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Sample records for acquisition facilitates 3d

  1. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Liu

    Full Text Available The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition.

  2. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition. PMID:26061553

  3. 3D - Acquisition systems - test in Chooz B nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF needs 3D-acquisition systems to get the precise geometry of critical nuclear spaces in order to prepare computer simulations of operations in these areas. The simulations must lead to an increase of the efficiency of the operation. The acquisition of the 3-D geometry can be done using 3D-acquisition systems. To answer the needs of the Construction Division, four different systems are compared by the Research Division in Chooz B nuclear plant in order to determine the right solution for each 3D-acquisition problem

  4. Multi-view passive 3D face acquisition device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwers, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    Approaches to acquisition of 3D facial data include laser scanners, structured light devices and (passive) stereo vision. The laser scanner and structured light methods allow accurate reconstruction of the 3D surface but strong light is projected on the faces of subjects. Passive stereo vision based

  5. 3D printing facilitated scaffold-free tissue unit fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue spheroids hold great potential in tissue engineering as building blocks to assemble into functional tissues. To date, agarose molds have been extensively used to facilitate fusion process of tissue spheroids. As a molding material, agarose typically requires low temperature plates for gelation and/or heated dispenser units. Here, we proposed and developed an alginate-based, direct 3D mold-printing technology: 3D printing microdroplets of alginate solution into biocompatible, bio-inert alginate hydrogel molds for the fabrication of scaffold-free tissue engineering constructs. Specifically, we developed a 3D printing technology to deposit microdroplets of alginate solution on calcium containing substrates in a layer-by-layer fashion to prepare ring-shaped 3D hydrogel molds. Tissue spheroids composed of 50% endothelial cells and 50% smooth muscle cells were robotically placed into the 3D printed alginate molds using a 3D printer, and were found to rapidly fuse into toroid-shaped tissue units. Histological and immunofluorescence analysis indicated that the cells secreted collagen type I playing a critical role in promoting cell–cell adhesion, tissue formation and maturation. (paper)

  6. 3D printing facilitated scaffold-free tissue unit fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yu; Richards, Dylan J; Trusk, Thomas C; Visconti, Richard P; Yost, Michael J; Kindy, Mark S; Drake, Christopher J; Argraves, William Scott; Markwald, Roger R; Mei, Ying

    2014-06-01

    Tissue spheroids hold great potential in tissue engineering as building blocks to assemble into functional tissues. To date, agarose molds have been extensively used to facilitate fusion process of tissue spheroids. As a molding material, agarose typically requires low temperature plates for gelation and/or heated dispenser units. Here, we proposed and developed an alginate-based, direct 3D mold-printing technology: 3D printing microdroplets of alginate solution into biocompatible, bio-inert alginate hydrogel molds for the fabrication of scaffold-free tissue engineering constructs. Specifically, we developed a 3D printing technology to deposit microdroplets of alginate solution on calcium containing substrates in a layer-by-layer fashion to prepare ring-shaped 3D hydrogel molds. Tissue spheroids composed of 50% endothelial cells and 50% smooth muscle cells were robotically placed into the 3D printed alginate molds using a 3D printer, and were found to rapidly fuse into toroid-shaped tissue units. Histological and immunofluorescence analysis indicated that the cells secreted collagen type I playing a critical role in promoting cell-cell adhesion, tissue formation and maturation. PMID:24717646

  7. Light Attenuation Method for 3D data acquisition (LAM3D) of bottom particle deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Jenn Wei; Law, Adrian W. K.; Adams, E. Eric; Yang, Yang

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a novel experimental technique, Light Attenuation Method for 3D data acquisition (LAM3D), to acquire three-dimensional spatial characteristics and temporal development of bottom particle deposits. The new technique performs data acquisition with higher spatial and temporal resolution than existing approaches with laser and ultrasonic 3D profilers, and is therefore ideal for laboratory investigations with fast varying changes in the sediment bed, such as the developing deposition profile from sediment clouds commonly formed during dredging or land reclamation projects and the dynamic evolution in movable bed processes in rivers. The principle of the technique is based on the analysis of the light attenuation due to multiple light scattering through the particle deposits layer compared to the clear water column. With appropriate calibration, the particles size and distribution thickness can be quantified by the transmitted light spectrum. In the presentation, we will first show our measurement setup with a light panel for calibrated illumination and a system of DSLR cameras for the light capturing. Subsequently, we shall present the experimental results of fast evolving deposition profile of a barge-disposed sediment cloud upon its bottom impact on the sea bed.

  8. Measuring Knowledge Acquisition in 3D Virtual Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Eunice P dos Santos; Roque, Licínio G; Nunes, Fatima de Lourdes dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Virtual environments can contribute to the effective learning of various subjects for people of all ages. Consequently, they assist in reducing the cost of maintaining physical structures of teaching, such as laboratories and classrooms. However, the measurement of how learners acquire knowledge in such environments is still incipient in the literature. This article presents a method to evaluate the knowledge acquisition in 3D virtual learning environments (3D VLEs) by using the learner's interactions in the VLE. Three experiments were conducted that demonstrate the viability of using this method and its computational implementation. The results suggest that it is possible to automatically assess learning in predetermined contexts and that some types of user interactions in 3D VLEs are correlated with the user's learning differential. PMID:26915117

  9. ) Main Technical Benefits of 3D OBC Acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In offshore streamer operations, the surveying, receiver, source and the recording process is synchronous. In 3D Ocean Bottom Cable acquisition, this process is more comparable to the desynchronized process of onshore operations. This explains the higher cost of such operations, compounded by the difficulty involved in deploying equipment in obstructed or very shallow waters and hence the large amount and variety of specialized heavy-duty and waterproof equipment required. Despite this cost drawback, 3D OBC acquisition offers many geophysical and technical advantages over regular surface marine streamer acquisition which include: Fixed receiver spread compared to moving marine streamer, reducing noise level. Land type split spread and wide azimuth 3D geometries.; Patch or swath type shooting with shot lines either in line or cross line.; Source energy adaptable to water depth.; Possible continuous connection from land to sea over shore.; Receiver deghosting with dual sensor summation of hydrophone and vertical geophone signals recorded at the same position.; Coupling of sensors adapted to sea bottom conditions.; Options of recording converted waves with 4C sensors (one hydrophone and 3 orthogonal geophones) and processing the shear wave data to increase reservoir knowledge.This presentation will detail these different topics and show some examples of parameters and the current state of the art of OBC marine and geophysical equipment

  10. The complement fragment C3d facilitates phagocytosis by monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, T A; Vargas, I; Inada, S; Frank, M M

    1987-11-01

    Two receptors for fragments of C3 are described for human monocytes: CR1 and CR3, which bind C3b and iC3b, respectively. Recently a leucocyte receptor that binds C3dg has also been described, designated CR4. We previously reported that IgM-sensitized sheep erythrocytes that are heavily coated with C3d (EAC3d) can bind to human monocytes that have been cultured in fetal calf serum (FCS). Here we determine whether such binding of C3d-coated targets can lead to phagocytosis, and identify the specific monocyte receptor involved in C3d binding. We confirm that EAC3d bearing greater than 10,000 C3d/cell bind to FCS-cultured monocytes. Furthermore, using non-cultured monocytes, we demonstrate that C3d enhances rosette formation of IgG-coated E and, like C3b and iC3b, C3d augments IgG Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis. Less than 100 C3d/cell are capable of enhancing phagocytosis, whereas 10,000 or more C3d/cell are required for rosette formation with cultured cells. These results indicate that the C3d-binding receptor is present on peripheral blood monocytes but has poor affinity for target particles coated only with C3d. Anti-CR2 monoclonal antibodies, which recognize the C3d receptor of lymphocytes, do not block EAC3d rosette formation with monocytes. In contrast anti-Mol, a monoclonal antibody against CR3, inhibits EAC3d rosettes by approximately 42%. Anti-CR1 increases this effect, but complete inhibition is not achieved. Ethylenediamine tetraacetate also markedly reduces EAC3d rosetting, reducing the numbers to less than 5%. Thus, the C3d-binding receptor on monocytes, unlike CR4, is metal dependent. Together these data indicate that CR3 is predominantly responsible for C3d binding to monocytes. PMID:3499379

  11. Analysis of patient movement during 3D USCT data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiter, N. V.; Hopp, T.; Zapf, M.; Kretzek, E.; Gemmeke, H.

    2016-04-01

    In our first clinical study with a full 3D Ultrasound Computer Tomography (USCT) system patient data was acquired in eight minutes for one breast. In this paper the patient movement during the acquisition was analyzed quantitatively and as far as possible corrected in the resulting images. The movement was tracked in ten successive reflectivity reconstructions of full breast volumes acquired during 10 s intervals at different aperture positions, which were separated by 41 s intervals. The mean distance between initial and final position was 2.2 mm (standard deviation (STD) +/- 0.9 mm, max. 4.1 mm, min. 0.8 mm) and the average sum of all moved distances was 4.9 mm (STD +/- 1.9 mm, max. 8.8 mm, min. 2.7 mm). The tracked movement was corrected by summing successive images, which were transformed according to the detected movement. The contrast of these images increased and additional image content became visible.

  12. Mask free intravenous 3D digital subtraction angiography (IV 3D-DSA) from a single C-arm acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinsheng; Niu, Kai; Yang, Pengfei; Aagaard-Kienitz, Beveley; Niemann, David B.; Ahmed, Azam S.; Strother, Charles; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Currently, clinical acquisition of IV 3D-DSA requires two separate scans: one mask scan without contrast medium and a filled scan with contrast injection. Having two separate scans adds radiation dose to the patient and increases the likelihood of suffering inadvertent patient motion induced mis-registration and the associated mis-registraion artifacts in IV 3D-DSA images. In this paper, a new technique, SMART-RECON is introduced to generate IV 3D-DSA images from a single Cone Beam CT (CBCT) acquisition to eliminate the mask scan. Potential benefits of eliminating mask scan would be: (1) both radiation dose and scan time can be reduced by a factor of 2; (2) intra-sweep motion can be eliminated; (3) inter-sweep motion can be mitigated. Numerical simulations were used to validate the algorithm in terms of contrast recoverability and the ability to mitigate limited view artifacts.

  13. Parallel acquisition of 3D-HA(CA)NH and 3D-HACACO spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Jithender G.; Hosur, Ramakrishna V., E-mail: hosur@tifr.res.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Department of Chemical Sciences (India)

    2013-06-15

    We present here an NMR pulse sequence with 5 independent incrementable time delays within the frame of a 3-dimensional experiment, by incorporating polarization sharing and dual receiver concepts. This has been applied to directly record 3D-HA(CA)NH and 3D-HACACO spectra of proteins simultaneously using parallel detection of {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclei. While both the experiments display intra-residue backbone correlations, the 3D-HA(CA)NH provides also sequential 'i - 1 {yields} i' correlation along the {sup 1}H{alpha} dimension. Both the spectra contain special peak patterns at glycine locations which serve as check points during the sequential assignment process. The 3D-HACACO spectrum contains, in addition, information on prolines and side chains of residues having H-C-CO network (i.e., {sup 1}H{beta}, {sup 13}C{beta} and {sup 13}CO{gamma} of Asp and Asn, and {sup 1}H{gamma}, {sup 13}C{gamma} and {sup 13}CO{delta} of Glu and Gln), which are generally absent in most conventional proton detected experiments.

  14. Parallel acquisition of 3D-HA(CA)NH and 3D-HACACO spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present here an NMR pulse sequence with 5 independent incrementable time delays within the frame of a 3-dimensional experiment, by incorporating polarization sharing and dual receiver concepts. This has been applied to directly record 3D-HA(CA)NH and 3D-HACACO spectra of proteins simultaneously using parallel detection of 1H and 13C nuclei. While both the experiments display intra-residue backbone correlations, the 3D-HA(CA)NH provides also sequential ‘i − 1 → i’ correlation along the 1Hα dimension. Both the spectra contain special peak patterns at glycine locations which serve as check points during the sequential assignment process. The 3D-HACACO spectrum contains, in addition, information on prolines and side chains of residues having H–C–CO network (i.e., 1Hβ, 13Cβ and 13COγ of Asp and Asn, and 1Hγ, 13Cγ and 13COδ of Glu and Gln), which are generally absent in most conventional proton detected experiments.

  15. Geofencing-Based Localization for 3d Data Acquisition Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, M.; Kamio, T.; Yasojima, H.; Kobayashi, T.

    2016-06-01

    Users require navigation for many location-based applications using moving sensors, such as autonomous robot control, mapping route navigation and mobile infrastructure inspection. In indoor environments, indoor positioning systems using GNSSs can provide seamless indoor-outdoor positioning and navigation services. However, instabilities in sensor position data acquisition remain, because the indoor environment is more complex than the outdoor environment. On the other hand, simultaneous localization and mapping processing is better than indoor positioning for measurement accuracy and sensor cost. However, it is not easy to estimate position data from a single viewpoint directly. Based on these technical issues, we focus on geofencing techniques to improve position data acquisition. In this research, we propose a methodology to estimate more stable position or location data using unstable position data based on geofencing in indoor environments. We verify our methodology through experiments in indoor environments.

  16. A 3D acquisition system combination of structured-light scanning and shape from silhouette

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changku Sun; Li Tao; Peng Wang; Li He

    2006-01-01

    @@ A robust and accurate three dimensional (3D) acquisition system is presented, which is a combination of structured-light scanning and shape from silhouette. Using common world coordinate system, two groups of point data can be integrated into the final complete 3D model without any integration and registration algorithm. The mathematics model of structured-light scanning is described in detail, and the shape from silhouette algorithm is introduced as well. The complete 3D model of a cup with a handle is obtained successfully by the proposed technique. At last the measurement on a ball bearing is performed, with the measurement precision better than 0.15 mm.

  17. Semantic facilitation in bilingual first language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilson, Samuel; Yoshida, Hanako; Tran, Crystal D; Woods, Elizabeth A; Hills, Thomas T

    2015-07-01

    Bilingual first language learners face unique challenges that may influence the rate and order of early word learning relative to monolinguals. A comparison of the productive vocabularies of 435 children between the ages of 6 months and 7 years-181 of which were bilingual English learners-found that monolinguals learned both English words and all-language concepts faster than bilinguals. However, bilinguals showed an enhancement of an effect previously found in monolinguals-the preference for learning words with more associative cues. Though both monolinguals and bilinguals were best fit by a similar model of word learning, semantic network structure and growth indicated that the two groups were learning English words in a different order. Further, in comparison with a model of two-monolinguals-in-one-mind, bilinguals overproduced translational equivalents. Our results support an emergent account of bilingual first language acquisition, where learning a word in one language facilitates its acquisition in a second language.

  18. Structuring Narrative in 3D Digital Game-Based Learning Environments to Support Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, David O.

    2010-01-01

    The essay is a conceptual analysis from an instructional design perspective exploring the feasibility of using three-dimensional digital game-based learning (3D-DGBL) environments to assist in second language acquisition (SLA). It examines the shared characteristics of narrative within theories of situated cognition, context-based approaches to…

  19. Rapid Indoor Data Acquisition for Ladm-Based 3d Cadastre Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, A.; Boguslawski, P.; Duncan, E. E.; Gold, C. M.; Rahman, A. Abdul

    2013-09-01

    2D cadastre has been in existence for decades and most countries have found it convenient. However, in complex situations it has been found to be inadequate as ownership becomes difficult to realise. 3D cadastre data was previously not being collected, thus, making such data even more difficult to realise. 3D data collection for 3D cadastre is one of the main issues for practising surveyors. Several ways of obtaining 3D data exist namely, traditional surveying, terrestrial laser scanning and from Computer Aided Design (CAD) sources. Various data sources have different data structure and a generalized data structure for 3D cadastre hardly reported. A simple and rapid method for indoor data acquisition is proposed. This seeks to determine if the dual half edge data structure is suitable for 3D cadastre. The dual half edge data structure is applied within a graphical user interface. The concept for indoor surveying or data acquisition within the LA_SpatialUnit of the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) is presented and proposed.

  20. A Service-oriented FPGA-based 3D Model Acquisition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MACHIDON, O. M.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a non-contact, low cost 3D scanning solution using laser striping. The solution is composed of two main parts: the hardware setup - used for acquiring the object's 3D surface information, and the software part - that processes the information and obtains the 3D model representation of the object. We propose two major improvements over the traditional scanning solutions: the 3D information acquisition is based on a reconfigurable hardware platform - a Xilinx Spartan 6 FPGA - which adds flexibility and scalability to the scanning process, while the 3D model reconstruction is remotely available "as a Service", by the means of a web interface that abstracts away the complexity of the underlying processes and improves the performance, while granting easy sharing between users. By separating data capture process from the 3D model reconstruction tasks the system gains in portability - a feature that is absent for most existing solutions. The service-oriented approach brings on a performance gain, since the computational intensive tasks are handled by dedicated servers and ease of use of the system, because the user does not have to bother managing and using the software tools locally.

  1. A Quality Assurance Method that Utilizes 3D Dosimetry and Facilitates Clinical Interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldham, Mark, E-mail: mark.oldham@duke.edu [Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Thomas, Andrew; O' Daniel, Jennifer; Juang, Titania [Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Ibbott, Geoffrey [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Adamovics, John [Rider University, Lawrenceville, New Jersey (United States); Kirkpatrick, John P. [Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate a new three-dimensional (3D) quality assurance (QA) method that provides comprehensive dosimetry verification and facilitates evaluation of the clinical significance of QA data acquired in a phantom. Also to apply the method to investigate the dosimetric efficacy of base-of-skull (BOS) intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment. Methods and Materials: Two types of IMRT QA verification plans were created for 6 patients who received BOS IMRT. The first plan enabled conventional 2D planar IMRT QA using the Varian portal dosimetry system. The second plan enabled 3D verification using an anthropomorphic head phantom. In the latter, the 3D dose distribution was measured using the DLOS/Presage dosimetry system (DLOS = Duke Large-field-of-view Optical-CT System, Presage Heuris Pharma, Skillman, NJ), which yielded isotropic 2-mm data throughout the treated volume. In a novel step, measured 3D dose distributions were transformed back to the patient's CT to enable calculation of dose-volume histograms (DVH) and dose overlays. Measured and planned patient DVHs were compared to investigate clinical significance. Results: Close agreement between measured and calculated dose distributions was observed for all 6 cases. For gamma criteria of 3%, 2 mm, the mean passing rate for portal dosimetry was 96.8% (range, 92.0%-98.9%), compared to 94.9% (range, 90.1%-98.9%) for 3D. There was no clear correlation between 2D and 3D passing rates. Planned and measured dose distributions were evaluated on the patient's anatomy, using DVH and dose overlays. Minor deviations were detected, and the clinical significance of these are presented and discussed. Conclusions: Two advantages accrue to the methods presented here. First, treatment accuracy is evaluated throughout the whole treated volume, yielding comprehensive verification. Second, the clinical significance of any deviations can be assessed through the generation of DVH curves and dose overlays on

  2. 3D GRASE PROPELLER: Improved Image Acquisition Technique for Arterial Spin Labeling Perfusion Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Huan; Hoge, W. Scott; Hamilton, Craig A.; Günther, Matthias; Kraft, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a non-invasive technique that can quantitatively measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). While traditionally ASL employs 2D EPI or spiral acquisition trajectories, single-shot 3D GRASE is gaining popularity in ASL due to inherent SNR advantage and spatial coverage. However, a major limitation of 3D GRASE is through-plane blurring caused by T2 decay. A novel technique combining 3D GRASE and a PROPELLER trajectory (3DGP) is presented to minimize through-plane blurring without sacrificing perfusion sensitivity or increasing total scan time. Full brain perfusion images were acquired at a 3×3×5mm3 nominal voxel size with Q2TIPS-FAIR as the ASL preparation sequence. Data from 5 healthy subjects was acquired on a GE 1.5T scanner in less than 4 minutes per subject. While showing good agreement in CBF quantification with 3D GRASE, 3DGP demonstrated reduced through-plane blurring, improved anatomical details, high repeatability and robustness against motion, making it suitable for routine clinical use. PMID:21254211

  3. Intriguing Success in 3D Seismic Acquisition in Ecologically Critical Lawachara National Park of Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakht, Delawar; Siddique, Mohammad; Masud, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    In-depth environmental studies were conducted in 2008 by a multi-disciplinary team of international and national specialists of SMEC International for Chevron Bangladesh for obtaining Environmental Clearance for 3D seismic acquisition in Moulvibazar Gas Field. This included Lawachara National Park which was declared as an ecologically critical area in 1996. Exclusive monitoring of potential impact mitigation mechanism identified through EIA studies resulted in to completing the project with intriguing success. This has displayed a glaring example of sharing expertise leading to successful initiative in technology transfer in the developing country like Bangladesh currently in dire quest of harnessing natural gas.

  4. P-Cable: New High-Resolution 3D Seismic Acquisition Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planke, Sverre; Berndt, Christian; Mienert, Jürgen; Bünz, Stefan; Eriksen, Frode N.; Eriksen, Ola K.

