exercise. Discussing the mechanisms of dyspnea we need to briefly take into account the physiological mechanisms underlying the sensation of dyspnea: the functional status of the respiratory muscles, the role of chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors, and how the sense of respiratory motor output reaches a level of conscious awareness. We also need to take into account theories on the pathophysiological mechanisms of the sensation of dyspnea and the possibility that each pathophysiological mechanism produces a distinct quality of breathing discomfort. The terms used by subjects to identify different characteristics of breathing discomfort - dyspnea descriptors - may contribute to understanding the mechanisms of dyspnea and providing the rationale for a specific diagnosis. PMID:22958405

  11. Ventilatory efficiency during exercise in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xing-Guo; Hansen, James E; Garatachea, Nuria; Storer, Thomas W; Wasserman, Karlman

    2002-12-01

    When evaluating dyspnea in patients with heart or lung disease it is useful to measure the quantity of ventilation needed to eliminate metabolically produced CO2 (i.e., the ventilatory efficiency). Mathematically, the relationship between ventilation (VE) and CO2 output is determined by the arterial CO2 pressure and the physiologic dead space-tidal volume ratio. We decided to determine how age, sex, size, fitness, and the type of ergometer influenced ventilatory efficiency in normal subjects. Three methods were compared for expressing this relationship: (1) the VE versus CO2 output slope below the ventilatory compensation point, commonly used by cardiologists for estimating the severity of heart failure; (2) the VE/CO2 output ratio at the anaerobic threshold, commonly used by pulmonologists; and (3) the lowest VE/CO2 output ratio during exercise, the latter parameter not previously reported. We studied 474 healthy adults, between 17 and 78 years of age during incremental cycle and treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise tests at three test sites, correcting the total VE for the equipment dead space. The lowest VE/CO2 output ratio was insignificantly different from the ratio at the anaerobic threshold, less variable than that for the slope relationship, and unaffected by the site, ergometer, and gas exchange measurement systems. The regression equation for the lowest VE/CO2 output ratio was 27.94 + 0.108 x age + (0.97 = F, 0.0 = M) - 0.0376 x height, where age is in years and height is in centimeters. We conclude that the lowest VE/CO2 output ratio is the preferred noninvasive method to estimate ventilatory inefficiency.

  12. Peripapillary choroidal thickness in healthy Chinese subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the peripapillary choroidal thickness of a healthy Chinese population, and to determine its influencing factors. Methods A total of 76 healthy volunteers (76 eyes) without ophthalmic or systemic symptoms were enrolled. Choroidal scans (360-degree 3.4 mm diameter peripapillary circle scans) were obtained for all eyes using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Choroid thickness was measured at the temporal, superotemporal, superior, superonasal, nasal, inferonasal, inferior, and inferotemporal segments. Results The average peripapillary choroidal thicknesses were 165.03 ± 40.37 μm. Inferonasal, inferior, and inferotemporal thicknesses were significantly thinner than temporal, superotemporal, superior, superonasal, nasal thicknesses (p thicknesses. The average peripapillary choroidal thickness decreased linearly with age (β = −1.33, 95% CI −1.98, -0.68, P choroidal thickness and other factors (gender, refractive error, axial length, average retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, intraocular pressure, diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, diastolic ocular perfusion pressure, systolic ocular perfusion pressure, and mean ocular perfusion pressure). Conclusions The inferonasal, inferior, inferotemporal peripapillary choroidal thicknesses were significantly thinner than temporal, superotemporal, superior, superonasal, and nasal thicknesses. A thinner peripapillary choroid is associated with increasing age. PMID:23758729

  13. Action-blindsight in healthy subjects after transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Kristiansen, Lasse; Rowe, James B.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical cases of blindsight have shown that visually guided movements can be accomplished without conscious visual perception. Here, we show that blindsight can be induced in healthy subjects by using transcranial magnetic stimulation over the visual cortex. Transcranial magnetic stimulation...

  14. System and method for acquisition management of subject position information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrender, Curt (Morgan Hill, CA)

    2007-01-23

    A system and method for acquisition management of subject position information that utilizes radio frequency identification (RF ID) to store position information in position tags. Tag programmers receive position information from external positioning systems, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), from manual inputs, such as keypads, or other tag programmers. The tag programmers program each position tag with the received position information. Both the tag programmers and the position tags can be portable or fixed. Implementations include portable tag programmers and fixed position tags for subject position guidance, and portable tag programmers for collection sample labeling. Other implementations include fixed tag programmers and portable position tags for subject route recordation. Position tags can contain other associated information such as destination address of an affixed subject for subject routing.

  15. System and method for acquisition management of subject position information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrender, Curt

    2005-12-13

    A system and method for acquisition management of subject position information that utilizes radio frequency identification (RF ID) to store position information in position tags. Tag programmers receive position information from external positioning systems, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), from manual inputs, such as keypads, or other tag programmers. The tag programmers program each position tag with the received position information. Both the tag programmers and the position tags can be portable or fixed. Implementations include portable tag programmers and fixed position tags for subject position guidance, and portable tag programmers for collection sample labeling. Other implementations include fixed tag programmers and portable position tags for subject route recordation. Position tags can contain other associated information such as destination address of an affixed subject for subject routing.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of terazosin enantiomers in healthy Chinese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Man; Zhang, Dan; Yang, Man; Zhao, Ting; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yanan; Han, Jing; Liu, Huichen

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the pharmacokinetics of terazosin enantiomers in healthy Chinese male subjects. After a single oral dose of 2-mg terazosin, the plasma concentrations of terazosin enantiomers were measured over the course of 48 h in 12 healthy subjects. The plasma concentrations of (+)-(R)-terazosin at all time points were higher than those of (-)-(S)-terazosin. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-∞) ) and maximum plasma concentration of (+)-(R)-terazosin were significantly greater than those of the (-)-(S)-terazosin (P < 0.01, respectively). The R/S ratio of AUC(0-∞) of terazosin was 1.68. For the first time, it was proven that the pharmacokinetics of terazosin was stereoselective in healthy Chinese male subjects.

  17. The cholinomimetic agent carbachol induces headache in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, H W; Wienecke, Troels; Oturai, P S;

    2009-01-01

    The parasympathetic nervous system is likely to be involved in migraine pathogenesis. We hypothesized that the cholinomimetic agonist carbachol would induce headache and vasodilation of cephalic and radial arteries. Carbachol (3 microg/kg) or placebo was randomly infused into 12 healthy subjects...

  18. Markedly blunted metabolic effects of fructose in healthy young female subjects compared with male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couchepin, Caroline; Lê, Kim-Anne; Bortolotti, Murielle; da Encarnaçao, Joana Amarante; Oboni, Jean-Baptiste; Tran, Christel; Schneiter, Philippe; Tappy, Luc

    2008-06-01

    To compare the metabolic effects of fructose in healthy male and female subjects. Fasting metabolic profile and hepatic insulin sensitivity were assessed by means of a hyperglycemic clamp in 16 healthy young male and female subjects after a 6-day fructose overfeeding. Fructose overfeeding increased fasting triglyceride concentrations by 71 vs. 16% in male vs. female subjects, respectively (P glucose production was increased by 12%, alanine aminotransferase concentration was increased by 38%, and fasting insulin concentrations were increased by 14% after fructose overfeeding in male subjects (all P fructose in male but not in female subjects. Short-term fructose overfeeding produces hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic insulin resistance in men, but these effects are markedly blunted in healthy young women.

  19. Oxidative stress and inflammation in renal patients and healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M Lee

    Full Text Available The first goal of this study was to measure the oxidative stress (OS and relate it to lipoprotein variables in 35 renal patients before dialysis (CKD, 37 on hemodialysis (HD and 63 healthy subjects. The method for OS was based on the ratio of cholesteryl esters (CE containing C18/C16 fatty acids (R2 measured by gas chromatography (GC which is a simple, direct, rapid and reliable procedure. The second goal was to investigate and identify a triacylglycerol peak on GC, referred to as TG48 (48 represents the sum of the three fatty acids carbon chain lengths which was markedly increased in renal patients compared to healthy controls. We measured TG48 in patients and controls. Mass spectrometry (MS and MS twice in tandem were used to analyze the fatty acid composition of TG48. MS showed that TG48 was abundant in saturated fatty acids (SFAs that were known for their pro-inflammatory property. TG48 was significantly and inversely correlated with OS. Renal patients were characterized by higher OS and inflammation than healthy subjects. Inflammation correlated strongly with TG, VLDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo C-III and apoC-III bound to apoB-containing lipoproteins, but not with either total cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol.In conclusion, we have discovered a new inflammatory factor, TG48. It is characterized with TG rich in saturated fatty acids. Renal patients have increased TG48 than healthy controls.

  20. Fraction of exhaled nitric oxide in healthy elderly Tunisian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfaxi, Ines; Ben Saad, Helmi; Rouatbi, Sonia

    2015-09-05

    Exhaled-fraction-of-nitric-oxide (FeNO) norms are absent in healthy elderly North-African subjects. i) to identify FeNO influencing factors of elderly Tunisians older 50 years and more; ii) to assess the applicability of some published FeNO norms for elderly in local population; iii) to set-up FeNO norms and to prospectively evaluate their validity in two elderly validation-groups (healthy and asthmatic subjects). A convenience sample of healthy and asthmatic elderly Tunisians was recruited. Subjects responded to a medical questionnaire and then FeNO levels were measured by an online method (Medisoft, Sorinnes (Dinant), Belgium). Clinical, anthropometric and spirometric data were collected. Three groups of subjects were identified: group I (healthy-elderly; n = 100, 57 females); group II (healthy-validation; n = 17, 4 females) and group III (asthmatic-validation; n = 10, 9 females). ANOVA was performed to compare the three groups' data. No significant factor, among those evaluated, influenced Tunisian elderly FeNO values. The available published FeNO norms did not reliably predict FeNO in Tunisian elderly population. The mean ± SD (minimum-maximum) of FeNO (ppb) for group I was 14 ± 6 (3-34). For Tunisian people, each elderly FeNO value higher than 34 ppb will be considered as abnormal. There was no statistical significant difference between FeNO (ppb) mean values of group I and groups II (15 ± 8) or III (18 ± 13). No subject of group II had a FeNO value higher than 34 ppb. Thirty percent of group III subjects had a FeNO value higher than 34 ppb. In practice, FeNO value of more than 34 ppb is considered abnormal in elderly Tunisian population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Velopharyngeal mucosal surface topography in healthy subjects and subjects with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeth, Christopher; Amatoury, Jason; Wang, Ziyu; Foster, Sheryl; Amis, Terence; Kairaitis, Kristina

    2017-03-01

    Macroscopic pharyngeal anatomical abnormalities are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of upper airway (UA) obstruction in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Microscopic changes in the UA mucosal lining of OSA subjects are reported; however, the impact of these changes on UA mucosal surface topography is unknown. This study aimed to 1) develop methodology to measure UA mucosal surface topography, and 2) compare findings from healthy and OSA subjects. Ten healthy and eleven OSA subjects were studied. Awake, gated (end expiration), head and neck position controlled magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of the velopharynx (VP) were obtained. VP mucosal surfaces were segmented from axial images, and three-dimensional VP mucosal surface models were constructed. Curvature analysis of the models was used to study the VP mucosal surface topography. Principal, mean, and Gaussian curvatures were used to define surface shape composition and surface roughness of the VP mucosal surface models. Significant differences were found in the surface shape composition, with more saddle/spherical and less flat/cylindrical shapes in OSA than healthy VP mucosal surface models (P surface models were also found to have more mucosal surface roughness (P surface models. Our novel methodology was utilized to model the VP mucosal surface of OSA and healthy subjects. OSA subjects were found to have different VP mucosal surface topography, composed of increased irregular shapes and increased roughness. We speculate increased irregularity in VP mucosal surface may increase pharyngeal collapsibility as a consequence of friction-related pressure loss.NEW & NOTEWORTHY A new methodology was used to model the upper airway mucosal surface topography from magnetic resonance images of patients with obstructive sleep apnea and healthy adults. Curvature analysis was used to analyze the topography of the models, and a new metric was derived to describe the mucosal surface roughness. Increased roughness was

  2. Magnetocardiographic and electrocardiographic exercise mapping in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, P; Hänninen, H; Montone, J; Mäkijärvi, M; Nenonen, J; Oikarinen, L; Simeliu, K; Toivonen, L; Katil, T

    2001-06-01

    In 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG), detection of myocardial ischemia is based on ST-segment changes in exercise testing. Magnetocardiography (MCG) is a complementary method to the ECG for a noninvasive study of the electric activity of the heart. In the MCG, ST-segment changes due to stress have also been found in healthy subjects. To further study the normal response to exercise, we performed MCG mappings in 12 healthy volunteers during supine bicycle ergometry. We also recorded body surface potential mapping (BSPM) with 123 channels using the same protocol. In this paper we compare, for the first time, multichannel MCG recorded in bicycle exercise testing with BSPM over the whole thorax in middle-aged healthy subjects. We quantified changes induced by the exercise in the MCG and BSPM with parameters based on signal amplitude, and correlation between signal distributions at rest and after exercise. At the ST-segment and T-wave apex, the exercise induced a magnetic field component outward the precordium and the minimum value of the MCG signal over the mapped area was found to be amplified. The response to exercise was smaller in the BSPM than in the MCG. A negative component in the MCG signal at the repolarization period of the cardiac cycle should be considered as a normal response to exercise. Therefore, maximum ST-segment depression over the mapped area in the MCG may not be an eligible parameter when evaluating the presence of ischemia.

  3. Is dietary pattern of schizophrenia patients different from healthy subjects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani Reza

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited findings about dietary patterns and food preferences among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The main objective of this study was therefore to compare the nutritional pattern of schizophrenia patients with that of matched healthy subjects. Methods The dietary pattern of 30 hospitalized 16–67 years old schizophrenic patients (11 female was compared with that of 30 healthy age and sex matched individuals as control group. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height and body mass index (BMI, semi-quantitative food frequency (FFQ, medical and food history questionnaires were also collected and FFQs were then scored using Food Guide Pyramid to obtain the dietary scores. Percent body fat (%BF was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Results Female patients had more %BF and lower dietary pattern scores than that of their controls (32 ± 3.6 vs 27.7 ± 4.6 percent and 43.2 ± 11.9 vs 54.5 ± 10.7 points; respectively, p Conclusion Schizophrenia patients have poor nutritional patterns. In particular, female patients have more percent body fat and lower dietary pattern scores compared with their healthy controls. All patients used to consume more fats and sweet drinks frequently. The findings of this study suggest that schizophrenia patients need specific medical nutrition therapies through limiting dietary fats and sugars intakes and weight control. Whether obesity is the consequence of disease, dietary preference or medications used remains to be cleared.

  4. Comparison of Subjective and Objective Sleep Estimations in Patients with Bipolar Disorder and Healthy Control Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Cathrin; Pfeiffer, Steffi; Bauer, Michael; Pfennig, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background. Several studies have described but not formally tested discrepancies between subjective and objective measures of sleep. Study Objectives. To test the hypothesis that patients with bipolar disorder display a systematic bias to underestimate sleep duration and overestimate sleep latency. Methods. Actimetry was used to assess sleep latency and duration in 49 euthymic participants (bipolar = 21; healthy controls = 28) for 5–7 days. Participants simultaneously recorded estimated sleep duration and sleep latency on a daily basis via an online sleep diary. Group differences in the discrepancy between subjective and objective parameters were calculated using t-tests and corrected for multiple comparisons. Results. Patients with bipolar disorder significantly underestimated their sleep duration but did not overestimate their sleep latency compared to healthy controls. Conclusions. Studies utilizing diaries or questionnaires alone in patients with bipolar disorders may systematically underestimate sleep duration compared to healthy controls. The additional use of objective assessment methods such as actimetry is advisable. PMID:27891255

  5. [Neuroenhancement in healthy subject? A French case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Vion-Dury, Jean; Lancon, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Neuroenhancement is an anglo-saxon concept concerning the use of stimulating psychotropic drugs by healthy subjects, outside any established medical indication or festive setting, to achieve an improvement of their mental functioning. In 2009, because of increasing requests for neuroenhancement in USA, the American Association of Neurology has published practical recommendations stating that "it is ethically permissible to prescribe medications for neuroenhancement" if a number of conditions is met. We present these ethical and psychopharmacological conditions ("the inverted U-Shape principle" in which cognitive performance is related to catecholamine levels and "the trade-off principle" to cognitive enhancement) through a clinical case of methylphenidate prescription in a healthy 24 years old medical student, preparing for the "examen classant national" (the French national ranking before postgraduate education). We then discuss anglo-saxon ethical context in which these recommendations have been proposed.

  6. Six Different Fat Tolerance Tests in Young, Healthy Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole Winther; Lauszus, Finn Friis

    2016-01-01

    Background: exacerbated postprandial lipid responses are associated with an increaseed cardiovascular risk. Meals with different types of fat may effect postprandial responses differently. the aim og is tudy bwas to evaluate the postprandial lipemia in young healthy subjects after six oral fat...... tolerenctes (OFTT) with varying amoun of saturated fat. Methods: With six different types of fatin random order to tomatoes we measured postprandial lipemia, lipoprotein, glucose and insulin increments for eight hours in 14 young lean healthy students, seven of each gender. The area under the curve (AUC......) was dtermined for the postprandial values. Results: The meals with six types of butters had similar postprandial response even if the saturated fat content varied with 50%.Gender significantly affected the TG responses, as time to pesk was 90 minutes in women and 180 min in men. Postprandial AUC was higherwith...

  7. Electroretinography in healthy subjects in relation to systemic glucocorticoid intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappelgaard, Per; Hansen, Katrine B; Vilsbøll, Tina;

    2012-01-01

    -caloric diet and by the reduction of physical activity. Full-field electroretinography (ffERG) demonstrated no significant change (P ....011) and post-prandial glycemia (P = 0.023). We conclude that prednisolone had no detectable effect on the ffERG in healthy lean men in this study. Retinal function may be less sensitive to changes in glycemia in healthy subjects than in people with diabetes, a characteristic that was unchanged by a short...... to clamped hyperglycemia, neither before, nor after prednisolone (P > 0.05). The stability of ffERG performance in the face of shifting glycemia levels, which differs from what has been found in diabetes, was not influenced by the mild diabetogenic effect of the intervention on insulin resistance (P = 0...

  8. Influence of age on smell function in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savović Slobodan N.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A need for research of the olfactory function exists in everyday clinical work. The aim of this study was to determine standards for perception and identification thresholds regarding olfactory substances in healthy subjects in regard to their age. Material and methods The research included 120 healthy examinees (60 women and 60 men classified according to age into three age groups (20-30, 31-40, 41-50 years of age. This examination was done using Fortunato-Niccolini's method. Results and discussion The results of this work show that olfactory function becomes significantly weaker after the age of forty. Thresholds of perception in correlation with thresholds of identification for examined olfactory substances are significantly lower in older age groups. Conclusion A gradual loss of olfactory capability with age can be explained by gradual destruction of olfactory cells and fibres of olfactory nerves during life.

  9. Electroretinography in healthy subjects in relation to systemic glucocorticoid intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappelgaard, Per; Hansen, Katrine B; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2012-01-01

    This study examined electroretinographic function in healthy subjects before and after prednisolone intake. To separate the effect of prednisolone on the retina from the potentially confounding hyperglycemia-inducing effect of prednisolone, electroretinography was made while fasting and at a pre...... to clamped hyperglycemia, neither before, nor after prednisolone (P > 0.05). The stability of ffERG performance in the face of shifting glycemia levels, which differs from what has been found in diabetes, was not influenced by the mild diabetogenic effect of the intervention on insulin resistance (P = 0...

  10. Circadian profile of cardiac autonomic nervous modulation in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Richardt, Gert; Potratz, Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Circadian Profile of Heart Rate Variability. INTRODUCTION: Although heart rate variability (HRV) has been established as a tool to study cardiac autonomic activity, almost no data are available on the circadian patterns of HRV in healthy subjects aged 20 to 70 years. METHODS AND RESULTS......, awoke around 7 A.M., and had 6 to 8 hours of sleep. Circadian profiles of vagus-associated HRV parameters revealed a marked day-night pattern, with a peak at nighttime and a plateau at daytime. The characteristic nocturnal peak and the day-night amplitude diminished with aging by decade. Estimates...

  11. Impulsive mathematical modeling of ascorbic acid metabolism in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachar, Mostafa; Raimann, Jochen G; Kotanko, Peter

    2016-03-07

    In this work, we develop an impulsive mathematical model of Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) metabolism in healthy subjects for daily intake over a long period of time. The model includes the dynamics of ascorbic acid plasma concentration, the ascorbic acid absorption in the intestines and a novel approach to quantify the glomerular excretion of ascorbic acid. We investigate qualitative and quantitative dynamics. We show the existence and uniqueness of the global asymptotic stability of the periodic solution. We also perform a numerical simulation for the entire time period based on published data reporting parameters reflecting ascorbic acid metabolism at different oral doses of ascorbic acid.

  12. Platelet count in healthy subjects treated with antiplatelet drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maczy González-Rincón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Platelet count in peripheral blood of healthy subjects with antiplatelet drugs. 20 subjects were analized. They were distributed in two groups: subject A: 10 who received aspirin (100 mg and B:10 with Clopidogrel (75 mg for 7 days. In all subjects studied platelet count in peripheral blood and PRP. It found a platelet count before treatment with antiplatelet agents in peripheral blood of 258,6 ± 54,46 x 109 l and 7 days after 254 ± 41,86 x 109 l (aspirin and 285,4 ± 70, 196,5 ± 37,90 x 109 l (Clopidogrel respectively. In the PRP of subjects before receiving aspirin was 486,5 ± 129,54 x 109 l and after 449,2 ± 85,51 x 109 l; prior to Clopidogrel ingestion was 565,2 ± 150,41 and 592,9 ± 203,46 x 109 l after treatment. Significant differences were found only for the platelet count in the Clopidogrel Group (p < 0.05. A significant decrease in platelet count was observed in peripheral blood after administration of Clopidogrel, possibly as a result of its pharmacological mechanism. More studies are needed to assess a greater number of individuals and better measure the effect of antiplatelet agents.

  13. Abdominal acupuncture reduces laser-evoked potentials in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazzaglia, C.; Liguori, S.; Minciotti, I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Acupuncture is known to reduce clinical pain, although the exact mechanism is unknown. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of acupuncture on laser-evoked potential amplitudes and laser pain perception. Methods: In order to evaluate whether abdominal acupuncture...... is able to modify pain perception, 10 healthy subjects underwent a protocol in which laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) and laser pain perception were collected before the test (baseline), during abdominal acupuncture, and 15. min after needle removal. The same subjects also underwent a similar protocol...... in which, however, sham acupuncture without any needle penetration was used. Results: During real acupuncture, both N1 and N2/P2 amplitudes were reduced, as compared to baseline (p . < 0.01). The reduction lasted up to 15. min after needle removal. Furthermore, laser pain perception was reduced during...

  14. Training and transfer effects of N-back training for brain-injured and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeløv, Jonas Kristoffer; Dall, Jonas Olsen; Kristensen, Casper Daniel; Aagesen, Marie Holt; Olsen, Stine Almgren; Snuggerud, Therese Ruud; Sikorska, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Working memory impairments are prevalent among patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). Computerised training targeting working memory has been researched extensively using samples from healthy populations but this field remains isolated from similar research in ABI patients. We report the results of an actively controlled randomised controlled trial in which 17 patients and 18 healthy subjects completed training on an N-back task. The healthy group had superior improvements on both training tasks (SMD = 6.1 and 3.3) whereas the ABI group improved much less (SMD = 0.5 and 1.1). Neither group demonstrated transfer to untrained tasks. We conclude that computerised training facilitates improvement of specific skills rather than high-level cognition in healthy and ABI subjects alike. The acquisition of these specific skills seems to be impaired by brain injury. The most effective use of computer-based cognitive training may be to make the task resemble the targeted behaviour(s) closely in order to exploit the stimulus-specificity of learning.

  15. Antioxidant effects ofPhyllanthus niruri tea on healthy subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elisngela Colpo; Carlos D D A Vilanova; Romaiana P Pereira; Luis Gustavo B Reetz; Liliane Oliveira; Iria L G Farias; Aline A Boligon; Margareth L Athayde; Joo Batista T Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the potential antioxidant effects ofPhyllanthus niruri(P. niruri, Euphorbiaceae) tea on healthy subjects.Methods:Five non-smoking, male healthy volunteers, 20 to31 years old, were enrolled.Each subject was treated twice, following a randomized crossover fashion regarding the ingestion ofP. niruri infusion(5 g/750 mL)(tea group) or750 mL of water(control group).Fasting venous blood samples were collected prior to and at1,2 and4 h after infusion drinking.Samples were tested for plasmatic gallic acid and ascorbic acid levels, erythrocytic catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, and intracellularDCFH fluorescence in granulocytes, monocytes and lymphocytes.Results:Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were not altered by tea ingestion.Plasma levels of gallic acid were significantly increasedat 1,2 and4 h afterP. niruri ingestion and plasma ascorbic acid at1 h afterP. niruri ingestion. Conclusions:Ingestion ofP. niruri tea is associated with a slight increase in antioxidant markers in human blood(ascorbic acid and gallic acid), which may contribute to its pharmacological effects.

  16. Cytokine Levels in the Serum of Healthy Subjects

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    Giulio Kleiner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing knowledge about the cytokine network response has led to a better comprehension of mechanisms of pathologies and to the development of new treatments with biological drugs, able to block specific molecules of the immune response. Indeed, when the cytokine production is deregulated, diseases often occur. The understanding of the physiological mechanism of the cytokine network would be useful to better comprehend pathological conditions. Moreover, since the immune system and response change their properties with development, differences in patients' age should be taken into account, both in physiological and in pathological conditions. In this study, we analyzed the profile of 48 cytokines and chemokines in the serum of healthy subjects, comparing adults (≥18 years with young children and children (1–6 and 7–17 years. We found that a certain number of cytokines were not being produced in healthy subjects; others showed a constant serum level amongst the groups. Certain cytokines exhibited a downward or an upward trend with increasing age. The remaining cytokines were up- or downregulated in the group of the children with respect to the other groups. In conclusion, we drew some kinds of guidelines about the physiological production of cytokines and chemokines, underling the difference caused by aging.

  17. Cytokine levels in the serum of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Giulio; Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Zanin, Valentina; Monasta, Lorenzo; Zauli, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Growing knowledge about the cytokine network response has led to a better comprehension of mechanisms of pathologies and to the development of new treatments with biological drugs, able to block specific molecules of the immune response. Indeed, when the cytokine production is deregulated, diseases often occur. The understanding of the physiological mechanism of the cytokine network would be useful to better comprehend pathological conditions. Moreover, since the immune system and response change their properties with development, differences in patients' age should be taken into account, both in physiological and in pathological conditions. In this study, we analyzed the profile of 48 cytokines and chemokines in the serum of healthy subjects, comparing adults (≥18 years) with young children and children (1-6 and 7-17 years). We found that a certain number of cytokines were not being produced in healthy subjects; others showed a constant serum level amongst the groups. Certain cytokines exhibited a downward or an upward trend with increasing age. The remaining cytokines were up- or downregulated in the group of the children with respect to the other groups. In conclusion, we drew some kinds of guidelines about the physiological production of cytokines and chemokines, underling the difference caused by aging.

  18. Gastroprotection induced by capsaicin in healthy human subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gyula Mózsik; János Szolcsányi; István Rácz

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the gastro-protective effect of capsaicin against the ethanol- and indomethacin (IND)-induced gastric mucosal damage in healthy human subjects.METHODS: The effects of small doses (1-8 μg/mL,100 mL) of capsaicin on the gastric acid secretion basal acid output (BAO) and its electrolyte concentration,gastric transmucosal potential difference (GTPD),ethanol- (5 mL 300 mL/L i.g.) and IND- (3x25 mg/d)induced gastric mucosal damage were tested in a randomized, prospective study of 84 healthy human subjects. The possible role of desensitization of capsaicin-sensitive afferents was tested by repeated exposures and during a prolonged treatment.RESULTS: Intragastric application of capsaicin decreased the BAO and enhanced "non-parietal" component, GTPD in a dose-dependent manner. The decrease of GTPD evoked by ethanol was inhibited by the capsaicin application,which was reproducible. Gastric microbleeding induced by IND was inhibited by co-administration with capsaicin,but was not influenced by two weeks pretreatment with a daily capsaicin dose of 3x400 μg i.g.CONCLUSION: Capsaicin in low concentration range protects against gastric injuries induced by ethanol or IND, which is attributed to stimulation of the sensory nerve endings.

  19. Gender differences associated with orienting attentional networks in healthy subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gang; HU Pan-pan; FAN Jin; WANG Kai

    2013-01-01

    Background Selective attention is considered one of the main components of cognitive functioning.A number of studies have demonstrated gender differences in cognition.This study aimed to investigate the gender differences in selective attention in healthy subjects.Methods The present experiment examined the gender differences associated with the efficiency of three attentional networks:alerting,orienting,and executive control attention in 73 healthy subjects (38 males).All participants performed a modified version of the Attention Network Test (ANT).Results Females had higher orienting scores than males (t=2.172,P <0.05).Specifically,females were faster at covert orienting of attention to a spatially cued location.There were no gender differences between males and females in alerting (t=0.813,P >0.05) and executive control (t=0.945,P >0.05) attention networks.Conclusions There was a significant gender difference between males and females associated with the orienting network.Enhanced orienting attention in females may function to motivate females to direct their attention to a spatially cued location.

  20. ABO Blood Type and Personality Traits in Healthy Japanese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchimine, Shoko; Saruwatari, Junji; Kaneda, Ayako; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2015-01-01

    There is no scientific consensus that a relationship exists between the ABO blood group and personality traits. However, a recent study hypothesized that the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene is in linkage with the ABO gene. The sample population consisted of 1,427 healthy Japanese subjects who completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Each subject's ABO blood type was determined by genotyping the rs8176719 and rs8176746 ABO gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a TaqMan genotyping assay. The relationships between the six ABO genotypes or four ABO phenotypes and personality traits were examined using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), controlling for age and sex. The MANCOVA data showed a significant difference in TCI scores among the ABO genotype groups (F [7, 1393] = 3.354, p = 0.001). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference in the mean scores for Persistence among the genotype groups (F = 2.680, partial η2 = 0.010, p = 0.020). Similarly, dividing the ABO blood type into four phenotypes revealed a significant difference among the phenotype groups (F [7, 1397] = 2.529, p = 0.014). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference among the phenotype groups in the mean scores for Persistence (F = 2.952, partial η2= 0.006, p = 0.032). We observed a significant association between ABO blood group genotypes and personality traits in a large number of healthy Japanese subjects. However, these results should be regarded as preliminary and should be interpreted with caution because it is possible that the association between ABO blood group genotype and the Persistence trait is relatively weak.

  1. Sonoelastography of Plantar Fascia: Reproducibility and Pattern Description in Healthy Subjects and Symptomatic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Díaz, José; Martínez-Payá, Jacinto J; del Baño-Aledo, María Elena; de Groot-Ferrando, Ana; Botía-Castillo, Paloma; Fernández-Rodríguez, David

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the work reported here was to describe the sonoelastographic appearance of the plantar fascia of healthy volunteers and patients with fasciitis. Twenty-three healthy subjects and 21 patients with plantar fasciitis were examined using B-mode and real-time sonoelastography (RTSR) scanning. B-Mode examination included fascia thickness and echotexture. Echogenicity and echovariation of the color histogram were analyzed. Fasciae were classified into type 1, blue (more elastic); type 2, blue/green (intermediate); or type 3, green (less elastic). RTSE revealed 72.7% of fasciae as type 2, with no significant association with fasciitis (χ(2) = 3.6, df = 2, p = 0.17). Quantitative analysis of the color histogram revealed a significantly greater intensity of green (mean = 77.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 71.9-83.6) and blue (mean = 74.2, 95% CI = 69.7-78.8) in healthy subjects. Echovariation of the color red was 33.4% higher in the fasciitis group than in the healthy group (95% CI = 16.7-50.1). Sonoelastography with quantitative analysis of echovariation can be a useful tool for evaluation of plantar fascia pathology. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pharmacokinetic Study of Frusemide in Healthy and Cirrhotic Indian Subjects

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    Dr. Yuvrajsing Dhunnoo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver cirrhosis is associated with various complications such as ascites and fluid retention, progressing to development of hepatorenal syndrome, further compromising fluid elimination. Frusemide, a loop diuretic is normally administered to relieve fluid retentions. The kinetics of frusemide has not been conclusively reported in the three types of cirrhosis and among Indian subjects. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the kinetics of frusemide among healthy and Child’s A, B and C cirrhosis and compare with earlier data. 24 cirrhotic were selected and classified according to the Child’s-Pugh classification. 12 healthy male volunteers were screened and included in the study. 40 mg of frusemide was administered orally to both groups and blood samples were withdrawn at various intervals of time for a duration of 8 hrs. The amount of frusemide present in plasma was analyzed using HPLC. The volumes of distribution (Vd, area under curve (AUC, systemic clearance (CL, maximum concentration (Cmax, time for maximum concentration (tmax in healthy volunteers were respectively 4.56 ± 0.15 L, 2258 ± 530.7, 4.97 ± 1.67 L/h, 892 ± 49.4 ng/ml, 85.20± 7.49 mins. Corresponding values in Group A were 5.00 ± 0.31 L, 2471 ± 228.6, 6.60 ± 2.90L/h, 1021 ± 47.97 ng/ml and 88.25 V 2.12 mins; in Group B 7.73 ± 1.10 L, 4038 ± 154.7, 8.84 ± 0.45 L/h, 1448 ± 43.20 ng/ml and 120 ± 1.89 mins; In group C cirrhosis 9.69 ± 1.32 L, 4085 ± 131.75, 3.49 ± 1.40 L/h, 1551± 59.02 ng/ml and 185.7 ± 2.68 mins respectively. Significant differences at 1% and 5% were observed among the cirrhotic groups and between healthy v/s cirrhotic patients. Data from current study do not correlate with earlier reports, carried mainly in Western population, due to possibly differences in instrumentation, etc but a possible genetic interplay should not be ruled out. Data from cirrhotic patients could not be effectively compared with earlier studies as kinetics of frusemide

  3. Impaired acquisition of goal-directed action in healthy aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, S.; van de Vijver, I.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2014-01-01

    According to dual-system theories, instrumental learning is supported by dissociable goal-directed and habitual systems. Previous investigations of the dual-system balance in healthy aging have yielded mixed results. To further investigate this issue, we compared performance of young (17-24 years) a

  4. Dispositional mindfulness and subjective time in healthy individuals

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    Luisa eWeiner

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available How a human observer perceives duration depends on the amount of events taking place during the timed interval, but also on psychological dimensions, such as emotional-wellbeing, mindfulness, impulsivity, and rumination. Here we aimed at exploring these influences on duration estimation and passage of time judgments. 117 healthy individuals filled out mindfulness (FFMQ, impulsivity (BIS-11, rumination (RRS, and depression (BDI-sf questionnaires. Participants also conducted verbal estimation and production tasks in the multiple seconds range. During these timing tasks, subjects were asked to read digits aloud that were presented on a computer screen. Each condition of the timing tasks differed in terms of the interval between the presentation of the digits, i.e., either short (4-sec or long (16-sec. Our findings suggest that long empty intervals (16-sec are associated with a relative underestimation of duration, and to a feeling that the time passes slowly, a seemingly paradoxical result. Also, regarding more mindful individuals, such a dissociation between duration estimation and passage of time judgments was also found, but only when empty intervals were short (4-sec. Relatively speaking, more mindful subjects showed an increased overestimation of durations, but felt that time passed more quickly. These results provide further evidence for the dissociation between duration estimation and the feeling of the passage of time. We discuss these results in terms of an alerting effect when empty intervals are short and events are more numerous, which could mediate the effect of dispositional mindfulness.

  5. Dispositional Mindfulness and Subjective Time in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Luisa; Wittmann, Marc; Bertschy, Gilles; Giersch, Anne

    2016-01-01

    How a human observer perceives duration depends on the amount of events taking place during the timed interval, but also on psychological dimensions, such as emotional-wellbeing, mindfulness, impulsivity, and rumination. Here we aimed at exploring these influences on duration estimation and passage of time judgments. One hundred and seventeen healthy individuals filled out mindfulness (FFMQ), impulsivity (BIS-11), rumination (RRS), and depression (BDI-sf) questionnaires. Participants also conducted verbal estimation and production tasks in the multiple seconds range. During these timing tasks, subjects were asked to read digits aloud that were presented on a computer screen. Each condition of the timing tasks differed in terms of the interval between the presentation of the digits, i.e., either short (4-s) or long (16-s). Our findings suggest that long empty intervals (16-s) are associated with a relative underestimation of duration, and to a feeling that the time passes slowly, a seemingly paradoxical result. Also, regarding more mindful individuals, such a dissociation between duration estimation and passage of time judgments was found, but only when empty intervals were short (4-s). Relatively speaking, more mindful subjects showed an increased overestimation of durations, but felt that time passed more quickly. These results provide further evidence for the dissociation between duration estimation and the feeling of the passage of time. We discuss these results in terms of an alerting effect when empty intervals are short and events are more numerous, which could mediate the effect of dispositional mindfulness. PMID:27303344

  6. Subjective Visual Vertical during Caloric Stimulation in Healthy Subjects: Implications to Research and Neurorehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Funabashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The subjective visual vertical (SVV is a perception often impaired in patients with neurologic disorders and is considered a sensitive tool to detect otolithic dysfunctions. However, it remains unclear whether the semicircular canals (SCCs are also involved in the visual vertical perception. Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of horizontal SCCs on SVV by caloric stimulation in healthy subjects. Methods. SVV was performed before and during the ice-cold caloric stimulation (4°C, right ear in 30 healthy subjects. Results. The mean SVV tilts before and during the caloric stimulation were 0.31° ± 0.39 and −0.28° ± 0.40, respectively. There was no significant difference between the mean SVV tilts before and during stimulation p=0.113. Conclusion. These results suggest that horizontal SCCs do not influence SVV. Therefore, investigations and rehabilitation approaches for SVV misperceptions should be focused on otolithic and cognitive strategies.

  7. Behavioral responses to catecholamine depletion in unmedicated, remitted subjects with bulimia nervosa and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Simona; Stern, Jair; Gamper, Lara; Moergeli, Hanspeter; Milos, Gabriella; Schnyder, Ulrich; Hasler, Gregor

    2015-04-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) has been associated with dysregulation of the central catecholaminergic system. An instructive way to investigate the relationship between catecholaminergic function and psychiatric disorder has involved behavioral responses to experimental catecholamine depletion (CD). The purpose of this study was to examine a possible catecholaminergic dysfunction in the pathogenesis of bulimia nervosa. CD was achieved by oral administration of alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT) in 18 remitted female subjects with BN (rBN) and 31 healthy female control subjects. The study design consisted of a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover, single-site experimental trial. The main outcome measures were bulimic symptoms assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire. Measures were assessed before and 26, 30, 54, 78, 102 hours after the first AMPT or placebo administration. In the experimental environment (controlled environment with a low level of food cues) rBN subjects had a greater increase in eating disorder symptoms during CD compared with healthy control subjects (condition × diagnosis interaction, p < .05). In the experimental environment, rBN subjects experienced fewer bulimic symptoms than in the natural environment (uncontrolled environment concerning food cues) 36 hours after the first AMPT intake (environment × diagnosis interaction, p < .05). Serum prolactin levels increased significantly, and to a comparable degree across groups, after AMPT administration. This study suggests that rBN is associated with vulnerability for developing eating disorder symptoms in response to reduced catecholamine neurotransmission after CD. The findings support the notion of catecholaminergic dysfunction as a possible trait abnormality in BN. © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry All rights reserved.

  8. The Acquisition of Jamaican Creole: Null Subject Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lisser, Tamirand Nnena; Durrleman, Stephanie; Rizzi, Luigi; Shlonsky, Ur

    2016-01-01

    This article provides the first systematic analysis of early subject omission in a creole language. Basing our analysis on a longitudinal corpus of natural production of Jamaican Creole (JC), we observe that early subject drop is robustly attested for several months. Early subject omission is basically confined to the clause initial position,…

  9. Pharmacokinetic interaction study between benazepril and amlodipine in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J X; Cipriano, A; Chan, K; John, V A

    1994-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic interaction between benazepril (ACE inhibitor) and amlodipine (calcium channel blocker) was studied in 12 healthy subjects. Single doses of benazepril hydrochloride (10-mg tablet) and amlodipine besylate (tablet equivalent to 5 mg amlodipine) were administered alone or in combination according to a three-way, Latin-Square, randomized cross-over design. Serial blood samples were collected following each administration for the determination of benazepril and its active metabolite benazeprilat and amlodipine. The mean values of AUC (0-4 h), Cmax and Tmax for benazepril given as combination versus given alone were 161 vs 140 ng.h.ml-1, 168 vs 149 ng.ml-1, and 0.5 vs 0.6 h. The mean values of AUC (0-24 h), Cmax and Tmax for benazeprilat after benazepril given as combination versus given alone were 1470 vs 1410 ng.h.ml-1, 292 vs 257 ng.ml-1, and 1.7 vs 1.5 h. The mean values of AUC (0-144 h), Cmax and Tmax for amlodipine given as combination versus given alone were 118 vs 114 ng.h.ml-1, 2.5 vs 2.3 ng.ml-1, and 8.3 vs 9.0 h. The differences in these pharmacokinetic parameters between the combination and monotherapy treatments were not statistically significant based on ANOVA. The results of this study indicate that no pharmacokinetic interaction existed between the two drugs.

  10. Exhaled nitric oxide - circadian variations in healthy subjects

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    Antosova M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO has been suggested as a marker of airway inflammatory diseases. The level of eNO is influenced by many various factor including age, sex, menstrual cycle, exercise, food, drugs, etc. The aim of our study was to investigate a potential influence of circadian variation on eNO level in healthy subjects. Methods Measurements were performed in 44 women and 10 men, non-smokers, without respiratory tract infection in last 2 weeks. The eNO was detected at 4-hour intervals from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. using an NIOX analyzer. We followed the ATS/ERS guidelines for eNO measurement and analysis. Results Peak of eNO levels were observed at 10 a.m. (11.1 ± 7.2 ppb, the lowest value was detected at 10 p.m. (10.0 ± 5.8 ppb. The difference was statistically significant (paired t-test, P Conclusions The daily variations in eNO, with the peak in the morning hours, could be of importance in clinical practice regarding the choice of optimal time for monitoring eNO in patients with respiratory disease.

  11. Seemingly similar: Subjects and displacement in grammar, processing, and acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koring, L.

    2013-01-01

    One of the core features of language is that words in a sentence often fulfill a dual task. For instance, in sentences with raising verbs like seem, what appears on the surface as the subject of seem, is interpreted as the subject of the embedded proposition. That is, in the sentence Tommy seems to

  12. Impulsivity, gender, and the platelet serotonin transporter in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Marazziti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Donatella Marazziti, Stefano Baroni, Irene Masala, Francesca Golia, Giorgio Consoli, Gabriele Massimetti, Michela Picchetti, Mario Catena Dell’Osso, Gino Giannaccini, Laura Betti, Antonio Lucacchini, Antonio CiapparelliDipartimento di Psichiatria, Neurobiologia, Farmacologia e Biotecnologie, University of Pisa, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: The present study explored the possible relationships between impulsivity, gender, and a peripheral serotonergic marker, the platelet serotonin (5-HT transporter (SERT, in a group of 32 healthy subjects. The impulsivity was measured by means of the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, version 11 (BIS-11, a widely used self-report questionnaire, and the platelet SERT was evaluated by means of the specific binding of 3H-paroxetine (3H-Par to platelet membranes, according to standardized protocols. The results showed that women had a higher BIS-11 total score than men, and also higher scores of two factors of the same scale: the motor impulsivity and the cognitive complexity. The analysis of the correlations revealed that the density of the SERT proteins, as measured by the maximum binding capacity (Bmax of 3H-Par, was significantly and positively related to the cognitive complexity factor, but only in men. Men showed also a significant and negative correlation with the dissociation constant, Kd, of (3H-Par binding, and the motor impulsivity factor. These findings suggest that women are generally more impulsive than men, but that the 5-HT system is more involved in the impulsivity of men than in that of women.Keywords: impulsivity, gender, serotonin transporter, Barratt Impulsivity Scale, platelets, 3H-paroxetine

  13. Developmental Asynchrony in the Acquisition of Subject Properties in Child L2 English and Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pladevall-Ballester, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    Given that L1A of subject properties in non-null subject languages emerges later than that of null subject languages, this study aims at determining to what extent the same pattern of acquisition is observed in early child L2A in bilingual immersion settings where English and Spanish are both source and target languages. Using an elicited oral…

  14. Physiological Responses to Two Hypoxic Conditioning Strategies in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacaroun, Samarmar; Borowik, Anna; Morrison, Shawnda A.; Baillieul, Sébastien; Flore, Patrice; Doutreleau, Stéphane; Verges, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Hypoxic exposure can be used as a therapeutic tool by inducing various cardiovascular, neuromuscular, and metabolic adaptations. Hypoxic conditioning strategies have been evaluated in patients with chronic diseases using either sustained (SH) or intermittent (IH) hypoxic sessions. Whether hypoxic conditioning via SH or IH may induce different physiological responses remains to be elucidated. Methods: Fourteen healthy active subjects (7 females, age 25 ± 8 years, body mass index 21.5 ± 2.5 kg·m−2) performed two interventions in a single blind, randomized cross-over design, starting with either 3 x SH (48 h apart), or 3 x IH (48 h apart), separated by a 2 week washout period. SH sessions consisted of breathing a gas mixture with reduced inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO2), continuously adjusted to reach arterial oxygen saturations (SpO2) of 70–80% for 1 h. IH sessions consisted of 5 min with reduced FiO2 (SpO2 = 70–80%), followed by 3-min normoxia, repeated seven times. During the first (S1) and third (S3) sessions of each hypoxic intervention, cardiorespiratory parameters, and muscle and pre-frontal cortex oxygenation (near infrared spectroscopy) were assessed continuously. Results: Minute ventilation increased significantly during IH sessions (+2 ± 2 L·min−1) while heart rate increased during both SH (+11 ± 4 bpm) and IH (+13 ± 5 bpm) sessions. Arterial blood pressure increased during all hypoxic sessions, although baseline normoxic systolic blood pressure was reduced from S1 to S3 in IH only (−8 ± 11 mmHg). Muscle oxygenation decreased significantly during S3 but not S1, for both hypoxic interventions (S3: SH −6 ± 5%, IH −3 ± 4%); pre-frontal oxygenation decreased in S1 and S3, and to a greater extent in SH vs. IH (−13 ± 3% vs. −6 ± 6%). Heart rate variability indices indicated a significantly larger increase in sympathetic activity in SH vs. IH (lower SDNN, PNN50, and RMSSD values in SH). From S1 to S3, further reduction in

  15. Reassessing the Null-Subject Parameter in Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantolf, James P.

    A study is presented that examines the null-subject parameter (NSP) and that seeks to attain the following objectives: (1) to assess the validity of the implicational hierarchy for the NSP, especially as proposed by Liceras (1989); and (2) to determine if there is any evidence to support the theory of the Weaker Logical Problem of Acquisition…

  16. The Power of Students’ Subjectivity Processes in Foreign Language acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    of the students in reading and communicating in French and German as part of their academic learning process (Bojsen 2012). In this framework we are already on new ground within the established practice of FL teaching and learning in Denmark as this practice has traditionally been confined to language courses...... and degrees and diplomas in particular foreign languages. However in this case, the students are not inscribed as students of foreign languages. Their subjectivity process is thus not that of a student of French or German, but rather of pedagogy, cultural studies, economics, development studies or other...

  17. The Power of Students’ Subjectivity Processes in Foreign Language acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    and degrees and diplomas in particular foreign languages. However in this case, the students are not inscribed as students of foreign languages. Their subjectivity process is thus not that of a student of French or German, but rather of pedagogy, cultural studies, economics, development studies or other...... of the students in reading and communicating in French and German as part of their academic learning process (Bojsen 2012). In this framework we are already on new ground within the established practice of FL teaching and learning in Denmark as this practice has traditionally been confined to language courses...

  18. Exsanguination of lower limbs in healthy male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blond, Lars; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2002-01-01

    Gamma camera technique was used to assess the effectiveness of various exsanguination methods in 12 healthy male volunteers given an autologous injection of 99mTc-labeled erythrocytes. The methods used included elevation alone, Esmarch bandage, gauze bandage, and the Pomidor roll-cuff. The median...

  19. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of lithium carbonate in healthy subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, R.

    1988-01-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of lithium in six healthy volunteers stabilised on lithium were investigated and appropriate pharmacokinetic parameters calculated. 2. The results illustrate important differences in single and multiple dose lithium pharmacokinetics; the implications for minimising lithium-induced renal damage are discussed.

  20. The Power of Students’ Subjectivity Processes in Foreign Language acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    of the students in reading and communicating in French and German as part of their academic learning process (Bojsen 2012). In this framework we are already on new ground within the established practice of FL teaching and learning in Denmark as this practice has traditionally been confined to language courses......Since September 2012, Roskilde University offers a new series of supplementary courses to all students within human and social sciences – in addition to their specific studies. The overall aim of these courses, which run from 1st to 3rd semester, is to sustain and develop the competences...... and degrees and diplomas in particular foreign languages. However in this case, the students are not inscribed as students of foreign languages. Their subjectivity process is thus not that of a student of French or German, but rather of pedagogy, cultural studies, economics, development studies or other...

  1. On the L2 acquisition of Spanish-subject verb inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerra Rivera, Alexia; Coopmans, Peter; Baauw, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the acquisition of Spanish subject-verb inversion in wh-questions by Dutch L2 learners. The optional or obligatory application of this rule in Spanish wh-questions depends on the argument versus adjunct status of the wh-element. In Dutch,subject-verb inversionis obligatory in

  2. Periodontal pathogens in erupting third molars of periodontally healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasuo, A; Sihvonen, O J; Peltola, M; Meurman, J H

    2007-09-01

    The presence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Tannerella forsythensis in bacteriologic samples of 5-7-mm deep mandibular third-molar pericoronal pockets was analysed by polymerase chain reaction, to test the hypothesis that these sites would harbour the bacteria. The patients were periodontally healthy 20-year-old Finnish male conscripts. Sixteen had acute pericoronitis, 28 chronic pericoronitis, and 15 were symptom-free controls. A. actinomycetemcomitans was detected in only 7% of the samples from chronic pericoronitis cases, whereas P. gingivalis was positive in 20% of the symptom-free versus 69% (P = 0.018) of the acute and 57% (P = 0.044) of the chronic cases. The percentages for P. intermedia were 93, 94 and 93%, and for T. forsythensis 47, 63 and 57%, respectively. These results confirm that, apart from A. actinomycetemcomitans, periodontopathogens are common in third-molar sites in periodontally healthy individuals.

  3. Exsanguination of lower limbs in healthy male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blond, Lars; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2002-01-01

    Gamma camera technique was used to assess the effectiveness of various exsanguination methods in 12 healthy male volunteers given an autologous injection of 99mTc-labeled erythrocytes. The methods used included elevation alone, Esmarch bandage, gauze bandage, and the Pomidor roll-cuff. The median......%, 10 minutes 44%, Esmarch bandage 64%, gauze bandage 62%, and Pomidor roll-cuff 61%. No statistically significant differences were found between the elevation procedures. The external methods were more effective than elevation alone (p

  4. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolder, Patrick C; Schmid, Yasmin; Steuer, Andrea E; Kraemer, Thomas; Rentsch, Katharina M; Hammann, Felix; Liechti, Matthias E

    2017-02-14

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is used recreationally and in clinical research. The aim of the present study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics and exposure-response relationship of oral LSD. We analyzed pharmacokinetic data from two published placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over studies using oral administration of LSD 100 and 200 µg in 24 and 16 subjects, respectively. The pharmacokinetics of the 100-µg dose is shown for the first time and data for the 200-µg dose were reanalyzed and included. Plasma concentrations of LSD, subjective effects, and vital signs were repeatedly assessed. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using compartmental modeling. Concentration-effect relationships were described using pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling. Geometric mean (95% confidence interval) maximum plasma concentration values of 1.3 (1.2-1.9) and 3.1 (2.6-4.0) ng/mL were reached 1.4 and 1.5 h after administration of 100 and 200 µg LSD, respectively. The plasma half-life was 2.6 h (2.2-3.4 h). The subjective effects lasted (mean ± standard deviation) 8.2 ± 2.1 and 11.6 ± 1.7 h for the 100- and 200-µg LSD doses, respectively. Subjective peak effects were reached 2.8 and 2.5 h after administration of LSD 100 and 200 µg, respectively. A close relationship was observed between the LSD concentration and subjective response within subjects, with moderate counterclockwise hysteresis. Half-maximal effective concentration values were in the range of 1 ng/mL. No correlations were found between plasma LSD concentrations and the effects of LSD across subjects at or near maximum plasma concentration and within dose groups. The present pharmacokinetic data are important for the evaluation of clinical study findings (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging studies) and the interpretation of LSD intoxication. Oral LSD presented dose-proportional pharmacokinetics and first-order elimination up to 12 h. The effects of LSD were related

  5. Influence of biperiden and bornaprine on sleep in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohagen, F; Lis, S; Riemann, D; Krieger, S; Meyer, C; Montero, R F; Grunze, H; Berger, M

    1994-08-01

    Biperiden, 4 mg, an anticholinergic drug that is relatively selective for the M1 receptor subtype, and bornaprine, 4 mg, a nonselective M1 and M2 antagonist, were administered orally in a randomized, double-blind design to twelve healthy volunteers to investigate the effect on polysomnographically recorded sleep. Both drugs suppressed rapid eye movement (REM) sleep as reflected by an increase of REM latency and a decrease in the percentage of REM sleep period time with the effects of biperiden being more pronounced. No significant effect on slow wave sleep was observed. The results of this study support the hypothesis that both the M1 and the M2 receptor subtype are involved in the regulation of REM sleep in humans.

  6. Chewing gum differentially affects aspects of attention in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Oliver; Mecklinger, Lara; Maier, Kerstin; Hammerl, Marianne; Lange, Klaus W

    2004-06-01

    In a study published previously in this journal (Wilkinson et al., 2002), the effect of chewing gum on cognitive functioning was examined. The results of this study indicated that chewing a piece of gum results in an improvement of working memory and of both immediate and delayed recall of words but not of attention. In the present study, memory and a variety of attentional functions of healthy adult participants were examined under four different conditions: no chewing, mimicking chewing movements, chewing a piece of tasteless chewing gum and chewing a piece of spearmint flavoured chewing gum. The sequence of conditions was randomised across participants. The results showed that the chewing of gum did not improve participants' memory functions. Furthermore, chewing may differentially affect specific aspects of attention. While sustained attention was improved by the chewing of gum, alertness and flexibility were adversely affected by chewing. In conclusion, claims that the chewing a gum improves cognition should be viewed with caution.

  7. [Effects of nifuroxazide on fecal flora in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buisson, Y; Larribaud, J

    1989-01-01

    Effect of nifuroxazide on fecal flora was studied in 12 healthy volunteers receiving, in hazardous order and double-blind procedure, three six-days courses of treatment separated by eight-days spaces of time: the conventional dosage of 400 mg twice a day, a dosage of 1200 mg once a day, and placebo. Among six settled bacteriological index (wealth of the fecal flora, percentage of gram-negative bacteria, numbers of E. coli, Enterococcus, Clostridium and Bacteroides), no significant variation was found by means of statistical study between D0, D2 and D7, nor between the three courses of treatment. Therefore nifuroxazide, even in high dosage, does not injure integrity of microbial intestinal ecosystem under so defined experimental conditions, similar with clinical conditions.

  8. Acute effects of lysergic acid diethylamide in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    After no research in humans for >40 years, there is renewed interest in using lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in clinical psychiatric research and practice. There are no modern studies on the subjective and autonomic effects of LSD, and its endocrine effects are unknown. In animals, LSD disrupts prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response, and patients with schizophrenia exhibit similar impairments in PPI. However, no data are available on the effects of LSD on PPI in humans.;...

  9. Magnetic resonance of carotid artery ageing in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Niall G; Locca, Didier; Varghese, Anitha; Roughton, Michael; Gatehouse, Peter D; Hooper, James; Firmin, David N; Pennell, Dudley J

    2009-07-01

    To assess how the arterial wall of the carotid artery changes with age in normal subjects by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Carotid CMR was performed in 100 normal subjects (10 per sex per decade) who were free of atherosclerotic risk factors and carotid atherosclerosis. Using three-dimensional computer modeling, the volumes of the arterial wall, lumen, and the total vessel were calculated, and the wall/outer wall (W/OW) ratio was derived. Wall volume and total vessel volume increased significantly with age in both sexes (pW/OW ratio also increased significantly with age (p<0.001). Lumen volume increased significantly with age in males (p<0.001), but not in females (p=0.1). In normal subjects, carotid wall volume increases with age. In men, this vessel wall volume increase is associated with significant remodeling of the lumen and outer wall. These data relating normal carotid findings with ageing are important for further CMR studies of early atherosclerosis.

  10. Pulmonary Function Tests In Young Healthy Subjects Of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Rastogi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Study Objectives : The diagnosis of disease done by skiagram can be substantiated by pulmonary function tests. Substantial data of Indians on PFTs is not available. The present study therefore has been planned on young healthy north Indians.Setting : 119 males and 49 female medical students of North India.Measurements : PFT's, T.V. FEV1, FVC, FER and PEFR were measured. P<0.05 was considered as significant.Results : In North Indian males, mean T. V was 437.56 ± 65.83 ml, FEV1 3.26 ±041 L, FVC 3.82 ± 0.48 L, FER 85.09 ± 2.42% and PEFR was 495.42 ± 101.82 L / min. In North Indian females, average T. V was 386.12 ± 37.90 ml, FEV1 2.39 ± 0.38 L, FVC 2.79 ± 0.43 L, FER 85.38 ± 257% and PEFR was 307.12 ± 75.74 L / min.Conclusions: Males in comparison to females had more value of PFTs. All the PFTs showed positive correlation with Height, Weight and Surface area except Tidal Volume and FER.

  11. Null subjects: a problem for parameter-setting models of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valian, V

    1990-05-01

    Some languages, like English, require overt surface subjects, while others, like Italian and Spanish, allow "null" subjects. How does the young child determine whether or not her language allows null subjects? Modern parameter-setting theory has proposed a solution, in which the child begins acquisition with the null subject parameter set for either the English-like value or the Italian-like value. Incoming data, or the absence thereof, force a resetting of the parameter if the original value was incorrect. This paper argues that the single-value solution cannot work, no matter which value is chosen as the initial one, because of inherent limitations in the child's parser, and because of the presence of misleading input. An alternative dual-value solution is proposed, in which the child begins acquisition with both values available, and uses theory-confirmation procedures to decide which value is best supported by the available data.

  12. Circulating microRNAs in breast cancer and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atasoy Ulus

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that extracellular mRNA can be detected in the circulation. Our hypothesis was that circulating miRNAs are also present and differentially expressed in the serum of breast cancer patients compared to controls. Findings We measured miRNA in the serum of samples with and without the addition of miRNA prior to analysis. To test our RNA extraction efficiency, we spiked-in serial dilutions of single-strand C elegens miR-39 (cel-miR-39 and human miR-145 (has-miR-145 into goat serum and a 10 year old human serum specimen. We next analyzed miR-16, -145, and -155 in archived serum specimens from 21 participants, 13 of whom did and 8 of whom did not have breast cancer. We were able to detect the miRNAs from all the serum samples to which the miRNAs had been added. We were also able to detect endogenous miR-16, -145, and -155 in all serum samples. While the expression of all three miRNAs was similar in samples from healthy women compared to those with breast cancer, women with progesterone receptor (PR, p = 0.016 positive tumors had higher miR-155 expression than tumors that were negative for these receptors. Conclusion 1 RNA species can be detected in archived serum; 2 miR-155 may be differentially expressed in the serum of women with hormone sensitive compared to women with hormone insensitive breast cancer. Screening serum for miRNAs that predict the presence of breast cancer is feasible, and may be useful for breast cancer detection.

  13. Plasma YKL-40 levels in healthy subjects from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Stig E; Johansen, Julia S; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    Plasma YKL-40 is a new biomarker in patients with cancer and inflammatory diseases. High plasma YKL-40 is associated with poor prognosis. Our aim was to determine reference levels in healthy subjects....

  14. Mass spectrometric quantification of salivary metanephrines-A study in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, Thamara E.; Horst-Schrivers, van der Anouk N. A.; van Faassen, Martijn; Kerstens, Michiel N.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Pacak, Karel; Links, Thera P.; Kema, Ido P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Determination of metanephrine (MN), normetanephrine (NMN), and 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) in saliva may offer potential diagnostic advantages in diagnosing pheochromocytoma. Methods: In this preliminary study, we determined metanephrine concentrations in saliva of healthy subjects and the

  15. EFFECT OF POSITIVE EXPIRATORY PRESSURE ON BREATHING PATTERN IN HEALTHY-SUBJECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERSCHANS, CP; DEJONG, W; DEVRIES, G; POSTMA, DS; KOETER, GH; VANDERMARK, TW

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to register breathing patterns, in healthy subjects, during breathing with a positive expiratory pressure. Integrated electromyographic (IEMG) activity of the following muscles was assessed: scalene muscle, parasternal muscle and abdominal muscles, using surface electro

  16. In vivo knee laxity in flexion and extension: a radiographic study in 30 older healthy subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesterbeek, P.J.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Wymenga, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine how "tight" a total knee prosthesis should be implanted, it is important to know the amount of laxity in a healthy knee. The objective of this study was to determine knee laxity in extension and flexion in healthy, non-arthritic knees of subjects similar in age to patients unde

  17. Circadian fluctuations in three types of sensory modules in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Nam, Ki Seok

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to observe and compare the circadian fluctuations in tactile sense, joint reposition sense and two-point discrimination in healthy subjects. Twenty-one healthy adult subjects received perceptual ability tests through these three different sensory modules at approximately 9:00, 13:00 and 18:00 in a day. The distribution of ranking for perceptual ability was significantly different among the three different time points in each individual, with highest perceptual ability ...

  18. Hippocampal volume changes in healthy subjects at risk of unipolar depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaré, William F C; Vinberg, Maj; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2010-01-01

    Unipolar depression is moderately heritable. It is unclear whether structural brain changes associated with unipolar depression are present in healthy persons at risk of the disorder. Here we investigated whether a genetic predisposition to unipolar depression is associated with structural brain...... changes. A priori, hippocampal volume reductions were hypothesized. Using a high-risk study design, magnetic resonance imaging brain scans were obtained from 59 healthy high-risk subjects having a co-twin with unipolar depression, and 53 healthy low-risk subjects without a first-degree family history...

  19. Reproducibility and responsiveness of a noninvasive EMG technique of the respiratory muscles in COPD patients and in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duiverman, ML; van Eykern, LA; Vennik, PW; Koeter, GH; Maarsingh, EJW; Wijkstra, PJ

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we assessed the reproducibility and responsiveness of transcutaneous electromyography (EMG) of the respiratory muscles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD) and healthy subjects during breathing against an inspiratory load. In seven healthy subjects and

  20. Acquisition of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae by healthy travellers to India, France, February 2012 to March 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppé, E; Armand-Lefèvre, L; Estellat, C; El-Mniai, A; Boussadia, Y; Consigny, P H; Girard, P M; Vittecoq, D; Bouchaud, O; Pialoux, G; Esposito-Farèse, M; Coignard, B; Lucet, J C; Andremont, A; Matheron, S

    2014-01-01

    Healthy travellers to countries where carbapenemases-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are endemic might be at risk for their acquisition, even without contact with the local healthcare system. Here, we report the acquisition of CPE (two OXA-181, one New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1)) in three healthy travellers returning from India. The duration of CPE intestinal carriage was less than one month. The results indicate that healthy travellers recently returning from India might be considered as at risk for CPE carriage.

  1. Relationship between ocular surface temperature and peripheral vasoconstriction in healthy subjects: A thermographic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoli, Sara; Vannetti, Federica; Finocchio, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    vasoconstriction might be detected by measuring the ocular surface temperature. The ocular surface temperature was evaluated in a group of 38 healthy young subjects (28 males and 10 females; mean age: 25.4 6 4.1 years) by infrared thermography. For each subject, the experimental procedure consisted of two...

  2. Differences in walking pattern during 6-min walk test between patients with COPD and healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneke Annegarn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To date, detailed analyses of walking patterns using accelerometers during the 6-min walk test (6MWT have not been performed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Therefore, it remains unclear whether and to what extent COPD patients have an altered walking pattern during the 6MWT compared to healthy elderly subjects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 79 COPD patients and 24 healthy elderly subjects performed the 6MWT wearing an accelerometer attached to the trunk. The accelerometer features (walking intensity, cadence, and walking variability and subject characteristics were assessed and compared between groups. Moreover, associations were sought with 6-min walk distance (6MWD using multiple ordinary least squares (OLS regression models. COPD patients walked with a significantly lower walking intensity, lower cadence and increased walking variability compared to healthy subjects. Walking intensity and height were the only two significant determinants of 6MWD in healthy subjects, explaining 85% of the variance in 6MWD. In COPD patients also age, cadence, walking variability measures and their interactions were included were significant determinants of 6MWD (total variance in 6MWD explained: 88%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: COPD patients have an altered walking pattern during 6MWT compared to healthy subjects. These differences in walking pattern partially explain the lower 6MWD in patients with COPD.

  3. Diamine oxidase determination in serum - Low assay reproducibility and misclassification of healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnoor, Heidi Julius; Mosbech, Holger Fausbøll; Skov, Per Stahl;

    2013-01-01

    in the test kit was 86 %. Only 11 out of the 31 subjects were uniformly classified in all three runs. Among the healthy subjects, 9–12 out of 18 showed reduced or highly reduced activities; in the patient group, 0–5 out of 11 showed reduced or highly reduced activities in the three measurements....... No significant differences were found between the healthy subjects and the patient group in two measurements, but one experiment surprisingly demonstrated a significantly lower mean level of activity, measured by histamine-degrading units (HDU/ml), for the healthy subjects. A subset of the sera were sent...... to a commercial service laboratory, and here too misclassification occurred. This could be due to reproducibility problems, since the same sample was divided into six aliquots and allocated into different classes in two of six cases. Conclusion: The high interassay variation and perhaps an incorrectly defined...

  4. Quantitative performance of E-Scribe warehouse in detecting quality issues with digital annotated ECG data from healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapa, Nenad; Mortara, Justin L; Brown, Barry D; Isola, Lamberto; Badilini, Fabio

    2008-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration recommends submission of digital electrocardiograms in the standard HL7 XML format into the electrocardiogram warehouse to support preapproval review of new drug applications. The Food and Drug Administration scrutinizes electrocardiogram quality by viewing the annotated waveforms and scoring electrocardiogram quality by the warehouse algorithms. Part of the Food and Drug Administration warehouse is commercially available to sponsors as the E-Scribe Warehouse. The authors tested the performance of E-Scribe Warehouse algorithms by quantifying electrocardiogram acquisition quality, adherence to QT annotation protocol, and T-wave signal strength in 2 data sets: "reference" (104 digital electrocardiograms from a phase I study with sotalol in 26 healthy subjects with QT annotations by computer-assisted manual adjustment) and "test" (the same electrocardiograms with an intentionally introduced predefined number of quality issues). The E-Scribe Warehouse correctly detected differences between the 2 sets expected from the number and pattern of errors in the "test" set (except for 1 subject with QT misannotated in different leads of serial electrocardiograms) and confirmed the absence of differences where none was expected. E-Scribe Warehouse scores below the threshold value identified individual electrocardiograms with questionable T-wave signal strength. The E-Scribe Warehouse showed satisfactory performance in detecting electrocardiogram quality issues that may impair reliability of QTc assessment in clinical trials in healthy subjects.