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a new cost-efficient technology for acquisition of high-resolution 3D seismic data: the P-Cable system. This technology is very well suited for deep water exploration, site surveys, and studies of shallow gas and fluid migration associated with gas hydrates or leaking reservoirs. It delivers unparalleled 3D seismic images of subsurface sediment architectures. The P-Cable system consists of a seismic cable towed perpendicular to a vessel's steaming direction. This configuration allows us to image an up to 150 m wide swath of the sub-surface for each sail line. Conventional 3D seismic technology relies on several very long streamers (up to 10 km long streamers are common), large sources, and costly operations. In contrast, the P-Cable system is light-weight and fast to deploy from small vessels. Only a small source is required as the system is made for relatively shallow imaging, typically above the first water-bottom multiple. The P-Cable system is particularly useful for acquisition of small 3D cubes, 10-50 km2, in focus areas, rather than extensive mapping of large regions. The rapid deployment and recovery of the system makes it possible to acquire several small cubes (10 to 30 km2) with high-resolution (50-250 Hz) seismic data in during one cruise. The first development of the P-Cable system was a cooperative project achieved by Volcanic Basin Petroleum Research (VBPR), University of Tromsø, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, and industry partners. Field trials using a 12-streamer system were conducted on sites with active fluid-leakage systems on the Norwegian-Barents-Svalbard margin, the Gulf of Cadiz, and the Mediterranean. The second phase of the development introduced digital streamers. The new P-Cable2 system also includes integrated tow and cross cables for power and data transmission and improved doors to spread the larger cross cable. This digital system has been successfully used during six cruises by the University of Troms

  5. Noncontrast-enhanced three-dimensional (3D) intracranial MR angiography using pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling and accelerated 3D radial acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huimin; Block, Walter F; Turski, Patrick A; Mistretta, Charles A; Johnson, Kevin M

    2013-03-01

    Pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL) can be used to generate noncontrast magnetic resonance angiograms of the cerebrovascular structures. Previously described PCASL-based angiography techniques were limited to two-dimensional projection images or relatively low-resolution three-dimensional (3D) imaging due to long acquisition time. This work proposes a new PCASL-based 3D magnetic resonance angiography method that uses an accelerated 3D radial acquisition technique (VIPR, spoiled gradient echo) as the readout. Benefiting from the sparsity provided by PCASL and noise-like artifacts of VIPR, this new method is able to obtain submillimeter 3D isotropic resolution and whole head coverage with a 8-min scan. Intracranial angiography feasibility studies in healthy (N = 5) and diseased (N = 5) subjects show reduced saturation artifacts in PCASL-VIPR compared with a standard time-of-flight protocol. These initial results show great promise for PCASL-VIPR for static, dynamic, and vessel selective 3D intracranial angiography. PMID:22532423

  6. SU-E-J-237: Real-Time 3D Anatomy Estimation From Undersampled MR Acquisitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments made MRI guided radiotherapy feasible. Performing simultaneous imaging during fractions can provide information about changing anatomy by means of deformable image registration for either immediate plan adaptations or accurate dose accumulation on the changing anatomy. In 3D MRI, however, acquisition time is considerable and scales with resolution. Furthermore, intra-scan motion degrades image quality.In this work, we investigate the sensitivity of registration quality on imageresolution: potentially, by employing spatial undersampling, the acquisition timeof MR images for the purpose of deformable image registration can be reducedsignificantly.On a volunteer, 3D-MR imaging data was sampled in a navigator-gated manner, acquiring one axial volume (360×260×100mm3) per 3s during exhale phase. A T1-weighted FFE sequence was used with an acquired voxel size of (2.5mm3) for a duration of 17min. Deformation vector fields were evaluated for 100 imaging cycles with respect to the initial anatomy using deformable image registration based on optical flow. Subsequently, the imaging data was downsampled by a factor of 2, simulating a fourfold acquisition speed. Displacements of the downsampled volumes were then calculated by the same process.In kidneyliver boundaries and the region around stomach/duodenum, prominent organ drifts could be observed in both the original and the downsampled imaging data. An increasing displacement of approximately 2mm was observed for the kidney, while an area around the stomach showed sudden displacements of 4mm. Comparison of the motile points over time showed high reproducibility between the displacements of high-resolution and downsampled volumes: over a 17min acquisition, the componentwise RMS error was not more than 0.38mm.Based on the synthetic experiments, 3D nonrigid image registration shows little sensitivity to image resolution and the displacement information is preserved even when halving the resolution. This can

  7. SU-E-J-237: Real-Time 3D Anatomy Estimation From Undersampled MR Acquisitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glitzner, M; Lagendijk, J; Raaymakers, B; Crijns, S [University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Senneville, B Denis de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Mathematical Institute of Bordeaux, University of Bordeaux, Talence Cedex (France)

    2015-06-15

    Recent developments made MRI guided radiotherapy feasible. Performing simultaneous imaging during fractions can provide information about changing anatomy by means of deformable image registration for either immediate plan adaptations or accurate dose accumulation on the changing anatomy. In 3D MRI, however, acquisition time is considerable and scales with resolution. Furthermore, intra-scan motion degrades image quality.In this work, we investigate the sensitivity of registration quality on imageresolution: potentially, by employing spatial undersampling, the acquisition timeof MR images for the purpose of deformable image registration can be reducedsignificantly.On a volunteer, 3D-MR imaging data was sampled in a navigator-gated manner, acquiring one axial volume (360×260×100mm{sup 3}) per 3s during exhale phase. A T1-weighted FFE sequence was used with an acquired voxel size of (2.5mm{sup 3}) for a duration of 17min. Deformation vector fields were evaluated for 100 imaging cycles with respect to the initial anatomy using deformable image registration based on optical flow. Subsequently, the imaging data was downsampled by a factor of 2, simulating a fourfold acquisition speed. Displacements of the downsampled volumes were then calculated by the same process.In kidneyliver boundaries and the region around stomach/duodenum, prominent organ drifts could be observed in both the original and the downsampled imaging data. An increasing displacement of approximately 2mm was observed for the kidney, while an area around the stomach showed sudden displacements of 4mm. Comparison of the motile points over time showed high reproducibility between the displacements of high-resolution and downsampled volumes: over a 17min acquisition, the componentwise RMS error was not more than 0.38mm.Based on the synthetic experiments, 3D nonrigid image registration shows little sensitivity to image resolution and the displacement information is preserved even when halving the

  8. The Dynamics of Syntax Acquisition: Facilitation between Syntactic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren-Portnoy, Tamar; Keren, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper sets out to show how facilitation between different clause structures operates over time in syntax acquisition. The phenomenon of facilitation within given structures has been widely documented, yet inter-structure facilitation has rarely been reported so far. Our findings are based on the naturalistic production corpora of six toddlers…

  9. Photogrammetric 3d Acquisition and Analysis of Medicamentous Induced Pilomotor Reflex ("goose Bumps")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, D.; Hecht, A.

    2016-06-01

    In a current study at the University Hospital Dresden, Department of Neurology, the autonomous function of nerve fibres of the human skin is investigated. For this purpose, a specific medicament is applied on a small area of the skin of a test person which results in a local reaction (goose bumps). Based on the extent of the area, where the stimulation of the nerve fibres is visible, it can be concluded how the nerve function of the skin works. The aim of the investigation described in the paper is to generate 3D data of these goose bumps. Therefore, the paper analyses and compares different photogrammetric surface measurement techniques in regard to their suitability for the 3D acquisition of silicone imprints of the human skin. Furthermore, an appropriate processing procedure for analysing the recorded point cloud data is developed and presented. It was experimentally proven that by using (low-cost) photogrammetric techniques medicamentous induced goose bumps can be acquired in three dimensions and can be analysed almost fully automatically from the perspective of medical research questions. The relative accuracy was determined with 1% (RMSE) of the area resp. the volume of an individual goose bump.

  10. Description of patellar movement by 3D parameters obtained from dynamic CT acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá Rebelo, Marina; Moreno, Ramon Alfredo; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Camanho, Gilberto Luis; de Ávila, Luiz Francisco Rodrigues; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Pecora, Jose Ricardo; Gutierrez, Marco Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The patellofemoral joint is critical in the biomechanics of the knee. The patellofemoral instability is one condition that generates pain, functional impairment and often requires surgery as part of orthopedic treatment. The analysis of the patellofemoral dynamics has been performed by several medical image modalities. The clinical parameters assessed are mainly based on 2D measurements, such as the patellar tilt angle and the lateral shift among others. Besides, the acquisition protocols are mostly performed with the leg laid static at fixed angles. The use of helical multi slice CT scanner can allow the capture and display of the joint's movement performed actively by the patient. However, the orthopedic applications of this scanner have not yet been standardized or widespread. In this work we present a method to evaluate the biomechanics of the patellofemoral joint during active contraction using multi slice CT images. This approach can greatly improve the analysis of patellar instability by displaying the physiology during muscle contraction. The movement was evaluated by computing its 3D displacements and rotations from different knee angles. The first processing step registered the images in both angles based on the femuŕs position. The transformation matrix of the patella from the images was then calculated, which provided the rotations and translations performed by the patella from its position in the first image to its position in the second image. Analysis of these parameters for all frames provided real 3D information about the patellar displacement.

  11. Using Questions To Facilitate Motor Skill Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, G. William; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes a dental teaching strategy that promotes acquisition of psychomotor skills through use of metacognition and problem-solving. In five steps, questions are asked to guide the learner through a sequence of discriminations leading to recognition of problems and solutions. Clearly defined criteria in a sequence reflecting procedure are…

  12. Using a Quest in a 3D Virtual Environment for Student Interaction and Vocabulary Acquisition in Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastoudi, Denise

    2011-01-01

    The gaming and interactional nature of the virtual environment of Second Life offers opportunities for language learning beyond the traditional pedagogy. This study case examined the potential of 3D virtual quest games to enhance vocabulary acquisition through interaction, negotiation of meaning and noticing. Four adult students of English at…

  13. Intracellular ROS mediates gas plasma-facilitated cellular transfection in 2D and 3D cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dehui; Wang, Biqing; Xu, Yujing; Chen, Zeyu; Cui, Qinjie; Yang, Yanjie; Chen, Hailan; Kong, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the potential of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) as a versatile tool for delivering oligonucleotides into mammalian cells. Compared to lipofection and electroporation methods, plasma transfection showed a better uptake efficiency and less cell death in the transfection of oligonucleotides. We demonstrated that the level of extracellular aqueous reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by gas plasma is correlated with the uptake efficiency and that this is achieved through an increase of intracellular ROS levels and the resulting increase in cell membrane permeability. This finding was supported by the use of ROS scavengers, which reduced CAP-based uptake efficiency. In addition, we found that cold atmospheric plasma could transfer oligonucleotides such as siRNA and miRNA into cells even in 3D cultures, thus suggesting the potential for unique applications of CAP beyond those provided by standard transfection techniques. Together, our results suggest that cold plasma might provide an efficient technique for the delivery of siRNA and miRNA in 2D and 3D culture models. PMID:27296089

  14. Antenna System and Digital Acquisition System for Enabling Ice Sheet 3D Tomography Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The concept of using SAR data to form 3D tomographic images has been developed over the last decade, but the enabling technology has been slow to progress. Current...

  15. A 3D MR-acquisition scheme for nonrigid bulk motion correction in simultaneous PET-MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbitsch, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.1.kolbitsch@kcl.ac.uk; Prieto, Claudia; Schaeffter, Tobias [Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King' s College London, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Tsoumpas, Charalampos [Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King' s College London, London SE1 7EH, United Kingdom and Division of Medical Physics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) is a highly sensitive medical imaging technique commonly used to detect and assess tumor lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides high resolution anatomical images with different contrasts and a range of additional information important for cancer diagnosis. Recently, simultaneous PET-MR systems have been released with the promise to provide complementary information from both modalities in a single examination. Due to long scan times, subject nonrigid bulk motion, i.e., changes of the patient's position on the scanner table leading to nonrigid changes of the patient's anatomy, during data acquisition can negatively impair image quality and tracer uptake quantification. A 3D MR-acquisition scheme is proposed to detect and correct for nonrigid bulk motion in simultaneously acquired PET-MR data. Methods: A respiratory navigated three dimensional (3D) MR-acquisition with Radial Phase Encoding (RPE) is used to obtain T1- and T2-weighted data with an isotropic resolution of 1.5 mm. Healthy volunteers are asked to move the abdomen two to three times during data acquisition resulting in overall 19 movements at arbitrary time points. The acquisition scheme is used to retrospectively reconstruct dynamic 3D MR images with different temporal resolutions. Nonrigid bulk motion is detected and corrected in this image data. A simultaneous PET acquisition is simulated and the effect of motion correction is assessed on image quality and standardized uptake values (SUV) for lesions with different diameters. Results: Six respiratory gated 3D data sets with T1- and T2-weighted contrast have been obtained in healthy volunteers. All bulk motion shifts have successfully been detected and motion fields describing the transformation between the different motion states could be obtained with an accuracy of 1.71 ± 0.29 mm. The PET simulation showed errors of up to 67% in measured SUV due to bulk motion which could be reduced to

  16. Hand-guided 3D surface acquisition by combining simple light sectioning with real-time algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Arold, Oliver; Willomitzer, Florian; Häusler, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Precise 3D measurements of rigid surfaces are desired in many fields of application like quality control or surgery. Often, views from all around the object have to be acquired for a full 3D description of the object surface. We present a sensor principle called "Flying Triangulation" which avoids an elaborate "stop-and-go" procedure. It combines a low-cost classical light-section sensor with an algorithmic pipeline. A hand-guided sensor captures a continuous movie of 3D views while being moved around the object. The views are automatically aligned and the acquired 3D model is displayed in real time. In contrast to most existing sensors no bandwidth is wasted for spatial or temporal encoding of the projected lines. Nor is an expensive color camera necessary for 3D acquisition. The achievable measurement uncertainty and lateral resolution of the generated 3D data is merely limited by physics. An alternating projection of vertical and horizontal lines guarantees the existence of corresponding points in successi...

  17. Visual SLAM for 3D large-scale seabed acquisition employing underwater vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Salvi, Joaquim; Petillot, Yvan R.; Batlle, Elisabet

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel technique to align partial 3D reconstructions of the seabed acquired by a stereo camera mounted on an autonomous underwater vehicle. Vehicle localization and seabed mapping is performed simultaneously by means of an Extended Kalman Filter. Passive landmarks are detected on the images and characterized considering 2D and 3D features. Landmarks are re-observed while the robot is navigating and data association becomes easier but robust. Once the survey is completed, ...

  18. Acquisition of 3d Information for Vanished Structure by Using Only AN Ancient Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunii, Y.; Sakamoto, R.

    2016-06-01

    In order to acquire 3D information for reconstruction of vanished historical structure, grasp of 3D shape of such structure was attempted by using an ancient picture. Generally, 3D information of a structure is acquired by photogrammetric theory which requires two or more pictures. This paper clarifies that the geometrical information of the structure was obtained only from an ancient picture, and 3D information was acquired. This kind of method was applied for an ancient picture of the Old Imperial Theatre. The Old Imperial Theatre in the picture is constituted by two-point perspective. Therefore, estimated value of focal length of camera, length of camera to the Old Imperial Theatre and some parameters were calculated by estimation of field angle, using body height as an index of length and some geometrical information. Consequently, 3D coordinate of 120 measurement points on the surface of the Old Imperial Theatre were calculated respectively, and 3DCG modeling of the Old Imperial Theatre was realized.

  19. Validation of new 3D post processing algorithm for improved maximum intensity projections of MR angiography acquisitions in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosmans, H.; Verbeeck, R.; Vandermeulen, D.; Suetens, P.; Wilms, G.; Maaly, M.; Marchal, G.; Baert, A.L. [Louvain Univ. (Belgium)

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study was to validate a new post processing algorithm for improved maximum intensity projections (mip) of intracranial MR angiography acquisitions. The core of the post processing procedure is a new brain segmentation algorithm. Two seed areas, background and brain, are automatically detected. A 3D region grower then grows both regions towards each other and this preferentially towards white regions. In this way, the skin gets included into the final `background region` whereas cortical blood vessels and all brain tissues are included in the `brain region`. The latter region is then used for mip. The algorithm runs less than 30 minutes on a full dataset on a Unix workstation. Images from different acquisition strategies including multiple overlapping thin slab acquisition, magnetization transfer (MT) MRA, Gd-DTPA enhanced MRA, normal and high resolution acquisitions and acquisitions from mid field and high field systems were filtered. A series of contrast enhanced MRA acquisitions obtained with identical parameters was filtered to study the robustness of the filter parameters. In all cases, only a minimal manual interaction was necessary to segment the brain. The quality of the mip was significantly improved, especially in post Gd-DTPA acquisitions or using MT, due to the absence of high intensity signals of skin, sinuses and eyes that otherwise superimpose on the angiograms. It is concluded that the filter is a robust technique to improve the quality of MR angiograms.

  20. Systematic assessment and evaluation of sliding interleaved kY (SLINKY) acquisition for 3D MRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K; Lee, D H; Rutt, B K

    1998-01-01

    In comparison with the conventional three-dimensional multiple overlapped thin slab acquisition (MOTSA) for magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), we have developed a novel sliding interleaved kY (SLINKY) acquisition technique, which can eliminate the slab boundary artifact (SBA) or venetian blind artifact without any a priori knowledge of blood flow. This work addresses the systematic assessment and evaluation of the SLINKY technique and verifies the advantages of SLINKY in the following several aspects: (a) scan time efficiency; (b) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR); (c) sensitivity to flow velocity range; (d) sensitivity to flow direction; (e) signal loss in slow/reversal flow regions; and (f) reconstruction efficiency and feasibility. Both phantom and in vivo experiments verify the clinical significance of the technique. The new MRA images acquired with this imaging technique in 31 volunteer/patient examinations show highly reliable mapping of vascular morphology without the SBA and reduction of signal voids in complex/slow flow regions. PMID:9702894

  1. Adjustment of Sonar and Laser Acquisition Data for Building the 3D Reference Model of a Canal Tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, Emmanuel; Charbonnier, Pierre; Foucher, Philippe; Grussenmeyer, Pierre; Guillemin, Samuel; Koehl, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the construction of a full 3D model of a canal tunnel by combining terrestrial laser (for its above-water part) and sonar (for its underwater part) scans collected from static acquisitions. The modeling of such a structure is challenging because the sonar device is used in a narrow environment that induces many artifacts. Moreover, the location and the orientation of the sonar device are unknown. In our approach, sonar data are first simultaneously denoised and meshed. Then, above- and under-water point clouds are co-registered to generate directly the full 3D model of the canal tunnel. Faced with the lack of overlap between both models, we introduce a robust algorithm that relies on geometrical entities and partially-immersed targets, which are visible in both the laser and sonar point clouds. A full 3D model, visually promising, of the entrance of a canal tunnel is obtained. The analysis of the method raises several improvement directions that will help with obtaining more accurate models, in a more automated way, in the limits of the involved technology.

  2. Adjustment of Sonar and Laser Acquisition Data for Building the 3D Reference Model of a Canal Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Moisan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the construction of a full 3D model of a canal tunnel by combining terrestrial laser (for its above-water part and sonar (for its underwater part scans collected from static acquisitions. The modeling of such a structure is challenging because the sonar device is used in a narrow environment that induces many artifacts. Moreover, the location and the orientation of the sonar device are unknown. In our approach, sonar data are first simultaneously denoised and meshed. Then, above- and under-water point clouds are co-registered to generate directly the full 3D model of the canal tunnel. Faced with the lack of overlap between both models, we introduce a robust algorithm that relies on geometrical entities and partially-immersed targets, which are visible in both the laser and sonar point clouds. A full 3D model, visually promising, of the entrance of a canal tunnel is obtained. The analysis of the method raises several improvement directions that will help with obtaining more accurate models, in a more automated way, in the limits of the involved technology.

  3. Real-Time 3D Face Acquisition Using Reconfigurable Hybrid Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitéran Johel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring 3D data of human face is a general problem which can be applied in face recognition, virtual reality, and many other applications. It can be solved using stereovision. This technique consists in acquiring data in three dimensions from two cameras. The aim is to implement an algorithmic chain which makes it possible to obtain a three-dimensional space from two two-dimensional spaces: two images coming from the two cameras. Several implementations have already been considered. We propose a new simple real-time implementation based on a hybrid architecture (FPGA-DSP, allowing to consider an embedded and reconfigurable processing. Then we show our method which provides depth map of face, dense and reliable, and which can be implemented on an embedded architecture. A various architecture study led us to a judicious choice allowing to obtain the desired result. The real-time data processing is implemented in an embedded architecture. We obtain a dense face disparity map, precise enough for considered applications (multimedia, virtual worlds, biometrics and using a reliable method.

  4. Acquisition and automated 3-D segmentation of respiratory/cardiac-gated PET transmission images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the impact of respiratory motion on attenuation correction of cardiac PET data, we acquired and automatically segmented gated transmission data for a dog breathing on its own under gas anesthesia. Data were acquired for 20 min on a CTI/Siemens ECAT EXACT HR (47-slice) scanner configured for 12 gates in a static study, Two respiratory gates were obtained using data from a pneumatic bellows placed around the dog's chest, in conjunction with 6 cardiac gates from standard EKG gating. Both signals were directed to a LabVIEW-controlled Macintosh, which translated them into one of 12 gate addresses. The respiratory gating threshold was placed near end-expiration to acquire 6 cardiac-gated datasets at end-expiration and 6 cardiac-gated datasets during breaths. Breaths occurred about once every 10 sec and lasted about 1-1.5 sec. For each respiratory gate, data were summed over cardiac gates and torso and lung surfaces were segmented automatically using a differential 3-D edge detection algorithm. Three-dimensional visualizations showed that lung surfaces adjacent to the heart translated 9 mm inferiorly during breaths. Our results suggest that respiration-compensated attenuation correction is feasible with a modest amount of gated transmission data and is necessary for accurate quantitation of high-resolution gated cardiac PET data

  5. A framework for geometry acquisition, 3-D printing, simulation, and measurement of head-related transfer functions with a focus on hearing-assistive devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Stine; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Martin;

    2016-01-01

    of a three-dimensional (3D) head model for acquisition of individual HRTFs. Two aspects were investigated; whether a 3D-printed model can replace measurements on a human listener and whether numerical simulations can replace acoustic measurements. For this purpose, HRTFs were acoustically measured for four...... human listeners and for a 3D printed head model of one of these listeners. Further, HRTFs were simulated by applying the finite element method to the 3D head model. The monaural spectral features and spectral distortions were very similar between re-measurements and between human and printed...

  6. Sliding interleaved kY (SLINKY) acquisition: a novel 3D MRA technique with suppressed slab boundary artifact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K; Rutt, B K

    1998-01-01

    This work addresses the elimination of the slab boundary artifact (SBA) or venetian blind artifact in three-dimensional multiple overlapped thin slab acquisition (3D MOTSA) for magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Our method uses a sliding-slab, interleaved kY (SLINKY) data acquisition strategy, equalizing flow-related signal intensity weighting across the entire slab dimension. This technique demodulates signal intensity changes along the slab direction and can essentially eliminate the SBA while retaining the same or better imaging time efficiency than that of conventional MOTSA, providing robustness to complicated flow patterns and thereby resulting in more accurate depiction of vascular morphology. In addition, this technique does not need specialized reconstruction and extra computation. The unique penalty of this technique is the sensitivity to phase inconsistency in the data. Both phantom and in vivo experiments verify the clinical significance of the technique. The new MRA images acquired with this imaging technique show highly reliable mapping of vascular morphology without the SBA and reduction of signal voids in complex/slow flow regions. PMID:9702893

  7. 3D video

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline

    2013-01-01

    While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th

  8. Continuous table acquisition MRI for radiotherapy treatment planning: Distortion assessment with a new extended 3D volumetric phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Amy, E-mail: aw554@uowmail.edu.au; Metcalfe, Peter [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia and Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres and Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, NSW 2170 (Australia); Liney, Gary [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres and Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, NSW 2170 (Australia); South West Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2170 (Australia); Holloway, Lois [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres and Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, NSW 2170 (Australia); South West Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2170 (Australia); Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Dowling, Jason; Rivest-Henault, David [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australian E-Health Research Centre, Herston, QLD 4029 (Australia)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Accurate geometry is required for radiotherapy treatment planning (RTP). When considering the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for RTP, geometric distortions observed in the acquired images should be considered. While scanner technology and vendor supplied correction algorithms provide some correction, large distortions are still present in images, even when considering considerably smaller scan lengths than those typically acquired with CT in conventional RTP. This study investigates MRI acquisition with a moving table compared with static scans for potential geometric benefits for RTP. Methods: A full field of view (FOV) phantom (diameter 500 mm; length 513 mm) was developed for measuring geometric distortions in MR images over volumes pertinent to RTP. The phantom consisted of layers of refined plastic within which vitamin E capsules were inserted. The phantom was scanned on CT to provide the geometric gold standard and on MRI, with differences in capsule location determining the distortion. MRI images were acquired with two techniques. For the first method, standard static table acquisitions were considered. Both 2D and 3D acquisition techniques were investigated. With the second technique, images were acquired with a moving table. The same sequence was acquired with a static table and then with table speeds of 1.1 mm/s and 2 mm/s. All of the MR images acquired were registered to the CT dataset using a deformable B-spline registration with the resulting deformation fields providing the distortion information for each acquisition. Results: MR images acquired with the moving table enabled imaging of the whole phantom length while images acquired with a static table were only able to image 50%–70% of the phantom length of 513 mm. Maximum distortion values were reduced across a larger volume when imaging with a moving table. Increased table speed resulted in a larger contribution of distortion from gradient nonlinearities in the through

  9. Detection of latent fingerprints using high-resolution 3D confocal microscopy in non-planar acquisition scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Stefan; Vielhauer, Claus

    2015-03-01

    In digitized forensics the support of investigators in any manner is one of the main goals. Using conservative lifting methods, the detection of traces is done manually. For non-destructive contactless methods, the necessity for detecting traces is obvious for further biometric analysis. High resolutional 3D confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) grants the possibility for a detection by segmentation approach with improved detection results. Optimal scan results with CLSM are achieved on surfaces orthogonal to the sensor, which is not always possible due to environmental circumstances or the surface's shape. This introduces additional noise, outliers and a lack of contrast, making a detection of traces even harder. Prior work showed the possibility of determining angle-independent classification models for the detection of latent fingerprints (LFP). Enhancing this approach, we introduce a larger feature space containing a variety of statistical-, roughness-, color-, edge-directivity-, histogram-, Gabor-, gradient- and Tamura features based on raw data and gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) using high resolutional data. Our test set consists of eight different surfaces for the detection of LFP in four different acquisition angles with a total of 1920 single scans. For each surface and angles in steps of 10, we capture samples from five donors to introduce variance by a variety of sweat compositions and application influences such as pressure or differences in ridge thickness. By analyzing the present test set with our approach, we intend to determine angle- and substrate-dependent classification models to determine optimal surface specific acquisition setups and also classification models for a general detection purpose for both, angles and substrates. The results on overall models with classification rates up to 75.15% (kappa 0.50) already show a positive tendency regarding the usability of the proposed methods for LFP detection on varying surfaces in non

  10. Interactive 3D Visualization of the Great Lakes of the World (GLOW) as a Tool to Facilitate Informal Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yikilmaz, M.; Harwood, C. L.; Hsi, S.; Kellogg, L. H.; Kreylos, O.; McDermott, J.; Pellett, B.; Schladow, G.; Segale, H. M.; Yalowitz, S.

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) visualization is a powerful research tool that has been used to investigate complex scientific problems in various fields. It allows researchers to explore and understand processes and features that are not directly observable and help with building of new models. It has been shown that 3D visualization creates a more engaging environment for public audiences. Interactive 3D visualization can allow individuals to explore scientific concepts on their own. We present an NSF funded project developed in collaboration with UC Davis KeckCAVES, UC Davis Tahoe Environmental Research Center, ECHO Lake Aquarium & Science Center, and Lawrence Hall of Science. The Great Lakes of the World (GLOW) project aims to build interactive 3D visualization of some of the major lakes and reservoirs of the world to enhance public awareness and increase understanding and stewardship of freshwater lake ecosystems, habitats, and earth science processes. The project includes a collection of publicly available satellite imagery and digital elevation models at various resolutions for the 20 major lakes of the world as well as the bathymetry data for the 12 lakes. It also includes the vector based 'Global Lakes and Wetlands Database (GLWD)' by the World Wildlife Foundation (WWF) and the Center for Environmental System Research University of Kassel, Germany and the CIA World DataBank II data sets to show wetlands and water reservoirs at global scale. We use a custom virtual globe (Crusta) developed at the UC Davis KeckCAVES. Crusta is designed to specifically allow for visualization and mapping of features in very high spatial resolution (learn about the lake and watershed processes as well as geologic processes (e.g. faulting, landslide, glacial, volcanic) that have shaped these lakes. With the advances in 3D imaging technology, the hardware is becoming more affordable and accessible. Affordable 3D projectors, monitors and TVs will allow schools and informal science centers

  11. A web-based collaborative framework for facilitating decision making on a 3D design developing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purevdorj Nyamsuren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased competitive challenges are forcing companies to find better ways to bring their applications to market faster. Distributed development environments can help companies improve their time-to-market by enabling parallel activities. Although, such environments still have their limitations in real-time communication and real-time collaboration during the product development process. This paper describes a web-based collaborative framework which has been developed to support the decision making on a 3D design developing process. The paper describes 3D design file for the discussion that contains all relevant annotations on its surface and their visualization on the user interface for design changing. The framework includes a native CAD data converting module, 3D data based real-time communication module, revision control module for 3D data and some sub-modules such as data storage and data management. We also discuss some raised issues in the project and the steps underway to address them.

  12. Cranial nerve assessment in cavernous sinus tumors with contrast-enhanced 3D fast-imaging employing steady-state acquisition MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amemiya, Shiori; Aoki, Shigeki; Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study is to apply contrast-enhanced 3D fast-imaging employing steady-state acquisition (3D-FIESTA) imaging to the evaluation of cranial nerves (CN) in patients with cavernous sinus tumors. Contrast-enhanced 3D-FIESTA images were acquired from ten patients with cavernous sinus tumors with a 3-T unit. In all cases, the trigeminal nerve with tumor involvement was easily identified in the cavernous portions. Although oculomotor and abducens nerves were clearly visualized against the tumor area with intense contrast enhancement, they were hardly identifiable within the area lacking contrast enhancement. The trochlear nerve was visualized in part, but not delineated as a linear structure outside of the lesion. Contrast-enhanced 3D-FIESTA can be useful in the assessment of cranial nerves in and around the cavernous sinus with tumor involvement. (orig.)

  13. Comparison of two single-breath-held 3-D acquisitions with multi-breath-held 2-D cine steady-state free precession MRI acquisition in children with single ventricles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atweh, Lamya A.; Dodd, Nicholas A.; Krishnamurthy, Ramkumar; Chu, Zili D. [Texas Children' s Hospital, EB Singleton Department of Pediatric Radiology, Cardiovascular Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Pednekar, Amol [Philips Healthcare, Houston, TX (United States); Krishnamurthy, Rajesh [Texas Children' s Hospital, EB Singleton Department of Pediatric Radiology, Cardiovascular Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Breath-held two-dimensional balanced steady-state free precession cine acquisition (2-D breath-held SSFP), accelerated with parallel imaging, is the method of choice for evaluating ventricular function due to its superior blood-to-myocardial contrast, edge definition and high intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio throughout the cardiac cycle. The purpose of this study is to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the two different single-breath-hold 3-D cine SSFP acquisitions using 1) multidirectional sensitivity encoding (SENSE) acceleration factors (3-D multiple SENSE SSFP), and 2) k-t broad-use linear acceleration speed-up technique (3-D k-t SSFP) with the conventional 2-D breath-held SSFP in non-sedated asymptomatic volunteers and children with single ventricle congenital heart disease. Our prospective study was performed on 30 non-sedated subjects (9 healthy volunteers and 21 functional single ventricle patients), ages 12.5 +/- 2.8 years. Two-dimensional breath-held SSFP with SENSE acceleration factor of 2, eight-fold accelerated 3-D k-t SSFP, and 3-D multiple SENSE SSFP with total parallel imaging factor of 4 were performed to evaluate ventricular volumes and mass in the short-axis orientation. Image quality scores (blood myocardial contrast, edge definition and interslice alignment) and volumetric analysis (end systolic volume, end diastolic volume and ejection fraction) were performed on the data sets by experienced users. Paired t-test was performed to compare each of the 3-D k-t SSFP and 3-D multiple SENSE SSFP clinical scores against 2-D breath-held SSFP. Bland-Altman analysis was performed on left ventricle (LV) and single ventricle volumetry. Interobserver and intraobserver variability in volumetric measurements were determined using intraclass coefficients. The clinical scores were highest for the 2-D breath-held SSFP images. Between the two 3-D sequences, 3-D multiple SENSE SSFP performed better than 3-D k-t SSFP. Bland-Altman analysis for volumes

  14. 3-D seismic acquisition geometry design and analysis: Investigation of the requirements to include illumination from all multiples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, A.

    2015-01-01

    A seismic survey should be designed such that imaging of the acquired data leads to a sufficiently accurate subsurface image. For that purpose, methods for acquisition geometry analysis and design are available. These methods are used to judge whether an acquisition geometry is suited for the specif

  15. FACILITATING THE 3D INDOOR SEARCH AND RESCUE PROBLEM: AN OVERVIEW OF THE PROBLEM AND AN ANT COLONY SOLUTION APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tashakkori

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Search and rescue procedures for indoor environments are quite complicated due to the fact that much of the indoor information is unavailable to rescuers before physical entrance to the incident scene. Thus, decision making regarding the number of crew required and the way they should be dispatched in the building considering the various access points and complexities in the buildings in order to cover the search area in minimum time is dependent on prior knowledge and experience of the emergency commanders. Hence, this paper introduces the Search and Rescue Problem (SRP which aims at finding best search and rescue routes that minimize the overall search time in the buildings. 3D BIM-oriented indoor GIS is integrated in the indoor route graph to find accurate routes based on the building geometric and semantic information. An Ant Colony Based Algorithm is presented that finds the number of first responders required and their individual routes to search all rooms and points of interest inside the building to minimize the overall time spent by all rescuers inside the disaster area. The evaluation of the proposed model for a case study building shows a significant improve in search and rescue time which will lead to a higher chance of saving lives and less exposure of emergency crew to danger.

  16. Facilitating the 3D Indoor Search and Rescue Problem: An Overview of the Problem and an Ant Colony Solution Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashakkori, H.; Rajabifard, A.; Kalantari, M.

    2016-10-01

    Search and rescue procedures for indoor environments are quite complicated due to the fact that much of the indoor information is unavailable to rescuers before physical entrance to the incident scene. Thus, decision making regarding the number of crew required and the way they should be dispatched in the building considering the various access points and complexities in the buildings in order to cover the search area in minimum time is dependent on prior knowledge and experience of the emergency commanders. Hence, this paper introduces the Search and Rescue Problem (SRP) which aims at finding best search and rescue routes that minimize the overall search time in the buildings. 3D BIM-oriented indoor GIS is integrated in the indoor route graph to find accurate routes based on the building geometric and semantic information. An Ant Colony Based Algorithm is presented that finds the number of first responders required and their individual routes to search all rooms and points of interest inside the building to minimize the overall time spent by all rescuers inside the disaster area. The evaluation of the proposed model for a case study building shows a significant improve in search and rescue time which will lead to a higher chance of saving lives and less exposure of emergency crew to danger.

  17. A computer-assisted 3D model for analyzing the aggregation of tumorigenic cells reveals specialized behaviors and unique cell types that facilitate aggregate coalescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Scherer

    Full Text Available We have developed a 4D computer-assisted reconstruction and motion analysis system, J3D-DIAS 4.1, and applied it to the reconstruction and motion analysis of tumorigenic cells in a 3D matrix. The system is unique in that it is fast, high-resolution, acquires optical sections using DIC microscopy (hence there is no associated photoxicity, and is capable of long-term 4D reconstruction. Specifically, a z-series at 5 μm increments can be acquired in less than a minute on tissue samples embedded in a 1.5 mm thick 3D Matrigel matrix. Reconstruction can be repeated at intervals as short as every minute and continued for 30 days or longer. Images are converted to mathematical representations from which quantitative parameters can be derived. Application of this system to cancer cells from established lines and fresh tumor tissue has revealed unique behaviors and cell types not present in non-tumorigenic lines. We report here that cells from tumorigenic lines and tumors undergo rapid coalescence in 3D, mediated by specific cell types that we have named "facilitators" and "probes." A third cell type, the "dervish", is capable of rapid movement through the gel and does not adhere to it. These cell types have never before been described. Our data suggest that tumorigenesis in vitro is a developmental process involving coalescence facilitated by specialized cells that culminates in large hollow spheres with complex architecture. The unique effects of select monoclonal antibodies on these processes demonstrate the usefulness of the model for analyzing the mechanisms of anti-cancer drugs.

  18. Simultaneous acquisition of 3D shape and deformation by combination of interferometric and correlation-based laser speckle metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekiff, Markus; Berssenbrügge, Philipp; Kemper, Björn; Denz, Cornelia; Dirksen, Dieter

    2015-12-01

    A metrology system combining three laser speckle measurement techniques for simultaneous determination of 3D shape and micro- and macroscopic deformations is presented. While microscopic deformations are determined by a combination of Digital Holographic Interferometry (DHI) and Digital Speckle Photography (DSP), macroscopic 3D shape, position and deformation are retrieved by photogrammetry based on digital image correlation of a projected laser speckle pattern. The photogrammetrically obtained data extend the measurement range of the DHI-DSP system and also increase the accuracy of the calculation of the sensitivity vector. Furthermore, a precise assignment of microscopic displacements to the object's macroscopic shape for enhanced visualization is achieved. The approach allows for fast measurements with a simple setup. Key parameters of the system are optimized, and its precision and measurement range are demonstrated. As application examples, the deformation of a mandible model and the shrinkage of dental impression material are measured.

  19. Simultaneous acquisition of 3D shape and deformation by combination of interferometric and correlation-based laser speckle metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekiff, Markus; Berssenbrügge, Philipp; Kemper, Björn; Denz, Cornelia; Dirksen, Dieter

    2015-12-01

    A metrology system combining three laser speckle measurement techniques for simultaneous determination of 3D shape and micro- and macroscopic deformations is presented. While microscopic deformations are determined by a combination of Digital Holographic Interferometry (DHI) and Digital Speckle Photography (DSP), macroscopic 3D shape, position and deformation are retrieved by photogrammetry based on digital image correlation of a projected laser speckle pattern. The photogrammetrically obtained data extend the measurement range of the DHI-DSP system and also increase the accuracy of the calculation of the sensitivity vector. Furthermore, a precise assignment of microscopic displacements to the object's macroscopic shape for enhanced visualization is achieved. The approach allows for fast measurements with a simple setup. Key parameters of the system are optimized, and its precision and measurement range are demonstrated. As application examples, the deformation of a mandible model and the shrinkage of dental impression material are measured. PMID:26713197

  20. Whole-heart cine MRI in a single breath-hold. A compressed sensing accelerated 3D acquisition technique for assessment of cardiac function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to perform functional MR imaging of the whole heart in a single breath-hold using an undersampled 3 D trajectory for data acquisition in combination with compressed sensing for image reconstruction. Materials and Methods: Measurements were performed using an SSFP sequence on a 3 T whole-body system equipped with a 32-channel body array coil. A 3 D radial stack-of-stars sampling scheme was utilized enabling efficient undersampling of the k-space and thereby accelerating data acquisition. Compressed sensing was applied for the reconstruction of the missing data. A validation study was performed based on a fully sampled dataset acquired by standard Cartesian cine imaging of 2 D slices on a healthy volunteer. The results were investigated with regard to systematic errors and resolution losses possibly introduced by the developed reconstruction. Subsequently, the proposed technique was applied for in-vivo functional cardiac imaging of the whole heart in a single breath-hold of 27 s. The developed technique was tested on three healthy volunteers to examine its reproducibility. Results: By means of the results of the simulation (temporal resolution: 47 ms, spatial resolution: 1.4 x 1.4 x 8 mm, 3 D image matrix: 208 x 208 x 10), an overall acceleration factor of 10 has been found where the compressed sensing reconstructed image series shows only very low systematic errors and a slight in-plane resolution loss of 15 %. The results of the in-vivo study (temporal resolution: 40.5 ms, spatial resolution: 2.1 x 2.1 x 8 mm, 3 D image matrix: 224 x 224 x 12) performed with an acceleration factor of 10.7 confirm the overall good image quality of the presented technique for undersampled acquisitions. Conclusion: The combination of 3 D radial data acquisition and model-based compressed sensing reconstruction allows high acceleration factors enabling cardiac functional imaging of the whole heart within only one breath-hold. The image quality in the

  1. 3D Ultrasound Data Acquisition and Its Development%三维超声数据采集技术及发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭境峰; 蔡泽杭; 李德来

    2014-01-01

    近年来,超声三维成像技术得到了长足的发展并广泛应用于临床诊断领域。三维超声成像技术主要包括数据采集和重建后处理两部分,本文提出了三维数据采集技术的四个发展阶段:自由臂、辅助装置、机械容积探头、电子面阵探头。然后对各个阶段的各项采集技术分别进行描述,并归纳了其优缺点。%In recent years, 3D ultrasound imaging technology has achieved considerable development and is widely used in clinical diagnosis. 3D ultrasound imaging mainly includes data acquisition and reconstruction post-processing. This paper presents four development stages of 3D data acquisition: freehand, auxiliary device, mechanical volume probe, and electronic planar array probe. Each stage is described respectively, folowed by a summary of its advantages and disadvantages.

  2. Max CAPR: High-Resolution 3D Contrast-Enhanced MR Angiography With Acquisition Times Under 5 Seconds

    OpenAIRE

    Haider, Clifton R.; Borisch, Eric A.; Glockner, James F; Mostardi, Petrice M.; Rossman, Phillip J.; Young, Phillip M.; Riederer, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    High temporal and spatial resolution is desired in imaging of vascular abnormalities having short arterial-to-venous transit times. Methods that exploit temporal correlation to reduce the observed frame time demonstrate temporal blurring, obfuscating bolus dynamics. Previously, a Cartesian acquisition with projection reconstruction-like (CAPR) sampling method has been demonstrated for three-dimensional contrast-enhanced angiographic imaging of the lower legs using two-dimensional sensitivity-...