  5. Timed Up and Go test: Comparison of kinematics between patients with chronic stroke and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnyaud, Céline; Pradon, Didier; Vaugier, Isabelle; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Bensmail, Djamel; Roche, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Understanding locomotor behavior is important to guide rehabilitation after stroke. This study compared lower-limb kinematics during the walking and turning sub-tasks of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test in stroke patients and healthy subjects. We also determined the parameters which explain TUG sub-task performance time in healthy subjects. Biomechanical parameters were recorded during the TUG in standardized conditions in 25 healthy individuals and 29 patients with chronic stroke using a 3D motion-analysis system. Parameters were compared between groups and a stepwise regression was used to indicate parameters which explained performance time in the healthy subjects. The percentage difference in step length between the last and first steps was calculated, during walking sub-tasks for each group. Speed, cadence, step length, percentage paretic single support phase, percentage non-paretic swing phase, peak hip extension, knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion were significantly reduced in the Stroke group compared to the Healthy group (pGo and 86% for Return (walking sub-tasks), and none of the parameters explained the Turn. Previous study in patients with stroke showed that the same parameters explained the variance during the walking sub-tasks and balance-related parameters explained the Turn. The present results showed that step length was differently modulated in each group. Thus the locomotor behavior of patients with stroke during obstacle circumvention is quite specific in light of the results obtained in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Anemia as a factor that elevates plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentration in apparently healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mika; Tsujino, Takeshi; Naito, Yoshiro; Lee-Kawabata, Masaaki; Ezumi, Akira; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Mano, Toshiaki; Masuyama, Tohru

    2008-09-01

    Plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is widely used as a biomarker of heart failure (HF); however, its concentration is often found to be high even in apparently healthy subjects and little is known about which factors contribute to physiological change in plasma BNP concentration in subjects without HF. We examined the effects of gender, age, and anemia on plasma BNP concentration in apparently healthy subjects. The study population consisted of 1036 healthy subjects who underwent an annual health examination at their company in 2005. There were 874 women, ranging in age from 30 to 63 years (mean, 41 years). Plasma BNP concentration was abnormal (> 18.4 pg/mL) in 292 subjects. The incidence was significantly higher in women than in men (31% versus 14%, P < 0.01). Mean plasma BNP concentration was higher in women than in men. The difference in plasma BNP concentration was associated with the difference in blood hemoglobin and age. Logarithmically transformed BNP concentration correlated inversely with blood hemoglobin (r = -0.30, P < 0.01 for all; r = -0.21, P < 0.01 for women; r = -0.20, P < 0.01 for men). By multiple regression analysis, logarithmically transformed BNP concentration correlated with hemoglobin, age, and gender. In conclusion, anemia is likely a critical determinant that elevates plasma BNP concentration in apparently healthy subjects.

  7. Circadian lfuctuations in three types of sensory modules in healthy subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Hyun Kwon; Ki Seok Nam

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to observe and compare the circadian fluctuations in tactile sense, joint reposition sense and two-point discrimination in healthy subjects. Twenty-one healthy adult subjects received perceptual ability tests through these three different sensory modules at approximately 9:00, 13:00 and 18:00 in a day. The distribution of ranking for perceptual ability was signiifcantly different among the three different time points in each individual, with highest perceptual ability in the evening compared with noon and morning, in terms of tactile sense and two-point discrimination. These ifndings suggest that the perceptual ability of healthy subjects lfuctuates according to the time points in a day.

  8. Impact of metabolic, hemodynamic and inflammatory factors on target organ damage in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blicher, M.; Kruger, R.; Olesen, Thomas Bastholm

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We wanted to test the impact of metabolic, hemodynamic and inflammatory factors on target organ damage (TOD) defined as cardiac hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, arterioclerosis and microvascular damage. Design and method: In a population based cohort study of 2115 healthy subjects (1049......SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (24hDBP), left ventricular mass index (LVMI) by M-mode echocardiography, carotid plaques (CP) by carotid ultra sound and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). To establish best model for association of LVMI, CP, PWV and UACR we used multiple linear regression analysis starting...... associated to hypertrophy, arteriosclerosis and microvascular damage in healthy subjects....

  9. iPad-assisted measurements of duration estimation in psychiatric patients and healthy control subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Preuschoff

    Full Text Available Handheld devices with touchscreen controls have become widespread in the general population. In this study, we examined the duration estimates (explicit timing made by patients in a major general hospital and healthy control subjects using a custom iPad application. We methodically assessed duration estimates using this novel device. We found that both psychiatric and non-psychiatric patients significantly overestimated time periods compared with healthy control subjects, who estimated elapsed time very precisely. The use of touchscreen-based methodologies can provide valuable information about patients.

  10. Postprandial lipemia in men with metabolic syndrome, hypertensives and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraklianou Stella A

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome (MetS, as well as postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, is associated with coronary heart disease. This study aimed to evaluate the postprandial lipemia after oral fat tolerance test (OFTT in subjects with MetS and compare them to hypertensive (HTN and healthy subjects. Results OFTT was given to 33 men with MetS (defined by the Adult Treatment Panel III, 17 HTN and 14 healthy men. The MetS group was further divided according to fasting triglycerides (TG into TG ≥ 150 [MetS+TG, (n = 22] or The postprandial response was significantly higher in MetS compared to HTN and healthy men [AUC (SD in mg/dl/h; 2534 ± 1016 vs. 1620 ± 494 and 1019 ± 280, respectively, p ≤ 0.001]. The TG levels were increased significantly in MetS+TG compared to MetS-TG subjects at 4 (p = 0.022, 6 (p Conclusion Fasting TG concentration is the main determinant of postprandial lipemia. However, an exaggeration of TG postprandialy was found in normotriglyceridemic MetS and HTN compared to healthy subjects. This suggests that intervention to lower fasting TG levels should be recommended in MetS subjects.

  11. Reversing the Approach to Null Subjects: A Perspective from Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguine, Maia

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new model for null subjects, and focuses on its implications for language development. The literature on pro-drop generally considers that not allowing null subjects is, informally speaking, the "default" option in natural languages, and appeals to particular morphosyntactic mechanisms in order to account for those languages in which the subject can be omitted. Shifting the perspective, the inverse approach postulates that pro-drop is (almost) a default grammatical setting, and that non-pro-drop results from the intervention of independent factors that block pro-drop in the derivation. The paper explores the consequences of the inverse approach in the domain of language acquisition, arguing that this model allows to account for a number of properties of child languages. It opens an avenue of research worth exploring, one that could give new solutions to old problems.

  12. Sources of variability of resting cerebral blood flow in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto Mølby; Kruuse, Christina Rostrup; Olesen, Jes

    2013-01-01

    when Hct was also accounted for. The present study confirms large between-subject variability in CBF measurements and that gender, Hct, and PETCO2 explain only a small part of this variability. This implies that a large fraction of CBF variability may be due to unknown factors such as differences......Measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) show large variability among healthy subjects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relative effect of established factors influencing CBF on the variability of resting CBF. We retrospectively analyzed spontaneous variability in 430 CBF...... measurements acquired in 152 healthy, young subjects using (133)Xe single-photon emission computed tomography. Cerebral blood flow was correlated positively with both end-tidal expiratory PCO2 (PETCO2) and female gender and inversely with hematocrit (Hct). Between- and within-subject CO2 reactivity...

  13. Sex differences in emotion-related cognitive processes in irritable bowel syndrome and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labus, Jennifer S; Gupta, Arpana; Coveleskie, Kristen; Tillisch, Kirsten; Kilpatrick, Lisa; Jarcho, Johanna; Feier, Natasha; Bueller, Joshua; Stains, Jean; Smith, Suzanne; Suyenobu, Brandall; Naliboff, Bruce; Mayer, Emeran A

    2013-10-01

    Greater responsiveness of emotional arousal circuits in relation to delivered visceral pain has been implicated as underlying central pain amplification in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), with female subjects showing greater responses than male subjects. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure neural responses to an emotion recognition paradigm, using faces expressing negative emotions (fear and anger). Sex and disease differences in the connectivity of affective and modulatory cortical circuits were studied in 47 IBS (27 premenopausal female subjects) and 67 healthy control subjects (HCs; 38 premenopausal female subjects). Male subjects (IBS+HC) showed greater overall brain responses to stimuli than female subjects in prefrontal cortex, insula, and amygdala. Effective connectivity analyses identified major sex- and disease-related differences in the functioning of brain networks related to prefrontal regions, cingulate, insula, and amygdala. Male subjects had stronger connectivity between anterior cingulate subregions, amygdala, and insula, whereas female subjects had stronger connectivity to and from the prefrontal modulatory regions (medial/dorsolateral cortex). Male IBS subjects demonstrate greater engagement of cortical and affect-related brain circuitry compared to male control subjects and female subjects, when viewing faces depicting emotions previously shown to elicit greater behavioral and brain responses in male subjects.

  14. The Effects of Scraping Therapy on Local Temperature and Blood Perfusion Volume in Healthy Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Qin-Yan Xu; Jin-Sheng Yang; Bing Zhu; Li Yang; Ying-Ying Wang; Xin-Yan Gao

    2012-01-01

    Objective. We aim to study the therapeutic effects of scraping by investigating the changes of temperature and local blood perfusion volume in healthy subjects after scraping stimulation, and to explore the mechanism of scraping stimulation from the points of microcirculation and energy metabolism. Methods. Twenty-three health subjects were included in this study. Local blood perfusion volume and body surface temperature was detected at 5 min before scraping stimulation, 0, 15, 30, 60 and 90 ...

  15. Evaluation of the highly variable agomelatine pharmacokinetics in Chinese healthy subjects to support bioequivalence study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Pei

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We aim to obtain the intra-subject coefficient of variability of a highly variable antidepressant agomelatine in humans, and propose an adjusted bioequivalence assessment strategy. METHODS: A single-dose, randomized crossover design was conducted in four periods (reference administered thrice, placebo administered once separated by seven days. A validated LC-MS/MS assay was used to measure drug concentrations in serial blood samples. RESULTS: The intra-subject coefficient of variability was calculated using the residual variance of ANOVA analysis, and the results for Cmax and AUC0-t was 78.34% and 43.52%, respectively, in Chinese healthy subjects. The sample size required for standard BE study were 124(192, 340 if the expected deviation between the reference and generic products was set to 0 (5%, 10%. CONCLUSIONS: Agomelatine meets the criteria for highly variable drug in Chinese healthy male subjects, and the traditional BE criteria for agomelatine needs to be adjusted to alleviate the resource and ethical burden of using a large numbers of subjects in clinical trials. Our clinical data on the intra-subject variability of agomelatine PK in Chinese healthy population enables to adjust bioequivalence (BE assessment approach for agomelatine based on the RSABE approaches recommended by regulatory agencies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR.org ChiCTR-TTRCC-13003835.

  16. Comparison of Periodontal Status in Gingival Oral Lichen Planus Patients and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Azizi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Oral lichen planus (OLP is a common chronic mucocutaneous disease. OLP can occur in different oral sites such as gingiva. The purpose of study was to evaluate the periodontal status of OLP patients with desquamative gingivitis (DG and compare it with that of healthy control. Methods. This study was case-control. 32 patients with gingival OLP as a case group and 32 healthy subjects as a control group were selected. The periodontal status of all subjects including plaque index (PI, bleeding on probing (BOP, and clinical attachment level (CAL was evaluated in both groups. Finally data were analyzed by t-test. Results. The mean values of periodontal parameters were observed to be higher in case group compared with control group, and this was significant (<0.05. Conclusion. Our results showed that periodontal status is worse in gingival OLP if compared with healthy controls.

  17. The relation between postural stability and weight distribution in healthy subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anker, L.C.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Nes, I.J.W. van; Nienhuis, B.; Straatman, H.; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the effects of leg-loading asymmetry on postural control and control asymmetry during quiet upright standing in healthy young and middle-aged subjects is necessary before these relationships in patients with lateralized disorders can be assessed and understood. A posturographic procedur

  18. Subjective visual vertical with the bucket method in Brazilian healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maristela Mian; Cunha, Fabiana; Ganança, Cristina Freitas; Ganança, Maurício Malavasi; Caovilla, Heloisa Helena

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of a healthy individual to estimate the true vertical in relation to the Earth when a fluorescent line is aligned in a completely dark room is called the subjective visual vertical. To evaluate subjective visual vertical using the bucket method in healthy Brazilian individuals. Binocular subjective visual vertical was measured in 100 healthy volunteers, 50 females and 50 males. The volunteers indicated the estimated position in which a fluorescent line inside a bucket reached the vertical position. A total of ten repetitions were performed, five clockwise and five counterclockwise. Data were tabulated and analyzed statistically. It was observed that the highest concentration of absolute values of vertical deviation was present up to 3°, regardless of gender, and the vertical deviation did not increase with age. The analysis of the mean of the absolute values of deviations from the vertical of 90% of the sample showed a maximum value of 2.6°, and at the analysis of 95%, the maximum value was 3.4° deviation from the vertical. The bucket method is easy to perform and interpret when assessing the deviation of the subjective visual vertical in relation to the true vertical in healthy Brazilian individuals. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of Lumbo-Pelvic Stability between Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosseinifar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Because of the importance of lumbo-pelvic stability as one of the suggested factors to prevent low back pain and since to date no study accomplished to compare lumbo-pelvic stability between chronic low back pain (CLBP and healthy subjects, the aim of this study was to determine and to compare lumbo-pelvic stability, lumbar lordosis, and lumbar mobility between CLBP and healthy subjects. Thirty CLBP patients and thirty healthy subjects through simple non-probability sampling participated in this cross-sectional analytical study. Lumbar lordosis, lumbar flexion and extension range of motion, lumbo-pelvic stability was measured through flexible ruler, modified modified schober test, and Pressure Biofeedback Unit (PBU respectively. ANCOVA test were used for statistical analysis (p0.05. Also lumbar lordosis, and lumbar flexion and extension range of motion did not significantly differ between two groups (p>0.05. There is no difference between CLBP and healthy subjects in terms of the lumbo-pelvic stability, lumbar lordosis, lumbar flexion and extension range of motion. The present study supported that lumbar lordosis, lumbar mobility, and lumbo-pelvic stability not affected by CLBP.

  20. A novel noninvasive method for measuring fatigability of the quadriceps muscle in noncooperating healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jesper Brøndum; Rose, Martin Høyer; Møller, Kirsten;

    2015-01-01

    Background. Critical illness is associated with muscle weakness leading to long-term functional limitations. Objectives. To assess the reliability of a novel method for evaluating fatigability of the quadriceps muscle in noncooperating healthy subjects. Methods. On two occasions, separated by sev...

  1. Head-to-toe whole-body MRI in psoriatic arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggenborg, René Panduro; Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Eshed, Iris

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: By whole-body MRI (WBMRI), we aimed to examine the frequency and distribution of inflammatory and structural lesions in PsA patients, SpA patients and healthy subjects (HSs), to introduce global WBMRI inflammation/damage scores, and to assess WBMRI's reproducibility and correlation wi...

  2. Impact of Growth Hormone Receptor Blockade on Substrate Metabolism during Fasting in Healthy Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Moller, Louise; Norrelund, Helene; Jessen, Niels; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Steen B Pedersen; Bruce D Gaylinn; Liu, Jianhua; Thorner, Michael O.; Moller, Niels; Lunde Jorgensen, Jens Otto

    2009-01-01

    Context: Experimental studies in GH-deficient patients and in healthy subjects receiving somatostatin-infusion suggest that GH is an important regulator of substrate metabolism during fasting. These models may not adequately reflect the selective effects of GH, and GH receptor (GHR) blockade offers a new model to define the metabolic role of GH.

  3. Effects of Macronutrients on Cardiovascular Responses in Type 2 Diabetics and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hoseini

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is felt that there is an information void regarding the effect of macronutrients on cardiovascular responses such as cardiac output,heart rate,stroke volume,systolic blood pressure,diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure, therefore, this study was designed to explore these effects at Shaheed Beheshti University in 2001. Materials & Methods: This clinical trial was carried out on 10 healthy subjects and 15 type 2 diabetics. Cardiovascular responses defined before and 15,30,60,90 and 120 minutes after the intake of wheat starch,sodium caseinat and olive oil. The calorie level was 10 kcal per kg of ideal body weight. Statistical analyses were done by analysis of variance with repeated measures, independent - t test and dependent- t test. Results : The age of healthy subjects (4 women ,6menwas 36.6±5.8(mean±SDyr,body mass index was 24±1.2Kg/m² , age for the type 2 diabetics (4 women ,11menwas 38.9±5.2(mean ±SD yr , body mass index was 24±1.6Kg/m². In healthy subjects, macronutrients caused marked and gradually developing postprandial increases in cardiac output, while in type 2 diabetics,cardiac output had no changes. In healthy subjects, systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure rose after the ingestion of macronutrients (P<0.05. In type 2 diabetics after the ingestion of macronutrients there was a fall in systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure(P<0.05.In both groups, diastolic blood pressure showed no changes . Conclusion: There were considerable differences in the speed of development and the pattern of the cardiovascular responses between type 2 diabetics and healthy subjects (P<0.05.Finally we conclude that diabetes in the early stages probably involves the cardiovascular system.

  4. Quasispecies analysis of JC virus DNA present in urine of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loy, Tom; Thys, Kim; Tritsmans, Luc; Stuyver, Lieven J

    2013-01-01

    JC virus is a human polyomavirus that infects the majority of people without apparent symptoms in healthy subjects and it is the causative agent of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML), a disorder following lytic infection of oligodendrocytes that mainly manifests itself under immunosuppressive conditions. A hallmark for JC virus isolated from PML-brain is the presence of rearrangements in the non-coding control region (NCCR) interspersed between the early and late genes on the viral genome. Such rearrangements are believed to originate from the archetype JC virus which is shed in urine by healthy subjects and PML patients. We applied next generation sequencing to explore the non-coding control region variability in urine of healthy subjects in search for JC virus quasispecies and rearrangements reminiscent of PML. For 61 viral shedders (out of a total of 254 healthy subjects) non-coding control region DNA and VP1 (major capsid protein) coding sequences were initially obtained by Sanger sequencing. Deletions between 1 and 28 nucleotides long appeared in ∼24.5% of the NCCR sequences while insertions were only detected in ∼3.3% of the samples. 454 pyrosequencing was applied on a subset of 54 urine samples demonstrating the existence of JC virus quasispecies in four subjects (∼7.4%). Hence, our results indicate that JC virus DNA in urine is not always restricted to one unique virus variant, but can be a mixture of naturally occurring variants (quasispecies) reflecting the susceptibility of the non-coding control region for genomic rearrangements in healthy individuals. Our findings pave the way to explore the presence of viral quasispecies and the altered viral tropism that might go along with it as a potential risk factor for opportunistic secondary infections such as PML.

  5. Elevated urinary albumin excretion is associated with impaired arterial dilatory capacity in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Jensen, G

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated urinary albumin excretion (UAE) predicts atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It is hypothesized that elevated UAE is associated with a generalized vascular dysfunction. This study tested this hypothesis for conduit arteries. METHODS AND RESULTS: Clinically healthy subjects...... were selected: 19 with UAE >90th percentile in the background population (6.6 microgram/minExternal ultrasound was used to measure the dilatory response of the brachial artery to postischemic increased blood flow......-induced dilations were significantly impaired in subjects with elevated UAE as compared with normoalbuminuric control subjects: 102.0+/-1.0% (mean+/-SEM) versus 104.3+/-0.6% (P

  6. Atherosclerotic risk factors are increased in clinically healthy subjects with microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Jensen, G

    1995-01-01

    Increased morbidity and mortality from atherosclerotic vascular disease were observed in subjects with slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), known as microalbuminuria. Therefore, the association between microalbuminuria and established atherogenic risk factors was studied...... in clinically healthy subjects. All healthy 40-65 year-old participants with microalbuminuria, examined within the first 21 months of The Copenhagen City Heart Study, were invited, and 28 were studied. An age- and sex-matched group of 60 randomly chosen subjects with normoalbuminuria served as control......Hg; P = 0.008, respectively), and serum apolipoprotein (apo) A-1 concentration was lower (1.30 (1.20-1.37) vs. 1.42 (1.36-1.47) milligrams; P = 0.02) in comparison with the normoalbuminuric group. Furthermore, serum HDL-cholesterol concentration tended to be lower, whereas body weight, body mass index...

  7. Crosslinguistic influence in bilingual acquisition: subject omission in learners of Inuktitut and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwanziger, Elizabeth E; Allen, Shanley E M; Genesee, Fred

    2005-11-01

    This study investigates subject omission in six English-Inuktitut simultaneous bilingual children, aged 1;8-3;9, to examine whether there are cross-language influences in their language development. Previous research with other language pairs has shown that the morphosyntax of one language can influence the development of morphosyntax in the other language. Most of this research has focused on Romance-Germanic language combinations using case studies. In this study, we examined a language pair (English-Inuktitut) with radically different morphosyntactic structures. Analysis of the English-only and Inuktitut-only utterances of the children revealed monolingual-like acquisition patterns and subject omission rates. The data indicate that these bilingual children possessed knowledge of the target languages that was language-specific and that previously identified triggers for crosslinguistic influence do not operate universally.

  8. Comparison of pharmacokinetics of two fenofibrate tablet formulations in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachad, Siddharth S; Gole, Milind; Malhotra, Geena; Naidu, Raghu

    2014-06-01

    Fenofibrate is a serum lipid-lowering agent used as an adjunct to diet in patients with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The new fenofibrate tablet formulation was developed as a pharmaceutical equivalent to the marketed tablet formulation containing 145 mg. The objective of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and safety of 2 tablet formulations containing 145 mg of fenofibrate (CAS number 49562-28-9) in healthy human subjects. The study was a randomized, 2-treatment, 3-period, 3-sequence, single-dose, 3-way crossover, partial replicate bioequivalence study in healthy human subjects under fasting conditions. Eligible subjects received each treatment in a crossover manner according to the randomization schedule. Replicate dosing was conducted for the reference formulation to determine its intrasubject variability. The predose blood sample was taken within 1 hour before dosing, and serial blood sampling was performed up to 72.0 hours' postdose. The analysis of plasma samples for concentrations of fenofibric acid, the active metabolite of fenofibrate, was conducted by using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Bioequivalence was to be concluded if the 90% CIs as constructed were within the range of 80% to 125% for Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ for fenofibric acid. Subjects were monitored for safety and tolerability throughout the study. 15 healthy human subjects between 18 and 45 years of age and having body mass index between 18.5 and 30 kg/m(2) were recruited into the study. The 90% CIs for the test/reference mean ratios of the ln-transformed pharmacokinetic variables Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ were within the conventional bioequivalence range of 80% to 125%. Both formulations were well tolerated after a single oral dose in these healthy male subjects. Both fenofibrate tablet formulations demonstrated equivalent rates and extent of systemic absorption, and hence were considered bioequivalent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights

  9. Remote ischemic conditioning improves coronary microcirculation in healthy subjects and patients with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kono Y

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Yasushi Kono,1 Shota Fukuda,1 Akihisa Hanatani,2 Koki Nakanishi,2 Kenichiro Otsuka,2 Haruyuki Taguchi,1 Kenei Shimada2 1Department of Medicine, Osaka Ekisaikai Hospital, Osaka, Japan; 2Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Osaka City University School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan Background: Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC is a treatment modality that suppresses inflammation and improves endothelial function, which are factors involved in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Coronary flow reserve (CFR is a physiological index of coronary microcirculation and is noninvasively measured by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTDE. This study aimed to investigate the effects of RIC on CFR in healthy subjects and patients with HF, through the assessment by TTDE. Methods: Ten patients with HF with left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 40%, and ten healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. RIC treatment was performed twice a day for 1 week. Our custom-made RIC device was programmed to automatically conduct 4 cycles of 5 minutes inflation and 5 minutes deflation of a blood pressure cuff to create intermittent arm ischemia. CFR measurements and laboratory tests were examined before, and after 1 week of RIC treatment. Results: One week of RIC treatment was well tolerated in both groups. RIC treatment increased CFR from 4.0±0.9 to 4.6±1.3 (mean ± standard deviation in healthy subjects (P=0.02, and from 1.9±0.4 to 2.3±0.7 in patients with HF (P=0.03, respectively. Systolic blood pressure in healthy subjects, and heart rate in HF patients decreased after RIC treatment (both P<0.01. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that a 1 week course of RIC treatment improved coronary microcirculation in healthy subjects and patients with HF associated with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Keyword: echocardiography, coronary flow reserve, heart failure, preconditioning

  10. Differences in performance on the functional movement screen between chronic low back pain patients and healthy control subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Min-Joo; Noh, Kyung-Hee; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Differences in scores on the Functional Movement Screen between patients with chronic lower back pain and healthy control subjects were investigated. [Subjects and Methods] In all, 20 chronic lower back pain patients and 20 healthy control subjects were recruited. Chronic lower back pain patients and healthy controls performed the Functional Movement Screen (deep squat, hurdle step, inline lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight leg raise, trunk stability pushup, and rotary stabil...

  11. Prevalence and duration of asymptomatic Clostridium difficile carriage among healthy subjects in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdys, Alison L; Nelson, Jemma S; Shutt, Kathleen A; Schlackman, Jessica L; Pakstis, Diana L; Pasculle, A William; Marsh, Jane W; Harrison, Lee H; Curry, Scott R

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies suggested that 7 to 15% of healthy adults are colonized with toxigenic Clostridium difficile. To investigate the epidemiology, genetic diversity, and duration of C. difficile colonization in asymptomatic persons, we recruited healthy adults from the general population in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. Participants provided epidemiological and dietary intake data and submitted stool specimens. The presence of C. difficile in stool specimens was determined by anaerobic culture. Stool specimens yielding C. difficile underwent nucleic acid testing of the tcdA gene segment with a commercial assay; tcdC genotyping was performed on C. difficile isolates. Subjects positive for C. difficile by toxigenic anaerobic culture were asked to submit additional specimens. One hundred six (81%) of 130 subjects submitted specimens, and 7 (6.6%) of those subjects were colonized with C. difficile. Seven distinct tcdC genotypes were observed among the 7 C. difficile-colonized individuals, including tcdC genotype 20, which has been found in uncooked ground pork in this region. Two (33%) out of 6 C. difficile-colonized subjects who submitted additional specimens tested positive for identical C. difficile strains on successive occasions, 1 month apart. The prevalence of C. difficile carriage in this healthy cohort is concordant with prior estimates. C. difficile-colonized individuals may be important reservoirs for C. difficile and may falsely test positive for infections due to C. difficile when evaluated for community-acquired diarrhea caused by other enteric pathogens. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Alterations of sensory perceptions in healthy elderly subjects during fasting and refeeding. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Catherine; Moreau, Karine; Brandolini, Marion; Livingstone, Barbara; Beaufrère, Bernard; Boirie, Yves

    2002-01-01

    Sensory perception losses may contribute to age-related malnutrition by affecting food selection and consumption. To determine the effects of a 36-hour fast followed by a 6-hour refeeding period on sensory perceptions in 7 healthy elderly subjects (65-80 years of age) and 6 healthy young subjects (18-35 years of age). Self-perceived hunger and olfactory ratings were recorded on visual analogue scales in response to three different classes of odorant stimuli (salt, sweet and sour). Odorant stimuli were administered three times during the study, twice during the fasting period (12 and 24 h fasted) and once at the end of the re-nutrition period. A significant difference was found between the two groups for the self-perceived hunger ratings in response to the sour stimuli. A significant difference was observed between the two groups for olfactory ratings as regards the salt and sour odorant stimuli. Among the metabolic changes associated with fasting and refeeding, blood glucose was significantly related (r(2) = 0.97, p = 0.001) to the perception of hunger in the control group subjects, but no such relationship was found for the elderly subjects (r(2) = 0.16, p = NS). (1) Self-perceived hunger and olfactory ratings are specifically affected in healthy elderly. (2) Nutritional status can modulate sensory perceptions in elderly and young during the transition from fasting to refeeding. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. The cortical and sub-cortical network of sensory evoked response in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuraman, M; Hellriegel, H; Groppa, S; Deuschl, G; Raethjen, J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find the cortical and sub-cortical network responsible for the sensory evoked coherence in healthy subjects during electrical stimulation of right median nerve at wrist. The multitaper method was used to estimate the power and coherence spectrum followed by the source analysis method dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS) to find the highest coherent source for the basic frequency 3 Hz and the complete cortical and sub-cortical network responsible for the sensory evoked coherence in healthy subjects. The highest coherent source for the basic frequency was in the posterior parietal cortex for all the subjects. The cortical and sub-cortical network comprised of the primary sensory motor cortex (SI), secondary sensory motor cortex (SII), frontal cortex and medial pulvinar nucleus in the thalamus. The cortical and sub-cortical network responsible for the sensory evoked coherence was found successfully with a 64-channel EEG system. The sensory evoked coherence is involved with a thalamo-cortical network in healthy subjects.

  14. Comparative Bioavailability Study with Two Sodium Valproate Tablet Formulations in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaneshwar Shep

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to assess the comparative bioavailability of two formulations (200 mg tablet of sodium valproate in healthy subjects. This open label randomized, two periods, two treatments, two sequence, 2-way crossover design study was conducted in 18 healthy Indian adult subjects. Subjects received sodium valproate 200 mg of either test or reference formulation with a washout period of 7 days. After study drug administration, serial blood samples were collected over a period of 60 hours. Plasma concentrations of Valproic acid were measured by pre-validated LC-MS-MS method. Pharmacokinetic (PK parameters Cmax, Tmax, t1/2, AUC0-t, AUC 0-∞, and kel were determined for the 2 sodium valproate formulations. Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ were used to test for bioequivalence after log-transformation of plasma data. The formulations were to be considered bioequivalent if the log-transformed ratios of Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ were within the predetermined bioequivalence range of 80% to 125%. A total of 18 healthy subjects were enrolled. No significant differences were found based on analysis of variance, with mean values and 90% confidence intervals of test/reference ratios for these parameters as follows: Cmax, 15.64 versus 15.20μg/ml (90.79 to 115.45; AUC0-t, 72.71 versus 66.95μg.h/ml (96.03 to 124.87; and AUC0-∞, 105.65 versus 98.11μg.h/ml (94.61 to 124.75. In these healthy Indian subjects, results from the PK analysis suggested that the test and reference formulations of sodium valproate 200 mg tablets were bioequivalent. Both the formulations were well tolerated.

  15. Determinants of hyperhomocysteinemia in healthy and hypertensive subjects: A population-based study and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Liyuan; Liu, Yanfen; Wang, Changyi; Tang, Linlin; Feng, Xiaoqi; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Wen, Qi; Duan, Donghui; Lu, Nanjia; Xu, Guodong; Wang, Kaiyue; Zhang, Lu; Gu, Kaibo; Chen, Sihan; Ma, Jianping; Zhang, Tao; You, Dingyun; Duan, Shiwei

    2017-10-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is known to increase the risk of many diseases. Factors influencing HHcy in healthy and hypertensive subjects remain under-researched. A large population-based study was conducted in 60 communities from Shenzhen, China. Responses to standardized questions on lifestyle factors and blood samples were collected from all participants after a 12-h overnight fast. Multiple linear and multivariate logistic regressions were used to explore risk factors for HHcy. Results were then compared to those from a systematic review of English-language articles listed in Pubmed, EBSCOhost, Web of Science, Embase and Cochrane libraries that investigated HHcy risk factors in healthy and hypertensive subjects. A total of 1586 healthy (Male/Female = 642/944) and 5935 hypertensive subjects (Male/Female = 2928/3007) participated in our population-based study. In logistic regression analyses, age, BMI and creatinine (Cr) were risk factors, while being female, fruit intake and physical activity were protective factors for HHcy in healthy subjects. In hypertensive subjects, seven [age, smoking, salt intake, systolic blood pressure (SBP), uric acid, triglycerides (TG), and Cr] and four [female, fruit intake, total cholesterol (TC), and glucose] factors were associated with higher and lower HHcy respectively. The review of 71 studies revealed that potential risk factors for Hcy included nutritional, physiologic, lifestyle habits, ethnicity, genetics, interactions between gene-environment, gene-gene, gene-nutritional, environment-environment, nutritional-nutritional. Our study indicates the potential importance of increasing folic acid and vitamin B supplementation, daily fruit and vegetable intake, regular exercise and refraining from tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption as preventive strategies for Hcy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Parietal rTMS distorts the mental number line: simulating 'spatial' neglect in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Silke M; Calabria, Marco; Farnè, Alessandro; Rossetti, Yves

    2006-01-01

    Patients with left-sided visuospatial neglect, typically after damage to the right parietal lobe, show a systematic bias towards larger numbers when asked to bisect a numerical interval. This has been taken as further evidence for a spatial representation of numbers, perhaps akin to a mental number line with smaller numbers represented to the left and larger numbers to the right. Previously, contralateral neglect-like symptoms in physical line bisection have been induced in healthy subjects with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over right posterior parietal lobe. Here we used rTMS over parietal and occipital sites in healthy subjects to investigate spatial representations in a number bisection task. Subjects were asked to name the midpoint of numerical intervals without calculating. On control trials subjects' behaviour was similar to performance reported in physical line bisection experiments. Subjects underestimated the midpoint of the numerical interval. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation produced representational neglect-like symptoms in number bisection when applied over right posterior parietal cortex (right PPC). Repetitive TMS over right PPC shifted the perceived midpoint of the numerical interval significantly to the right while occipital TMS had no effect on bisection performance. Our study therefore provides further evidence that subjects use spatial representations, perhaps akin to a mental number line, in basic numerical processing tasks. Furthermore, we showed that the right posterior parietal cortex is crucially involved in spatial representation of numbers.

  17. Non-invasive brain stimulation: enhancing motor and cognitive functions in healthy old subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo Zimerman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Healthy aging is accompanied by changes in cognitive and motor functions that result in impairment of activities of daily living. This process involves a number of modifications in the brain and is associated with metabolic, structural and physiological changes; some of these serving as adaptive responses to the functional declines. Up to date there are no universally accepted strategies to ameliorate declining functions in this population. An essential basis to develop such strategies is a better understanding of neuroplastic changes during healthy aging. In this context, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current or transcranial magnetic stimulation, provide an attractive option to modulate cortical neuronal assemblies, even with subsequent changes in neuroplasticity. Thus, in the present review we discuss the use of these techniques as a tool to study underlying cortical mechanisms during healthy aging and as an interventional strategy to enhance declining functions and learning abilities in aged subjects.

  18. Evaluation of BAG3 levels in healthy subjects, hypertensive patients, and hypertensive diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Maffioli, Pamela; Rosati, Alessandra; M, De Marco; Basile, Anna; D'Angelo, Angela; Romano, Davide; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Falco, Antonia; Turco, Maria C

    2017-07-11

    BAG3 is a member of human BAG (Bcl-2-associated athanogene) proteins and plays a role in apoptosis, cell adhesion, cytoskeleton remodeling, and autophagy. The aim of this study was to evaluate BAG3 levels in healthy subjects, hypertensive patients, and hypertensive diabetic patients. We enrolled 209 Caucasian adults, of both sex, 18-75 years of age, 77 were healthy controls, 62 were affected by hypertension, and 70 were affected by hypertension and type 2 diabetes. All patients underwent an assessment that included medical history, physical examination, vital signs, a 12-lead electrocardiogram, measurements of systolic (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ), triglycerides (TG), transaminases, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), and BAG3. We observed higher blood pressure values in hypertensive, and hypertensive diabetic patients compared to controls. As expected, FPG and HbA1c were higher in diabetic hypertensive patients, compared to the other two groups. No Tg levels differences were recorded among the three groups. Hs-CRP was higher in diabetic hypertensive patients compared to healthy subjects. Finally, BAG3 levels were higher in hypertensives, and hypertensive diabetic patients compared to controls. We observed higher levels of BAG3 in hypertensive patients compared to healthy controls, and even higher levels in hypertensive diabetic patients compared to healthy subjects. This paper could be the first of a long way to identify potential involvement of deregulated BAG3 levels in cardiometabolic diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Levels of common salivary protein 1 in healthy subjects and periodontal patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Human saliva, as a vital part of the immune defense system, contains a number of distinct proteins and peptides. Recently human common salivary protein 1 (CSP1) has been identified as an abundant salivary protein and may play a role in promoting the binding of cariogenic bacteria to salivary pellicles. However, nothing else is known regarding the role of CSP1 in periodontology. The aim of this study was to quantify and compare CSP1 levels between healthy subjects and periodontal patients. Methods This controlled clinical study was conducted in periodontally healthy individuals and patients with chronic periodontitis Chonbuk National University Hospital, with Institutional Review Board approval. Whole saliva samples were collected from 36 healthy subjects and 33 chronic periodontitis patients and analyzed. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immune blotting were conducted to ensure that anti-CSP1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) binds to CSP1 in human saliva. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system was house-fabricated using mAb-hCSP1#14 and mAb-hCSP1#4 as a capture and a detector mAb, respectively. The CSP1 concentrations in saliva from 36 healthy subjects and 33 periodontal patients were quantified using the CSP1 sandwich ELISA system, and the results were analyzed using the Student’s t-test. Results Immunoblot analysis using mAb-hCSP1 as a probe confirmed that CSP1 in human saliva existed as a single band with a molecular weight of approximately 27-kDa. The quantification of CSP1 concentrations by CSP1 ELISA showed that the median values (25th to 75th percentiles) of periodontal patients and healthy subjects were 9,474 ng/mL (range, 8,434–10,139 ng/mL) and 8,598 ng/mL (range, 7,421–9,877 ng/mL), respectively. The Student’s t-test indicated the presence of a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (P=0.024). Conclusions The presence of a significant difference in CSP1 levels between healthy

  20. Multi-finger coordination in healthy subjects and stroke patients: a mathematical modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrarin Maurizio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 60% of stroke survivors experience hand dysfunction limiting execution of daily activities. Several methods have been proposed to objectively quantify fingers' joints range of motion (ROM, while few studies exist about multi-finger coordination during hand movements. The present work analysed this aspect, by providing a complete characterization of spatial and temporal aspects of hand movement, through the mathematical modelling of multi-joint finger motion in healthy subjects and stroke patients. Methods Hand opening and closing movements were examined in 12 healthy volunteers and 14 hemiplegic stroke survivors by means of optoelectronic kinematic analysis. The flexion/extension angles of metacarpophalangeal (MCPJ and proximal interphalangeal joints (IPJ of all fingers were computed and mathematically characterized by a four-parameter hyperbolic tangent function. Accuracy of the selected model was analysed by means of coefficient of determination (R2 and root mean square error (RMSE. Test-retest reliability was quantified by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and test-retest errors. Comparison between performances of healthy controls and stroke subjects were performed by analysing possible differences in parameters describing angular and temporal aspects of hand kinematics and inter-joint, inter-digit coordination. Results The angular profiles of hand opening and closing were accurately characterized by the selected model, both in healthy controls and in stroke subjects (R2 > 0.973, RMSE 0.75 and remarking errors comparable to those obtained with other methods. Comparison with healthy controls revealed that hemiparetic hand movement was impaired not only in joints ROM but also in the temporal aspects of motion: peak velocities were significantly decreased, inter-digit coordination was reduced of more than 50% and inter-joint coordination patterns were highly disrupted. In particular, the stereotypical

  1. Cannabis-related episodic memory deficits and hippocampal morphological differences in healthy individuals and schizophrenia subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J; Cobia, Derin J; Reilly, James L; Gilman, Jodi M; Roberts, Andrea G; Alpert, Kathryn I; Wang, Lei; Breiter, Hans C; Csernansky, John G

    2015-09-01

    Cannabis use has been associated with episodic memory (EM) impairments and abnormal hippocampus morphology among both healthy individuals and schizophrenia subjects. Considering the hippocampus' role in EM, research is needed to evaluate the relationship between cannabis-related hippocampal morphology and EM among healthy and clinical groups. We examined differences in hippocampus morphology between control and schizophrenia subjects with and without a past (not current) cannabis use disorder (CUD). Subjects group-matched on demographics included 44 healthy controls (CON), 10 subjects with a CUD history (CON-CUD), 28 schizophrenia subjects with no history of substance use disorders (SCZ), and 15 schizophrenia subjects with a CUD history (SCZ-CUD). Large-deformation, high-dimensional brain mapping with MRI produced surface-based representations of the hippocampus that were compared across all four groups and correlated with EM and CUD history. Surface maps of the hippocampus were generated to visualize morphological differences. CON-CUD and SCZ-CUD were characterized by distinct cannabis-related hippocampal shape differences and parametric deficits in EM performance. Shape differences observed in CON-CUD were associated with poorer EM performance, while shape differences observed in SCZ-CUD were associated with a longer duration of CUD and shorter duration of CUD remission. A past history of CUD may be associated with notable differences in hippocampal morphology and EM impairments among adults with and without schizophrenia. Although the results may be compatible with a causal hypothesis, we must consider that the observed cannabis-related shape differences in the hippocampus could also be explained as biomarkers of a neurobiological susceptibility to poor memory or the effects of cannabis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Resting brain perfusion and selected vascular risk factors in healthy elderly subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto M; Jensen, Lars T; Krabbe, Katja

    2014-01-01

    with circulating homocysteine, but not with asymmetric dimethylarginine, dyslipidemia or the carotid intima-media thickness. The relative regional brain perfusion was associated with circulating homocysteine, with a relative parietal hypoperfusion and a frontal hyperperfusion. No effect on regional brain perfusion......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Both cerebral hypoperfusion and vascular risk factors have been implicated in early aging of the brain and the development of neurodegenerative disease. However, the current knowledge of the importance of cardiovascular health on resting brain perfusion is limited. The aim...... of the present study was to elucidate the relation between brain perfusion variability and risk factors of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in healthy aged subjects. METHODS: Thirty-eight healthy subjects aged 50-75 years old were included. Mean global brain perfusion was measured using magnetic...

  3. Fractality in electrocardiographic waveforms for healthy subjects and patients with ventricular fibrillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Eduardo [Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: jjar@xanum.uam.mx; Echeverria, Juan C.; Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose [Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-02-15

    Detrending fluctuation analysis was used to look for fractality and to quantify time correlations in long-term (about 24 h) electrocardiographic (ECG) waveforms for presumably healthy subjects and patients with ventricular fibrillation. Our results show that ECG intrabeat dynamics of healthy subject displays a type of non-correlated behavior, perhaps reflecting diverse conduction pathways or certain degree of adaptability to changing conditions. On the other hand, ECG dynamics for ventricular fibrillation condition shows behavior similar to 1/f noise, and even large peaks around Brownian motion during a ventricular fibrillation crisis. In this way, the scaling exponents estimated with DFA can be used to discriminate electrophysiological abnormalities, and to monitoring the onset of ventricular fibrillation crises.

  4. Aspects of haemostatic function in healthy subjects with microalbuminuria--a potential atherosclerotic risk factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Myrup, B; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1995-01-01

    correlate with UAER in regression analyses. It is concluded that the haemostatic balance is unaltered in healthy subjects with microalbuminuria. It is unlikely that a prothrombotic state is present as an intermedial factor early in a causal chain between microalbuminuria and atherosclerotic vascular disease....... with a shift of the haemostatic balance in prothrombotic direction. The following haemostatic factors were measured in two representative groups of clinically healthy subjects, 28 with microalbuminuria (UAER of 6.6-150 micrograms/min) and 60 age- and sex-matched controls with normoalbuminuria (UAER ....6 micrograms/min): Coagulation factors: blood platelet count and mean volume, plasma Factor VII antigen concentration and coagulant activity, and plasma concentrations of prothrombin fragment 1 + 2, thrombin-antithrombin III complexes, fibrinogen, and fibrinopeptide A; fibrinolytic and endothelial factors...

  5. Is cerebral oxygenation negatively affected by infusion of norepinephrine in healthy subjects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brassard, P.; Seifert, T.; Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    )) and internal jugular venous oxygen saturation (Sjv(O2)), middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCA Vmean), cardiac output (CO), and arterial partial pressure for carbon dioxide (Pa(CO2)) were evaluated. RESULTS: MAP increased from 88 (79-101) [median (range)] to 115 (98-128) mm Hg with increasing doses......BACKGROUND: Vasopressor agents are commonly used to increase mean arterial pressure (MAP) in order to secure a pressure gradient to perfuse vital organs. The influence of norepinephrine on cerebral oxygenation is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the infusion...... of norepinephrine on cerebral oxygenation in healthy subjects. METHODS: Three doses of norepinephrine (0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 microg kg(-1) min(-1) for 20 min each) were infused in nine healthy subjects [six males; 26 (6) yr, mean (SD)]. MAP, cerebral oxygenation characterized by frontal lobe oxygenation (Sc(O2...

  6. Effect of serum cholesterol levels on meta-chlorophenylpiperazine-evoked neuroendocrine responses in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, T; Yoshimura, R; Ohmori, O; Takano, T; Takahashi, N; Iwata, N; Suzuki, T; Abe, K

    1997-05-01

    This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that serum cholesterol levels might be associated with serotonergic receptor function. The participants were 10 healthy male subjects. After an overnight fast, the subjects received meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) or identical placebo capsules orally in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Blood was obtained for measurement of prolactin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and cholesterol. There were some significantly positive correlations between serum cholesterol levels and hormonal responses to m-CPP administration. These results suggest that serum cholesterol levels may be positively associated with serotonergic receptor function.

  7. Microalbuminuria reflects a generalized transvascular albumin leakiness in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Jensen, G;

    1995-01-01

    1. In epidemiological studies microalbuminuria, i.e. slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion rate, predicts increased atherosclerotic vascular morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that microalbuminuria in clinically healthy subjects is associated with a systemic...... excretion rate was 6.6 micrograms/min. Twenty-seven patients with persistent microalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion rate 6.6-150 micrograms/min), and 56 age- and sex-matched control subjects with persistent normoalbuminuria (UAER ...% confidence interval 0.1-0.7; n = 83), r = 0.29, P microalbuminuria is an independent marker...

  8. Population Pharmacokinetic Model for Cancer Chemoprevention With Sulindac in Healthy Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Alexander K.; Mandrekar, Sumithra J.; Ziegler, Katie L. Allen; Carlson, Elsa C.; Szabo, Eva; Ames, Mathew M.; Boring, Daniel; Limburg, Paul J.; Reid, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    Sulindac is a prescription-based non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that continues to be actively investigated as a candidate cancer chemoprevention agent. To further current understanding of sulindac bioavailability, metabolism, and disposition, we developed a population pharmacokinetic model for the parent compound and its active metabolites, sulindac sulfide, and exisulind. This analysis was based on data from 24 healthy subjects who participated in a bioequivalence study compari...

  9. Pharmacokinetics and safety of the sesame lignans, sesamin and episesamin, in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomimori, Namino; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Kitagawa, Yoshinori; Fujii, Wataru; Sakakibara, Yutaka; Shibata, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    A single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group and multiple oral dose study was conducted in 48 healthy subjects to investigate the pharmacokinetics and safety of multiple oral doses of sesame lignans (sesamin and episesamin). Subjects were randomly divided into two groups. Each subject was administered 50 mg of sesame lignans (sesamin/episesamin=1/1) or placebo once daily for 28 days. The pharmacokinetics of the sesame lignans were investigated using 10 of the 24 subjects in the sesame lignans group. No serious adverse events were observed in this study. Sesamin was absorbed with a peak plasma concentration at 5.0 h. The plasma concentration of the main metabolite, SC-1, reached a peak at 5.0 h and decreased rapidly with a terminal half-life of 2.4 h. Episesamin was also absorbed with a peak plasma concentration at 5.0 h and decreased with a terminal half-life of 7.1 h. The plasma concentration of the main metabolite, EC-1, reached a peak at 5.0 h and decreased rapidly with a terminal half-life of 3.4 h. The plasma concentrations of sesamin and episesamin reached a steady state by day 7. Sesame lignans were confirmed to be safe and tolerable in healthy subjects. The results of the pharmacokinetic study demonstrate that no accumulation was observed following multiple 50 mg doses of sesame lignans.

  10. Metabolic and physiologic effects of an endotoxin challenge in healthy obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Marcel; Berger, Mette M; Pittet, Yann K; Delodder, Frederik; Tappy, Luc; Feihl, François; Chioléro, René L

    2011-09-01

    The obesity epidemic has increased the number of obese patients admitted to the ICU. In vitro studies suggest that adipose tissue response to inflammation is enhanced: in vivo data are not conclusive yet. The aim of this study was to test the physiologic response of healthy obese subjects to a standardized intravenous LPS challenge. Prospective single-blind, randomized, cross-over study in eight subjects (four men, four women), aged 34 ± 7 years, BMI 34·7 ± 4·2, without glucose intolerance and lipid abnormalities, testing the impact of intravenous LPS (2 ng kg(-1) of actual body weight) versus placebo. Temperature, hemodynamic variables, indirect calorimetry and blood samples (TNF-α, IL-6, stress hormones, hs-CRP) were collected. After LPS temperature, heart rate, TNF-α and Il-6 concentrations and stress hormones (cortisol and glucagon) increased significantly, with maximal responses between 120 and 240 min after the injection. The pattern, the timing and the magnitude of change were similar to those observed in lean subjects. This study shows that healthy obese subjects have a similar response pattern to intravenous LPS as described in lean subjects. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2011 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  11. Autonomic and muscular responses and recovery to one-hour laboratory mental stress in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsen Kristian B

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress is a risk factor for musculoskeletal pain. We wanted to explore stress related physiology in healthy subjects in order to gain insight into mechanisms of pain development which may relate to the pathophysiology of musculoskeletal pain disorders. Methods Continuous blood pressure, heart rate, finger skin blood flow, respiration, surface electromyography together with perception of pain, fatigue and tension were recorded on 35 healthy women and 9 healthy men before, during a 60 minute period with task-related low-grade mental stress, and in the following 30 minute rest period. Results Subjects responded physiologically to the stressful task with an increase in trapezius and frontalis muscle activity, increased blood pressure, respiration frequency and heart rate together with reduced finger skin blood flow. The blood pressure response and the finger skin blood flow response did not recover to baseline values during the 30-minute rest period, whereas respiration frequency, heart rate, and surface electromyography of the trapezius and frontalis muscles recovered to baseline within 10 minutes after the stressful task. Sixty-eight percent responded subjectively with pain development and 64% reported at least 30% increase in pain. Reduced recovery of the blood pressure was weakly correlated to fatigue development during stress, but was not correlated to pain or tension. Conclusion Based on a lack of recovery of the blood pressure and the acral finger skin blood flow response to mental stress we conclude that these responses are more protracted than other physiological stress responses.

  12. Effects of Curcuma longa (turmeric on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemansson Sandra

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma (C. longa lowers plasma glucose. C. longa may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at preventing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of the study is to study the effect of C. longa on postprandial plasma glucose, insulin levels and glycemic index (GI in healthy subjects. Methods Fourteen healthy subjects were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was administered together with capsules containing a placebo or C. longa. Finger-prick capillary and venous blood samples were collected before, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the start of the OGTT to measure the glucose and insulin levels, respectively. Results The ingestion of 6 g C. longa had no significant effect on the glucose response. The change in insulin was significantly higher 30 min (P = 0.03 and 60 min (P = 0.041 after the OGTT including C. longa. The insulin AUCs were also significantly higher after the ingestion of C. longa, 15 (P = 0.048, 30 (P = 0.035, 90 (P = 0.03, and 120 (P = 0.02 minutes after the OGTT. Conclusions The ingestion of 6 g C. longa increased postprandial serum insulin levels, but did not seem to affect plasma glucose levels or GI, in healthy subjects. The results indicate that C. longa may have an effect on insulin secretion. Trial registration number NCT01029327

  13. Differentiation of schizophrenia patients from healthy subjects by mismatch negativity and neuropsychological tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ting Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder with diverse presentations. The current and the proposed DSM-V diagnostic system remains phenomenologically based, despite the fact that several neurobiological and neuropsychological markers have been identified. A multivariate approach has better diagnostic utility than a single marker method. In this study, the mismatch negativity (MMN deficit of schizophrenia was first replicated in a Han Chinese population, and then the MMN was combined with several neuropsychological measurements to differentiate schizophrenia patients from healthy subjects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 120 schizophrenia patients and 76 healthy controls were recruited. Each subject received examinations for duration MMN, Continuous Performance Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition (WAIS-III. The MMN was compared between cases and controls, and important covariates were investigated. Schizophrenia patients had significantly reduced MMN amplitudes, and MMN decreased with increasing age in both patient and control groups. None of the neuropsychological indices correlated with MMN. Predictive multivariate logistic regression models using the MMN and neuropsychological measurements as predictors were developed. Four predictors, including MMN at electrode FCz and three scores from the WAIS-III (Arithmetic, Block Design, and Performance IQ were retained in the final predictive model. The model performed well in differentiating patients from healthy subjects (percentage of concordant pairs: 90.5%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MMN deficits were found in Han Chinese schizophrenia patients. The multivariate approach combining biomarkers from different modalities such as electrophysiology and neuropsychology had a better diagnostic utility.

  14. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) dose-dependently stimulates glucagon secretion in healthy human subjects at euglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, J J; Gallwitz, B; Siepmann, N

    2003-01-01

    secretion under normoglycaemic conditions. METHODS: Ten healthy subjects (9 men, 1 woman; age 33+/-11; BMI 26.8+/-2.2 kg/m(2)) received three different doses of intravenous GIP (7, 20, and 60 pmol/kg body weight) and placebo. Venous blood samples were drawn over 30 min for glucagon and GIP concentrations...... (specific radioimmunoassays). In addition, 31 healthy subjects (16 men, 15 women; 42+/-11 years; BMI 24.4+/-2.7 kg/m(2)) were studied with 20 pmol GIP/kg. Statistics were done with RM-ANOVA and Duncan's post hoc tests. RESULTS: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide dose-dependently stimulated glucagon secretion...... ( p=0.019) with a maximal increment after 10 min. Incremental glucagon concentrations (Delta(10-0 min)) were 0.1+/-0.7, 1.4+/-0.5, 2.4+/-0.5, and 3.4+/-0.8 pmol/l (for placebo and for 7, 20, and 60 pmol GIP/kg, respectively; p=0.017). After the injection of 20 pmol GIP/kg b.w. in 31 healthy subjects...

  15. Advantages of EEG phase patterns for the detection of gait intention in healthy and stroke subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioana Sburlea, Andreea; Montesano, Luis; Minguez, Javier

    2017-06-01

    Objective. One use of EEG-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) in rehabilitation is the detection of movement intention. In this paper we investigate for the first time the instantaneous phase of movement related cortical potential (MRCP) and its application to the detection of gait intention. Approach. We demonstrate the utility of MRCP phase in two independent datasets, in which 10 healthy subjects and 9 chronic stroke patients executed a self-initiated gait task in three sessions. Phase features were compared to more conventional amplitude and power features. Main results. The neurophysiology analysis showed that phase features have higher signal-to-noise ratio than the other features. Also, BCI detectors of gait intention based on phase, amplitude, and their combination were evaluated under three conditions: session-specific calibration, intersession transfer, and intersubject transfer. Results show that the phase based detector is the most accurate for session-specific calibration (movement intention was correctly detected in 66.5% of trials in healthy subjects, and in 63.3% in stroke patients). However, in intersession and intersubject transfer, the detector that combines amplitude and phase features is the most accurate one and the only that retains its accuracy (62.5% in healthy subjects and 59% in stroke patients) w.r.t. session-specific calibration. Significance. MRCP phase features improve the detection of gait intention and could be used in practice to remove time-consuming BCI recalibration.

  16. Subjective age-of-acquisition norms for 4,640 verbs in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, María Ángeles; Díez, Emiliano; Fernandez, Angel

    2016-12-01

    Many studies have shown that how words are processed in a variety of language-related tasks is affected by their age of acquisition (AoA). Most AoA norms have been collected for nouns, a fact that limits the extent to which verb stimuli can be adequately manipulated and controlled in empirical studies. With the aim of increasing the number of verbs with AoA values in Spanish, 900 college students were recruited to provide subjective estimates for a total of 4,640 infinitive and reflexive forms. An AoA score for each verb was obtained by averaging the responses of the participants, and these norms were included, together with additional quantitative information (standard deviations, ranges, and z scores), in a database that can be downloaded with this article as supplemental materials.

  17. High hydrostatic pressure processing reduces the glycemic index of fresh mango puree in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Montemayor, Leticia; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; Ramos-Parra, Perla A; Moreno-Sánchez, Diana; Nieblas, Bianca; Rosas-Pérez, Aratza M; Lamadrid-Zertuche, Ana C

    2015-04-01

    Dietary guidelines recommend the daily consumption of fruits; however, healthy and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects receive conflicting messages regarding ingestion of fruits, such as mango, because of its sugar content. We investigated the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing of fresh mango puree (MP) on the glycemic indexes (GIs) and postprandial glycemic responses of 38 healthy Mexican subjects in a randomized cross-over clinical trial. Physicochemical characterization of MP included sugar profiles by HPLC-ELSD, starch, fibers, moisture, viscosity, swelling capacity and solubility properties of alcohol insoluble residue (AIR). The mean GI for HHP-MP was significantly lower (32.7 ± 13.4) than that of unprocessed-MP (42.7 ± 19.5). A significantly higher proportion of subjects showed a low GI following the consumption of HHP-MP compared to unprocessed-MP and none of them showed a high GI for the HHP-MP, compared to a significantly higher proportion for the unprocessed-MP. The viscosity and AIR solubility values of HHP-MP samples were significantly higher, which influenced glucose peaking later (Tmax) at 45 minutes and induced 20% lower AUC values than unprocessed-MP, corresponding to greater retardation indexes. The study findings support data stating that low GI fruits are appropriate for glycemic control and that mango may be included as part of healthy subjects' diets and potentially T2DM subjects' diets. Furthermore, HHP processing of mango may offer additional benefits for glycemic control, as its performance regarding GI, AUC and Tmax was significantly better than that of the unprocessed-MP. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the impact of this commercial non-thermal pasteurization technology on glucose metabolism.

  18. Circulating T helper and T regulatory subsets in untreated early rheumatoid arthritis and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Jayesh M; Lundell, Anna-Carin; Hallström, Magnus; Andersson, Kerstin; Nordström, Inger; Rudin, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The pathogenic role and frequency of T cell subtypes in early rheumatoid arthritis are still unclear. We therefore performed a comprehensive analysis of the circulating T cell subtype pattern in patients with untreated early rheumatoid arthritis compared to healthy control subjects. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from 26 patients with untreated early rheumatoid arthritis and from with 18 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. T helper cell types Th0, Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th1/17 and nonclassic T helper subsets were defined by flow cytometry based on the expression of chemokine receptors CCR4, CCR6, and CXCR3. Regulatory T cells were defined by expression of CD25(+) CD127(low) and also FOXP3 CXCR5(+) cells among regulatory and nonregulatory T cells were defined as T follicular regulatory and T follicular helper cells, respectively. The phenotype of T cell subsets was confirmed by transcription factor and cytokine secretion analyses. Multivariate discriminant analysis showed that patients with untreated early rheumatoid arthritis were segregated from healthy control subjects based on the circulating T cell subset profile. Among the discriminator subsets, CCR4(+)CXCR3(-) (Th2 and Th17), CTLA4(+) and FOXP3(+) subsets were present in significantly higher frequencies, whereas CCR4(-) (Th1/Th17, CCR6(+)CCR4(-)CXCR3(-), and Th1) subsets were present in lower frequencies in patients with untreated early rheumatoid arthritis compared with healthy control subjects. The proportions of Th2 and Th17 subsets associated positively with each other and negatively with the CXCR3(+)/interferon γ-secreting subsets (Th1 and Th1/Th17) in patients with untreated rheumatoid arthritis. The proportions of Th2 cells increased with age in patients with untreated early rheumatoid arthritis and healthy control subjects. The dominance of circulating CCR4(+)CXCR3(-) T helper subsets (Th2 and Th17) in untreated early rheumatoid arthritis point toward a pathogenic role of

  19. Systemic lupus erythematosus patients contain significantly less igm against mono-methylated lysine than healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Guo

    Full Text Available Post-translational modifications on proteins are important in biological processes but may create neo-epitopes that induce autoimmune responses. In this study, we measured the serum IgG and IgM response to a set of non-modified or acetyl- and methyl-modified peptides corresponding to residues 1-19 of the histone 3 N-terminal tail in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients and healthy subjects. Our results indicated that the SLE patients and healthy subjects produced antibodies (Abs to the peptides, but the two groups had different Ab isotype and epitope preferences. Abs to the non-modified form, H31-19, were of the IgG isotype and produced by SLE patients. They could not recognize the scrambled H31-19, which contained the same amino acid composition but a different sequence as H31-19. In comparison, healthy subjects in general did not produce IgG against H31-19. However, about 70% of the healthy subjects produced IgM Abs against mono-methylated K9 of H31-19 (H31-19K9me. Our further studies revealed that ε-amine mono-methylated lysine could completely inhibit the IgM binding to H31-19K9me, but lysine had no inhibitory effect. In addition, the IgM Abs could bind peptides containing a mono-methylated lysine residue but with totally different sequences. Thus, mono-methylated lysine was the sole epitope for the IgM. Interestingly, SLE patients had much lower levels of this type of IgM. There was no obvious correlation between the IgM levels and disease activity and the decreased IgM was unlikely caused by medical treatments.We also found that the IgM Abs were not polyreactive to dsDNA, ssDNA, lipopolysaccharide (LPS or insulin and they did not exist in umbilical cord serum, implying that they were not natural Abs. The IgM Abs against mono-methylated lysine are present in healthy subjects but are significantly lower in SLE patients, suggesting a distinct origin of production and special physiological functions.

  20. Glycemic indices of five varieties of dates in healthy and diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaabi, Juma M; Al-Dabbagh, Bayan; Ahmad, Shakeel; Saadi, Hussein F; Gariballa, Salah; Ghazali, Mustafa Al

    2011-05-28

    This study was designed to determine the glycemic indices of five commonly used varieties of dates in healthy subjects and their effects on postprandial glucose excursions in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Composition analysis was carried out for five types of dates (Tamer stage). The weights of the flesh of the dates equivalent to 50 g of available carbohydrates were calculated. The study subjects were thirteen healthy volunteers with a mean (± SD) age of 40.2 ± 6.7 years and ten participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (controlled on lifestyle measures and/or metformin) with a mean HbA1c (± SD) of 6.6 ± (0.7%) and a mean age (± SD) of 40.8 ± 5.7 years. Each subject was tested on eight separate days with 50 g of glucose (on 3 occasions) and 50 g equivalent of available carbohydrates from the 5 varieties of date (each on one occasion). Capillary glucose was measured in the healthy subjects at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min and for the diabetics at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min. The glycemic indices were determined as ratios of the incremental areas under the response curves for the dates compared to glucose. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test and repeated measures analysis of variance. Mean glycemic indices ± SEM of the dates for the healthy individuals were 54.0 ± 6.1, 53.5 ± 8.6, 46.3 ± 7.1, 49.1 ± 3.6 and 55.1 ± 7.7 for Fara'd, Lulu, Bo ma'an, Dabbas and Khalas, respectively. Corresponding values for those with type 2 diabetes were very similar (46.1 ± 6.2, 43.8 ± 7.7, 51.8 ± 6.9, 50.2 ± 3.9 and 53.0 ± 6.0). There were no statistically significant differences in the GIs between the control and the diabetic groups for the five types of dates, nor were there statistically significant differences among the dates' GIs (df = 4, F = 0.365, p = 0.83). The results show low glycemic indices for the five types of dates included in the study and that their consumption by diabetic individuals does not

  1. Pre-analytical and biological variability in circulating interleukin 6 in healthy subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lene S; Christensen, Ib J; Lottenburger, Tine

    2008-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6, a key player in the inflammatory response, may be a useful biomarker in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim was to determine analytical variability, a reference interval in healthy subjects, and long- and short-term variation in serum and plasma IL-6 in healthy subjects and RA ...

  2. Induction of depressed and elated mood by music influences the perception of facial emotional expressions in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouhuys, Antoinette L.; Bloem, Gerda M.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    1995-01-01

    The judgement of healthy subject rating the emotional expressions of a set of schematic drawn faces is validated (study 1) to examine the relationship between mood (depressed/elated) and judgement of emotional expressions of these faces (study 2). Study 1: 30 healthy subjects judged 12 faces with re

  3. Induction of depressed and elated mood by music influences the perception of facial emotional expressions in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouhuys, Antoinette L.; Bloem, Gerda M.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    1995-01-01

    The judgement of healthy subject rating the emotional expressions of a set of schematic drawn faces is validated (study 1) to examine the relationship between mood (depressed/elated) and judgement of emotional expressions of these faces (study 2). Study 1: 30 healthy subjects judged 12 faces with re

  4. Induction of depressed and elated mood by music influences the perception of facial emotional expressions in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouhuys, Antoinette L.; Bloem, Gerda M.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    1995-01-01

    The judgement of healthy subject rating the emotional expressions of a set of schematic drawn faces is validated (study 1) to examine the relationship between mood (depressed/elated) and judgement of emotional expressions of these faces (study 2). Study 1: 30 healthy subjects judged 12 faces with

  5. Bilateral transfer phenomenon: A functional magnetic resonance imaging pilot study of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uggetti, Carla; Ausenda, Carlo D; Squarza, Silvia; Cadioli, Marcello; Grimoldi, Ludovico; Cerri, Cesare; Cariati, Maurizio

    2016-08-01

    The bilateral transfer of a motor skill is a physiological phenomenon: the development of a motor skill with one hand can trigger the development of the same ability of the other hand. The purpose of this study was to verify whether bilateral transfer is associated with a specific brain activation pattern using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The motor task was implemented as the execution of the Nine Hole Peg Test. Fifteen healthy subjects (10 right-handers and five left-handers) underwent two identical fMRI runs performing the motor task with the non-dominant hand. Between the first and the second run, each subject was intensively trained for five minutes to perform the same motor task with the dominant hand. Comparing the two functional scans across the pool of subjects, a change of the motor activation pattern was observed. In particular, we observed, in the second run, a change in the activation pattern both in the cerebellum and in the cerebral cortex. We found activations in cortical areas involved in somatosensory integration, areas involved in procedural memory. Our study shows, in a small group of healthy subjects, the modification of the fMRI activation pathway of a motor task performed by the non-dominant hand after intensive exercise performing the same task with the dominant hand. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Serotonin function in schizophrenia: effects of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine in schizophrenic patients and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, R S; Siever, L J; Gabriel, S; Amin, F; Stern, R G; DuMont, K; Apter, S; Davidson, M

    1992-07-01

    This study examined serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT) receptor responsivity in 22 chronic schizophrenic patients and 17 healthy control subjects. The 5HT agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (MCPP) was used as a probe of serotonergic function. MCPP (0.35 mg/kg) or placebo was administered orally after a 3-week drug-free period in a randomized double-blind design. Hormonal (adrenocorticotropic hormone and prolactin), temperature, and behavioral responses and MCPP blood levels were assessed for 210 minutes after administration of the capsules. The schizophrenic patients had blunted temperature responses compared with those of the healthy control subjects: MCPP raised body temperature in the control subjects, but not in the patients. Behavioral responses also differed in the two groups: MCPP increased the total Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) score in the control subjects and tended to decrease it in the patients. In patients, MCPP decreased the BPRS psychosis subscore. Hormonal responses did not differ significantly in the two groups. These findings suggest that further exploration of 5HT function in schizophrenia is warranted.

  7. Sleep in healthy elderly subjects: a 24-hour ambulatory polysomnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigli, G L; Placidi, F; Diomedi, M; Maschio, M; Silvestri, G; Scalise, A; Marciani, M G

    1996-04-01

    It is still debated whether the deterioration of the sleep pattern, frequently reported by elderly subjects, is due only to aging per se. Other factors associated with aging or modifications of biological rhythms could also be involved. Elderly subjects frequently complain of daytime sleepiness, but it is not clear whether this actually represents a return to a polyphasic structure of sleep, or only a consequence of a disturbed night sleep. Ten healthy, independent and active elderly subjects (age > 72 years) were elevated by means of 24-hour ambulatory polysomnography. Findings of nocturnal sleep were compared with sleep of the same group in the 24-hour period and with sleep of young healthy controls. We observed a fragmentation of nocturnal sleep, but a fairly good representation of stages and a preservation of cyclicity. Except for three cases, with early or late times of sleep onset and wake-up, sleep disruption did not seem to be related to modification of circadian rhythms. Only three subjects presented undesired daytime naps, whereas the others either did not show daytime sleep at all, or were used to having their siesta after lunch since their young adulthood. In normal aging, daytime sleep does not constitute a social problem. Ambulatory polysomnography is a valid alternative to laboratory recordings in the identification of daytime sleep.