  3. Max CAPR: high-resolution 3D contrast-enhanced MR angiography with acquisition times under 5 seconds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Clifton R; Borisch, Eric A; Glockner, James F; Mostardi, Petrice M; Rossman, Phillip J; Young, Phillip M; Riederer, Stephen J

    2010-10-01

    High temporal and spatial resolution is desired in imaging of vascular abnormalities having short arterial-to-venous transit times. Methods that exploit temporal correlation to reduce the observed frame time demonstrate temporal blurring, obfuscating bolus dynamics. Previously, a Cartesian acquisition with projection reconstruction-like (CAPR) sampling method has been demonstrated for three-dimensional contrast-enhanced angiographic imaging of the lower legs using two-dimensional sensitivity-encoding acceleration and partial Fourier acceleration, providing 1mm isotropic resolution of the calves, with 4.9-sec frame time and 17.6-sec temporal footprint. In this work, the CAPR acquisition is further undersampled to provide a net acceleration approaching 40 by eliminating all view sharing. The tradeoff of frame time and temporal footprint in view sharing is presented and characterized in phantom experiments. It is shown that the resultant 4.9-sec acquisition time, three-dimensional images sets have sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to clearly portray arterial and venous phases of contrast passage. It is further hypothesized that these short temporal footprint sequences provide diagnostic quality images. This is tested and shown in a series of nine contrast-enhanced MR angiography patient studies performed with the new method. PMID:20715291

  4. Max CAPR: High-Resolution 3D Contrast-Enhanced MR Angiography With Acquisition Times Under 5 Seconds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Clifton R.; Borisch, Eric A.; Glockner, James F.; Mostardi, Petrice M.; Rossman, Phillip J.; Young, Phillip M.; Riederer, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    High temporal and spatial resolution is desired in imaging of vascular abnormalities having short arterial-to-venous transit times. Methods that exploit temporal correlation to reduce the observed frame time demonstrate temporal blurring, obfuscating bolus dynamics. Previously, a Cartesian acquisition with projection reconstruction-like (CAPR) sampling method has been demonstrated for three-dimensional contrast-enhanced angiographic imaging of the lower legs using two-dimensional sensitivity-encoding acceleration and partial Fourier acceleration, providing 1mm isotropic resolution of the calves, with 4.9-sec frame time and 17.6-sec temporal footprint. In this work, the CAPR acquisition is further undersampled to provide a net acceleration approaching 40 by eliminating all view sharing. The tradeoff of frame time and temporal footprint in view sharing is presented and characterized in phantom experiments. It is shown that the resultant 4.9-sec acquisition time, three-dimensional images sets have sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to clearly portray arterial and venous phases of contrast passage. It is further hypothesized that these short temporal footprint sequences provide diagnostic quality images. This is tested and shown in a series of nine contrast-enhanced MR angiography patient studies performed with the new method. PMID:20715291

  5. Single breath-hold assessment of cardiac function using an accelerated 3D single breath-hold acquisition technique - comparison of an intravascular and extravascular contrast agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowski Marcus R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR is the current gold standard for the assessment of left ventricular (LV function. Repeated breath-holds are needed for standard multi-slice 2D cine steady-state free precession sequences (M2D-SSFP. Accelerated single breath-hold techniques suffer from low contrast between blood pool and myocardium. In this study an intravascular contrast agent was prospectively compared to an extravascular contrast agent for the assessment of LV function using a single-breath-hold 3D-whole-heart cine SSFP sequence (3D-SSFP. Methods LV function was assessed in fourteen patients on a 1.5 T MR-scanner (Philips Healthcare using 32-channel coil technology. Patients were investigated twice using a 3D-SSFP sequence (acquisition time 18–25 s after Gadopentetate dimeglumine (GdD, day 1 and Gadofosveset trisodium (GdT, day 2 administration. Image acquisition was accelerated using sensitivity encoding in both phase encoding directions (4xSENSE. CNR and BMC were both measured between blood and myocardium. The CNR incorporated noise measurements, while the BMC represented the coeffiancy between the signal from blood and myocardium [1]. Contrast to noise ratio (CNR, blood to myocardium contrast (BMC, image quality, LV functional parameters and intra-/interobserver variability were compared. A M2D-SSFP sequence was used as a reference standard on both days. Results All 3D-SSFP sequences were successfully acquired within one breath-hold after GdD and GdT administration. CNR and BMC were significantly (p vs. 23.7 and regression analysis showed a stronger correlation to the reference standard (R2 = 0.92 vs. R2 = 0.71, compared to 3D-SSFP with GdD. Conclusions A single-breath-hold 3D-whole-heart cine SSFP sequence in combination with 32-channel technology and an intravascular contrast agent allows for the accurate and fast assessment of LV function. Trial registration The study was approved by the local

  6. Uav-Based Acquisition of 3d Point Cloud - a Comparison of a Low-Cost Laser Scanner and Sfm-Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, D.; Blaskow, R.; Westfeld, P.; Maas, H.-G.

    2015-08-01

    The Project ADFEX (Adaptive Federative 3D Exploration of Multi Robot System) pursues the goal to develop a time- and cost-efficient system for exploration and monitoring task of unknown areas or buildings. A fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with appropriate sensors (laser scanner, RGB camera, near infrared camera, thermal camera) were designed and built. A typical operational scenario may include the exploration of the object or area of investigation by an UAV equipped with a laser scanning range finder to generate a rough point cloud in real time to provide an overview of the object on a ground station as well as an obstacle map. The data about the object enables the path planning for the robot fleet. Subsequently, the object will be captured by a RGB camera mounted on the second flying robot for the generation of a dense and accurate 3D point cloud by using of structure from motion techniques. In addition, the detailed image data serves as basis for a visual damage detection on the investigated building. This paper focuses on our experience with use of a low-cost light-weight Hokuyo laser scanner onboard an UAV. The hardware components for laser scanner based 3D point cloud acquisition are discussed, problems are demonstrated and analyzed, and a quantitative analysis of the accuracy potential is shown as well as in comparison with structure from motion-tools presented.

  7. Investigation of data acquisition parameters for Minami Noshiro 3D experiment using 3D seismic modeling; Sanjigen hado denpa modeling wo riyoshita Minami Noshiro sanjigen jishin tansa data shutoku parameter no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H.; Nakagami, K.; Minegishi, M. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center; Kano, R. [Teikoku Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes how to grasp the characteristics of reflected waves which means how the reflected wave can be received in its magnitude depending on the complicated subsurface structure. Data acquisition parameters were also investigated, as to offset distance distribution and mute setting during the HMO correction. A velocity structure model was prepared for an area of 9km{times}8km including the given 3D seismic exploration area at Minami Noshiro, Akita Prefecture. For the geological sequence used for the velocity structure model, three formations, i.e., Katsurane Formation, Funakawa Formation, and Onagawa Formation, were inputted in an order from the shallower depth on the basis of the depth structure profile obtained from the previous data. Ray tracing was calculated by means of the two-dot dashed line tracing method. For this method, amplitude as well as travel time of waves can be calculated at the same time. This was effective for grasping the magnitude of reflected wave on simulating the traced data. For the velocity structure model used in this study, existing data inputted were old, which limited the quantity of information. However, this model would sufficiently contribute to the verification of survey design and the determination of optimal layout. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  8. Intracellular nanomanipulation by a photonic-force microscope with real-time acquisition of a 3D stiffness matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertseva, E.; Singh, A. S. G.; Lekki, J.; Thévenaz, P.; Lekka, M.; Jeney, S.; Gremaud, G.; Puttini, S.; Nowak, W.; Dietler, G.; Forró, L.; Unser, M.; Kulik, A. J.

    2009-07-01

    A traditional photonic-force microscope (PFM) results in huge sets of data, which requires tedious numerical analysis. In this paper, we propose instead an analog signal processor to attain real-time capabilities while retaining the richness of the traditional PFM data. Our system is devoted to intracellular measurements and is fully interactive through the use of a haptic joystick. Using our specialized analog hardware along with a dedicated algorithm, we can extract the full 3D stiffness matrix of the optical trap in real time, including the off-diagonal cross-terms. Our system is also capable of simultaneously recording data for subsequent offline analysis. This allows us to check that a good correlation exists between the classical analysis of stiffness and our real-time measurements. We monitor the PFM beads using an optical microscope. The force-feedback mechanism of the haptic joystick helps us in interactively guiding the bead inside living cells and collecting information from its (possibly anisotropic) environment. The instantaneous stiffness measurements are also displayed in real time on a graphical user interface. The whole system has been built and is operational; here we present early results that confirm the consistency of the real-time measurements with offline computations.

  9. Investigation of variability in image acquisition and contouring during 3D ultrasound guidance for partial breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) at simulation compared to 3DUS at treatment is an image guidance option for partial breast irradiation (PBI). This study assessed if user dependence in acquiring and contouring 3DUS (operator variability) contributed to variation in seroma shifts calculated for breast IGRT. Eligible patients met breast criteria for current randomized PBI studies. 5 Operators participated in this study. For each patient, 3 operators were involved in scan acquisitions and 5 were involved in contouring. At CT simulation (CT1), a 3DUS (US1) was performed by a single radiation therapist (RT). 7 to 14 days after CT1 a second CT (CT2) and 3 sequential 3DUS scans (US2a,b,c) were acquired by each of 3 RTs. Seroma shifts, between US1 and US2 scans were calculated by comparing geometric centers of the seromas (centroids). Operator contouring variability was determined by comparing 5 RT’s contours for a single image set. Scanning variability was assessed by comparing shifts between multiple scans acquired at the same time point (US1-US2a,b,c). Shifts in seromas contoured on CT (CT1-CT2) were compared to US data. From an initial 28 patients, 15 had CT visible seromas, met PBI dosimetric constraints, had complete US data, and were analyzed. Operator variability contributed more to the overall variability in seroma localization than the variability associated with multiple scan acquisitions (95% confidence mean uncertainty of 6.2 mm vs. 1.1 mm). The mean standard deviation in seroma shift was user dependent and ranged from 1.7 to 2.9 mm. Mean seroma shifts from simulation to treatment were comparable to CT. Variability in shifts due to different users acquiring and contouring 3DUS for PBI guidance were comparable to CT shifts. Substantial inter-observer effect needs to be considered during clinical implementation of 3DUS IGRT

  10. E-Book as Facilitator of Vocabulary Acquisition: Support of Adults, Dynamic Dictionary and Static Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korat, Ofra; Levin, Iris; Atishkin, Shifra; Turgeman, Merav

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of three facilitators: adults' support, dynamic visual vocabulary support and static visual vocabulary support on vocabulary acquisition in the context of e-book reading. Participants were 144 Israeli Hebrew-speaking preschoolers (aged 4-6) from middle SES neighborhoods. The entire sample read the e-book without a…

  11. SLA before ABC: Factors Facilitating Second Language Acquisition in Irish-Medium Playgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhathuna, Maire Mhic

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated factors facilitating acquisition of Irish in Irish-medium playgroups designed for children who are native English-speakers. Data were gathered in four visits each to two such playgroups, each containing approximately 20 children. Four aspects of conversational exchanges were examined: understanding; code mixing; formulaic…

  12. 3D modelling and recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Marcos; Robinson, Alan; Alboul, Lyuba; Brink, Willie

    2006-01-01

    3D face recognition is an open field. In this paper we present a method for 3D facial recognition based on Principal Components Analysis. The method uses a relatively large number of facial measurements and ratios and yields reliable recognition. We also highlight our approach to sensor development for fast 3D model acquisition and automatic facial feature extraction.

  13. Pseudo-random data acquisition geometry in 3D seismic survey; Sanjigen jishin tansa ni okeru giji random data shutoku reiauto ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minegishi, M.; Tsuburaya, Y. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1996-10-01

    Influence of pseudo-random geometry on the imaging for 3D seismic exploration data acquisition has been investigate using a simple model by comparing with the regular geometry. When constituting wave front by the interference of elemental waves, pseudo-random geometry data did not always provide good results. In the case of a point diffractor, the imaging operation, where the constituted wave front was returned to the point diffractor by the interference of elemental waves for the spatial alias records, did not always give clear images. In the case of multi point diffractor, good images were obtained with less noise generation in spite of alias records. There are a lot of diffractors in the actual geological structures, which corresponds to the case of multi point diffractors. Finally, better images could be obtained by inputting records acquired using the pseudo-random geometry rather than by inputting spatial alias records acquired using the regular geometry. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Simultaneous acquisition of 13Cα–15N and 1H–15N–15N sequential correlations in proteins: application of dual receivers in 3D HNN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe here, adaptation of the HNN pulse sequence for multiple nuclei detection using two independent receivers by utilizing the detectable 13Cα transverse magnetization which was otherwise dephased out in the conventional HNN experiment. It enables acquisition of 2D 13Cα–15N sequential correlations along with the standard 3D 15N–15N–1H correlations, which provides directionality to sequential walk in HNN, on one hand, and enhances the speed of backbone assignment, on the other. We foresee that the implementation of dual direct detection opens up new avenues for a wide variety of modifications that would further enhance the value and applications of the experiment, and enable derivation of hitherto impossible information.

  15. Sea level history in 3D: Data acquisition and processing for an ultra-high resolution MCS survey across IODP Expedition 313 drillsite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedimovic, M. R.; Mountain, G. S.; Austin, J. A., Jr.; Fulthorpe, C.; Aali, M.; Baldwin, K.; Bhatnagar, T.; Johnson, C.; Küçük, H. M.; Newton, A.; Stanley, J.

    2015-12-01

    In June-July 2015, we acquired the first 3D/2D hybrid (short/long streamer) multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection dataset. These data were collected simultaneously across IODP Exp. 313 drillsites, off New Jersey, using R/V Langsethand cover ~95% of the planned 12x50 km box. Despite the large survey area, the lateral and vertical resolution for the 3D dataset is almost a magnitude of order higher than for data gathered for standard petroleum exploration. Such high-resolution was made possible by collection of common midpoint (CMP) lines whose combined length is ~3 times the Earth's circumference (~120,000 profile km) and a source rich in high-frequencies. We present details on the data acquisition, ongoing data analysis, and preliminary results. The science driving this project is presented by Mountain et al. The 3D component of this innovative survey used an athwartship cross cable, extended laterally by 2 barovanes roughly 357.5 m apart and trailed by 24 50-m P-Cables spaced ~12.5 m with near-trace offset of 53 m. Each P-Cable had 8 single hydrophone groups spaced at 6.25 m for a total of 192 channels. Record length was 4 s and sample rate 0.5 ms, with no low cut and an 824 Hz high cut filter. We ran 77 sail lines spaced ~150 m. Receiver locations were determined using 2 GPS receivers mounted on floats and 2 compasses and depth sensors per streamer. Streamer depths varied from 2.1 to 3.7 m. The 2D component used a single 3 km streamer, with 240 9-hydrophone groups spaced at 12.5 m, towed astern with near-trace offset of 229 m. The record length was 4 s and sample rate 0.5 ms, with low cut filter at 2 Hz and high cut at 412 Hz. Receiver locations were recorded using GPS at the head float and tail buoy, combined with 12 bird compasses spaced ~300 m. Nominal streamer depth was 4.5 m. The source for both systems was a 700 in3 linear array of 4 Bolt air guns suspended at 4.5 m towing depth, 271.5 m behind the ship's stern. Shot spacing was 12.5 m. Data analysis to

  16. Language-experience facilitates discrimination of /d-th/ in monolingual and bilingual acquisition of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundara, Megha; Polka, Linda; Genesee, Fred

    2006-06-01

    To trace how age and language experience shape the discrimination of native and non-native phonetic contrasts, we compared 4-year-olds learning either English or French or both and simultaneous bilingual adults on their ability to discriminate the English /d-th/ contrast. Findings show that the ability to discriminate the native English contrast improved with age. However, in the absence of experience with this contrast, discrimination of French children and adults remained unchanged during development. Furthermore, although simultaneous bilingual and monolingual English adults were comparable, children exposed to both English and French were poorer at discriminating this contrast when compared to monolingual English-learning 4-year-olds. Thus, language experience facilitates perception of the English /d-th/ contrast and this facilitation occurs later in development when English and French are acquired simultaneously. The difference between bilingual and monolingual acquisition has implications for language organization in children with simultaneous exposure.

  17. Improvement of 3D Scanner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The disadvantage remaining in 3D scanning system and its reasons are discussed. A new host-and-slave structure with high speed image acquisition and processing system is proposed to quicken the image processing and improve the performance of 3D scanning system.

  18. Facilitated acquisition of eyeblink conditioning in those vulnerable to anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Davis Caulfield

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral inhibition (BI increases vulnerability to develop anxiety disorders and is typified by avoidance and withdrawal from novel objects, people, and situations. The present study considered the relationship between behavioral inhibition and temperamental risk factors, such as trait anxiety and acquisition rate of a classically conditioned eyeblink response. 174 healthy undergraduate students (mean age 20.3 years, 71.8% female were given the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and a battery of self-report measures of behavioral inhibition consisting of the Adult and Retrospective Measures of Behavioural Inhibition (AMBI/RMBI and the Concurrent and Retrospective Self Report of Inhibition (CSRI/RSRI. Participants then underwent standard delay classical eyeblink conditioning consisting of 45 trials with a 500-ms CS overlapping and co-terminating with a 10-ms airpuff US. Individuals with higher scores on the AMBI and Trait Anxiety Inventory, but not the other measures, showed faster acquisition of a conditioned eyeblink response than individuals with lower scores. Results support a relationship between facilitated acquisition of inter-stimulus relationships and risk for anxiety, and suggest that some measures assessing anxiety vulnerability better capture this relationship than others.

  19. Use of cone-beam CT and live 3-D needle guidance to facilitate percutaneous nephrostomy and nephrolithotripsy access in children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, C.M. [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kukreja, Kamlesh [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Singewald, Timothy; Johnson, Neil D.; Racadio, John M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Minevich, Eugene; Reddy, Pramod [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Urology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Gaining access into non-dilated renal collecting systems for percutaneous nephrolithotripsy, particularly in patients with prohibitive body habitus and/or scoliosis, is often challenging using conventional techniques. To evaluate the feasibility of cone-beam CT for percutaneous nephrostomy placement for subsequent percutaneous nephrolithotripsy in children and adolescents. A retrospective review of percutaneous nephrostomy revealed use of cone-beam CT and 3-D guidance in 12 percutaneous nephrostomy procedures for 9 patients between 2006 and 2015. All cone-beam CT-guided percutaneous nephrostomies were for pre-lithotripsy access and all 12 were placed in non-dilated collecting systems. Technical success was 100%. There were no complications. Cone-beam CT with 3-D guidance is a technically feasible technique for percutaneous nephrostomy in children and adolescents, specifically for nephrolithotripsy access in non-dilated collecting systems. (orig.)

  20. Use of cone-beam CT and live 3-D needle guidance to facilitate percutaneous nephrostomy and nephrolithotripsy access in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaining access into non-dilated renal collecting systems for percutaneous nephrolithotripsy, particularly in patients with prohibitive body habitus and/or scoliosis, is often challenging using conventional techniques. To evaluate the feasibility of cone-beam CT for percutaneous nephrostomy placement for subsequent percutaneous nephrolithotripsy in children and adolescents. A retrospective review of percutaneous nephrostomy revealed use of cone-beam CT and 3-D guidance in 12 percutaneous nephrostomy procedures for 9 patients between 2006 and 2015. All cone-beam CT-guided percutaneous nephrostomies were for pre-lithotripsy access and all 12 were placed in non-dilated collecting systems. Technical success was 100%. There were no complications. Cone-beam CT with 3-D guidance is a technically feasible technique for percutaneous nephrostomy in children and adolescents, specifically for nephrolithotripsy access in non-dilated collecting systems. (orig.)

  1. CASTLE3D - A Computer Aided System for Labelling Archaeological Excavations in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshiar, H.; Borrmann, D.; Elseberg, J.; Nüchter, A.; Näth, F.; Winkler, S.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of archaeological excavation sites with conventional methods and tools such as hand drawings, measuring tape and archaeological notes is time consuming. This process is prone to human errors and the quality of the documentation depends on the qualification of the archaeologist on site. Use of modern technology and methods in 3D surveying and 3D robotics facilitate and improve this process. Computer-aided systems and databases improve the documentation quality and increase the speed of data acquisition. 3D laser scanning is the state of the art in modelling archaeological excavation sites, historical sites and even entire cities or landscapes. Modern laser scanners are capable of data acquisition of up to 1 million points per second. This provides a very detailed 3D point cloud of the environment. 3D point clouds and 3D models of an excavation site provide a better representation of the environment for the archaeologist and for documentation. The point cloud can be used both for further studies on the excavation and for the presentation of results. This paper introduces a Computer aided system for labelling archaeological excavations in 3D (CASTLE3D). Consisting of a set of tools for recording and georeferencing the 3D data from an excavation site, CASTLE3D is a novel documentation approach in industrial archaeology. It provides a 2D and 3D visualisation of the data and an easy-to-use interface that enables the archaeologist to select regions of interest and to interact with the data in both representations. The 2D visualisation and a 3D orthogonal view of the data provide cuts of the environment that resemble the traditional hand drawings. The 3D perspective view gives a realistic view of the environment. CASTLE3D is designed as an easy-to-use on-site semantic mapping tool for archaeologists. Each project contains a predefined set of semantic information that can be used to label findings in the data. Multiple regions of interest can be joined under

  2. The Problem Is Not Learning: Facilitated Acquisition of Stimulus Equivalence Classes among Low-Achieving College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, Amanda C.; Merwin, Rhonda M.; Wilson, Kelly G.; Drake, Chad E.; Tucker, Christina I.; Elliott, Camden

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines whether facilitated acquisition occurs in contexts when 1 stimulus in a class is emotionally evocative and the other stimuli are arbitrary or neutral. Undergraduates with high and low grade-point averages (GPA) completed a matching-to-sample task that resulted in the formation of 3 stimulus equivalence classes. Each…

  3. Sodium magnetic resonance imaging. Development of a 3D radial acquisition technique with optimized k-space sampling density and high SNR-efficiency; Natrium-Magnetresonanztomographie. Entwicklung einer 3D radialen Messtechnik mit optimierter k-Raum-Abtastdichte und hoher SNR-Effizienz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, Armin Michael

    2009-04-01

    A 3D radial k-space acquisition technique with homogenous distribution of the sampling density (DA-3D-RAD) is presented. This technique enables short echo times (TE<0.5 ms), that are necessary for {sup 23}Na-MRI, and provides a high SNR-efficiency. The gradients of the DA-3D-RAD-sequence are designed such that the average sampling density in each spherical shell of k-space is constant. The DA-3D-RAD-sequence provides 34% more SNR than a conventional 3D radial sequence (3D-RAD) if T{sub 2}{sup *}-decay is neglected. This SNR-gain is enhanced if T{sub 2}{sup *}-decay is present, so a 1.5 to 1.8 fold higher SNR is measured in brain tissue with the DA-3D-RAD-sequence. Simulations and experimental measurements show that the DA-3D-RAD sequence yields a better resolution in the presence of T{sub 2}{sup *}-decay and less image artefacts when B{sub 0}-inhomogeneities exist. Using the developed sequence, T{sub 1}-, T{sub 2}{sup *}- and Inversion-Recovery-{sup 23}Na-image contrasts were acquired for several organs and {sup 23}Na-relaxation times were measured (brain tissue: T{sub 1}=29.0{+-}0.3 ms; T{sub 2s}{sup *}{approx}4 ms; T{sub 2l}{sup *}{approx}31 ms; cerebrospinal fluid: T{sub 1}=58.1{+-}0.6 ms; T{sub 2}{sup *}=55{+-}3 ms (B{sub 0}=3 T)). T{sub 1}- und T{sub 2}{sup *}-relaxation times of cerebrospinal fluid are independent of the selected magnetic field strength (B0 = 3T/7 T), whereas the relaxation times of brain tissue increase with field strength. Furthermore, {sup 23}Na-signals of oedemata were suppressed in patients and thus signals from different tissue compartments were selectively measured. (orig.)