  8. Effect of chronic intermittent hypoxia on exercise adaptations in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Julia; Michallet, Anne-Sophie; Flore, Patrice; Nespoulet, Hugo; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Wuyam, Bernard; Levy, Patrick; Tamisier, Renaud

    2011-12-15

    Reduced exercise tolerance has been reported in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients, although the associated hypertension, obesity and/or metabolic disorder may underlie this reduction. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) in 12 healthy subjects on exercise capacity, cardio-respiratory responses, and substrate oxidation during maximal and sub-maximal exercise. Subjects were exposed to 30 cycles of hypoxia-reoxygenation per hour for 14 nights. Although exercise capacity was unaltered PETCO(2) was reduced and V˙E/V˙CO(2) increased during both maximal and submaximal exercise tests, indicating a hyperventilatory response. Maximal heart rate was lower and diastolic arterial blood pressure (DBP) was higher in the 1st min of recovery after submaximal exercise. Subjects reached maximal lipid oxidation at a higher power output and had decreased blood lactate for a given power output. This suggests that although the metabolic adaptations to CIH in healthy subjects may improve exercise performance, the cardio-pulmonary modifications are similar to those observed in OSAS patients and could limit exercise capacity.

  9. Endothelial haemostatic factors are associated with progression of urinary albumin excretion in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Jensen, G;

    1999-01-01

    ), whereas no changes in UAER were seen in subjects with vWF and tPA below the medians. Subjects with high tPA were also characterized by an excess of other cardiovascular risk factors at baseline. No significant differences in these risk factors were present between subjects with high or low vWF. High...... of endothelial dysfunction, predicts a subsequent increase of UAER in patients with diabetes. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that high concentrations of vWF as well as other haemostatic factors predict progression of UAER in clinically healthy subjects. UAER was measured together with selected...... markers of haemostatic function-vWF, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor, factor VII and fibrinogen-in healthy volunteers aged 40-65 years. After a mean follow-up of 4.1 years, 64 of 74 agreed to a re-examination including re-measurement of UAER. Baseline vWF and tPA were...

  10. Reinforcing, subjective, and psychomotor effects of sevoflurane and nitrous oxide in moderate-drinking healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacny, J P; Janiszewski, D; Sadeghi, P; Black, M L

    1999-12-01

    To characterize the reinforcing, subjective and psychomotor effects of sevoflurane, a volatile anesthetic, across a range of subanesthetic concentrations in non-drug-abusing humans. In addition, a concentration of nitrous oxide was included in the design in order to compare and contrast behavioral effects of a gaseous to a volatile anesthesic. Repeated measures, double-blind, placebo control experiment. Human psychopharmacology laboratory. Fourteen moderate-drinking healthy volunteers. In each of four sessions, subjects first sampled placebo-oxygen and an active drug (end-tidal concentrations of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6% sevoflurane and 30% nitrous oxide in oxygen) and then chose between the two Mood and psychomotor performance during the sampling trials, and choice of drug or placebo-oxygen during choice trial. Nitrous oxide was chosen by 71% of the subjects, and 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% sevoflurane were chosen by 50%, 57% and 50% of the subjects, respectively. Neither drug was chosen at levels that exceeded that of chance. Sevoflurane and nitrous oxide both impaired psychomotor performance and produced changes in mood. There were several differences in subjective effects between sevoflurane and nitrous oxide at concentrations which were considered to be equivalent in anesthetic effect. Finally, although sevoflurane did not function as a reinforcer in the majority of individuals tested, there was evidence that sevoflurane functioned as a reinforcer in some volunteers: subjects who chose to inhale sevoflurane over placebo-oxygen tended to report a positive spectrum of subjective effects during the sevoflurane sampling trial, relative to those subjects who chose placebo-oxygen over sevoflurane. Although sevoflurane did not function as a reinforcer in the majority of subjects tested, the correspondence between positive subjective effects of sevoflurane and subsequent sevoflurane choice suggests that the volatile anesthetic drug can function as a reinforcer in some moderate drinkers.

  11. Evaluation of Salivary Leptin Levels in Healthy Subjects and Patients with Advanced Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Khorsand

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Leptin is a hormone-like protein produced by the adipose tissue. It plays an important role in protection of host against inflammation and infection. Some studies have reported changes in leptin levels in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF, saliva and blood serum of patients with periodontal disease compared to healthy individuals. The aim of the present study was to compare the salivary leptin levels in patients with advanced periodontitis and healthy individuals.Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, the salivary samples of healthy individuals and patients with advanced periodontitis with clinical attachment loss >5mm were obtained using a standardized method and the leptin levels were measured in the salivary samples by means of ELISA. The effects of the periodontal status and sex on the salivary leptin levels of both groups were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA.Results: The means ± standard deviation (SD of salivary leptin levels in healthy subjects and patients with advanced periodontitis were 34.27±6.88 and 17.87±5.89 pg/mL, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the effect of sex on the salivary leptin levels was not significant (P=0.91, while the effect of advanced periodontitis on the salivary leptin levels was significant compared to healthy individuals (P<0.0001.Conclusions: In patients with advanced periodontitis, the salivary leptin levels were significantly lower compared to healthy individuals. Thus, assessment of salivary leptin can be done as a non-invasive and simple method to determine the susceptibility of patients to advanced periodontitis.

  12. Total and Segmental Colon Transit Time Study in Functional Constipation: Comparison With Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, Prasad A.; Patel, Jatin A.; Parikh, Pathik; Ingle, Meghraj A.; Phadke, Anniruddha; Sawant, Prabha D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Constipation is a common problem worldwide. Constipation can be primary or secondary. Primary constipation is subdivided in slow transit constipation, normal transit constipation, and dyssynergic defecation. Colon transit time (CTT) is the most basic and primary tool in evaluating disorders of colonic motility. CTT helps to differentiate between types of constipation and plan the treatment. Methods Fifty functional constipation patients and 25 healthy controls were asked to ingest four gelatin capsules (each containing five radio-opaque markers) at 0, 12 and 24 hours. An abdominal X-ray was taken at 36 hours. Total or segmental CTT was measured after calculating the number of markers remaining in each segment at 36 hours on abdominal X-ray. Results Mean CTT in healthy controls in our study was 15.4 hours which is shorter than western population. Total CTT is significantly higher in constipation group (23 hours) compared to healthy subjects (15.4 hours). Transit time in right segment was significantly high in constipation group than healthy population (14.2 vs. 8.3 hours). Total as well as segmental transit times are slightly higher in females as compared to males in both the groups, however not statistically significant. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies from India that compared the CTTs in functional constipation and healthy controls. Conclusion Radio-opaque marker study for CTT is a simple and reliable technique for evaluation of constipation. Patients with functional constipation have significantly longer CTT than healthy population. Total CTT is much less in this study population compared to west. There is need to establish standards for slow colon transit. PMID:27785288

  13. Time course of endotoxin-induced airways' inflammation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyen, Virginie; Kassengera, Zaina; Dinh, Duc Huy Phong; Michel, Olivier

    2012-02-01

    Few data are available on the kinetic of the airways' inflammation induced by inhaled endotoxin in a given subject. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in healthy subjects the time-related endotoxin-induced airways' inflammation. The cells counts from the induced-sputum were evaluated before, 6 and 24 h, and 7 days after an exposure to 20 mcg inhaled endotoxin, in eight pre-selected volunteers. To avoid interference of the induced-sputum procedure on the response to endotoxin, each time-point was evaluated in randomized order at 2-weeks interval after three separate inhalations of endotoxin. A significant rise of the relative number of lymphocytes (pinflammation after 6 h, peaked at 24 h and recovered after 7 days. When repeated endotoxin inhalations are used as a model of inflammation, a wash-out period of at least 7 days should be applied between each exposure in each subject.

  14. Circadian rhythm in plasma noradrenaline of healthy sleep-deprived subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candito, M; Pringuey, D; Jacomet, Y; Souêtre, E; Salvati, E; Ardisson, J L; Chambon, P; Darcourt, G

    1992-12-01

    Under normal sleep-wake conditions, noradrenaline (NA) secretions in supine subjects exhibit a weak circadian variation with a peak that occurs around noon; the sleep span is characterized by reduced NA secretion. Some investigators have reported that the circadian NA rhythm is completely obliterated during sleep deprivation. In our laboratory, plasma NA was assayed every hour for 24 h in nine healthy men 20-23 years of age. All men were deprived of sleep and were required to eat and walk around every hour to prevent sleep. However, subjects remained supine for 20 min before blood samples were collected to eliminate the effect of activity. Persistence of a slight decrease in the night concentration in several subjects, despite sleep deprivation, suggests that NA secretion may be influenced by a biological clock whose activity becomes visible when the influence of posture is removed.

  15. Biomarkers of mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle of healthy young human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Nielsen, Joachim; Neigaard Nielsen, Christina

    2012-01-01

    closely associated these commonly used biochemical measures are to muscle mitochondrial content and muscle oxidative capacity (OXPHOS).Sixteen young healthy male subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects completed a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)) and muscle......Skeletal muscle mitochondrial content varies extensively between human subjects. Biochemical measures of mitochondrial proteins, enzyme activities and lipids are often used as markers of mitochondrial content and muscle oxidative capacity (OXPHOS). The purpose of this study was to determine how...... to muscle oxidative capacity followed by complex II activity.We conclude that cardiolipin content, CS and complex I activity are the biomarkers that exhibit the strongest association to mitochondrial content, while complex IV activity is strongly associated with OXPHOS capacity in human skeletal muscle....

  16. Deliberate Microbial Infection Research Reveals Limitations to Current Safety Protections of Healthy Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, David L; Fowler, Carol B; Mason, Jeffrey T; Mimnall, Rebecca K

    2015-08-01

    Here we identify approximately 40,000 healthy human volunteers who were intentionally exposed to infectious pathogens in clinical research studies dating from late World War II to the early 2000s. Microbial challenge experiments continue today under contemporary human subject research requirements. In fact, we estimated 4,000 additional volunteers who were experimentally infected between 2010 and the present day. We examine the risks and benefits of these experiments and present areas for improvement in protections of participants with respect to safety. These are the absence of maximum limits to risk and the potential for institutional review boards to include questionable benefits to subjects and society when weighing the risks and benefits of research protocols. The lack of a duty of medical care by physician-investigators to research subjects is likewise of concern. The transparency of microbial challenge experiments and the safety concerns raised in this work may stimulate further dialogue on the risks to participants of human experimentation.

  17. Suppression of vagal cardiac modulation by blue light in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuda, Emi; Ogasawara, Hiroki; Yoshida, Yutaka; Hayano, Junichiro

    2016-10-05

    In the contemporary life environments, our body is increasingly exposed to various sources of colored light, which may affect our physiological functions as non-image-forming effects. We examined the impacts of colored lights on the autonomic functions by the analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). A lighting device consisting of four organic light-emitting diode (OLED) modules (55 × 55 mm(2)) with adjustable red-green-blue color was secured 24 cm above the eyes of subject lying supine in a light-shielded laboratory. Following a 15-min supine rest, electrocardiogram and respiration were measured continuously during 3-min darkness, 6-min colored OLED illumination, and 3-min darkness under paced breathing (15 breath/min). The measurements were repeated at a 45-min interval for red, green, and blue lights with melanopsin-stimulating photon flux density (MSPFD) of 0.00, 0.10, and 0.20 μmol/m(2)/s, respectively, in 12 healthy subjects (23 ± 2 years, two females). Additionally, the effects of blue lights with 0.20, 0.10, and 0.04 μmol/m(2)/s MSPFD were examined in four healthy subjects (25-39 years, two females). HRV was analyzed for low-frequency (LF, 0.04-0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (HF, 0.20-0.30 Hz) power and LF-to-HF ratio (LF/HF). Compared to darkness before lighting, HF power decreased (P lighting on average of all color lights, whereas HF power showed a greater decrease with blue light than with red and green lights (P lighting (P light with 0.20 μmol/m(2)/s MSPFD (P light in healthy subjects most likely through melanopsin-dependent non-image-forming effect.

  18. SERUM HEPCIDIN REFERENCE RANGE, GENDER DIFFERENCES, MENOPAUSAL DEPENDENCE AND BIOCHEMICAL CORRELATES IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Ilkovska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepcidin has emerged as the central regulatory molecule of iron homeostasis. Iron deficiency and iron overload play a major role in molecular insights of many disease states and serum hepcidin normal values and biochemical correlations are of substantial importance. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the serum hepcidin reference range, gender and age differences, menopausal dependence and biochemical correlates in healthy subjects. Methods: Serum hepcidin concentration was measured with a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DRG Hepcidin-25 ELISA Kit together with hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum iron, transferrin and C-reactive protein in 120 healthy subjects both men and pre- and post-menopausal women. Results: Normal serum hepcidin values were found in the range of 1,23 – 36,46 ng/mL (mean 9,25 ± 6,45 ng/mL.There were statistically significant differences in measured hepcidin levels between men (12,34 ± 7,37 ng/mL and women (6,16 ± 3,2 ng/mL (p<0.01 and between pre- menopausal (5,51 ± 2,8 ng/mL and post-menopausal women (7,29 ± 3,59 ng/mL ( p<0,05. Strong correlations were found with serum ferritin and hemoglobin but not with serum iron, transferrin and CRP. No 5-year age interval differences were deemed significant. Conclusion: Serum hepcidin concentration varied substantially between subjects, which is reflected in wide reference ranges. Serum hepcidin levels were gender and menopausal status related and were in correlation with hemoglobin and serum ferritin in healthy subjects

  19. Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Safety of Single-Dose Canagliflozin in Healthy Chinese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Hu, Pei; Vaccaro, Nicole; Polidori, David; Curtin, Christopher R; Stieltjes, Hans; Sha, Sue; Weiner, Sveta; Devineni, Damayanthi

    2015-07-01

    Canagliflozin, an orally active sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, is approved in many countries as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The recommended dose of canagliflozin is 100 or 300 mg once daily. This Phase I study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety profile of canagliflozin in healthy Chinese subjects. In this double-blind, single-dose, 3-way crossover study, 15 healthy subjects were randomized (1:1:1) to receive single oral doses of canagliflozin 100 mg, canagliflozin 300 mg, or placebo. Pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and safety assessments were made at prespecified time points. All participants are healthy Chinese adults. Mean AUC and Cmax of canagliflozin increased in a dose-dependent manner after single-dose administration (AUC0-∞, 10,521 ng · h/mL for 100 mg, 33,583 ng · h/mL for 300 mg; Cmax, 1178 ng/mL for 100 mg, 4113 ng/mL for 300 mg). The mean apparent t½ and the median Tmax of canagliflozin were independent of dose (t½, 16.0 hours for 100 mg, 16.2 hours for 300 mg; Tmax, ~1 hour). Mean CL/F and renal clearance of canagliflozin were comparable between the 2 doses. Mean plasma metabolite to parent molar ratios for Cmax and AUC0-∞ were similar with both doses. Canagliflozin decreased the 24-hour mean renal threshold for glucose, calculated by using measured creatinine clearance to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (67.9 and 60.7 mg/dL for canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg, respectively) and 24-hour increased urinary glucose excretion (33.8 and 42.9 g for canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg, respectively) in a dose-dependent manner; the 24-hour plasma glucose profile remained largely unchanged. No deaths, hypoglycemic events, or discontinuations due to adverse events were observed. Pharmacokinetics (AUC and Cmax) of canagliflozin increased in a dose-dependent manner after single oral doses of canagliflozin (100 and 300 mg) in

  20. SOCIAL REPRESENTATION AND ACQUISITION OF HEALTH INFORMATION FOR SENIORS TO ADOPT HEALTHY HABITS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iaci G. Guimarães

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The communication has been a resource very used by the health institutions to educate aged about prevention of illnesses and the promotion of the health, because this group is the one that more demands for the sanitary services. This descriptive study with qualitative boarding tried to understand and to analyze the social representations on the acquisition of information in health and the influence habits of the aged. Six aged people of high middle class, who have health insurance, were interviewed. Specific software to analyze the answers was used. The social representation that emerged of the study shows that look for information improves the quality of life, this means, the knowledge helps how to take cares of the health. However, the majority of the interviewed people get these information throught magazines, TV and family doctor, probably because of the easy access. Even though they know that information makes possible better cares with the health, this does not make them look for knowledge more often. These results show that to know better subjects as health and the aging it will contribute for education programs and health promotion.

  1. Motor cortex tDCS does not improve strength performance in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Montenegro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS upon maximal strength performance in exercises recruiting large muscle mass has not been established in healthy populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether anodal tDCS was able to increase the performance during maximal strength exercise (MSEX in healthy subjects. Fourteen volunteers (age: 26 ± 4 yrs performed two MSEX after anodal or sham tDCS (2mA; 20min prior MSEX, involving knee extensors and flexors in concentric isokinetic muscle actions of the dominant limb (3 sets of 10 repetitions. The electrical muscle activity (sEMG of four recruited muscles was recorded during MSEX. Anodal tDCS was not able to improve force production (i.e., total work and peak torque, fatigue resistance, or electromyographic activity during MSEX when compared to sham condition. In conclusion, anodal tDCS applied upon the contralateral motor cortex was not capable of increasing the strength performance of knee extensors and flexors in young healthy subjects.

  2. Abdominal muscle activity during breathing in different postures in COPD "Stage 0" and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita Montes, António; Maia, Joana; Crasto, Carlos; de Melo, Cristina Argel; Carvalho, Paulo; Santos, Rita; Pereira, Susana; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of different postures on the abdominal muscle activity during breathing in subjects "at risk" for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and healthy. Twenty-nine volunteers, divided in "At Risk" for COPD (n=16; 47.38±5.08years) and Healthy (n=13; 47.54±6.65years) groups, breathed at the same rhythm in supine, standing, tripod and 4-point-kneeling positions. Surface electromyography was performed to assess the activation intensity of rectus abdominis, external oblique and transversus abdominis/internal oblique (TrA/IO) muscles, during inspiration and expiration. From supine to standing, an increased activation of all abdominal muscles was observed in "At Risk" for COPD group; however, in Healthy group, TrA/IO muscle showed an increased activation. In both groups, the TrA/IO muscle activation in tripod and 4-point kneeling positions was higher than in supine and lower than in standing. Subjects "at risk" for the development of COPD seemed to have a specific recruitment of the superficial layer of ventrolateral abdominal wall for the synchronization of postural function and mechanics of breathing.

  3. Seasonal chaotic features of pulse rate in a healthy subject and a patient after coronary stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Chen, Wenxi

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes seasonal features of pulse rate chaos in both healthy and unhealthy subjects. Analytical methods, such as numerical titration, sample entropy and spectral analysis, were used to detect and estimate the seasonal fluctuations in chaotic attributes, complexity and nonlinearity of pulse rate. Chaotic feature analyses are based on pulse rate data collected over one year from a healthy male and a male patient after coronary stenting. The results show that the mean level of pulse rate chaos in the healthy subject is lowest in winter (values of NL, DR, and SampEn are 8.1 ± 0.3%, 41.0 ± 1.2%, and 1.98 ± 0.02, separately) and highest in summer (corresponding values are 9.9 ± 0.6%, 46.8 ± 2.3%, and 2.06 ± 0.03, separately) (P chaotic dynamics that is least active in autumn (7.1 ± 0.5%, 14.8 ± 1.5%, and 0.80 ± 0.01) and more active in winter (7.7 ± 0.4%, 35.9 ± 1.9%, and 0.93 ± 0.01) and spring (9.1 ± 0.7%, 28.6 ± 2.1%, and 0.87 ± 0.01) (P chaotic features.

  4. Evaluation of cognitive function in healthy older subjects treated with fesoterodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Gary G; Maruff, Paul; Scholfield, David; Malhotra, Bimal; Whelan, Laurence; Darekar, Amanda; Martire, Diane L

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the cognitive effects of fesoterodine 4 and 8 mg versus placebo in healthy older adults. This was an active- and placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy crossover study conducted using healthy volunteers (aged 65-85 years) with baseline Mini-Mental State Examination score ≥ 26. The study comprised 4 treatment periods: fesoterodine 4 mg for 6 days; fesoterodine 4 mg for 3 days followed by fesoterodine 8 mg for 3 days; placebo for 6 days; and placebo for 6 days with alprazolam 1 mg on day 6. The treatment sequence was randomized, with a 3- to 6-day washout between periods. Subjects completed computer-based cognitive assessments and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test on day 1 (before dosing) and day 6 (after dosing) of each period. The primary endpoint was the Detection task; secondary endpoints were the Identification task, 1-card learning task, Continuous Paired Associate Learning task, Groton Maze Learning Task, and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Among 18 subjects in the per protocol set, changes from baseline to day 6 with fesoterodine 4 and 8 mg were not significantly different from placebo for any endpoint (P > 0.05); alprazolam produced significant impairment in all endpoints versus placebo (P fesoterodine and sedation for alprazolam. No sedation was reported with fesoterodine. In healthy older adults, fesoterodine 4 and 8 mg once daily had no statistically significant effects versus placebo on any cognitive function assessed, including memory; alprazolam 1 mg produced statistically significant deterioration.

  5. Quantitative molecular detection of putative periodontal pathogens in clinically healthy and periodontally diseased subjects.

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    André Göhler

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a multi-microbial oral infection with high prevalence among adults. Putative oral pathogens are commonly found in periodontally diseased individuals. However, these organisms can be also detected in the oral cavity of healthy subjects. This leads to the hypothesis, that alterations in the proportion of these organisms relative to the total amount of oral microorganisms, namely their abundance, rather than their simple presence might be important in the transition from health to disease. Therefore, we developed a quantitative molecular method to determine the abundance of various oral microorganisms and the portion of bacterial and archaeal nucleic acid relative to the total nucleic acid extracted from individual samples. We applied quantitative real-time PCRs targeting single-copy genes of periodontal bacteria and 16S-rRNA genes of Bacteria and Archaea. Testing tongue scrapings of 88 matched pairs of periodontally diseased and healthy subjects revealed a significantly higher abundance of P. gingivalis and a higher total bacterial abundance in diseased subjects. In fully adjusted models the risk of being periodontally diseased was significantly higher in subjects with high P. gingivalis and total bacterial abundance. Interestingly, we found that moderate abundances of A. actinomycetemcomitans were associated with reduced risk for periodontal disease compared to subjects with low abundances, whereas for high abundances, this protective effect leveled off. Moderate archaeal abundances were health associated compared to subjects with low abundances. In conclusion, our methodological approach unraveled associations of the oral flora with periodontal disease, which would have gone undetected if only qualitative data had been determined.

  6. Influence of nopal intake upon fasting glycemia in type II diabetics and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, A C; Gordillo, B E; Altamirano, P; Ariza, C R; Cortés-Franco, R; Chávez-Negrete, A; Islas-Andrade, S

    1991-01-01

    To assess if the acute hypoglycemic effect of nopal which occurs in diabetic patients also appears in healthy individuals, 500 g of nopal stems (O. streptacantha Lem.) were given orally to 14 healthy volunteers and to 14 patients with NIDDM. Serum glucose and insulin levels were measured at 0, 60, 120 and 180 minutes after nopal ingestion. A control test was performed with the intake of 400 ml of water. The intake of nopal by the NIDDM group was followed by a significant reduction of serum glucose and insulin concentration reaching 40.8 + 4.6 mg/dl (n = 14) (mean+SEM) and 7.8 + 1.5 uU/ml (n = 7) less than basal value, respectively, at 180 minutes. (P less than 0.001 vs control test). No significant changes were noticed in the healthy group as compared with the control test (P greater than 0.05). Acute hypoglycemic effect of nopal was observed in patients with NIDDM but not in healthy subjects, thus the mechanisms of this effect differs from current hypoglycemic agents.

  7. Red Blood Cell Distribution Width in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgul, Guler; Seyhan, Ekrem Cengiz; Özgül, Mehmet Akif; Günlüoğlu, Mehmet Zeki

    2017-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is accepted as a powerful predictor of outcomes in patients with CVD. To study RDW in patients with COPD, and to compare the value of this measurement with clinical, echocardiographic, nutritional and laboratory status. Secondly, we aimed to determine the effect of smoking on RDW values in healthy subjects. One hundred and seventy-five patients with stable COPD and 210 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Demographic, clinical, nutritional status, echocardiographic, and laboratory characteristics, RDW values were recorded and compared. RDW values were higher in the COPD group than in controls (15±2.3% vs. 13.8±2.5%, ppulmonary hypertension (PAH) (r=0.1, P=.02), and presence of CVD (r=0.24, P=.02). In multivariable logistic regression suggested that presence of CVD (4.3; 95% CI: 1.3 to 11; P=.01), and presence of RVD (3.1; 95% CI: 1.7 to 8.3; P=.02) were independently related to elevated RDW levels in COPD patients. In the healthy population, correlations analysis showed only a significant correlation between RDW and cigarette smoking years (r=0.57, P<.001). RDW is independently associated with CVD and RVD in patients with COPD. In the healthy population, RDW is also associated with smoking status. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Different Serum Free Fatty Acid Profiles in NAFLD Subjects and Healthy Controls after Oral Fat Load

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    Roberto Gambino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free fatty acid (FFA metabolism can impact on metabolic conditions, such as obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. This work studied the increase in total FFA shown in NAFLD subjects to possibly characterize which fatty acids significantly accounted for the whole increase. Methods: 21 patients with NAFLD were selected according to specified criteria. The control group consisted of nine healthy subjects. All subjects underwent an oral standard fat load. Triglycerides; cholesterol; FFA; glucose and insulin were measured every 2 h with the determination of fatty acid composition of FFA. Results: higher serum FFA levels in NAFLD subjects are mainly due to levels of oleic, palmitic and linoleic acids at different times. Significant increases were shown for docosahexaenoic acid, linolenic acid, eicosatrienoic acid, and arachidonic acid, although this was just on one occasion. In the postprandial phase, homeostatic model assessment HOMA index positively correlated with the ω3/ω6 ratio in NAFLD patients. Conclusions: the higher serum levels of FFA in NAFLD subjects are mainly due to levels of oleic and palmitic acids which are the most abundant circulating free fatty acids. This is almost exactly corresponded with significant increases in linoleic acid. An imbalance in the n-3/n-6 fatty acids ratio could modulate postprandial responses with more pronounced effects in insulin-resistant subjects, such as NAFLD patients.

  9. Blood flow in the forearm in patients with Rheumatoid arthritis and healthy subjects under local thermotherapy

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    C. Mucha

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Muscle blood flow in the forearm of patients with rheuma-toid arthritis and healthy volunteers following treatment with temperature increasingarm baths, mudpacks and short- or decimeter-wave diathermy was studied in thisinvestigation. The aim of the study was to find out the difference of reactive hyperemia between the different temperature methods as well as the influence on theconsensual reaction. Subjects: Eighty patients with rheumatoid arthritis, stage 3 according toSteinbrocker, as well as 80 healthy human subjects had been assigned numerically in the four therapy- and controlgroups. Patients with diseases influencing the peripheral blood flow were excluded. Design: Blood flow was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography in both forearms with the subjects lyingsupine. The application of the local heat therapies had been excluded on the left forearm. The forearm blood flow wasmonitored before heat therapy, directly after as well as in two further 10 minutes intervals. An analysis of variancewas used to determine the influence on blood flow of the response to the heat therapies in patients with rheumatoidarthritis and healthy subjects.Results: Under homogeneous starting conditions and a statistically uniformed high blood flow in rest the reactive values of blood flow on the left-hand side of application and the right consensual side showed high significant differencesbetween all methods of therapy. Differences between the patients and the healthy subjects only showed tendencies withpartially lower reactions, concerning the patients with rheumatoid arthritis. All methods of heat therapy caused a statistically provable consensual reaction that turned out smaller after diathermic methods. Here the post therapeuticreaction of the blood flow on the side of application was also lower or rather shorter. Conclusion: Greater differences of the blood flow in rest between the patients with rheumatoid arthritis and healthysubjects

  10. Substances used and prevalence rates of pharmacological cognitive enhancement among healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Andreas G; Bagusat, Christiana; Rust, Sebastian; Engel, Alice; Lieb, Klaus

    2014-11-01

    Pharmacological "cognitive enhancement" (CE) is defined as the use of any psychoactive drug with the purpose of enhancing cognition, e.g. regarding attention, concentration or memory by healthy subjects. Substances commonly used as CE drugs can be categorized into three groups of drugs: (1) over-the-counter (OTC) drugs such as coffee, caffeinated drinks/energy drinks, caffeine tablets or Ginkgo biloba; (2) drugs being approved for the treatment of certain disorders and being misused for CE: drugs to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) such as the stimulants methylphenidate (MPH, e.g. Ritalin(®)) or amphetamines (AMPH, e.g. Attentin(®) or Adderall(®)), to treat sleep disorders such as modafinil or to treat Alzheimer's disease such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors; (3) illicit drugs such as illicit AMPH, e.g. "speed", ecstasy, methamphetamine (crystal meth) or others. Evidence from randomized placebo-controlled trials shows that the abovementioned substances have limited pro-cognitive effects as demonstrated, e.g. regarding increased attention, increased cognitive speed or shortening of reaction times, but on the same time poses considerable safety risks on the consumers. Prevalence rates for the use of CE drugs among healthy subjects show a broad range from less than 1 % up to more than 20 %. The range in prevalence rates estimates results from several factors which are chosen differently in the available survey studies: type of subjects (students, pupils, special professions, etc.), degree of anonymity in the survey (online, face-to-face, etc.), definition of CE and substances used/misused for CE, which are assessed (OTC drugs, prescription, illicit drugs) as well as time periods of use (e.g. ever, during the past year/month/week, etc.). A clear and comprehensive picture of the drugs used for CE by healthy subjects and their adverse events and safety risks as well as comprehensive and comparable international data on the prevalence rates of

  11. Striatal μ-opioid receptor availability predicts cold pressor pain threshold in healthy human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagelberg, Nora; Aalto, Sargo; Tuominen, Lauri;

    2012-01-01

    Previous PET studies in healthy humans have shown that brain μ-opioid receptor activation during experimental pain is associated with reductions in the sensory and affective ratings of the individual pain experience. The aim of this study was to find out whether brain μ-opioid receptor binding...... at the resting state, in absence of painful stimulation, can be a long-term predictor of experimental pain sensitivity. We measured μ-opioid receptor binding potential (BP(ND)) with μ-opioid receptor selective radiotracer [(11)C]carfentanil and positron emission tomography (PET) in 12 healthy male subjects...... the potential associations between μ-opioid receptor BP(ND) and psychophysical measures. The results show that striatal μ-opioid receptor BP(ND) predicts cold pressor pain threshold, but not cold pressor pain tolerance or tactile sensitivity. This finding suggests that striatal μ-opioid receptor density...

  12. Pituitary hormone responses to meta-chlorophenylpiperazine in panic disorder and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, R S; Wetzler, S; Asnis, G M; Kling, M A; Suckow, R F; van Praag, H M

    1991-04-01

    The present study reports adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and prolactin responses after oral administration of 0.25 mg/kg of the serotonin agonist, meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (MCPP), in patients with panic disorder (PD) and in healthy subjects. MCPP blood levels were similar for the two groups, but almost twice as high in males as in females. Female patients had augmented ACTH and prolactin release as compared to healthy females, while ACTH and prolactin release in male patients was similar to that of male controls. These results suggest that female PD patients have hypersensitive serotonin receptors. Moreover, they indicate that pharmacokinetic gender differences may affect challenge studies, and that different doses may be required to study neuroendocrine responses in males and females.

  13. Use of urine volatile organic compounds to discriminate tuberculosis patients from healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banday, Khalid Muzaffar; Pasikanti, Kishore Kumar; Chan, Eric Chun Yong; Singla, Rupak; Rao, Kanury Venkata Subba; Chauhan, Virander Singh; Nanda, Ranjan Kumar

    2011-07-15

    Development of noninvasive methods for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis, with the potential to be administered in field situations, remains as an unmet challenge. A wide array of molecules are present in urine and reflect the pathophysiological condition of a subject. With infection, an alteration in the molecular constituents is anticipated, characterization of which may form a basis for TB diagnosis. In the present study volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human urine derived from TB patients and healthy controls were identified and quantified using headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). We found significant (p 3-pentanol (0.59), dimethylstyrene (0.37), and cymol (0.42) in TB patients compared to controls. These markers could discriminate TB from healthy controls and related diseases like lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder. This study suggests a possibility of using urinary VOCs for the diagnosis of human TB.

  14. Experienced and Perceived Stress in Females With Schizophrenia and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodadadi Mogadam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by chronic disturbances of thought and perception. Objectives The current study aimed to compare perceived stress in females with schizophrenia and that of healthy people. Patients and Methods The study sample included 50 patients with schizophrenia in Tuba rehabilitation center in Ardabil selected by available sampling method. Healthy group participants were selected through cloning by age, gender and marital status of the patient group. The data were collected by the questionnaire of Holmes-Rahe scale and Cohen et al. Data were analyzed by multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA using SPSS software. Results Compared with the normal subjects, patients with schizophrenia had a higher mean score in negative perceived and experienced stresses, but had a lower mean score in positive perceived stress as well as in total perceived stress. Conclusions Results showed the levels of perceived stress and negative stress play important role in the creation and maintenance of schizophrenia.

  15. Motor performance during and following acute alcohol intoxication in healthy non-alcoholic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Buch; Jakobsen, Johannes Klitgaard; Andersen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse has adverse effects on skeletal muscle, and reduced muscle strength is frequently seen in chronic alcoholics. In this study the acute effects of moderate alcohol intoxication on motor performance was evaluated in 19 non-alcoholic healthy subjects (10 women, 9 men). A randomi...... of moderate alcohol intoxication (1,4 g/l) does not impair motor performance, and no accelerated exercise-induced muscle damage is seen. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov......Chronic alcohol abuse has adverse effects on skeletal muscle, and reduced muscle strength is frequently seen in chronic alcoholics. In this study the acute effects of moderate alcohol intoxication on motor performance was evaluated in 19 non-alcoholic healthy subjects (10 women, 9 men......). A randomised double-blinded placebo controlled design was applied to subjects receiving alcohol in juice and pure juice at two separate test periods. Isokinetic and isometric muscle strength and endurance were determined before, during, 24 and 48 h after the ingestion of alcohol in juice and juice (placebo...

  16. Acu-TENS and Postexercise Expiratory Flow Volume in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley P. C. Ngai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation over acupoints (Acu-TENS facilitates recovery of resting heart rate after treadmill exercise in healthy subjects. Its effect on postexercise respiratory indices has not been reported. This study investigates the effect of Acu-TENS on forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC in healthy subjects after a submaximal exercise. Eleven male subjects were invited to the laboratory twice, two weeks apart, to receive in random order either Acu-TENS or Placebo-TENS (no electrical output from the TENS unit over bilateral Lieque (LU7 and Dingchuan (EX-B1 for 45 minutes, before undergoing exercise following the Bruce protocol. Exercise duration, rate of perceived exertion (RPE, and peak heart rate (PHR were recorded. Between-group FEV1 and FVC, before, immediately after, at 15, 30, and 45minutes postexercise, were compared. While no between-group differences in PHR, RPE, and FVC were found, Acu-TENS was associated with a longer exercise duration (0.9 min (P=.026 and a higher percentage increase in FEV1 at 15 and 45 minutes postexercise (3.3 ± 3.7% (P=.013 and 5.1 ± 7.5% (P=.047, resp. compared to Placebo-TENS. We concluded that Acu-TENS was associated with a higher postexercise FEV1 and a prolongation of submaximal exercise.

  17. Comparison of the Amount of IL-1ß in Periodontally Involved Patients’ Saliva and Healthy Subjects

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    Azizi A.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Periodontitis is a chronic multi-factorial infectious disease,characterized by irreversible destruction of collagen fibers and other matrix constituents of the gingival tissues, periodontal ligament and resorption of the alveolar bone around the teeth with formation of periodontal pocket. Cytokines such as IL-1β are one of the components of host’s immune system and seem to play an important role in periodontitisPurpose: The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of IL-1β as a per-inflammatory cytokine in the saliva of periodontally involved patients (generalized aggressive periodontitis and mild to moderate periodontitis and subjects with normal periodontium.Materials and Method: In this experimental study, unstimulated saliva of 24 patients with mild to moderate chronic periodontitis, 15 patients with aggressive periodontitis, and 23 subjects with healthy periodontium was collected. The concentration of IL-1β was measured in the saliva samples by ELISA. Mann-Whitney test was used for analysis of data.Results: The results of this study showed that there was a significant difference between mean level of IL-1ß in generalized aggressive periodontitis vs. control groups and chronic mild to moderate periodontitis vs. control groups ( p <0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that the mean concentration of IL-1ß in the saliva of periodontally involved patients was greater than that of healthy subjects and this cytokine can be agood marker for determining the status of periodontal tissues.

  18. Body position effects on EMG activity of sternocleidomastoid and masseter muscles in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, R; Palazzi, C; Ormeño, G; Giannini, R; Verdugo, F; Valenzuela, S; Santander, H

    1998-04-01

    This study was conducted in order to determine the effects of body position on integrated electromyographic (IEMG) activity of sternocleidomastoid and masseter muscles in 20 healthy subjects. EMG recordings at rest and during swallowing of saliva and maximal voluntary clenching were performed by placing surface electrodes on the sternocleidomastoid and masseter muscles (contralateral to the habitual side of sleeping of each subject), in the following body positions: standing, seated, supine, and lateral decubitus position. Significant higher EMG activities were recorded in the sternocleidomastoid muscle in the lateral decubitus position, whereas significant lower EMG activities were recorded in the masseter muscle in the supine position. This finding supports the idea that there may exist a differential modulation of the motor neuron pools of the sternocleidomastoid and masseter muscles of peripheral and/or central origin. Significant differences in the EMG pattern as well as in the levels of EMG activities upon variations in body positions were observed between healthy subjects and patients with myogenic craniomandibular dysfunction reported by Palazzi, et al.

  19. Plasma concentrations of disodium cromoglycate after various inhalation methods in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Y; Muraki, K; Fujitaka, M; Sakura, N; Ueda, K

    1999-01-01

    Aims To compare the plasma concentrations of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) following various inhalation procedures in healthy volunteers. Methods Nine healthy subjects inhaled 2 mg of aerosol, 20 mg of nebuliser solution only, 20 mg of nebuliser solution mixed with isotonic saline, or 20 mg of nebuliser solution mixed with saline and procaterol, a β2-adenoceptor agonist, on separate occasions 2–3 weeks apart. Plasma concentrations of DSCG were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.). Results The peak plasma concentrations of DSCG were 1.5±0.7 (range 0.4–2.4) ng ml−1 in the aerosol group, 8.8±6.2 (range 5.3–19.9) ng ml−1 in the nebuliser solution only group, 17.2±16.3 (range 5.0–38.6) ng ml−1 in the nebuliser solution plus isotonic saline group, and 24.5±11.9 (range 10.2–44.9) ng ml−1 in the nebuliser solution plus saline and procaterol group. Thus subjects who used the nebuliser had markedly higher plasma concentrations of DSCG than subjects who used the aerosol inhaler. Conclusions These findings may have important implications for the evaluation of inhalation treatment with DSCG for bronchial asthma. PMID:10417491

  20. Diurnal and seasonal variation of the brain serotonin system in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Granville J; Schain, Martin; Almeida, Rita; Lundberg, Johan; Cselényi, Zsolt; Borg, Jacqueline; Varrone, Andrea; Farde, Lars; Cervenka, Simon

    2015-05-15

    The mammalian circadian clock underlies both diurnal and seasonal changes in physiology, and its function is thought to be disturbed in both seasonal and non-seasonal depression. In humans, molecular imaging studies have reported seasonal changes in the serotonin system. Despite the role of the circadian clock in generating seasonal physiological changes, however, diurnal variation of serotonin receptors and transporters has never been directly studied in humans. We used positron emission tomography to examine diurnal and seasonal changes in the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor and serotonin transporter in two large cohorts of healthy male subjects, employing a cross-sectional design. In 56 subjects measured with [(11)C]WAY-100635, we observed diurnal increases in the availability of 5-HT1A receptors in the cortex. In 40 subjects measured with [(11)C]MADAM, a decrease in 5-HTT was observed in the midbrain across the day. We also found seasonal changes in the 5-HT1A receptor in serotonin projection regions, with higher availability on days with a longer duration of daylight. Our observation that serotonin receptor and transporter levels may change across the day in humans is corroborated by experimental research in rodents. These findings have important implications for understanding the relationship between the circadian and serotonin systems in both the healthy brain and in affective disorders, as well as for the design of future molecular imaging studies.

  1. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single and multiple doses of prasugrel in healthy native Chinese subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-min CUI; Zi-ning WANG; Xiao-wen CHEN; Hui-lin ZHANG; Xia ZHAO; Ying ZHOU

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To characterize the pharmacokinetics (PKs),pharmacodynamics (PDs),and tolerability of different dose regimens of prasugrel in healthy Chinese subjects.Methods:This was a single-centered,open-label,parallel-design study.Subjects received a single loading dose (LD) of prasugrel followed by once-daily maintenance dose (MD) for 10 d.They were enrolled into 3 groups:60 mg LD/10 mg MD; 30 mg LD/7.5 mg MD; 30 mg LD/5 mg MD.Blood samples were collected after the first and last dose.The serum concentration of the active metabolite of prasugrel was determined using a LC/MS/MS method.Platelet aggregation was assessed using the VerifyNow-P2Y12 assay.Results:Thirty-six healthy native Chinese subjects (19 males) aged 18-45 were enrolled; mean age and body weight were similar across the treatment groups (n=12 for each).The metabolite AUC0-4 and Cmax increased dose-proportionally across the dose range of 5 mgto 60 mg.The median Tmax was 0.5 h in all groups.The PD parameters,indicated bythe inhibition of ADp-induced platelet aggregation,were met more rapidly in the 60 mg group than the 30 mg group after the LD (94%-98%).This high degree of inhibition of platelet aggregation was maintained following the 10 mg MD (87%-90%) and was lower in the 7.5 mg and 5 mg MD groups (79%-83% and 64%-67%,respectively).Prasugrel was well tolerated in healthy Chinese subjects for single doses up to 60 mg and a MD of 10 mg for 10 d.Conclusion:The PKs and PDs of the active metabolite of prasugrel were similar to those in Chinese subjects reported by a previous bridging study,which demonstrated that the exposure to the active metabolite in Chinese subjects was higher than in Caucasians.

  2. The effect of sampling and storage on the fecal microbiota composition in healthy and diseased subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyta I Tedjo

    Full Text Available Large-scale cohort studies are currently being designed to investigate the human microbiome in health and disease. Adequate sampling strategies are required to limit bias due to shifts in microbial communities during sampling and storage. Therefore, we examined the impact of different sampling and storage conditions on the stability of fecal microbial communities in healthy and diseased subjects. Fecal samples from 10 healthy controls, 10 irritable bowel syndrome and 8 inflammatory bowel disease patients were collected on site, aliquoted immediately after defecation and stored at -80 °C, -20 °C for 1 week, at +4°C or room temperature for 24 hours. Fecal transport swabs (FecalSwab, Copan were collected and stored for 48-72 hours at room temperature. We used pyrosequencing of the 16S gene to investigate the stability of microbial communities. Alpha diversity did not differ between all storage methods and -80 °C, except for the fecal swabs. UPGMA clustering and principal coordinate analysis showed significant clustering by test subject (p < 0.001 but not by storage method. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and (unweighted UniFrac showed a significant higher distance between fecal swabs and -80 °C versus the other methods and -80 °C samples (p < 0.009. The relative abundance of Ruminococcus and Enterobacteriaceae did not differ between the storage methods versus -80 °C, but was higher in fecal swabs (p < 0.05. Storage up to 24 hours (at +4 °C or room temperature or freezing at -20 °C did not significantly alter the fecal microbial community structure compared to direct freezing of samples from healthy subjects and patients with gastrointestinal disorders.

  3. Feasibility of intercostal blood flow measurement by echo-Doppler technique in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bisschop, Claire; Montaudon, Michel; Glénet, Stéphane; Guénard, Hervé

    2017-05-01

    Intercostal artery blood flow supplies the external and internal intercostal muscles, which are inspiratory and expiratory muscles. Intercostal blood flow measured by the echo-Doppler (ED) technique has not previously been reported in humans. This study describes the feasibility of this measurement during free and loaded breathing in healthy subjects. Systolic, diastolic and mean blood flows were measured in the eighth dorsal intercostal space during free and loaded breathing using the ED technique. Flows were calculated as the product of the artery intraluminal surface and blood velocity. Ten healthy subjects (42 ± 13·6 years) were included. Integrated electromyogram (iEMG), arterial pressure, cardiac frequency and breathing pattern were also recorded. Mean blood flows were 3·5 ± 1·2 ml min(-1) at rest, 6 ± 2·6 ml min(-1) while breathing through a combined inspiratory and expiratory resistance and 4·0 ± 1·3 ml min(-1) 1 min after unloading. Diastolic blood flow was about one-third the systolic blood flow. The changes in blood flows were consistent with those in iEMG. No change in mean blood flow was observed between inspiration and expiration, suggesting a balance in the perfusion of external and internal muscles during breathing. In conclusion, ED is a feasible technique for non-invasive, real-time measurement of intercostal blood flow in humans. In healthy subjects, mean blood flow appeared tightly matched to iEMG activity. This technique may provide a way to assess the vascular adaptations induced by diseases in which respiratory work is increased or cardiac blood flow altered. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Telomere length in subjects with schizophrenia, their unaffected siblings and healthy controls: Evidence of accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czepielewski, Leticia Sanguinetti; Massuda, Raffael; Panizzutti, Bruna; da Rosa, Eduarda Dias; de Lucena, David; Macêdo, Danielle; Grun, Lucas Kich; Barbé-Tuana, Florencia María; Gama, Clarissa Severino

    2016-07-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is associated with broad burden. The clinical manifestations of SZ are related to pathophysiological alterations similar to what is seen in normal aging. Our aim was to evaluate the differences in telomere length (TL), a biomarker of cellular aging, in subjects with SZ (n=36), unaffected siblings (SB, n=36) and healthy controls (HC, n=47). SZ had shorter TL compared to HC, but no difference was found in SB comparing to SZ. These findings indicate that a pathological accelerated aging profile could be present in the course of SZ and further studies are needed to confirm TL as potential endophenotype, especially in at risk populations.

  5. Oxidised fish oil does not influence established markers of oxidative stress in healthy human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottestad, Inger; Vogt, Gjermund; Retterstøl, Kjetil

    2012-01-01

    8-iso-PGF2a; plasma levels of 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and a-tocopherol; serum high sensitive C-reactive protein; or activity of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes. A significant increase in plasma level of EPA þ DHA was observed in both fish oil groups, but no significant...... markers of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and inflammation, and the level of plasma n-3 FA after intake of oxidised fish oil. In a double-blinded randomised controlled study, healthy subjects (aged 18–50 years, n 54) were assigned into one of three groups receiving capsules containing either 8 g...

  6. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Megumi Kido; Akihiro Asakawa; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K.; Toshio Takaoka; Aya Tajima; Shigeru Takaoka; Yumiko Yoshizaki; Kayu Okutsu; Kazunori T. Takamine; Yoshihiro Sameshima; Akio Inui

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2) consumed three different types ...

  7. Effects of kinesthetic haptic feedback on standing stability of young healthy subjects and stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad Raheel; Byun, Ha-Young; Oh, Min-Kyun; Yoon, Jungwon

    2015-03-13

    Haptic control is a useful therapeutic option in rehabilitation featuring virtual reality interaction. As with visual and vibrotactile biofeedback, kinesthetic haptic feedback may assist in postural control, and can achieve balance control. Kinesthetic haptic feedback in terms of body sway can be delivered via a commercially available haptic device and can enhance the balance stability of both young healthy subjects and stroke patients. Our system features a waist-attached smartphone, software running on a computer (PC), and a dedicated Phantom Omni® device. Young healthy participants performed balance tasks after assumption of each of four distinct postures for 30 s (one foot on the ground; the Tandem Romberg stance; one foot on foam; and the Tandem Romberg stance on foam) with eyes closed. Patient eyes were not closed and assumption of the Romberg stance (only) was tested during a balance task 25 s in duration. An Android application running continuously on the smartphone sent mediolateral (ML) and anteroposterior (AP) tilt angles to a PC, which generated kinesthetic haptic feedback via Phantom Omni®. A total of 16 subjects, 8 of whom were young healthy and 8 of whom had suffered stroke, participated in the study. Post-experiment data analysis was performed using MATLAB®. Mean Velocity Displacement (MVD), Planar Deviation (PD), Mediolateral Trajectory (MLT) and Anteroposterior Trajectory (APT) parameters were analyzed to measure reduction in body sway. Our kinesthetic haptic feedback system was effective to reduce postural sway in young healthy subjects regardless of posture and the condition of the substrate (the ground) and to improve MVD and PD in stroke patients who assumed the Romberg stance. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed that kinesthetic haptic feedback significantly reduced body sway in both categories of subjects. Kinesthetic haptic feedback can be implemented using a commercial haptic device and a smartphone. Intuitive balance cues were

  8. Effects of extreme endurance running on cardiac autonomic nervous modulation in healthy trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztajzel, Juan; Atchou, Guillaume; Adamec, Richard; Bayes de Luna, Antonio

    2006-01-15

    This study examined spectral components of heart rate variability (HRV) during endurance mountain running in 8 healthy trained subjects. The data showed that during this type of mountain running, all spectral components of HRV may severely decrease, particularly very-low-frequency and low-frequency (LF) power, suggesting extreme activation of the sympathetic nervous system. The physiologic response of the heart in this situation was the downregulation of the beta-adrenergic receptors to protect myocardial function, with a subsequent increase in parasympathetic tone, reflected by an increase in high-frequency (HF) power and a decrease in the LF/HF ratio.

  9. Impact of bolus volume on small intestinal intra-luminal impedance in healthy subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nam; Q; Nguyen; Laura; K; Bryant; Carly; M; Burgstad; Robert; J; Fraser; Daniel; Sifrim; Richard; H; Holloway

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To assess the impact of bolus volume on the characteristics of small intestinal (SI) impedance signals.METHODS: Concurrent SI manometry-impedance measurements were performed on 12 healthy volunteers to assess the pattern of proximal jejunal fluid bolus movement over a 14 cm-segment.Each subject was given 34 boluses of normal saline (volume from 1 to 30 mL) via the feeding tube placed immediately above the proximal margin of the studied segment.A bolus-induced impedance event occurred if there was > 12%...

  10. A comparative study of pulse rate variability and heart rate variability in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jih-Sen; Lu, Wan-An; Wu, Kung-Tai; Liu, Margaret; Chen, Gau-Yang; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2012-04-01

    Both heart rate variability (HRV) and pulse rate variability (PRV) are noninvasive means for the assessment of autonomic nervous control of the heart. However, it is not settled whether or not the PRV obtained from either hand can be the surrogate of HRV. The HRV measures obtained from electrocardiographic signals and the PRV measures obtained from the pulse waves recorded from the index fingers of both hands were compared in normal subjects by using linear regression analysis and Bland and Altman method. Highly significant correlations (P < 0.001, 0.89 < r < 1.0) were found between all HRV measures and the corresponding PRV measures of both hands. However, there were insufficient agreements in some measures between pairwise comparisons among HRV, right PRV and left PRV except heart rate and ultra-low frequency power (ULFP). The PRV of either hand is close to, but not the same as the HRV in healthy subjects. The HRV, right PRV and left PRV are not surrogates of one another in normal subjects except heart rate and ULFP. Since HRV is generally accepted as the standard method for the assessment of the autonomic nervous modulation of a subject, the PRV of either hand may not be suitable for the assessment of the cardiac autonomic nervous modulation of the subject.

  11. Pharmacokinetics and safety study of posaconazole intravenous solution administered peripherally to healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersemaekers, Wendy M; van Iersel, Thijs; Nassander, Ulla; O'Mara, Edward; Waskin, Hetty; Caceres, Maria; van Iersel, Marlou L P S

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of a posaconazole i.v. (intravenous) solution. This was a single-center, 2-part, randomized, rising single- and multiple-dose study in healthy adults. In part 1, subjects received 0 (vehicle), 50, 100, 200, 250, or 300 mg posaconazole in a single dose i.v. by 30-min peripheral infusion (6 cohorts of 12 subjects each [9 active and 3 placebo], making a total of 72 subjects). Blood samples were collected until 168 h postdose. In part 2, subjects were to receive 2 peripheral infusions at a 12-h interval on day 1 followed by once-daily infusion for 9 days. However, part 2 was terminated early because of high rates of infusion site reactions with multiple dosing at the same infusion site. The pharmacokinetics results for part 1 (n=45 subjects) showed that the mean posaconazole exposure (area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity [AUC0-∞]) ranged from 4,890 to 46,400 ng · h/ml (range of coefficient of variation values, 26 to 50). The dose-proportionality slope estimate (90% confidence interval) for AUC0-∞ was 1.30 (1.19 to 1.41), indicating a greater-than-dose-proportional increase. The data for safety in part 1 show that 29/72 subjects had ≥1 adverse event. Infusion site reactions were reported in 2/9 vehicle subjects, 0/18 placebo subjects, and 7/45 i.v. posaconazole subjects. The data for safety in part 2 show that infusion site reactions were reported in 1/4 (25%) placebo subjects, 3/9 (33%) vehicle control subjects, and 4/5 (80%) i.v. posaconazole (100 mg) subjects (3 posaconazole recipients subsequently developed thrombophlebitis and were discontinued from treatment). In conclusion, the posaconazole i.v. solution showed a greater-than-dose-proportional increase in exposure, primarily at doses below 200 mg. When administered peripherally at the same infusion site, multiple dosing of i.v. posaconazole led to unacceptably high rates of infusion site reactions. Intravenous

  12. Modeling of the parathyroid hormone response after calcium intake in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae Eun; Jeon, Sangil; Lee, Jongtae; Han, Seunghoon; Yim, Dong-Seok

    2014-06-01

    Plasma ionized calcium (Ca(2+)) concentrations are tightly regulated in the body and maintained within a narrow range; thus it is challenging to quantify calcium absorption under normal physiologic conditions. This study aimed to develop a mechanistic model for the parathyroid hormone (PTH) response after calcium intake and indirectly compare the difference in oral calcium absorption from PTH responses. PTH and Ca(2+) concentrations were collected from 24 subjects from a clinical trial performed to evaluate the safety and calcium absorption of Geumjin Thermal Water in comparison with calcium carbonate tablets in healthy subjects. Indirect response models (NONMEM Ver. 7.2.0) were fitted to observed Ca(2+) and PTH data, respectively, in a manner that absorbed but unobserved Ca(2+) inhibits the secretion of PTH. Without notable changes in Ca(2+) levels, PTH responses were modeled and used as a marker for the extent of calcium absorption.

  13. The effects of scraping therapy on local temperature and blood perfusion volume in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qin-Yan; Yang, Jin-Sheng; Zhu, Bing; Yang, Li; Wang, Ying-Ying; Gao, Xin-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Objective. We aim to study the therapeutic effects of scraping by investigating the changes of temperature and local blood perfusion volume in healthy subjects after scraping stimulation, and to explore the mechanism of scraping stimulation from the points of microcirculation and energy metabolism. Methods. Twenty-three health subjects were included in this study. Local blood perfusion volume and body surface temperature was detected at 5 min before scraping stimulation, 0, 15, 30, 60 and 90 min after scraping using Laser Doppler imager and infrared thermograph. Results. Significant increase was noted in the blood perfusion volume in the scraping area within 90 minutes compared to the baseline level and non-scraping area (P scraping area, an increase of body temperature with an average of 1°C was observed after scraping stimulation (P Scraping can significantly improve the blood perfusion volume and increase the temperature in the scraping area, promoting the local blood circulation and energy metabolism.

  14. Sleep electroencephalography and heart rate variability interdependence amongst healthy subjects and insomnia/schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro-Vargas, Ramiro; Schilling, Claudia; Schredl, Michael; Cvetkovic, Dean

    2016-01-01

    The quantification of interdependencies within autonomic nervous system has gained increasing importance to characterise healthy and psychiatric disordered subjects. The present work introduces a biosignal processing approach, suggesting a computational resource to estimate coherent or synchronised interactions as an eventual supportive aid in the diagnosis of primary insomnia and schizophrenia pathologies. By deploying linear, nonlinear and statistical methods upon 25 electroencephalographic and electrocardiographic overnight sleep recordings, the assessment of cross-correlation, wavelet coherence and [Formula: see text]:[Formula: see text] phase synchronisation is focused on tracking discerning features amongst the clinical cohorts. Our results indicate that certain neuronal oscillations interact with cardiac power bands in distinctive ways responding to standardised sleep stages and patient groups, which promotes the hypothesis of subtle functional dynamics between neuronal assembles and (para)sympathetic activity subject to pathophysiological conditions.

  15. The Gut Microbiota of Healthy Chilean Subjects Reveals a High Abundance of the Phylum Verrucomicrobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka Fujio-Vejar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota is currently recognized as an important factor regulating the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract and influencing the energetic metabolism of the host as well as its immune and central nervous systems. Determining the gut microbiota composition of healthy subjects is therefore necessary to establish a baseline allowing the detection of microbiota alterations in pathologic conditions. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to characterize the gut microbiota of healthy Chilean subjects using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Fecal samples were collected from 41 young, asymptomatic, normal weight volunteers (age: 25 ± 4 years; ♀:48.8%; BMI: 22.5 ± 1.6 kg/m2 with low levels of plasma (IL6 and hsCRP and colonic (fecal calprotectin inflammatory markers. The V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of bacterial DNA was amplified and sequenced using MiSeq Illumina system. 109,180 ± 13,148 sequences/sample were obtained, with an α-diversity of 3.86 ± 0.37. The dominant phyla were Firmicutes (43.6 ± 9.2% and Bacteroidetes (41.6 ± 13.1%, followed by Verrucomicrobia (8.5 ± 10.4%, Proteobacteria (2.8 ± 4.8%, Actinobacteria (1.8 ± 3.9% and Euryarchaeota (1.4 ± 2.7%. The core microbiota representing the genera present in all the subjects included Bacteroides, Prevotella, Parabacteroides (phylum Bacteroidetes, Phascolarctobacterium, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus, Lachnospira, Oscillospira, Blautia, Dorea, Roseburia, Coprococcus, Clostridium, Streptococcus (phylum Firmicutes, Akkermansia (phylum Verrucomicrobia, and Collinsella (phylum Actinobacteria. Butyrate-producing genera including Faecalibacterium, Roseburia, Coprococcus, and Oscillospira were detected. The family Methanobacteriaceae was reported in 83% of the subjects and Desulfovibrio, the most representative sulfate-reducing genus, in 76%. The microbiota of the Chilean individuals significantly differed from those of Papua New Guinea and the Matses ethnic group and was closer to

  16. The Effects of Volitional Preemptive Abdominal Contraction on Postural Control Responses in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Vittal R; Sawyer, Steven F; James, C Roger; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Hooper, Troy L; Sizer, Phillip S

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effect of volitional preemptive abdominal contraction by using an abdominal bracing maneuver (ABM) on postural control responses. A within-subjects, repeated-measure, experimental design. Laboratory. Sixty-five healthy subjects between 18 and 50 years of age. Subjects performed ABM alternating with No-ABM during 2 rounds of 2 Neurocom computed dynamic posturography tests: the Motor Control Test (MCT) and conditions 1 (eyes open), 2 (eyes closed), and 5 (eyes closed, sway-referenced support) of the Sensory Organization Test (SOT). (1) MCT Response Latency (milliseconds) and Response Scaling (magnitude of active postural correction) and (2) SOT Equilibrium Scores and 2-Dimensional Sway (°/second), and SOT Movement Strategy, which measure postural sway and movement strategies (ankle versus hip strategy), respectively. The use of ABM (versus No-ABM) produced: (1) a small but statistically significant decrease in SOT Equilibrium Score for condition 2 (-1.0%; P = .004); (2) an increase in SOT 2-Dimensional Sway (°/second) during conditions 1 (16.9%; P = .0001) and 2 (15.0%; P = .0001); (3) a small decrease in SOT Movement Strategy scores during condition 1 (-0.5%; P = .001) and condition 2 (-1.0%; P = .017); and (4) a reduction of MCT Response Latency by 3 milliseconds (-2.1%; P = .005) and reduction of Response Scaling by 0.33°/second (-9.2%; P = .001). Individuals can incorporate the ABM without substantively altering postural control. Although selected SOT and MCT scores exhibited small decreases in postural response integrity, those outcomes did not reflect functionally meaningful changes. These findings can enhance clinicians' confidence in prescribing the ABM as a means to protectively stabilize the spine and potentially prevent injury in healthy subjects without concern for reducing postural control, especially during more complex postural perturbations that introduce sensory conflict. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine

  17. Pattern of neuropathic pain induced by topical capsaicin application in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötsch, Jörn; Dimova, Violeta; Hermens, Hanneke; Zimmermann, Michael; Geisslinger, Gerd; Oertel, Bruno G; Ultsch, Alfred

    2015-03-01

    Human experimental pain models are widely used to study drug effects under controlled conditions, but they require further optimization to better reflect clinical pain conditions. To this end, we measured experimentally induced pain in 110 (46 men) healthy volunteers. The quantitative sensory testing (QST) battery (German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain) was applied on untreated ("control") and topical capsaicin-hypersensitized ("test") skin. Z-transformed QST-parameter values obtained at the test site were compared with corresponding values published from 1236 patients with neuropathic pain using Bayesian statistics. Subjects were clustered for the resemblance of their QST pattern to neuropathic pain. Although QST parameter values from the untreated site agreed with reference values, several QST parameters acquired at the test site treated with topical capsaicin deviated from normal. These deviations resembled in 0 to 7 parameters of the QST pattern observed in patients with neuropathic pain. Higher degrees (50%-60%) of resemblance to neuropathic QST pattern were obtained in 18% of the subjects. Inclusion in the respective clusters was predictable at a cross-validated accuracy of 86.9% by a classification and regression tree comprising 3 QST parameters (mechanical pain sensitivity, wind-up ratio, and z-transformed thermal sensory limen) from the control sites. Thus, we found that topical capsaicin partly induced the desired clinical pattern of neuropathic pain in a preselectable subgroup of healthy subjects to a degree that fuels expectations that experimental pain models can be optimized toward mimicking clinical pain. The subjects, therefore, qualify for enrollment in analgesic drug studies that use highly selected cohorts to enhance predictivity for clinical analgesia.

  18. Similar to adiponectin, serum levels of osteoprotegerin are associated with obesity in healthy subjects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ashley, David T

    2011-07-01

    An increase in serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the severity of vascular calcification, and coronary artery disease. Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but little is known about the relationship between OPG and obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine if changes in body mass index (BMI) and insulin sensitivity influence circulating OPG in healthy subjects. A total of 100 subjects (36 lean, 41 overweight, and 23 obese) with normal glucose tolerance, blood pressure, and electrocardiogram stress test result volunteered for this study. Insulin sensitivity was estimated using a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test with oral glucose insulin sensitivity analysis. Osteoprotegerin, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL),soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κβ ligand (sRANKL), and adiponectin were analyzed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Osteoprotegerin (P < .01) and adiponectin (P < .001) were significantly decreased in the obese compared with lean subjects. There was no significant difference between BMI categories for TRAIL or sRANKL. Controlling for age and sex, there was a significant correlation between OPG and adiponectin (r = 0.391, P < .001), BMI (r = -0.331, P < .001), waist circumference (r = -0.268, P < .01), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r = -0.222, P < .05), and oral glucose insulin sensitivity (r = 0.221, P < .05). Both OPG and adiponectin were negatively correlated with body weight, BMI, waist circumference, and fasting plasma insulin while being positively correlated with insulin sensitivity (P < .05). Controlling for age, sex, and BMI, TRAIL was positively related to fat mass (r = 0.373, P < .001) and waist circumference (r = 0.257, P < .05). In contrast to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, circulating OPG is lower in obese, but otherwise healthy subjects and is positively correlated

  19. Relationship between jaw opening force and hyoid bone dynamics in healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, Hiromichi; Tohara, Haruka; Matsubara, Mariko; Inokuchi, Nobuhiro; Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Nakane, Ayako; Wakasugi, Yoko; Minakuchi, Shunsuke

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between jaw opening force and hyoid bone dynamics and resting position in elderly individuals based on gender. Subjects were 36 healthy elderly individuals aged ≥65 years without dysphagia (16 men and 20 women; mean age 75.5 years, range 65-88 years). Videofluorographic images during the swallowing of 10 mL of 40% (w/v) barium sulfate were obtained and the degrees of anterior, superior, and hypotenuse displacements of the hyoid bone and maximum/resting hyoid position were evaluated. Jaw opening force was measured three times using a jaw opening force sthenometer; the mean of these three measurements was used for analysis. In men, there was a positive correlation between jaw opening force and resting hyoid position and negative correlations among all the degrees of anterior, superior, and hypotenuse displacements of the hyoid bone. In women, there was no statistically significant correlation between jaw opening force and any of the measurement items. There was no statistically significant correlation between jaw opening force and maximum hyoid position in either men or women. Our findings suggest that low jaw opening force leads to low resting hyoid position only in elderly men, and a lower hyoid position in healthy elderly men results in a larger total amount of hyoid displacement during swallowing. Moreover, a maximum hyoid position in healthy individuals of either gender does not differ depending on their jaw opening force.

  20. The effects of concurrent cognitive tasks on postural sway in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Mujdeci

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Keeping balance of the upright stance is a highly practiced daily task for healthy adults and is effectively performed without overt attentional control in most. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of concurrent cognitive tasks on postural sway in healthy participants. METHODS: This was a prospective study. 20 healthy volunteer subjects were included. The cognitive and balance tasks were performed separately and then, concurrently. Postural control task consisted of 6 conditions (C of the Sensory Organization Test. The cognitive task consisted of digit rehearsal task of varying presentation and varying levels of difficulty. RESULTS: A statistically significant difference was noted between dual task and no task for C1, C2, C3 and C4 Sensory Organization Test scores ( p 0.05. CONCLUSION: During dual task, increase has been determined in postural sway for C1, C2, C3 and C4 for all presentation modes and difficulty levels of the cognitive tasks.

  1. Vaccination of healthy subjects and autoantibodies: from mice through dogs to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplak, N; Avcin, T

    2009-11-01

    Vaccination against pathogenic microorganisms is one of the major achievements of modern medicine, but due to an increasing number of reports of adverse reactions the vaccination procedure has induced also considerable debate. It is well known that certain infections are involved in triggering the production of autoantibodies, which could lead to autoimmune adverse reactions in genetically predisposed subjects. Based on these findings it was assumed that vaccinations might induce similar autoimmune reactions. At present there is no clear-cut evidence that vaccinations are associated with overt autoimmune diseases but it has been demonstrated that in genetically predisposed persons vaccination can trigger the production of autoantibodies and autoimmune adverse reactions. The first studies investigating the production of autoantibodies following vaccination were done in dogs and mice. Several studies investigated the production of autoantibodies following vaccination in patients with autoimmune diseases, but there are only limited data on the autoimmune responses after vaccinations in apparently healthy humans. This review summarizes current evidence on the vaccination-induced autoantibodies in apparently healthy subjects including studies in animals and humans.

  2. The influence of specific training on trunk muscle recruitment patterns in healthy subjects during stabilization exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Veerle K; Coorevits, Pascal L; Bouche, Katie G; Mahieu, Nele N; Vanderstraeten, Guy G; Danneels, Lieven A

    2007-08-01

    Low back pain is a major problem involving high medical costs, therefore effective prevention strategies are essential. Stabilization exercises seem to facilitate the neuromuscular control of the lumbar spine and may be useful in prevention programs. To investigate whether specific lumbar stabilization training has an effect on muscle recruitment patterns in a healthy population, in the present study 30 subjects were recruited to perform two types of testing exercises, i.e. bridging exercises and exercises in four-point kneeling, both before and after training. Surface electromyographic data of different abdominal and back muscles were obtained. After training, analysis of the relative muscle activity levels (percentage of maximal voluntary isometric contraction) showed a higher activity of the local (segmental-stabilizing) abdominal muscles, but not of the local back muscles; minimal changes in global (torque-producing) muscle activity also occurred. Analysis of the local/global relative muscle activity ratios revealed higher ratios during all exercises after training, although not all differences were significant. These results indicate that muscle recruitment patterns can be changed in healthy subjects by means of a training program that focuses on neuromuscular control. Additional studies are needed to evaluate this type of training as a prevention strategy.

  3. High tea and vegetable consumption is associated with low ADMA generation in older healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goralczyk, Tadeusz; Tisonczyk, Joanna; Fijorek, Kamil; Undas, Anetta

    2012-08-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has been recognized as a marker of cardiovascular risk. We sought to investigate whether consumption of tea, coffee, fruit or vegetables is associated with ADMA. In 148 consecutive apparently healthy subjects (104 men and 44 women aged 40 to 70), daily tea, coffee, fruit and vegetable consumption was ascertained by questionnaire. Plasma ADMA, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), and l-arginine levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Median tea and coffee consumption was 2 cups/d, while vegetable and fruit intake was 152 (120-179)g/d and 120 (108-134)g/d, respectively. Median plasma ADMA, SDMA and arginine were 0.47 (0.43-0.53)μmol/L, 0.59 (0.54-0.66)μmol/L and 86 (68-101)μmol/L, respectively. ADMA correlated inversely with tea (r = -0.70, P vegetable consumption (r = -0.50, P fruit consumption was found. ADMA correlated positively with coffee intake (r = 0.37, P < .0001), although these associations were less potent after adjustment for dietary factors. Higher tea and vegetable intake is associated with lower plasma ADMA levels in healthy middle-aged subjects.

  4. Effects of visual cortex activation on the nociceptive blink reflex in healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona L Sava

    Full Text Available Bright light can cause excessive visual discomfort, referred to as photophobia. The precise mechanisms linking luminance to the trigeminal nociceptive system supposed to mediate this discomfort are not known. To address this issue in healthy human subjects we modulated differentially visual cortex activity by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS or flash light stimulation, and studied the effect on supraorbital pain thresholds and the nociceptive-specific blink reflex (nBR. Low frequency rTMS that inhibits the underlying cortex, significantly decreased pain thresholds, increased the 1st nBR block ipsi- and contralaterally and potentiated habituation contralaterally. After high frequency or sham rTMS over the visual cortex, and rMS over the right greater occipital nerve we found no significant change. By contrast, excitatory flash light stimulation increased pain thresholds, decreased the 1st nBR block of ipsi- and contralaterally and increased habituation contralaterally. Our data demonstrate in healthy subjects a functional relation between the visual cortex and the trigeminal nociceptive system, as assessed by the nociceptive blink reflex. The results argue in favour of a top-down inhibitory pathway from the visual areas to trigemino-cervical nociceptors. We postulate that in normal conditions this visuo-trigeminal inhibitory pathway may avoid disturbance of vision by too frequent blinking and that hypoactivity of the visual cortex for pathological reasons may promote headache and photophobia.

  5. Evaluating fMRI methods for assessing hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baciu, Monica [Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition, UMR 5105 CNRS, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, F38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)]. E-mail: mbaciu@upmf-grenoble.fr; Juphard, Alexandra [Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition, UMR 5105 CNRS, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, F38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Cousin, Emilie [Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition, UMR 5105 CNRS, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, F38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Bas, Jean Francois Le [Unite IRM, CHU Grenoble (France)

    2005-08-01

    We evaluated two methods for quantifying the hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects, by using a rhyme detection (deciding whether couple of words rhyme) and a word fluency (generating words starting with a given letter) task. One of methods called 'flip method' (FM) was based on the direct statistical comparison between hemispheres' activity. The second one, the classical lateralization indices method (LIM), was based on calculating lateralization indices by taking into account the number of activated pixels within hemispheres. The main difference between methods is the statistical assessment of the inter-hemispheric difference: while FM shows if the difference between hemispheres' activity is statistically significant, LIM shows only that if there is a difference between hemispheres. The robustness of LIM and FM was assessed by calculating correlation coefficients between LIs obtained with each of these methods and manual lateralization indices MLI obtained with Edinburgh inventory. Our results showed significant correlation between LIs provided by each method and the MIL, suggesting that both methods are robust for quantifying hemispheric dominance for language in healthy subjects. In the present study we also evaluated the effect of spatial normalization, smoothing and 'clustering' (NSC) on the intra-hemispheric location of activated regions and inter-hemispheric asymmetry of the activation. Our results have shown that NSC did not affect the hemispheric specialization but increased the value of the inter-hemispheric difference.

  6. Population pharmacokinetic model for cancer chemoprevention with sulindac in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Alexander K; Mandrekar, Sumithra J; Ziegler, Katie L Allen; Carlson, Elsa C; Szabo, Eva; Ames, Mathew M; Boring, Daniel; Limburg, Paul J; Reid, Joel M

    2013-04-01

    Sulindac is a prescription-based non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that continues to be actively investigated as a candidate cancer chemoprevention agent. To further current understanding of sulindac bioavailability, metabolism, and disposition, we developed a population pharmacokinetic model for the parent compound and its active metabolites, sulindac sulfide, and exisulind. This analysis was based on data from 24 healthy subjects who participated in a bioequivalence study comparing two formulations of sulindac. The complex disposition of sulindac and its metabolites was described by a seven-compartment model featuring enterohepatic recirculation and is the first reported population pharmacokinetic model for sulindac. The derived model was used to explore effects of clinical variables on sulindac pharmacokinetics and revealed that body weight, creatinine clearance, and gender were significantly correlated with pharmacokinetic parameters. Moreover, the model quantifies the relative bioavailability of the sulindac formulations and illustrates the utility of population pharmacokinetics in bioequivalence assessment. This novel population pharmacokinetic model provides new insights regarding the factors that may affect the pharmacokinetics of sulindac and the exisulind and sulindac sulfide metabolites in generally healthy subjects, which have implications for future chemoprevention trial design for this widely available agent.

  7. Lack of habituation of evoked visual potentials in analytic information processing style: evidence in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonfiglio, Marzia; Toscano, M; Puledda, F; Avanzini, G; Di Clemente, L; Di Sabato, F; Di Piero, V

    2015-03-01

    Habituation is considered one of the most basic mechanisms of learning. Habituation deficit to several sensory stimulations has been defined as a trait of migraine brain and also observed in other disorders. On the other hand, analytic information processing style is characterized by the habit of continually evaluating stimuli and it has been associated with migraine. We investigated a possible correlation between lack of habituation of evoked visual potentials and analytic cognitive style in healthy subjects. According to Sternberg-Wagner self-assessment inventory, 15 healthy volunteers (HV) with high analytic score and 15 HV with high global score were recruited. Both groups underwent visual evoked potentials recordings after psychological evaluation. We observed significant lack of habituation in analytical individuals compared to global group. In conclusion, a reduced habituation of visual evoked potentials has been observed in analytic subjects. Our results suggest that further research should be undertaken regarding the relationship between analytic cognitive style and lack of habituation in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions.

  8. Cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamic effects induced by nimodipine in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, Daniela; Roatta, Silvestro; Micieli, Giuseppe; Bosone, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    The cerebrovascular effects of nimodipine are still poorly understood even in the healthy condition; in particular, its effects on tissue oxygenation have never been investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in cerebral oxygenation and blood volume upon oral administration of nimodipine (90 mg) in the healthy condition. In eight subjects, changes in cerebral tissue oxygenation and blood volume were determined simultaneously with changes in blood velocity of the middle cerebral artery (VMCA) by using, respectively, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD). The subjects also underwent noninvasive assessment of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and end-tidal CO2. TCD and NIRS CO2 reactivity indices were al-so extracted. Nimodipine significantly reduced ABP (11±13%) and increased heart rate, as well as NIRS oxygenation(6.0±4.8%) and blood volume indices (9.4±10.1%), while V(MCA) was not significantly decreased (2.0±3.5%). Nimodipine slightly but significantly reduced the V(MCA) response to changes in pCO2 whereas the CO2 reactivity of NIRS parameters was improved. The observed changes in cerebral tissue oxygenation and blood volume indicate nimodipine-induced cerebrovascular dilation and increased perfusion, while the effect on V(MCA)possibly results from dilation of the insonated artery. The present results cast doubt on the putative nimodipine-induced impairment of CO2 reactivity.

  9. Neuroticism and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, Jussi; Tuominen, Lauri; Någren, Kjell; Hietala, Jarmo

    2015-10-30

    Neuroticism is a personality trait associated with vulnerability for mood and anxiety disorders. Serotonergic mechanisms likely contribute to neuroticism. Serotonin 5-HT1A receptors are altered in mood and anxiety disorders, but whether 5-HT1A receptors are associated with neuroticism in healthy subjects is unclear. We measured brain serotonin 5-HT1A receptor in 34 healthy subjects in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) and [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY-100635. Binding potential (BPP) was determined using the golden standard of kinetic compartmental modeling using arterial blood samples and radiometabolite determination. Personality traits were assessed using the Karolinska Scales of Personality. We found a strong negative association between serotonin 5-HT1A receptor BPP and neuroticism. That is, individuals with high neuroticism tended to have lower 5-HT1A receptor binding than individuals with low neuroticism. This finding was confirmed with an independent voxel-based whole-brain analysis. Other personality traits did not correlate with 5-HT1A receptor BPP. Previous observations have reported lower serotonin 5-HT1A receptor density in major depression. This neurobiological finding may be a trait-like phenomenon and partly explained by higher neuroticism in patients with affective disorders. The link between personality traits and 5-HT1A receptors should be studied in patients with major depression.

  10. Validation of a semi-physiological model for caffeine in healthy subjects and cirrhotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Gragera, Ana; Navarro-Fontestad, Carmen; Mangas-Sanjuan, Victor; González-Álvarez, Isabel; García-Arieta, Alfredo; Trocóniz, Iñaki F; Casabó, Vicente G; Bermejo, Marival

    2015-06-20

    The objective of this paper was to validate a previously developed semi physiological model to simulate bioequivalence trials of drug products. The aim of the model was to ascertain whether the measurement of the metabolite concentration-time profiles would provide any additional information in bioequivalence studies (Fernandez-Teruel et al., 2009a,b; Navarro-Fontestad et al., 2010). The semi-physiological model implemented in NONMEM VI was used to simulate caffeine and its main metabolite plasma levels using caffeine parameters from bibliography. Data from 3 bioequivalence studies in healthy subjects at 3 different doses (100, 175 and 400mg of caffeine) and one study in cirrhotic patients (200 or 250mg) were used. The first aim was to adapt the previous semi-physiological model for caffeine, showing the hepatic metabolism with one main metabolite, paraxanthine. The second aim was to validate the model by comparison of the simulated plasma levels of parent drug and metabolite to the experimental data. The simulations have shown that the proposed semi-physiological model was able to reproduce adequately the pharmacokinetic behavior of caffeine and paraxanthine in both healthy subjects and cirrhotic patients at all the assayed doses. Therefore, the model could be used to simulate plasma concentrations vs. time of drugs with the same pharmacokinetic scheme as caffeine, as long as their population parameters are known, and it could be useful for bioequivalence trial simulation of drugs that undergo hepatic metabolism with a single main metabolite.

  11. Effect of clarified Brazilian native fruit juices on postprandial glycemia in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balisteiro, Diully Mata; Araujo, Renata Luise de; Giacaglia, Luciano Ricardo; Genovese, Maria Inés

    2017-10-01

    Brazilian native fruits have been shown as excellent sources of polyphenols which are associated with multiple biological activities including inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes, α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Postmeal blood glucose elevations and high glycemic index diets can play a major role in the development of type 2 diabetes, therefore alternative approaches to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia are of growing interest in order to reduce diabetes risk. Here we investigated the effect of six Brazilian native clarified fruit juices from Amazon, Savannah and Atlantic Forest biomes on postprandial glycemia after consumption of a carbohydrate meal. For this, 23 healthy subjects were selected to consume seven meal tests, with a 1-week interval among them, consisting in 50g white bread plus 300mL of water (control) or cambuci, cagaita, maracujá-alho, cupuaçu, camu-camu and jaboticaba clarified fruit juices. The results showed that serum glucose concentrations were significantly lower after consumption of cambuci, cagaita, camu-camu and jaboticaba juices, whereas maracujá-alho and cupuaçu juices did not decrease the amount of glucose absorbed, compared to control (pfruits may be considered as adjuvant treatment for reduction of postprandial glycemia in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. L-Arginine as a potential ergogenic aid in healthy subjects.

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    Álvares, Thiago S; Meirelles, Cláudia M; Bhambhani, Yagesh N; Paschoalin, Vânia M F; Gomes, Paulo S C

    2011-03-01

    Dietary supplements containing L-arginine, a semi-essential amino acid, are one of the latest ergogenic aids intended to enhance strength, power and muscle recovery associated with both aerobic and resistance exercise. L-arginine is claimed to promote vasodilation by increasing nitric oxide (NO) production in the active muscle during exercise, improving strength, power and muscular recovery through increased substrate utilization and metabolite removal, such as lactate and ammonia. Research on L-arginine has recently tested this hypothesis, under the assumption that it may be the active compound associated with the vasodilator effects of NO. There were only five acute studies retrieved from the literature that evaluated exercise performance after L-arginine supplementation, three of which reported significant improvements. Regarding studies on chronic effects, eight studies were encountered: four reported enhancements in exercise performance, whilst four reports showed no changes. Whether these improvements in exercise performance - regardless of the aerobic or anaerobic nature of the exercise - can be associated with increases in NO production, has yet to be demonstrated in future studies. Low oral doses (≤20 g) are well tolerated and clinical side effects are rare in healthy subjects. In summary, it is still premature to recommend dietary supplements containing L-arginine as an ergogenic aid for healthy physically active subjects.

  13. Multifractal spectra of laser Doppler flowmetry signals in healthy and sleep apnea syndrome subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buard, Benjamin; Trzepizur, Wojciech; Mahe, Guillaume; Chapeau-Blondeau, François; Rousseau, David; Gagnadoux, Frédéric; Abraham, Pierre; Humeau, Anne

    2009-07-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals give a peripheral view of the cardiovascular system. To better understand the possible modifications brought by sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) in LDF signals, we herein propose to analyze the complexity of such signals in obstructive SAS subjects, and to compare the results with those obtained in healthy subjects. SAS is a pathology that leads to a drop in the parasympathetic tone associated with an increase in the sympathetic tone in awakens SAS patients. Nine men with obstructive SAS and nine healthy men participated awaken in our study and LDF signals were recorded in the forearm. In our work, complexity of LDF signals is analyzed through the computation and analysis of their multifractal spectra. The multifractal spectra are estimated by first estimating the discrete partition function of the signals, then by determining their Renyi exponents with a linear regression, and finally by computing their Legendre transform. The results show that, at rest, obstructive SAS has no or little impact on the multifractal spectra of LDF signals recorded in the forearm. This study shows that the physiological modifications brought by obstructive SAS do not modify the complexity of LDF signals when recorded in the forearm.

  14. Short-term sertraline treatment suppresses sympathetic nervous system activity in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shores, M M; Pascualy, M; Lewis, N L; Flatness, D; Veith, R C

    2001-05-01

    Increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity has been associated with stress, major depression, aging, and several medical conditions. This study assessed the effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), sertraline, on sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity in healthy subjects. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, norepinephrine (NE) kinetic study, in which the effects of sertraline on SNS activity were ascertained by determining NE plasma concentrations and NE plasma appearance rates and clearance rates in sertraline or placebo conditions. Subjects received 50 mg of sertraline or placebo for two days and then one week later underwent the same protocol with the other drug. By single compartmental analysis, plasma NE appearance rates were significantly lower in the sertraline compared to the placebo condition (0.26+/-0.10 vs 0.40+/-0.23 microg/m(2)/min; P=0.04). Our study found that the net effect of short-term SSRI treatment is an apparent suppression of SNS activity as indicated by a decreased plasma NE appearance rate in the sertraline condition. If this preliminary finding can be extended to long-term treatment of patients, this could have significant therapeutic relevance for treating depression in elderly patients or those with cardiac disease, in which elevated SNS activity may exacerbate underlying medical conditions.

  15. Effect of blood donation-mediated volume reduction on regional right ventricular deformation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açar, Göksel; Alizade, Elnur; Avci, Anıl; Cakir, Hakan; Efe, Suleyman Cagan; Kalkan, Mehmet Emin; Tabakci, Mehmet Mustafa; Toprak, Cuneyt; Tanboğa, Ibrahim Halil; Esen, Ali Metin

    2014-03-01

    Strain (S) and strain rate (SR) are known to be altered in diseases associated with right ventricular (RV) pressure/volume overload and RV myocardial dysfunction; however determinants of S/SR are incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of blood donation-mediated volume reduction on regional RV deformation in healthy young adults. Study population was composed of 61 consecutive healthy subjects who were volunteers for blood donation. All underwent standard echocardiography and two-dimensional S and SR imaging by speckle tracking before and after 450 mL blood donation. We found no change in RV lateral wall SR in all three segments. However, the S in the apical and mid segments of the RV lateral wall immediately decreased after blood donation [-26.2 ± 3.3 vs. -23.2 ± 3.3 % (p subjects caused a regional difference in RV longitudinal deformation with the lower mid and apical S that was related to parameters of volume load severity. However, RV systolic SR was found to be resistant to the effects of volume depletion.

  16. Spirometry in healthy subjects: do technical details of the test procedure affect the results?

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    Luciana Sipoli

    Full Text Available Spirometry should follow strict quality criteria. The American Thoracic Society (ATS recommends the use of a noseclip; however there are controversies about its need. ATS also indicates that tests should be done in the sitting position, but there are no recommendations neither about position of the upper limbs and lower limbs nor about who should hold the mouthpiece while performing the maneuvers: evaluated subject or evaluator.To compare noseclip use or not, different upper and lower limbs positions and who holds the mouthpiece, verifying if these technical details affect spirometric results in healthy adults.One hundred and three healthy individuals (41 men; age: 47 [33-58] years; normal lung function: FEV₁/FVC = 83±5, FEV₁ = 94 [88-104]%predicted, FVC = 92 [84-102]%predicted underwent a protocol consisting of four spirometric comparative analysis in the sitting position: 1 maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV with vs without noseclip; 2 FVC performed with vs without upper limbs support; 3 FVC performed with lower limbs crossed vs lower limbs in neutral position; 4 FVC, slow vital capacity and MVV comparing the evaluated subject holding the mouthpiece vs evaluator holding it.Different spirometric variables presented statistically significant difference (p<0.05 when analysing the four comparisons; however, none of them showed any variation larger than those considered as acceptable according to the ATS reproducibility criteria.There was no relevant variation in spirometric results when analyzing technical details such as noseclip use during MVV, upper and lower limb positions and who holds the mouthpiece when performing the tests in healthy adults.

  17. Effectiveness of a perceptual - proprioceptive training with virtual visual feedback in healthy subjects: a pilot study

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    Stefano Vando

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the aim of this pilot study was to evaluate whether proprioceptive-motor training using the Wii Balance Board (WBB might improve postural sway in healthy subjects.Methods: twenty-five healthy subjects were trained for six weeks (two sessions per week with 5 “video games”: Wii Fit Plus (WFP program. Before and after training: Basic Balance, Single-leg Balance, Agility, Stability and Motion (lower limb: right-left and both leg were measured using the Wii Balance Board.Results: the Wilcoxon Test showed improvements at the end of the training program compared to the baseline conditions. Basic Balance increased during the WFP (33.33% and was associated with a 19.92% decrease in center of pressure (COP lenght. The Single-leg Balance results incremented after the WFP (left 29.09% vs. right 47.92% and accompanied by a decrement in COP (left 28.71% vs. right 30.45%. The values for the Agility test increased both in WFP and COP (28.57% and 58.57%, respectively. The Stability test scores increased in the WFP (66.67% along with a consequent decrease in COP (10.53%. Finally, the Motion test values increased in the WFP (73.17%, whilst COP for this test decreased (12.02%. These results indicate that 6 weeks of virtual training produced a good adaptability. Younger participants (<20 years demonstrated to be more responsive to dynamic stimulation with respect to those >20 years.Conclusions: significant improvements in all participants were observed, indicating that virtual training can influence posture and balance in healthy people. Because of its characteristics of low cost and easy availability, a portable system for balance training for everyone offers the possibility to more readily measure motor skill and to gauge improvement.

  18. Baseline levels and temporal stability of 27 multiplexed serum cytokine concentrations in healthy subjects.

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    Angelique Biancotto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cytokines are humoral molecules that elicit regulatory function in immunologic pathways. The level and type of cytokine production has become critical in distinguishing physiologic from pathologic immune conditions. Cytokine profiling has become an important biomarker discovery tool in monitoring of the immune system. However, the variations in cytokine levels in individual subjects over time in healthy individuals have not been extensively studied. In this study, we use multiplex bead arrays to evaluate 27 analytes in paired serum samples taken seven days apart from 144 healthy individuals in order to assess variations over a short time period. METHODS: Fluorescent bead-based immunoassay (Luminex was used to measure 27 analytes in serum samples. Measurements were performed on matched samples from 144 healthy donors. To assess inter-plate variability, one arbitrarily selected serum sample was analyzed on each of the first ten plates as bridge sample. RESULTS: Using the bridge sample, we showed minimal inter-plate variations in the measurement of most analytes. In measurement of cytokines from the 144 patients at two time points, we found that three cytokines (IL-2, IL-15 and GM-CSF were undetectable and five analytes (RANTES, MCP-1, VEGF, MIP-1β and PDGF-BB showed significant difference in concentrations at Day 0 compared to Day 7. CONCLUSIONS: The current study demonstrated higher variations in cytokine levels among individuals than were observed for samples obtained one week apart from identical donors. These data suggest that a serum sample from each subject for use as a baseline measurement is a better control for clinical trials rather than sera from a paired cohort.

  19. Relationship between jaw opening force and hyoid bone dynamics in healthy elderly subjects

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    Shinozaki H

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hiromichi Shinozaki, Haruka Tohara, Mariko Matsubara, Nobuhiro Inokuchi, Yasuhiro Yamazaki, Ayako Nakane, Yoko Wakasugi, Shunsuke Minakuchi Department of Gerodontology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: This study aimed to examine the relationship between jaw opening force and hyoid bone dynamics and resting position in elderly individuals based on gender. Subjects and methods: Subjects were 36 healthy elderly individuals aged ≥65 years without dysphagia (16 men and 20 women; mean age 75.5 years, range 65–88 years. Videofluorographic images during the swallowing of 10 mL of 40% (w/v barium sulfate were obtained and the degrees of anterior, superior, and hypotenuse displacements of the hyoid bone and maximum/resting hyoid position were evaluated. Jaw opening force was measured three times using a jaw opening force sthenometer; the mean of these three measurements was used for analysis. Results: In men, there was a positive correlation between jaw opening force and resting hyoid position and negative correlations among all the degrees of anterior, superior, and hypotenuse displacements of the hyoid bone. In women, there was no statistically significant correlation between jaw opening force and any of the measurement items. There was no statistically significant correlation between jaw opening force and maximum hyoid position in either men or women. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that low jaw opening force leads to low resting hyoid position only in elderly men, and a lower hyoid position in healthy elderly men results in a larger total amount of hyoid displacement during swallowing. Moreover, a maximum hyoid position in healthy individuals of either gender does not differ depending on their jaw opening force. Keywords: aging, deglutition disorders, dysphasia, gender differences

  20. Similar and contrasting dimensions of social cognition in schizophrenia and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Bhagyavathi, H D; Keshav Kumar, J; Subbakrishna, D K; Gangadhar, Bangalore N; Eack, Shaun M; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2014-08-01

    Schizophrenia patients experience substantial impairments in social cognition (SC) and these deficits are associated with their poor functional outcome. Though SC is consistently shown to emerge as a cognitive dimension distinct from neurocognition, the dimensionality of SC is poorly understood. Moreover, comparing the components of SC between schizophrenia patients and healthy comparison subjects would provide specific insights on the construct validity of SC. We conducted principal component analyses of eight SC test scores (representing four domains of SC, namely, theory of mind, emotion processing, social perception and attributional bias) independently in 170 remitted schizophrenia patients and 111 matched healthy comparison subjects. We also conducted regression analyses to evaluate the relative contribution of individual SC components to other symptom dimensions, which are important clinical determinants of functional outcome (i.e., neurocognition, negative symptoms, motivational deficits and insight) in schizophrenia. A three-factor solution representing socio-emotional processing, social-inferential ability and external attribution components emerged in the patient group that accounted for 64.43% of the variance. In contrast, a two-factor solution representing socio-emotional processing and social-inferential ability was derived in the healthy comparison group that explained 56.5% of the variance. In the patient group, the social-inferential component predicted negative symptoms and motivational deficits. Our results suggest the presence of a multidimensional SC construct. The dimensionality of SC observed across the two groups, though not identical, displayed important parallels. Individual components also demonstrated distinct patterns of association with other symptom dimensions, thus supporting their external validity.

  1. Analysis of prototypical narratives produced by aphasic individuals and cognitively healthy subjects

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    Gabriela Silveira

    Full Text Available Aphasia can globally or selectively affect comprehension and production of verbal and written language. Discourse analysis can aid language assessment and diagnosis.Objective:[1] To explore narratives that produce a number of valid indicators for diagnosing aphasia in speakers of Brazilian Portuguese. [2] To analyze the macrostructural aspects of the discourse of normal individuals. [3] To analyze the macrostructural aspects of the discourse of aphasic individuals.Methods:The macrostructural aspects of three narratives produced by aphasic individuals and cognitively healthy subjects were analyzed.Results:A total of 30 volunteers were examined comprising 10 aphasic individuals (AG and 20 healthy controls (CG. The CG included 5 males. The CG had a mean age of 38.9 years (SD=15.61 and mean schooling of 13 years (SD=2.67 whereas the AG had a mean age of 51.7 years (SD=17.3 and mean schooling of 9.1 years (SD=3.69. Participants were asked to narrate three fairy tales as a basis for analyzing the macrostructure of discourse. Comparison of the three narratives revealed no statistically significant difference in number of propositions produced by the groups. A significant negative correlation was found between age and number of propositions produced. Also, statistically significant differences were observed in the number of propositions produced by the individuals in the CG and the AG for the three tales.Conclusion:It was concluded that the three tales are applicable for discourse assessment, containing a similar number of propositions and differentiating aphasic individuals and cognitively healthy subjects based on analysis of the macrostructure of discourse.

  2. Parental bonding in subjects with pathological gambling disorder compared with healthy controls.

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    Villalta, Laia; Arévalo, Rubén; Valdepérez, Ana; Pascual, Juan C; de los Cobos, J Pérez

    2015-03-01

    The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-V) includes pathological gambling disorder (PGD) in the subgroup of "Addiction and Related Disorders" due to the similarities between PGD and substance-based addictions in neurobiological, psychological, and social risk factors. Family factors as parental rearing attitudes play a crucial role in the development of substance use disorders and PGD. The aim of the present study was to assess the parental bonding during childhood perceived for adults with PGD compared with healthy controls. Twenty males with PGD and 20 control subjects answered the parental bonding instrument, which measures subjects' recollections of parenting on dimensions of care and protection. Subjects with PGD showed significantly lower maternal and paternal care (p = 0.016 and p = 0.031, respectively) than controls, and higher paternal protection (p = 0.003). The most common parental pattern for PGD subjects was the affectionless control (50% for the father and 60% for the mother). Preliminary results suggest that, as previously reported for substance use disorders, an affectionless control parenting style is associated with PGD.

  3. Evaluation of Pharmacokinetic Interaction between PA-824 and Midazolam in Healthy Adult Subjects

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    Winter, Helen; Egizi, Erica; Erondu, Ngozi; Ginsberg, Ann; Rouse, Doris J.; Severynse-Stevens, Diana; Pauli, Elliott

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic interaction between PA-824, a novel antitubercular nitroimidazo-oxazine, and midazolam, a CYP3A4 substrate, in 14 healthy adult male and female subjects. The study followed up on observations in vitro that PA-824 caused weak and time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4. Subjects received a single oral dose of midazolam (2 mg), followed by a 2-day washout. After the washout, all subjects received PA-824 (400 mg) once daily for 14 consecutive days. On day 14, all subjects received the final PA-824 dose coadministered with a 2-mg oral dose of midazolam. The pharmacokinetic endpoints AUC0–t, AUC0–∞, and Cmax for midazolam and 1-hydroxy midazolam were compared between midazolam administered alone versus midazolam coadministered with PA-824. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the mean midazolam values of Cmax, AUC0–t, and AUC0–∞ parameters were reduced by ca. 16, 15, and 15%, respectively, when PA-824 was coadministered with midazolam. The total exposure (AUC) of 1-hydroxy midazolam was 13 to 14% greater when coadministered with PA-824 compared to midazolam administered alone. The Cmax of 1-hydroxy midazolam was similar between treatments. Based on these results, PA-824 does not inhibit or induce CYP3A4 to a clinically meaningful extent and is not likely to markedly affect the pharmacokinetics of CYP3A4 metabolized drugs. PMID:23689718

  4. Religiosity and Healthy Lifestyle Behaviours in Malaysian Muslims: The Mediating Role of Subjective Well-Being and Self-Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Swan Ee; Park, Miriam Sang-Ah; Golden, Karen Jennifer

    2017-06-24

    Past research on healthy lifestyle behaviours has been primarily conducted within Western or Judeo-Christian contexts, while non-Western or Muslim contexts remain under-represented. This study examined predictors of healthy lifestyle behaviours (religiosity, goal-setting, impulse control, and subjective well-being) in Malaysian Muslims and explored the mechanisms underlying the relationship between religiosity and healthy lifestyle behaviours. Self-report survey responses from 183 healthy adults (M age = 28.63 years, 18-50 years) were analysed using regression and multiple mediation analyses. The results indicated that subjective well-being emerged as the strongest predictor, followed by goal-setting. Furthermore, subjective well-being and goal-setting mediated the religiosity-healthy lifestyle behaviour relationship. The findings provide guidance for future health-promoting interventions.

  5. Tidal breathing patterns derived from structured light plethysmography in COPD patients compared with healthy subjects

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    Motamedi-Fakhr S

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shayan Motamedi-Fakhr,1 Rachel C Wilson,1 Richard Iles2 1PneumaCare Ltd, Ely, UK; 2Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK Purpose: Differences in tidal breathing patterns have been reported between patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and healthy individuals using traditional measurement techniques. This feasibility study examined whether structured light plethysmography (SLP – a noncontact, light-based technique – could also detect differences in tidal breathing patterns between patients with COPD and healthy subjects. Patients and methods: A 5 min period of tidal (quiet breathing was recorded in each patient with COPD (n=31 and each healthy subject (n=31, matched for age, body mass index, and sex. For every participant, the median and interquartile range (IQR; denoting within-subject variability of 12 tidal breathing parameters were calculated. Individual data were then combined by cohort and summarized by its median and IQR. Results: After correction for multiple comparisons, inspiratory time (median tI and its variability (IQR of tI were lower in patients with COPD (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively as were ratios derived from tI (tI/tE and tI/tTot, both p<0.01 and their variability (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively. IE50SLP (the ratio of inspiratory to expiratory flow at 50% tidal volume calculated from the SLP signal was higher (p<0.001 in COPD while SLP-derived time to reach peak tidal expiratory flow over expiratory time (median tPTEFSLP/tE was shorter (p<0.01 and considerably less variable (p<0.001. Thoraco–abdominal asynchrony was increased (p<0.05 in COPD. Conclusion: These early observations suggest that, like traditional techniques, SLP is able to detect different breathing patterns in COPD patients compared with subjects with no respiratory disease. This provides support for further investigation into the potential uses of SLP in assessing clinical conditions and interventions

  6. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol in healthy Chinese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Zheng, Xin; Jiang, Ji; Hu, Pei; Wu, Kai; Zhuang, Lihong; Liu, Lian; Du, Xin; Kempsford, Rodger; Allen, Ann

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles of fluticasone furoate (FF)/vilanterol (VI) - a fixed-dose combination of an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and a long-acting β2 -agonist for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - after single and repeat administration in healthy Chinese subjects. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-site, randomized, four-way crossover study. The Clinical Pharmacological Research Centre at Peking Union Medical College Hospital [PUMCH]) in Beijing, China. Sixteen healthy, nonsmoking Chinese adults. Subjects were randomized to receive FF/VI 50/25, 100/25, or 200/25 μg, or placebo once/daily in the morning, delivered by the Ellipta dry powder inhaler, for 7 consecutive days. The subjects then received the other three treatments, with each treatment period separated by a 7-day washout period. The co-primary outcome measures reflected pharmacodynamic responses relating to recognized class effects of the two drug classes: reduced serum cortisol level (ICSs), and increased Fridericia's corrected QT interval (QTcF) and reduced serum potassium level (long-acting β2 -agonists). Co-primary pharmacodynamic endpoints were 0-24-hour weighted mean serum cortisol level on day 7 (cortisol0-24 hr, Day 7 ), and 0-4-hour weighted mean and maximum QTcF and weighted mean and minimum serum potassium level on days 1 and 7. Fluticasone furoate and VI plasma concentrations, derived pharmacokinetic parameters, and safety were also assessed. Of the 16 subjects randomized, 15 completed the study. Reductions in cortisol0-24 hour, Day 7 of 15% and 25% were observed with FF/VI 100/25 and 200/25 μg, respectively, versus placebo. Minor increases (< 10 msec) in maximum QTcF on day 7 were seen with FF/VI 50/25 and 100/25 μg but not with 200/25 μg. Slight decreases in serum potassium level were only observed in subjects receiving FF/VI 50/25 μg on day 1 and FF/VI 50/25 and 200/25 μg on day 7. Fluticasone

  7. Serum aspirin esterase is strongly associated with glucose and lipids in healthy subjects: different association patterns in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Kotani Kazuhiko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspirin esterase (AE activity can account for part of aspirin pharmacokinetics in the circulation, possibly being associated with the impairment of aspirin effectiveness as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Aims The study was aimed at investigating the correlations of serum AE activity with cholinesterase (ChE and metabolic variables in healthy subjects in comparison to subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods In cardiovascular disease-free T2DM subjects and healthy controls, the AE activity levels and/or the correlation patterns between AE and the other variables were analyzed. Results Neither AE nor ChE activities were higher in the subjects with T2DM. Serum AE activity strongly correlated with ChE as well as glucose/lipids variables such as total cholesterol and triglyceride in healthy subjects, while the correlations between AE and glucose/lipids variables were not present in T2DM subjects. Conclusions These data may reflect the pathophysiological changes between healthy and T2DM subjects. Our data may thus provide the basis for future studies to unravel the mechanisms.

  8. Auditory cortical responses evoked by pure tones in healthy and sensorineural hearing loss subjects: functional MRI and magnetoencephalography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun-ting; GENG Zuo-jun; ZHANG Quan; LI Wei; ZHANG Jing

    2006-01-01

    Background Blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography are new techniques of brain functional imaging which can provide the information of excitation of neurons by measure the changes of hemodynamics and electrophysiological data of local brain tissue. The purpose of this study was to study functional brain areas evoked by pure tones in healthy and sensorineural hearing loss subjects with these techniques and to compare the differences between the two groups.Methods Thirty healthy and 30 sensorineural hearing loss subjects were included in this study. In fMRI,block-design paradigm was used. During the active epoch the participants listened to 1000 Hz, sound pressure level 140 dB pure tones at duration 500 ms, interstimulus interval 1000 ms, which presented continuously via a magnetic resonance-compatible audio system. None stimulus was executed in control epoch. In magnetoencephalography study, every subject received stimuli of 1000 Hz tone bursts delivered to the bilateral ear at duration 8 ms, interstimulus intervals 1000 ms. Sound pressure level in healthy subjects was 30 dB; in sensorineural hearing loss subjects was 20 dB above everyone' s hearing threshold respectively. All subjects were examined with 306-channel whole-scalp neuromagnetometer.Results In fMRI, all subjects showed significant activations in bilateral Heschl's gyri, anterior pole of planum temporale, planum temporale, precentral gyri, postcentral gyri, supramarginal gyri, superior temporal gyri,inferior frontal gyri, occipital lobes and cerebellums. The healthy subjects had more intensive activation in bilateral Heschl's gyri, anterior pole of planum temporale, inferior frontal gyri, left superior temporal gyri and fight planum temporale than the hearing loss subjects. But in precentral gyri, postcentral gyri and occipital lobes,the activation is more intensive in the hearing loss subjects. In magnetoencephalography study, both in the

  9. Sternal pulse rate variability compared with heart rate variability on healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chreiteh, Shadi S; Belhage, Bo; Hoppe, Karsten; Branebjerg, Jens; Thomsen, Erik V

    2014-01-01

    The heart rate variability (HRV) is a commonly used method to quantify the sympathetic and the parasympathetic modulation of the heart rate. HRV is mainly conducted on electrocardiograms (ECG). However, the use of photo-plethysmography (PPG) as a marker of the autonomic tone is emerging. In this study we investigated the feasibility of deriving pulse rate variability (PRV) using PPG signals recorded by a reflectance PPG sensor attached to the chest bone (sternum) and comparing it to HRV. The recordings were conducted on 9 healthy subjects being in a relaxed supine position and under forced respiration, where the subjects were asked to breathe following a visual scale with a rate of 27 breaths/min. HRV parameters such as the mean intervals (meanNN), the standard deviation of intervals (SDNN), the root mean square of difference of successive intervals (RMSSD), and the proportion of intervals differing more than 50 ms (pNN50) were calculated from the R peak-to-R peak (R-R) and pulse-to-pulse (P-P) intervals. In the frequency domain the low and high frequency ratio of the power spectral density (LF/HF) was also computed. The Pearson correlation coefficient showed significant correlation for all the parameters (r > 0.95 with p < 0.001) and the Bland-Altmann analysis showed close agreement between the two methods for all the parameters during resting and forced respiration condition. Thus, PRV analysis using sternal PPG can be an alternative to HRV analysis on healthy subjects at.

  10. Effects of sugammadex on activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kam, Pieter-Jan; Grobara, Peter; Prohn, Marita; Höppener, Floris; Kluft, Cornelis; Burggraaf, Jacobus; Langdon, Ronald B; Peeters, Pierre

    2014-03-01

    To assess the impact of sugammadex on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and international normalized ratio for prothrombin time (PT(INR)) in healthy subjects and characterize the concentration-dependency of sugammadex effects on APTT and prothrombin time (PT) in normal human plasma in vitro. Eight healthy subjects (18 - 45 years of age) were administered intravenous doses of 4 mg/kg sugammadex, 16 mg/kg sugammadex, or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, three period cross-over trial. The primary endpoint was area under the curve from 2 to 60 minutes post-dose (AUC2-60min) for APTT and PT(INR). In vitro, the effects of sugammadex on APTT and PT were assessed in pooled normal human citrate plasma. In subjects dosed with 4 and 16 mg/kg sugammadex, geometric mean ratios (treated vs. placebo) for AUC2-60min were 1.085 (95% confidence interval, 0.888 - 1.325) and 1.019 (0.868 - 1.195), respectively, for APTT, and 1.047 (0.904 - 1.213) and 1.096 (0.953 - 1.261), respectively, for PT(INR). At individual timepoints, mean APTT and PT(INR) increased by up to 22% after 16 mg/kg sugammadex compared with placebo. All such increases occurred within 30 minutes post-dose. Sugammadex was generally well tolerated. In the in vitro experiments, addition of sugammadex to plasma resulted in limited, concentration dependent increases in both APTT and PT. At 200 μg/mL (the mean maximum concentration reached therapeutically), the relative increases were 29% and 19%, respectively. Administration of sugammadex is associated with a dose-related, limited and transient prolongation of APTT and PT(INR) that is unlikely to be of clinical relevance.

  11. Retinal nerve fiber layer measurements by scanning laser polarimetry with enhanced corneal compensation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Harsha L; Venkatesh, Chirravuri R; Vidyasagar, Kelli; Yadav, Ravi K; Addepalli, Uday K; Jude, Aarthi; Senthil, Sirisha; Garudadri, Chandra S

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the (i) effects of biological (age and axial length) and instrument-related [typical scan score (TSS) and corneal birefringence] parameters on the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurements and (ii) repeatability of RNFL measurements with the enhanced corneal compensation (ECC) protocol of scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) in healthy subjects. In a cross-sectional study, 140 eyes of 73 healthy subjects underwent RNFL imaging with the ECC protocol of SLP. Linear mixed modeling methods were used to evaluate the effects of age, axial length, TSS, and corneal birefringence on RNFL measurements. One randomly selected eye of 48 subjects from the cohort underwent 3 serial scans during the same session to determine the repeatability. Age significantly influenced all RNFL measurements. RNFL measurements decreased by 1 µm for every decade increase in age. TSS affected the overall average RNFL measurement (β=-0.62, P=0.003), whereas residual anterior segment retardance affected the superior quadrant measurement (β=1.14, P=0.01). Axial length and corneal birefringence measurements did not influence RNFL measurements. Repeatability, as assessed by the coefficient of variation, ranged between 1.7% for the overall average RNFL measurement and 11.4% for th nerve fiber indicator. Age significantly affected all RNFL measurements with the ECC protocol of SLP, whereas TSS and residual anterior segment retardance affected the overall average and the superior average RNFL measurements, respectively. Axial length and corneal birefringence measurements did not influence any RNFL measurements. RNFL measurements had good intrasession repeatability. These results are important while evaluating the change in structural measurements over time in glaucoma patients.

  12. General Immune Status and Oral Microbiology in Patients with Different Forms of Periodontitis and Healthy Control Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Schmidt; Holger Jentsch; Catalina-Suzana Stingu; Ulrich Sack

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Immunological processes in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis, especially the aggressive form, are not well understood. This study examined clinical as well as systemic immunological and local microbiological features in healthy controls and patients with different forms of periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 14 healthy subjects, 15 patients diagnosed with aggressive periodontitis, and 11 patients with chronic periodontitis were recruited. Periodontal examination was performed...

  13. Effect of commercial rye whole-meal bread on postprandial blood glucose and gastric emptying in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Darwich Gassan; Björgell Ola; Lindstedt Sandra; Jönsson Jenny; Hlebowicz Joanna; Almér Lars-Olof

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The intake of dietary fibre has been shown to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of commercial rye whole-meal bread containing whole kernels and white wheat bread on the rate of gastric emptying and postprandial glucose response in healthy subjects. Methods Ten healthy subjects took part in a blinded crossover trial. Blood glucose level and gastric emptying rate (GER) were determined after the ingestion of 150 ...

  14. Intraocular pressure following 18 hours of systemic dehydration in ocular normotensive healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustina K. Idu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effect of dehydration on intraocular pressure (IOP. Subjects: The study population comprised 50 subjects (27 men and 23 women with a mean age of 42.84 ± 2.64 years.Method: The subjects dehydrated for 18 hours. IOP was assessed in both eyes using the Perkins handheld applanation tonometer. Baseline measurement of IOP was taken before the subjects dehydrated for 18 hours and repeated after dehydration. Blood samples were taken before and after dehydration for the determination of plasma osmolality and plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH concentrations.Results: A statistically significant (p < 0.001 reduction in the mean weight of subjects occurred after dehydration. There was a significant reduction in IOP from 16.68 mmHg ± 0.32 mmHg to 13.08 mmHg ± 0.31 mmHg after dehydration (p < 0.001. Mean plasma osmolality showed a statistically significant increase (p < 0.05 from baseline of 290.02 mOsmol/kg ± 1.25 mOsmol/kg to 294.96 mOsmol/kg ± 1.33 mOsmol/kg after dehydration. There was also a significant increase (p < 0.05 in mean plasma ADH concentration from 5.36 pg/mL ± 0.21 pg/mL to 6.40 pg/mL ± 0.20 pg/mL after dehydration. There were no significant differences in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures before and after dehydration.Conclusion: Dehydration decreases IOP in healthy humans; this decrease probably results from an increase in plasma osmolality and plasma ADH concentrations.

  15. Exhaled volatile organic compounds discriminate patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besa V

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vasiliki Besa,1 Helmut Teschler,2 Isabella Kurth,1 Amir Maqbul Khan,3 Paul Zarogoulidis,4 Joerg Ingo Baumbach,5 Urte Sommerwerck,2 Lutz Freitag,1 Kaid Darwiche1 1Department of Interventional Pneumology, Ruhrlandklinik, West German Lung Center, University Hospital, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; 2Department of Pneumology, Ruhrlandklinik, University Hospital Essen, University of Essen-Duisburg, Essen, Germany; 3Division of Thoracic Surgery, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 4Oncology Unit, Pulmonary Department, “G Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece; 5Faculty of Applied Chemistry, Reutlingen University, Reutlingen, Germany Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a chronic airway inflammatory disease characterized by incompletely reversible airway obstruction. This clinically heterogeneous group of patients is characterized by different phenotypes. Spirometry and clinical parameters, such as severity of dyspnea and exacerbation frequency, are used to diagnose and assess the severity of COPD. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether volatile organic compounds (VOCs could be detected in the exhaled breath of patients with COPD and whether these VOCs could distinguish COPD patients from healthy subjects. Moreover, we aimed to investigate whether VOCs could be used as biomarkers for classifying patients into different subgroups of the disease. Ion mobility spectrometry was used to detect VOCs in the exhaled breath of COPD patients. One hundred and thirty-seven peaks were found to have a statistically significant difference between the COPD group and the combined healthy smokers and nonsmoker group. Six of these VOCs were found to correctly discriminate COPD patients from healthy controls with an accuracy of 70%. Only 15 peaks were found to be statistically different between healthy smokers and healthy

  16. Self-Rated Mental Stress and Exercise Training Response in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirita S Ruuska

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Individual responses to aerobic training vary from almost none to a 40 % increase in aerobic fitness in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that the baseline self-rated mental stress may influence to the training response. Methods: The study population included 44 healthy sedentary subjects (22 women and 14 controls. The laboratory controlled training period was 2 weeks, including 5 sessions a week at an intensity of 75 % of the maximum heart rate (HR for 40 min/session. Self-rated mental stress was assessed by inquiry prior to the training period from 1 (low psychological resources and a lot of stressors in my life to 10 (high psychological resources and no stressors in my life, respectively. Results: Mean peak oxygen uptake (Vo2peak increased from 34±7 to 37±7 ml•kg-1•min-1 in training group (p<0.001 and did not change in control group (from 36±6 to 36±6 ml•kg-1•min-1. Among the training group, the self-rated stress at the baseline condition correlated with the change in fitness after training intervention, e.g. with the change in maximal power (r=0.45, p=0.002, W/kg and with the change in Vo2peak (r=0.32, p=0.039, ml•kg-1•min-1. The self-rated stress at the baseline correlated with the change in fitness in both female and male e.g. r=0.44, p=0.039 and r=0.43, p=0.045 for W/kg in female and male, respectively. Conclusion: As a novel finding the baseline self-rated mental stress is associated with the individual training response among healthy females and males after highly controlled aerobic training intervention. The changes in fitness were very low or absent in the subjects who experience their psychological resources low and a lot of stressors in their life at the beginning of aerobic training intervention.

  17. Hypoglycemic effect of Lupinus mutabilis in healthy volunteers and subjects with dysglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasini, M; Castro, J; Villacrés, E; Narváez, L; Villamar, M P; Baldeón, M E

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes are increasing health problems that negatively affect health care systems worldwide. There is a constant urge to develop new therapies with better effects, lower side effects at lower prices to treat these diseases. Lupinus species and their derivates are good candidates to be used as hypoglycaemic agents. A phase II clinical trial was conducted to assess the role of raw Lupinus mutabilis on blood glucose and insulin in normoglycemic and dysglycemic subjects. Results show that consumption of L. mutabilis by normal weight healthy young individuals did not change importantly blood glucose and insulin levels. On the other hand, consumption of similar doses of lupinus by dysglycemic individuals (fasting glucose > 100 mg/dL) decreased significantly blood glucose. Lupinus effects were greater in those subjects with higher basal glucose levels. Glucose lowering effects of lupinus were not observed after soy intake that was used as control. A statistically significant reduction in insulin levels was also observed in the lupinus group compared with the soy group after 60 minutes of treatment. Furthermore, only treatment with lupinus improved insulin resistance in dysglycemic subjects. These data demonstrate that lupinus consumption could be a feasible and low cost alternative to treat chronic hyperglycemic diseases.

  18. Aerobic fitness influences cerebral oxygenation response to maximal exercise in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oussaidene, Kahina; Prieur, Fabrice; Tagougui, Semah; Abaidia, Abdelbasset; Matran, Regis; Mucci, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The study examined whether the aerobic fitness level modifies the cerebral oxygenation response to incremental ramp exercise, and more specifically the decline in cerebral oxygenation from heavy exercise up to maximal intensities. 11 untrained (VO2max 47.3±4.0 mL min(-1) kg(-1)) and 13 endurance-trained (VO2max 61.2±8.0 mL min(-1) kg(-1)) healthy men performed a maximal ramp cycle exercise. Left prefrontal cortex oxygenation (ΔHbO2) was monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy. A cerebral oxygenation threshold decline (ThCOx) during exercise was determined. ThCox occurred in all subjects but for higher VO2 (mL min(-1) kg(-1)) in endurance-trained than in untrained subjects (Pexercise intensity corresponding to ThCOx, ΔHbO2 was higher in endurance-trained than in untrained subjects (Pexercise intensities in endurance-trained in relation with their higher VO2max than untrained men. These results demonstrated that aerobic fitness influences cerebral oxygenation during exercise.

  19. Childhood sexual history of 20 male pedophiles vs. 24 male healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa J; McGeoch, Pamela G; Gans, Sniezyna Watras; Nikiforov, Konstantin; Cullen, Ken; Galynker, Igor I

    2002-11-01

    Despite the widespread incidence of childhood sexual abuse, there is insufficient investigation into the childhood sexual history of perpetrators. In addition, there is little published on the specific similarities between childhood and adult sexual histories. The present study investigates the incidence of childhood sexual abuse in a carefully characterized sample of male pedophiles compared with a demographically similar control group. Concordance between and cognitive distortions about characteristics of childhood abuse and pedophilic behavior are also studied. Twenty men with pedophilia, heterosexual type were compared with 24 demographically similar, healthy male control subjects on a questionnaire specifically designed to assess childhood sexual history in pedophiles. Sixty percent of pedophiles compared with 4% of control subjects reported adult sexual advances as a child. Seventy-five percent of pedophiles and 22% of control subjects reported a first sexual encounter before age 14 years. About 60% concordance was found between acts experienced as a child and perpetrated as an adult. Finally, numerous inconsistencies throughout the questionnaire add preliminary support for the role of cognitive distortions with regard to childhood and adult sexual history. The present findings replicate the elevated rate of childhood sexual abuse found among pedophiles and are consistent with the notion of a causative relationship between early childhood abuse and later pedophilic behavior.

  20. Oral methylphenidate challenge selectively decreases putaminal T2 in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveri, Marisa M; Anderson, Carl M; McNeil, Jane F; Diaz, Claudia I; Lukas, Scott E; Mendelson, Jack H; Renshaw, Perry F; Kaufman, Marc J

    2004-11-11

    Despite the recent rise in oral methylphenidate (MPH) abuse, few studies have characterized the time course of oral MPH brain effects in human subjects. Accordingly, this study assessed the hemodynamic effects of oral MPH effects in 11 healthy young adults (six women), by measuring brain transverse relaxation times (T2). T2 can be interpreted as a surrogate marker for, and inversely correlated with, steady-state cerebral blood volume (CBV). Data were acquired from the caudate nucleus, putamen, and thalamus, using a 1.5 T MRI scanner at baseline and serially for 2 h following oral MPH administration (0.5 mg/kg). Physiological and subjective measures and plasma MPH levels also were examined. MPH induced a selective T2 decrease (-1.65+/-0.53 ms) in the putamen (F(6,54)=2.68, PHeartrate, blood pressure and plasma MPH levels increased significantly after drug administration, as well as subjective ratings of "feeling drug effect". T2 decreases may reflect MPH-induced increases in putaminal blood volume. These data suggest that T2 relaxometry can be used to study the time course of regional cerebral blood volume responses to MPH and perhaps to other stimulant drugs.

  1. Acute effects of LSD on amygdala activity during processing of fearful stimuli in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, F; Lenz, C; Dolder, P C; Harder, S; Schmid, Y; Lang, U E; Liechti, M E; Borgwardt, S

    2017-01-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) induces profound changes in various mental domains, including perception, self-awareness and emotions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the acute effects of LSD on the neural substrate of emotional processing in humans. Using a double-blind, randomised, cross-over study design, placebo or 100 μg LSD were orally administered to 20 healthy subjects before the fMRI scan, taking into account the subjective and pharmacological peak effects of LSD. The plasma levels of LSD were determined immediately before and after the scan. The study (including the a priori-defined study end point) was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov before study start (NCT02308969). The administration of LSD reduced reactivity of the left amygdala and the right medial prefrontal cortex relative to placebo during the presentation of fearful faces (PLSD-induced amygdala response to fearful stimuli and the LSD-induced subjective drug effects (PLSD modulates the engagement of brain regions that mediate emotional processing. PMID:28375205

  2. Comparison of Resting Energy Expenditure Between Cancer Subjects and Healthy Controls: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Yen Vi; Batterham, Marijka J; Edwards, Cheree

    2016-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence surrounding the extent of changes in resting energy expenditure (REE) in cancer. This meta-analysis aimed to establish the mean difference in REE, as kilojoules per kilogram fat-free mass, among cancer patients when compared to healthy control subjects. The secondary aim was to determine differences among different cancer types. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, and ProQuest Central were searched from the earliest records until March 2014. Studies were included if measured REE was reported as kilojoules or kilocalories per kilogram fat-free mass (FFM) in adult subjects with cancer. Twenty-seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Fourteen studies included both cancer (n = 1453) and control (n = 1145) groups. The meta-analysis shows an average increase in REE of 9.66 (95% confidence interval: 3.34, 15.98) kJ/kgFFM/day in cancer patients when compared to control subjects. Heterogeneity was detected (P < 0.001) which suggest variations in REE among cancer types. Elevations are most noticeable in patients with cancers of metabolically demanding organs.

  3. Clenching and grinding: effect on masseter and sternocleidomastoid electromyographic activity in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Macarena; Valdivia, José; Fresno, María Javiera; Miralles, Rodolfo; Gutiérrez, Mario Felipe; Valenzuela, Saúl; Fuentes, Aler

    2009-07-01

    This study compares the effect of clenching and grinding on masseter and sternocleidomastoid electromyographic (EMG) activity during different jaw posture tasks in the sagittal plane. The study included 34 healthy subjects with natural dentition, Class I bilateral molar Angle relationship, and absence of posterior occlusal contacts during mandibular protrusion. An inclusion criterion was that subjects had to be free of signs and symptoms of any dysfunction of the masticatory system. Bipolar surface electrodes were located on the right masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles. EMG activity was recorded while the subjects were in standing position, during the following jaw posture tasks: A. maximal clenching in the intercuspal position; B. grinding from intercuspal position to edge-to-edge protrusive contact position; C. maximal clenching in the edge-to-edge protrusive contact position; D. grinding from edge-to-edge protrusive contact position to intercuspal position; E. grinding from retrusive contact position to intercuspal position. EMG activities in tasks B, C, D, and E were significantly lower than in task A in both muscles (mixed model with unstructured covariance matrix). EMG activity among tasks B, C, D, and E did not show significant differences in both muscles, except between tasks D and E in the masseter muscle. A higher effect was observed on the masseter than on the sternocleidomastoid muscle to avoid excessive muscular activity during clenching and grinding. The EMG patterns observed could be of clinical importance in the presence of parafunctional habits, i.e., clenching and/or grinding.

  4. Multiple OPR genes influence personality traits in substance dependent and healthy subjects in two American populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xingguang; Zuo, Lingjun; Kranzler, Henry; Zhang, Huiping; Wang, Shuang; Gelernter, Joel

    2008-10-05

    Personality traits are among the most complex quantitative traits. Certain personality traits are associated with substance dependence (SD); genetic factors may influence both. Associations between opioid receptor (OPR) genes and SD have been reported. This study investigated the relationship between OPR genes and personality traits in a case-control sample. We assessed dimensions of the five-factor model of personality in 556 subjects: 250 with SD [181 European-Americans (EAs) and 69 African-Americans (AAs)] and 306 healthy subjects (266 EAs and 40 AAs). We genotyped 20 OPRM1 markers, 8 OPRD1 markers, and 7 OPRK1 markers, and 38 unlinked ancestry-informative markers in these subjects. The relationships between OPR genes and personality traits were examined using MANCOVA, controlling for gene-gene interaction effects and potential confounders. Associations were decomposed by Roy-Bargmann Stepdown ANCOVA. We found that personality traits were associated as main or interaction effects with the haplotypes, diplotypes, alleles and genotypes at the three OPR genes (0.002 CAC/TAC had interaction effects on Openness (P = 0.010) after conservative correction for multiple testing. The present study demonstrates that the genes encoding the mu-, delta-, and kappa-opioid receptors may contribute to variation in personality traits. Further, the three OPR genes have significant interaction effects on personality traits. This work provides additional evidence that personality traits and SD have a partially overlapping genetic basis.

  5. [Bristol Stool Chart: Prospective and monocentric study of "stools introspection" in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarenco, G

    2014-09-01

    The Bristol Stool Chart (BSC) allows patients to identify their stool form using seven different images with accompanying written descriptors. Stool form was found to correlate better than stool frequency with whole-gut transit as measured by a radio-opaque marker study. This score is widely used in order to verify the presence of a constipation and to evaluate the therapeutic impact of various treatments. In our clinical practice, we was strongly surprised by the facility and the great precision of the patients to report their stool form, meaning that they usually and daily verify these stools. We wanted to precise the goals of a such attitude. Two questionnaires were proposed to healthy and voluntary subjects. Q1 was supposedly presented in order to verify the sensibility of a French version of BSC in a healthy population. Thus, Q1 precised the difficulties or not to understand pictures and written descriptors, asked about exhaustive analysis by means of BSC of stool form and bowel condition. All subjects with history of ano-rectal disorders or specific treatment for bowel dysfunction were excluded. After Q1 fulfilled, Q2 was proposed to the subjects. Q2 was designed to precise the goals of the patient when he look at his stool and the frequency of such an investigation. Finally a specific question concerning the subject opinion about this behavior in terms of bothersome, shame, or metaphysic interrogation. Eighty-five healthy subjects were recruited (42 female and 43 male). Mean age was 37.2 (sd = 15.7). Mean score of BCS was 2.07 (sd =1.05) (2.07 for female and 1.81 for male, P = 0.22). Number of categories of stool form was only 1 in 40%, 2 categories in 31%, 3 in 19%, 4 in 10%. Presence of a constipation defined by category 1 or 2 was found in 17% (23% in F, 12% in M, P = 0.075). Precision of BSC was noted as excellent in 68%, moderated in 18% and poor in 14%. BSC was considered as easy to use in 75%. Frequency of inspection of feces was systematic for 37%, 1

  6. Parental age effects on odor sensitivity in healthy subjects and schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspina, Dolores; Walsh-Messinger, Julie; Antonius, Daniel; Dracxler, Roberta; Rothman, Karen; Puthota, Jennifer; Gilman, Caitlin; Feuerstein, Jessica L; Keefe, David; Goetz, Deborah; Goetz, Raymond R; Buckley, Peter; Lehrer, Douglas S; Pato, Michele; Pato, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    A schizophrenia phenotype for paternal and maternal age effects on illness risk could benefit etiological research. As odor sensitivity is associated with variability in symptoms and cognition in schizophrenia, we examined if it was related to parental ages in patients and healthy controls. We tested Leukocyte Telomere Length (LTL) as an explanatory factor, as LTL is associated with paternal age and schizophrenia risk. Seventy-five DSM-IV patients and 46 controls were assessed for detection of PEA, WAIS-III for cognition, and LTL, assessed by qPCR. In healthy controls, but not schizophrenia patients, decreasing sensitivity was monotonically related to advancing parental ages, particularly in sons. The relationships between parental aging and odor sensitivity differed significantly for patients and controls (Fisher's R to Z: χ(2)  = 6.95, P = 0.009). The groups also differed in the association of odor sensitivity with cognition; lesser sensitivity robustly predicted cognitive impairments in patients (<0.001), but these were unassociated in controls. LTL was unrelated to odor sensitivity and did not explain the association of lesser sensitivity with cognitive deficits.Parental aging predicted less sensitive detection in healthy subjects but not in schizophrenia patients. In patients, decreased odor sensitivity strongly predicted cognitive deficits, whereas more sensitive acuity was associated with older parents. These data support separate risk pathways for schizophrenia. A parental age-related pathway may produce psychosis without impairing cognition and odor sensitivity. Diminished odor sensitivity may furthermore be useful as a biomarker for research and treatment studies in schizophrenia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Changes in cytokine production in healthy subjects practicing Guolin Qigong : a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Brian M

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guolin Qigong is a combination of meditation, controlled breathing and physical movement designed to control the vital energy (qi of the body and consequently to improve spiritual, physical and mental health. Practice of Qigong has been reported to alter immunological function, but there have been few studies of its effects on cytokines, the key regulators of immunity. Methods Numbers of peripheral blood cytokine-secreting cells were determined by ELISPOT in 19 healthy volunteers aged 27 – 55, before they were taught the practice of Qigong and after 3, 7 and 14 weeks of daily practice. The effect of Qigong on blood cortisol was also examined. Results Numbers of IL4 and IL12-secreting cells remained stable. IL6 increased at 7 weeks and TNFα increased in unstimulated cultures at 3 and 7 weeks but decreased at these times in LPS and SAC-stimulated cultures. Of particular interest, IFNγ-secreting cells increased and IL10-secreting cells decreased in PHA-stimulated cultures, resulting in significant increases in the IFNγ:IL10 ratio. Cortisol, a known inhibitor of type 1 cytokine production, was reduced by practicing Qigong. Conclusion These preliminary studies in healthy subjects, although not necessarily representative of a randomized healthy population and not including a separate control group, have indicated that blood levels of the stress-related hormone cortisol may be lowered by short-term practice of Qigong and that there are concomitant changes in numbers of cytokine-secreting cells. Further studies of the effect of Qigong in patients with clinical diseases known to be associated with type 2 cytokine predominance are merited.

  8. In Vivo Measurement of GABA Transmission in Healthy Subjects and Schizophrenia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankle, W. Gordon; Cho, Raymond Y.; Prasad, Konasale M.; Mason, N. Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L.; Walker, Christopher; Lewis, David A.; Narendran, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Objective Postmortem studies in schizophrenia reveal alterations in gene products that regulate the release and extracellular persistence of GABA. However, results of in vivo studies of schizophrenia measuring total tissue GABA with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have been inconsistent. Neither the postmortem nor the MRS studies directly address the physiological properties of GABA neurotransmission. The present study addresses this question through an innovative positron emission tomography (PET) paradigm. Method The binding of [11C]flumazenil, a benzodiazepine-specific PET radiotracer, was measured before and after administration of tiagabine (0.2 mg/kg of body weight), a GABA membrane transporter (GAT1) blocker, in 17 off-medication patients with schizophrenia and 22 healthy comparison subjects. Increased extracellular GABA, through GAT1 blockade, enhances the affinity of GABAA receptors for benzodiazepine ligands, detected as an increase in [11C]flumazenil tissue distribution volume (VT). Results [11C]Flumazenil VT was significantly increased across all cortical brain regions in the healthy comparison group but not in the schizophrenia group. This lack of effect was most prominent in the antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia group. In this subgroup, [11C]flumazenil ΔVT in the medial temporal lobe was correlated with positive symptoms, and baseline [11C] flumazenil VT in the medial temporal lobe was negatively correlated with visual learning. In the healthy comparison group but not the schizophrenia group, [11C]flumazenil ΔVT was positively associated with gamma-band oscillation power. Conclusions This study demonstrates, for the first time, an in vivo impairment in GABA transmission in schizophrenia, most prominent in antipsychotic-naive individuals. The impairment in GABA transmission appears to be linked to clinical symptoms, disturbances in cortical oscillations, and cognition. PMID:26133962

  9. An oat bran-based beverage reduce postprandial glycaemia equivalent to yoghurt in healthy overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Cecilia; Voinot, Anne; Forslund, Anna; Holst, Olle; Rascón, Ana; Öste, Rickard; Östman, Elin

    2015-01-01

    An acute meal study was performed to determine postprandial glucose and insulin responses after consumption of two fermented oat bran-based beverages (with and without exopolysaccharides) and yoghurt. This randomized, single-blind, within-subject study included 18 healthy, overweight participants. Four breakfast meals, including a reference meal, were tested; all meals contained 50 g of available carbohydrates, but differed in energy and macronutrient composition. All experimental meals reduced the postprandial glucose response compared with the reference meal. The oat drinks as well as the yoghurt elicited higher early (0-15 min) insulin responses, but the overall insulinaemia were similar to the reference meal. A new food product containing fermented liquid oat bran and milk reduced the postprandial blood glucose response as efficiently as yoghurt after a high-glycaemic index white wheat bread meal, but the presence of microbial exopolysaccharides did not affect the outcome.

  10. Dipyridamole dilates large cerebral arteries concomitant to headache induction in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruuse, Christina; Jacobsen, T B; Lassen, L H

    2000-01-01

    Dipyridamole is used for secondary prophylaxis in ischemic stroke and as a vasodilator agent in myocardial scintigraphy. An important side effect to administering dipyridamole is headache. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of dipyridamole on cerebral blood flow, large...... artery diameter, and headache induction. Twelve healthy subjects were included in this single-blind placebo-controlled study in which placebo (0.9% NaCl) and dipyridamole 0.142 mg/kg x min were administered intravenously over 4 minutes 1 hour apart. Blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (Vmax......) was recorded by transcranial Doppler and regional cerebral blood flow in the middle cerebral artery (rCBFmca) was measured using single photon emission computed tomography and 133Xenon-inhalation. Blood pressure, heart rate, and pCO2 were measured repeatedly. Headache response was scored every 10 minutes...

  11. Lack of Correlation Between Vasodilatation and Pharmacologically Induced Immediate Headache in Healthy Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashina, Messoud; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Dalgaard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: The causal relationship between experimental headache and vasodilatation has not been fully clarified. In the present study, we combined headache and vascular data from eight experimental studies and conducted detailed statistical analyses. Given that substances used in all...... these experiments were vasodilators we examined a possible correlation between headache scores and increases in arterial diameter. Methods: We identified nine studies and retrieved raw data in 89 healthy subjects (46 females, 43 males), mean age 27 years (range 18–59 years). The following variables were collected......: maximal median headache intensity scores on a verbal rating scale (VRS) during immediate headache (0–120 minutes); the mean velocity of blood flow in the middle cerebral artery (VmeanMCA); and the diameter of the frontal branch of the superficial temporal artery (STA) during the maximal median headache...

  12. A comprehensive compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahidi, O; Kwok, K E; Gopaluni, R B

    2016-01-01

    We have expanded a former compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. The former model was a detailed physiological model which considered the interactions of three substances, glucose, insulin and glucagon on regulating the blood sugar. The main...... drawback of the former model was its restriction on the route of glucose entrance to the body which was limited to the intravenous glucose injection. To handle the oral glucose intake, we have added a model of glucose absorption in the gastrointestinal tract to the former model to address the resultant...... variations of blood glucose concentrations following an oral glucose intake. Another model representing the incretins production in the gastrointestinal tract along with their hormonal effects on boosting pancreatic insulin production is also added to the former model. We have used two sets of clinical data...

  13. Unprecedented high insulin secretion in a healthy human subject after intravenous glucagon-like peptide-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip K; Lund, Asger; Madsbad, Sten

    2014-01-01

    to as one of the most insulinotropic substances known. CASE PRESENTATION: Plasma insulin and C-peptide concentrations were measured in a healthy Caucasian male (age: 53 years; body mass index: 28.6 kg/m2; fasting plasma glucose: 5.7 mM; 2 h plasma glucose value following 75 g-oral glucose tolerance test: 3...... insulin and C-peptide responses were observed during meal test (peak concentrations: 300 and 3,278 pM) and glucagon test (peak concentrations: 250 and 2,483 pM). During the hyperglycaemic clamp with continuous intravenous infusion of GLP-1 the subject exhibited plasma insulin and C-peptide concentrations...