  4. Pharyngolaryngeal tumors: spiral CT with 3D reconstruction; Tumeurs du pharyngo-larynx: apport de la tomodensitometrie en acquisition volumique avec reconstructions tridimensionnelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, V.; Troufleau, P.; Stines, J. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer, 54 - Nancy (France); Regent, D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 54 - Nancy (France)

    1995-04-01

    Spiral CT allows the exploration of the whole larynx and hypopharynx in 30 seconds. This is a good adjustment between the technique and the organ. Performed on 15 patients during a 30 seconds Valsalva maneuver, the exploration yields results from good to excellent. In two cases, conventional and helical CT are compared. The limitation of mA is not a drawback in such a thin region and there is no shift of organ or lesion between two scans, because the whole range is scanned in a single breathhold. 3D display of larynx and pharynx can performed with some advantage, especially easiness of presentation for surgeon. They help topographic analysis and make correlation between endoscopic views and axial scans. They could be useful for surgical simulation and 3D photon treatment plannings. (authors). 17 refs., 17 figs.

  5. UAV-BASED ACQUISITION OF 3D POINT CLOUD – A COMPARISON OF A LOW-COST LASER SCANNER AND SFM-TOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Mader, D.; R. Blaskow; Westfeld, P.; Maas, H.-G.

    2015-01-01

    The Project ADFEX (Adaptive Federative 3D Exploration of Multi Robot System) pursues the goal to develop a time- and cost-efficient system for exploration and monitoring task of unknown areas or buildings. A fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with appropriate sensors (laser scanner, RGB camera, near infrared camera, thermal camera) were designed and built. A typical operational scenario may include the exploration of the object or area of investigation by an UAV equipped with...

  6. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  7. Comparison of 3D Maximum intensity projection (MIP reconstruction and 2D T2 Half-Fourier Acquisition Single-Shot Turbo Spin-Echo (HASTE sequence in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Julardžija

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP is a method that allows noninvasive visualization of pancreatobiliary tree and does not require contrast application. It is a modern method based on heavily T2-weighted imaging (hydrography, which uses bile and pancreatic secretions as a natural contrast medium. Certain weaknesses in quality of demonstration of pancreatobiliary tract can be observed in addition to its good characteristics. Our aim was to compare the 3D Maximum intensity projection (MIP reconstruction and 2D T2 Half-Fourier Acquisition Single-Shot Turbo Spin-Echo (HASTE sequence in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography.Methods: During the period of one year 51 patients underwent MRCP on 3T „Trio“ system. Patients of different sex and age structure were included, both outpatient and hospitalized. 3D MIP reconstruction and 2D T2 haste sequence were used according to standard scanning protocols.Results: There were 45.1% (n= 23 male and 54.9% (n=28 female patients, age range from 17 to 81 years. 2D T2 haste sequence was more susceptible to respiratory artifacts presence in 64% patients, compared to 3D MIP reconstruction with standard error (0.09, result significance indication (p=0.129 and confidence interval (0.46 to 0.81. 2D T2 haste sequences is more sensitive and superior for pancreatic duct demonstration compared to 3D MIP reconstruction with standard error (0.07, result significance indication (p=0.01 and confidence interval (0.59 to 0.87Conclusion: In order to make qualitative demonstration and analysis of hepatobiliary and pancreatic system on MR, both 2D T2 haste sequence in transversal plane and 3D MIP reconstruction are required.

  8. Studies oriented to optimize the image quality of the small animal PET: Clear PET, modifying some of the parameters of the reconstruction algorithm IMF-OSEM 3D on the data acquisition simulated with GAMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents studies oriented to optimize the image quality of the small animal PET: Clear- PET. Certain figures of merit (FOM) were used to assess a quantitative value of the contrast and delectability of lesions. The optimization was carried out modifying some of the parameters in the reconstruction software of the scanner, imaging a mini-Derenzo phantom and a cylinder phantom with background activity and two hot spheres. Specifically, it was evaluated the incidence of the inter-update Metz filter (IMF) inside the iterative reconstruction algorithm 3D OSEM. The data acquisition was simulated using the GAMOS framework (Monte Carlo simulation). Integrating GAMOS output with the reconstruction software of the scanner was an additional novelty of this work, to achieve this, data sets were written with the list-mode format (LMF) of ClearPET. In order to verify the optimum values obtained, we foresee to make real acquisitions in the ClearPET of CIEMAT. (Author) 17 refs

  9. 3D Image-Guided Automatic Pipette Positioning for Single Cell Experiments in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Long; Lu Li; Ulf Knoblich; Hongkui Zeng; Hanchuan Peng

    2015-01-01

    We report a method to facilitate single cell, image-guided experiments including in vivo electrophysiology and electroporation. Our method combines 3D image data acquisition, visualization and on-line image analysis with precise control of physical probes such as electrophysiology microelectrodes in brain tissue in vivo. Adaptive pipette positioning provides a platform for future advances in automated, single cell in vivo experiments.

  10. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  11. ITI-signals and prelimbic cortex facilitate avoidance acquisition and reduce avoidance latencies, respectively, in male WKY rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D Beck

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As a model of anxiety disorder vulnerability, male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats acquire lever-press avoidance behavior more readily than outbred Sprague Dawley rats, and their acquisition is enhanced by the presence of a discrete signal presented during the inter-trial intervals (ITIs, suggesting it is perceived as a safety signal. A series of experiments were conducted to determine if this is the case. Additional experiments investigated if the avoidance facilitation relies upon processing through medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. The results suggest that the ITI-signal facilitates acquisition during the early stages of the avoidance acquisition process, when the rats are initially acquiring escape behavior and then transitioning to avoidance behavior. Post-avoidance introduction of the visual ITI-signal into other associative learning tasks failed to confirm that the visual stimulus had acquired the properties of a conditioned inhibitor. Shortening the signal from the entirety of the 3 min ITI to only the first 5 s of the 3 min ITI slowed acquisition during the first 4 sessions, suggesting the flashing light is not functioning as a feedback signal. The prelimbic (PL cortex showed greater activation during the period of training when the transition from escape responding to avoidance responding occurs. Only combined PL+infralimbic cortex lesions modestly slowed avoidance acquisition, but PL cortex lesions slowed avoidance response latencies. Thus, the flashing light ITI-signal is not likely perceived as a safety signal nor is it serving as a feedback signal. The functional role of the PL cortex appears to be to increase the drive towards responding to the threat of the warning signal. Hence, avoidance susceptibility displayed by male WKY rats may be driven, in part, both by external stimuli (ITI signal as well as by enhanced threat recognition to the warning signal via the PL cortex.

  12. Amygdala's involvement in facilitating associative learning-induced plasticity: a promiscuous role for the amygdala in memory acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Lily S; Galvez, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the amygdala plays a critical role in acquisition and consolidation of fear-related memories. Some of the more widely employed behavioral paradigms that have assisted in solidifying the amygdala's role in fear-related memories are associative learning paradigms. With most associative learning tasks, a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with a salient unconditioned stimulus (US) that elicits an unconditioned response (UR). After multiple CS-US pairings, the subject learns that the CS predicts the onset or delivery of the US, and thus elicits a learned conditioned response (CR). Most fear-related associative paradigms have suggested that an aspect of the fear association is stored in the amygdala; however, some fear-motivated associative paradigms suggest that the amygdala is not a site of storage, but rather facilitates consolidation in other brain regions. Based upon various learning theories, one of the most likely sites for storage of long-term memories is the neocortex. In support of these theories, findings from our laboratory, and others, have demonstrated that trace-conditioning, an associative paradigm where there is a separation in time between the CS and US, induces learning-specific neocortical plasticity. The following review will discuss the amygdala's involvement, either as a site of storage or facilitating storage in other brain regions such as the neocortex, in fear- and non-fear-motivated associative paradigms. In this review, we will discuss recent findings suggesting a broader role for the amygdala in increasing the saliency of behaviorally relevant information, thus facilitating acquisition for all forms of memory, both fear- and non-fear-related. This proposed promiscuous role of the amygdala in facilitating acquisition for all memories further suggests a potential role of the amygdala in general learning disabilities.

  13. Amygdala’s involvement in facilitating associative learning-induced plasticity: a promiscuous role for the amygdala in memory acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily S Chau

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the amygdala plays a critical role in acquisition and consolidation of fear-related memories. Some of the more widely employed behavioral paradigms that have assisted in solidifying the amygdala’s role in fear-related memories are associative learning paradigms. With most associative learning tasks, a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS is paired with a salient unconditioned stimulus (US that elicits an unconditioned response (UR. After multiple CS-US pairings, the subject learns that the CS predicts the onset or delivery of the US, and thus elicits a learned conditioned response (CR. Most fear-related associative paradigms have suggested that an aspect of the fear association is stored in the amygdala; however, some fear-motivated associative paradigms suggest that the amygdala is not a site of storage, but rather facilitates consolidation in other brain regions. Based upon various learning theories, one of the most likely sites for storage of long-term memories is the neocortex. In support of these theories, findings from our laboratory, and others, have demonstrated that trace-conditioning, an associative paradigm where there is a separation in time between the CS and US, induces learning-specific neocortical plasticity. The following review will discuss the amygdala’s involvement, either as a site of storage or facilitating storage in other brain regions such as the neocortex, in fear- and non-fear-motivated associative paradigms. In this review, we will discuss recent findings suggesting a broader role for the amygdala in increasing the saliency of behaviorally relevant information, thus facilitating acquisition for all forms of memory, both fear- and non-fear-related. This proposed promiscuous role of the amygdala in facilitating acquisition for all memories further suggests a potential role of the amygdala in general learning disabilities.

  14. 3D roadmap in neuroangiography: technique and clinical interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederman, Michael; Andersson, T. [Karolinska Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Babic, D.; Homan, R. [Philips Medical Systems, Best (Netherlands)

    2005-10-01

    We present the first clinical results obtained with a novel technique: the three-dimensional [3D] roadmap. The major difference from the standard 2D digital roadmap technique is that the newly developed 3D roadmap is based on a rotational angiography acquisition technique with the two-dimensional [2D] fluoroscopic image as an overlay. Data required for an accurate superimposition of the previously acquired 3D reconstructed image on the interactively made 2D fluoroscopy image, in real time, are stored in the 3D workstation and constitute the calibration dataset. Both datasets are spatially aligned in real time; thus, the 3D image is accurately superimposed on the 2D fluoroscopic image regardless of any change in C-arm position or magnification. The principal advantage of the described roadmap method is that one contrast injection allows the C-arm to be positioned anywhere in the space and allows alterations in the distance between the x-ray tube and the image intensifier as well as changes in image magnification. In the clinical setting, the 3D roadmap facilitated intravascular neuronavigation with concurrent reduction of procedure time and use of contrast medium. (orig.)

  15. EUROPEANA AND 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pletinckx

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  16. Solid works 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Cheol Yeong

    2004-02-15

    This book explains modeling of solid works 3D and application of 3D CAD/CAM. The contents of this book are outline of modeling such as CAD and 2D and 3D, solid works composition, method of sketch, writing measurement fixing, selecting projection, choosing condition of restriction, practice of sketch, making parts, reforming parts, modeling 3D, revising 3D modeling, using pattern function, modeling necessaries, assembling, floor plan, 3D modeling method, practice floor plans for industrial engineer data aided manufacturing, processing of CAD/CAM interface.

  17. Solid works 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book explains modeling of solid works 3D and application of 3D CAD/CAM. The contents of this book are outline of modeling such as CAD and 2D and 3D, solid works composition, method of sketch, writing measurement fixing, selecting projection, choosing condition of restriction, practice of sketch, making parts, reforming parts, modeling 3D, revising 3D modeling, using pattern function, modeling necessaries, assembling, floor plan, 3D modeling method, practice floor plans for industrial engineer data aided manufacturing, processing of CAD/CAM interface.

  18. Facilitated acquisition of standard but not long delay classical eyeblink conditioning in behaviorally inhibited adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, M D; VanMeenen, K M; Servatius, R J

    2015-02-01

    Adolescence is a key age in the development of anxiety disorders. The present study assessed the relationship between behavioral inhibition, a risk factor for anxiety typified by avoidance, and acquisition of the classically conditioned eyeblink response. 168 healthy high school students (mean age 15.7 years, 54% female) were given a battery of self-report measures including the Adult Measure of Behavioural Inhibition (AMBI). The study compared acquisition of three experimental training conditions. Two groups were given paired CS-US training: standard delay of 500-ms or long delay of 1000-ms with CS overlapping and co-terminating with a 50-ms airpuff US. A third group received unpaired training of 1000-ms CS and 50-ms airpuff US. Inhibited individuals showed greater acquisition of the conditioned eyeblink response in the 500-ms CS condition, but not in the paired 1000-ms condition. No differences in spontaneous blinks or reactivity to the stimulus were evident in the 1000-ms unpaired CS condition. Results support a relationship between associative learning and anxiety vulnerability that may be mediated by cerebellar functioning in inhibited individuals.

  19. Feasibility and Diagnostic Accuracy of Whole Heart Coronary MR Angiography Using Free-Breathing 3D Balanced Turbo-Field-Echo with SENSE and the Half-Fourier Acquisition Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We wanted to assess the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of whole heart coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with using 3D balanced turbo-field-echo (b-TFE) with SENSE and the half-Fourier acquisition technique for identifying stenoses of the coronary artery. Twenty-one patients who underwent both whole heart coronary MRA examinations and conventional catheter coronary angiography examinations were enrolled in the study. The whole heart coronary MRA images were acquired using a navigator gated 3D b-TFE sequence with SENSE and the half-Fourier acquisition technique to reduce the acquisition time. The imaging slab covered the whole heart (80 contiguous slices with a reconstructed slice thickness of 1.5 mm) along the transverse axis. The quality of the images was evaluated by using a 5-point scale (0 - uninterpretable, 1 - poor, 2 - fair, 3 - good, 4 - excellent). Ten coronary segments of the heart were evaluated in each case; the left main coronary artery (LM), and the proximal, middle and distal segments of the left anterior descending (LAD), the left circumflex (LCX) and the right coronary artery (RCA). The diagnostic accuracy of whole heart coronary MRA for detecting significant coronary artery stenosis was determined on the segment-bysegment basis, and it was compared with the results obtained by conventional catheter angiography, which is the gold standard. The mean image quality was 3.7 in the LM, 3.2 in the LAD, 2.5 in the LCX, and 3.3 in the RCA, respectively (the overall image quality was 3.0 ± 0.1). 168 (84%) of the 201 segments had an acceptable image quality (≥ grade 2). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of the whole heart coronary MRA images for detecting significant stenosis were 81.3%, 92.1%, 91.1%, 97.9%, and 52.0%, respectively. The mean coronary MRA acquisition time was 9 min 22 sec (± 125 sec). Whole heart coronary MRA is a feasible technique, and it has good potential to

  20. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  1. Simultaneous acquisition of {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}}-{sup 15}N and {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N-{sup 15}N sequential correlations in proteins: application of dual receivers in 3D HNN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Swagata; Paul, Subhradip; Hosur, Ramakrishna V., E-mail: hosur@tifr.res.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Department of Chemical Sciences (India)

    2012-01-15

    We describe here, adaptation of the HNN pulse sequence for multiple nuclei detection using two independent receivers by utilizing the detectable {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} transverse magnetization which was otherwise dephased out in the conventional HNN experiment. It enables acquisition of 2D {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}}-{sup 15}N sequential correlations along with the standard 3D {sup 15}N-{sup 15}N-{sup 1}H correlations, which provides directionality to sequential walk in HNN, on one hand, and enhances the speed of backbone assignment, on the other. We foresee that the implementation of dual direct detection opens up new avenues for a wide variety of modifications that would further enhance the value and applications of the experiment, and enable derivation of hitherto impossible information.

  2. IZDELAVA TISKALNIKA 3D

    OpenAIRE

    Brdnik, Lovro

    2015-01-01

    Diplomsko delo analizira trenutno stanje 3D tiskalnikov na trgu. Prikazan je razvoj in principi delovanja 3D tiskalnikov. Predstavljeni so tipi 3D tiskalnikov, njihove prednosti in slabosti. Podrobneje je predstavljena zgradba in delovanje koračnih motorjev. Opravljene so meritve koračnih motorjev. Opisana je programska oprema za rokovanje s 3D tiskalniki in komponente, ki jih potrebujemo za izdelavo. Diploma se oklepa vprašanja, ali je izdelava 3D tiskalnika bolj ekonomična kot pa naložba v ...

  3. 3D and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  4. CONCEPT AND PRACTICE OF TEACHING TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY STUDENTS TO MODERN TECHNOLOGIES OF 3D DATA ACQUISITION AND PROCESSING: A CASE STUDY OF CLOSE-RANGE PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kravchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For the preparation of modern specialists in the acquisition and processing of three-dimensional data, a broad and detailed study of related modern methods and technologies is necessary. One of the most progressive and effective methods of acquisition and analyzing spatial data is terrestrial laser scanning. The study of methods and technologies for terrestrial laser scanning is of great importance not only for GIS specialists, but also for surveying engineers who make decisions in traditional engineering tasks (monitoring, executive surveys, etc.. The understanding and formation of the right approach in preparing new professionals need to develop a modern and variable educational program. This educational program must provide effective practical and laboratory work and the student’s coursework. The resulting knowledge of the study should form the basis for practical or research of young engineers. In 2014, the Institute of Applied Sciences (Jade University Oldenburg, Germany and Kyiv National University of Construction and Architecture (Kiev, Ukraine had launched a joint educational project for the introduction of terrestrial laser scanning technology for collection and processing of spatial data. As a result of this project practical recommendations have been developed for the organization of educational processes in the use of terrestrial laser scanning. An advanced project-oriented educational program was developed which is presented in this paper. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the program a 3D model of the big and complex main campus of Kyiv National University of Construction and Architecture has been generated.

  5. Concept and Practice of Teaching Technical University Students to Modern Technologies of 3d Data Acquisition and Processing: a Case Study of Close-Range Photogrammetry and Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Iulia; Luhmann, Thomas; Shults, Roman

    2016-06-01

    For the preparation of modern specialists in the acquisition and processing of three-dimensional data, a broad and detailed study of related modern methods and technologies is necessary. One of the most progressive and effective methods of acquisition and analyzing spatial data is terrestrial laser scanning. The study of methods and technologies for terrestrial laser scanning is of great importance not only for GIS specialists, but also for surveying engineers who make decisions in traditional engineering tasks (monitoring, executive surveys, etc.). The understanding and formation of the right approach in preparing new professionals need to develop a modern and variable educational program. This educational program must provide effective practical and laboratory work and the student's coursework. The resulting knowledge of the study should form the basis for practical or research of young engineers. In 2014, the Institute of Applied Sciences (Jade University Oldenburg, Germany) and Kyiv National University of Construction and Architecture (Kiev, Ukraine) had launched a joint educational project for the introduction of terrestrial laser scanning technology for collection and processing of spatial data. As a result of this project practical recommendations have been developed for the organization of educational processes in the use of terrestrial laser scanning. An advanced project-oriented educational program was developed which is presented in this paper. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the program a 3D model of the big and complex main campus of Kyiv National University of Construction and Architecture has been generated.