  14. Orlistat accelerates gastric emptying and attenuates GIP release in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enç, Feruze Yilmaz; Ones, Tunç; Akin, H Levent;

    2008-01-01

    Orlistat, an inhibitor of digestive lipases, is widely used for the treatment of obesity. Previous reports on the effect of orally ingested orlistat together with a meal on gastric emptying and secretion of gut peptides that modulate postprandial responses are controversial. We investigated...... the effect of ingested orlistat on gastric emptying and plasma responses of gut peptides in response to a solid mixed meal with a moderate energy load. In healthy subjects, gastric emptying was determined using scintigraphy and studies were performed without and with 120 mg of orlistat in pellet form...... in random order. Orlistat shortened t lag and t half and decreased the area under the gastric emptying curve. Orlistat significantly attenuated the secretion of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) but did not alter the plasma responses of cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1...

  15. Absence of food effect on the pharmacokinetics of telbivudine following oral administration in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Jian; Lloyd, Deborah M; Chao, George C; Brown, Nathaniel A

    2006-03-01

    The influence of food on the pharmacokinetics of telbivudine, a candidate antiviral agent against hepatitis B virus (HBV), was investigated in healthy adult subjects following a 600-mg oral dose administered with and without a high-fat/high-calorie meal. Telbivudine was well tolerated under fasting and fed conditions. Oral absorption of telbivudine as measured by maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), time to reach Cmax (Tmax), and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-t) and AUC(0-infinity)) was not altered by food intake immediately before oral dosing. Values of Cmax, Tmax, and AUC were comparable when telbivudine was administered under fed and fasting conditions. Results from this study indicated that the absorption of telbivudine was not affected by a high-fat/high-calorie meal; telbivudine can therefore be administered orally with no regard to the timing of meals.

  16. Test-retest reliability and task order effects of emotional cognitive tests in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Thomas; Pounder, Zoe; Preston, Sally; Hanson, Andy; Gallagher, Peter; Harmer, Catherine J; McAllister-Williams, R Hamish

    2016-11-01

    Little is known of the retest reliability of emotional cognitive tasks or the impact of using different tasks employing similar emotional stimuli within a battery. We investigated this in healthy subjects. We found improved overall performance in an emotional attentional blink task (EABT) with repeat testing at one hour and one week compared to baseline, but the impact of an emotional stimulus on performance was unchanged. Similarly, performance on a facial expression recognition task (FERT) was better one week after a baseline test, though the relative effect of specific emotions was unaltered. There was no effect of repeat testing on an emotional word categorising, recall and recognition task. We found no difference in performance in the FERT and EABT irrespective of task order. We concluded that it is possible to use emotional cognitive tasks in longitudinal studies and combine tasks using emotional facial stimuli in a single battery.

  17. Normative perceptual estimates for 91 healthy subjects age 60-75

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda; Nielsen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Visual perception serves as the basis for much of the higher level cognitive processing as well as human activity in general. Here we present normative estimates for the following components of visual perception: the visual perceptual threshold, the visual short-term memory capacity and the visual...... perceptual encoding/decoding speed (processing speed) of visual short-term memory based on an assessment of 91 healthy subjects aged 60-75. The estimates are presented at total sample level as well as at gender level. The estimates were modelled from input from a whole-report assessment based on A Theory...... speed of Visual Short-term Memory (VTSM) but not the capacity of VSTM nor the visual threshold. The estimates will be useful for future studies into the effects of various types of intervention and training on cognition in general and visual attention in particular....

  18. [Continuous nocturnal automassage of an acupuncture point modifies sleep in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buguet, A; Sartre, M; Le Kerneau, J

    1995-01-01

    To test the somnogenic properties of the automassage of point 7 heart of acupuncture, polygraphic night sleep was studied in six healthy volunteers (age: 27.8 +/- 1.6 years) from 23:00 h to 07:00 h. After one night of adaptation, two PEBA cones (Polyether Block Amides; Isocones) were fixed bilaterally at both points 7 heart (active application, AA) or on the back of hand (placebo application, AP). The alternate application was used 2 weeks later, using a randomized, double-blind, and cross-over protocol. Cyclic alternating patterns (CAP) were also analysed on the electroencephalogram during non-REM sleep. Sleep efficiency increased in AA, due to a decrease in wakefulness, and an increase in total sleep time due to an increase in non-REM sleep. The number of CAP decreased in AA, as did the number of CAP sequences and the ratio of CAP duration to total sleep time (CAP rate) and to the duration of slow-wave sleep. In conclusion, the application of Isocones at point 7 heart during the night induced a decrease in wakefulness and an increase in non-REM sleep during night sleep in healthy subjects.

  19. Cardiovascular and Thermal Response to Dry-Sauna Exposure in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Zalewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry-sauna is a strong thermal stimulus and is commonly used all over the world. The aim of this experiment was to comprehensively analyse cardiovascular and autonomic changes that result from an increase in core body temperature during sauna bath. The study included 9 healthy men with mean age 26.7 ± 3.0 years and comparable anthropomorphical characteristics. Each subject was exposed to one 15-minute session of dry-sauna treatment at 100°C and 30–40% humidity. The autonomic and baseline cardiovascular (i.e., hemodynamic and contractility parameters were measured noninvasively with Task Force Monitor. Cardiovascular autonomic functions were assessed using baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS and spectral analysis of heart rate (HRV and blood pressure (BPV variability. Measurements were performed four times, at the following stages “before sauna,” “after sauna,” “sauna + 3 h,” and “sauna + 6 h.” The first recording constituted a baseline for the subsequent three measurements. The changes in core body temperature were determined with the Vital Sense telemetric measurement system. Results show that exposure to the extreme external environmental conditions of dry-sauna does not compromise homeostasis in healthy persons. The hemodynamic changes induced by heating are efficiently compensated by the cardiovascular system and do not exert negative effects upon its short-term regulatory potential.

  20. Bradykinin or acetylcholine as vasodilators to test endothelial venous function in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneida R. Rabelo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The evaluation of endothelial function has been performed in the arterial bed, but recently evaluation within the venous system has also been explored. Endothelial function studies employ different drugs that act as endothelium-dependent vasodilatory response inductors. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to compare the endothelium-dependent venous vasodilator response mediated by either acetylcholine or bradykinin in healthy volunteers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Changes in vein diameter after phenylephrine-induced venoconstriction were measured to compare venodilation induced by acetylcholine or bradykinin (linear variable differential transformer dorsal hand vein technique. We studied 23 healthy volunteers; 31% were male, and the subject had a mean age of 33 ± 8 years and a mean body mass index of 23 ± 2 kg/m². The maximum endothelium-dependent venodilation was similar for both drugs (p = 0.13, as well as the mean responses for each dose of both drugs (r = 0.96. The maximum responses to acetylcholine and bradykinin also had good agreement. CONCLUSION: There were no differences between acetylcholine and bradykinin as venodilators in this endothelial venous function investigation.

  1. Pharmacokinetic interactions between primaquine and pyronaridine-artesunate in healthy adult Thai subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittamala, Podjanee; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Ashley, Elizabeth A; Nosten, François; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Lee, Sue J; Thana, Praiya; Chairat, Kalayanee; Blessborn, Daniel; Panapipat, Salwaluk; White, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P J; Tarning, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Pyronaridine-artesunate is a newly introduced artemisinin-based combination treatment which may be deployed together with primaquine. A single-dose, randomized, three-sequence crossover study was conducted in healthy Thai volunteers to characterize potential pharmacokinetic interactions between these drugs. Seventeen healthy adults received a single oral dose of primaquine alone (30 mg base) and were then randomized to receive pyronaridine-artesunate alone (540-180 mg) or pyronaridine-artesunate plus primaquine in combination, with intervening washout periods between all treatments. The pharmacokinetic properties of primaquine, its metabolite carboxyprimaquine, artesunate, its metabolite dihydroartemisinin, and pyronaridine were assessed in 15 subjects using a noncompartmental approach followed by a bioequivalence evaluation. All drugs were well tolerated. The single oral dose of primaquine did not result in any clinically relevant pharmacokinetic alterations to pyronaridine, artesunate, or dihydroartemisinin exposures. There were significantly higher primaquine maximum plasma drug concentrations (geometric mean ratio, 30%; 90% confidence interval [CI], 17% to 46%) and total exposures (15%; 6.4% to 24%) during coadministration with pyronaridine-artesunate than when primaquine was given alone. Pyronaridine, like chloroquine and piperaquine, increases plasma primaquine concentrations. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01552330.).

  2. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Primaquine and Pyronaridine-Artesunate in Healthy Adult Thai Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittamala, Podjanee; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Ashley, Elizabeth A.; Nosten, François; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Lee, Sue J.; Thana, Praiya; Chairat, Kalayanee; Blessborn, Daniel; Panapipat, Salwaluk; White, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Pyronaridine-artesunate is a newly introduced artemisinin-based combination treatment which may be deployed together with primaquine. A single-dose, randomized, three-sequence crossover study was conducted in healthy Thai volunteers to characterize potential pharmacokinetic interactions between these drugs. Seventeen healthy adults received a single oral dose of primaquine alone (30 mg base) and were then randomized to receive pyronaridine-artesunate alone (540−180 mg) or pyronaridine-artesunate plus primaquine in combination, with intervening washout periods between all treatments. The pharmacokinetic properties of primaquine, its metabolite carboxyprimaquine, artesunate, its metabolite dihydroartemisinin, and pyronaridine were assessed in 15 subjects using a noncompartmental approach followed by a bioequivalence evaluation. All drugs were well tolerated. The single oral dose of primaquine did not result in any clinically relevant pharmacokinetic alterations to pyronaridine, artesunate, or dihydroartemisinin exposures. There were significantly higher primaquine maximum plasma drug concentrations (geometric mean ratio, 30%; 90% confidence interval [CI], 17% to 46%) and total exposures (15%; 6.4% to 24%) during coadministration with pyronaridine-artesunate than when primaquine was given alone. Pyronaridine, like chloroquine and piperaquine, increases plasma primaquine concentrations. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01552330.) PMID:25385096

  3. Does green tea affect postprandial glucose, insulin and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindstedt Sandra

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results of epidemiological studies have suggested that consumption of green tea could lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. Intervention studies show that green tea may decrease blood glucose levels, and also increase satiety. This study was conducted to examine the postprandial effects of green tea on glucose levels, glycemic index, insulin levels and satiety in healthy individuals after the consumption of a meal including green tea. Methods The study was conducted on 14 healthy volunteers, with a crossover design. Participants were randomized to either 300 ml of green tea or water. This was consumed together with a breakfast consisting of white bread and sliced turkey. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Participants completed several different satiety score scales at the same times. Results Plasma glucose levels were higher 120 min after ingestion of the meal with green tea than after the ingestion of the meal with water. No significant differences were found in serum insulin levels, or the area under the curve for glucose or insulin. Subjects reported significantly higher satiety, having a less strong desire to eat their favorite food and finding it less pleasant to eat another mouthful of the same food after drinking green tea compared to water. Conclusions Green tea showed no glucose or insulin-lowering effect. However, increased satiety and fullness were reported by the participants after the consumption of green tea. Trial registration number NCT01086189

  4. High dose of prebiotics reduces fecal water cytotoxicity in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windey, Karen; François, Isabelle; Broekaert, Willem; De Preter, Vicky; Delcour, Jan A; Louat, Thierry; Herman, Jean; Verbeke, Kristin

    2014-11-01

    In vitro and animal studies have shown differential colonic fermentation of structurally different prebiotics. We evaluated the impact of two structurally different prebiotics (wheat bran extract (WBE, containing arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides) and oligofructose) on colonic fermentation and markers of bowel health in healthy volunteers. Nineteen healthy subjects completed a double-blind, cross-over randomized controlled trial. Interventions with WBE, oligofructose or placebo for 2 wk (week 1: 15 g/day; week 2: 30 g/day) were separated by 2-wk wash-out periods. At the end of each study period, colonic fermentation was characterized through a metabolomics approach. Fecal water genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were determined using the comet and WST-1 assay, respectively, as parameters of gut health. Cluster analysis revealed differences in effects of WBE and oligofructose on colonic fermentation. WBE, but not oligofructose, reduced fecal p-cresol (p = 0.009) and isovaleric acid concentrations (p = 0.022), markers of protein fermentation. Fecal water cytotoxicity was significantly lower after intake of WBE (p = 0.015). Both WBE- and oligofructose-intake tended to reduce fecal water genotoxicity compared to placebo (WBE: p = 0.060; oligofructose: p = 0.057). Changes in fermentation were not related to changes in fecal water toxicity. Structurally different prebiotics affect colonic fermentation and gut health in a different way. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Total Extracellular Small RNA Profiles from Plasma, Saliva, and Urine of Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeri, Ashish; Courtright, Amanda; Reiman, Rebecca; Carlson, Elizabeth; Beecroft, Taylor; Janss, Alex; Siniard, Ashley; Richholt, Ryan; Balak, Chris; Rozowsky, Joel; Kitchen, Robert; Hutchins, Elizabeth; Winarta, Joseph; McCoy, Roger; Anastasi, Matthew; Kim, Seungchan; Huentelman, Matthew; Van Keuren-Jensen, Kendall

    2017-01-01

    Interest in circulating RNAs for monitoring and diagnosing human health has grown significantly. There are few datasets describing baseline expression levels for total cell-free circulating RNA from healthy control subjects. In this study, total extracellular RNA (exRNA) was isolated and sequenced from 183 plasma samples, 204 urine samples and 46 saliva samples from 55 male college athletes ages 18–25 years. Many participants provided more than one sample, allowing us to investigate variability in an individual’s exRNA expression levels over time. Here we provide a systematic analysis of small exRNAs present in each biofluid, as well as an analysis of exogenous RNAs. The small RNA profile of each biofluid is distinct. We find that a large number of RNA fragments in plasma (63%) and urine (54%) have sequences that are assigned to YRNA and tRNA fragments respectively. Surprisingly, while many miRNAs can be detected, there are few miRNAs that are consistently detected in all samples from a single biofluid, and profiles of miRNA are different for each biofluid. Not unexpectedly, saliva samples have high levels of exogenous sequence that can be traced to bacteria. These data significantly contribute to the current number of sequenced exRNA samples from normal healthy individuals. PMID:28303895

  6. Effects among healthy subjects of the duration of regularly practicing a guided imagery program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirakawa Taro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined a large number of healthy adults in the general community who had individually participated in a guided imagery (GI program daily and for various durations, to examine the psychophysiological effects of a GI program within a healthy group. Methods We studied 176 subjects who had participated in sessions that were part of a guided imagery program, and who had practiced GI at home for 20 minutes once daily in a quiet place after mastering GI in the group sessions. The average duration of GI practiced at home was 6.88 ± 14.06 months (n = 138, range: 0 to 72. The Multiple Mood Scale (MMS, Betts (1909 Shortened Questionnaire on Mental Imagery (QMI, and a visual analog scale (VAS of imagery vividness, salivary cortisol (CS levels, general stress and general health were used in the sessions. Results We examined the relationship between the duration of daily GI practiced at home and MMS, QMI, CS, general health, and general stress at baseline. The subjects who had practiced GI at home longer had lower negative mood scores at baseline and lower severity of stress, and higher positive mood at baseline (both at a session and at home, general health, and QMI scores at baseline. The MMS change during a session and the duration of daily GI practiced at home were not correlated. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance showed that the duration of daily GI practiced as the covariate was not associated with changes in the three CS levels. Conclusion Although regularly practicing a GI program daily for 20 min did not affect the CS level or mood during a GI session for several hours, it kept a good condition of the general mental, physical well-being and their overall stress of the practitioners as they had practiced it for long duration. We postulate that subjects who have the high ability of imaging vividness showed the better mood, health status and less stress than those subjects who have the low ability of it did. The ability

  7. Ketamine Decreases Resting State Functional Network Connectivity in Healthy Subjects: Implications for Antidepressant Drug Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Martin; Lehmann, Mick; Metzger, Coraline; Grimm, Simone; Boeker, Heinz; Boesiger, Peter; Henning, Anke; Seifritz, Erich

    2012-01-01

    Increasing preclinical and clinical evidence underscores the strong and rapid antidepressant properties of the glutamate-modulating NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. Targeting the glutamatergic system might thus provide a novel molecular strategy for antidepressant treatment. Since glutamate is the most abundant and major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, pathophysiological changes in glutamatergic signaling are likely to affect neurobehavioral plasticity, information processing and large-scale changes in functional brain connectivity underlying certain symptoms of major depressive disorder. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI), the „dorsal nexus “(DN) was recently identified as a bilateral dorsal medial prefrontal cortex region showing dramatically increased depression-associated functional connectivity with large portions of a cognitive control network (CCN), the default mode network (DMN), and a rostral affective network (AN). Hence, Sheline and colleagues (2010) proposed that reducing increased connectivity of the DN might play a critical role in reducing depression symptomatology and thus represent a potential therapy target for affective disorders. Here, using a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover rsfMRI challenge in healthy subjects we demonstrate that ketamine decreases functional connectivity of the DMN to the DN and to the pregenual anterior cingulate (PACC) and medioprefrontal cortex (MPFC) via its representative hub, the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). These findings in healthy subjects may serve as a model to elucidate potential biomechanisms that are addressed by successful treatment of major depression. This notion is further supported by the temporal overlap of our observation of subacute functional network modulation after 24 hours with the peak of efficacy following an intravenous ketamine administration in treatment-resistant depression. PMID:23049758

  8. Ipsilateral and contralateral sensory changes in healthy subjects after experimentally induced concomitant sensitization and hypoesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enax-Krumova, Elena K; Pohl, Stephanie; Westermann, Andrea; Maier, Christoph

    2017-03-23

    In unilateral neuropathic pain. e.g. after peripheral nerve injury, both positive and negative sensory signs occur often, accompanied by minor but equally directed contralateral sensory changes. To mimic this feature, we experimentally aimed to induce concomitant c-fibre sensitization and block in healthy subjects and analyzed the bilateral sensory changes by quantitative sensory testing (QST) using the protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain. Twenty eight healthy subjects were firstly randomized in 2 groups to receive either topical capsaicin (0.6%, 12 cm(2), application duration: 15 min.) or a lidocaine/prilocaine patch (25/25 mg, 10 cm(2), application duration: 60 min.) on the right volar forearm. Secondly, 7-14 days later in the same area either at first capsaicin (for 15 min.) and immediately afterwards local anesthetics (for 60 min.) was applied (Cap/LA), or in inversed order with the same application duration (LA/Cap). Before, after each application and 7-14 days later a QST was performed bilaterally. Wilcoxon-test, ANOVA, p sensory changes occurred only after the co-application with concomitant sensitization and hypoesthesia and comprised increased cold (Cap/LA, LA/Cap) and mechanical detection as well as cold pain threshold (LA/Cap). The present experimental model using combined application of capsaicin and LA imitates partly the complex sensory changes observed in patients with unilateral neuropathic pain and might be used as an additional surrogate model. Only the concomitant use both agents in the same area induces both positive and negative sensory signs ipsilaterally as well as parallel contralateral sensory changes (to a lesser extent). ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01540877 , registered on 23 February 2012.

  9. Hidden truth of circulating neutrophils (polymorphonuclear neutrophil function in periodontally healthy smoker subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Tobacco smoking is considered to be a major risk factor associated with periodontal disease. Smoking exerts a major effect on the protective elements of the immune response, resulting in an increase in the extent and severity of periodontal destruction. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess viability and phagocytic function of neutrophils in circulating blood of the smokers and nonsmokers who are periodontally healthy. Settings and Design: Two hundred subjects in the mean range of 20–30 years of age were included in the study population. It was a retrospective study carried out for 6 months. Materials and Methods: Two hundred subjects were divided into four groups: 50 nonsmokers, 50 light smokers (15 cigarettes/day. Full mouth plaque index, sulcus bleeding index, and probing depths were measured. Percentage viability of circulating neutrophils and average number of phagocytosed Candida albicans were recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: Means and standard deviations were calculated from data obtained within the groups. Comparison between the smokers and nonsmokers was performed by Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA analysis. Comparison between smoker groups was performed using Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon test. Results: Percentage viability of neutrophils was significantly less in heavy smokers (66.9 ± 4.0, moderate (76.6 ± 4.2, light smokers (83.1 ± 2.5 as compared to nonsmokers (92.3 ± 2.6 (P < 0.01. The ability of neutrophils to phagocytose, i.e., mean particle number was significantly less in light smokers (3.5 ± 0.5, moderate smokers (2.3 ± 0.5, and heavy smokers (1.4 ± 0.5 compared to nonsmokers (4.9 ± 0.7 (P < 0.01 with evidence of dose-response effect. Conclusions: Smoking significantly affects neutrophils viability and phagocytic function in periodontally healthy population.

  10. Plasma Potassium Levels in Healthy Prehypertension Subjects and the Role of A High Potassium Drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farapti, Farapti; Sayogo, Savitri; Siregar, Parlindungan

    2017-02-24

    Most populations around the world consume less than the recommended levels of potassium. Long term low potassium intake could lead to decreased plasma potassium levels and induce hypokalemia. The increasing of plasma potassium levels 0,2-0,4 mmol/L by improving potassium intake decreased significantly blood pressure (BP). Assessing plasma potassium levels in healthy people related to potassium intake have not been studied. In this study, we analysed plasma potassium levels in prehypertension (PHT) subjects and to evaluate the effect of tender coconut water (TCW) as a high potassium drink on plasma potassium levels in PHT adults. Thirthy-two female aged 25-44 years were randomly allocated to 14 days on TCW or water in a parallel randomized clinical trial . The treatment (T) group received TCW 300 ml twice daily and the control (C) group received water 300 ml twice daily too. At baseline, plasma potassium levels was 3.71±0.41 mmol/L, and 22.58% were categorized as hypokalemia. After 14 days treatment, potassium plasma level between T and C groups were not significantly different (p=0,247). The change of plasma potassium levels in both groups showed tendency to increase but not statistically significant (p=0.166). In healthy prehypertension women, the low levels of potassium plasma may be caused by low potassium intake for long time and intervension with TCW 300 ml twice daily for 14 consecutive days has not proven yet to increase plasma potassium levels. It is necessary to give higher dose and longer time to increase potassium plasma in low potassium plasma level subjects.

  11. Effects of Twenty Days of the Ketogenic Diet on Metabolic and Respiratory Parameters in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandro, Rubini; Gerardo, Bosco; Alessandra, Lodi; Lorenzo, Cenci; Andrea, Parmagnani; Keith, Grimaldi; Yang, Zhongjin; Antonio, Paoli

    2015-12-01

    The effects of the ketogenic diet (KD) on weight loss, metabolic, and respiratory parameters were investigated in healthy subjects. Thirty-two healthy subjects were randomized into two groups. The KD group followed a ketogenic diet for 20 days (KD t 0-t 20), then switched to a low-carbohydrate, no-ketogenic diet for 20 days (KD t 20-t 40), and finally was on a Mediterranean diet (MD) for 2 more months (KD t 40-t 2m). The MD group followed a MD for 20 days (MD t 0-t 20), then followed a MD of 1400 kcal over the next 20 days (MD t 20-t 40), and completed the study with the MD for 2 months (MD t 40-t 2m). Body weight, body fat, respiratory rate, and respiratory gas parameters (including respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide end-tidal partial pressure (PETCO2), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), and resting energy expenditure (REE)) were measured at each point. A significant decrease (p < 0.05) in RER was observed after 20 and 40 days in the KD group, but not in the MD group. In the KD group, significant reductions were observed for both carbon dioxide output and PETCO2, however, there was no significant change in VO2, VCO2, and REE. While both diets significantly decreased body fat mass, the KD diet overall proved to have a higher percentage of fat loss versus the MD diet. The KD may significantly decrease carbon dioxide body stores, which may theoretically be beneficial for patients with increased carbon dioxide arterial partial pressure due to respiratory insufficiency or failure.

  12. Effect of absorption site on the pharmacokinetics of sublingual asenapine in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, Mireille; de Greef, Rik; Peeters, Pierre

    2010-07-01

    Asenapine is a psychopharmacologic agent approved in the United States for the acute treatment of schizophrenia in adults and the acute treatment of manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder with or without psychotic features in adults. It is pending approval for the treatment of schizophrenia and manic episodes associated with bipolar I disorder in Europe. Asenapine is administered as a sublingual formulation. To determine whether the pharmacokinetics of asenapine are impacted by placing the tablet buccally ('cheeking') or allowing the tablet to dissolve on the top of the tongue, pharmacokinetics were compared following buccal and supralingual administration versus sublingual administration. In this open-label, randomized, 3-way crossover trial, healthy men (n=36) received single 5 mg doses of asenapine via sublingual, supralingual and buccal routes, at least 1 week apart. With buccal administration, the area under the concentration-over-time curve (AUC(0-infinity)) and peak concentration (C(max)) were, respectively, 24%, and 19% higher than with sublingual administration; these routes were not bioequivalent. With supralingual administration, AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) were 6% and 13% lower than with sublingual administration; bioequivalence was established based on AUC(0-infinity) only; bioequivalence based on C(max) could not be assessed due to 40% within-subject variability. The most common adverse events were oral paresthesia (sublingual, 75.8%; supralingual, 55.9%; buccal, 45.7%) and somnolence (81.8%; 76.5%; 68.6%). Compared with the recommended sublingual route of asenapine administration, exposure was 24% higher with buccal administration and comparable to supralingual administration. However, differences in exposure associated with variable placement in the oral cavity did not compromise safety in healthy subjects.

  13. Myoelectric manifestations of jaw elevator muscle fatigue and recovery in healthy and TMD subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castroflorio, T; Falla, D; Tartaglia, G M; Sforza, C; Deregibus, A

    2012-09-01

    The effects of muscle pain and fatigue on the control of jaw elevator muscles are not well known. Furthermore, the myoelectric manifestations of fatigue and recovery from fatigue in the masticatory muscles are not reported in literature. The main aims of this study were (i) to evaluate the possible use of surface electromyography (sEMG) as an objective measure of fatigue of the jaw elevator muscles, (ii) to compare the myoelectric manifestations of fatigue in the temporalis anterior and masseter muscles bilaterally, (iii) to assess recovery of the investigated muscles after an endurance test and (iv) to compare fatigue and recovery of the jaw elevator muscles in healthy subjects and patients with muscle-related temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The study was performed on twenty healthy volunteers and eighteen patients with muscle-related TMD. An intra-oral compressive-force sensor was used to measure the voluntary contraction forces close to the intercuspal position and to provide visual feedback of submaximal forces to the subject. Surface EMG signals were recorded with linear electrode arrays during isometric contractions at 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of the maximum voluntary contraction force, during an endurance test and during the recovery phase. The results showed that (i) the slope of the mean power spectral frequency (MNF) and the initial average rectified value (ARV) could be used to monitor fatigue of the jaw elevators, (ii) the temporalis anterior and masseter muscle show the same myoelectric manifestations of fatigue and recovery and (iii) the initial values of MNF and ARV were lower in patients with muscle-related TMD. The assessment of myoelectric manifestations of fatigue in the masticatory muscles may assist in the clinical assessment of TMDs.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole in Chinese healthy subjects in relation to CYP2C19 genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-rong HU; Hai-ling QIAO; Quan-cheng KAN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the kinetic characteristics of lansoprazole in healthy Chinese subjects in relation to CYP2C19 genotype status for the individualized dose regimen of lansoprazole. METHODS: Nine homozygous extensive metabolizers (homo EMs) and 9 poor metabolizers (PMs) were recruited for the study from a total of 70 healthy Chinese volunteers, whose CYP2C19 genotype status was determined by the PCR-RFLP techniques. After a single oral dose of 30 mg lansoprazole capsule, plasma concentrations of lansoprazole were determined with HPLC method. RESULTS: In Chinese subjects, the allele frequencies of the CYP2C19ml and CYP2C19m2 mutation were 0.35 and 0.07, respectively. The concentration-time curves in the two groups were best fitted to a one-compartment model. In the homo EMs and the PMs groups, the main kinetic parameters were as follows: Tmax(2.44±0.85)and (2.33±0.94) h, Cmax (1.10±0.34) and (1.73±0.56) mg/L, Cl/F (16.55±6.38) and (3.58± 1) L/h, T1/2ke (1.96±0.51)Cmax values existed between the two groups (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: CYP2C19 genotype is the major factor to influence the interindividual kinetic variability of lansoprazole. Individualized dose regimen of lansoprazole, based on identification of genotype, can be of great benefit for the reasonable use of this drug.

  15. Clinical pharmacokinetics and tolerability of dotarizine in healthy subjects after single and multiple oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, M; Roset, P N; Llorente, M; Márquez, M; Albet, C; Pérez, J A; Herrero, E; Ortíz, J A

    1997-06-01

    Dotarizine is a new diphenylmethylpiperazine derivative with Ca2+ channel blocking properties and inhibitory effects on 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. Previous pilot studies in healthy volunteers demonstrated a good tolerability after single and multiple dosing. Dotarizine appeared to be rapidly and extensively metabolized to an active compound (FI-6020). We aimed to study the physiologic, subjective and psychomotor acute effects of oral dotarizine after single dose administration, to evaluate the tolerability and safety after multiple dosing over 2 weeks, and to study the pharmacokinetic parameters and linearity after single and multiple administration. Two different studies were carried out in 2 groups of 8 healthy male volunteers. Oral single doses of dotarizine 50, 100 and 200 mg were administered in a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial. Oral doses of 50 mg twice daily were administered in an open trial over 14 days. Drug effect assessments included vital signs, collection of adverse events, ECG and blood and urine safety evaluations, subjective effects, psychomotor performance tasks and blood sampling. Dotarizine and its metabolite were determined by gas chromatography with N-P detector. The results showed a good tolerability of dotarizine after single oral doses as well as multiple oral doses over 14 days. No clinically relevant adverse events were reported during the study. The highest single dose (200 mg) produced a slight increase in sedation-related symptoms as well as a slight impairment in psychomotor performance tasks. Dotarizine and its major metabolite proved linear kinetics at single doses. The administration of oral doses of dotarizine 50 mg b.i.d. reached the steady state after the 7th day of treatment. The pharmacokinetic parameters remained similar from day 7 to day 14. The terminal elimination half-life of dotarizine and its metabolite appeared to be between 7 and 12 h.

  16. Effects of subclinical depression, anxiety and somatization on brain structure in healthy subjects.

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    Besteher, Bianca; Gaser, Christian; Langbein, Kerstin; Dietzek, Maren; Sauer, Heinrich; Nenadić, Igor

    2017-06-01

    Dimensional approaches in highly prevalent psychiatric disorders like depression or anxiety could lead to a better understanding of pathogenesis and advantages in early detection and prevention. In an effort to better understand associations of brain structural variation across the depression/anxiety spectra, we investigated minor subclinical symptoms in a non-clinical healthy population. We studied 177 healthy subjects from the community, who underwent high-resolution T1-weighted 3T MRI and completed the symptom-checklist-90 (SCL-90-R). Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis with CAT12 software, we correlated SCL-90-R-subscales for depression, anxiety, and somatization with gray matter across the brain. Significant positive gray matter correlations emerged across all three scales in different areas: the depression subscale correlated positively with gray matter in the Rolandic operculum, superior temporal gyrus (left) and postcentral gyrus (bilateral), the anxiety subscale correlated positively with middle temporal gyrus, Rolandic operculum, middle cingular gyrus and precuneus bilaterally, and the somatization subscale with left inferior prefrontal cortex. Somatization also showed negative correlations with cerebellar vermis and right supplementary motor area. Our study is limited to VBM and does not include surface-based measures. It also only contains subjects with very small psychological distress by partly overlapping symptoms. Our findings are consistent with a non-linear relationship between symptom severity and cortical volume in several brain areas involved in both emotion regulation as well as altered in clinically manifest depressive/anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ketamine decreases resting state functional network connectivity in healthy subjects: implications for antidepressant drug action.

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    Milan Scheidegger

    Full Text Available Increasing preclinical and clinical evidence underscores the strong and rapid antidepressant properties of the glutamate-modulating NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. Targeting the glutamatergic system might thus provide a novel molecular strategy for antidepressant treatment. Since glutamate is the most abundant and major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, pathophysiological changes in glutamatergic signaling are likely to affect neurobehavioral plasticity, information processing and large-scale changes in functional brain connectivity underlying certain symptoms of major depressive disorder. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI, the "dorsal nexus "(DN was recently identified as a bilateral dorsal medial prefrontal cortex region showing dramatically increased depression-associated functional connectivity with large portions of a cognitive control network (CCN, the default mode network (DMN, and a rostral affective network (AN. Hence, Sheline and colleagues (2010 proposed that reducing increased connectivity of the DN might play a critical role in reducing depression symptomatology and thus represent a potential therapy target for affective disorders. Here, using a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover rsfMRI challenge in healthy subjects we demonstrate that ketamine decreases functional connectivity of the DMN to the DN and to the pregenual anterior cingulate (PACC and medioprefrontal cortex (MPFC via its representative hub, the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. These findings in healthy subjects may serve as a model to elucidate potential biomechanisms that are addressed by successful treatment of major depression. This notion is further supported by the temporal overlap of our observation of subacute functional network modulation after 24 hours with the peak of efficacy following an intravenous ketamine administration in treatment-resistant depression.

  18. Relationships between torque, velocity and power output during plantarflexion in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, S; Gravel, D; Arsenault, A B

    1997-03-01

    This study investigated the relationships existing between torque, velocity and power output during plantarflexion. Using a Biodex dynamometric system, 15 healthy subjects performed three maximal dynamic tests, ranging from -12 degrees (-0.209 rad) of dorsiflexion to +47 degrees (+0.818 rad) of plantarflexion and one static test (test 4) at an angle of +10 degrees (+0.174 rad). The dynamic assessment included a 30 degrees s-1 (0.52 rad s-1) concentric isokinetic test (test 1) preceded by a 2-sec maximal pre-loading contraction. The other two dynamic tests were performed using the isotonic mode of testing with a selected torque of 27 N m; one of these tests was executed with pre-loading (test 2) while the other was performed without pre-loading (test 3). The results indicated that the dynamic peak torque, the peak power and the peak velocity were obtained in test 1, test 2 and test 3, respectively. These peak values, as well as the values of torque (test 1 and test 4), power (test 2) and velocity (test 3) obtained at a constant angle +10 degrees (+0.174 rad), were selected for the correlation analyses. The results showed that the torque, velocity and power output during plantarflexion were linearly related to one another with significant correlations (0.71 < r < 0.92; p < 0.01). This finding suggests that a common factor of muscular performance is assessed. Furthermore, these results indicated that the maximal torque produced by a subject can be predictive of his or her maximal velocity and power. Consequently, a stronger subject can generate higher velocity and power than a weaker subject when tested with the same load during maximal effort.

  19. Evaluation of biological variation of glycated albumin (GA) and fructosamine in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnana, Martina; Paleari, Renata; Danese, Elisa; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Lippi, Giuseppe; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Mosca, Andrea

    2013-08-23

    Glycated albumin (GA) and fructosamine are nonenzymatically glycated proteins still frequently utilized for monitoring glycemic control in diabetics. To investigate the analytical variation and the degree of individuality of these glycemic markers, we have performed an experimental study under a well designed and standardized protocol. We collected five specimens from each of 18 apparently healthy subjects (9 men and 9 women, ages 26-52 years), on the same day, every two weeks for two months. Samples were stored at -80°C until analysis and assayed in duplicate in a single analytical run. GA and fructosamine were measured using enzymatic (Lucica®GA-L, Asahi Kasei Pharma, AKP, Tokyo, Japan) and colorimetric assays, respectively, on a Modular P Roche system (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany). Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Analytical coefficient of variation (CVA) was 1.7%, 2.3% and 2.8% for GA, albumin and fructosamine, respectively. Within-subject (CVW) and between-subject (CVG) coefficients of variation were 2.1% and 10.6% for GA, 2.3% and 2.9% for albumin, and 2.3% and 6.3% for fructosamine. The estimated critical difference (CD) was 7.5% for GA, 9% for albumin and 10% for fructosamine. The good quality achieved by the analytical method for GA assessment and the reduced within-subject biological variation would allow to recommend this test in clinical practice for evaluation of glycemic control along with measurement of glycated hemoglobin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Functional MRI activation of primary and secondary motor areas in healthy subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghai Li; Honghan Gong; Xiangzuo Xiao; Jinhua Wan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Functional MRI(fMRI)demonstrates the localization of hand representation in the motor cortex,thereby providing feasible noninvasive mapping of functional activities in the human brain.OBJECTIVE:To observe cortical activation within different cortical motor regions during repetitive hand movements in healthy subjects through the use of fMRI.DESIGN:An observational study,with each subject acting as his own control.SETTING:Department of Radiology,the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University.PARTICIPANTS:Seven healthy volunteers,4 males and 3/females,aged 19 to 38 years,participated in the study.All subjects were right-handed,with no neurological or psychological disorders.Informed written consent was obtained from all subjects,and the study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University.METHODS:The study was performed at the Department of Radiology between June-August 2005.A 1.5 Tesla Siemens MRI scanner(Symphony,Germany)was used to acquire Tl-weighted structural images,which were oriented parallel to the line running through the anterior and the posterior commissures.Subjects were instructed on a task and were allowed to practice briefly prior to the imaging procedure.The motor activation task consisted of the right hand performing a clenching movement.The T1-W images were acquired from six alternating epochs of rest and activation from all seven healthy subjects.Data were collected with echoplanar imaging of brain oxygen level dependent(BOLD)sequence.Each series comprised six cycles of task pertormance(30 seconds),alternating with rest(30 seconds) periods,and 3-second time intervals.The differences between active and baseline fMRI imaging were calculated using the student t-test.Differential maps were overlaid on the high resolution T1-W structural image for neuroanatomical correlation of activation areas.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The omega-shaped hand knobs were recognized on T1-W structural

  1. Subject realization and crosslinguistic interference in the bilingual acquisition of Spanish and English: what is the role of the input?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Navarro, Samuel

    2003-05-01

    This study investigated whether crosslinguistic interference occurs in the domain of subject realization in Spanish in a bilingual acquisition context. We were also interested in exploring whether the source of the interference is due to child-internal crosslanguage contact between English and Spanish, as is commonly assumed, or due to the nature of the language input in a bilingual family, a factor which has not typically been considered in studies of crosslinguistic influence. The use of subjects in a null subject language like Spanish is a phenomenon linked to the pragmatics/syntax interface of the grammar, and thus, is a domain where crosslinguistic interference is predicted to be likely to occur in bilingual acquisition (Müller & Hulk, 2001). Using spontaneous language data available from CHILDES (www.childes.psy.cmu.edu), we examined the use of overt subjects in Spanish by two Spanish monolingual children (ages: 1;8-2;7 and 1;8-1;11) one Spanish-English bilingual child (age 1;9-2;6) and their parental interlocutors. We looked at the proportions of overt versus null subjects as well as the discourse-pragmatic contexts of overt subject use by the children in order to uncover bilingual/monolingual differences in the distributional properties and the functional determinants of subject realization. We also looked at identical variables in the speech of the children's parental interlocutors to investigate the potential influence of the input on the children's output. Our results suggest that the bilingual child showed patterns in her subject realizations in Spanish that could be interpreted as due to crosslinguistic effects from English; however, there is also evidence that these effects may have a source in the input, rather than resulting from internal crosslanguage contact. While our data do not permit us to distinguish conclusively between these two possible sources, they indicate that future research on crosslinguistic influence in bilingual acquisition

  2. Structural and biochemical characteristics of arterial stiffness in patients with atherosclerosis and in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagura, Maksim; Kals, Jaak; Serg, Martin; Kampus, Priit; Zilmer, Mihkel; Jakobson, Meelis; Unt, Eve; Lieberg, Jüri; Eha, Jaan

    2012-10-01

    Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of vascular morbidity and mortality in patients with atherosclerosis. Angiographic score (ASc) reflects severity of atherosclerosis in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Osteopontin (OPN) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between arterial stiffness, ASc, serum OPN and oxLDL in patients with symptomatic PAD, and in clinically healthy subjects. We studied 79 men with symptomatic PAD (mean age 64±7 years) and 84 healthy men (mean age 63±8 years). Calculation of the ASc was based on severity and location of atherosclerotic lesions in the arteries of the lower extremities. Aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) was evaluated by applanation tonometry using the Sphygmocor device. Serum OPN and oxLDL levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The aPWV (10±2.4 vs. 8.4±1.7 (m s(-1)); P<0.001), OPN (75 (62.3-85.8) vs. 54.8 (47.7-67.9) (ng ml(-1)); P<0.001) and oxLDL (67 (52.5-93.5) vs. 47.5 (37-65.5); P<0.001) were different for the patients and for the controls. In multiple regression models, aPWV was independently determined by ASc, log-OPN, log-oxLDL and estimated glomerular filtration rate in the patients (R2=0.44; P<0.001) and by log-OPN, log-oxLDL, age and heart rate in the controls (R2=0.38; P<0.001). The independent relationship of a PWV with serum levels of OPN and oxLDL in the patients with PAD and in the controls indicates that OPN and oxLDL might influence arterial stiffening in patients with atherosclerosis and in clinically healthy subjects.

  3. Individual variation in lipidomic profiles of healthy subjects in response to omega-3 Fatty acids.

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    Malin L Nording

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Conflicting findings in both interventional and observational studies have resulted in a lack of consensus on the benefits of ω3 fatty acids in reducing disease risk. This may be due to individual variability in response. We used a multi-platform lipidomic approach to investigate both the consistent and inconsistent responses of individuals comprehensively to a defined ω3 intervention. METHODS: The lipidomic profile including fatty acids, lipid classes, lipoprotein distribution, and oxylipins was examined multi- and uni-variately in 12 healthy subjects pre vs. post six weeks of ω3 fatty acids (1.9 g/d eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and 1.5 g/d docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]. RESULTS: Total lipidomic and oxylipin profiles were significantly different pre vs. post treatment across all subjects (p=0.00007 and p=0.00002 respectively. There was a strong correlation between oxylipin profiles and EPA and DHA incorporated into different lipid classes (r(2=0.93. However, strikingly divergent responses among individuals were also observed. Both ω3 and ω6 fatty acid metabolites displayed a large degree of variation among the subjects. For example, in half of the subjects, two arachidonic acid cyclooxygenase products, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and thromboxane B2 (TXB2, and a lipoxygenase product, 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE significantly decreased post intervention, whereas in the other half they either did not change or increased. The EPA lipoxygenase metabolite 12-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (12-HEPE varied among subjects from an 82% decrease to a 5,000% increase. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that certain defined responses to ω3 fatty acid intervention were consistent across all subjects. However, there was also a high degree of inter-individual variability in certain aspects of lipid metabolism. This lipidomic based phenotyping approach demonstrated that individual responsiveness to ω3 fatty acids is highly variable and

  4. Acute effects of inspiratory muscle warm-up on pulmonary function in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdal, Mustafa

    2016-06-15

    The acute effects of inspiratory muscle warm-up on pulmonary functions were examined in 26 healthy male subjects using the pulmonary function test (PFT) in three different trials. The control trial (CON) did not involve inspiratory muscle warm-up, while the placebo (IMWp) and experimental (IMW) trials involved inspiratory muscle warm-up. There were no significant changes between the IMWp and CON trials (p>0.05). All the PFT measurements, including slow vital capacity, inspiratory vital capacity, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, maximal voluntary ventilation, and maximal inspiratory pressure were significantly increased by 3.55%, 12.52%, 5.00%, 2.75%, 2.66%, and 7.03% respectively, in the subjects in the IMW trial than those in the CON trial (p<0.05). These results show that inspiratory muscle warm-up improved the pulmonary functions. The mechanisms responsible for these improvements are probably associated with the concomitant increase in the inspiratory muscle strength, and the cooperation of the upper thorax, neck, and respiratory muscles, and increased level of reactive O2 species in muscle tissue, and potentially improvement of muscle O2 delivery-to-utilization. However, further investigation is required to determine the precise mechanisms responsible from among these candidates.

  5. The botanical integrity of wheat products influences the gastric distention and satiety in healthy subjects

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    Almér Lars-Olof

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maintenance of the botanical integrity of cereal kernels and the addition of acetic acid (as vinegar in the product or meal has been shown to lower the postprandial blood glucose and insulin response and to increase satiety. However, the mechanism behind the benefits of acetic acid on blood glucose and satiety is not clear. We hypothesized that the gastric emptying rate could be involved. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible influence of maintained botanical integrity of cereals and the presence of acetic acid (vinegar on gastric emptying rate (GER, postprandial blood glucose and satiety. Methods Fifteen healthy subjects were included in a blinded crossover trial, and thirteen of the subjects completed the study. Equicarbohydrate amounts of the following wheat-based meals were studied: white wheat bread, whole-kernel wheat bread or wholemeal wheat bread served with white wine vinegar. The results were compared with a reference meal consisting of white wheat bread without vinegar. The GER was measured with standardized real-time ultrasonography using normal fasting blood glucose Results The whole-kernel wheat bread with vinegar resulted in significantly higher ( Conclusion The present study shows higher satiety after a whole-kernel wheat bread meal with vinegar. This may be explained by increased antral distension after ingestion of intact cereal kernels but, in this study, not by a lower gastric emptying rate or higher postprandial blood glucose response. Trial registration NTR1116

  6. Remote ischaemic preconditioning shortens QT intervals during exercise in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caru, Maxime; Lalonde, François; Gravel, Hugo; Daigle, Chantal; Tournoux, François; Jacquemet, Vincent; Curnier, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    The protective action of remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) has been demonstrated in the context of surgical interventions in cardiology. Application of RIPC to sports performance has been proposed, but its effect on the electrocardiogram (ECG) during exercise remains unknown. This exploratory study aims to measure the changes in ventricular repolarization observed during exercise following RIPC in healthy subjects. In an experimental randomized crossover study, 17 subjects underwent two bouts of constant load exercise tests at 75% and 115% of gas exchange threshold (GET). Prior to exercise, they were allocated to either control or RIPC intervention with four cycles of 5 min of ischaemia followed by 5 min of reperfusion. ECG was continuously recorded during the protocol. QT and RR intervals were measured every 30 s (on an average tracing of the preceding 10 s). Although the time course of RR intervals did not differ between the two interventions (p = .56 at 75% GET and p = .74 at 115% GET), a significant shortening of QT intervals (measured from Q onset to T end) was observed during exercise (mean ± standard deviation of RIPC vs. -32 ± 19 ms at 75% GET (p exercise.

  7. A single dose of dark chocolate increases parasympathetic modulation and heart rate variability in healthy subjects

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    Ana Amélia Machado DUARTE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of a single dose of dark chocolate (70% cocoa on blood pressure and heart rate variability. Methods: Thirty-one healthy subjects (aged 18-25 years; both sexes were divided into two groups: 10 subjects in the white chocolate (7.4 g group and 21 in the dark chocolate (10 g group; measurements were performed at the university's physiology lab. An electrocardiogram measured the sympathovagal balance by spectral and symbolic analysis. Results: A single dose of dark chocolate significantly reduced systolic blood pressure and heart rate. After consuming 10 g of dark chocolate, significant increases were observed for heart rate variability, standard deviation of RR intervals standard deviation of all NN intervals, square root of the mean squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals root mean square of successive differences, and an increase in the high frequency component in absolute values, representing the parasympathetic modulation. Conclusion: In conclusion the importance of our results lies in the magnitude of the response provoked by a single dose of cocoa. Just 10 g of cocoa triggered a significant increase in parasympathetic modulation and heart rate variability. These combined effects can potentially increase life expectancy because a reduction in heart rate variability is associated with several cardiovascular diseases and higher mortality.

  8. Effect of Thermal Stress and Workload on Oxygen Debt in Healthy Subjects

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    G. P. Dimri

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of thermal load on oxygen debt has been investigated. The experimental data were collected on six young healthy male subjects who were naturally acclimatized to heat. They were Studied under three environmental conditions which may be classified for convenience sake as comfortable (C,hot humid (HH, and every hot humid (VHH, The subjects were given exercise on a bicycle ergometer for 6 min at 6rpm, and their oxygen consumption was measured during rest, throughout exercise period (6min and for 30 min post-exercise period. The oxygen debt was determined at three different   submaximal  Workloads of 400,500 and 600 Kgm/min (equivalent 65, 82 and 98 W under each environmental condition. The results indicate a significant increase in oxygen debt with increase in thermal stress (p <.001 as well as workload (p <.001. Liner regression equations have been constructed as suggestive alternative method for the prediction of oxygen debt from thermal load or/and workload

  9. Body position and the neuroendocrine response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radikova, Z; Penesova, A; Jezova, D; Kvetnansky, R; Vigas, M; Macho, L; Koska, J

    2003-10-01

    Changes in body fluid distribution are known to influence neuroendocrine function. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that changes in plasma volume affect the counterregulatory neuroendocrine response to hypoglycemia. The tests were performed in 12 subjects in two situations: 'head-up' (+60 degrees head-up tilt standing for 30 min and hypoglycemia in sitting position afterwards) and 'leg-up' (leg-up position for 30 min and hypoglycemia in leg-up position afterwards) in a random order. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia was adjusted to 2.7 mmol/l for 15 min by glucose infusion. Plasma volume was greater by 2.2% (p < 0.001) in leg-up and lower by 9.6% (p < 0.001) in head-up position compared to the basal value in sitting position. Head-up position was associated with increases in ACTH, aldosterone, norepinephrine levels and plasma renin activity (p < 0.01). Leg-up position resulted in decreases in plasma growth hormone and epinephrine concentrations (p < 0.05). Except epinephrine, the neuroendocrine response to hypoglycemia, if any, was mild. Hypoglycemia failed to activate ACTH release after head-up position. Body fluid redistribution did not modify hormonal changes during insulin hypoglycemia. In conclusion, we suggest that body position and accompanying plasma volume changes do not appear to affect neuroendocrine and counterregulatory responses to moderate, short duration hypoglycemia in healthy subjects.

  10. PHYSIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF HEAD-OUT AQUATIC EXERCISES IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS: A QUALITATIVE REVIEW

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    Tiago M Barbosa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades head-out aquatic exercises became one of the most important physical activities within the health system. Massive research has been produced throughout these decades in order to better understand the role of head-out aquatic exercises in populations' health. Such studies aimed to obtain comprehensive knowledge about the acute and chronic response of subjects performing head-out aquatic exercises. For that, it is assumed that chronic adaptations represent the accumulation of acute responses during each aquatic session. The purpose of this study was to describe the "state of the art" about physiological assessment of head-out aquatic exercises based on acute and chronic adaptations in healthy subjects based on a qualitative review. The main findings about acute response of head-out aquatic exercise according to water temperature, water depth, type of exercise, additional equipment used, body segments exercising and music cadence will be described. In what concerns chronic adaptations, the main results related to cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations, muscular strength, flexibility and body composition improvements will be reported

  11. Immune response to acetaldehyde-human serum albumin adduct among healthy subjects related to alcohol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanazzi, Valeria; Schilirò, Tiziana; Carraro, Elisabetta; Gilli, Giorgio

    2013-09-01

    Acetaldehyde (AA) is the main metabolic product in ethanol metabolism, although it can also derive from sources of airborne pollution. As a typical aldehyde, AA is able to react with a variety of molecular targets, including DNA and protein. This property justifies the hypothesis of a immune reaction against this kind of adduct, to be studied by a seroprevalence screening approach. In this study, the correlation between drinking habits and the amount of circulating AA-human serum albumin adduct (AA-HSA) was evaluated in a group of healthy subjects, non alcohol-addicted. Daily ethanol intake (grams) was inferred for each subject using the information collected through a questionnaire, and AA-HSA antibodies (AA-HSA ab) analyses were performed using the Displacement Assay on whole blood samples. The findings showed a correlation between ethanol intake and immune response to molecular adduct. These results underscore the evaluation of AA-HSA ab amount as a suitable molecular marker for alcohol intake that can be applied in future investigations on a large scale for prevention screening.

  12. Correlation between anthropometry and lipid profile in healthy subjects of Eastern India

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    Magna Manjareeka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases constitute one class of common contributors to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prevalence of overweight and obesity has dramatically increased in developing countries and is related to cardiovascular risk factors. Anthropometric parameters have the advantages in daily clinical practice of being a simple to measure tool with good reproducibility, especially in a developing country like India. Aim of this study is to correlate some anthropometric variables with lipid parameters in healthy subjects and to assess the anthropometric variable which best reflects the altered lipid profile. Materials and Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted after the Institutional Ethical Committee Clearance. Included participants (1187 were subjected to anthropometric measurements such as height, weight, waist circumference (WC, and hip circumference using standard procedures on the same morning of the day, as the blood sample was collected after overnight fast and estimated for fasting blood sugar and lipid profile. Results: There is a weak correlation between body mass index (BMI and lipid parameters. Among all the anthropometric variables studied, WC is best correlated to lipid parameters. The mean values of lipid parameters were not significantly different in BMI <25 and BMI ≥25 groups. Conclusions: WC remains one of the simple and reliable variables which best reflects the lipid profile. In a developing country like India, where measurement of cardiovascular risk factors such as body fat saturation and lipid profile remains difficult in the rural population, WC may be used as an effective tool, without being used as a substitute.

  13. Local Muscle Fatigue and 3D Kinematics of the Cervical Spine in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Daniel; Vogt, Lutz; Pippig, Torsten; Wall, Rudolf; Banzer, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    The authors aimed to further explore the effects of local muscle fatigue on cervical 3D kinematics and the interrelationship between these kinematic characteristics and local muscle endurance capacity in the unimpaired cervical spine. Twenty healthy subjects (38 ± 10 years; 5 women) performed 2 × 10 maximal cervical flexion-extension movements. Isometric muscle endurance tests (prone/supine lying) were applied between sets to induce local muscle fatigue quantified by Borg scale rates of perceived exertion (RPE) and slope in mean power frequency (MPF; surface electromyography; m. sternocleidomastoideus, m. splenius capitis). Cervical motion characteristics (maximal range of motion [ROM], coefficient of variation of the 10 repetitive movements, mean angular velocity, conjunct movements in transversal and frontal plane) were calculated from raw 3D ultrasonic movement data. Average isometric strength testing duration for flexion and extension correlated to the cervical ROM (r = .49/r = .48; p parameter following local muscle fatigue (p > .05). Although subjects' cervical muscle endurance capacity and motor output seems to be conjugated, no impact of local cervical muscle fatigue on motor function was shown. These findings underline the importance of complementary measures to address muscular performance and kinematic characteristics in outcome assessment and functional rehabilitation of the cervical spine.

  14. Effect of a tDCS electrode montage on implicit motor sequence learning in healthy subjects

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    Kang Eun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that a combination of excitatory anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to the contralateral motor cortex and inhibitory cathodal tDCS to the ipsilateral motor cortex of the motor performing hand (Bi-tDCS would elicit more implicit motor sequence learning than anodal tDCS applied to the contralateral motor cortex alone (Uni-tDCS. Methods Eleven healthy right-handed adults underwent a randomized crossover experiment of Uni-tDCS, Bi-tDCS, or sham stimulation. Subjects performed a 12-digit finger sequence serial reaction time task with the right hand at baseline (Pre, at immediately (Post 1, and 24 hours after stimulation (Post 2. The ratios of reaction times of predetermined repeating sequence versus random sequence were subjected to statistical analysis. Results The paired t test showed that reaction time ratios were significant decreased by all stimulation types at Post 1 versus Pre (P Conclusions No significant difference was found between Uni-tDCS and Bi-tDCS in terms of induced implicit motor sequence learning, but tDCS led to greater consolidation of the learned motor sequence than sham stimulation. These findings need to be tested in the context of stroke hand motor rehabilitation.

  15. Assessment of Internal Jugular Vein Size in Healthy Subjects with Magnetic Resonance and Semiautomatic Processing

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    M. M. Laganà

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. The hypothesized link between extracranial venous abnormalities and some neurological disorders awoke interest in the investigation of the internal jugular veins (IJVs. However, different IJV cross-sectional area (CSA values are currently reported in literature. In this study, we introduced a semiautomatic method to measure and normalize the CSA and the degree of circularity (Circ of IJVs along their whole length. Methods. Thirty-six healthy subjects (31.22 ± 9.29 years were recruited and the 2D time-of-flight magnetic resonance venography was acquired with a 1.5 T Siemens scanner. The IJV were segmented on an axial slice, the contours were propagated in 3D. Then, IJV CSA and Circ were computed between the first and the seventh cervical levels (C1–C7 and normalized among subjects. Inter- and intrarater repeatability were assessed. Results. IJV CSA and Circ were significantly different among cervical levels (p<0.001. A trend for side difference was observed for CSA (larger right IJV, p=0.06, but not for Circ (p=0.5. Excellent inter- and intrarater repeatability was obtained for all the measures. Conclusion. This study proposed a reliable semiautomatic method able to measure the IJV area and shape along C1–C7, and suitable for defining the normality thresholds for future clinical studies.

  16. Compensation for retinal vessel density reduces the variation of circumpapillary RNFL in healthy subjects.

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    Ivania Pereira

    Full Text Available This work intends to assess circumpapillary retinal vessel density (RVD at a 3.46 mm diameter circle and correlate it with circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness measured with Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography. Furthermore, it aims to evaluate the reduction of intersubject variability of RNFL when considering RVD as a source of information for RNFL distribution. For that, 106 healthy subjects underwent circumpapillary RNFL measurement. Using the scanning laser ophthalmoscope fundus image, thickness and position of retinal vessels were assessed and integrated in a 256-sector RVD profile. The relationship between local RVD value and local RNFL thickness was modeled by linear regression. RNFL was then compensated for RVD variation by regression formulas. A strong statistically significant intrasubject correlation was found for all subjects between RVD and RNFL profiles (mean R = 0.769. In the intersubject regression analysis, 247 of 256 RNFL sectors showed a statistically significant positive correlation with RVD (mean R = 0.423. RVD compensation of RNFL resulted in a relative reduction of up to 20% of the intersubject variance. In conclusion, RVD in a 3.46 mm circle has a clinically relevant influence on the RNFL distribution. RVD may be used to develop more individualized normative values for RNFL measurement, which might improve early diagnosis of glaucoma.

  17. Reappraising suppression: subjective and physiological correlates of experiential suppression in healthy adults

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    Mathieu eLemaire

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion regulation strategies based on suppressing behavioural expressions of emotion have been considered maladaptive. However this may not apply to suppressing the emotional experience (experiential suppression. The aim of this study was to define the effect of experiential suppression on subjective and physiological emotional responses. Methods: Healthy adults (N=101 were characterized in terms of the temperament, personality, and hedonic capacity using the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the Fawcett-Clark Pleasure Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Participants were shown positive, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System under two conditions, passive viewing and experiential suppression. During both conditions, subjective ratings of the intensity and duration of emotional responses and physiological measures of skin conductance (SC and cardiac inter-beat interval (IBI to each picture were recorded.Results: Negative pictures elicited the most intense physiological and emotional responses regardless of experimental condition. Ratings of emotional intensity were not affected by condition. In contrast, experiential suppression, compared to passive viewing, was associated with decreased duration of the emotional response, reduced maximum SC amplitude and longer IBIs independent of age, picture valence, personality traits, hedonic capacity and anxiety. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that experiential suppression may represent an adaptive emotion regulation mechanism associated with reduced arousal and cardiovascular activation.

  18. Assessment of Internal Jugular Vein Size in Healthy Subjects with Magnetic Resonance and Semiautomatic Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizzari, L.; Scaccianoce, E.; Dipasquale, O.; Ricci, C.; Baglio, F.; Cecconi, P.; Baselli, G.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. The hypothesized link between extracranial venous abnormalities and some neurological disorders awoke interest in the investigation of the internal jugular veins (IJVs). However, different IJV cross-sectional area (CSA) values are currently reported in literature. In this study, we introduced a semiautomatic method to measure and normalize the CSA and the degree of circularity (Circ) of IJVs along their whole length. Methods. Thirty-six healthy subjects (31.22 ± 9.29 years) were recruited and the 2D time-of-flight magnetic resonance venography was acquired with a 1.5 T Siemens scanner. The IJV were segmented on an axial slice, the contours were propagated in 3D. Then, IJV CSA and Circ were computed between the first and the seventh cervical levels (C1–C7) and normalized among subjects. Inter- and intrarater repeatability were assessed. Results. IJV CSA and Circ were significantly different among cervical levels (p < 0.001). A trend for side difference was observed for CSA (larger right IJV, p = 0.06), but not for Circ (p = 0.5). Excellent inter- and intrarater repeatability was obtained for all the measures. Conclusion. This study proposed a reliable semiautomatic method able to measure the IJV area and shape along C1–C7, and suitable for defining the normality thresholds for future clinical studies. PMID:27034585

  19. Effect of Grewia asiatica fruit on glycemic index and phagocytosis tested in healthy human subjects.

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    Mesaik, Muhammad Ahmed; Ahmed, Asif; Khalid, Ahmed Shukralla; Jan, Saleem; Siddiqui, Afaq Ahmed; Perveen, Shahida; Azim, Muhammad Kamran

    2013-01-01

    The Grewia asiatica (commonly known as Phalsa or Fasla) is a shrub or small tree found in southern Asia. It produces purple to black color fruit when ripe. In folk medicine the edible Grewia asiatica fruit is used in a number of pathological conditions. The current study described the effects of Grewia asiatica fruit on glycemic index (GI) and phagocytosis in healthy non-diabetic human subjects. The results showed that Grewia asiatica fruit has low GI value of 5.34 with modest hypoglycemic activity. Luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay was carried out to determine the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the oxidative burst activity of whole blood. ROS production was found to be significantly affected, having the 78.3, 58.6 and 30.8% when the subjects were fed with D-glucose, mixture of D-glucose and Grewia asiatica fruit and Grewia asiatica fruit alone respectively as compared to the control. The aqueous, methanolic and butanolic extracts of Grewia asiatica fruits were found to produce a stimulatory effect on ROS production however; the chloroform, hexane and ethanol-acetate extracted exerted significant inhibitory effect. These results demonstrated that Grewia asiatica fruit has desirable effects on blood glucose metabolism manifested as low glycemic response and modulation of ROS production.

  20. Sex differences in brain response to anticipated and experienced visceral pain in healthy subjects

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    Kano, Michiko; Farmer, Adam D.; Aziz, Qasim; Giampietro, Vincent P.; Brammer, Michael J.; Williams, Steven C. R.; Fukudo, Shin

    2013-01-01

    Women demonstrate higher pain sensitivity and prevalence of chronic visceral pain conditions such as functional gastrointestinal disorders than men. The role of sex differences in the brain processing of visceral pain is still unclear. In 16 male and 16 female healthy subjects we compared personality, anxiety levels, skin conductance response (SCR), and brain processing using functional MRI during anticipation and pain induced by esophageal distension at pain toleration level. There was no significant difference in personality scores, anxiety levels, SCR, and subjective ratings of pain between sexes. In group analysis, both men and women demonstrated a similar pattern of brain activation and deactivation during anticipation and pain consistent with previous reports. However, during anticipation women showed significantly greater activation in the cuneus, precuneus, and supplementary motor area (SMA) and stronger deactivation in the right amygdala and left parahippocampal gyrus, whereas men demonstrated greater activation in the cerebellum. During pain, women demonstrated greater activation in the midcingulate cortex, anterior insula, premotor cortex, and cerebellum and stronger deactivation in the caudate, whereas men showed increased activity in the SMA. The pattern of brain activity suggests that, during anticipation, women may demonstrate stronger limbic inhibition, which is considered to be a cognitive modulation strategy for impending painful stimulation. During pain, women significantly activate brain areas associated with the affective and motivation components of pain. These responses may underlie the sex differences that exist in pain conditions, whereby women may attribute more emotional importance to painful stimuli compared with men. PMID:23392235

  1. THE EFFECT OF PATELLAR TAPING ON SOME LANDING CHARACTERISTICS DURING COUNTER MOVEMENT JUMPS IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS

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    Jesús Cámara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of patellar taping (PT on landing characteristics of the vertical ground reaction force (VGRF and on flight time during a counter movement jump (CMJ. Eleven healthy male subjects (age: 31.1 ± 4.2 years volunteered for the study. Each subject performed six CMJs under two different jumping conditions: with PT and without PT (WPT. The order of the two conditions was randomized. All of the measured variables had fair-to-good reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient > 0.75. When we compared the PT and WPT groups, we did not find a significant difference in the magnitude of the first (F1 and second (F2 peaks of the VGRF. We also did not find a significant difference in the time to production of these peaks (T1 and T2, and the time to stabilization (TTS (p < 0. 05. Furthermore, the flight time was similar in the two groups (0.475 ± 0.046 and 0.474 ± 0.056 s, respectively, for PT and WPT. These results suggest that PT does not jeopardize performance during CMJ. Furthermore, it also does not soften the VGRF generated during the landing, indicating that PT may be of limited utility in preventing injuries associated with this type of movement.

  2. A pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interaction between rosuvastatin and valsartan in healthy subjects

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    Jung JA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jin Ah Jung,1 Soo-Yun Lee,2 Jung-Ryul Kim,1 Jae-Wook Ko,1,2 Seong Bok Jang,3 Su Youn Nam,3 Wooseong Huh1,41Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Samsung Medical Center, 2Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, 3Yuhan Research Institute, Yuhan Corporation, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, KoreaPurpose: Valsartan, an angiotensin-receptor blocker, and rosuvastatin, a competitive inhibitor of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, are frequently coadministered to treat patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia. The study reported here sought to evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between rosuvastatin and valsartan in healthy Korean subjects. Subjects and methods: Thirty healthy male Korean subjects were administered with rosuvastatin (20 mg/day, valsartan (160 mg/day, and both drugs concomitantly for 4 days in a randomized, open-label, multiple-dose, three-treatment, three-period crossover study. Plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin, N-desmethyl rosuvastatin, and valsartan were determined using validated high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Lipid profiles and vital signs (systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate were measured for the pharmacodynamic assessment.Results: For rosuvastatin, the geometric mean ratios (90% confidence intervals [CIs] of coadministration to mono-administration were 0.8809 (0.7873-0.9857 for maximum plasma concentration at steady state and 0.9151 (0.8632-0.9701 for area under the concentration–time curve (AUC over a dosing interval at steady state. For valsartan, the geometric mean ratios (90% CIs of those were 0.9300 (0.7946-1.0884 and 1.0072 (0.8893-1.1406, respectively. There were no significant differences in the metabolic ratio of N

  3. Pharmacokinetic profile of armodafinil in healthy subjects: pooled analysis of data from three randomized studies.

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    Darwish, Mona; Kirby, Mary; Hellriegel, Edward T; Yang, Ronghua; Robertson, Philmore

    2009-01-01

    Armodafinil (R-modafinil) is the R- and longer-lasting isomer of the racemic compound modafinil, a wakefulness-promoting medication. Armodafinil is eliminated approximately three times more slowly than the S-isomer of racemic modafinil. Published studies have demonstrated the efficacy of armodafinil for treating excessive sleepiness associated with obstructive sleep apnoea, shift work disorder and narcolepsy. The objectives of this study were to describe the pharmacokinetic profile, tolerability and safety of armodafinil in healthy subjects. Pooled pharmacokinetic data from three separate randomized studies in 119 healthy subjects who received single or multiple (once daily for up to 14 days) oral doses of armodafinil ranging between 50 and 400 mg were analysed. The impact of food on the single-dose pharmacokinetic profile of armodafinil was also assessed in subjects following an overnight fast and after the consumption of a standard fatty meal. Armodafinil was readily absorbed and exhibited linear pharmacokinetics over the 50-400 mg dose range. Peak plasma concentrations were reached around 2 hours after administration in the fasted state. Food had no effect on the overall bioavailability of armodafinil; however, the peak concentration was delayed by approximately 2-4 hours. In the multiple-dose study, dose proportionality was confirmed by linear regression analyses of the log-transformed area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) values as a function of dose. After reaching the peak, plasma concentrations of armodafinil declined in a monophasic manner, with a mean elimination half-life of approximately 15 hours. Steady state appeared to be reached within 7 days. At steady state, the systemic exposure to armodafinil was 1.8 times that observed after single-dose administration. Armodafinil was generally well tolerated, the most frequent adverse events being headache, dizziness and nausea. In the present

  4. Test-retest reproducibility of [{sup 11}C]PBR28 binding to TSPO in healthy control subjects

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    Collste, K.; Forsberg, A.; Varrone, A.; Amini, N.; Halldin, C.; Farde, L.; Cervenka, S. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Aeinehband, S. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Neuroimmunology Unit, Stockholm (Sweden); Yakushev, I. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and TUM Neuroimaging Center (TUM-NIC), Munich (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    The PET radioligand [{sup 11}C]PBR28 binds to the translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of brain immune activation. We examined the reproducibility of [{sup 11}C]PBR28 binding in healthy subjects with quantification on a regional and voxel-by-voxel basis. In addition, we performed a preliminary analysis of diurnal changes in TSPO availability. Twelve subjects were examined using a high-resolution research tomograph and [{sup 11}C]PBR28, six in the morning and afternoon of the same day, and six in the morning on two separate days. Regional volumes of distribution (V{sub T}) were derived using a region-of-interest based two-tissue compartmental analysis (2TCM), as well as a parametric approach. Metabolite-corrected arterial plasma was used as input function. For the whole sample, the mean absolute variability in V{sub T} in the grey matter (GM) was 18.3 ± 12.7 %. Intraclass correlation coefficients in GM regions ranged from 0.90 to 0.94. Reducing the time of analysis from 91 to 63 min yielded a variability of 16.9 ± 14.9 %. There was a strong correlation between the parametric and 2TCM-derived GM values (r = 0.99). A significant increase in GM V{sub T} was observed between the morning and afternoon examinations when using secondary methods of quantification (p = 0.028). In the subjects examined at the same time of the day, the absolute variability was 15.9 ± 12.2 % for the 91-min 2TCM data. V{sub T} of [{sup 11}C]PBR28 binding showed medium reproducibility and high reliability in GM regions. Our findings support the use of parametric approaches for determining [{sup 11}C]PBR28 V{sub T} values, and indicate that the acquisition time could be shortened. Diurnal changes in TSPO binding in the brain may be a potential confounder in clinical studies and should be investigated further. (orig.)

  5. Alimentary lipemia: plasma high-density lipoproteins and apolipoproteins CII and CIII in healthy subjects.

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    Kashyap, M L; Barnhart, R L; Srivastava, L S; Perisutti, G; Allen, C; Hogg, E; Glueck, C J; Jackson, R L

    1983-02-01

    Three healthy male and three female inpatient volunteers consumed isocaloric diets for 4 wk. At weekly intervals, a fatty meal (100 g fat) was consumed by each fasting subject and blood drawn at 2 h intervals for 12 h. Of the four oral fat loads, two contained saturated fat (polyunsaturated/saturated fat ratio = 0.34) and two contained unsaturated fat (polyunsaturated/saturated fat = 2.21). The magnitude of alimentary lipemia, expressed as area under the plasma triglyceride curve, was 3- to 4-fold higher in males than females. Alimentary lipemia was inversely related to the subjects' fasting plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, HDL apolipoprotein (apo) CIII and directly related to plasma triglycerides. The P/S ratios of the daily diet or the fat meal did not significantly influence the plasma triglyceride curve. After fat intake, mean (+/- SEM) plasma total apoCII and CIII fell to 54 +/- 20% and 73 +/- 5% of base-line, respectively, at 12 h in five of six subjects. After oral fat, an initial fall and a subsequent rise in apoCII and CIII in HDL was associated with reciprocal changes in apoC concentrations in very low-density lipoproteins. We speculate from the data that 1) plasma HDL and their apoC concentrations are important determinants of chylomicron clearance and 2) transfer of apoCs from HDL to triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the early phase of fat absorption does not result in the total recycling of apoCs from these lipoproteins to HDL during the late phase of alimentary lipemia.

  6. Effect of fosamprenavir-ritonavir on the pharmacokinetics of dolutegravir in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ivy; Borland, Julie; Chen, Shuguang; Peppercorn, Amanda; Wajima, Toshihiro; Piscitelli, Stephen C

    2014-11-01

    Dolutegravir (DTG) is an HIV integrase inhibitor (INI) with demonstrated activity in INI-naive and INI-resistant patients. The objective of this open-label, 2-period, single-sequence study was to evaluate the effect of fosamprenavir-ritonavir (FPV-RTV) on the steady-state plasma pharmacokinetics of DTG. Twelve healthy subjects received 50 mg DTG once daily for 5 days (period 1), followed by 10 days of 50 mg DTG once daily in combination with 700/100 mg FPV-RTV every 12 h (period 2). All doses were administered in the fasting state. Serial pharmacokinetic samples for DTG and amprenavir and safety assessments were obtained throughout the study. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed, and geometric least-squares mean ratios and 90% confidence intervals were generated for within-subject treatment comparison. Fosamprenavir-ritonavir decreased the DTG area under the concentration-time curve, maximum concentration in plasma, and concentration in plasma at the end of the dosing interval by 35%, 24%, and 49%, respectively. Both DTG and DTG with FPV-RTV were well tolerated; no subject withdrew because of adverse events. The most frequently reported drug-related adverse events were rash, abnormal dreams, and nasopharyngitis. The modest decrease in DTG exposure when it was coadministered with FPV-RTV is not considered clinically significant, and DTG dose adjustment is not required with coadministration of FPV-RTV in INI-naive patient populations on the basis of established "no-effect" boundaries of DTG. In the INI-resistant population, as a cautionary measure, alternative combinations that do not include FPV-RTV should be considered. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT01209065.).

  7. Effect of Fosamprenavir-Ritonavir on the Pharmacokinetics of Dolutegravir in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Julie; Chen, Shuguang; Peppercorn, Amanda; Wajima, Toshihiro; Piscitelli, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Dolutegravir (DTG) is an HIV integrase inhibitor (INI) with demonstrated activity in INI-naive and INI-resistant patients. The objective of this open-label, 2-period, single-sequence study was to evaluate the effect of fosamprenavir-ritonavir (FPV-RTV) on the steady-state plasma pharmacokinetics of DTG. Twelve healthy subjects received 50 mg DTG once daily for 5 days (period 1), followed by 10 days of 50 mg DTG once daily in combination with 700/100 mg FPV-RTV every 12 h (period 2). All doses were administered in the fasting state. Serial pharmacokinetic samples for DTG and amprenavir and safety assessments were obtained throughout the study. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed, and geometric least-squares mean ratios and 90% confidence intervals were generated for within-subject treatment comparison. Fosamprenavir-ritonavir decreased the DTG area under the concentration-time curve, maximum concentration in plasma, and concentration in plasma at the end of the dosing interval by 35%, 24%, and 49%, respectively. Both DTG and DTG with FPV-RTV were well tolerated; no subject withdrew because of adverse events. The most frequently reported drug-related adverse events were rash, abnormal dreams, and nasopharyngitis. The modest decrease in DTG exposure when it was coadministered with FPV-RTV is not considered clinically significant, and DTG dose adjustment is not required with coadministration of FPV-RTV in INI-naive patient populations on the basis of established “no-effect” boundaries of DTG. In the INI-resistant population, as a cautionary measure, alternative combinations that do not include FPV-RTV should be considered. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT01209065.) PMID:25155604

  8. The effects of glycine on subjective daytime performance in partially sleep-restricted healthy volunteers

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    Makoto eBannai

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 30% of the general population suffers from insomnia. Given that insomnia causes many problems, amelioration of the symptoms is crucial. Recently, we found that a nonessential amino acid, glycine subjectively and objectively improves sleep quality in humans who have difficulty sleeping. We evaluated the effects of glycine on daytime sleepiness, fatigue and performances in sleep-restricted healthy subjects. Sleep was restricted to 25% less than the usual sleep time for three consecutive nights. Before bedtime, 3 g of glycine or placebo were ingested, sleepiness and fatigue were evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS and a questionnaire, and performance were estimated by personal computer (PC performance test program on the following day. In subjects given glycine, the VAS data showed a significant reduction in fatigue and a tendency toward reduced sleepiness. These observations were also found via the questionnaire, indicating that glycine improves daytime sleepiness and fatigue induced by acute sleep restriction. PC performance test revealed significant improvement in psychomotor vigilance test. We also measured plasma melatonin and the expression of circadian-modulated genes expression in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN to evaluate the effects of glycine on circadian rhythms. Glycine did not show significant effects on plasma melatonin concentrations during either the dark or light period. Moreover, the expression levels of clock genes such as Bmal1 and Per2 remained unchanged. However, we observed a glycine-induced increase in the neuropeptides arginine vasopressin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the light period. Although no alterations in the circadian clock itself were observed, our results indicate that glycine modulated SCN function. Thus, glycine modulates certain neuropeptides in the SCN and this phenomenon may indirectly contribute to improving the occasional sleepiness and fatigue induced by sleep

  9. Protein carbonyl: An oxidative stress marker in gingival crevicular fluid in healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis subjects

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    Avani R Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A defined role for reactive oxygen species (ROS in the tissue destruction that characterizes periodontitis has been described. Protein carbonyl (PC is the most widely used biomarker for oxidative damage to proteins, and reflects cellular damage induced by multiple forms of ROS. The purpose of this study is to determine the presence of PC in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF in healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis (CP subjects and to find an association, if any. Materials and Methods: A total number of 75 subjects (38 males and 37 females were selected based on their clinical parameters into three groups: Group 1 (25 healthy subjects, Group 2 (25 gingivitis subjects, and Group 3 (25 CP subjects. GCF samples were collected to estimate the levels of PC. Results: The PC concentration in GCF was highest in subjects with CP as compared to gingivitis and healthy subjects and a significant association was observed between GCF PC levels and all periodontal parameters. Conclusion: There was an increase in PC levels in GCF as the disease process progressed from healthy to gingivitis and CP, suggesting a role for increased oxidative stress in CP.

  10. The effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on fibrin and thrombin generation in healthy subjects and subjects with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Bradley J; Morel-Kopp, Marie-Christine; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Ward, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    Hypercoagulability plays a key role in the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake has been inversely related to the risk of cardiovascular events, the mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of omega-3 on novel markers of global coagulation. The generation of fibrin and thrombin, measured via overall hemostasis potential (OHP) assay and calibrated automated thrombography, respectively, was determined in 40 healthy subjects and 16 patients with CVD at baseline and after 4 weeks of 640 mg/day omega-3 PUFA. In healthy subjects, fibrin generation was significantly reduced, as measured by overall coagulation potential (p = 0.013), OHP (p omega-3 PUFA significantly reduced OHP and significantly increased the lag time to thrombin generation (both p omega-3 PUFA had no effect on other fibrin and thrombin generation parameters in CVD patients. Four-week omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduced thrombotic potential in healthy subjects, as shown by reduced fibrin generation and peak thrombin. There was a greater effect on fibrin generation in healthy subjects compared with those with CVD.

  11. Fluoxetine and sleep EEG: effects of a single dose, subchronic treatment, and discontinuation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feige, Bernd; Voderholzer, Ulrich; Riemann, Dieter; Dittmann, Ralf; Hohagen, Fritz; Berger, Mathias

    2002-02-01

    The goals of the current study were to evaluate whether a single dose of fluoxetine causes qualitatively different changes in sleep architecture and NREM sleep EEG than subchronic administration in healthy subjects and to determine degree and duration of such changes after the single dose and after discontinuation from subchronic administration. Our hypothesis was that subchronic intake should cause changes qualitatively different from the single dose and that such changes could be sufficiently long-lived to suggest the possibility of a dosing in intervals of several days. Ten healthy volunteers first took one single 60-mg dose of fluoxetine and a week later started to take a 40-mg dose every morning for three weeks. Sleep laboratory nights included two nights before and four nights after the single dose and every second night for two weeks after discontinuation from subchronic administration. The single dose caused only a slight increase in drug plasma concentrations but relatively clear changes in sleep structure. After discontinuation from subchronic administration, sleep quality indices normalized quickly (within 2-4 days), whereas REM latency and spectral power effects correlated with total SSRI plasma concentration and normalized more slowly, corresponding to the drug plasma half-life of about 10 days. The REM fraction of the sleep period showed a rebound, whereas the delta sleep ratio did not correlate with drug plasma levels and yet remained increased after the medication interval. Thus, the only qualitative difference seen between acute and subchronic medication was the initial sleep disturbance. REM latency and especially the delta sleep ratio remained increased for several days after discontinuation from subchronic administration, indicating the possibility of a less-than-daily maintenance medication after an initial daily interval. Finally, the pattern of change observed for the delta sleep ratio indicates that it may be due to secondary, adaptive

  12. Less pronounced response to exercise in healthy relatives to type 2 diabetic subjects compared with controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, C; Elgzyri, T; Ström, K; Almgren, P; Parikh, H; Dekker Nitert, Marloes; Rönn, T; Manderson Koivula, Fiona; Ling, C; Tornberg, Å B; Wollmer, P; Eriksson, K F; Groop, L; Hansson, O

    2015-11-01

    Healthy first-degree relatives with heredity of type 2 diabetes (FH+) are known to have metabolic inflexibility compared with subjects without heredity for diabetes (FH-). In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that FH+ individuals have an impaired response to exercise compared with FH-. Sixteen FH+ and 19 FH- insulin-sensitive men similar in age, peak oxygen consumption (V̇o2 peak), and body mass index completed an exercise intervention with heart rate monitored during exercise for 7 mo. Before and after the exercise intervention, the participants underwent a physical examination and tests for glucose tolerance and exercise capacity, and muscle biopsies were taken for expression analysis. The participants attended, on average, 39 training sessions during the intervention and spent 18.8 MJ on exercise. V̇o2 peak/kg increased by 14%, and the participants lost 1.2 kg of weight and 3 cm waist circumference. Given that the FH+ group expended 61% more energy during the intervention, we used regression analysis to analyze the response in the FH+ and FH- groups separately. Exercise volume had a significant effect on V̇o2 peak, weight, and waist circumference in the FH- group, but not in the FH+ group. After exercise, expression of genes involved in metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and cellular respiration increased more in the FH- compared with the FH+ group. This suggests that healthy, insulin-sensitive FH+ and FH- participants with similar age, V̇o2 peak, and body mass index may respond differently to an exercise intervention. The FH+ background might limit muscle adaptation to exercise, which may contribute to the increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in FH+ individuals.

  13. Subcutaneous bioavailability of golimumab at 3 different injection sites in healthy subjects.

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    Xu, Zhenhua; Wang, Qingmin; Zhuang, Yanli; Frederick, Bart; Yan, Hong; Bouman-Thio, Esther; Marini, Joseph C; Keen, Monica; Snead, David; Davis, Hugh M; Zhou, Honghui

    2010-03-01

    This study characterized the pharmacokinetics (PK) of golimumab, an antitumor necrosis factor alpha human IgG1kappa monoclonal antibody, after a single intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) administration in healthy subjects and determined the absolute bioavailability of SC golimumab delivered at 3 different anatomical regions. Seventy-eight healthy adult males were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of golimumab 100 mg by IV (30-minute infusion, n = 23) or SC administration at different sites (upper arm, n = 18; abdomen, n = 18; thigh, n = 19). Serial blood samples were collected for PK characterization. Following IV administration, the mean maximum observed serum golimumab concentration (C(max)) and the mean area under the concentration versus time curves from time zero to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)) were 29.5 +/- 5.8 microg/mL and 195.9 +/- 48.9 microg x d/mL, respectively. After SC administration, the mean values of C(max) and AUC(0-infinity) were 6.3 +/- 2.8 microg/mL and 100.1 +/- 29.2 microg x d/mL, respectively. The median terminal half-life was similar for SC and IV administration (10.9 and 11.8 days, respectively). The overall mean bioavailability of SC golimumab was 51%, and absorption was similar for the 3 injection sites. Golimumab 100 mg was generally well tolerated in this study. Results support the flexibility in the choice of an injection site for SC administration of golimumab.

  14. Protective effects of exercise training on endothelial dysfunction induced by total sleep deprivation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvet, Fabien; Arnal, Pierrick J; Tardo-Dino, Pierre Emmanuel; Drogou, Catherine; Van Beers, Pascal; Bougard, Clément; Rabat, Arnaud; Dispersyn, Garance; Malgoyre, Alexandra; Leger, Damien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2017-04-01

    Sleep loss is a risk factor for cardiovascular events mediated through endothelial dysfunction. To determine if 7weeks of exercise training can limit cardiovascular dysfunction induced by total sleep deprivation (TSD) in healthy young men. 16 subjects were examined during 40-h TSD, both before and after 7weeks of interval exercise training. Vasodilatation induced by ACh, insulin and heat (42°C) and pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were assessed before TSD (controlday), during TSD, and after one night of sleep recovery. Biomarkers of endothelial activation, inflammation, and hormones were measured from morning blood samples. Before training, ACh-, insulin- and heat-induced vasodilatations were significantly decreased during TSD and recovery as compared with the control day, with no difference after training. Training prevented the decrease of ACh-induced vasodilation related to TSD after sleep recovery, as well as the PWV increase after TSD. A global lowering effect of training was found on HR values during TSD, but not on blood pressure. Training induces the decrease of TNF-α concentration after TSD and prevents the increase of MCP-1 after sleep recovery. Before training, IL-6 concentrations increased. Cortisol and testosterone decreased after TSD as compared with the control day, while insulin and E-selectin increased after sleep recovery. No effect of TSD or training was found on CRP and sICAM-1. In healthy young men, a moderate to high-intensity interval training is effective at improving aerobic fitness and limiting vascular dysfunction induced by TSD, possibly through pro-inflammatory cytokine responses.(ClinicalTrial:NCT02820649). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A new model for the population pharmacokinetics of didanosine in healthy subjects

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    L.S. Velasque

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Didanosine (ddI is a component of highly active antiretroviral therapy drug combinations, used especially in resource-limited settings and in zidovudine-resistant patients. The population pharmacokinetics of ddI was evaluated in 48 healthy volunteers enrolled in two bioequivalence studies. These data, along with a set of co-variates, were the subject of a nonlinear mixed-effect modeling analysis using the NONMEM program. A two-compartment model with first order absorption (ADVAN3 TRANS3 was fitted to the serum ddI concentration data. Final pharmacokinetic parameters, expressed as functions of the co-variates gender and creatinine clearance (CL CR, were: oral clearance (CL = 55.1 + 240 x CL CR + 16.6 L/h for males and CL = 55.1 + 240 x CL CR for females, central volume (V2 = 9.8 L, intercompartmental clearance (Q = 40.9 L/h, peripheral volume (V3 = 62.7 + 22.9 L for males and V3 = 62.7 L for females, absorption rate constant (Ka = 1.51/h, and dissolution time of the tablet (D = 0.43 h. The intraindividual (residual variability expressed as coefficient of variation was 13.0%, whereas the interindividual variability of CL, Q, V3, Ka, and D was 20.1, 75.8, 20.6, 18.9, and 38.2%, respectively. The relatively high (>30% interindividual variability for some of these parameters, observed under the controlled experimental settings of bioequivalence trials in healthy volunteers, may result from genetic variability of the processes involved in ddI absorption and disposition.

  16. Higher prevalence and abundance of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus in the human gut of healthy subjects.

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    Valerio Iebba

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Members of the human intestinal microbiota are key players in maintaining human health. Alterations in the composition of gut microbial community (dysbiosis have been linked with important human diseases. Understanding the underlying processes that control community structure, including the bacterial interactions within the microbiota itself, is essential. Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a gram-negative bacterium that preys other gram-negative species for survival, acting as a population-balancer. It was found in terrestrial/aquatic ecosystems, and in animal intestines, postulating its presence also in the human gut. METHODS: The present study was aimed to evaluate, by end-point PCR and qPCR, the presence of B. bacteriovorus in intestinal and faecal biopsy specimens from 92 paediatric healthy subjects and patients, suffering from Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD, Celiac disease and Cystic fibrosis (CF. RESULTS: i B. bacteriovorus was present and abundant only in healthy individuals, while it was heavily reduced in patients, as in the case of IBD and Celiac, while in CF patients and relative controls we observed comparable results; ii B. bacteriovorus seemed to be mucosa-associated, because all IBD and Celiac biopsies (and related controls were treated with mucus-removing agents, leaving only the mucosa-attached microflora; iii B. bacteriovorus abundance was district-dependent, with a major preponderance in duodenum, and gradually decreasing up to rectum; iv B. bacteriovorus levels significantly dropped in disease status, in duodenum and ileum. CONCLUSIONS: Results obtained in this study could represent the first step for new therapeutic strategies aimed to restore a balance in the intestinal ecosystem, utilizing Bdellovibrio as a probiotic.

  17. Differences of microbiota in small bowel and faeces between irritable bowel syndrome patients and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chen-Shuan; Chang, Pi-Feng; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Lee, Tzong-Hsi; Chen, Yun; Lee, Yi-Chia; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Wang, Hsiu-Po; Ni, Yen-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Several studies suggested that colonic microbiota have impacts on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. However, the knowledge about the association of small intestine (SI) microbiota with IBS is limited. We aimed to investigate the gut microbiota composition of SI and stool in IBS patients. Biopsies of jejunum mucosa by balloon-assisted enteroscopy and faecal samples from 28 IBS patients and 19 healthy controls were analysed by next-generation sequencing method. The three major phyla in SI microbiota of case/control groups were Proteobacteria (32.8/47.7%), Bacteroidetes (25.2/15.3%), and Firmicutes (19.8/11.2%), and those of stool were Bacteroidetes (41.3/45.8%), Firmicutes (40.7/38.2%), and Proteobacteria (15.4/7.1%). Analysis based on the family level, IBS patients had a higher proportion of Veillonellaceae (mean proportion 6.49% versus 2.68%, p = 0.046) in stool than controls. Prevotellaceae was more abundant in IBS patients than in control group (14.27% versus 6.13%, p = 0.023), while Mycobacteriaceae (0.06% versus 0.17%, p = 0.024) and Neisseriaceae (6.40% versus 8.94%, p = 0.038) was less abundant in IBS patients' jejunal mucosa than those in controls. This less abundant jejunal Neisseriaceae was associated with more severe IBS (p = 0.03). The ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in the stool of IBS-diarrhoea type patients was approximately three-fold higher, and the ratio of Firmicutes to Actinobacter in SI of IBS-mixed type patients was about nine-fold higher than healthy subjects. Higher abundance of colonic Veillonellaceae and SI Prevotellaceae, and lower amount of oral cavity normal flora in proximal SI were found in IBS patients. We may manipulate these bacteria in IBS patients in future studies (ClinicalTrial.gov Number NCT01679730).

  18. Analysis of the Chaotic Characteristics of Human Colonic Activities and Comparison of Healthy Participants to Costive Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Yan, Guozheng; Zhao, Kai; Xu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Constipation is a common yet distressing disease that has high rates of morbidity and impacts patients' quality of life. However, there is no perfect method to distinguish costive patients from healthy subjects. Is there chaos in human colonic activities? Are there any differences for the chaos indicators of colonic activities between healthy and costive subjects? Can these indicators distinguish patients with constipation from healthy subjects? To answer these questions, colonic pressure data from 16 healthy subjects and 48 patients with constipation were analyzed using the chaos theory. Three chaotic indicators [i.e., the largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE), correlation dimension (CorDim), and Kolmogorov entropy (KoEn)] were calculated and compared between groups with the Wilcoxon rank sum test. As a result, the LyE was greater than zero and the CorDim was fractioned, which showed that human colonic activities have clear chaotic characteristics. Statistically significant differences were observed between groups for CorDim (p chaotic indicator of CorDim was able to differentiate between patients with constipation and healthy subjects. The chaos theory provides a new method for learning the nonlinear dynamics of human gastrointestinal activities.

  19. Evaluation of T{sub 1ρ} as a potential MR biomarker for liver cirrhosis: Comparison of healthy control subjects and patients with liver cirrhosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauscher, Isabel, E-mail: isabel.raucher@tum.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Technical University Munich, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Eiber, Matthias; Ganter, Carl [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Technical University Munich, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Martirosian, Petros [Section on Experimental Radiology, University Tübingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Safi, Wajima; Umgelter, Andreas [2nd Medical Department, Technical University Munich, Ismaninger Straße 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Rummeny, Ernst J.; Holzapfel, Konstantin [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Technical University Munich, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Munich (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare mean liver T{sub 1ρ} values in patients with liver cirrhosis and healthy control subjects in order to evaluate T{sub 1ρ} as a potential MR biomarker for liver cirrhosis. Materials and methods: Ten healthy control subjects (mean age 42.7 years; 6 female, 4 male) and 21 patients with clinically diagnosed liver cirrhosis (mean age 56.5 years; 5 female, 16 male) were examined at 1.5 T (Magnetom Avanto, Siemens). T{sub 1ρ}-weighted images were acquired using a 2D TurboFLASH sequence (TR/TE 3/1.31 ms, FA 8°, FoV 309 × 380 mm, resolution 2 × 2 × 6 mm, acquisition time 15 s, slice thickness 6 mm) with spin-lock preparation. T{sub 1ρ} maps were calculated from five breath-hold measurements, performed with different spin-lock times (4, 8, 16, 32 and 48 ms). Mean liver T{sub 1ρ} values of healthy control subjects and patients with liver cirrhosis were calculated and compared using Student t-test. In addition, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the utility of mean liver T{sub 1ρ} values for the prediction of liver cirrhosis. Results: Mean liver T{sub 1ρ} values in patients with liver cirrhosis (57.4 ± 7.4 ms) were significantly higher than those of healthy subjects (47.8 ± 4.2 ms; p = 0.0007). According to the ROC analysis at a threshold value of 50.1 ms the sensitivity and specificity of mean liver T{sub 1ρ} in predicting liver cirrhosis were 90.5% and 90%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.90. Conclusion: Mean liver T{sub 1ρ} values in patients with liver cirrhosis were significantly higher than those in healthy subjects suggesting a potential role of liver T{sub 1ρ} as a MR biomarker for liver cirrhosis.

  20. A pilot study to evaluate simulated driving performance and cognitive function in healthy subjects and patients with restless legs syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen D

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dan Chen,1 Paula Shaw,2 Daniel M Canafax,1,3 James Catesby Ware4 1XenoPort, Inc., Santa Clara, CA, USA; 2Charles River Northwest, Tacoma, WA, USA; 3Theravance Inc., South San Francisco, CA, USA; 4Division of Sleep Medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USA Objective: Symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS usually occur during the evening and night time, resulting in disrupted sleep and subsequent daytime fatigue. This study compared simulated driving performance, alertness, and cognitive function between healthy subjects and patients with a diagnosis of RLS. Methods: Fifteen healthy subjects and 15 untreated RLS subjects were enrolled and completed two driving tests. The first test occurred at 4 PM followed by the second test at 8 AM the next morning. Outcome measures included lane position variability (LPV, speed variability, frequency of simulated crashes (off-road events or collision, and brake reaction time. Other assessments included visual analog scale (VAS of alertness and the Brief Assessment of Cognition (BAC. Results: Overall, RLS patients and healthy subjects performed similarly on driving assessments. Two subjects within each group experienced off-road events. RLS patients had less alertness on the VAS than healthy subjects before and after driving assessments. Both groups scored similarly on the cognitive function assessments. Conclusion: Despite reported diminished alertness, RLS patients did not demonstrate impairment in driving or cognitive performance. Keywords: restless legs syndrome, simulated driving performance, cognitive function

  1. Inflation of antishock trousers increases bronchial response to methacholine in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnard, J; Baudrillard, P; Salah, B; Dinh Xuan, A T; Cabanes, L; Lockhart, A

    1990-04-01

    We studied changes in lung volumes and in bronchial response to methacholine chloride (MC) challenge when antishock trousers (AST) were inflated at venous occlusion pressure in healthy subjects in the standing posture, a maneuver known to shift blood toward lung vessels. On inflation of bladders isolated to lower limbs, lung volumes did not change but bronchial response to MC increased, as evidenced by a greater fall in the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) at the highest dose of MC used compared with control without AST inflation (delta FEV1 = 0.94 +/- 0.40 vs. 0.66 +/- 0.46 liter, P less than 0.001). Full inflation of AST, i.e., lower limb and abdominal bladder inflated, significantly reduced vital capacity (P less than 0.001), functional residual capacity (P less than 0.01), and FEV1 (P less than 0.01) and enhanced the bronchial response to MC challenge compared with partial AST inflation (delta FEV1 = 1.28 +/- 0.47 liter, P less than 0.05). Because there was no significant reduction of lung volumes on partial AST inflation, the enhanced bronchial response to MC cannot be explained solely by changes in base-line lung volumes. An alternative explanation might be a congestion and/or edema of the airway wall on AST inflation. Therefore, to investigate further the mechanism of the increased bronchial response to MC, we pretreated the subjects with the inhaled alpha 1-adrenergic agonist methoxamine, which has both direct bronchoconstrictor and bronchial vasoconstrictor effects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Zinc balance of twenty healthy elderly subjects consuming self-selected diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.C.; Prather, E.S.; Rhodes, D.G. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Dietary zinc (Zn) intake and balance were determined in ten male and ten female free-living, healthy, elderly subjects on self-selected diets over a period of seven consecutive days. Zn content in the diet, fecal and urine composites for each subject was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mean age for the 20 participants was 73.9 years. Mean Zn intakes were 8.9 and 23.3 mg/day for females and males, respectively. Female dietary intakes ranged from 8.2 to 26.8 mg Zn/day. However, three of the males took Zn supplements which extended the total intake range to 64.9 mg/day. Mean Zn balances were +0.1 and +5.1 mg/day for females and males, respectively; ranges for females were {minus}0.1 to +4.3 mg/day and for males were {minus}7.3 to +15.1 mg/day. The 1989 RDAs are 15 mg for males and 12 mg for females. Only three females consumed more than 12 mg Zn/day. Only 2 males consumed more than 15 mg/day from their diet; two other males consumed more than 15 mg due to Zn supplements. Total dietary phytate (TDP) and total dietary fiber (TDF) were calculated from the 7-day weighed food records. Mean TDP intake for females was 1,159 mg/day; mean TDP for the males was 1,661 mg/day. Mean TDF intake for females was 19 g/day; mean TDF for males was 30 g/day.

  3. Effects of acupuncture on skin and muscle blood flow in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Margareta; Lundeberg, Thomas; Lindberg, Lars-Göran; Gerdle, Björn

    2003-09-01

    In 14 healthy female subjects, the effects of needle stimulation (acupuncture) on skin and muscle blood flow were investigated using a non-invasive custom-designed probe and photoplethysmography (PPG). In randomised order, 2-7 days apart, three modes of needle stimulation were performed on the anterior aspect of the tibia: superficial insertion (SF), insertion into the anterior tibial muscle (Mu), and insertion into the muscle including manipulation of the needle in order to elicit a distinct sensation of distension, heaviness or numbness (DeQi). Before intervention, the subjects rested for 30 min. After the intervention, the needle was left in situ for 20 min. Blood flow recordings were performed intermittently from 10 min prior to the intervention to the end of the trial. In a fourth session, serving as control, corresponding measurements were performed without any needle stimulation. Area under curve was calculated for 5-min periods prior to and after stimulation, respectively, and for the remaining 15-min period after stimulation. Compared to the control situation, muscle blood flow increased following both Mu and DeQi for 20 min, with the latter being more pronounced for the initial 5 min. Skin blood flow increased for 5 min following DeQi. However, no increase was found following SF. The DeQi stimulation was preceded by higher visual analogue scale ratings of anxiety prior to stimulation, which might have influenced skin blood flow to some extent. The results indicate that the intensity of the needling is of importance, the DeQi stimulation resulting in the most pronounced increase in both skin and muscle blood flow.

  4. Assessment of the pharmacokinetic interaction between eltrombopag and lopinavir-ritonavir in healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wire, Mary B; McLean, Heidi B; Pendry, Carolyn; Theodore, Dickens; Park, Jung W; Peng, Bin

    2012-06-01

    Eltrombopag is an orally bioavailable thrombopoietin receptor agonist that is approved for the treatment of chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. It is being developed for other medical disorders that are associated with thrombocytopenia. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may suffer from thrombocytopenia as a result of their HIV disease or coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). HIV medications, particularly ritonavir (RTV)-boosted HIV protease inhibitors, are involved in many drug interactions. This study evaluated the potential drug-drug interaction between eltrombopag and lopinavir (LPV)/RTV. Forty healthy adult subjects enrolled in this open-label, three-period, single-sequence crossover study received a single 100-mg dose of eltrombopag (period 1), LPV/RTV at 400/100 mg twice daily (BID) for 14 days (period 2), and LPV/RTV at 400/100 mg BID (2 doses) with a single 100-mg dose of eltrombopag administered with the morning LPV/RTV dose (period 3). There was a 3-day washout between periods 1 and 2 and no washout between periods 2 and 3. Serial pharmacokinetic samples were collected during 72 h in periods 1 and 3 and during 12 h in period 2. The coadministration of 400/100 mg LPV/RTV BID with a single dose of 100 mg eltrombopag decreased the plasma eltrombopag area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero extrapolated to infinity (AUC(0-∞)) by 17%, on average, with no change in plasma LPV/RTV exposure. Adverse events (AEs) reported in period 2 were consistent with known LPV/RTV AEs, such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, rash, and fatigue. No subjects withdrew due to AEs, and no serious AEs were reported. These study results suggest that platelet counts should be monitored and the eltrombopag dose adjusted accordingly if LPV/RTV therapy is initiated or discontinued.

  5. Effects of a fibre-enriched milk drink on insulin and glucose levels in healthy subjects

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    Pilvi Taru K

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The glycaemic response to foods is dependent on the quality and content of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates in the form of dietary fibre have favourable effects on insulin and glucose metabolism and may help to control energy intake. Dairy products have a relatively low carbohydrate content, and most of the carbohydrate is in the form of lactose which causes gastrointestinal symptoms in part of the population. In order to avoid these symptoms, dairy products can be replaced with lactose-free dairy products which are on the market in many parts of the world. However, the effects of lactose-free products on insulin and glucose metabolism have not been studied. Methods In the present study, we investigated the effects of 1 a lactose-free milk drink, 2 a novel fibre-enriched, fat- and lactose-free milk drink and 3 normal fat-free milk on serum glucose and insulin levels and satiety using a randomized block design. Following an overnight fast, 26 healthy volunteers ingested 200 ml of one of these drinks on three non-consecutive days. Insulin and glucose levels and subjective satiety ratings were measured before the ingestion of the milk product and 20, 40, 60, 120 and 180 minutes after ingestion. The responses were calculated as the area under the curve subtracted by the baseline value (AUC minus baseline. Results The insulin response was significantly lower for the fibre-enriched milk drink than it was for the other milk products (AUC, P = 0.007. There were no differences in the response for glucose or in the AUC for the subjective satiety ratings between the studied milk products. Conclusion The present results suggest that this novel milk drink could have positive effects on insulin response.

  6. Variability of the glycemic response to single food products in healthy subjects.

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    Vrolix, Ruth; Mensink, Ronald P

    2010-01-01

    Many studies on the health effects of the glycemic index (GI) are confounded by differences in the intakes of other macronutrients and fibre. Little data exist about the within- and between-subject variability of the GI. Our objectives were therefore (i) to calculate the GI of eight commonly used food products with similar macronutrient and fibre composition, but with different sources of carbohydrates, (ii) to examine the inter- and intra-individual variability of the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) after consuming the reference solution, and (iii) to compare the effect of three different methods on 2-h postprandial blood glucose responses. Four groups of 10 healthy subjects consumed in random order the increased (iGI) and decreased GI (dGI) variants and twice a glucose solution. All products consisted of 25g available carbohydrates (CHO). For the fruit drink, glucose values were simultaneously analyzed using venous and capillary blood samples, and by using a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). The GIs for increased and decreased variants were (mean+/-standard error of the mean (SEM)) 69+/-15 and 40+/-4 for bread, 86+/-14 and 48+/-8 for a fruit drink, 51+/-12 and 20+/-4 for cake, and 63+/-17 and 37+/-10 for a cookie. The inter- and intra-individual coefficient of variation (CV) of the iAUCs of the reference solution was large and varied respectively between 13 and 38%, and between 33 and 80%. These data suggest that the GI is difficult to use at the individual level. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and neuroendocrine effects of PRX-00023, a novel 5-HT1A agonist, in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Ganesh R; Reinhard, John F; Oshana, Scott; Kauffman, Michael; Donahue, Stephen

    2007-07-01

    PRX-00023 is a novel, nonazapirone 5-HT1A agonist in clinical development for treatment of affective disorders. The objectives of the initial clinical phase I studies (a single ascending dose study and multiple dose-ascending and high-dose titration studies) were to measure the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamic (neuroendocrine) effects, and tolerability of PRX-00023 in healthy subjects. The studies evaluated 10-mg to 150-mg doses of PRX-00023 in up to 112 healthy male and female subjects aged 18 to 54 years. Single and multiple oral doses of PRX-00023 were found to be safe and well tolerated in healthy subjects. PRX-00023 was absorbed relatively rapidly, with a tmax of 0.5 to 2 hours, and eliminated with a half-life of approximately 12 hours. PRX-00023 treatment transiently increased blood prolactin levels 2 to 3 hours after administration, consistent with its mechanism as a 5-HT1A agonist.

  8. A comparison of photoplethysmography and ECG recording to analyse heart rate variability in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G; Yang, F; Taylor, J A; Stein, J F

    2009-01-01

    Measures of heart rate variability (HRV) are widely used to assess autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. The signal from which they are derived requires accurate determination of the interval between successive heartbeats; it can be recorded via electrocardiography (ECG), which is both non-invasive and widely available. However, methodological problems inherent in the recording and analysis of ECG traces have motivated a search for alternatives. Photoplethysmography (PPG) constitutes another means of determining the timing of cardiac cycles via continuous monitoring of changes in blood volume in a portion of the peripheral microvasculature. This technique measures pulse waveforms, which in some instances may prove a practical basis for HRV analysis. We investigated the feasibility of using earlobe PPG to analyse HRV by applying the same analytic process to PPG and ECG recordings made simultaneously. Comparison of 5-minute recordings demonstrated a very high degree of correlation in the temporal and frequency domains and in nonlinear dynamic analyses between HRV measures derived from PPG and ECG. Our results confirm that PPG provides accurate interpulse intervals from which HRV measures can be accurately derived in healthy subjects under ideal conditions, suggesting this technique may prove a practical alternative to ECG for HRV analysis. This finding is of particular relevance to the care of patients suffering from peripheral hyperkinesia or tremor, which make fingertip PPG recording impractical, and following clinical interventions known to introduce electrical artefacts into the electrocardiogram.

  9. The cybernetic rehabilitation aid: preliminary results for wrist and elbow motions in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdogan, Erhan; Shima, Keisuke; Kataoka, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Masaki; Otsuka, Akira; Tsuji, Toshio

    2012-09-01

    This paper proposes the cybernetic rehabilitation aid (CRA) based on the concept of direct teaching using tactile feedback with electromyography (EMG)-based motor skill evaluation. Evaluation and teaching of motor skills are two important aspects of rehabilitation training, and the CRA provides novel and effective solutions to potentially solve the difficulties inherent in these two processes within a single system. In order to evaluate motor skills, EMG signals measured from a patient are analyzed using a log-linearized Gaussian mixture network that can classify motion patterns and compute the degree of similarity between the patient's measured EMG patterns and the desired pattern provided by the therapist. Tactile stimulators are used to convey motion instructions from the therapist or the system to the patient, and a rehabilitation robot can also be integrated into the developed prototype to increase its rehabilitation capacity. A series of experiments performed using the developed prototype demonstrated that the CRA can work as a human-human, human-computer and human-machine system. The experimental results indicated that the healthy (able-bodied) subjects were able to follow the desired muscular contraction levels instructed by the therapist or the system and perform proper joint motion without relying on visual feedback.

  10. Abdominal muscle activity during breathing with and without inspiratory and expiratory loads in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita Montes, António; Baptista, João; Crasto, Carlos; de Melo, Cristina Argel; Santos, Rita; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2016-10-01

    Central Nervous System modulates the motor activities of all trunk muscles to concurrently regulate the intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic pressures. The study aims to evaluate the effect of inspiratory and expiratory loads on abdominal muscle activity during breathing in healthy subjects. Twenty-three higher education students (21.09±1.56years; 8males) breathed at a same rhythm (inspiration: two seconds; expiration: four seconds) without load and with 10% of the maximal inspiratory or expiratory pressures, in standing. Surface electromyography was performed to assess the activation intensity of rectus abdominis, external oblique and transversus abdominis/internal oblique muscles, during inspiration and expiration. During inspiration, transversus abdominis/internal oblique activation intensity was significantly lower with inspiratory load when compared to without load (p=0.009) and expiratory load (p=0.002). During expiration, the activation intensity of all abdominal muscles was significantly higher with expiratory load when compared to without load (pmuscle to modulate the intra-abdominal pressure for the breathing mechanics.

  11. Modulation of electroencephalograph activity by manual acupuncture stimulation in healthy subjects: An autoregressive spectral analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Guo-Sheng; Wang Jiang; Deng Bin; Wei Xi-Le; Han Chun-Xiao

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether and how manual acupuncture (MA) modulates brain activities,we design an experiment where acupuncture at acupoint ST36 of the right leg is used to obtain electroencephalograph (EEG) signals in healthy subjects.We adopt the autoregressive (AR) Burg method to estimate the power spectrum of EEG signals and analyze the relative powers in delta (0 Hz-4 Hz),theta (4 Hz-8 Hz),alpha (8 Hz-13 Hz),and beta (13 Hz-30 Hz) bands.Our results show that MA at ST36 can significantly increase the EEG slow wave relative power (delta band) and reduce the fast wave relative powers (alpha and beta bands),while there are no statistical differences in theta band relative power between different acupuncture states.In order to quantify the ratio of slow to fast wave EEG activity,we compute the power ratio index.It is found that the MA can significantly increase the power ratio index,especially in frontal and central lobes.All the results highlight the modulation of brain activities with MA and may provide potential help for the clinical use of acupuncture.The proposed quantitative method of acupuncture signals may be further used to make MA more standardized.

  12. The relationships between interoception and alexithymic trait. The Self-Awareness Questionnaire in healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariachiara eLongarzo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Interoception is the basic process enabling evaluation of one’s own bodily states. Several previous studies suggested that altered interoception might be related to disorders in the ability to perceive and express emotions, i.e. alexithymia, and to defects in perceiving and describing one’s own health status, i.e. hypochondriasis. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between alexithymic trait and interoceptive abilities evaluated by the Self-Awareness Questionnaire (SAQ, a novel self-report tool for assessing interoceptive awareness. Two hundred and fifty healthy subjects completed the SAQ, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 items (TAS-20, and a questionnaire to assess hypochondriasis, the Illness Attitude Scale (IAS. The SAQ showed a two-factor structure, with good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha= .88. We observed significant direct correlations between SAQ, TAS-20 and two of its subscales, and the IAS. Regression analysis confirmed that the difficulty in identifying and expressing emotions is significantly related with awareness for one’s own interoceptive feelings and with a tendency to misinterpret and amplify bodily sensations. From a clinical point of view, the assessment of interoceptive awareness by the SAQ could be pivotal in evaluating several psychopathological conditions, such as the somatoform disorders.

  13. Effect of induced leg muscle fatigue on exertional dyspnea in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod; Morris, Norman R; Adams, Lewis

    2015-01-01

    The genesis of dyspnea is complex. It appears to be related to central respiratory drive although prevailing leg fatigue could independently potentiate dyspnea. We hypothesized that experimentally induced leg fatigue generates more intense exertional dyspnea for a given level of ventilatory drive. Following familiarization, 19 healthy subjects (32.2 ± 7.6 yr; 11 men) performed a 5-min treadmill test (speed: ∼4 km/h; grade: ∼25%) on two separate days randomized between control (C) and experimentally induced leg fatigue (E) achieved by repeated knee extension against 40% body weight until task failure. Oxygen uptake (V̇o2, l/min), carbon dioxide output (V̇co2, l/min), ventilation (V̇e, l/min), and respiratory rate (fR) were measured breath by breath. Heart rate (HR) and perceived dyspnea intensity (0-10 numerical scale) were recorded continuously. Data were averaged over 30-s intervals. Exertional dyspnea during E was statistically significantly higher (E vs. C: 4.2 ± 0.2 vs. 3.4 ± 0.2, P leg fatigue. These findings support the hypothesis that the intensity of exertional dyspnea is exacerbated by peripheral afferent information from fatigued leg muscles.

  14. Serum bactericidal activity from intravenous ciprofloxacin and azlocillin given alone and in combination to healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, P L; Barriere, S L; Hindler, J A; Frost, R W

    1990-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin plus azlocillin have been shown to exhibit in vitro synergy versus a variety of organisms, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study examined this interaction in vivo, testing serum bactericidal activity (SBA) in six healthy male subjects after intravenous administration of ciprofloxacin 4 mg/kg (C), azlocillin 60 mg/kg (A), and the two simultaneously (C/A). Eight different organisms were tested: four isolates of P. aeruginosa with varying susceptibilities to C and A, and one isolate each of Escherichia coli (EC), Staphylococcus aureus (SA) Serratia marcescens (SM), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP), all of which were susceptible to both drugs. Blood samples were collected at the end of 30-min infusions and at 4 and 8 hr. Reciprocal titers were plotted versus time and area under the bactericidal titer curve (AUBC) calculated to assess antibacterial interactions. Results indicated that P. aeruginosa-1 (PA-1), EC, and KP were synergistically killed by C/A. AUBC for PA-1 were C = 36, A = 11, C/A = 144, p less than 0.05. AUBC for EC were C = 1059, A = 180, C/A = 1504, p = 0.05. AUBC for KP were C = 327, A = 97, C/A = 584, p = 005. Additive effects were demonstrated versus all of the other organisms except Serratia marcescens, where an indifferent effect was observed. Ciprofloxacin plus azlocillin may be a useful combination of the treatment of selected Gram-negative bacillary infections.

  15. Expression Profiling of Transcriptome and Its Associated Disease Risk in Yang Deficiency Constitution of Healthy Subjects

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    Ruoxi Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Differences among healthy subjects and associated disease risks are of substantial interest in clinical medicine. According to the theory of “constitution-disease correlation” in traditional Chinese medicine, we try to find out if there is any connection between intolerance of cold in Yang deficiency constitution and molecular evidence and if there is any gene expression basis in specific disorders. Methods. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from Chinese Han individuals with Yang deficiency constitution (n=20 and balanced constitution (n=8 (aged 18–28 and global gene expression profiles were determined between them using the Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 array. Results. The results showed that when the fold change was ≥1.2 and q ≤ 0.05, 909 genes were upregulated in the Yang deficiency constitution, while 1189 genes were downregulated. According to our research differential genes found in Yang deficiency constitution were usually related to lower immunity, metabolic disorders, and cancer tendency. Conclusion. Gene expression disturbance exists in Yang deficiency constitution, which corresponds to the concept of constitution and gene classification. It also suggests people with Yang deficiency constitution are susceptible to autoimmune diseases, enteritis, arthritis, metabolism disorders, and cancer, which provides molecular evidence for the theory of “constitution-disease correlation.”

  16. Effects of grapefruit juice on cortisol metabolism in healthy male Chinese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ya-Jie; Hu, Miao; Tomlinson, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Grapefruit juice (GFJ) inhibits intestinal CYP3A4 activity and it has been suggested that GFJ may also inhibit renal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2), which converts cortisol to cortisone. This study examined the effect of GFJ on the urinary excretion of cortisol, cortisone and 6β-hydroxycortisol (6β-OHC) and their ratios to asses these effects. Healthy male Chinese subjects took single doses of GFJ (200, 400, and 600 mL, respectively) at weekly intervals. Urine was collected over 24 h the day before and following GFJ intake. Subsequently, volunteers drank 400 mL GFJ for 7 days and urine was collected from 0 to 4 h daily. GFJ had dose-dependent effects on increasing cortisol excretion (P cortisol to cortisone (P cortisol (P cortisol. It increased the ratio of cortisol to cortisone and this appeared largely due to increased cortisol excretion related to impaired CYP3A4-mediated cortisol metabolism although a true inhibitory effect on 11β-HSD2 in the kidney cannot be excluded.

  17. Deqi Induction by HT7 Acupuncture Alters Theta and Alpha Band Coherence in Human Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Go-Eun; Yun, Jong-Min; Yang, Seung-Bum; Kang, Yeonseok; Kang, Hyung-Won; Choi, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Junbeom; Kwon, O Sang; Park, Ji-Eun; Kim, Jae-Hyo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary study is to investigate the changes in phase synchronization in the theta and alpha bands before and during the performance of classical acupuncture on the Sinmun (HT7). The electroencephalogram (EEG) signals from nine healthy young subjects were recorded before and during acupuncture in the "closed-eye" state. The EEG signals were acquired from 19 surface scalp electrodes (FP1, FP2, F7, F3, Fz F4, F8, T3, C3, Cz, C4, T4, T5, P3, Pz, P4, T6, O1, and O2). Needles were inserted into the HT7 bilaterally and were then manipulated to induce deqi and retained for 15 minutes. Phase synchronization was measured by phase coherence. In the theta band, coherence significantly increased between the temporal (T5, T6) and occipital areas (O1, O2) during the acupuncture stimulation. In the alpha band, coherence significantly increased between the left temporal area (T5) and other areas (frontal, parietal, and occipital). Phase coherence in the theta and alpha bands tended to increase during the retention of the acupuncture needles after deqi. Therefore, it can be concluded that acupuncture stimulation with deqi is clinically effective via the central nervous system (CNS).

  18. Deqi Induction by HT7 Acupuncture Alters Theta and Alpha Band Coherence in Human Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go-Eun Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this preliminary study is to investigate the changes in phase synchronization in the theta and alpha bands before and during the performance of classical acupuncture on the Sinmun (HT7. The electroencephalogram (EEG signals from nine healthy young subjects were recorded before and during acupuncture in the “closed-eye” state. The EEG signals were acquired from 19 surface scalp electrodes (FP1, FP2, F7, F3, Fz F4, F8, T3, C3, Cz, C4, T4, T5, P3, Pz, P4, T6, O1, and O2. Needles were inserted into the HT7 bilaterally and were then manipulated to induce deqi and retained for 15 minutes. Phase synchronization was measured by phase coherence. In the theta band, coherence significantly increased between the temporal (T5, T6 and occipital areas (O1, O2 during the acupuncture stimulation. In the alpha band, coherence significantly increased between the left temporal area (T5 and other areas (frontal, parietal, and occipital. Phase coherence in the theta and alpha bands tended to increase during the retention of the acupuncture needles after deqi. Therefore, it can be concluded that acupuncture stimulation with deqi is clinically effective via the central nervous system (CNS.

  19. Evaluation of small bowel blood flow in healthy subjects receiving low-dose aspirin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Urara Nishida; Mototsugu Kato; Mutsumi Nishida; Go Kamada; Takeshi Yoshida; Shouko Ono; Yuichi Shimizu; Masahiro Asaka

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between low-dose aspirin-induced small bowel mucosal damage and blood flow, and the effect of rebamipide.METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into two groups:a placebo group given low-dose aspirin plus placebo and a rebamipide group given low-dose aspirin plus rebamipide for a period of 14 d. Capsule endoscopy and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography were performed before and after administration of drugs. Areas under the curves and peak value of time-intensity curve were calculated.RESULTS: Absolute differences in areas under the curves were -1102.5 (95% CI: -1980.3 to -224.7, P = 0.0194) in the placebo group and -152.7 (95% CI:-1604.2 to 641.6, P = 0.8172) in the rebamipide group.Peak values of time intensity curves were -148.0 (95%CI: -269.4 to -26.2, P = 0.0225) in the placebo group and 28.3 (95% CI: -269.0 to 325.6, P = 0.8343) in the rebamipide group. Capsule endoscopy showed mucosal breaks only in the placebo group.CONCLUSION: Short-term administration of low-dose aspirin is associated with small bowel injuries and blood flow.

  20. Trospium chloride is absorbed from two intestinal "absorption windows" with different permeability in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadken, Tobias; Weiss, Michael; Modess, Christiane; Wegner, Danilo; Roustom, Tarek; Neumeister, Claudia; Schwantes, Ulrich; Schulz, Hans-Ulrich; Weitschies, Werner; Siegmund, Werner

    2016-12-30

    Intestinal P-glycoprotein is regio-selectively expressed and is a high affinity, low capacity efflux carrier for the cationic, poorly permeable trospium. Organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) provides lower affinity but higher capacity for trospium uptake. To evaluate regional intestinal permeability, absorption profiles after gastric infusion of trospium chloride (30mg/250ml=[I]2) for 6h and after swallowing 30mg immediate-release tablets in fasted and fed healthy subjects, were evaluated using an inverse Gaussian density function to model input rate and mean absorption time (MAT). Trospium chloride was slowly absorbed (MAT ∼10h) after gastric infusion involving two processes with different input rates, peaking at about 3h and 7h. Input rates and MAT were influenced by dosage form and meal. In conclusion, trospium is absorbed from two "windows" located in the jejunum and cecum/ascending colon, whose uptake capacity might result from local abundance and functional interplay of P-glycoprotein and OCT1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of small bowel blood flow in healthy subjects receiving low-dose aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Urara; Kato, Mototsugu; Nishida, Mutsumi; Kamada, Go; Yoshida, Takeshi; Ono, Shouko; Shimizu, Yuichi; Asaka, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between low-dose aspirin-induced small bowel mucosal damage and blood flow, and the effect of rebamipide. METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into two groups: a placebo group given low-dose aspirin plus placebo and a rebamipide group given low-dose aspirin plus rebamipide for a period of 14 d. Capsule endoscopy and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography were performed before and after administration of drugs. Areas under the curves and peak value of time-intensity curve were calculated. RESULTS: Absolute differences in areas under the curves were -1102.5 (95% CI: -1980.3 to -224.7, P = 0.0194) in the placebo group and -152.7 (95% CI: -1604.2 to 641.6, P = 0.8172) in the rebamipide group. Peak values of time intensity curves were -148.0 (95% CI: -269.4 to -26.2, P = 0.0225) in the placebo group and 28.3 (95% CI: -269.0 to 325.6, P = 0.8343) in the rebamipide group. Capsule endoscopy showed mucosal breaks only in the placebo group. CONCLUSION: Short-term administration of low-dose aspirin is associated with small bowel injuries and blood flow. PMID:21245996

  2. The effect of sleep deprivation on pain perception in healthy subjects: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrimpf, Marlene; Liegl, Gregor; Boeckle, Markus; Leitner, Anton; Geisler, Peter; Pieh, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    There is strong evidence indicating an interaction between sleep and pain. However, the size of this effect, as well as the clinical relevance, is unclear. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effect of sleep deprivation on pain perception. A systematic literature search was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed, Cochrane, Psyndex, Psycinfo, and Scopus. By conducting a random-effect model, the pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) of sleep deprivation on pain perception was calculated. Studies that investigated any kind of sleep deprivation in conjunction with a pain measurement were included. In cases of several pain measurements within a study, the average effect size of all measures was calculated. Five eligible studies (N = 190) for the between-group analysis and ten studies (N = 266) for the within-group analysis were identified. Sleep deprivation showed a medium effect in the between-group analysis (SMD = 0.62; CI95: 0.12, 1.12; z = 2.43; p = 0.015) and a large effect in the within-group analysis (SMD = 1.49; CI95: 0.82, 2.17; z = 4.35; p sleep deprivation on pain perception. As this meta-analysis is based on experimental studies in healthy subjects, the clinical relevance should be clarified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. No Effect of Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Fear Memory in Healthy Human Subjects

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    Aditya Mungee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have demonstrated that fear memories can be modified using non-invasive methods. Recently, we demonstrated that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is capable of enhancing fear memories. Here, we examined the effects of cathodal tDCS of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during fear reconsolidation in humans. Methods: Seventeen young, healthy subjects were randomly assigned to two groups, which underwent fear conditioning with mild electric stimuli paired with a visual stimulus. Twenty-four hours later, both groups were shown a reminder of the conditioned fearful stimulus. Shortly thereafter, they received either tDCS (right prefrontal—cathodal, left supraorbital—anodal for 20 min at 1 mA, or sham stimulation. A day later, fear responses of both groups were compared. Results: On Day 3, during fear response assessment, there were no significant differences between the tDCS and sham group (p > 0.05. Conclusion: We conclude that cathodal tDCS of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right prefrontal—cathodal, left supraorbital—anodal did not influence fear memories.

  4. Lung deposition of salbutamol in healthy human subjects from the MAGhaler dry powder inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S; Malik, S; Hirst, R; Pitcairn, G; Heide, A; Pabst, J; Dinkelaker, A; Fleischer, W

    2002-12-01

    The MAGhaler (Mundipharma GmbH) is a multidose dry powder inhaler (DPI) containing a novel formulation of drug and lactose compacted by an isostatic pressing technique (GGU GmbH). On actuation, a precise dose is metered from a compacted ring-shaped drug tablet. In this study, the lung deposition of salbutamol from this device has been assessed. Ten healthy non-smoking subjects completed a two-way cross-over study assessing the pulmonary deposition of salbutamol (200 microg) from the MAGhaler at high (60 l/min) and low (30 l/min) peak inhaled flow rates (PIFRs), representing maximal and sub-maximal inspiratory efforts. The formulation was radiolabelled with 99mTc, and lung and oropharyngeal depositions were quantified by gamma scintigraphyThe mean (SD)% ofthe delivered dose deposited in the lungs was 26.4 (4.3)% at 60 l/min and 21.1 (5.1)% at 30 l/min (P < 0.05), corresponding to mean lung depositions of 52.8 and 42.2 microg salbutamol, respectively. The distribution of drug within different lung regions did not vary significantly with inhaled flow rate. The data provided proof of concept for the novel inhaler device and the innovative drug formulation. In comparison with previous deposition data obtained with other DPIs, the lung deposition was relatively high, relatively reproducible (coefficient of variation 16% at 60 l/min) and relatively insensitive to the change in peak inhaled flow rate.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of modified-release prednisone tablets in healthy subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derendorf, Hartmut; Ruebsamen, Klaus; Clarke, Lynsey; Schaeffler, Achim; Kirwan, John R

    2013-03-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), nocturnal release of proinflammatory cytokines is not adequately counteracted by endogenous glucocorticoid and is associated with symptoms of morning stiffness and pain. Taking exogenous glucocorticoid during the night reduces morning stiffness significantly more than treatment at the conventional time in the morning, although waking to take tablets is unacceptable for patients. Modified-release prednisone tablets were developed to allow administration at bedtime for programmed delivery of glucocorticoid during the night. Single-center crossover studies were conducted, each in ≤24 healthy subjects, to compare the pharmacokinetics of a single 5-mg oral dose of modified-release prednisone and conventional prednisone, as well as the effect of food on bioavailability. There was no substantial difference in pharmacokinetic parameters of the formulations apart from the programmed delay in release of glucocorticoid from the modified-release tablets (C(max) 97%, AUC(0-∞) 101%, 90% confidence intervals within the requisite range for bioequivalence). Administration after a full or light meal did not affect pharmacokinetic characteristics, but bioavailability was reduced under fasted conditions. Pharmacokinetic evaluation in 9 patients with RA confirmed that modified-release prednisone tablets taken at bedtime (around 22:00 h) with or after an evening meal result in programmed release of glucocorticoid 4 to 6 hours after intake.

  6. Bioequivalence studies of 2 oral cefaclor capsule formulations in chinese healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Jiang, B; Lou, H; Yu, L; Ruan, Z

    2012-03-01

    An open-label, single-dose, randomized, crossover study was carried out in 20 Chinese healthy male subjects to compare the pharmacokinetics of 2 cefaclor (CAS 53994-73-3) formulations after administration of a single 250 mg dose of each drug with a 1-week wash-out period. Blood samples were collected before and with 6 h after drug administration. Plasma concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detector. 2 formulations were evaluated using the following pharmacokinetic parameters: AUC0-t, Cmax and tmax was analyzed nonparametrically. The 90% confidence interval (CI) of the ratios (teat/reference) of log-transformed AUC0-t and Cmax fell within the bioequivalence acceptance range of 80-125%. The results showed that the 90% CI of the ratios of AUC0-t and Cmax were 105.1% (101.0-109.4%) and 92.4% (82.5-103.4%), respectively, which therefore could conclude 2 oral cefaclor capsule formulations of cefaclor are bioequivalent. Both treatments showed similar tolerability and safety.

  7. Glycemic index determination of vegetable and fruits in healthy Bangladeshi subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatema, K; Sumi, N; Rahman, F; Kobura, K; Ali, L

    2011-12-01

    Fruits and vegetables are an important part of the diet especially for their complex carbohydrates, dietary fibre and micronutrients. The present study investigated the glycemic index (GI) of a vegetable [carrot (Daucas carota)] and fruits [banana (Chapa kola) Musa Sp. and plum (Bau kul) Zizyphus mauritiana] of Bangladeshi origin. Fourteen healthy Bangladeshi subjects, comprising 7 males and, 7 females, with mean age of 26 +/- 3 years, BMI 22 +/- 3 kg/m2, waist-hip ratio of 0.89 +/- 0.01 and 0.84 +/- 0.04 respectively for males and females. Under a cross-over design, they consumed equi-carbohydrate amounts (25 g of total available carbohydrate) of the test foods and two times glucose as reference food (25 g of total carbohydrate), with a run in period of 7 days between the consecutive items. Serum glucose levels were determined at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. The GIs was calculated. The carrot, banana and plum samples showed significantly lower serum glucose values (incremental area under the curve 30.4 +/- 12.6, 37.3 +/- 19.2 and 41.8 +/- 20.7 respectively) than glucose (132.7 +/- 36.0). The carrot showed a lower GI value than banana and plum respectively (23 +/- 9, 30 +/- 18 and 32 +/- 15). The vegetable and fruit samples tested of Bangladesh origin were shown to have comparatively low GI values.

  8. Exercise stress testing in healthy subjects during cholinergic stimulation after a single dose of pyridostigmine

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    Salvador M. Serra

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: The evaluation, by exercise stress testing, of the cardiorespiratory effects of pyridostigmine (PYR, a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled comparison of hemodynamic and ventilation variables of 10 healthy subjects who underwent three exercise stress tests (the first for adaptation and determination of tolerance to exercise, the other two after administration of placebo or 45mg of PYR. RESULTS: Heart rate at rest was: 68±3 vs 68±3bpm before and after placebo, respectively (P=0.38; 70±2 vs 59±2bpm, before and after pyridostigmine, respectively (P<0.01. During exercise, relative to placebo: a significantly lower heart rate after PYR at, respectively, 20% (P=0.02, 40% (P=0.03, 80% (P=0.05 and 100% (P=0.02 of peak effort was observed. No significant differences were observed in arterial blood pressure, oxygen consumption at submaximal and maximal effort, exercise duration, respiratory ratio, CO2 production, ventilation threshold, minute ventilation, and oxygen pulse. CONCLUSION: Pyridostigmine, at a dose of 45mg, decreases heart rate at rest and during exercise, with minimal side effects and without interfering with exercise tolerance and ventilation variables.

  9. The relationships between interoception and alexithymic trait. The Self-Awareness Questionnaire in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longarzo, Mariachiara; D'Olimpio, Francesca; Chiavazzo, Angela; Santangelo, Gabriella; Trojano, Luigi; Grossi, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Interoception is the basic process enabling evaluation of one's own bodily states. Several previous studies suggested that altered interoception might be related to disorders in the ability to perceive and express emotions, i.e., alexithymia, and to defects in perceiving and describing one's own health status, i.e., hypochondriasis. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between alexithymic trait and interoceptive abilities evaluated by the "Self-Awareness Questionnaire" (SAQ), a novel self-report tool for assessing interoceptive awareness. Two hundred and fifty healthy subjects completed the SAQ, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 items (TAS-20), and a questionnaire to assess hypochondriasis, the Illness Attitude Scale (IAS). The SAQ showed a two-factor structure, with good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88). We observed significant direct correlations between SAQ, TAS-20 and two of its subscales, and the IAS. Regression analysis confirmed that the difficulty in identifying and expressing emotions is significantly related with awareness for one's own interoceptive feelings and with a tendency to misinterpret and amplify bodily sensations. From a clinical point of view, the assessment of interoceptive awareness by the SAQ could be pivotal in evaluating several psychopathological conditions, such as the somatoform disorders.

  10. Oatmeal porridge: impact on microflora-associated characteristics in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeur, Jørgen; Puaschitz, Nathalie G; Midtvedt, Tore; Berstad, Arnold

    2016-01-14

    Oatmeal porridge has been consumed for centuries and has several health benefits. We aimed to investigate the effect of oatmeal porridge on gut microflora functions. A total of ten healthy subjects ingested 60 g oatmeal porridge daily for 1 week. The following microflora-associated characteristics were assessed before and after the intervention: intestinal gas production following lactulose ingestion, faecal excretion of SCFA and faecal levels of urease and β-galactosidase. In addition, rectal levels of PGE2 were measured. Microbial fermentation as evaluated by intestinal gas production and excretion of SCFA did not change significantly following the dietary intervention. However, faecal levels of β-galactosidase and urease decreased after eating oatmeal porridge (P=0·049 and 0·031, respectively). Host inflammatory state, as measured by rectal levels of PGE2, also decreased, but the change was not significant (P=0·168). The results suggest that oatmeal porridge has an effect on gut microbial functions and may possess potential prebiotic properties that deserve to be investigated further.

  11. Modulation of electroencephalograph activity by manual acupuncture stimulation in healthy subjects: An autoregressive spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xi-Le; Han, Chun-Xiao

    2013-02-01

    To investigate whether and how manual acupuncture (MA) modulates brain activities, we design an experiment where acupuncture at acupoint ST36 of the right leg is used to obtain electroencephalograph (EEG) signals in healthy subjects. We adopt the autoregressive (AR) Burg method to estimate the power spectrum of EEG signals and analyze the relative powers in delta (0 Hz-4 Hz), theta (4 Hz-8 Hz), alpha (8 Hz-13 Hz), and beta (13 Hz-30 Hz) bands. Our results show that MA at ST36 can significantly increase the EEG slow wave relative power (delta band) and reduce the fast wave relative powers (alpha and beta bands), while there are no statistical differences in theta band relative power between different acupuncture states. In order to quantify the ratio of slow to fast wave EEG activity, we compute the power ratio index. It is found that the MA can significantly increase the power ratio index, especially in frontal and central lobes. All the results highlight the modulation of brain activities with MA and may provide potential help for the clinical use of acupuncture. The proposed quantitative method of acupuncture signals may be further used to make MA more standardized.

  12. Symmetric corticospinal excitability and representation of vastus lateralis muscle in right-handed healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sawah, Mohomad; Rimawi, Mohammad; Concerto, Carmen; Amer, Bahaa; Cao, Yisheng; D'Antoni, Anthony V; Chusid, Eileen; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the size and location of the representations of the anterior thigh muscles on the human motor cortex in the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded from the right and left vastus lateralis (rVL, lVL) muscles. A total of ten right-handed healthy volunteers participated in the study. In a single session experiment, we investigated VL muscle corticospinal excitability (motor threshold, MEP size, short interval intracortical inhibition, intracortical facilitation) and cortical representation (map area, volume, and location) in the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres. The motor threshold, MEPs, and intracortical excitability did not differ significantly between the hemispheres (P > 0.05). Furthermore, no difference between sides was found in the location of VL motor representation (mediolateral and anteroposterior axis) or in map area and volume (P > 0.05). Vastus lateralis muscle corticospinal excitability and cortical map were symmetrical in right-handed subjects. Future studies on patients with unilateral lower extremity injuries could examine side-to-side plastic reorganization in corticomotor output and map location in both hemispheres.

  13. Dexamethasone increases glucose cycling, but not glucose production, in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wajngot, A.; Khan, A.; Giacca, A.; Vranic, M.; Efendic, S. (Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1990-11-01

    We established that measurement of glucose fluxes through glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase; hepatic total glucose output, HTGO), glucose cycling (GC), and glucose production (HGP), reveals early diabetogenic changes in liver metabolism. To elucidate the mechanism of the diabetogenic effect of glucocorticoids, we treated eight healthy subjects with oral dexamethasone (DEX; 15 mg over 48 h) and measured HTGO with (2-3H)glucose and HGP with (6-3H)glucose postabsorptively and during a 2-h glucose infusion (11.1 mumol.kg-1.min-1). (2-3H)- minus (6-3H)glucose equals GC. DEX significantly increased plasma glucose, insulin, C peptide, and HTGO, while HGP was unchanged. In controls and DEX, glucose infusion suppressed HTGO (82 vs. 78%) and HGP (87 vs. 91%). DEX increased GC postabsorptively (three-fold) P less than 0.005 and during glucose infusion (P less than 0.05) but decreased metabolic clearance and glucose uptake (Rd), which eventually normalized, however. Because DEX increased HTGO (G-6-Pase) and not HGP (glycogenolysis + gluconeogenesis), we assume that DEX increases HTGO and GC in humans by activating G-6-Pase directly, rather than by expanding the glucose 6-phosphate pool. Hyperglycemia caused by peripheral effects of DEX can also contribute to an increase in GC by activating glucokinase. Therefore, measurement of glucose fluxes through G-6-Pase and GC revealed significant early effects of DEX on hepatic glucose metabolism, which are not yet reflected in HGP.