  6. Rad59-facilitated acquisition of Y' elements by short telomeres delays the onset of senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri Churikov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase-negative yeasts survive via one of the two Rad52-dependent recombination pathways, which have distinct genetic requirements. Although the telomere pattern of type I and type II survivors is well characterized, the mechanistic details of short telomere rearrangement into highly evolved pattern observed in survivors are still missing. Here, we analyze immediate events taking place at the abruptly shortened VII-L and native telomeres. We show that short telomeres engage in pairing with internal Rap1-bound TG1-3-like tracts present between subtelomeric X and Y' elements, which is followed by BIR-mediated non-reciprocal translocation of Y' element and terminal TG1-3 repeats from the donor end onto the shortened telomere. We found that choice of the Y' donor was not random, since both engineered telomere VII-L and native VI-R acquired Y' elements from partially overlapping sets of specific chromosome ends. Although short telomere repair was associated with transient delay in cell divisions, Y' translocation on native telomeres did not require Mec1-dependent checkpoint. Furthermore, the homeologous pairing between the terminal TG1-3 repeats at VII-L and internal repeats on other chromosome ends was largely independent of Rad51, but instead it was facilitated by Rad59 that stimulates Rad52 strand annealing activity. Therefore, Y' translocation events taking place during presenescence are genetically separable from Rad51-dependent Y' amplification process that occurs later during type I survivor formation. We show that Rad59-facilitated Y' translocations on X-only telomeres delay the onset of senescence while preparing ground for type I survivor formation.

  7. How a Web-Based Course Facilitates Acquisition of English for Academic Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Chen

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an experimental study aimed at investigating the learning effectiveness of a Web-based course called Academic English (EAP for Japanese learners of English. The main focus of the study was to examine the form, function, and impact of interaction in the course. Twenty university-level EFL students participated in this experiment. They were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: a controlled group with inter-personal task treatment and an experiment group with intra-personal task treatment. Regarding effectiveness of the interactivity dimension in language acquisition, there was one independent variable, type of treatments, and two dependent variables, achievement and attitude measurements. The achievement variable was used to address the extent of learning due to the two treatment conditions. The attitude variable was used to address the degree of motivation towards a Web-based communication platform as well as the enforced interaction functions. Statistical analyses revealed no significant effect of treatment on either comprehension or general L2 development, but significant differences were found with respect to language interaction for task completion under different task treatments. Therefore, it was concluded that this Web-based course was well designed to maximize the students' language learning experience as well as to improve their language abilities in English. Further research is needed to examine the notion of self-repair in students' production in the target language.

  8. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  9. 3D virtuel udstilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tournay, Bruno; Rüdiger, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s.......3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s....

  10. Embedding an identity-matching task within a prompting hierarchy to facilitate acquisition of conditional discriminations in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Wayne W; Kodak, Tiffany; Moore, James W

    2007-01-01

    Least-to-most prompting hierarchies (e.g., progressing from verbal to modeled to physical prompts until the target response occurs) may be ineffective when the prompts do not cue the individual to attend to the relevant stimulus dimensions. In such cases, emission of the target response persistently requires one or more of the higher level prompts, a condition called prompt dependence (Clark & Green, 2004). Reinforcement of differential observing responses (DORs) has sometimes been used to ensure that participants attend to the relevant stimulus dimensions in matching-to-sample (MTS) tasks (e.g., Dube & McIlvane, 1999). For 2 participants with autism, we embedded an identity-matching task within a prompting hierarchy as a DOR to increase the likelihood that the participants attended to and discriminated the relevant features of the comparison stimuli in an MTS task. This procedure was compared with a traditional least-to-most prompting hierarchy and a no-reinforcement control condition in a multielement design. Results for both participants indicated that mastery-level acquisition of spoken-word-to-picture relations occurred only under the identity-matching condition. Findings are discussed relative to the use of DORs to facilitate acquisition of conditional discriminations in persons with autism or other conditions who do not attend to the comparison stimuli. PMID:17970262

  11. Blender 3D cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at the professionals that already have good 3D CGI experience with commercial packages and have now decided to try the open source Blender and want to experiment with something more complex than the average tutorials on the web. However, it's also aimed at the intermediate Blender users who simply want to go some steps further.It's taken for granted that you already know how to move inside the Blender interface, that you already have 3D modeling knowledge, and also that of basic 3D modeling and rendering concepts, for example, edge-loops, n-gons, or samples. In any case, it'

  12. 3D ultrafast ultrasound imaging in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very high frame rate ultrasound imaging has recently allowed for the extension of the applications of echography to new fields of study such as the functional imaging of the brain, cardiac electrophysiology, and the quantitative imaging of the intrinsic mechanical properties of tumors, to name a few, non-invasively and in real time. In this study, we present the first implementation of Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging in 3D based on the use of either diverging or plane waves emanating from a sparse virtual array located behind the probe. It achieves high contrast and resolution while maintaining imaging rates of thousands of volumes per second. A customized portable ultrasound system was developed to sample 1024 independent channels and to drive a 32  ×  32 matrix-array probe. Its ability to track in 3D transient phenomena occurring in the millisecond range within a single ultrafast acquisition was demonstrated for 3D Shear-Wave Imaging, 3D Ultrafast Doppler Imaging, and, finally, 3D Ultrafast combined Tissue and Flow Doppler Imaging. The propagation of shear waves was tracked in a phantom and used to characterize its stiffness. 3D Ultrafast Doppler was used to obtain 3D maps of Pulsed Doppler, Color Doppler, and Power Doppler quantities in a single acquisition and revealed, at thousands of volumes per second, the complex 3D flow patterns occurring in the ventricles of the human heart during an entire cardiac cycle, as well as the 3D in vivo interaction of blood flow and wall motion during the pulse wave in the carotid at the bifurcation. This study demonstrates the potential of 3D Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for the 3D mapping of stiffness, tissue motion, and flow in humans in vivo and promises new clinical applications of ultrasound with reduced intra—and inter-observer variability. (fast track communication)

  13. Multiplane 3D superresolution optical fluctuation imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Geissbuehler, Stefan; Godinat, Aurélien; Bocchio, Noelia L; Dubikovskaya, Elena A; Lasser, Theo; Leutenegger, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    By switching fluorophores on and off in either a deterministic or a stochastic manner, superresolution microscopy has enabled the imaging of biological structures at resolutions well beyond the diffraction limit. Superresolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) provides an elegant way of overcoming the diffraction limit in all three spatial dimensions by computing higher-order cumulants of image sequences of blinking fluorophores acquired with a conventional widefield microscope. So far, three-dimensional (3D) SOFI has only been demonstrated by sequential imaging of multiple depth positions. Here we introduce a versatile imaging scheme which allows for the simultaneous acquisition of multiple focal planes. Using 3D cross-cumulants, we show that the depth sampling can be increased. Consequently, the simultaneous acquisition of multiple focal planes reduces the acquisition time and hence the photo-bleaching of fluorescent markers. We demonstrate multiplane 3D SOFI by imaging the mitochondria network in fixed ...

  14. Avoidance Prone Individuals Self Reporting Behavioral Inhibition Exhibit Facilitated Acquisition and Altered Extinction of Conditioned Eyeblinks With Partial Reinforcement Schedules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Todd Allen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Avoidance in the face of novel situations or uncertainty is a prime feature of behavioral inhibition which has been put forth as a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders. Recent work has found that behaviorally inhibited individuals acquire conditioned eyeblinks faster than non-inhibited individuals in omission and yoked paradigms in which the predictive relationship between the conditioned stimulus (CS and unconditional stimulus (US is less than optimal as compared to standard training with CS-US paired trials (Holloway et al., 2014. In the current study, we tested explicitly partial schedules in which half the trials were CS alone or US alone trials in addition to the standard CS-US paired trials. One hundred and forty nine college-aged undergraduates participated in the study. All participants completed the Adult Measure of Behavioral Inhibition (i.e., AMBI which was used to group participants as behaviorally inhibited and non-inhibited. Eyeblink conditioning consisted of 3 US alone trials, 60 acquisition trials, and 20 CS-alone extinction trials presented in one session. Conditioning stimuli were a 500 ms tone conditioned stimulus (CS and a 50-ms air puff unconditional stimulus (US. Behaviorally inhibited individuals receiving 50% partial reinforcement with CS alone or US alone trials produced facilitated acquisition as compared to non-inhibited individuals. A partial reinforcement extinction effect was evident with CS alone trials in behaviorally inhibited but not non-inhibited individuals. These current findings indicate that avoidance prone individuals self-reporting behavioral inhibition over-learn an association and are slow to extinguish conditioned responses when there is some level of uncertainty between paired trials and CS or US alone presentations.

  15. Reconstruction and analysis of shapes from 3D scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Haar, F.B.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we use 3D laser range scans for the acquisition, reconstruction, and analysis of 3D shapes. 3D laser range scanning has proven to be a fast and effective way to capture the surface of an object in a computer. Thousands of depth measurements represent a part of the surface geometry as

  16. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  17. 3D Projection Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Johansen, Stine Liv; Bach Mikkelsen, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional projection installations are particular kinds of augmented spaces in which a digital 3-D model is projected onto a physical three-dimensional object, thereby fusing the digital content and the physical object. Based on interaction design research and media studies, this article...... contributes to the understanding of the distinctive characteristics of such a new medium, and identifies three strategies for designing 3-D projection installations: establishing space; interplay between the digital and the physical; and transformation of materiality. The principal empirical case, From...... Fingerplan to Loop City, is a 3-D projection installation presenting the history and future of city planning for the Copenhagen area in Denmark. The installation was presented as part of the 12th Architecture Biennale in Venice in 2010....

  18. Herramientas SIG 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Feito Higueruela

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Applications of Geographical Information Systems on several Archeology fields have been increasing during the last years. Recent avances in these technologies make possible to work with more realistic 3D models. In this paper we introduce a new paradigm for this system, the GIS Thetrahedron, in which we define the fundamental elements of GIS, in order to provide a better understanding of their capabilities. At the same time the basic 3D characteristics of some comercial and open source software are described, as well as the application to some samples on archeological researchs

  19. TOWARDS: 3D INTERNET

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Swapnali R. Ghadge

    2013-01-01

    In today’s ever-shifting media landscape, it can be a complex task to find effective ways to reach your desired audience. As traditional media such as television continue to lose audience share, one venue in particular stands out for its ability to attract highly motivated audiences and for its tremendous growth potential the 3D Internet. The concept of '3D Internet' has recently come into the spotlight in the R&D arena, catching the attention of many people, and leading to a lot o...

  20. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-01

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C T . We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N . We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  1. Interaktiv 3D design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villaume, René Domine; Ørstrup, Finn Rude

    2002-01-01

    Projektet undersøger potentialet for interaktiv 3D design via Internettet. Arkitekt Jørn Utzons projekt til Espansiva blev udviklet som et byggesystem med det mål, at kunne skabe mangfoldige planmuligheder og mangfoldige facade- og rumudformninger. Systemets bygningskomponenter er digitaliseret som...... 3D elementer og gjort tilgængelige. Via Internettet er det nu muligt at sammenstille og afprøve en uendelig  række bygningstyper som  systemet blev tænkt og udviklet til....

  2. Feasibility of 3D Partially Parallel Acquisition DCE MRI in Pulmonary Parenchyma Perfusion%三维并行采集动态增强MRI在肺实质局部灌注中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏艺; 范丽; 刘士远; 管宇; 徐雪原; 于红; 肖湘生

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价3D并行采集动态对比增强MRI(dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI,DCE-MRI)技术对肺实质局部灌注成像的可行性.资料与方法 采用GE 1.5 T MRI系统,对10名健康志愿者及47例肺部疾病患者行灌注成像;评价肺灌注图像的均匀度,若存在灌注异常区域则计算其与正常肺组织的信号强度之比( RSI).结果 DCE-MRI可以清楚地显示肺实质灌注情况:10名健康志愿者的灌注图像较均匀,未见灌注缺损区.10例肺动脉栓塞( pulmonary embolism,PE)共出现12个楔形灌注缺损区,其中1例双侧PE出现3个灌注缺损区;12例侵犯邻近肺动脉的肺癌,在相应供血区均出现灌注缺损;RSI经单样本t检验差异具有明显的统计学意义(t=-24.74,P<0.05);另25例(20例未侵犯邻近肺动脉的肺癌和5例炎性病变)在对比剂首过肺实质强化达峰值时,病灶局部均呈低信号改变.结论 3D并行采集DCE-MRI技术可在单次屏气状态下完成动态多期扫描,获得全肺的容积灌注成像数据,对MR肺灌注图像采用半量化分析可明显区分出灌注异常区与灌注正常区.%Objective To assess the feasibility of 3 D partially parallel acquisition dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI in pulmonary parenchyma perfusion. Materials and Methods Ten healthy volunteers and 47 patients with lung disease performed perfusion imaging on a clinical 1. 5-T GE Excite HD whole body system. The homogeneity of perfusion images were assessed. In case of perfusion abnormality, the signal intensity ratio ( RSI) of perfusion abnormality and normal lung were calculated. Results Pulmonary parenchyma perfusion was well depicted with DCE-MRI. The perfusion images of healthy volunteers were homogeneous. 12 wedge shaped perfusion defects were visualized in 10 patients with pulmonary embolisms. 12 perfusion defects were also showed in 12 patients with lung cancer infiltrating the pulmonary artery. There was significant difference in RSI (t = - 24

  3. The Power of Imageability: How the Acquisition of Inflected Forms Is Facilitated in Highly Imageable Verbs and Nouns in Czech Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolík, Filip; Kríž, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Imageability is the ability of words to elicit mental sensory images of their referents. Recent research has suggested that imageability facilitates the processing and acquisition of inflected word forms. The present study examined whether inflected word forms are acquired earlier in highly imageable words in Czech children. Parents of 317…

  4. Studies oriented to optimize the image quality of the small animal PET: Clear PET, modifying some of the parameters of the reconstruction algorithm IMF-OSEM 3D on the data acquisition simulated with GAMOS; Estudios para la optimizaciOn de la calidad de imagen en el escaner ClearPET, modifi cando parametros del algoritmo IMF-OSEM 3D sobre adquisiciones simuladas con GAMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canadas, M.; Mendoza, J.; Embid, M.

    2007-09-27

    This report presents studies oriented to optimize the image quality of the small animal PET: Clear- PET. Certain figures of merit (FOM) were used to assess a quantitative value of the contrast and delectability of lesions. The optimization was carried out modifying some of the parameters in the reconstruction software of the scanner, imaging a mini-Derenzo phantom and a cylinder phantom with background activity and two hot spheres. Specifically, it was evaluated the incidence of the inter-update Metz filter (IMF) inside the iterative reconstruction algorithm 3D OSEM. The data acquisition was simulated using the GAMOS framework (Monte Carlo simulation). Integrating GAMOS output with the reconstruction software of the scanner was an additional novelty of this work, to achieve this, data sets were written with the list-mode format (LMF) of ClearPET. In order to verify the optimum values obtained, we foresee to make real acquisitions in the ClearPET of CIEMAT. (Author) 17 refs.

  5. Tangible 3D Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Aske K.; Ovesen, Nis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental approach to teaching 3D modelling techniques in an Industrial Design programme. The approach includes the use of tangible free form models as tools for improving the overall learning. The paper is based on lecturer and student experiences obtained through facil...

  6. 3D Harmonic Echocardiography:

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Voormolen

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThree dimensional (3D) echocardiography has recently developed from an experimental technique in the ’90 towards an imaging modality for the daily clinical practice. This dissertation describes the considerations, implementation, validation and clinical application of a unique

  7. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Dylan Jack; Tan, Yu; Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host ...

  8. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  9. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  10. 3D ear identification based on sparse representation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    Full Text Available Biometrics based personal authentication is an effective way for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence, a person's identity. Recently, 3D ear shape has attracted tremendous interests in research field due to its richness of feature and ease of acquisition. However, the existing ICP (Iterative Closet Point-based 3D ear matching methods prevalent in the literature are not quite efficient to cope with the one-to-many identification case. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by proposing a novel effective fully automatic 3D ear identification system. We at first propose an accurate and efficient template-based ear detection method. By utilizing such a method, the extracted ear regions are represented in a common canonical coordinate system determined by the ear contour template, which facilitates much the following stages of feature extraction and classification. For each extracted 3D ear, a feature vector is generated as its representation by making use of a PCA-based local feature descriptor. At the stage of classification, we resort to the sparse representation based classification approach, which actually solves an l1-minimization problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work introducing the sparse representation framework into the field of 3D ear identification. Extensive experiments conducted on a benchmark dataset corroborate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. The associated Matlab source code and the evaluation results have been made publicly online available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/ear/srcear/srcear.htm.

  11. Networked 3D Virtual Museum System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Virtual heritage has become increasingly important in the conservation, preservation, and interpretation of our cultural and natural history. Moreover, rapid advances in digital technologies in recent years offer virtual heritage new direction. This paper introduces our approach toward a networked 3D virtual museum system, especially, how to model, manage, present virtual heritages and furthermore how to use computer network for the share of virtual heritage in the networked virtual environment. This paper first addresses a 3D acquisition and processing technique for virtual heritage modeling and shows some illustrative examples. Then, this paper describes a management of virtual heritage assets that are composed by various rich media. This paper introduces our schemes to present the virtual heritages, which include 3D virtual heritage browser system, CAVE system, and immersive VR theater. Finally, this paper presents the new direction of networked 3D virtual museum of which main idea is remote guide of the virtual heritage using the mixed reality technique.

  12. 3D PDF - a means of public access to geological 3D - objects, using the example of GTA3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, Mark-Fabian; Reimann, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    In geology, 3D modeling has become very important. In the past, two-dimensional data such as isolines, drilling profiles, or cross-sections based on those, were used to illustrate the subsurface geology, whereas now, we can create complex digital 3D models. These models are produced with special software, such as GOCAD ®. The models can be viewed, only through the software used to create them, or through viewers available for free. The platform-independent PDF (Portable Document Format), enforced by Adobe, has found a wide distribution. This format has constantly evolved over time. Meanwhile, it is possible to display CAD data in an Adobe 3D PDF file with the free Adobe Reader (version 7). In a 3D PDF, a 3D model is freely rotatable and can be assembled from a plurality of objects, which can thus be viewed from all directions on their own. In addition, it is possible to create moveable cross-sections (profiles), and to assign transparency to the objects. Based on industry-standard CAD software, 3D PDFs can be generated from a large number of formats, or even be exported directly from this software. In geoinformatics, different approaches to creating 3D PDFs exist. The intent of the Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology to allow free access to the models of the Geotectonic Atlas (GTA3D), could not be realized with standard software solutions. A specially designed code converts the 3D objects to VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). VRML is one of the few formats that allow using image files (maps) as textures, and to represent colors and shapes correctly. The files were merged in Acrobat X Pro, and a 3D PDF was generated subsequently. A topographic map, a display of geographic directions and horizontal and vertical scales help to facilitate the use.

  13. INGRID, 3-D Mesh Generator for Program DYNA3D and NIKE3D and FACET and TOPAZ3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: INGRID is a general-purpose, three-dimensional mesh generator developed for use with finite element, nonlinear, structural dynamics codes. INGRID generates the large and complex input data files for DYNA3D (NESC 9909), NIKE3D (NESC 9725), FACET, and TOPAZ3D. One of the greatest advantages of INGRID is that virtually any shape can be described without resorting to wedge elements, tetrahedrons, triangular elements or highly distorted quadrilateral or hexahedral elements. Other capabilities available are in the areas of geometry and graphics. Exact surface equations and surface intersections considerably improve the ability to deal with accurate models, and a hidden line graphics algorithm is included which is efficient on the most complicated meshes. The most important new capability is associated with the boundary conditions, loads, and material properties required by nonlinear mechanics programs. Commands have been designed for each case to minimize user effort. This is particularly important since special processing is almost always required for each load or boundary condition. 2 - Method of solution: Geometries are described primarily using the index space notation of the INGEN program (NESC 975) with an additional type of notation, index progression. Index progressions provide a concise and simple method for describing complex structures; the concept was developed to facilitate defining multiple regions in index space. Rather than specifying the minimum and maximum indices for a region, one specifies the progression of indices along the I, J and K directions, respectively. The index progression method allows the analyst to describe most geometries including nodes and elements with roughly the same amount of input as a solids modeler

  14. Massive 3D Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Andringa, Roel; de Roo, Mees; Hohm, Olaf; Sezgin, Ergin; Townsend, Paul K

    2009-01-01

    We construct the N=1 three-dimensional supergravity theory with cosmological, Einstein-Hilbert, Lorentz Chern-Simons, and general curvature squared terms. We determine the general supersymmetric configuration, and find a family of supersymmetric adS vacua with the supersymmetric Minkowski vacuum as a limiting case. Linearizing about the Minkowski vacuum, we find three classes of unitary theories; one is the supersymmetric extension of the recently discovered `massive 3D gravity'. Another is a `new topologically massive supergravity' (with no Einstein-Hilbert term) that propagates a single (2,3/2) helicity supermultiplet.

  15. Massive 3D supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andringa, Roel; Bergshoeff, Eric A; De Roo, Mees; Hohm, Olaf [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Sezgin, Ergin [George and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Townsend, Paul K, E-mail: E.A.Bergshoeff@rug.n, E-mail: O.Hohm@rug.n, E-mail: sezgin@tamu.ed, E-mail: P.K.Townsend@damtp.cam.ac.u [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-21

    We construct the N=1 three-dimensional supergravity theory with cosmological, Einstein-Hilbert, Lorentz Chern-Simons, and general curvature squared terms. We determine the general supersymmetric configuration, and find a family of supersymmetric adS vacua with the supersymmetric Minkowski vacuum as a limiting case. Linearizing about the Minkowski vacuum, we find three classes of unitary theories; one is the supersymmetric extension of the recently discovered 'massive 3D gravity'. Another is a 'new topologically massive supergravity' (with no Einstein-Hilbert term) that propagates a single (2,3/2) helicity supermultiplet.

  16. 3D Digital Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    ABSTRACT: Lack of productivity in construction is a well known issue. Despite the fact that causes hereof are multiple, the introduction of information technology is a frequently observed response to almost any challenge. ICT in construction is a thoroughly researched matter, however, the current...... important to appreciate the analysis. Before turning to the presentation of preliminary findings and a discussion of 3D digital modelling, it begins, however, with an outline of industry specific ICT strategic issues. Paper type. Multi-site field study...

  17. TOWARDS: 3D INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Swapnali R. Ghadge

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In today’s ever-shifting media landscape, it can be a complex task to find effective ways to reach your desired audience. As traditional media such as television continue to lose audience share, one venue in particular stands out for its ability to attract highly motivated audiences and for its tremendous growth potential the 3D Internet. The concept of '3D Internet' has recently come into the spotlight in the R&D arena, catching the attention of many people, and leading to a lot of discussions. Basically, one can look into this matter from a few different perspectives: visualization and representation of information, and creation and transportation of information, among others. All of them still constitute research challenges, as no products or services are yet available or foreseen for the near future. Nevertheless, one can try to envisage the directions that can be taken towards achieving this goal. People who take part in virtual worlds stay online longer with a heightened level of interest. To take advantage of that interest, diverse businesses and organizations have claimed an early stake in this fast-growing market. They include technology leaders such as IBM, Microsoft, and Cisco, companies such as BMW, Toyota, Circuit City, Coca Cola, and Calvin Klein, and scores of universities, including Harvard, Stanford and Penn State.

  18. A method of data acquisition combined COMET and AICON 3D studio in reverse engineering application%结合COMET与AICON 3D Studio的数据获取方法在逆向工程中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义力; 吴家升; 王军杰

    2005-01-01

    介绍了一种结合COMET光栅测量和AICON 3D Studio摄影测量的逆向工程数据获取方法、相关的原理和AICON3D Studio编号参考点的编码技术.通过对某款轿车的后车门进行实测来验证这种数据获取方法的精度及效率.

  19. Cubical Cohomology Ring of 3D Photographs

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Rocio; Medrano, Belen; 10.1002/ima.20271

    2011-01-01

    Cohomology and cohomology ring of three-dimensional (3D) objects are topological invariants that characterize holes and their relations. Cohomology ring has been traditionally computed on simplicial complexes. Nevertheless, cubical complexes deal directly with the voxels in 3D images, no additional triangulation is necessary, facilitating efficient algorithms for the computation of topological invariants in the image context. In this paper, we present formulas to directly compute the cohomology ring of 3D cubical complexes without making use of any additional triangulation. Starting from a cubical complex $Q$ that represents a 3D binary-valued digital picture whose foreground has one connected component, we compute first the cohomological information on the boundary of the object, $\\partial Q$ by an incremental technique; then, using a face reduction algorithm, we compute it on the whole object; finally, applying the mentioned formulas, the cohomology ring is computed from such information.

  20. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data......, making them different from typical, existing box shaping techniques. The basis of the proposed techniques is a new algorithm for constructing a full box from just three of its corners. The evaluation of the new techniques compares their precision and completion times in a 9 degree-of-freedom (Do......F) docking experiment against an existing technique, which requires the user to perform the rotation and scaling of the box explicitly. The precision of the users' box construction is evaluated by a novel error metric measuring the difference between two boxes. The results of the experiment strongly indicate...

  1. Three-component synthesis of pyrano[2,3-d]-pyrimidine dione derivatives facilitated by sulfonic acid nanoporous silica (SBA-Pr-SO3H and their docking and urease inhibitory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziarani Ghodsi Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A straightforward and efficient method for the synthesis of pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine diones derivatives from the reaction of barbituric acid, malononitrile and various aromatic aldehydes using SBA-Pr-SO3H as a nanocatalyst is reported. Results Reactions proceed with high efficiency under solvent free conditions. Urease inhibitory activity of pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine diones derivatives were tested against Jack bean urease using phenol red method. Three compounds of 4a, 4d and 4l were not active in urease inhibition test, but compound 4a displayed slight urease activation properties. Compounds 4b, 4k, 4f, 4e, 4j, 4g and 4c with hydrophobic substitutes on phenyl ring, showed good inhibitory activity (19.45-279.14 μM. Discussion The compounds with electron donating group and higher hydrophobic interaction with active site of enzyme prevents hydrolysis of substrate. Electron withdrawing groups such as nitro at different position and meta-methoxy reduced urease inhibitory activity. Substitution of both hydrogen of barbituric acid with methyl group will convert inhibitor to activator.

  2. Three-component synthesis of pyrano[2,3-d]-pyrimidine dione derivatives facilitated by sulfonic acid nanoporous silica (SBA-Pr-SO3H and their docking and urease inhibitory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghodsi Mohammadi Ziarani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A straightforward and efficient method for the synthesis of pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine diones derivatives from the reaction of barbituric acid, malononitrile and various aromatic aldehydes using SBA-Pr-SO3H as a nanocatalyst is reported.ResultsReactions proceed with high efficiency under solvent free conditions. Urease inhibitory activity of pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine diones derivatives were tested against Jack bean urease using phenol red method. Three compounds of 4a, 4d and 4l were not active in urease inhibition test, but compound 4a displayed slight urease activation properties. Compounds 4b, 4k, 4f, 4e, 4j, 4g and 4c with hydrophobic substitutes on phenyl ring, showed good inhibitory activity (19.45-279.14 muM.DiscussionThe compounds with electron donating group and higher hydrophobic interaction with active site of enzyme prevents hydrolysis of substrate. Electron withdrawing groups such as nitro at different position and meta-methoxy reduced urease inhibitory activity. Substitution of both hydrogen of barbituric acid with methyl group will convert inhibitor to activator.

  3. 3D printing for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hausman, Kalani Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Get started printing out 3D objects quickly and inexpensively! 3D printing is no longer just a figment of your imagination. This remarkable technology is coming to the masses with the growing availability of 3D printers. 3D printers create 3-dimensional layered models and they allow users to create prototypes that use multiple materials and colors.  This friendly-but-straightforward guide examines each type of 3D printing technology available today and gives artists, entrepreneurs, engineers, and hobbyists insight into the amazing things 3D printing has to offer. You'll discover methods for

  4. 3-D Reconstruction From Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz

    1999-01-01

    of planetary surfaces, but other purposes is considered as well. The system performance is measured with respect to the precision and the time consumption.The reconstruction process is divided into four major areas: Acquisition, calibration, matching/reconstruction and presentation. Each of these areas......, where various methods have been tested in order to optimize the performance. The match results are used in the reconstruction part to establish a 3-D digital representation and finally, different presentation forms are discussed....

  5. Martian terrain - 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This area of terrain near the Sagan Memorial Station was taken on Sol 3 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  6. 3D monitor

    OpenAIRE

    Szkandera, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá návrhem a realizací systému, který umožní obraz scény zobrazovaný na ploše vnímat prostorově. Prostorové vnímání 2D obrazové informace je umožněno jednak stereopromítáním a jednak tím, že se obraz mění v závislosti na poloze pozorovatele. Tato práce se zabývá hlavně druhým z těchto problémů. This Bachelor's thesis goal is to design and realize system, which allows user to perceive 2D visual information as three-dimensional. 3D visual preception of 2D image i...

  7. Vector quantization of 3-D point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jae-Young; Kim, Chang-Su; Lee, Sang-Uk

    2005-10-01

    A geometry compression algorithm for 3-D QSplat data using vector quantization (VQ) is proposed in this work. The positions of child spheres are transformed to the local coordinate system, which is determined by the parent children relationship. The coordinate transform makes child positions more compactly distributed in 3-D space, facilitating effective quantization. Moreover, we develop a constrained encoding method for sphere radii, which guarantees hole-free surface rendering at the decoder side. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm provides a faithful rendering quality even at low bitrates.

  8. 3D game environments create professional 3D game worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Ahearn, Luke

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate resource to help you create triple-A quality art for a variety of game worlds; 3D Game Environments offers detailed tutorials on creating 3D models, applying 2D art to 3D models, and clear concise advice on issues of efficiency and optimization for a 3D game engine. Using Photoshop and 3ds Max as his primary tools, Luke Ahearn explains how to create realistic textures from photo source and uses a variety of techniques to portray dynamic and believable game worlds.From a modern city to a steamy jungle, learn about the planning and technological considerations for 3D modelin

  9. X3D: Extensible 3D Graphics Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Leonard; Brutzman, Don

    2007-01-01

    The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MSP.2007.905889 Extensible 3D (X3D) is the open standard for Web-delivered three-dimensional (3D) graphics. It specifies a declarative geometry definition language, a run-time engine, and an application program interface (API) that provide an interactive, animated, real-time environment for 3D graphics. The X3D specification documents are freely available, the standard can be used without paying any royalties,...

  10. USGS Hurricane Sandy Lidar and DEM Acquisition Plan Objectives for FY15 from The National Map 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) National Elevation Data Set (NED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior - The Hurricane Sandy Supplemental Funding lidar and DEM acquisition plan is part of the 3DEP initiative to...

  11. USGS National Lidar and DEM Acquisition Plan Objectives for FY17 from The National Map 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) National Elevation Data Set (NED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior - The annual lidar and DEM acquisition plan is part of the 3DEP initiative to systematically collect enhanced...

  12. 3D Printing an Octohedron

    OpenAIRE

    Aboufadel, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this short paper is to describe a project to manufacture a regular octohedron on a 3D printer. We assume that the reader is familiar with the basics of 3D printing. In the project, we use fundamental ideas to calculate the vertices and faces of an octohedron. Then, we utilize the OPENSCAD program to create a virtual 3D model and an STereoLithography (.stl) file that can be used by a 3D printer.

  13. Salient Local 3D Features for 3D Shape Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Godil, Afzal

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new formulation for the 3D salient local features based on the voxel grid inspired by the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT). We use it to identify the salient keypoints (invariant points) on a 3D voxelized model and calculate invariant 3D local feature descriptors at these keypoints. We then use the bag of words approach on the 3D local features to represent the 3D models for shape retrieval. The advantages of the method are that it can be applied to rigid as well as to articulated and deformable 3D models. Finally, this approach is applied for 3D Shape Retrieval on the McGill articulated shape benchmark and then the retrieval results are presented and compared to other methods.

  14. DNA origami design of 3D nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ebbe Sloth; Nielsen, Morten Muhlig

    2009-01-01

    [8]. We have recently developed a semi-automated DNA origami software package [9] that uses a 2D sequence editor in conjunction with several automated tools to facilitate the design process. Here we extend the use of the program for designing DNA origami structures in 3D and show the application......Structural DNA nanotechnology has been heavily dependent on the development of dedicated software tools for the design of unique helical junctions, to define unique sticky-ends for tile assembly, and for predicting the products of the self-assembly reaction of multiple DNA strands [1-3]. Recently......, several dedicated 3D editors for computer-aided design of DNA structures have been developed [4-7]. However, many of these tools are not efficient for designing DNA origami structures that requires the design of more than 200 unique DNA strands to be folded along a scaffold strand into a defined 3D shape...

  15. First Language Proficiency as a Facilitator in Foreign/ Second Language Acquisition: A Case Study in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Marajan Awad Adam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available English is taught as a foreign language in the Arab world even though practical concerns call for greater emphasis on the language. In all personal interactions too Arabic is the preferred language. Thus the environment for English is really very limited as by the time the learners are exposed to the language they are well entrenched in Arabic. While this may be a handicap in some EFL situations (for example where adults are concerned, in the Arab context this can prove a big boon. This is because young language learners who are proficient in their first language can apply the learning techniques while acquiring the second language. This paper targets the teaching fraternity in the Arab world to help them understand how first language proficiency can aid second/foreign language acquisition.Keywords: language acquisition, Saudi EFL learners, language proficiency, Arabic as a first language 

  16. USGS Alaska IfSAR and DEM Acquisition Plan Objectives for FY15 - FY17 from The National Map 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) National Elevation Data Set (NED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior - The annual Alaska IfSAR and DEM acquisition plan is part of the 3DEP initiative to collect high-quality...

  17. 3D-skannaukseen perehtyminen

    OpenAIRE

    Santaluoto, Olli

    2012-01-01

    Tässä insinöörityössä tarkastellaan erilaisia 3D-skannaustekniikoita ja menetelmiä. Työssä myös kerrotaan esimerkkien avulla eri 3D-skannaustekniikoiden käyttökohteista. 3D-skannaus on Suomessa vielä melko harvinaista, siksi eri tekniikat ja käyttömahdollisuudet ovat monille tuntemattomia. 3D-skanneri on laite, jolla tutkitaan reaalimaailman esineitä tai ympäristöä keräämällä dataa kohteen muodoista. 3D-skannerit ovat hyvin paljon vastaavia tavallisen kameran kanssa. Kuten kameroilla, 3D...

  18. 3D Printing Functional Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, Yew Juan

    2016-01-01

    3D printing presents the ability of rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing. Techniques such as stereolithography (SLA) and fused deposition molding (FDM) have been developed and utilized since the inception of 3D printing. In such techniques, polymers represent the most commonly used material for 3D printing due to material properties such as thermo plasticity as well as its ability to be polymerized from monomers. Polymer nanocomposites are polymers with nanomaterials composited into the ...

  19. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  20. 3D IBFV : Hardware-Accelerated 3D Flow Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Wijk, Jarke J. van

    2003-01-01

    We present a hardware-accelerated method for visualizing 3D flow fields. The method is based on insertion, advection, and decay of dye. To this aim, we extend the texture-based IBFV technique for 2D flow visualization in two main directions. First, we decompose the 3D flow visualization problem in a

  1. Interactive 3D multimedia content

    CERN Document Server

    Cellary, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    The book describes recent research results in the areas of modelling, creation, management and presentation of interactive 3D multimedia content. The book describes the current state of the art in the field and identifies the most important research and design issues. Consecutive chapters address these issues. These are: database modelling of 3D content, security in 3D environments, describing interactivity of content, searching content, visualization of search results, modelling mixed reality content, and efficient creation of interactive 3D content. Each chapter is illustrated with example a

  2. 3D Bayesian contextual classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours.......We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours....

  3. 3-D printers for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Griffey, Jason

    2014-01-01

    As the maker movement continues to grow and 3-D printers become more affordable, an expanding group of hobbyists is keen to explore this new technology. In the time-honored tradition of introducing new technologies, many libraries are considering purchasing a 3-D printer. Jason Griffey, an early enthusiast of 3-D printing, has researched the marketplace and seen several systems first hand at the Consumer Electronics Show. In this report he introduces readers to the 3-D printing marketplace, covering such topics asHow fused deposition modeling (FDM) printing workBasic terminology such as build

  4. 3D for Graphic Designers

    CERN Document Server

    Connell, Ellery

    2011-01-01

    Helping graphic designers expand their 2D skills into the 3D space The trend in graphic design is towards 3D, with the demand for motion graphics, animation, photorealism, and interactivity rapidly increasing. And with the meteoric rise of iPads, smartphones, and other interactive devices, the design landscape is changing faster than ever.2D digital artists who need a quick and efficient way to join this brave new world will want 3D for Graphic Designers. Readers get hands-on basic training in working in the 3D space, including product design, industrial design and visualization, modeling, ani

  5. Using 3D in Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Jo; Kirschenbauer, Sabine; Döllner, Jürgen;

    2005-01-01

    to display 3D imagery. The extra cartographic degree of freedom offered by using 3D is explored and offered as a motivation for employing 3D in visualization. The use of VR and the construction of virtual environments exploit navigational and behavioral realism, but become most usefil when combined...... with abstracted representations embedded in a 3D space. The interactions between development of geovisualization, the technology used to implement it and the theory surrounding cartographic representation are explored. The dominance of computing technologies, driven particularly by the gaming industry...

  6. A 3D Geometry Model Search Engine to Support Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Gary K. L.; Lau, Rynson W. H.; Zhao, Jianmin

    2009-01-01

    Due to the popularity of 3D graphics in animation and games, usage of 3D geometry deformable models increases dramatically. Despite their growing importance, these models are difficult and time consuming to build. A distance learning system for the construction of these models could greatly facilitate students to learn and practice at different…

  7. 3D Geo: An Alternative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, A.

    2016-10-01

    The expression GEO is mostly used to denote relation to the earth. However it should not be confined to what is related to the earth's surface, as other objects also need three dimensional representation and documentation, like cultural heritage objects. They include both tangible and intangible ones. In this paper the 3D data acquisition and 3D modelling of cultural heritage assets are briefly described and their significance is also highlighted. Moreover the organization of such information, related to monuments and artefacts, into relational data bases and its use for various purposes, other than just geometric documentation is also described and presented. In order to help the reader understand the above, several characteristic examples are presented and their methodology explained and their results evaluated.

  8. 3D scene modeling from multiple range views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Vitor; Goncalves, Joao G. M.; Ribeiro, M. Isabel

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents a new 3D scene analysis system that automatically reconstructs the 3D geometric model of real-world scenes from multiple range images acquired by a laser range finder on board of a mobile robot. The reconstruction is achieved through an integrated procedure including range data acquisition, geometrical feature extraction, registration, and integration of multiple views. Different descriptions of the final 3D scene model are obtained: a polygonal triangular mesh, a surface description in terms of planar and biquadratics surfaces, and a 3D boundary representation. Relevant experimental results from the complete 3D scene modeling are presented. Direct applications of this technique include 3D reconstruction and/or update of architectual or industrial plans into a CAD model, design verification of buildings, navigation of autonomous robots, and input to virtual reality systems.

  9. 3D Printing for Bricks

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2015-01-01

    Building Bytes, by Brian Peters, is a project that uses desktop 3D printers to print bricks for architecture. Instead of using an expensive custom-made printer, it uses a normal standard 3D printer which is available for everyone and makes it more accessible and also easier for fabrication.

  10. Identification of an Acinetobacter baumannii zinc acquisition system that facilitates resistance to calprotectin-mediated zinc sequestration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Indriati Hood

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen that accounts for up to 20 percent of infections in intensive care units worldwide. Furthermore, A. baumannii strains have emerged that are resistant to all available antimicrobials. These facts highlight the dire need for new therapeutic strategies to combat this growing public health threat. Given the critical role for transition metals at the pathogen-host interface, interrogating the role for these metals in A. baumannii physiology and pathogenesis could elucidate novel therapeutic strategies. Toward this end, the role for calprotectin- (CP-mediated chelation of manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn in defense against A. baumannii was investigated. These experiments revealed that CP inhibits A. baumannii growth in vitro through chelation of Mn and Zn. Consistent with these in vitro data, Imaging Mass Spectrometry revealed that CP accompanies neutrophil recruitment to the lung and accumulates at foci of infection in a murine model of A. baumannii pneumonia. CP contributes to host survival and control of bacterial replication in the lung and limits dissemination to secondary sites. Using CP as a probe identified an A. baumannii Zn acquisition system that contributes to Zn uptake, enabling this organism to resist CP-mediated metal chelation, which enhances pathogenesis. Moreover, evidence is provided that Zn uptake across the outer membrane is an energy-dependent process in A. baumannii. Finally, it is shown that Zn limitation reverses carbapenem resistance in multidrug resistant A. baumannii underscoring the clinical relevance of these findings. Taken together, these data establish Zn acquisition systems as viable therapeutic targets to combat multidrug resistant A. baumannii infections.

  11. THE USE OF 3D SCANNING AND RAPID PROTOTYPING IN MEDICAL ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian CIOBANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available New cost effective scanning and modeling techniques are used today to process data acquisition and3D reconstruction in order to fabricate prostheses and orthoses by 3D printing. Paper approaches two scanningand 3D modeling techniques used in order to fabricate orthoses and prostheses. In this study, an artificialprosthetic ear was produced through 3D printing using two scanning techniques: structured light scanningtechnique and single camera stereo photogrammetric scanning technique. The processing phases are describedand discussed from data acquisition to 3D printing. The surface scanning and 3D reconstruction techniques willcontinue to increase the accessibility of prostheses and orthoses, making them more cost-effective and morecomfortable.

  12. 3D printing in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435

  13. 3D printing in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  14. PLOT3D user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  15. 3D modeling of buildings outstanding sites

    CERN Document Server

    Héno, Rapha?le

    2014-01-01

    Conventional topographic databases, obtained by capture on aerial or spatial images provide a simplified 3D modeling of our urban environment, answering the needs of numerous applications (development, risk prevention, mobility management, etc.). However, when we have to represent and analyze more complex sites (monuments, civil engineering works, archeological sites, etc.), these models no longer suffice and other acquisition and processing means have to be implemented. This book focuses on the study of adapted lifting means for "notable buildings". The methods tackled in this book cover las

  16. 3-D Video Processing for 3-D TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Kwanghoon; Kim, Hansung; Kim, Yongtae

    One of the most desirable ways of realizing high quality information and telecommunication services has been called "The Sensation of Reality," which can be achieved by visual communication based on 3-D (Three-dimensional) images. These kinds of 3-D imaging systems have revealed potential applications in the fields of education, entertainment, medical surgery, video conferencing, etc. Especially, three-dimensional television (3-D TV) is believed to be the next generation of TV technology. Figure 13.1 shows how TV's display technologies have evolved , and Fig. 13.2 details the evolution of TV broadcasting as forecasted by the ETRI (Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute). It is clear that 3-D TV broadcasting will be the next development in this field, and realistic broadcasting will soon follow.