  14. Tolerability and pharmacokinetics of ebrotidine in healthy subjects given single and repeated oral doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, M; Roset, P N; Badenas, J M; Ugena, B; Márquez, M; Albet, C; Herrero, E; Ortiz, J A

    1997-04-01

    The tolerability and safety of ebrotidine (N-[(E)-[[2-[[[2-[(diaminomethylene)amino]-4-thiazolyl]methyl] thio]ethyl]amino]methylene]-4-bromo-benzenesulfonamide, CAS 100981-43-9, FI-3542) and its basic pharmacokinetic parameters were determined after its oral administration to healthy volunteers. Sixteen subjects were selected to participate in two different studies: an increasing single dose study to determine the maximal tolerated dose (from 25 to 1600 mg), and a multiple dose study (stepped doses from 400 to 1600 mg daily for 12 days). The results of the studies showed that ebrotidine has a good tolerability. Vital signs and laboratory tests were not influenced by the study treatment. No clinically relevant adverse effects were reported during the investigation. Ebrotidine reached peak plasma concentrations 2-3 h after oral administration. Its elimination half-life ranged from 9 to 14 h. In conclusion, ebrotidine was well tolerated after administration of oral single doses of up to 1600 mg, and after repeated administration of up to 800 mg/12 h for 12 days.

  15. Estimation of arterial PCO2 from a lung model during ramp exercise in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vincent; Costes, Frédéric; Busso, Thierry

    2007-06-15

    The aim of this study is to propose a new approach to estimate non-invasively arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (P(a)CO2) approach was based on the reconstruction of alveolar gas composition over each breath from a tidally ventilated lung model (P(M)(CO2)). Eight healthy young subjects were studied during a ramp exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Arterial samples were drawn at rest and every minute during the exercise test for determination of P(a)CO2 . P(a)CO2 was compared with indirect estimates of P(CO2) : P(M)(CO2), end-tidal P(CO2) (P(ET)(CO2)) and an empirical equation involving P(ET)(CO2) and tidal volume (P(J)(CO2)). The difference between estimated and measured P(a)CO2 on the whole ramp exercise was -0.3+/-1.9mmHg for P(M)(CO2), 1.0+/-2.2mmHg for P(ET)(CO2) and -1.7+/-1.7mmHg for P(J)(CO2) . P(ET)(CO2) and P(J)(CO2) were significantly different from actual P(a)CO2 (P<0.001). It is concluded that, on the basis of the bias, the breathing lung model gave better estimates of P(a)CO2 than the two other indirect methods during ramp exercise.

  16. Serum zinc concentrations in two cohorts of 153 healthy subjects and 100 cirrhotic patients from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poo, J L; Rosas-Romero, R; Rodríguez, F; Silencio, J L; Muñoz, R; Bourges, H; Uribe, M

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess serum zinc levels in a cohort of healthy subjects and cirrhotic patients from Mexico City. A total of 153 healthy subjects and 100 cirrhotic patients, males and females aged 18-65, were studied. Inclusion criteria for healthy subjects were (1) Mexican-born with first and second generation relatives born in Mexico, and (2) somatometric (body mass index under 30) and clinical evaluation establishing that they had no underlying disease. Entry criteria for cirrhotic patients were (1) clinical and histological proven cirrhosis, (2) compensated liver disease (absence of coma, bleeding hemorrhage or refractory ascitis), and (3) cirrhosis of any cause. Zinc serum levels were measured with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In healthy subjects, mean serum levels were 77.4 +/- 4.2 micrograms/dl (range 42.9-105.2 micrograms/dl). In cirrhotic patients zinc serum levels (58.9 +/- 16.1 micrograms/dl, range 22-88 micrograms/dl) were significantly lower than in healthy subjects (p < 0.05). A stepwise decline in serum zinc with worsening Child class (A, 73.4 +/- 13; B, 64.4 +/- 12; C, 55.8 +/- 15.6; p < 0.05 by ANOVA test) was found. In conclusion, this study confirms that zinc serum levels are significantly lower in cirrhotic patients and shows that zinc serum levels in a cohort of 153 healthy subjects from Mexico City were unexpectedly lower compared to those found in other countries. This last finding might be explained by different dietetic patterns and deserves further investigation.

  17. Effect of Pseudocereal-Based Breakfast Meals on the First and Second Meal Glucose Tolerance in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrial, Shreef G. N.; Shakib, Marie-Christine R.; Gabrial, Gamal N.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many studies have indicated that the incidence of serious diabetic complications may be reduced through strict glycemic control. A low glycemic index diet is one tool to improve insulin resistance and improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). AIM: The objective was to study the effect of pseudocereals-based breakfasts (quinoa and buckwheat) on glucose variations at first meal (breakfast) and second meal (standardised lunch) in healthy and diabetic subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects and 12 patients with Type 2 DM (not- insulin dependent) were recruited in the study. Subjects were provided with quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals. A standardised lunch was provided 4 h after breakfast. Postprandial blood glucose response after breakfast and the second meal effect was measured in healthy and diabetic subjects. Incremental area under the curve (IAUC) values for glucose was measured in response to the breakfast and lunch. The glycemic index of the 2 pseudocereals-based test breakfasts was determined. A white wheat bread (WWB) was served as a reference breakfast meal. RESULTS: In post-breakfast analyses, healthy subjects showed that buckwheat meal had significantly lower IAUC values for blood glucose compared to WWB reference meal (P quinoa meal showed no significance. In diabetic subjects, buckwheat and quinoa meals had significantly lower IAUC values for blood glucose compared to WWB reference meal (P quinoa and buckwheat but not for WWB in all healthy and diabetic subjects and returned to near-fasting baseline levels by 210 min. Post-lunch analyses indicated higher IAUC for the two breakfast types in healthy and diabetic subjects. In addition, the quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals were followed by a significantly flatter blood glucose response to the second meal for the period between 270 and 330 min. At the end of the second meal period, values were below or near-fasting baseline levels in the breakfast period

  18. The effects of tegaserod (HTF 919) on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of digoxin in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H; Horowitz, A; Ledford, P C; Hubert, M; Appel-Dingemanse, S; Osborne, S; McLeod, J F

    2001-10-01

    Tegaserod (HTF 919) is a highly specific 5-HT4 receptor partial agonist that exhibits promotile activity throughout the gastrointestinal tract and is under development for the treatment of functional gastrointestinal motility disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effect of multiple doses of tegaserod on the single-dose pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of digoxin, a commonly prescribed agent for congestive heart failure. The study was an open-label, randomized, two-period crossover design of 12 healthy subjects. One treatment included digoxin treatment alone; the other treatment included a combined digoxin and tegaserod treatment. On day 1 of the digoxin treatment period, subjects received a single 1 mg oral dose of digoxin. In the combined tegaserod/digoxin treatment period, subjects received a single oral dose of 1 mg digoxin after 3 days of tegaserod (6 mg bid). After coadministration of tegaserod, systemic exposure to digoxin was decreased; mean AUC decreased by 11.9% (p < 0.05) relative to digoxin alone. Cmax was decreased by about 15% (p < 0.05). The 0.5-hour difference in the median tmax between the two treatments was not statistically significant. Because the steady-state trough concentration of digoxin (C(SS,min)) correlates with pharmacological effects, C(SS,min) for digoxin alone and in combination with tegaserod was simulated based on both parametric compartmental modeling and nonparametric superpositioning approaches. The predicted arithmetic mean C(SS,min) for combination therapy is 86% to 89% of that following digoxin alone. Likewise, the predicted arithmetic mean steady-state peak concentration (C(SS,min)) and AUC at steady state during a dosing interval (AUC(SS,tau)) have a similar decrease. This extent of decrease in systemic exposure of digoxin at steady state is unlikely to be clinically relevant. Administration of tegaserod (6 mg bid) was well tolerated, both alone and in combination with a single dose of digoxin. There

  19. A new topical formulation enhances relative diclofenac bioavailability in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Martin; Davies, David; Martin, Wolfgang; Leuratti, Chiara; Lackner, Edith; Müller, Markus

    2011-06-01

    • Therapy with topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) relies on the ability of the active drug to penetrate the skin in sufficiently high amounts to exert a clinical effect, which is linked to the specific galenic properties of the formulation. • This phase 1 study characterizes the transdermal penetration and plasma exposure of different dose levels with galenic differences of a novel topical diclofenac formulation under development and indicates greater diclofenac penetration through the skin when compared with a commercially available formulation. To evaluate the relative plasma and tissue availability of diclofenac after repeated topical administration of a novel diclofenac acid-based delivery system under development (DCF100C). This was a single-centre, open-label, three-period, crossover clinical trial of five discrete diclofenac formulations. Test preparations comprised two concentrations (1.0% and 2.5%) of DCF100C, with and without menthol and eucalyptus oil (total daily doses of 5 mg and 12.5 mg). Voltaren Emulgel gel (1.0%) was the commercially available comparator (total daily dose of 40 mg). Topical application was performed onto the thigh of 20 male healthy subjects for 3 days. Applying a Youden square design, each drug was evaluated in 12 subjects, with each subject receiving three test preparations. Blood sampling and in vivo microdialysis in subcutaneous adipose and skeletal muscle tissues were performed for 10 h after additional final doses on the morning of day 4. All four DCF100C formulations demonstrated a three- to fivefold, dose-dependent increase in systemic diclofenac availability compared with Voltaren Emulgel and were approximately 30-40 times more effective at facilitating diclofenac penetration through the skin, taking different dose levels into account. Tissue concentrations were low and highly variable. The 2.5% DCF100C formulation without sensory excipients reached the highest tissue concentrations. AUC(0,10 h) was

  20. Fluid electrolyte changes in physically healthy subjects during prolonged restriction of motor activity and daily hyperhydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, Y G; Ichinose, M N; Sakagamis, M B

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this report was to present some of our results, in a compressed form, obtained from our previous studies on the effect of 364-d hypokinesia (decreased number of steps taken per day by the volunteers) on the following: (1) regulation of fluid volume and osmosis, (2) regulation of electrolytes, and (3) functional condition of the kidneys and its role in the fluid-electrolyte homeostasis on 30 physically healthy male volunteers aged 22-26 years. Prior to their exposure to hypokinesia all subjects were on 13.8 km/day (10,000 running steps/day) and were all well conditioned, with (oxygen uptake capacities (VO2 max 68 ml/kg-min). During the hypokinetic period of 364 days, the 1st group was subjected to pure hypokinesia (HK), that is without the use of physical exercise (PE), the 2nd group was subjected to a set of intensive PE (energy expenditure of 700 kcal/h) and the 3rd group submitted to a set of moderate PE (energy expenditure of 400 kcal/h). All volunteers consumed daily fluid and salt supplementation (FSS) aimed at increasing body hydration level during the hypokinetic period. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect all volunteers were kept on 2.7 km/day (3000 walking steps per day). All volunteers were on a diet of freshly prepared food, with a daily intake of 2500-2700 kcal, 3340 ml water, 1500 mgs calcium, 500 mgs magnesium, 1200 mgs potassium, 1500 mgs phosphorus, 8.5 gms sodium and 9.8 gms chloride. The amount of fluid and electrolytes consumed and eliminated in urine, as well as their concentrations in the urine and blood plasma were determined. There were also measured urinary volume, osmolality, creatine, and urea changes in urine. During HK the amount of fluid and electrolytes consumed daily decreased while the rate of excretion increased significantly. During post HK the fluid and electrolytes concentrations in urine decreased significantly. The urinary urea, osmolality and creatinine increased significantly during HK. It was concluded

  1. Hysteresis of haptic vertical and straight ahead in healthy human subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarnutzer Alexander A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The subjective haptic vertical (SHV task requires subjects to adjust the roll orientation of an object, mostly in the roll plane, in such a way that it is parallel to perceived direction of gravity. Previously we found a tendency for clockwise rod rotations to deviate counter-clockwise and vice versa, indicating hysteresis. However, the contributing factors remained unclear. To clarify this we characterized the SHV in terms of handedness, hand used, direction of hand rotation, type of grasping (wrap vs. precision grip and gender, and compared findings with perceived straight-ahead (PSA. Healthy subjects repetitively performed adjustments along SHV (n = 21 and PSA (n = 10 in complete darkness. Results For both SHV and PSA significant effects of the hand used and the direction of rod/plate rotation were found. The latter effect was similar for SHV and PSA, leading to significantly larger counter-clockwise shifts (relative to true earth-vertical and objective straight-ahead for clockwise rotations compared to counter-clockwise rotations irrespective of the handedness and the type of grip. The effect of hand used, however, was opposite in the two tasks: while the SHV showed a counter-clockwise bias when the right hand was used and no bias for the left hand, in the PSA a counter-clockwise bias was obtained for the left hand without a bias for the right hand. No effects of grip and handedness (studied for SHV only on accuracy were observed, however, SHV precision was significantly (p  Conclusions Unimanual haptic tasks require control for the hand used and the type of grip as these factors significantly affect task performance. Furthermore, aligning objects with the SHV and PSA resulted in systematic direction-dependent deviations that could not be attributed to handedness, the hand used, or the type of grip. These deviations are consistent with hysteresis and are likely not related to gravitational pull, as they were

  2. Single dose pharmacokinetic equivalence study of two gabapentin preparations in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandrawinata RR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Raymond R Tjandrawinata,1 Effi Setiawati,2 Ratih Sofia Ika Putri,2 Danang Agung Yunaidi,2 Fawzia Amalia,2 Liana W Susanto1 1Dexa Laboratories of Biomolecular Sciences, Cikarang, Indonesia; 2PT Equilab International, Bioavailability and Bioequivalence Laboratory, Jakarta, Indonesia Background: The current study was conducted to find out whether two oral preparations of 300 mg gabapentin (the test and reference capsules were bioequivalent. Subjects and methods: This was a randomized, single-blind, crossover study under fasting condition, with a 7-day washout period, which included 37 healthy adult male and female subjects. After an overnight fast, subjects were given, orally, one capsule of the test drug or of the reference drug. Blood samples were drawn immediately before taking the drug, then at 20 and 40 minutes, and 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, and 24 hours after dosing, to evaluate pharmacokinetic parameters of the single dose administration, ie, the area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC from time zero to 24 hours (AUCt, AUC from time zero to infinity (AUCinf, the peak plasma concentration of the drug (Cmax, time needed to achieve Cmax (tmax, and the elimination half-life (t1/2. The plasma concentrations of gabapentin were determined using validated high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Results: The geometric mean ratios (90% confidence interval of the test drug/reference drug for gabapentin were 103.15% (90.38%–117.72% for AUCt, 103.53% (90.78%–118.07% for AUCinf, and 108.06% (96.32%–121.24% for Cmax. The differences in tmax and t1/2 values between the test and reference drug products for gabapentin were not statistically significant. Light-headedness, nausea, and headache were encountered during the study, but they were all mild and well tolerated. The 90% confidence intervals of the test/reference AUC ratio and Cmax ratio of gabapentin were within the acceptance range for

  3. Asymmetries in the Acquisition of Subject-Verb Agreement in Dutch: Evidence from Comprehension and Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Josje; Blom, Elma

    2014-01-01

    Across languages, children do not comprehend 3SG/3PL subject-verb agreement before age five, despite early mastery in spontaneous speech. This study investigates subject-verb agreement in a language hitherto not studied in this respect, namely Dutch. The authors examine if (1) Dutch two- and three-year-olds comprehend subject-verb agreement and…

  4. Subject Realization in Early Hebrew/English Bilingual Acquisition: The Role of Crosslinguistic Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacohen, Aviya; Schaeffer, Jeannette

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on the use of (c)overt subjects and subject-verb agreement in Hebrew in the spontaneous speech of a child, EK, acquiring Hebrew and English simultaneously from birth and of five slightly younger Hebrew monolingual controls. Analysis shows that EK's production of pragmatically inappropriate overt subjects is more than three times…

  5. Retinal vessel diameters decrease with macular ganglion cell layer thickness in autosomal dominant optic atrophy and in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnbäck, Cecilia; Grønskov, Karen; Larsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate retinal trunk vessel diameters in subjects with autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) and mutation-free healthy relatives. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 52 ADOA patients with the optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) exon 28 (c.2826_2836delinsGGATGCTCCA) mutation (age 8...... ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness (p = 0.0017 and p = 0.0057, respectively). CONCLUSION: Narrow retinal arteries and veins were associated not only with the severity of ADOA but with ganglion cell volume in patients with ADOA and in healthy subjects. This suggests that narrow vessels...

  6. Relationship between maximal fat oxidation and oxygen uptake: comparison between type 2 diabetes patients and healthy sedentary subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Angelo Cataldo; Giuseppe Russo; Dario Cerasola; Danila Di Majo; Marco Giammanco; Marcello Traina

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of fat oxidation to energy production during exercise is influenced by intensity of exercise. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the highest value of fat oxidation rate (FATmax) and the oxygen uptake (VO2) in sedentary type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients vs healthy sedentary subjects. Sedentary T2D patients and healthy sedentary subjects were evaluated to a graded exercise test, and oxygen uptake and fat oxidation rate were detected. Data show that in T2D...

  7. Echocardiographic Assessment of Right Atrium Deformation Indices in Healthy Young Subjects

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    Zahra Ojaghi Haghighi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, assessment of the atrial motion and deformation indices obtained via Doppler myocardial imaging (DMI has been proposed as a new method of exploring the atrial function.Objective: Our aim was to assess the right atrial (RA regional function using myocardial velocities, strain, and strain rate imaging (SRI and compare it with the function of the inter-atrial septum (IAS and left atrial (LA lateral wall in healthy young adults.Patients and Methods: A total of 75 healthy young individuals (35 women and 40 men underwent standard transthoracic echocardiography and DMI at rest. Myocardial velocities, strain, and SRI profiles from the RA free wall, IAS, and LA lateral wall were calculated throughout the three cardiac cycles. Peak systolic, diastolic and time to peak were derived, and the average of the three cardiac cycles was taken into account for analysis in this study.Results: The RA peak systolic, peak of early, and late diastolic velocities were 9.2 ± 1.6 cm/s, -9.5 ± 1.8 cm/s, and -8.3 ± 2.1 cm/s, respectively. The RA peak systolic strain was 152% ± 51%. The RA systolic strain was significantly higher than that of the IAS (87% ± 21%, P = 0.001 and the LA lateral wall (89% ± 15%, P = 0.001. The RA peak systolic, peak early and late diastolic SR were 6.3 ± 3.0 s-1, -5.4 ± 1.7 s-1, and -4.5 ± 2.2 s-1, respectively.Conclusions: DMI proved to be a feasible and reproducible method for the assessment of the RA function in healthy young subjects. Study of myocardial properties showed that the RA free wall myocardial motion and deformation were significantly higher than those of the IAS and the LA lateral wall, but the rate of the RA free wall deformation was not significantly higher than that of the IAS and the LA lateral wall.Keywords: Right Atrium; Normal Values; Velocity; Strain; Strain Rate1. BackgroundThe right atrium (RA is a dynamic structure with complex mechanics. William Harvey was the first to identify the atrium

  8. Glycemia and peak incremental indices of six popular fruits in Taiwan: healthy and Type 2 diabetes subjects compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Yen; Wu, Pin-Ching; Weng, Shuen-Fu; Liu, Jen-Fang

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the glycemic index and peak incremental indices of six popular fruits in Taiwan, comparing healthy subjects (n = 20) and patients with Type 2 diabetes (n = 17). The six kinds of fruits tested were grapes, Asian pears, guavas, golden kiwifruit, lychees and bananas. Glycemic index values were tested according to the standard glycemic index testing protocol. The glycemic index and peak incremental indices were calculated according to published formulas. In Type 2 diabetes subjects, the glycemic index values of grapes, Asian pears, guavas, golden kiwifruit, lychees and bananas were 49.0 ± 4.5, 25.9 ± 2.9, 32.8 ± 5.2, 47.0 ± 6.5, 60.0 ± 8.0 and 41.3 ± 3.5. In healthy subjects, the glycemic index values were 49.1 ± 7.3, 18.0 ± 5.4, 31.1 ± 5.1, 47.3 ± 12.1, 47.9 ± 6.8 and 35.1 ± 5.6. There was no significant difference in glycemic index values between healthy and Type 2 diabetes subjects. There was also no significant difference in PII when comparing healthy subjects and subjects with Type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, glycemic index and peak incremental indices in healthy subjects can be approximately the same for Type 2 diabetes.

  9. Acute, subacute and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans: a pooled analysis of experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studerus, Erich; Kometer, Michael; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2011-11-01

    Psilocybin and related hallucinogenic compounds are increasingly used in human research. However, due to limited information about potential subjective side effects, the controlled medical use of these compounds has remained controversial. We therefore analysed acute, short- and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans by pooling raw data from eight double-blind placebo-controlled experimental studies conducted between 1999 and 2008. The analysis included 110 healthy subjects who had received 1-4 oral doses of psilocybin (45-315 µg/kg body weight). Although psilocybin dose-dependently induced profound changes in mood, perception, thought and self-experience, most subjects described the experience as pleasurable, enriching and non-threatening. Acute adverse drug reactions, characterized by strong dysphoria and/or anxiety/panic, occurred only in the two highest dose conditions in a relatively small proportion of subjects. All acute adverse drug reactions were successfully managed by providing interpersonal support and did not need psychopharmacological intervention. Follow-up questionnaires indicated no subsequent drug abuse, persisting perception disorders, prolonged psychosis or other long-term impairment of functioning in any of our subjects. The results suggest that the administration of moderate doses of psilocybin to healthy, high-functioning and well-prepared subjects in the context of a carefully monitored research environment is associated with an acceptable level of risk.

  10. Similar elimination rates of glucagon-like peptide-1 in obese type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, T; Agersø, H; Krarup, T

    2003-01-01

    We have previously shown that type 2 diabetic patients have decreased plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) compared with healthy subjects after ingestion of a standard mixed meal. This decrease could be caused by differences in the metabolism of GLP-1. The objective of this st......We have previously shown that type 2 diabetic patients have decreased plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) compared with healthy subjects after ingestion of a standard mixed meal. This decrease could be caused by differences in the metabolism of GLP-1. The objective...... of this study was to examine the pharmacokinetics of GLP-1 in healthy subjects and type 2 diabetic patients after iv bolus doses ranging from 2.5-25 nmol/subject. Bolus injections iv of 2.5, 5, 15, and 25 nmol of GLP-1 and a meal test were performed in six type 2 diabetic patients [age, mean (range): 56 (48......-67) yr; body mass index: 31.2 (27.0-37.7) kg/m(2); fasting plasma glucose: 11.9 (8.3-14.3) mmol/liter; hemoglobin A(1C): 9.6 (7.0-12.5)%]. For comparison, six matched healthy subjects were examined. Peak plasma GLP-1 concentrations increased linearly with increasing doses of GLP-1 and were similar...

  11. Assessment of salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, pH, and flow rate in healthy subjects, periodontitis, and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to estimate and compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, salivary flow rate, and pH of unstimulated saliva and oral hygiene status of healthy subjects, subjects with periodontitis and dental caries, and to correlate salivary calcium level with number of intact teeth. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 48 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years, which was further divided into three groups: healthy, periodontitis, and dental caries. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, the number of intact teeth, and active carious lesions were recorded. Estimation of inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, and magnesium was performed spectrophotometrically using Vitros 5.1 FS. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way analysis of variance test at 5% significance level. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene status in periodontitis group compared to dental caries and healthy group. Conclusion: Subjects with increased inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene are at a higher risk of developing periodontitis. Since there is increased remineralization potential, these subjects have more number of intact teeth compared to the dental caries group.

  12. Central Nervous Insulin Administration before Nocturnal Sleep Decreases Breakfast Intake in Healthy Young and Elderly Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, João C. P.; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral insulin acts on the brain to regulate metabolic functions, in particular decreasing food intake and body weight. This concept has been supported by studies in humans relying on the intranasal route of administration, a method that permits the direct permeation of insulin into the CNS without substantial absorption into the blood stream. We investigated if intranasal insulin administration before nocturnal sleep, a period of reduced metabolic activity and largely absent external stimulation, affects food intake and energy turnover on the subsequent morning. Healthy participants who were either young (16 men and 16 women; mean age ± SEM, 23.68 ± 0.40 years, mean BMI ± SEM, 22.83 ± 0.33 kg/m2) or elderly (10 men, 9 women; 70.79 ± 0.81 years, 25.27 ± 0.60 kg/m2) were intranasally administered intranasal insulin (160 IU) or placebo before a night of regular sleep that was polysomnographically recorded. Blood was repeatedly sampled for the determination of circulating glucose, insulin, leptin and total ghrelin. In the morning, energy expenditure was assessed via indirect calorimetry and subjects were offered a large standardized breakfast buffet from which they could eat ad libitum. Insulin compared to placebo reduced breakfast size by around 110 kcal (1,054.43 ± 50.91 vs. 1,162.36 ± 64.69 kcal, p = 0.0095), in particular decreasing carbohydrate intake (502.70 ± 25.97 vs. 589.82 ± 35.03 kcal, p = 0.0080). This effect was not dependent on sex or age (all p > 0.11). Sleep architecture, blood glucose and hormonal parameters as well as energy expenditure were not or only marginally affected. Results show that intranasal insulin administered to healthy young and elderly humans before sleep exerts a delayed inhibitory effect on energy intake that is not compensated for by changes in energy expenditure. While the exact underlying mechanisms cannot be derived from our data, findings indicate a long-lasting catabolic effect of central nervous insulin delivery

  13. Variability of FeNO in healthy subjects at 2240 meters above sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochicoa-Rangel, Laura; Rojas-Cisneros, Fermín; Miguel-Reyes, José Luis; Guerrero-Zúñiga, Selene; Mora-Romero, Uri; Maldonado-Mortera, Ana Karen; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis

    2016-08-01

    Fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation. Altitude above sea level can affect measurements of this index, but there is only limited information regarding the diurnal variation (ante meridiem vs. post meridiem) and reproducibility of FeNO on consecutive days at moderate altitudes. To evaluate the diurnal variability of FeNO and assess its reproducibility over five consecutive days in healthy individuals living at 2240 m, and to compare the FeNO readings taken with two different analyzers. Healthy non-smoking adults were measured using NIOX MINO(®) or NOA 280i(®) devices. One group (n = 10) had readings taken morning and afternoon for five consecutive days with the NIOX MINO(®) equipment; while the second group (n = 17) was measured on only one morning but by both the electrochemical analyzer (NIOX MINO(®)) and the chemiluminescence method (NOA 280i(®)). The study group consisted of 27 subjects aged 28.7 ± 6 years. Morning and afternoon FeNO measurements were 15.2 ± 7.5 ppb and 15.2 ± 7.9 ppb (p = 0.9), respectively. The coefficient of variation (CV) of these measurements (a.m. vs. p.m.) was 10.7 %, and the coefficient of repeatability (CR), 4.2 ppb. The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) between the two measures (morning vs. afternoon) was 0.91. The CV and CR of the five morning readings were 15.4 % and 4.3 ppb, respectively; while those of the five afternoon measures were 13.6 % and 3.5 ppb, respectively. The CCC between the NIOX MINO(®) equipment and the NOA-280i(®) device was 0.8, with 95 % limits of agreement of -8.35 to 0.29 ppb. In adults living at 2240 m above sea level, FeNO measurements show minimal diurnal variation, and readings are reproducible (<15 %) over a period of at least five consecutive days; however, the FeNO measurements obtained with the NIOX MINO(®) and NOA 280i(®) devices are not interchangeable due to the wide limits of agreement recorded.

  14. Evaluating the subject-performed task effect in healthy older adults: relationship with neuropsychological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: An enhancement in recall of simple instructions is found when actions are performed in comparison to when they are verbally presented – the subject-performed task (SPT effect. This enhancement has also been found with older adults. However, the reason why older adults, known to present a deficit in episodic memory, have a better performance for this type of information remains unclear. In this article, we explored this effect by comparing the performance on the SPT task with the performance on other tasks, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms that may explain this effect. Objective: We hypothesized that both young and older adult groups should show higher recall in SPT compared with the verbal learning condition, and that the differences between age groups should be lower in the SPT condition. We aimed to explore the correlations between these tasks and known neuropsychological tests, and we also measured source memory for the encoding condition. Design: A mixed design was used with 30 healthy older adults, comparing their performance with 30 healthy younger adults. Each participant was asked to perform 16 simple instructions (SPT condition and to only read the other 16 instructions (Verbal condition – VT. The test phase included a free recall task. Participants were also tested with a set of neuropsychological measures (speed of processing, working memory and verbal episodic memory. Results: The SPT effect was found for both age groups; but even for SPT materials, group differences in recall persisted. Source memory was found to be preserved for the two groups. Simple correlations suggested differences in correlates of SPT performance between the two groups. However, when controlling for age, the SPT and VT tasks correlate with each other, and a measure of episodic memory correlated moderately with both SPT and VT performance. Conclusions: A strong effect of SPT was observed for all but one, which still displayed the

  15. Effect of honey vinegar syrup on blood sugar and lipid profile in healthy subjects

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    Seyedeh-Masomeh Derakhshandeh-Rishehri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The impact of honey or vinegar on several metabolic abnormalities has been studied separately, a mixture of these two ingredients known as honey vinegar syrup (HVS has not been investigated previously so far. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HVS consumption (Iranian′s traditional syrup on glycemic parameters and lipid profiles in healthy individuals. Methods: We conducted a 4-week, randomized, controlled, parallel study consisting of two groups of nonobese healthy volunteers. All subjects were asked to stay on their normal diet. Intervention group (n = 36 received a cup of HVS daily in the evening snack for 4-week (250 cc syrup contains 21.66 g honey vinegar. Assessments of fasting blood sugar (FBS, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C were conducted at the baseline and after 4-week of study. Results: We observed no significant effect of HVS on FBS, HOMA-IR, LDL-C and TG. A significant effect of HVS was found on increasing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR and reduction in TC level only in intervention group (Δ =3.39 P = 0.01, Δ =1.65 P = 0.03, Δ = −9.43 P = 0.005, respectively. Changes of FBS, TG and LDL-C were 1.83 mg/dl, −1.53 mg/dl and − 3.99 mg/dl respectively in the intervention group. These changes were not significant. An unfavorable and significant reduction in HDL-C level was also observed between two groups (Δ = −4.82 P < 0.001 in the intervention group. Conclusions: Honey vinegar syrup increased fasting insulin level and decreased TC level in the intervention group. HVS had an unfavorable effect on HDL-C level. Further prospective investigations are warranted to confirm these findings.

  16. Effect of Honey Vinegar Syrup on Blood Sugar and Lipid Profile in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshandeh-Rishehri, Seyedeh-Masomeh; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Feizi, Awat; Askari, Gholam-Reza; Entezari, Mohammad-Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The impact of honey or vinegar on several metabolic abnormalities has been studied separately, a mixture of these two ingredients known as honey vinegar syrup (HVS) has not been investigated previously so far. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HVS consumption (Iranian's traditional syrup) on glycemic parameters and lipid profiles in healthy individuals. Methods: We conducted a 4-week, randomized, controlled, parallel study consisting of two groups of nonobese healthy volunteers. All subjects were asked to stay on their normal diet. Intervention group (n = 36) received a cup of HVS daily in the evening snack for 4-week (250 cc syrup contains 21.66 g honey vinegar). Assessments of fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were conducted at the baseline and after 4-week of study. Results: We observed no significant effect of HVS on FBS, HOMA-IR, LDL-C and TG. A significant effect of HVS was found on increasing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR and reduction in TC level only in intervention group (Δ =3.39 P = 0.01, Δ =1.65 P = 0.03, Δ = −9.43 P = 0.005, respectively). Changes of FBS, TG and LDL-C were 1.83 mg/dl, −1.53 mg/dl and − 3.99 mg/dl respectively in the intervention group. These changes were not significant. An unfavorable and significant reduction in HDL-C level was also observed between two groups (Δ = −4.82 P < 0.001 in the intervention group). Conclusions: Honey vinegar syrup increased fasting insulin level and decreased TC level in the intervention group. HVS had an unfavorable effect on HDL-C level. Further prospective investigations are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:25709798

  17. Effects of short duration morning bright light in healthy elderly subjects. I: subjective feeling and ophthalmological examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, N; Kohsaka, M; Sasamoto, Y; Koyama, E; Kobayashi, R; Honma, H; Matsubara, H; Nakano, T; Sakakibara, S

    1998-04-01

    Seven aged subjects aged 61-78 years were exposed to 6000 lx bright light for 30 min during morning hours at their homes for 1 week. Visual analog scale was recorded before bedtime and after rising to assess subjective feelings. Ophthalmological examinations were made before and after light exposure, to exclude pre-existing ocular disorders and to detect ocular damage. Furthermore, ocular fatigue was self-evaluated immediately before and after exposure. Visual analog scale results indicated that alertness reduced significantly before bedtime. Ophthalmological abnormalities were not found after exposure. These findings suggest that short duration morning bright light exposure reduces night-time vigilance.

  18. Prevalence and duration of asymptomatic Clostridium difficile carriage among healthy subjects in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Galdys, Alison L; Nelson, Jemma S; Shutt, Kathleen A; Schlackman, Jessica L; Pakstis, Diana L; Pasculle, A William; Marsh, Jane W; Harrison, Lee H; Curry, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    .... To investigate the epidemiology, genetic diversity, and duration of C. difficile colonization in asymptomatic persons, we recruited healthy adults from the general population in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania...

  19. Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Population Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modelling of Bilastine, a Second-Generation Antihistamine, in Healthy Japanese Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Togawa, Michinori; Yamaya, Hidetoshi; Rodríguez, Mónica; Nagashima, Hirotaka

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Bilastine is a novel second-generation antihistamine for the symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of bilastine following single and multiple oral doses in healthy Japanese subjects. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles were compared with those reported in Caucasian subjects. Methods In a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, pa...

  20. Measuring Electromechanical Coupling in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease and Healthy Subjects

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    Lizhen Ji

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is the most common cause of death globally. To detect CAD noninvasively at an early stage before clinical symptoms occur is still nowadays challenging. Analysis of the variation of heartbeat interval (RRI opens a new avenue for evaluating the functional change of cardiovascular system which is accepted to occur at the subclinical stage of CAD. In addition, systolic time interval (STI and diastolic time interval (DTI also show potential. There may be coupling in these electromechanical time series due to their physiological connection. However, to the best of our knowledge no publication has systematically investigated how can the coupling be measured and how it changes in CAD patients. In this study, we enrolled 39 CAD patients and 36 healthy subjects and for each subject the electrocardiogram (ECG and photoplethysmography (PPG signals were recorded simultaneously for 5 min. The RRI series, STI series, and DTI series were constructed, respectively. We used linear cross correlation (CC, coherence function (CF, as well as nonlinear mutual information (MI, cross conditional entropy (XCE, cross sample entropy (XSampEn, and cross fuzzy entropy (XFuzzyEn to analyse the bivariate RRI-DTI coupling, RRI-STI coupling, and STI-DTI coupling, respectively. Our results suggest that the linear CC and CF generally have no significant difference between the two groups for all three types of bivariate coupling. The MI only shows weak change in RRI-DTI coupling. By comparison, the three entropy-based coupling measurements show significantly decreased coupling in CAD patients except XSampEn for RRI-DTI coupling (less significant and XCE for STI-DTI and RRI-STI coupling (not significant. Additionally, the XFuzzyEn performs best as it was still significant if we further applied the Bonferroni correction in our statistical analysis. Our study indicates that the intrinsic electromechanical coupling is most probably nonlinear and can better

  1. Mechanism of Action of Bimatoprost, Latanoprost, and Travoprost in Healthy Subjects: A Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K. Sheng; Nau, Cherie B.; O’Byrne, Megan M.; Hodge, David O.; Toris, Carol B.; McLaren, Jay W.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To study the effects of 3 prostaglandin analogs, bimatoprost, latanoprost, and travoprost, on aqueous dynamics in the same subjects and to compare techniques of assessing outflow facility. Design Experimental study (double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized paired comparison, 4-period crossover). Participants Thirty healthy adult subjects. Methods Bimatoprost, latanoprost, travoprost, or a placebo was administered to the left eye once a day in the evening for 7 days, after a minimum 4-week washout period between each session. Tonographic outflow facility was measured by Schiøtz tonography and pneumatonography on day 7. On day 8, the aqueous humor flow rate and fluorophotometric outflow facility were measured by fluorophotometry. Uveoscleral outflow was calculated from the aqueous humor flow rate and outflow facility using the Goldmann equation. Main Outcome Measures Facility of outflow, aqueous humor flow rate, intraocular pressure (IOP), and calculation of uveoscleral outflow. Results All medications lowered IOP relative to a placebo. None of the drugs affected aqueous humor production. All medications increased outflow facility compared with placebo when measured by Schiøtz and 2-minute pneumatonography (P≤0.02); the apparent increase of outflow facility measured with fluorophotometry and 4-minute pneumatonography did not reach statistical significance. In contrast, uveoscleral outflow was significantly increased by all medications when calculated from 4-minute pneumatonography data, and fluorophotometry and Schiøtz data at higher episcleral venous pressures. The apparent increase found with 2-minute pneumatonography did not reach statistical significance. These differing results in the same patients indicate that differences in measurement techniques, and not differences in mechanism of action, explain previous conflicting published reports on the mechanism of action of the prostaglandins. Conclusions Bimatoprost, latanoprost, and travoprost

  2. The Effect of Food on Doravirine Bioavailability: Results from Two Pharmacokinetic Studies in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, Martin O; Yee, Ka Lai; Liu, Rachael; Levine, Vanessa; Panebianco, Deborah; Fackler, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Doravirine is a novel non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor being developed for the treatment of HIV-1. In two open-label, single-dose, randomized, two-period, crossover trials, the bioavailability of doravirine administered alone or in a fixed-dose combination (FDC) was determined under fed and fasted conditions. Doravirine 100 mg alone or with lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (each 300 mg) were administered to healthy subjects fasted or 30 min after a high-fat, high-calorie breakfast. Twenty-eight subjects, aged 26-55 years, enrolled (doravirine, n = 14; FDC, n = 14). The sequence of fed/fasted treatment was randomized (1:1). Pharmacokinetic data were analyzed as geometric mean ratios (GMRs) with 90% confidence intervals. Doravirine area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to infinity (fed/fasted GMRs: alone 1.16 [1.06-1.26]; FDC 1.10 [1.02-1.20]), AUC from time zero to the last measurement (GMRs: alone 1.18 [1.08-1.29]; FDC 1.10 [1.01-1.20]), and plasma concentration 24 h after administration (GMRs: alone 1.36 [1.19-1.55]; FDC 1.26 [1.13-1.41]) values increased in the fed versus fasted state when administered alone or as the FDC; the magnitude was not clinically meaningful. Doravirine maximum achieved concentration was similar after fed or fasted administration for both doravirine alone and FDC (GMRs: alone 1.03 [0.89-1.19]; FDC 0.95 [0.80-1.12]). The pharmacokinetics of tenofovir and lamivudine in the FDC were also slightly altered by administration with food; the changes were not clinically meaningful. All treatments were generally well tolerated. Food had no clinically meaningful effect on doravirine 100 mg alone or as part of an FDC.

  3. A phase I study on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of higenamine in healthy Chinese subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng FENG; Ji JIANG; Pei HU; Jian-yan ZHANG; Tao LIU; Qian ZHAO; Bi-lu LI

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the pharmacokinetics,pharmacodynamics,and safety of higenamine,an active ingredient of Aconite root,in healthy Chinese volunteers.Methods:Ten subjects received continuous,intravenous infusion of higenamine at gradually escalating doses from 0.5 to 4.0μg.kg-1·min-1,each dose was given for 3 min.Blood and urine samples were collected at designated time points to measure the concentrations of higenamine.Pharmacodynamics was assessed by measuring the subject's heart rate.A nonlinear mixed-effect modeling approach,using the software Phoenix NLME,was used to model the plasma concentration-time profiles and heart rate.Results:Peak concentrations (Cmax) of higenamine ranged from 15.1 to 44.0 ng/mL.The half-life of higenamine was 0.133 h (range,0.107-0.166 h),while the area under concentration-time curve (AUC),extrapolated to infinity,was 5.39 ng·h·mL-1 (range,3.2-6.8ng·h·mL-1).The volume of distribution (V) was 48 L (range,30.8-80.6 L).The total clearance (CL) was 249 L/h (range,199-336L/h).Within 8 h,9.3% (range,4.6%-12.4%) of higenamine was recovered in the urine.The pharmacokinetics of higenamine was successfully described using a two-compartment model with nonlinear clearance.In the pharmacodynamic model,heart rates were related to the plasma drug concentrations using a simple direct effect model with baseline.The E0,Emax,and EC50 were 68 bpm,73bpm and 8.1 μg/L,respectively.Conclusion:Higenamine has desirable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics.The results provide important information for future clinical studies on higenamine.

  4. Cognitive modulation of endocrine responses to CRH stimulation in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, James L.; Khan, Samir; Young, Elizabeth A.; Liberzon, Israel

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background The hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is critical for biobehavioral adaptation to challenge and appears dysregulated in a range of psychiatric disorders. Its precise role in psychopathology remains unclear and discrepant and difficult to explain findings abound in the clinical literature. Basic research suggests this system is sensitive to psychosocial cues, but psychosocial milieu factors are rarely controlled or examined in psychiatric studies using biological probes of the HPA axis. To test the hypothesis that psychological factors might complicate HPA study results even in direct, pharmacological challenge paradigms, endocrine responses to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) were examined under two different cognitive preparation conditions. Methods Healthy subjects (n=32) received standard instructions or a cognitive intervention (CI) prior to injection with CRH and placebo, given on separate days in random order. The CI combined access to control over drug exposure with novelty reduction and coping enhancement. Blood samples were obtained via intravenous catheter before and after CRH. Results Cognitive intervention reduced corticotropin (ACTH) levels, but only when CRH was given first (intervention by order interaction). It did not reduce cortisol response. The CI and visit (1st or 2nd) both impacted cortisol levels on placebo day. Conclusions Modifiable psychological factors may amplify or inhibit HPA axis activity in pharmacological activation paradigms, including CRH stimulation tests. The factors manipulated by the CI (novelty/familiarity, control and coping) may have particular salience to the HPA axis. Differential sensitivity to such factors could impact results in studies applying biological HPA probes to psychiatric populations. PMID:19758763

  5. Immunomodulatory effects of a standardized Lycium barbarum fruit juice in Chinese older healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagase, Harunobu; Sun, Bixuang; Nance, Dwight M

    2009-10-01

    Lycium barbarum has been traditionally used in combination with several herbs for medicinal properties, but systematic modern clinical evaluation as a single herb has not been reported. To examine the systematic effects of L. barbarum on immune function, general well-being, and safety, we tested the effects of a standardized L. barbarum fruit juice (GoChi, FreeLife International, Phoenix, AZ, USA) at 120 mL/day, equivalent to at least 150 g of fresh fruit, the amount traditionally used, or placebo for 30 days in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study in 60 older healthy adults (55-72 years old). The GoChi group showed a statistically significant increase in the number of lymphocytes and levels of interleukin-2 and immunoglobulin G compared to pre-intervention and the placebo group, whereas the number of CD4, CD8, and natural killer cells or levels of interleukin-4 and immunoglobulin A were not significantly altered. The placebo group showed no significant changes in any immune measures. Whereas the GoChi group showed a significant increase in general feelings of well-being, such as fatigue and sleep, and showed a tendency for increased short-term memory and focus between pre- and post-intervention, the placebo group showed no significant positive changes in these measures. No adverse reactions, abnormal symptoms, or changes in body weight, blood pressure, pulse, visual acuity, urine, stool, or blood biochemistry were seen in either group. In conclusion, daily consumption of GoChi significantly increased several immunological responses and subjective feelings of general well-being without any adverse reactions.

  6. Orlistat accelerates gastric emptying and attenuates GIP release in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enç, Feruze Yilmaz; Ones, Tunç; Akin, H Levent; Dede, Fuat; Turoğlu, H Turgut; Ulfer, Gözde; Bekiroğlu, Nural; Haklar, Goncagül; Rehfeld, Jens F; Holst, Jens J; Ulusoy, Nefise B; Imeryüz, Neşe

    2009-03-01

    Orlistat, an inhibitor of digestive lipases, is widely used for the treatment of obesity. Previous reports on the effect of orally ingested orlistat together with a meal on gastric emptying and secretion of gut peptides that modulate postprandial responses are controversial. We investigated the effect of ingested orlistat on gastric emptying and plasma responses of gut peptides in response to a solid mixed meal with a moderate energy load. In healthy subjects, gastric emptying was determined using scintigraphy and studies were performed without and with 120 mg of orlistat in pellet form in random order. Orlistat shortened t lag and t half and decreased the area under the gastric emptying curve. Orlistat significantly attenuated the secretion of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) but did not alter the plasma responses of cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and insulin. There was no peptide YY (PYY) response. Area under the curve of gastric emptying was positively correlated with integrated secretion of GIP (r=0.786) in orlistat and was negatively correlated with integrated plasma response of GLP-1 (r=-0.75) in control experiments, implying that inhibition of fat absorption modifies determinants of gastric emptying of a meal. Orlistat administered similar to its use in obesity treatment accelerates gastric emptying of a solid mixed meal with a moderate energy load and profoundly attenuates release of GIP without appreciably altering plasma responses of CCK, GLP-1, and PP. Since GIP is being implemented in the development of obesity, its role in weight control attained by orlistat awaits further investigation.

  7. Acute Effects of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide on Circulating Steroid Levels in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strajhar, P; Schmid, Y; Liakoni, E; Dolder, P C; Rentsch, K M; Kratschmar, D V; Odermatt, A; Liechti, M E

    2016-03-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A (5-HT2A ) receptor agonist that is used recreationally worldwide. Interest in LSD research in humans waned after the 1970s, although the use of LSD in psychiatric research and practice has recently gained increasing attention. LSD produces pronounced acute psychedelic effects, although its influence on plasma steroid levels over time has not yet been characterised in humans. The effects of LSD (200 μg) or placebo on plasma steroid levels were investigated in 16 healthy subjects using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study design. Plasma concentration-time profiles were determined for 15 steroids using liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry. LSD increased plasma concentrations of the glucocorticoids cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone compared to placebo. The mean maximum concentration of LSD was reached at 1.7 h. Mean peak psychedelic effects were reached at 2.4 h, with significant alterations in mental state from 0.5 h to > 10 h. Mean maximal concentrations of cortisol and corticosterone were reached at 2.5 h and 1.9 h, and significant elevations were observed 1.5-6 h and 1-3 h after drug administration, respectively. LSD also significantly increased plasma concentrations of the androgen dehydroepiandrosterone but not other androgens, progestogens or mineralocorticoids compared to placebo. A close relationship was found between plasma LSD concentrations and changes in plasma cortisol and corticosterone and the psychotropic response to LSD, and no clockwise hysteresis was observed. In conclusion, LSD produces significant acute effects on circulating steroids, especially glucocorticoids. LSD-induced changes in circulating glucocorticoids were associated with plasma LSD concentrations over time and showed no acute pharmacological tolerance.

  8. Differences in Impulsivity between Females Diagnosed with Eating Disorders and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golan M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This cross-sectional study investigates the tendencies toward impulsivity and self-control over the entire spectrum of the different eating disorders in comparison to healthy and recovered subjects. Methods: The study included 116 women, aged 18-35. Participants filled seven self-report questionnaires to assess eating disorders features and tendencies toward impulsivity and self-control and two computerized tasks (Go/No Go and Cognitive Delay Discounting to examine motoric impulsivity. Results: There was a hierarchy of occurrence of impulsivity in the different categories of eating disorders. Cognitive impulsivity as well as motor impulsivity and global score of impulsivity were most prominent in the anorexia nervosa binging type. This hierarchy was correlated with the eating disorders symptoms. The lowest score in motor impulsivity was observed among restrictive patients with anorexia and the highest among patients with binging-purging anorexia, while all other groups were in between. Those with binging-purging anorexia demonstrated significantly different behavior in short term delays: they were less willing to delay gratification in comparison to other participants who demonstrated preference for the higher delayed reward. The impulse regulation and the ineffectiveness scores of both anorextic groups were higher in comparison to the other groups. These two variables were highly correlated with attentional impulsiveness. Conclusion: These findings suggest that bingeing and restricting behaviors may be seen as lying on opposite ends of a spectrum of impulsive behaviors. Individuals with AN-BP appear to have more in common with BN individuals as they share the tendency to display greater response Disinhibition and produce more impulsive behaviors. Since at this stage only a small sample size was analyzed these results are considered preliminary.

  9. Effect of Wheat Flour Noodles with Bombyx mori Powder on Glycemic Response in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Wanhee; Kim, JiEun; Kim, Do-Yeon; Lim, Hyunjung; Choue, Ryowon

    2016-01-01

    Recent trial results suggest that the consumption of a low glycemic index (GI) diet is beneficial in the prevention of high blood glucose levels. Identifying active hypoglycemic substances in ordinary foods could be a significant benefit to the management of blood glucose. It has been hypothesized that noodles with Bombyx mori powder are a low GI food. We evaluated GI and changes in postprandial glucose levels following consumption of those noodles and compared them with those following consumption of plain wheat flour noodles (control) and glucose (reference) in healthy subjects. Thirteen males (age: 34.2±4.5 years, body mass index: 23.2±1.1 kg/m2) consumed 75 g carbohydrate portions of glucose and the 2 kinds of noodle after an overnight fast. Capillary blood was measured at time 0 (fasting), 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min from the start of each food intake. The GI values were calculated by taking the ratio of the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (IAUC) for the noodles and glucose. There was a significant difference in postprandial glucose concentrations at 30 and 45 min between the control noodles and the noodles with Bombyx mori powder: the IAUC and GI for the noodles with Bombyx mori powder were significantly lower than those for glucose and plain wheat flour noodles. The wheat flour noodles with Bombyx mori powder could help prevent an increase in postprandial glucose response and possibly provide an alternative to other carbohydrate staple foods for glycemic management. PMID:27752491

  10. Acute effects of modafinil on brain resting state networks in young healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Esposito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is growing debate on the use of drugs that promote cognitive enhancement. Amphetamine-like drugs have been employed as cognitive enhancers, but they show important side effects and induce addiction. In this study, we investigated the use of modafinil which appears to have less side effects compared to other amphetamine-like drugs. We analyzed effects on cognitive performances and brain resting state network activity of 26 healthy young subjects. METHODOLOGY: A single dose (100 mg of modafinil was administered in a double-blind and placebo-controlled study. Both groups were tested for neuropsychological performances with the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices II set (APM before and three hours after administration of drug or placebo. Resting state functional magnetic resonance (rs-FMRI was also used, before and after three hours, to investigate changes in the activity of resting state brain networks. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI was employed to evaluate differences in structural connectivity between the two groups. Protocol ID: Modrest_2011; NCT01684306; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01684306. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Results indicate that a single dose of modafinil improves cognitive performance as assessed by APM. Rs-fMRI showed that the drug produces a statistically significant increased activation of Frontal Parietal Control (FPC; p<0.04 and Dorsal Attention (DAN; p<0.04 networks. No modifications in structural connectivity were observed. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, our findings support the notion that modafinil has cognitive enhancing properties and provide functional connectivity data to support these effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01684306 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01684306.

  11. Functional diversity of the microbial community in healthy subjects and periodontitis patients based on sole carbon source utilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Zhang

    Full Text Available Chronic periodontitis is one of the most common forms of biofilm-induced diseases. Most of the recent studies were focus on the dental plaque microbial diversity and microbiomes. However, analyzing bacterial diversity at the taxonomic level alone limits deeper comprehension of the ecological relevance of the community. In this study, we compared the metabolic functional diversity of the microbial community in healthy subjects and periodontitis patients in a creative way--to assess the sole carbon source utilization using Biolog assay, which was first applied on oral micro-ecology assessment. Pattern analyses of 95-sole carbon sources catabolism provide a community-level phenotypic profile of the microbial community from different habitats. We found that the microbial community in the periodontitis group had greater metabolic activity compared to the microbial community in the healthy group. Differences in the metabolism of specific carbohydrates (e.g. β-methyl-D-glucoside, stachyose, maltose, D-mannose, β-methyl-D-glucoside and pyruvic acid were observed between the healthy and periodontitis groups. Subjects from the healthy and periodontitis groups could be well distinguished by cluster and principle component analyses according to the utilization of discriminate carbon sources. Our results indicate significant difference in microbial functional diversity between healthy subjects and periodontitis patients. We also found Biolog technology is effective to further our understanding of community structure as a composite of functional abilities, and it enables the identification of ecologically relevant functional differences among oral microbial communities.

  12. Induction of depressed and elated mood by music influences the perception of facial emotional expressions in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhuys, A L; Bloem, G M; Groothuis, T G

    1995-04-04

    The judgement of healthy subject rating the emotional expressions of a set of schematic drawn faces is validated (study 1) to examine the relationship between mood (depressed/elated) and judgement of emotional expressions of these faces (study 2). Study 1: 30 healthy subjects judged 12 faces with respect to the emotions they express (fear, happiness, anger, sadness, disgust, surprise, rejection and invitation). It was found that a particular face could reflect various emotions. All eight emotions were reflected in the set of faces and the emotions were consensually judged. Moreover, gender differences in judgement could be established. Study 2: In a cross-over design, 24 healthy subjects judged the faces after listening to depressing or elating music. The faces were subdivided in six 'ambiguous' faces (i.e., expressing similar amounts of positive and negative emotions) and six 'clear' faces (i.e., faces showing a preponderance of positive or negative emotions). In addition, these two types of faces were distinguished with respect to the intensity of emotions they express. 11 subjects who showed substantial differences in experienced depression after listening to the music were selected for further analysis. It was found that, when feeling more depressed, the subjects perceived more rejection/sadness in ambiguous faces (displaying less intensive emotions) and less invitation/happiness in clear faces. In addition, subjects saw more fear in clear faces that express less intensive emotions. Hence, results show a depression-related negative bias in the perception of facial displays.

  13. [Self-concept in subjects after first heart attack, patients with selected dermatological diseases and healthy individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarek, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    This work is aimed at comparing the self-concept of individuals suffering from somatic diseases differing in the severity of symptoms and their visibility. The study was carried out in three groups of subjects aged 30 to 65 years, with an even proportion of males and females: 160 dermatological patients, 160 patients after first heart attack and 160 healthy individuals. The structure and content of self-concept were measured with The Wheel Questionnaire by Ben Shalit. Somatically ill individuals revealed lower levels of self-acceptance and motivation for psychological change than healthy individuals, and they also possessed less self-knowledge then healthy subjects. These qualities of self-concept can diminish the adaptive abilities of ill persons. Therefore, the aims of psychological work with these patients should include enhancing their self-acceptance and willingness to change, as well as widening their self-awareness by encouraging reflection and exploration of various areas of experiencing and functioning.

  14. Assessment and comparison of anemia of chronic disease in healthy subjects and chronic periodontitis patients: A clinical and hematological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashri A Kolte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacteremia is associated with periodontal diseases whose extent is related to the severity of inflammation in periodontal tissues. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the various blood parameters in healthy subjects and severe chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: 100 patients with severe chronic periodontitis (test group and 100 periodontally healthy subjects (control group in the age group 35-60 years participated in the study. Blood parameters were recorded with blood samples drawn from the antecubital fossa by venous puncture. Results: Periodontitis group showed lower erythrocyte count and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, and increased total leukocyte count (TLC and neutrophil, lymphocyte, and eosinophil count, compared to the healthy control group. Conclusions: To conclude, periodontitis may tend toward anemia and there is marked leukocytosis due to increased number of circulating neutrophils and lymphocytes.

  15. Assessment of torque-steadiness reliability at the ankle level in healthy young subjects: implications for cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Rose, Martin Høyer; Sonne-Holm, Stig;

    2008-01-01

    It was the primary objective of this study to investigate whether quantifying fluctuations in dorsi and plantarflexor torque during submaximal isometric contractions is a reliable measurement in young healthy subjects. A secondary objective was to investigate the reliability of the associated mus...

  16. The effects of various sources of dietary fibre on cholesterol metabolism and colonic function in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stasse-Wolthuis, M.

    1980-01-01

    This thesis deals with the influence of several types of dietary fibre on cholesterol metabolism and colonic function in young healthy subjects. Dietary fibre has been defined as those plant polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectic substances) and lignin which are resistant to hydrolysis b

  17. Pharmacokinetics of IL-18 binding protein in healthy volunteers and subjects with rheumatoid arthritis or plaque psoriasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Tak; M. Bacchi; M. Bertolino

    2006-01-01

    IL-18 binding protein (BP) neutralizes the activity of IL-18, a cytokine implicated in psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of recombinant human IL-18 BP (r-hIL-18 BP) in healthy volunteers and subjects with psoriasis or RA in fou

  18. Differences in performance on the functional movement screen between chronic low back pain patients and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Min-Joo; Noh, Kyung-Hee; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] Differences in scores on the Functional Movement Screen between patients with chronic lower back pain and healthy control subjects were investigated. [Subjects and Methods] In all, 20 chronic lower back pain patients and 20 healthy control subjects were recruited. Chronic lower back pain patients and healthy controls performed the Functional Movement Screen (deep squat, hurdle step, inline lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight leg raise, trunk stability pushup, and rotary stability). The Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze differences in Functional Movement Screen scores between the two groups. [Results] Chronic lower back pain patients scored lower on the Functional Movement Screen total composite compared with healthy control subjects. Chronic lower back pain patients scored lower on Functional Movement Screen subtests including the deep squat, hurdle step, active straight leg raise, and rotary stability tests. [Conclusion] The deep squat, hurdle step, active straight leg raise, and rotary stability tasks of the Functional Movement Screen can be recommended as a functional assessment tools to identify functional deficits in chronic lower back pain patients.

  19. Intake of St John's wort improves the glucose tolerance in healthy subjects who ingest metformin compared with metformin alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Pedersen, Rasmus Steen; Damkier, Per

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Our objective was to investigate the steady-state pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction between the antidepressive herbal medicine St John's wort and the antidiabetic drug metformin. METHODS: We performed an open cross-over study in 20 healthy male subjects, who received 1 g...

  20. Validation of reaction time as a measure of cognitive function and quality of life in healthy subjects and patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lene Holm; Sorensen, Janice Marie; Rask, Ingeborg Krarup

    2011-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem in hospitalized patients and is related to decreased cognitive function and impaired quality of life (QoL). We investigated the validity of reaction time as a simple bedside tool for measuring cognitive function in healthy subjects and patients, and additionally...

  1. Changes in six-minute walking distance during pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD and in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Ben Cheikh Rejbi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Imen Ben Cheikh Rejbi1, Yassine Trabelsi1, Afef Chouchene1, Wafa Ben Turkia1, Helmi Ben Saad1, Abdelkarim Zbidi1, Abdelhamid Kerken2, Zouhair Tabka11Department of Physiology and Lung Testing, Faculty of Medicine of Sousse, Tunisia; 2Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine of Monastir, TunisiaBackground: The six-minute walking distance (6MWD test has demonstrated validity and reliability to assess changes in functional capacity following pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. However, no attempt has been made to establish an iterative measurement of 6MWD during the overall period of pulmonary rehabilitation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a twelve-week rehabilitation program on the iterative weekly measurement of 6MWD in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients and healthy subjects.Methods: Twenty-six patients with COPD and nine age-matched healthy subjects were studied. Measurements were taken at baseline and after twelve weeks except for the 6MWD. The exercise measurements included a six-minute walking test (6MWT and an incremental exercise test. Oxygen saturation, heart rate, and dyspnea will be monitored during all these tests. Results: At baseline there were significant differences between groups, except in age, body mass index, and oxygen saturation. After 12 weeks, there was no significant change in lung function in patients with COPD and healthy subjects. The 6MWD, peak oxygen uptake VO2peak and anaerobic threshold increased significantly after training in both groups (P < 0.01. The averaged trace of the 6MWD of patients with COPD and healthy subjects was followed-up respectively by a logarithmic and linear fitting. 6MWD showed a plateau after eight weeks in patients with COPD, however, it increased continually overall in healthy subjects.Conclusion: Both patients with COPD and healthy subjects demonstrated functional responses to training but with

  2. Subcutaneous Bioavailability of Taspoglutide at 3 Different Injection Sites in Healthy Overweight/Obese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm-Pellanda, Carolina; Abt, Markus; Sanwald-Ducray, Patricia; Schmitt, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    Taspoglutide is a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist that has >90% homology with the endogenous GLP-1 while retaining equivalent potency. Once-weekly subcutaneous injections with taspoglutide demonstrated meaningful antihyperglycemic and weight loss effects in patients with type 2 diabetes. The present study was performed to compare the relative bioavailability of taspoglutide injected subcutaneously in the abdomen, upper arm, and thigh. Healthy overweight/obese subjects were randomized in an open-label, 3-way crossover study. A single 20-mg dose of taspoglutide was injected subcutaneously on 3 occasions in the abdomen, upper arm, or thigh. Each injection was separated by a 12-week washout period. Blood was sampled up to 12 weeks for the pharmacokinetic evaluation of taspoglutide. Sixty subjects were randomized into the study (mean age, 45.5 years; body weight, 97.6 kg; and body mass index, 31.4 kg/m(2)). AUClast values (geometric mean) for subcutaneous injections in the abdomen, upper arm, and thigh were 44.2, 61.2, and 50.0 ng·h/mL, respectively. The geometric mean ratio (relative bioavailability) for the upper arm versus the abdomen was 1.41 (90% CI: 1.22-1.62) and for the thigh versus the abdomen was 1.13 (90% CI: 0.98-1.31). Corresponding Cmax values for subcutaneous injections in the abdomen, upper arm, and thigh were 0.268, 0.382, and 0.341 ng/mL, respectively, and the geometric mean ratio for the upper arm versus the abdomen was 1.43 (90% CI: 1.24-1.64) and for the thigh versus the abdomen was 1.27 (90% CI: 1.10-1.46). Decreases in taspoglutide exposure were observed with each subsequent period. AUClast values (geometric mean across injections sites) for periods 1, 2, and 3 were 97.2, 42.6, and 31.5 ng·h/mL, respectively. The geometric mean ratio for period 2 versus 1 was 0.44 (90% CI: 0.38-0.50) and for period 3 versus 1 was 0.32 (90% CI: 0.27-0.37). Analysis of pharmacokinetic data after first injection only (period 1) showed

  3. Dynamic Stability and Risk of Tripping during the Timed Up and Go Test in Hemiparetic and Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnyaud, Céline; Pradon, Didier; Bensmail, Djamel; Roche, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test is often used to estimate risk of falls. Foot clearance and displacement of the center of mass (COM), which are related to risk of tripping and dynamic stability have never been evaluated during the TUG. Accurate assessment of these parameters using instrumented measurements would provide a comprehensive assessment of risk of falls in hemiparetic patients. The aims of this study were to analyze correlations between TUG performance time and displacement of the COM and foot clearance in patients with stroke-related hemiparesis and healthy subjects during the walking and turning sub-tasks of the TUG and to compare these parameters between fallers and non-fallers. 29 hemiparetic patients and 25 healthy subjects underwent three-dimensional gait analysis during the TUG test. COM and foot clearance were analyzed during the walking and turning sub-tasks of the TUG. Lateral displacement of the COM was greater and faster during the walking sub-tasks and vertical displacement of the COM was greater during the turn in the patients compared to the healthy subjects (respectively p<0.01 and p<0.05). Paretic foot clearance was greater during walking and displacement of the COM was slower during the turn in the patients (p<0.01). COM displacement and velocity during the turn were correlated with TUG performance in the patients, however, vertical COM displacement was not. These correlations were significant in the healthy subjects. There were no differences between COM parameters or foot clearance in fallers and non-fallers. Hemiparetic patients are less stable than healthy subjects, but compensate with a cautious gait to avoid tripping. Instrumented analysis of the TUG test appears relevant for the assessment of dynamic stability in hemiparetic patients, providing more information than straight-line gait.

  4. Inter- and Intra-individual Variability in the Pharmacokinetics of Agomelatine Tablets in Chinese Healthy Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X-l; Du, A-h; Zhang, D; Meng, L-j; Liu, M; Zhang, L-n; Zhao, H-n; Liu, H-c

    2015-10-01

    Agomelatine is an antidepressant with a unique action mechanism differing from conventional antidepressants. The high inter- and intra-individual variability of agomelatine was previously reported, but no exact data values about the inter- and intra-individual variability in AUC and Cmax were mentioned. The current study aimed to determine and evaluate the inter- and intra-individual variability in AUC and Cmax of agomelatine tablets in Chinese healthy male subjects, providing useful information for designing bioequivalence studies of agomelatine. Each of 12 Chinese healthy male subjects received a 25-mg agomelatine tablet on 2 separate periods, and plasma samples were collected up to 24 h after dose and analyzed for agomelatine. Inter- and intra-individual variability in the pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞) of agomelatine was assessed. High variations in the plasma concentrations of agomelatine could be observed at each sampling time between the different subjects and in one subject on different periods. The inter-individual CVs of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ were 102.20%, 131.74% and 130.59%, respectively. The intra-individual CVs of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ were 84.34%, 49.61% and 50.83%, respectively. The results showed high inter- and intra-individual variability in the pharmacokinetics of agomelatine in Chinese healthy male subjects, and the intra-individual variability at CV>80% should be considered in the design of bioequivalence studies.

  5. Potassium and magnesium distribution, ECG changes, and ventricular ectopic beats during beta 2-adrenergic stimulation with terbutaline in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveskov, C; Djurhuus, M S; Klitgaard, N A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of intravenous (i.v.) terbutaline on potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) distribution, ECG changes, and prevalence of ventricular ectopic beats in healthy subjects. DESIGN: Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover. Subjects received either placebo or terbu......OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of intravenous (i.v.) terbutaline on potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) distribution, ECG changes, and prevalence of ventricular ectopic beats in healthy subjects. DESIGN: Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover. Subjects received either placebo......-potassium pump number. Urinary excretion of potassium and magnesium. ECG changes (T-wave and QTC interval) and the number of ventricular ectopic beats. MAIN RESULTS: Terbutaline produced an immediate decrease in serum potassium level from 4.17 (4.04 to 4.30) mmol/L to a nadir of 3.32 (3.06 to 3.58) mmol/L (p ... of sodium-potassium pumps. Furthermore, terbutaline induced changes in ECG with a highly significant lengthening of the QTc interval but with an unchanged number of ventricular ectopic beats in healthy subjects....

  6. Activity of neutrophil β-glucuronidase in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with chronic generalized periodontitis and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surna, Algimantas; Sakalauskienė, Jurgina; Gleiznys, Alvydas; Ivanauskienė, Eglė; Saferis, Viktoras

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The aim of the study was to establish the dynamics of β-glucuronidase activity in subjects suffering from type 1 diabetes and chronic untreated generalized periodontitis, subjects suffering from chronic untreated generalized periodontitis only, and control subjects not suffering from generic diseases with healthy periodontal tissue. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The study involved 165 19-50-year-old subjects who were divided into three groups: healthy subjects (n=55), subjects with chronic untreated generalized periodontitis (n=55), and subjects with type 1 diabetes and chronic untreated generalized periodontitis (n=55). Neutrophilic leukocytes of peripheral venous blood were exposed to bacterial stimuli: opsonized zymosan, nonopsonized Staphylococcus aureus, and prodigiosan. The activity of β-glucuronidase was determined by the spectrofluorimetry method. RESULTS. The diagnostic value of changes in β-glucuronidase activity of neutrophilic leukocytes markedly increased in all study groups after stimulation of neutrophilic leukocytes by opsonized zymosan, nonopsonized Staphylococcus aureus, and prodigiosan as compared to control media not exposed to any stimulus (Pperiodontal pathology markers and the activity of β-glucuronidase of neutrophilic leukocytes in incubated media in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and periodontitis was found under the effect of nonopsonized Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSIONS. If periodontal impairment is severe, diabetes mellitus possibly causes a faster destruction of the periodontal tissue and presents a higher risk of periodontitis for patients with diabetes.

  7. Cigarette smoking substantially alters plasma microRNA profiles in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kei; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Tatsumi, Naoyuki; Fukami, Tatsuki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Miki, E-mail: nmiki@p.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2013-10-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are receiving attention as potential biomarkers of various diseases, including cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown whether the levels of circulating miRNAs in a healthy subject might vary with external factors in daily life. In this study, we investigated whether cigarette smoking, a habit that has spread throughout the world and is a risk factor for various diseases, affects plasma miRNA profiles. We determined the profiles of 11 smokers and 7 non-smokers by TaqMan MicroRNA array analysis. A larger number of miRNAs were detected in smokers than in non-smokers, and the plasma levels of two-thirds of the detected miRNAs (43 miRNAs) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers. A principal component analysis of the plasma miRNA profiles clearly separated smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-four of the miRNAs were previously reported to be potential biomarkers of disease, suggesting the possibility that smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease. Interestingly, we found that quitting smoking altered the plasma miRNA profiles to resemble those of non-smokers. These results suggested that the differences in the plasma miRNA profiles between smokers and non-smokers could be attributed to cigarette smoking. In addition, we found that an acute exposure of ex-smokers to cigarette smoke (smoking one cigarette) did not cause a dramatic change in the plasma miRNA profile. In conclusion, we found that repeated cigarette smoking substantially alters the plasma miRNA profile, interfering with the diagnosis of disease or signaling potential smoking-related diseases. - Highlights: • Plasma miRNA profiles were unambiguously different between smokers and non-smokers. • Smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease using plasma miRNAs. • Changes of plasma miRNA profiles may be a signal of smoking-related diseases.

  8. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Kido

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2 consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into

  9. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Megumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K.; Takaoka, Toshio; Tajima, Aya; Takaoka, Shigeru; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Takamine, Kazunori T.; Sameshima, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2) consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol) or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC) value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into consideration

  10. Cimetidine Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics in Healthy Subjects: A Comparison of Tablets and Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effect of cimetidine 200 mg tablet with that of cimetidine suspension (200 mg/10 mL, a 20 mL suspension of 800 mg magnesium hydroxide and 912 mg aluminum hydroxide, and matching placebo on intragastric pH of healthy volunteers. There were 13 males and seven females, mean age 23 years (range 20 to 32 and mean weight 72 kg (range 55 to 89. The intragastric pH of each subject was measured over 6 h starting immediately before dosing on each of five study days. Cimetidine plasma levels were measured for 6 h after dosing on each of the cimetidine study days. Cimetidine tablet and suspension were superior to placebo tablet or suspension or to the magnesium hydroxide/aluminum hydroxide suspension in the area under the pH time curve from 0 to 6 h, percentage time pH of at least 3.5, change from pretreatment pH area under the pH time curve (0 to 6 h and maximum increase in pH. Mean plasma cimetidine levels were significantly and positively correlated to mean intragastric pH for both cimetidine tablets and cimetidine suspension. Comparing cimetidine concentration (Cmax and lower percentage time plasma cimetidine concentration was at least 0.5 μg/mL (the minimum therapeutic level. These pharmacokinetic variations between cimetidine suspension and tablets may have partially explained the pharmacodynamic differences of the lower area under the pH time curve (0 to 6 h. The results indicate that both cimetidine tablets and cimetidine suspension significantly increase intragastric pH relative to the magnesium hydroxide/aluminum hydroxide suspension, placebo tablets or placebo suspension. Based on the assumption that elevation of intragastric pH is an important factor for alleviation of the symptoms and for the healing of peptic disorders, the results of this study suggest that both cimetidine tablets and cimetidine suspension should be effective treatment.

  11. Bioequivalence study of two formulations of bisoprolol fumarate film-coated tablets in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandrawinata RR

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Raymond R Tjandrawinata,1 Effi Setiawati,2 Danang Agung Yunaidi,2 Iwan Dwi Santoso,2 Arini Setiawati,3 Liana W Susanto11Dexa Laboratories of Biomolecular Sciences (DLBS, Cikarang, Indonesia; 2Bioavailability and Bioequivalence Laboratory, Equilab International, Jakarta, Indonesia; 3Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, IndonesiaBackground: The present study was conducted to compare the bioavailability of two bisoprolol fumarate 5 mg film-coated tablet formulations (test and reference formulations.Patients and methods: This study was a randomized, single-blind, two-period, two-sequence crossover study that included 18 healthy adult male and female subjects under fasting condition. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined based on the concentrations of bisoprolol (CAS 66722-44-9, using ultraperformance liquid chromatography with a tandem mass spectrometer detector. In each of the two study periods (separated by a washout of 1 week a single dose of test or reference product was administered. The pharmacokinetic parameters assessed were area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to 48 hours (AUCt, AUC from time zero to infinity (AUCinf, the peak plasma concentration of the drug (Cmax, time needed to achieve Cmax (tmax, and the elimination half-life (t½.Results: The geometric mean ratios (90% confidence intervals of the test drug/reference drug for bisoprolol were 101.61% (96.14%–107.38% for AUCt, 101.31% (95.66%–107.29% for AUCinf, and 100.28% (93.90%–107.09% for Cmax. The differences between the test and reference drug products for bisoprolol tmax and t½ values were not statistically significant (P > 0.05. There was no adverse event encountered during this bioequivalence test. The 90% confidence intervals of the test/reference AUC ratio and Cmax ratio of bisoprolol were within the acceptance range for bioequivalence.Conclusion: It was concluded that the two bisoprolol film

  12. Bioequivalence study of two formulations of candesartan cilexetil tablet in healthy subjects under fasting conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandrawinata RR

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Raymond R Tjandrawinata,1 Effi Setiawati,2 Danang Agung Yunaidi,2 Ronal Simanjuntak,2 Iwan Dwi Santoso,2 Liana W Susanto1 1Dexa Laboratories of Biomolecular Sciences (DLBS, Cikarang, Indonesia; 2Bioavailability and Bioequivalence Laboratory, PT Equilab International, Jakarta, Indonesia Introduction: The present study was conducted to compare the bioavailability of two candesartan cilexetil 16 mg tablet formulations (test and reference formulations. Materials and methods: This study was a randomized, single- blind, two-period, cross-over study which included 24 healthy adult male and female subjects under fasting conditions. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined based on the concentrations of candesartan (CAS 139481-59-7, using ultra-pressure high-performance liquid chromatography with a tandem mass spectrometer detector. In each of the two study periods (separated by a washout period of 1 week, a single dose of test or reference product was administered. The pharmacokinetic parameters assessed were area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC from time 0 hours to 24 hours, AUC from time zero to infinity, the peak plasma concentration of the drug (Cmax, time to achieve the Cmax, and the elimination half-life. Results: The geometric mean ratios (90% confidence interval of the test drug/reference drug for candesartan were 100.92% (92.15%–110.52% for the AUC from 0 hours to 24 hours, 100.24% (92.24%–108.95% for the AUC from time zero to infinity, and 106.71% (93.20%–122.18% for the Cmax. The differences between the test and reference product in the time to achieve Cmax values and elimination half-life values were not statistically significant (P > 0.05. The 90% confidence intervals of the test/reference AUC ratio and Cmax ratio of candesartan were within the acceptance range for bioequivalence. There was no adverse event encountered during this bioequivalence study. Conclusion: It was concluded that the two candesartan tablet

  13. Evaluation of potential salivary acetaldehyde production from ethanol in oral cancer patients and healthy subjects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kocaelli, H; Apaydin, A; Aydil, B; Ayhan, M; Karadeniz, A; Ozel, S; Yılmaz, E; Akgün, B; Eren, B

    2014-01-01

    .... In this study, saliva samples from oral cancer patients and healthy individuals were incubated in vitro with ethanol in order to investigate factors which can influence salivary acetaldehyde production...

  14. A Novel Noninvasive Method for Measuring Fatigability of the Quadriceps Muscle in Noncooperating Healthy Subjects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poulsen, Jesper B; Rose, Martin H; Møller, Kirsten; Perner, Anders; Jensen, Bente R

    2015-01-01

    .... On two occasions, separated by seven days, nonvoluntary isometric contractions (twitch and tetanic) of the quadriceps femoris muscle evoked by transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation were recorded in twelve healthy adults...

  15. Effects of Administration of Fostamatinib on Blood Concentrations of an Oral Contraceptive in Healthy Female Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    Scientific Terminology Rheumatoid Arthritis, Healthy Female Volunteers, Pharmacokinetics, Oral Contraceptive, Drug-drug Interaction; Laymen Terminology Level of Oral Contraceptive in Blood, Oral Contraceptive, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Drug -Drug Interaction

  16. Kinesiology taping does not alter shoulder strength, shoulder proprioception, or scapular kinematics in healthy, physically active subjects and subjects with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Karen A; Akins, Jonathan S; Varnell, Michelle; Abt, John; Lovalekar, Mita; Lephart, Scott; Sell, Timothy C

    2017-03-01

    To examine the effect of kinesiology tape (KT) on shoulder strength, proprioception, and scapular kinematics in healthy and Subacromial Impingement Syndrome (SAIS) subjects. Placebo-controlled quasi-experimental study. Research laboratory. A total of 30 physically active subjects participated. Ten healthy subjects with no previous history of shoulder pathology received KT on the dominant shoulder. Twenty subjects with shoulder pain for a minimum of two weeks and presenting with clinical signs of impingement were allotted to receive KT (n = 10) or placebo taping (PT, n = 10) on the involved shoulder. All participants were tested pre- and post-application. Shoulder internal/external rotation (IR/ER) strength was assessed with isokinetic dynamometry (average peak torque/body weight). Shoulder IR/ER proprioception was assessed through threshold to detect passive motion (mean absolute error in degrees). Scapular position at 90° and 120° of shoulder abduction during arm raising/lowering were assessed using a 3D motion analysis system. No significant within group or between group differences were demonstrated for any measure. Taping does not appear to aid/impair shoulder strength, shoulder proprioception, or scapular kinematics. Future research should explore if the effects of KT are time-dependent and similar in other pathologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Primaquine and Pyronaridine-Artesunate in Healthy Adult Thai Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Jittamala, Podjanee; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Ashley, Elizabeth A.; Nosten, François; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Lee, Sue J.; Thana, Praiya; Chairat, Kalayanee; Blessborn, Daniel; Panapipat, Salwaluk; White, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Tarning, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Pyronaridine-artesunate is a newly introduced artemisinin-based combination treatment which may be deployed together with primaquine. A single-dose, randomized, three-sequence crossover study was conducted in healthy Thai volunteers to characterize potential pharmacokinetic interactions between these drugs. Seventeen healthy adults received a single oral dose of primaquine alone (30 mg base) and were then randomized to receive pyronaridine-artesunate alone (540−180 mg) or pyronaridine-artesun...

  18. Pharmacokinetic interactions between primaquine and pyronaridine-artesunate in healthy adult Thai subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Jittamala, P.; Pukrittayakamee, S; Ashley, EA; Nosten, F; Hanboonkunupakarn, B; Lee, SJ; Thana, P; Chairat, K; Blessborn, D; Panapipat, S; White, NJ; Day, NP; Tarning, J

    2015-01-01

    Pyronaridine-artesunate is a newly introduced artemisinin-based combination treatment which may be deployed together with primaquine. A single-dose, randomized, three-sequence crossover study was conducted in healthy Thai volunteers to characterize potential pharmacokinetic interactions between these drugs. Seventeen healthy adults received a single oral dose of primaquine alone (30 mg base) and were then randomized to receive pyronaridine-artesunate alone (540-180 mg) or pyronaridine-artesun...

  19. Transmission of a novel sonotubometry acoustic click stimulus in healthy and patulous eustachian tube subjects: a retrospective case -control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, Justin M; Amoako-Tuffour, Yaw; Earle, Guy; McIntyre, Graham; Butler, Michael B; Bance, Manohar

    2017-06-15

    Eustachian tube (ET) dysfunction can be very difficult to diagnose accurately. Our aim is to determine whether a newly developed sonotubometric test using clicks can reliably detect ET opening during swallowing in normal ET subjects, and patulous ET (PET) in subjects with ET dysfunction. Sixteen subjects (19 normal ET ears and 6 PET ears) were individually placed in a sound-isolated audiometry booth and subjected to a 1000Hz click train stimulus, played through the nose. PET subjects were identified through the ET clinic at our institution, while healthy subjects were recruited. Transmission through the ET was recorded by a microphone in the ear ipsilateral to the presenting nostril, during no swallow and swallow states, and this was used to compute a power ratio (power in the frequency range of interest to the whole frequency range). The power transmission ratio both before and after the swallow was averaged, and represented the baseline (BaseR). The power transmission ratio during swallow represented the peak (PeakR). The same process was repeated in the absence of a stimulus to account for swallowing noise. Wilcoxon rank rum tests were performed to determine statistical significance. It was found that for healthy ET patients, the median difference between the PeakR and BaseR was 0.51 (p = 0.004). For the PET patients in this study, the median difference between the PeakR and the BaseR was 3.30 (p = 0.041). Comparing the baseline between groups revealed that PET patients had a median BaseR 1.05 higher than healthy ET patients. PET patients had a median PeakR of 3.84 higher than healthy ET patients. Both were deemed to be statistically significant (p = 0.003, p = 0.003 respectively). A significant difference was found between median PeakR for the stimulus and no-stimulus condition for the healthy ET group (0.59, p < 0.001) and for the PET group (4.39, p = 0.031), indicating that it was unlikely that swallowing noise caused false positive

  20. Stressed out or subjective acquisition of competence – how do veterinary students see their curative work placement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilly, Marc

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Veterinary studies in Germany are regulated by the Veterinary Certification Act (TAppV. The practical part of the education consists of 1,170 hours, whereby up to 850 hours can be spent on the curative work placement. A curative work placement can result in physical and psychological stress in the sense of a professional overload. It is the aim of this study to find out in what areas and to what extent competence is acquired and psychological stress exists in students during their work placement. Veterinary students (n=142 from all German education institutes participated in a voluntary online-study based on Burnout Screening Scales (BOSS as well as a questionnaire regarding the acquisition of competence and excessive stress during the work placement (FKÜP. The distribution of values for work placement related stress show that such work placement related stress is generally slightly increased (T=60 and lies above that of occupational stresses within the normal population. Work placement related physical complaints also show a significant slight increase (T=61. A value (T=42 within the normal range was determined for the resource values. Few of the students questioned considered themselves to be excessively stressed in favour of a high subjective acquisition of competences. The largest increase regarding the acquisition of competence was noted for the areas of animal handling/restraint and application and injection techniques. In the sense of a perceived excessive demand regarding practical capabilities the areas of emergency management, surgery and medication dispensation were mentioned. With regard to the load structure and the acquisition of competence by veterinary students during their work placement, more support of the individual and a balancing of teaching/learning goals would be desirable and represents a promising approach.

  1. Linear and nonlinear analysis of base lung sound in extrinsic allergic alveolitis patients in comparison to healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charleston-Villalobos, S; Albuerne-Sanchez, L; Gonzalez-Camarena, R; Mejia-Avila, M; Carrillo-Rodriguez, G; Aljama-Corrales, T

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary disorders are frequently characterized by the presence of adventitious sounds added to the breathing or base lung sound (BLS). The aim of this work was to assess the features of BLS in extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) patients in comparison to healthy subjects, applying linear and nonlinear analysis techniques. We investigated the multichannel lung sounds on the posterior chest of 16 females, 8 healthy and 8 EAA patients, when breathing at 1.5 L/s. BLS linear features were obtained from the power spectral density (PSD) while nonlinear features were extracted by the concepts of irregularity and complexity, i.e., spectral, sample and multiscale entropy. The results demonstrated that spectral percentiles of BLS were lower in EAA patients than in healthy subjects but statistical significance (p<0.05) was obtained only for expiration at the left apical and both basal regions. Also, the maximum amplitude of the PSD in patients reached statistical significance ( p < 0.05) for the expiratory phase at basal regions. In the case of nonlinear techniques, significant lower values ( p < 0.05) were obtained for EAA patients during both respiratory phases at left apical and both basal regions. In conclusion, we found that BLS in chronic EAA patients is characterized by lower spectral percentiles, lower irregularity and lower complexity than in healthy subjects suggesting the feasibility of its clinical usefulness by screening its temporal alteration.

  2. The Impact of the Level of the Intestinal Short Chain Fatty Acids in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Versus Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda-Faujan, N.; Abdulamir, A.S.; Fatimah, A.B.; Anas, O. Muhammad; Shuhaimi, M.; Yazid, A.M.; Loong, Y.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the changes of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in faeces of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients compared to healthy subjects. SCFAs such as pyruvic, lactic, formic, acetic, propionic, isobutyric and butyric acids were analyzed by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This study showed that the level of acetic, 162.0 µmol/g wet faeces, butyric, 86.9 µmol/g wet faeces, and propionic acids, 65.6 µmol/g wet faeces, decreased remarkably in IBD faecal samples when compared with that of healthy individuals, 209.7, 176.0, and 93.3 µmol/g wet faeces respectively. On the contrary, lactic and pyruvic acids showed higher levels in faecal samples of IBD than in healthy subjects. In the context of butyric acid level, this study also found that the molar ratio of butyric acid was higher than propionic acid in both faecal samples. This might be due to the high intake of starch from rice among Malaysian population. It was concluded that the level of SCFAs differ remarkably between faecal samples in healthy subjects and that in IBD patients providing evidence that SCFAs more likely play an important role in the pathogenesis of IBD. PMID:20563285

  3. Subject-Object Asymmetry in the Second Language Acquisition of English Relatives and Embedded Wh-Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Sook

    2016-12-01

    This study examined subject-object asymmetry and developmental sequence in the second language (L2) acquisition of three types of wh-extraction, i.e., English headed relatives, headless relatives, and embedded wh-questions. Sixty-four L1 Korean learners of English completed an elicited imitation task and a grammaticality judgment task. The learners demonstrated a subject advantage in the headed RCs and headless RCs, but an object advantage in the embedded wh-questions, which suggests that they treat embedded wh-questions differently from headed relatives and headless relatives despite the similarities in surface forms. The learners further demonstrated the order of developing headless RCs followed by embedded wh-questions, and subsequently headed RCs, which supports the primacy of headless relatives as a simple nominal in L2 development.

  4. Colour Doppler ultrasonography evaluation of vascularization in the wrist and finger joints in rheumatoid arthritis patients and healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carotti, M. [Department of Radiology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Salaffi, F., E-mail: fsalaff@tin.it [Department of Rheumatology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ospedale A. Murri - Via dei Colli 52, 60035 Jesi, Ancona (Italy); Morbiducci, J. [Department of Radiology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Ciapetti, A., E-mail: ciapetti.a@libero.it [Department of Rheumatology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ospedale A. Murri - Via dei Colli 52, 60035 Jesi, Ancona (Italy); Bartolucci, L. [Department of Radiology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Gasparini, S. [Department of Rheumatology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ospedale A. Murri - Via dei Colli 52, 60035 Jesi, Ancona (Italy); Ferraccioli, G. [Division of Rheumatology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Giuseppetti, G.M. [Department of Radiology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Grassi, W. [Department of Rheumatology, Poliytechnic University of Marche, Ospedale A. Murri - Via dei Colli 52, 60035 Jesi, Ancona (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the presence of blood flow by colour Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) in the wrist and finger joints of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and healthy subjects and to define a cut-off value of CDUS resistive index (RI). Methods: Forty-three patients with RA and 43 healthy controls were examined by CDUS. The wrists, second and third metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints were evaluated in each patient and healthy subject. Spectral Doppler analysis was performed in order to characterize the type of flow and a mean RI was measured to define a cut-off level. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the screening method's performance. Results: Flow was detected in 219 of the 430 total joints (50.9%) of RA patients (111 in the wrists, 49 in the MCP and 30 in the PIP joints). Healthy subjects had a quantifiable flow in 45 of the 430 joints (10.5%) and, in particular, 39 (86.4%) in the wrist, 5 (11.14%) in the MCP and 1 (2.2%) in the PIP joints. The intra- and inter-reader agreements for the detection of Doppler signal were very good (kappa 0.82 and 0.89, respectively). Mean RI values were 0.72 {+-} 0.06 in RA patients and 0.86 {+-} 0.06 in healthy subjects (p < 0.01). At cut-off point of RI < 0.79 the sensitivity was 89.6% and the specificity was 78.8% (positive likelihood ratio 4.22). Conclusion: DUS is a useful tool for the detection of abnormal blood flow in inflammatory joints of RA patients.

  5. Gait in male trans-tibial amputees: a comparative study with healthy subjects in relation to walking speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermodsson, Y; Ekdahl, C; Persson, B M; Roxendal, G

    1994-08-01

    Walking speed, stance duration and ground reaction forces were studied with the use of a stable force platform (Kistler) in 24 male transtibial amputees and 12 healthy subjects matched for sex and age. The aim of the study was to compare the gait performance of two groups with unilateral trans-tibial amputations for either vascular disease or trauma and also to compare the results of the two groups with the results of a group of healthy subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to compare the stance duration and the ground reaction forces in relation to walking speed. The vascular and traumatic amputees had significantly reduced walking speeds compared with the healthy subjects, 0.85 +/- 0.2 m/s and 0.99 +/- 0.2 m/s. respectively, as compared to 1.42 +/- 0.2 m/s. By comparing the vascular and traumatic amputees with the healthy subjects in relation to walking speed, it was shown that the gait performance of the vascular amputee differed from that of the traumatic amputee, a difference that was not caused by the reduced walking speed. The active forces during push off on both the healthy (p = 0.02) and the prosthetic leg (p = 0.003) in the trauma group were not found in the vascular group. This disparity could be an effect of the systemic disease. It may be argued that the results of this study contribute to the understanding of the reduced walking ability of the vascular amputee and should be borne in mind when planning rehabilitation.

  6. The Effects of the Disturbance of the Vestibular System on the Dynamic Balance of Idiopathic Scoliotic Subjects with and Without Exercise Therapy Compared to Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Farahpour

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the neuromuscular system’s disorders in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS are not well known. The objectives of this study were to assess the dynamic balance of the AIS patients and the influence of exercise therapy on patients' dynamic balance. Eleven teenager scoliotic subjects after three months exercise therapy, nine similar patients without therapy and 13 healthy age matched subjects as control group were studied. Using dynamic stability platform, the deviation of COG of subjects in different positions, including up right standing, standing with head flexion and standing with head hyper extension were measured. The tests were repeated in both lose and stable condition of the foot platform. Results showed that the stability of the foot platform resulted in COG's deviation by 1.13 0.08 in all subjects. Dynamic balance of scoliotic patients without treatment was similar to that of the normal subjects. While, exercised patients had less COG deviation than the other groups. The change in head position increased the COG deviation by 2.5 times in control and non-exercised patients and 1.5 times in exercised patients. The dynamic balance in scoliosis was not affected. Exercise improved the dynamic balance in scoliotic subjects. Exercise therapy is recommended to improve the proprioceptives function.

  7. The relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentration and obesity in type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taheri Ehsaneh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with hypovitaminosis D. The aims of this study were to investigate the association of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH D and parathyroid hormone (PTH concentration with body mass index (BMI in type 2 diabetic patients compared to control subjects and their predicting role in obesity. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 subjects (100 type 2 diabetics and 100 healthy controls. Concentration of 25(OH D, calcium, phosphorous, parathyroid hormone (PTH, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, serum insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was determined in the fasting samples. Anthropometric measurements including body mass index (BMI were also measured. Results Eighty-five percent of type 2 diabetics and 79% of healthy subjects were suffering from vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency. Serum concentration of 25(OH D (22.08 ± 15.20 ng/ml (r = −0.11, P = 0.04 and calcium (8.94 ± 0.59 mg/dl (r = −2.25, P = 0.04 has significant statistically with BMI in type 2 diabetic patients. Serum concentration of PTH has non-significantly associated with BMI in diabetic patients and healthy subjects. Conclusion Serum levels of vitamin D inversely and PTH positively are associated with BMI after adjusted for age, gender and serum calcium in both type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects. These associations were statistically significant for serum concentration of vitamin D and calcium only in diabetic patients. So the status of vitamin D is considered as an important factor in type 2 diabetic patients.

  8. SEX CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MICROCIRCULATION IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS AND IN PATIENTS WITH THE FIRST DEGREE ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Podzolkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the sex characteristics of microcirculation in healthy volunteers and in patients with degree 1 arterial hypertension (HT. Material and methods. Patients (n=71; 34 men and 37 women with degree 1 HT participated in the study. Besides 28 normotensive men and 41 women were included. The microcirculation study was performed with LAKK-02 analyzer on the palmar surface of the third finger of the right hand. The average values of the microcirculation index, the standard deviation of perfusion fluctuations (σ, the variation coefficient of tissue blood flow (Kv were evaluated. Results. The microcirculation index in HT men 26.64 (21.00–32.45 perfusion units (p.u. was significantly higher than this in HT women 20.91 (16.98–24.30 p.u., p=0.031. The variability of microcirculation index was significantly higher in HT patients than this in healthy subjects. Capillary blood flow reserve in healthy women was higher than this in healthy men. Amplitude, reflexing myogenic factor of blood flow regulation was significantly lower in HT men than this in HT women: 13.37 (10.51–16.43 vs 14.69 (11.35–19.13, respectively , p=0.023. Amplitudes, reflecting respiration effects on peripheral blood flow in HT men were significantly higher than these in HT women. Amplitudes, reflecting pulse effect on the tissue perfusion in HT women were significantly higher than these in HT men. Influence of sympathetic adrenergic innervation on the blood flow was higher in healthy men than this in healthy women. Conclusion. Received data suggests the intensification of microcirculation regulation mechanisms in men with HT degree 1. It was found that sympathetic adrenergic effect on the microcirculation regulation was significantly less in healthy women than this in healthy men.

  9. The effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in healthy subjects. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2010-01-01

    : To investigate whether methodological artefacts can explain the diverging findings, we conducted a systematic review of all randomized multiple-dose, placebo-controlled trials on the effect of treatment by SSRI for at least a week in healthy persons published before January 2009. RESULTS: We identified 33 trials......, investigating six SSRIs and 163 outcome tests. The effect of SSRI showed divergence presumably related to methodological issues. Specifically, it is likely that the majority of studies included a mix of healthy persons with and without a family history of affective disorders. Few presented information...... of depression. Recent reviews of studies investigating the effect of SSRIs in healthy persons conclude that the results are inconsistent and that--in relation to a wide range of outcomes--the effect of SSRIs is limited; however, reasons for the inconsistencies are poorly studied. AIMS AND METHODS...

  10. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are cross-sectionally associated with insulin secretion in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Josephine M; Sourris, Karly C; de Courten, Maximilian P J; Dougherty, Sonia L; Chand, Vibhasha; Lyons, Jasmine G; Bertovic, David; Coughlan, Melinda T; Schlaich, Markus P; Soldatos, Georgia; Cooper, Mark E; Straznicky, Nora E; Kingwell, Bronwyn A; de Courten, Barbora

    2014-02-01

    It has been postulated that chronic exposure to high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), in particular from dietary sources, can impair insulin secretion. In the present study, we investigated the cross-sectional relationship between AGEs and acute insulin secretion during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and following a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in healthy humans. We report the cross-sectional association between circulating AGE concentrations and insulin secretory function in healthy humans (17 F: 27 M, aged 30 ± 10 years) with a wide range of BMI (24.6-31.0 kg/m(2)). Higher circulating concentrations of AGEs were related to increased first phase insulin secretion during IVGTT (r = 0.43; p AGE (RAGE) isoforms (r = -0.39; p < 0.01). In conclusion, in healthy humans, we show a cross-sectional association between advanced glycation end products and acute insulin secretion during glucose tolerance testing.

  11. Bioavailability of anthocyanins and ellagitannins following consumption of raspberries by healthy humans and subjects with an ileostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Barrio, Rocío; Borges, Gina; Mullen, William; Crozier, Alan

    2010-04-14

    The fate of anthocyanins, ellagic acid, and ellagitannins was studied following the consumption of 300 g of raspberries by healthy human volunteers and subjects with an ileostomy. Postingestion plasma and urine from the former and ileal fluid and urine from the latter group were collected and analyzed by HPLC-PDA-MS(2). Plasma from the healthy volunteers did not contain detectable quantities of either the native raspberry polyphenolics or their metabolites. The three main raspberry anthocyanins were excreted in urine in both healthy and ileostomy volunteers 0-7 h after ingestion, in quantities corresponding to urolithin A-O-glucuronide, two of its isomers, and urolithin B-O-glucuronide in urine collected 7-48 h after raspberry consumption. There was marked variation in the urolithin profile of individual volunteers, indicating differences in the colonic microflora responsible for ellagitannin degradation.

  12. Reaching in reality and virtual reality: a comparison of movement kinematics in healthy subjects and in adults with hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldman Anatol G

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virtual reality (VR is an innovative tool for sensorimotor rehabilitation increasingly being employed in clinical and community settings. Despite the growing interest in VR, few studies have determined the validity of movements made in VR environments with respect to real physical environments. The goal of this study was to compare movements done in physical and virtual environments in adults with motor deficits to those in healthy individuals. Methods The participants were 8 healthy adults and 7 adults with mild left hemiparesis due to stroke. Kinematics of functional arm movements involving reaching, grasping and releasing made in physical and virtual environments were analyzed in two phases: 1 reaching and grasping the ball and 2 ball transport and release. The virtual environment included interaction with an object on a 2D computer screen and haptic force feedback from a virtual ball. Temporal and spatial parameters of reaching and grasping were determined for each phase. Results Individuals in both groups were able to reach, grasp, transport, place and release the virtual and real ball using similar movement strategies. In healthy subjects, reaching and grasping movements in both environments were similar but these subjects used less wrist extension and more elbow extension to place the ball on the virtual vertical surface. Participants with hemiparesis made slower movements in both environments compared to healthy subjects and during transport and placing of the ball, trajectories were more curved and interjoint coordination was altered. Despite these differences, patients with hemiparesis also tended to use less wrist extension during the whole movement and more elbow extension at the end of the placing phase. Conclusion Differences in movements made by healthy subjects in the two environments may be explained by the use of a 2D instead of a 3D virtual environment and the absence of haptic feedback from the VR target

  13. Relationship between maximal fat oxidation and oxygen uptake: comparison between type 2 diabetes patients and healthy sedentary subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Cataldo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of fat oxidation to energy production during exercise is influenced by intensity of exercise. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the highest value of fat oxidation rate (FATmax and the oxygen uptake (VO2 in sedentary type 2 diabetes (T2D patients vs healthy sedentary subjects. Sedentary T2D patients and healthy sedentary subjects were evaluated to a graded exercise test, and oxygen uptake and fat oxidation rate were detected. Data show that in T2D patients fat oxidation rate is not impaired and the positive linear correlation between FATmax and both VO2 and VO2max suggests that even in T2D patients the muscle oxidative capacity might increase in response to aerobic training.

  14. Effect of limb muscle fatigue on perception of respiratory effort in healthy subjects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonello Grippo; Riccardo Carrai; Linda Chiti; Giulia Innocenti Bruni; Giorgio Scano; Roberto Duranti

    2010-01-01

    .... During the loaded breathing, while subjects mimicked the quiet breathing pattern using a visual feedback, ventilation, tidal volume, respiratory frequency, pleural pressure swings, arterial oxygen...

  15. Vitamin D status of type 2 diabetic patients compared with healthy subjects in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalali, M; Taheri, E; Saedisomeolia, A; Djazayeri, A; Rahemi, A; Hashemi, M; Larijani, B

    2014-01-09

    An inverse relationship has been shown between vitamin D deficiency and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). In this cross-sectional study in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran, a country with a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, we determined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among 90 type 2 DM patients and 90 healthy subjects. Based on serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, the rates of deficiency (< 50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (50-75 nmol/L) were 59.0% and 27.0% respectively in patients with type 2 DM, and 47.0% and 24.0% respectively in healthy subjects. Using the national cut-offs for vitamin D deficiency, 64.0% women with DM and 47.4% of healthy women were suffering from different degrees of vitamin D deficiency. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in men with type 2 DM and healthy men were 42.7% and 22.2% respectively. None of the differences between the 2 groups was statistically significant.

  16. Lithium decreases VEGF mRNA expression in leukocytes of healthy subjects and patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Kumiko; Iga, Jun-ichi; Tayoshi, Sumiko; Nakataki, Masahito; Watanabe, Shinya; Numata, Shusuke; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and the target of antidepressants. The aim of this study was to elucidate molecular effects of lithium on VEGF expression by using leukocytes of healthy subjects and patients with bipolar disorder. Eight healthy male subjects participated in the first study. Lithium was prescribed for 2 weeks, enough to reach therapeutic serum concentration. Leukocyte counts and serum lithium concentrations were determined at baseline, at 1- and 2-week medication, and at 2 weeks after stopping medication. VEGF mRNA levels were also examined in nine lithium-treated bipolar patients and healthy controls in the second study. In the first study, leukocyte counts were significantly increased at 2 weeks compared with those at baseline and were normalized after 2 weeks. VEGF mRNA levels were significantly decreased at 2 weeks and after 2 weeks compared with those at baseline. Consistent with the first study, VEGF mRNA levels were significantly decreased in the lithium-treated bipolar patients compared with healthy controls. Our investigation suggests that VEGF mRNA expression may be useful as a peripheral marker of the effects of lithium. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Establishing the definition and inter-rater reliability of cortical silent period calculation in subjects with focal hand dystonia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberley, Teresa Jacobson; Borich, Michael R; Prochaska, Kristina D; Mundfrom, Shannon L; Perkins, Ariel E; Poepping, Joseph M

    2009-10-23

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a clearly defined manual method for calculating cortical silent period (CSP) length that can be employed successfully and reliably by raters after minimal training in subjects with focal hand dystonia (FHD) and healthy subjects. A secondary purpose was to explore intra-subject variability of the CSP in subjects with FHD vs. healthy subjects. Two raters previously naïve to CSP identification and one experienced rater independently analyzed 170 CSP measurements collected in 6 subjects with focal hand dystonia (FHD) and 9 healthy subjects. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to quantify inter-rater reliability within the two groups of subjects. The relative variability of CSP in each group was calculated by the coefficient of variation (CV). Relative variation between raters within repeated measures of individual subjects was also quantified by CV. Reliability measures were as follows-mean of three raters: all subjects: ICC=0.976; within healthy subjects: ICC=0.965; in subjects with FHD: ICC=0.956. The median within-subject variability for the healthy group was CV=7.33% and in subjects with FHD:CV=11.78%. The median variability of calculating individual subject CSP duration between raters was CV=10.23% in subjects with dystonia and CV=10.46% in healthy subjects. Manual calculation of CSP results in excellent reliability between raters of varied levels of experience. Healthy subjects display less variability in CSP. Despite greater variability, the CSP in impaired subjects can be reliably calculated across raters.

  18. Antipyrine, oxazepam, and indocyanine green clearance in patients with chronic pancreatitis and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Sonne, J; Larsen, S

    1999-01-01

    Hepatic drug metabolism was examined in patients with chronic pancreatitis and healthy controls by using a cocktail design with three different model compounds: antipyrine to express phase-I oxidation, oxazepam to express phase-II conjugation, and indocyanine green (ICG), a high-clearance compound....

  19. Gender differences in the associations between cortisol and insulin in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, RP; Lamberts, SWJ; deJong, FH; Pols, HAP; Grobbee, DE

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the role of cortisol in the etiology of insulin resistance in men and women, we examined 218 healthy non-hospitalized elderly, selected from the Rotterdam Study. Free cortisol was assessed by the ratio of fasting serum cortisol over corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and insulin r

  20. The effect of circulating adenosine on cerebral haemodynamics and headache generation in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, S; Petersen, K.A.; Kruuse, Christina Rostrup

    2005-01-01

    been investigated in man and reports regarding the effect of intravenous adenosine on cerebral blood flow are conflicting. Twelve healthy participants received adenosine 80, 120 microg kg(-1) min(-1) and placebo intravenously for 20 min, in a double-blind, three-way, crossover, randomized design...

  1. DIFFERENT ACUTE METABOLISM OF FRUCTOSE IN DIALYSIS PATIENTS COMPARED TO HEALTHY SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Anderstam

    2012-06-01

    We conclude that a fatty meal is associated with a delayed post-prandial fructose absorption and/or metabolism, as well as increased uric acid levels in HD patients. In an ongoing new study, the fructose metabolism will be further studied in CKD patients, diabetics and healthy controls.

  2. The relationship between gallbladder dynamics and the migrating motor complex in fasting healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Rasmussen, L

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between gallbladder dynamics and the interdigestive migrating motor complex (MMC) was investigated in 10 healthy male volunteers by a hepatobiliary scintigraphy and gastroduodenal pressure recordings. Filling of the gallbladder commenced in late phase II or in phase III of the MM...

  3. Comparison of Corneal Topographical and Biomechanical Properties in Cases with Atopic Dermatitis and Healthy Subjects

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    Yusuf Yıldırım

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To compare the topographic, biomechanical, and thickness properties of corneas of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD and of healthy individuals. Ma te ri al and Met hod: In this prospective, cross-sectional, and comparative study, 28 healthy individuals (control group and 28 patients with AD (study group were enrolled. Corneal topographical measurements using Scheimpflug camera with a Placido disc topographer (Sirius, corneal biomechanical properties using Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA, and central corneal thickness (CCT using ultrasonic pachymeter were obtained for each participant. Re sults: Topographic parameters were not significantly different between both groups (p>0.05. Corneal hysteresis (CH and corneal resistance factor (CRF were found same in both groups. CCT measured with ultrasonic pachymeter was significantly lower in patients with AD compared to health controls (p<0.05. Dis cus si on: No significant difference was found between patients with AD and age-matched healthy individuals regarding the corneal topographic findings and corneal biomechanical parameters. CCT was found to be lower in cases with AD than in healthy controls. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 140-4

  4. Acute Effect of Decaffeinated Coffee on Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, and Exercise Performance in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ravi; Kaushik, Vidya S.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of decaffeinated coffee on the cardiovascular exercise performance in nine healthy volunteers was evaluated in a double-blind randomized fashion. The heart rate, blood pressure, and duration of exercise were unchanged, and no arrhythmias or ischemic changes were seen on the electrocardiogram after drinking decaffeinated coffee. It was concluded that decaffeinated coffee has no discernible, acute, adverse cardiovascular effects. PMID:3339645

  5. Similar elimination rates of glucagon-like peptide-1 in obese type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Agersø, H; Krarup, T;

    2003-01-01

    of this study was to examine the pharmacokinetics of GLP-1 in healthy subjects and type 2 diabetic patients after iv bolus doses ranging from 2.5-25 nmol/subject. Bolus injections iv of 2.5, 5, 15, and 25 nmol of GLP-1 and a meal test were performed in six type 2 diabetic patients [age, mean (range): 56 (48...... response seen after ingestion of a standard breakfast meal must therefore be caused by a decreased secretion of GLP-1 in type 2 diabetic patients....

  6. Adult separation anxiety in patients with complicated grief versus healthy control subjects: relationships with lifetime depressive and hypomanic symptoms

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    Dell'Osso Liliana

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around 9% to 20% of bereaved individuals experience symptoms of complicated grief (CG that are associated with significant distress and impairment. A major issue is whether CG represents a distinctive nosographic entity, independent from other mental disorders, particularly major depression (MD, and the role of symptoms of adult separation anxiety. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical features of patients with CG versus a sample of healthy control subjects, with particular focus on adult separation anxiety and lifetime mood spectrum symptoms. Methods A total of 53 patients with CG and 50 healthy control subjects were consecutively recruited and assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I/P, Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG, Adult Separation Anxiety Questionnaire (ASA-27, Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS and Mood Spectrum-Self Report (MOODS-SR lifetime version. Results Patients with CG reported significantly higher scores on the MOODS-SR, ASA-27, and WSAS with respect to healthy control subjects. The scores on the ASA-27 were significantly associated with the MOODS-SR depressive and manic components amongst both patients and healthy control subjects, with a stronger association in the latter. Conclusions A major limitation of the present study is the small sample size that may reduce the generalizability of the results. Moreover, lifetime MOODS-SR does not provide information about the temporal sequence of the manic or depressive symptoms and the loss. The frequent comorbidity with MD and the association with both depressive and manic lifetime symptoms do not support the independence of CG from mood disorders. In our patients, CG is associated with high levels of separation anxiety in adulthood. However, the presence of lifetime mood instability, as measured by the frequent presence of depressive and hypomanic lifetime symptoms, suggests that cyclothymia

  7. Exercises focusing on rotator cuff and scapular muscles do not improve shoulder joint position sense in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yin-Liang; Karduna, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Proprioception is essential for shoulder neuromuscular control and shoulder stability. Exercise of the rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscles is an important part of shoulder rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscle exercises on shoulder joint position sense. Thirty-six healthy subjects were recruited and randomly assigned into either a control or training group. The subjects in the training group received closed-chain and open-chain exercises focusing on rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscles for four weeks. Shoulder joint position sense errors in elevation, including the humerothoracic, glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints, was measured. After four weeks of exercise training, strength increased overall in the training group, which demonstrated the effect of exercise on the muscular system. However, the changes in shoulder joint position sense errors in any individual joint of the subjects in the training group were not different from those of the control subjects. Therefore, exercises specifically targeting individual muscles with low intensity may not be sufficient to improve shoulder joint position sense in healthy subjects. Future work is needed to further investigate which types of exercise are more effective in improving joint position sense, and the mechanisms associated with those changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Gut permeability to lactulose and mannitol differs in treated Crohn's disease and celiac disease patients and healthy subjects

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    E.G. Vilela

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The gut barrier monitors and protects the gastrointestinal tract from challenges such as microorganisms, toxins and proteins that could act as antigens. There is evidence that gut barrier dysfunction may act as a primary disease mechanism in intestinal disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the barrier function towards sugars after the appropriate treatment of celiac disease and Crohn's disease patients and compare the results with those obtained with healthy subjects. Fifteen healthy volunteers, 22 celiac disease patients after 1 year of a gluten-free diet, and 31 Crohn's disease patients in remission were submitted to an intestinal permeability test with 6.0 g lactulose and 3.0 g mannitol. Six-hour urinary lactulose excretion in Crohn's disease patients was significantly higher than in both celiac disease patients (0.42 vs 0.15% and healthy controls (0.42 vs 0.07%. Urinary lactulose excretion was significantly higher in celiac disease patients than in healthy controls (0.15 vs 0.07%. Urinary mannitol excretion in Crohn's disease patients was the same as healthy controls (21 vs 21% and these values were significantly higher than in celiac disease patients (10.9%. The lactulose/mannitol ratio was significantly higher in Crohn's disease patients in comparison to celiac disease patients (0.021 vs 0.013 and healthy controls (0.021 vs 0.003 and this ratio was also significantly higher in celiac disease patients compared to healthy controls (0.013 vs 0.003. In spite of treatment, differences in sugar permeability were observed in both disease groups. These differences in the behavior of the sugar probes probably reflect different mechanisms for the alterations of intestinal permeability.

  9. Short Term Effects of Neurodynamic Stretching and Static Stretching Techniques on Hamstring Muscle Flexibility in Healthy Male Subjects

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    Adel Rashad Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flexibility is a key component of rehabilitation and inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor for musculoskeletal disorders. Studies on the most optimal technique for improving muscle flexibility are a widely debated. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of neurodynamic and static stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects. This study was a randomized experimental trial; forty healthy male subjects with hamstring tightness were randomly divided into two equal groups: The neurodynamic group and the static stretching group. Treatment was given for 5 consecutive days and the outcomes were measured using Active knee Extension Test and Straight Leg Raising. There was a significant improvement in hamstring flexibility following application of both neurodynamic and static stretching but the improvement in the neurodynamic group (p<0.001 was better than that of the static group (p<0.02. Results suggest that a neurodynamic stretching could increase hamstring flexibility to a greater extent than static stretching in healthy male subjects with a tight hamstring.

  10. Effect of Single Administration of Coffee on Pupil Size and Ocular Wavefront Aberration Measurements in Healthy Subjects

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    Handan Bardak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available No study has so far evaluated the impact of coffee drinking on ocular wavefront aberration (OWA measurements. This study presents novel findings regarding the OWA of the eye following coffee intake. We aimed to evaluate the acute changes in pupil size and OWA of the eye after single administration of coffee. A total of 30 otherwise healthy participants were included in this prospective study. All subjects drank a cup of coffee containing 57 mg caffeine. Measurements of pupil size, total coma (TC, total trefoil (TF, total spherical aberration (TSA, and total higher order aberration (HOA were performed before and at 5 minutes, at 30 minutes, and at 4 hours after coffee drinking using a wavefront aberrometer device (Irx3, Imagine Eyes, Orsay, France. The mean age of the study population was 20.30 ± 2.74 years. Pupil size did not show a significant change during the measurements (p>0.05. A significant increase was observed in TF and HOA measurements following coffee intake (p=0.029 and p=0.009, resp.. Single administration of coffee results in significant increase in TF and total HOAs in healthy subjects without any effect on pupil diameter. Ultrastructural changes in the cornea following coffee intake might be of relevance to the alterations in ocular aberrations in healthy subjects.

  11. Accuracy of Subjective Performance Appraisal is Not Modulated by the Method Used by the Learner During Motor Skill Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jae T; McRae, Matthew; Lai, Sharon

    2016-04-01

    The present experiment examined whether the method of subjectively appraising motor performance during skill acquisition would differentially strengthen performance appraisal capabilities and subsequent motor learning. Thirty-six participants (18 men and 18 women; M age = 20.8 years, SD = 1.0) learned to execute a serial key-pressing task at a particular overall movement time (2550 ms). Participants were randomly separated into three groups: the Generate group estimated their overall movement time then received knowledge of results of their actual movement time; the Choice group selected their perceived movement time from a list of three alternatives; the third group, the Control group, did not self-report their perceived movement time and received knowledge of results of their actual movement time on every trial. All groups practiced 90 acquisition trials and 30 no knowledge of results trials in a delayed retention test. Results from the delayed retention test showed that both methods of performance appraisal (Generate and Choice) facilitated superior motor performance and greater accuracy in assessing their actual motor performance compared with the control condition. Therefore, the processing required for accurate appraisal of performance was strengthened, independent of performance appraisal method.

  12. Paracetamol decreases steady-state exposure to lamotrigine by induction of glucuronidation in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gastrup, Sandra; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Fruekilde, Palle Bach Nielsen

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Patients receiving lamotrigine therapy frequently use paracetamol concomitantly. While one study suggests a possible, clinically relevant drug-drug interaction, practical recommendations of the concomitant use are inconsistent. We performed a systematic pharmacokinetic study in healthy...... volunteers to quantify the effect of 4-day treatment of paracetamol on the metabolism of steady-state lamotrigine. METHODS: Twelve healthy, male volunteers participated in an open-label, sequential interaction study. Lamotrigine was titrated to steady state (100 mg daily) over 36 days, and blood and urine...... sampling was performed in a non-randomised order with and without paracetamol (1 g four times daily). The primary endpoint was change in steady-state area under the plasma concentration-time curve of lamotrigine. Secondary endpoints were changes in total apparent oral clearance, renal clearance...

  13. Ambulatory blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Peter Vilhelm; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1998-01-01

    A slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) is a predictor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The mechanism is unknown, but moderate office blood pressure elevation has been demonstrated as part of a clustering of known atherosclerotic risk factors in subjects with elevated...... with an elevated UAER (>6.6 microg/min, overnight urine collection) and 46 normoalbuminuric control subjects. Mean+/-SD systolic and diastolic ambulatory blood pressures (24-hour) were significantly higher in subjects with elevated UAER than in normoalbuminuric controls (134+/-12 versus 128+/-11 mm Hg and 78...

  14. Effect of a chloride channel activator, lubiprostone, on colonic sensory and motor functions in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Sweetser, Seth; Busciglio, Irene A.; Camilleri, Michael; Bharucha, Adil E.; Szarka, Lawrence A.; Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios; Burton, Duane D.; Eckert, Deborah J.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    Lubiprostone, a bicyclic fatty acid chloride channel activator, is efficacious in treatment of chronic constipation and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. The study aim was to compare effects of lubiprostone and placebo on colonic sensory and motor functions in humans. In double-blind, randomized fashion, 60 healthy adults received three oral doses of placebo or 24 μg lubiprostone per day in a parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial. A barostat-manometry tube was placed in th...

  15. [Morphological radioautographic study of the palatine tonsils in chronic tonsillitis and healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal'chun, V T; Gospodar', M A; Kolokol'chikova, E G; Pal'tsyn, A A; Poliakova, T S; Chervonskaia, N V; Konstantinova, N B

    2006-01-01

    A pilot morphological (radioautographic) study of healthy and affected palatine tonsils (in hypertrophy and toxic-allergic form of chronic tonsillitis) in children and adults has shown that intensity of biosynthetic processes (protein-synthetic -- RNA synthesis and proliferative activity -- DNA synthesis) in the cells of palatine tonsils and structural changes of their tissues depend on characteristics of pathological process. Microbial penetration into the tonsils with formation of an active focus of chronic infection is traced.

  16. Experimental knee joint pain during strength training and muscle strength gain in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, T J; Langberg, Henning; Hodges, P W

    2012-01-01

    Knee joint pain and reduced quadriceps strength are cardinal symptoms in many knee pathologies. In people with painful knee pathologies, quadriceps exercise reduces pain, improves physical function, and increases muscle strength. A general assumption is that pain compromises muscle function...... and thus may prevent effective rehabilitation. This study evaluated the effects of experimental knee joint pain during quadriceps strength training on muscle strength gain in healthy individuals....

  17. The Madrid Affective Database for Spanish (MADS): Ratings of Dominance, Familiarity, Subjective Age of Acquisition and Sensory Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, José A; Rincón-Pérez, Irene; Romero-Ferreiro, M Verónica; Martínez-García, Natalia; Villalba-García, Cristina; Montoro, Pedro R; Pozo, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    The current study presents ratings by 540 Spanish native speakers for dominance, familiarity, subjective age of acquisition (AoA), and sensory experience (SER) for the 875 Spanish words included in the Madrid Affective Database for Spanish (MADS). The norms can be downloaded as supplementary materials for this manuscript from https://figshare.com/s/8e7b445b729527262c88 These ratings may be of potential relevance to researches who are interested in characterizing the interplay between language and emotion. Additionally, with the aim of investigating how the affective features interact with the lexicosemantic properties of words, we performed correlational analyses between norms for familiarity, subjective AoA and SER, and scores for those affective variables which are currently included in the MADs. A distinct pattern of significant correlations with affective features was found for different lexicosemantic variables. These results show that familiarity, subjective AoA and SERs may have independent effects on the processing of emotional words. They also suggest that these psycholinguistic variables should be fully considered when formulating theoretical approaches to the processing of affective language.

  18. Performance on a probabilistic inference task in healthy subjects receiving ketamine compared with patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almahdi, Basil; Sultan, Pervez; Sohanpal, Imrat; Brandner, Brigitta; Collier, Tracey; Shergill, Sukhi S; Cregg, Roman; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that some aspects of schizophrenia can be induced in healthy volunteers through acute administration of the non-competitive NMDA-receptor antagonist, ketamine. In probabilistic inference tasks, patients with schizophrenia have been shown to ‘jump to conclusions’ (JTC) when asked to make a decision. We aimed to test whether healthy participants receiving ketamine would adopt a JTC response pattern resembling that of patients. The paradigmatic task used to investigate JTC has been the ‘urn’ task, where participants are shown a sequence of beads drawn from one of two ‘urns’, each containing coloured beads in different proportions. Participants make a decision when they think they know the urn from which beads are being drawn. We compared performance on the urn task between controls receiving acute ketamine or placebo with that of patients with schizophrenia and another group of controls matched to the patient group. Patients were shown to exhibit a JTC response pattern relative to their matched controls, whereas JTC was not evident in controls receiving ketamine relative to placebo. Ketamine does not appear to promote JTC in healthy controls, suggesting that ketamine does not affect probabilistic inferences. PMID:22389244

  19. The Difference in Translaminar Pressure Gradient and Neuroretinal Rim Area in Glaucoma and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Siaudvytyte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess differences in translaminar pressure gradient (TPG and neuroretinal rim area (NRA in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG, high tension glaucoma (HTG, and healthy controls. Methods. 27 patients with NTG, HTG, and healthy controls were included in the prospective pilot study (each group consisted of 9 patients. Intraocular pressure (IOP, intracranial pressure (ICP, and confocal laser scanning tomography were assessed. TPG was calculated as the difference of IOP minus ICP. ICP was measured using noninvasive two-depth transcranial Doppler device. The level of significance P 0.05. The difference between TPG for healthy (5.4(7.7 mmHg and glaucomatous eyes (NTG 6.3(3.1 mmHg, HTG 15.7(7.7 mmHg was statistically significant (P < 0.001. Higher TPG was correlated with decreased NRA (r = −0.83; P = 0.01 in the NTG group. Conclusion. Translaminar pressure gradient was higher in glaucoma patients. Reduction of NRA was related to higher TPG in NTG patients. Further prospective studies are warranted to investigate the involvement of TPG in glaucoma management.

  20. Objective and subjective cognitive enhancing effects of mixed amphetamine salts in healthy people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, Irena; Boland, Joseph; Farah, Martha J

    2013-01-01

    Psychostimulants such as mixed amphetamine salts (MAS, brand name Adderall) are widely used for cognitive enhancement by healthy young people, yet laboratory research on effectiveness has yielded variable results. The present study assessed the effects of MAS in healthy young adults with an adequately powered double-blind cross-over placebo-controlled trial. We examined effects in 13 measures of cognitive ability including episodic memory, working memory, inhibitory control, convergent creativity, intelligence and scholastic achievement, with the goals of determining (1) whether the drug is at least moderately enhancing (Cohen's d >= .5) to some or all cognitive abilities tested, (2) whether its effects on cognition are moderated by baseline ability or COMT genotype, and (3) whether it induces an illusory perception of cognitive enhancement. The results did not reveal enhancement of any cognitive abilities by MAS for participants in general. There was a suggestion of moderation of enhancement by baseline ability and COMT genotype in a minority of tasks, with MAS enhancing lower ability participants on word recall, embedded figures and Raven's Progressive Matrices. Despite the lack of enhancement observed for most measures and most participants, participants nevertheless believed their performance was more enhanced by the active capsule than by placebo. We conclude that MAS has no more than small effects on cognition in healthy young adults, although users may perceive the drug as enhancing their cognition. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'.

  1. Diet-microbiota-health interactions in older subjects: implications for healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, D B; Jeffery, I B; Cusack, S; O'Connor, E M; O'Toole, P W

    2015-01-01

    With modern medicine and an awareness of healthy lifestyle practices, people are living longer and generally healthier lives than their ancestors. These successes of modern medicine have resulted in an increasing proportion of elderly in society. Research groups around the world have investigated the contribution of gut microbial communities to human health and well-being. It was established that the microbiota composition of the human gut is modulated by lifestyle factors, especially diet. The microbiota composition and function, acting in concert with direct and indirect effects of habitual diet, is of great importance in remaining healthy and active. This is not a new concept, but until now the scale of the potential microbiota contribution was not appreciated. There are an estimated ten times more bacteria in an individual than human cells. The bacterial population is relatively stable in adults, but the age-related changes that occur later in life can have a negative impact on host health. This loss of the adult-associated microbiota correlates with measures of markers of inflammation, frailty, co-morbidity and nutritional status. This effect may be greater than that of diet or in some cases genetics alone. Collectively, the recent studies show the importance of the microbiota and associated metabolites in healthy aging and the importance of diet in its modulation. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Comparison of Salivary Biochemical Composition between End Stage Renal Disease and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Bakhshi

    Full Text Available Introduction: Following the renal disease involvement, some variations may occur in the flow, pH and biochemical components of the saliva; therefore, saliva possibly would be a useful tool for diagnosis and monitoring of the renal disease through evaluation of the components. The aim of the present study was to analyse the biochemical composition of the saliva in patients undergone haemodialysis for the end-stage renal disease (ESRD in Imam Khomeini Hospital. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 64 haemodialysis patients and 67 healthy individuals were selected and their salivary samples were obtained by spitting method. Salivary biochemical factors were determined by serum kits and auto-analyzer while the samples’ pH was determined by an automatic pH meter. Then, Creatinine, Ca, Mg, urea, α-amylase parameters as well as the salivary flow rate were measured. The saliva biochemical compositions were analyzed using Student t test. Results: The mean (± standard deviation of the salivary flow rate was statistically lower in ESRD patients than healthy ones (0.34±0.22 ml/min vs. 0.57±0.29 ml/min: P<0.001. Salivary pH (7.87±0.72 vs. 6.99±0.4: P<0.001 and concentrations of urea (134.4±40.8 vs. 40.8±15.1 mg/dl: P<0.001; Cr (1.1±0.9 vs. 0.4±0.1 mg/dl: P<0.001 and α-amylase (1107.4±788.4 vs. 568.3±437.0 mg/dl: P<0.001 were statistically higher in ESRD patients than healthy controls. Ca was significantly lower in ESRD patients than healthy ones (2.8±2.8 vs. 3.6±2.0 mg/dl: P<0.05.. No significant differences were noted between both groups regarding salivary Mg. The mean (± standard deviation age was statistically higher in ESRD patients than healthy ones (63.2±15.4 years vs. 48.2±15.3 years: P<0.001. No significant differences were noted between both groups regarding weight and gender. Conclusion: Due to the significant alternations of the salivary biochemical concentrations in ESRD patients; saliva can be used

  3. Glucose ingestion causes cardiac repolarization disturbances in type 1 long QT syndrome patients and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyltén-Cavallius, Louise; Iepsen, Eva W; Christiansen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    . RESULTS: QTc and MCS increased in both groups. MCS remained elevated until 150 minutes after glucose ingestion, and the maximal change from baseline was larger among KCNQ1 LQTS patients compared with control subjects (0.28 ± 0.27 vs 0.15 ± 0.13; P ... by ingestion of 75-g glucose caused cardiac repolarization disturbances that were more severe in KCNQ1 LQTS patients compared with control subjects....

  4. Evaluation of the antioxidant effect of a new functional food enriched with Sideritis euboea in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouroliakou, Maria; Kastanidou, Olympia; Stathopoulou, Maria; Vourli, Georgia

    2009-10-01

    Sideritis euboea is a Greek plant that is traditionally consumed as a beverage (mountain tea). From in vitro studies, its extract has shown antioxidant and estrogenic activities. In our study we used S. euboea as an enriching food factor in order to produce a new functional food, a jelly dessert, in order to explore its antioxidant effects if consumed on a daily basis by healthy subjects. In this placebo-controlled clinical trial, 63 subjects were recruited for a 1-month nutritional intervention. Twelve subjects were excluded. The remaining 51 subjects were randomly classified in the intervention group (daily consumption of the jelly containing 0.3 g of S. euboea extract) or the placebo group (daily consumption of the same jelly without the enrichment). Vitamins C, A, and E, glutathione, coenzyme Q10, total nitrites, nitrates, total nitrogen oxide, nitrites/nitrates ratio, and total antioxidant status were measured in blood samples before and after the intervention. After the intervention, free glutathione and coenzyme Q10 increased, and nitrites decreased significantly in both groups. The other antioxidant markers were not altered. No statistical significant differences were observed between the two groups. The daily consumption of the functional food, for 30 days, had no effects on the antioxidant status of healthy volunteers.

  5. Elevated urinary albumin excretion is not linked to the angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene polymorphism in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    2000-01-01

    aged 40-65 years with elevated UAE in a dipstick negative urinary sample (n = 27) from The Copenhagen City Heart Study. Neither the ACE genotype distribution (p = 0.12) nor the D and I allele frequencies (p = 0.69) differed significantly between subjects with elevated UAE and a matched normoalbuminuric......An elevated urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in non-diabetic subjects without renal or cardiovascular disease has been shown to be predictive of ischaemic heart disease. An insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been identified and the D allele...... control group (n = 46). Elevated UAE in clinically healthy subjects is not linked to the ACE gene polymorphism....

  6. A diet based on multiple functional concepts improves cardiometabolic risk parameters in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Juscelino

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different foods can modulate cardiometabolic risk factors in persons already affected by metabolic alterations. The objective of this study was to assess, in healthy overweight individuals, the impact of a diet combining multiple functional concepts on risk markers associated with cardiometabolic diseases (CMD. Methods Fourty-four healthy women and men (50-73 y.o, BMI 25-33, fasting glycemia ≤ 6.1 mmol/L participated in a randomized crossover intervention comparing a multifunctional (active diet (AD with a control diet (CD devoid of the "active" components. Each diet was consumed during 4 wk with a 4 wk washout period. AD included the following functional concepts: low glycemic impact meals, antioxidant-rich foods, oily fish as source of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, viscous dietary fibers, soybean and whole barley kernel products, almonds, stanols and a probiotic strain (Lactobacillus plantarum Heal19/DSM15313. Results Although the aim was to improve metabolic markers without promoting body weight loss, minor weight reductions were observed with both diets (0.9-1.8 ± 0.2%; P P P P = 0.0056, LDL/HDL (-27 ± 2%; P P 1c (-2 ± 0.4%; P = 0.0013, hs-CRP (-29 ± 9%; P = 0.0497 and systolic blood pressure (-8 ± 1%¸ P = 0.0123. The differences remained significant after adjustment for weight change. After AD, the Framingham cardiovascular risk estimate was 30 ± 4% (P P Conclusion The improved biomarker levels recorded in healthy individuals following the multifunctional regime suggest preventive potential of this dietary approach against CMD.

  7. Effects of intranasal TNFα on granulocyte recruitment and activity in healthy subjects and patients with allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Morgan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TNFα may contribute to the pathophysiology of airway inflammation. For example, we have recently shown that nasal administration of TNFα produces late phase co-appearance of granulocyte and plasma exudation markers on the mucosal surface. The objective of the present study was to examine indices of granulocyte presence and activity in response to intranasal TNFα challenge. Methods Healthy subjects and patients with allergic rhinitis (examined out of season were subjected to nasal challenge with TNFα (10 μg in a sham-controlled and crossover design. Nasal lavages were carried out prior to and 24 hours post challenge. Nasal biopsies were obtained post challenge. Nasal lavage fluid levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP were analyzed as indices of neutrophil and eosinophil activity. Moreover, IL-8 and α2-macroglobulin were analyzed as markers of pro-inflammatory cytokine production and plasma exudation. Nasal biopsy numbers of neutrophils and eosinophils were monitored. Results Nasal lavage fluid levels of MPO recorded 24 hours post TNFα challenge were increased in healthy subjects (p = 0.0081 and in patients with allergic rhinitis (p = 0.0081 (c.f. sham challenge. Similarly, α2-macroglobulin was increased in healthy subjects (p = 0.014 and in patients with allergic rhinitis (p = 0.0034. Lavage fluid levels of ECP and IL-8 were not affected by TNFα challenge. TNFα increased the numbers of subepithelial neutrophils (p = 0.0021, but not the numbers of eosinophils. Conclusion TNFα produces a nasal inflammatory response in humans that is characterised by late phase (i.e., 24 hours post challenge neutrophil activity and plasma exudation.

  8. Donepezil impairs memory in healthy older subjects: behavioural, EEG and simultaneous EEG/fMRI biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua H Balsters

    Full Text Available Rising life expectancies coupled with an increasing awareness of age-related cognitive decline have led to the unwarranted use of psychopharmaceuticals, including acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs, by significant numbers of healthy older individuals. This trend has developed despite very limited data regarding the effectiveness of such drugs on non-clinical groups and recent work indicates that AChEIs can have negative cognitive effects in healthy populations. For the first time, we use a combination of EEG and simultaneous EEG/fMRI to examine the effects of a commonly prescribed AChEI (donepezil on cognition in healthy older participants. The short- and long-term impact of donepezil was assessed using two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. In both cases, we utilised cognitive (paired associates learning (CPAL and electrophysiological measures (resting EEG power that have demonstrated high-sensitivity to age-related cognitive decline. Experiment 1 tested the effects of 5 mg/per day dosage on cognitive and EEG markers at 6-hour, 2-week and 4-week follow-ups. In experiment 2, the same markers were further scrutinised using simultaneous EEG/fMRI after a single 5 mg dose. Experiment 1 found significant negative effects of donepezil on CPAL and resting Alpha and Beta band power. Experiment 2 replicated these results and found additional drug-related increases in the Delta band. EEG/fMRI analyses revealed that these oscillatory differences were associated with activity differences in the left hippocampus (Delta, right frontal-parietal network (Alpha, and default-mode network (Beta. We demonstrate the utility of simple cognitive and EEG measures in evaluating drug responses after acute and chronic donepezil administration. The presentation of previously established markers of age-related cognitive decline indicates that AChEIs can impair cognitive function in healthy older individuals. To our knowledge this is the first study to identify

  9. Donepezil impairs memory in healthy older subjects: behavioural, EEG and simultaneous EEG/fMRI biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsters, Joshua H; O'Connell, Redmond G; Martin, Mary P; Galli, Alessandra; Cassidy, Sarah M; Kilcullen, Sophia M; Delmonte, Sonja; Brennan, Sabina; Meaney, Jim F; Fagan, Andrew J; Bokde, Arun L W; Upton, Neil; Lai, Robert; Laruelle, Marc; Lawlor, Brian; Robertson, Ian H

    2011-01-01

    Rising life expectancies coupled with an increasing awareness of age-related cognitive decline have led to the unwarranted use of psychopharmaceuticals, including acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), by significant numbers of healthy older individuals. This trend has developed despite very limited data regarding the effectiveness of such drugs on non-clinical groups and recent work indicates that AChEIs can have negative cognitive effects in healthy populations. For the first time, we use a combination of EEG and simultaneous EEG/fMRI to examine the effects of a commonly prescribed AChEI (donepezil) on cognition in healthy older participants. The short- and long-term impact of donepezil was assessed using two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. In both cases, we utilised cognitive (paired associates learning (CPAL)) and electrophysiological measures (resting EEG power) that have demonstrated high-sensitivity to age-related cognitive decline. Experiment 1 tested the effects of 5 mg/per day dosage on cognitive and EEG markers at 6-hour, 2-week and 4-week follow-ups. In experiment 2, the same markers were further scrutinised using simultaneous EEG/fMRI after a single 5 mg dose. Experiment 1 found significant negative effects of donepezil on CPAL and resting Alpha and Beta band power. Experiment 2 replicated these results and found additional drug-related increases in the Delta band. EEG/fMRI analyses revealed that these oscillatory differences were associated with activity differences in the left hippocampus (Delta), right frontal-parietal network (Alpha), and default-mode network (Beta). We demonstrate the utility of simple cognitive and EEG measures in evaluating drug responses after acute and chronic donepezil administration. The presentation of previously established markers of age-related cognitive decline indicates that AChEIs can impair cognitive function in healthy older individuals. To our knowledge this is the first study to identify the precise

  10. Recapitulation of Clinical Individual Susceptibility to Drug-Induced QT Prolongation in Healthy Subjects Using iPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Shinozawa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To predict drug-induced serious adverse events (SAE in clinical trials, a model using a panel of cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs of individuals with different susceptibilities could facilitate major advancements in translational research in terms of safety and pharmaco-economics. However, it is unclear whether hiPSC-derived cells can recapitulate interindividual differences in drug-induced SAE susceptibility in populations not having genetic disorders such as healthy subjects. Here, we evaluated individual differences in SAE susceptibility based on an in vitro model using hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs as a pilot study. hiPSCs were generated from blood samples of ten healthy volunteers with different susceptibilities to moxifloxacin (Mox-induced QT prolongation. Different Mox-induced field potential duration (FPD prolongation values were observed in the hiPSC-CMs from each individual. Interestingly, the QT interval was significantly positively correlated with FPD at clinically relevant concentrations (r > 0.66 in multiple analyses including concentration-QT analysis. Genomic analysis showed no interindividual significant differences in known target-binding sites for Mox and other drugs such as the hERG channel subunit, and baseline QT ranges were normal. The results suggest that hiPSC-CMs from healthy subjects recapitulate susceptibility to Mox-induced QT prolongation and provide proof of concept for in vitro preclinical trials.

  11. The number and distribution of blood dendritic cells in the epidermis and dermis of healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbutt, Joanna; Lesiak, Aleksandra; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna; Smolewski, Piotr; Robak, Tadeusz; Zalewska, Anna

    2006