  17. DNA Self-Assembly For Constructing 3D Boxes

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Ming-Yang; Ramachandran, Vijay

    2001-01-01

    We propose a mathematical model of DNA self-assembly using 2D tiles to form 3D nanostructures. This is the first work to combine studies in self-assembly and nanotechnology in 3D, just as Rothemund and Winfree did in the 2D case. Our model is a more precise superset of their Tile Assembly Model that facilitates building scalable 3D molecules. Under our model, we present algorithms to build a hollow cube, which is intuitively one of the simplest 3D structures to construct. We also introduce fi...

  18. 3D PERSPECTIVE OF MAXILLOFACIAL TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM Role of 3 Dimensional Computed Tomography in facial fractures. METHODS AND MATERIALS 133 patients with history of head trauma were scanned using multi slice CT for a period of 2 yrs. Data acquisition was performed using - 16 Slice GE Bright Speed Elite CT Scanner. The datasets were transferred to workstation and VR post-processing protocols were applied. RESULTS 122 patients were male and 11 were female. The mean age of patients with fractures was 32.3 years old. Fractures included the mandible, the maxilla, the frontal bone, the zygomatic arch and the nasal bone. CONCLUSION Continuing advances in computer software algorithms and improved precision in the acquisition of radiographic data makes 3D reformatted CT imaging a necessary complement to traditional 2D CT imaging in the management of complex facial trauma. CT is the investigation of choice in the evaluation of patients with maxillofacial trauma.

  19. ADT-3D Tumor Detection Assistant in 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Lazcano Bello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present document describes ADT-3D (Three-Dimensional Tumor Detector Assistant, a prototype application developed to assist doctors diagnose, detect and locate tumors in the brain by using CT scan. The reader may find on this document an introduction to tumor detection; ADT-3D main goals; development details; description of the product; motivation for its development; result’s study; and areas of applicability.

  20. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  1. Handbook of 3D integration

    CERN Document Server

    Garrou , Philip; Ramm , Peter

    2014-01-01

    Edited by key figures in 3D integration and written by top authors from high-tech companies and renowned research institutions, this book covers the intricate details of 3D process technology.As such, the main focus is on silicon via formation, bonding and debonding, thinning, via reveal and backside processing, both from a technological and a materials science perspective. The last part of the book is concerned with assessing and enhancing the reliability of the 3D integrated devices, which is a prerequisite for the large-scale implementation of this emerging technology. Invaluable reading fo

  2. Tuotekehitysprojekti: 3D-tulostin

    OpenAIRE

    Pihlajamäki, Janne

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutustuttiin 3D-tulostamisen teknologiaan. Työssä käytiin läpi 3D-tulostimesta tehty tuotekehitysprojekti. Sen lisäksi esiteltiin yleisellä tasolla tuotekehitysprosessi ja syntyneiden tulosten mahdollisia suojausmenetelmiä. Tavoitteena tässä työssä oli kehittää markkinoilta jo löytyvää kotitulostin-tasoista 3D-laiteteknologiaa lähemmäksi ammattilaistason ratkaisua. Tavoitteeseen pyrittiin keskittymällä parantamaan laitteella saavutettavaa tulostustarkkuutta ja -nopeutt...

  3. 3D on the internet

    OpenAIRE

    Puntar, Matej

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is the presentation of already established and new technologies of displaying 3D content in a web browser. The thesis begins with a short presentation of the history of 3D content available on the internet and its development together with advantages and disadvantages of individual technologies. The latter two are described in detail as well is their use and the differences among them. Special emphasis has been given to WebGL, the newest technology of 3D conte...

  4. Color 3D Reverse Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a principle and a method of col or 3D laser scanning measurement. Based on the fundamental monochrome 3D measureme nt study, color information capture, color texture mapping, coordinate computati on and other techniques are performed to achieve color 3D measurement. The syste m is designed and composed of a line laser light emitter, one color CCD camera, a motor-driven rotary filter, a circuit card and a computer. Two steps in captu ring object's images in the measurement process: Firs...

  5. Exploration of 3D Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Zeyu

    2014-01-01

    3D printing technology is introduced and defined in this Thesis. Some methods of 3D printing are illustrated and their principles are explained with pictures. Most of the essential parts are presented with pictures and their effects are explained within the whole system. Problems on Up! Plus 3D printer are solved and a DIY product is made with this machine. The processes of making product are recorded and the items which need to be noticed during the process are the highlight in this th...

  6. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    that significantly contributed to the hundred-year flooding in Dresden in 2002, we empirically evaluated the usefulness of this immersive 3D technology towards learning success. Results show that immersive 3D geovisualisation have educational and content-related advantages compared to 2D geovisualisations through the mentioned benefits. This innovative way of geovisualisation is thus not only entertaining and motivating for students, but can also be constructive for research studies by, for instance, facilitating the study of complex environments or decision-making processes.

  7. 3D seismic survey in Honjo, Akita. Problems and struggles in acquisition and processing; Akitaken Honjo koku ni okeru sanjigen jishin tansa. Genba sagyo to data shori ni okeru mondaiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imahori, S.; Kotera, Y.; Nakanishi, T. [Japan Energy Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Honjo mining area where investigations are conducted is hilly and has a complicated terrain with gas pipes buried in the ground just under the access road disabling the proper positioning of shock-generating large excavators or vibrators. Auger`s shallow hole shooting method is used in this survey to execute blastings at 639 points. In this method using charge depths of 4m, different from the conventional method using deeper charge depths (20-25m), surface waves prevail in the shot records giving rise to a new problem of removing them in the stage of data processing. The 2D filter that is a powerful tool in 2D data processing is not available in a 3D-survey where the tracing intervals are irregular in the shot records. In the effort of this time, a window length as a parameter in the direction of time is specified, and the F-X dip filtering method is employed in which any event that linearly continues beyond a certain number of traces in the said window is eliminated as a linear noise. It is recommended that the weighting function be changed in the direction of space since surface wave velocities are different at different locations. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Materialedreven 3d digital formgivning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede

    2010-01-01

    traditionel keramisk produktionssammenhæng. Problemstillingen opmuntrede endvidere til i et samarbejde med en programmør at udvikle et 3d digitalt redskab, der er blevet kaldt et digitalt interaktivt formgivningsredskab (DIF). Eksperimentet undersøger interaktive 3d digitale dynamiske systemer, der...... samarbejder med designere fra fagområder som interaktionsdesign og programmering. Afhandlingen peger på et fremtidigt forskningsfelt indenfor generative og responderende digitale systemer til 3d formgivning, der ligeledes inkluderer følesansen. Endvidere er det relevant at forske i, hvordan de RP teknikker...... formgivning og Rapid Prototyping (RP). RP er en fællesbetegnelse for en række af de teknikker, der muliggør at overføre den digitale form til 3d fysisk form. Forskningsprojektet koncentrerer sig om to overordnede forskningsspørgsmål. Det første handler om, hvordan viden og erfaring indenfor det keramiske...

  9. Dissection of C. elegans behavioral genetics in 3-D environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Namseop; Hwang, Ara B; You, Young-Jai; V Lee, Seung-Jae; Je, Jung Ho

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a widely used model for genetic dissection of animal behaviors. Despite extensive technical advances in imaging methods, it remains challenging to visualize and quantify C. elegans behaviors in three-dimensional (3-D) natural environments. Here we developed an innovative 3-D imaging method that enables quantification of C. elegans behavior in 3-D environments. Furthermore, for the first time, we characterized 3-D-specific behavioral phenotypes of mutant worms that have defects in head movement or mechanosensation. This approach allowed us to reveal previously unknown functions of genes in behavioral regulation. We expect that our 3-D imaging method will facilitate new investigations into genetic basis of animal behaviors in natural 3-D environments.

  10. 3D Face Apperance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations......We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations...

  11. Main: TATCCAYMOTIFOSRAMY3D [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TATCCAYMOTIFOSRAMY3D S000256 01-August-2006 (last modified) kehi TATCCAY motif foun...d in rice (O.s.) RAmy3D alpha-amylase gene promoter; Y=T/C; a GATA motif as its antisense sequence; TATCCAY ...motif and G motif (see S000130) are responsible for sugar repression (Toyofuku et al. 1998); GATA; amylase; sugar; repression; rice (Oryza sativa) TATCCAY ...

  12. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  13. AI 3D Cybug Gaming

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this short paper I briefly discuss 3D war Game based on artificial intelligence concepts called AI WAR. Going in to the details, I present the importance of CAICL language and how this language is used in AI WAR. Moreover I also present a designed and implemented 3D War Cybug for AI WAR using CAICL and discus the implemented strategy to defeat its enemies during the game life.

  14. 3D Face Appearance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Åström, Kalle

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}......We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}...

  15. Intraoperative 3-D mapping of parathyroid adenoma using freehand SPECT

    OpenAIRE

    Rahbar, K.; Colombo-Benkmann, M. (Mario); Haane, C. (Christina); Wenning, C. (Christian); Vrachimis, A. (Alexis); Weckesser, J.M. (Jochen); Schober, O.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Freehand single photon emission computed tomography (fSPECT) is a three-dimensional (3-D) tomographic imaging modality based on data acquisition with a handheld detector that is moved freely, in contrast to conventional, gantry-mounted gamma camera systems. In this pilot study, we evaluated the feasibility of fSPECT for intraoperative 3-D mapping in patients with parathyroid adenomas. Methods: Three patients (range 30 to 45 years) diagnosed with hyperparathyroidism (one primary...

  16. Exploring the educational potential of 3D virtual environments

    OpenAIRE

    Esteve Mon, Francesc Marc; Mercè GISBERT CERVERA

    2013-01-01

    3D virtual environments are advanced technology systems, with some potentialities in the teaching and learning process.In recent years, different institutions have promoted the acquisition of XXI century skills. Competences such as initiative, teamwork, creativity, flexibility or digital literacy.Multi-user virtual environments, sometimes called virtual worlds or 3D simulators, are immersive, interactive, customizable, accessible and programmable systems. This kind of environments allow to de...

  17. Acquisition and Analysis of Propeller Airfoil Data Based on 3D Measurement%基于三维测量的螺旋桨翼型数据获取与分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任建勋

    2014-01-01

    为了在设计多旋翼无人机过程中,合理选择与设计电动机-螺旋桨动力系统,同时也达到系统优化设计的目的,基于逆向工程原理对某型螺旋桨进行三维测量,获得点云数据。提出了一种获得翼型精确攻角和弦长的方法,并对29个数据进行拟合得到攻角和弦长随距离的变化曲线。通过仿真得到了翼型的升力系数、阻力系数和转矩系数,为多旋翼无人机设计过程中与螺旋桨相关的数学计算提供了依据。%In the design of multi rotor UAV in the process, the rational choice and design of motor propeller power system, but also achieve system optimization design, a propeller for 3D me-asurement based on the principle of reverse engineering, get to the point cloud data. This paper presents a method for obtaining accurate attack angle and chordof airfoil, and the 29 data fit-ting curves of chord length of the angle of attackrange. This article obtained through simulation, the lift coefficient of air-foil drag and torque coefficients, the basis is provided for the calculation of propellerrelated multi rotor UAV design process of mathematics.

  18. MPML3D: Scripting Agents for the 3D Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendinger, Helmut; Ullrich, Sebastian; Nakasone, Arturo; Ishizuka, Mitsuru

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this paper is two-fold. First, it describes a scripting language for specifying communicative behavior and interaction of computer-controlled agents ("bots") in the popular three-dimensional (3D) multiuser online world of "Second Life" and the emerging "OpenSimulator" project. While tools for designing avatars and in-world objects in Second Life exist, technology for nonprogrammer content creators of scenarios involving scripted agents is currently missing. Therefore, we have implemented new client software that controls bots based on the Multimodal Presentation Markup Language 3D (MPML3D), a highly expressive XML-based scripting language for controlling the verbal and nonverbal behavior of interacting animated agents. Second, the paper compares Second Life and OpenSimulator platforms and discusses the merits and limitations of each from the perspective of agent control. Here, we also conducted a small study that compares the network performance of both platforms.

  19. From 3D view to 3D print

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  20. GesRec3D: a real-time coded gesture-to-speech system with automatic segmentation and recognition thresholding using dissimilarity measures

    OpenAIRE

    Craven, Michael P; Curtis, K. Mervyn

    2004-01-01

    A complete microcomputer system is described, GesRec3D, which facilitates the data acquisition, segmentation, learning, and recognition of 3-Dimensional arm gestures, with application as a Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) aid for people with motor and speech disability. The gesture data is acquired from a Polhemus electro-magnetic tracker system, with sensors attached to the finger, wrist and elbow of one arm. Coded gestures are linked to user-defined text, to be spoken by a t...

  1. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  2. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  3. Novel 3D media technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2015-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Project ROMEO, which focuses on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the future Internet. The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of consistent video quality to fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will present hybrid networking solutions that combine the DVB-T2 and DVB-NGH broadcas...

  4. 3D future internet media

    CERN Document Server

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2014-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The main contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Projects ROMEO, which focus on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the Future Internet (www.ict-romeo.eu). The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of constant video quality to both fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will design and develop hybrid-networking solutions that co...

  5. 3D Imager and Method for 3D imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, P.; Staszewski, R.; Charbon, E.

    2013-01-01

    3D imager comprising at least one pixel, each pixel comprising a photodetectorfor detecting photon incidence and a time-to-digital converter system configured for referencing said photon incidence to a reference clock, and further comprising a reference clock generator provided for generating the re

  6. Modification of 3D milling machine to 3D printer

    OpenAIRE

    Halamíček, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá přestavbou gravírovací frézky na 3D tiskárnu. V první části se práce zabývá možnými technologiemi 3D tisku a možností jejich využití u přestavby. Dále jsou popsány a vybrány vhodné součásti pro přestavbu. V další části je realizováno řízení ohřevu podložky, trysky a řízení posuvu drátu pomocí softwaru TwinCat od společnosti Beckhoff na průmyslovém počítači. Výsledkem práce by měla být oživená 3D tiskárna. This thesis deals with rebuilding of engraving machine to 3D pri...

  7. Emerging Applications of Bedside 3D Printing in Plastic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Chae

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern imaging techniques are an essential component of preoperative planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, conventional modalities, including three-dimensional (3D reconstructions, are limited by their representation on 2D workstations. 3D printing has been embraced by early adopters to produce medical imaging-guided 3D printed biomodels that facilitate various aspects of clinical practice. The cost and size of 3D printers have rapidly decreased over the past decade in parallel with the expiration of key 3D printing patents. With increasing accessibility, investigators are now able to convert standard imaging data into Computer Aided Design (CAD files using various 3D reconstruction softwares and ultimately fabricate 3D models using 3D printing techniques, such as stereolithography (SLA, multijet modeling (MJM, selective laser sintering (SLS, binder jet technique (BJT, and fused deposition modeling (FDM. Significant improvements in clinical imaging and user-friendly 3D software have permitted computer-aided 3D modeling of anatomical structures and implants without out-sourcing in many cases. These developments offer immense potential for the application of 3D printing at the bedside for a variety of clinical applications. However, many clinicians have questioned whether the cost-to-benefit ratio justifies its ongoing use. In this review the existing uses of 3D printing in plastic surgery practice, spanning the spectrum from templates for facial transplantation surgery through to the formation of bespoke craniofacial implants to optimize post-operative aesthetics, are described. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of 3D printing to become an essential office-based tool in plastic surgery to assist in preoperative planning, patient and surgical trainee education, and the development of intraoperative guidance tools and patient-specific prosthetics in everyday surgical practice.

  8. Markerless 3D Face Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walder, Christian; Breidt, Martin; Bulthoff, Heinrich;

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for the markerless tracking of deforming surfaces such as faces. We acquire a sequence of 3D scans along with color images at 40Hz. The data is then represented by implicit surface and color functions, using a novel partition-of-unity type method of efficiently...... combining local regressors using nearest neighbor searches. Both these functions act on the 4D space of 3D plus time, and use temporal information to handle the noise in individual scans. After interactive registration of a template mesh to the first frame, it is then automatically deformed to track...... the scanned surface, using the variation of both shape and color as features in a dynamic energy minimization problem. Our prototype system yields high-quality animated 3D models in correspondence, at a rate of approximately twenty seconds per timestep. Tracking results for faces and other objects...

  9. Crowded Field 3D Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, T; Roth, M M; Becker, Thomas; Fabrika, Sergei; Roth, Martin M.

    2003-01-01

    The quantitative spectroscopy of stellar objects in complex environments is mainly limited by the ability of separating the object from the background. Standard slit spectroscopy, restricting the field of view to one dimension, is obviously not the proper technique in general. The emerging Integral Field (3D) technique with spatially resolved spectra of a two-dimensional field of view provides a great potential for applying advanced subtraction methods. In this paper an image reconstruction algorithm to separate point sources and a smooth background is applied to 3D data. Several performance tests demonstrate the photometric quality of the method. The algorithm is applied to real 3D observations of a sample Planetary Nebula in M31, whose spectrum is contaminated by the bright and complex galaxy background. The ability of separating sources is also studied in a crowded stellar field in M33.

  10. 3D-grafiikkamoottori mobiililaitteille

    OpenAIRE

    Vahlman, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    Tässä insinöörityössä käydään läpi mobiililaitteille suunnatun yksinkertaisen 3D-grafiikkamoottorin suunnittelu ja toteutus käyttäen OpenGL ES -rajapintaa. Työssä esitellään grafiikkamoottorin toteutuksessa käytettyjä tekniikoita sekä tutustutaan moottorin rakenteeseen ja toteutuksellisiin yksityiskohtiin. Työn alkupuolella tutustutaan myös modernin 3D-grafiikan yleisiin periaatteisiin ja toimintaan sekä käydään läpi 3D-grafiikkaan liittyviä suorituskykyongelmia. Työn loppupuolella esitel...

  11. 3D vector flow imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for 3D vector flow imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of velocity estimation in ultrasound, which plays an important role in the clinic. The velocity of blood has components in all three spatial dimensions, yet...... conventional methods can estimate only the axial component. Several approaches for 3D vector velocity estimation have been suggested, but none of these methods have so far produced convincing in vivo results nor have they been adopted by commercial manufacturers. The basis for this project is the Transverse...... on the TO fields are suggested. They can be used to optimize the TO method. In the third part, a TO method for 3D vector velocity estimation is proposed. It employs a 2D phased array transducer and decouples the velocity estimation into three velocity components, which are estimated simultaneously based on 5...

  12. Microfluidic 3D Helix Mixers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgette B. Salieb-Beugelaar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric microfluidic systems are well suited for miniaturized devices with complex functionality, and rapid prototyping methods for 3D microfluidic structures are increasingly used. Mixing at the microscale and performing chemical reactions at the microscale are important applications of such systems and we therefore explored feasibility, mixing characteristics and the ability to control a chemical reaction in helical 3D channels produced by the emerging thread template method. Mixing at the microscale is challenging because channel size reduction for improving solute diffusion comes at the price of a reduced Reynolds number that induces a strictly laminar flow regime and abolishes turbulence that would be desired for improved mixing. Microfluidic 3D helix mixers were rapidly prototyped in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS using low-surface energy polymeric threads, twisted to form 2-channel and 3-channel helices. Structure and flow characteristics were assessed experimentally by microscopy, hydraulic measurements and chromogenic reaction, and were modeled by computational fluid dynamics. We found that helical 3D microfluidic systems produced by thread templating allow rapid prototyping, can be used for mixing and for controlled chemical reaction with two or three reaction partners at the microscale. Compared to the conventional T-shaped microfluidic system used as a control device, enhanced mixing and faster chemical reaction was found to occur due to the combination of diffusive mixing in small channels and flow folding due to the 3D helix shape. Thus, microfluidic 3D helix mixers can be rapidly prototyped using the thread template method and are an attractive and competitive method for fluid mixing and chemical reactions at the microscale.

  13. 3D structure of muscle dihydropyridine receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Samsó

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excitation contraction coupling, the rapid and massive Ca2+ release under control of an action potential that triggers muscle contraction, takes places at specialized regions of the cell called triad junctions. There, a highly ordered supramolecular complex between the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR and the ryanodine receptor (RyR1 mediates the quasi‐instantaneous conversion from T‐tubule depolarization into Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR. The DHPR has several key modules required for EC coupling: the voltage sensors and II‐III loop in the alpha1s subunit, and the beta subunit. To gain insight into their molecular organization, this review examines the most updated 3D structure of the DHPR as obtained by transmission electron microscopy and image reconstruction. Although structure determination of a heteromeric membrane protein such as the DHPR is challenging, novel technical advances in protein expression and 3D labeling facilitated this task. The 3D structure of the DHPR complex consists of a main body with five irregular corners around its perimeter encompassing the transmembrane alpha 1s subunit besides the intracellular beta subunit, an extended extracellular alpha 2 subunit, and a bulky intracellular II‐III loop. The structural definition attained at 19 Å resolution enabled docking of the atomic coordinates of structural homologs of the alpha1s and beta subunits. These structural features, together with their relative location with respect to the RyR1, are discussed in the context of the functional data.

  14. Ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel [Departamento Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. de Montes, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Vazquez, Daniel; Bernabeu, Eusebio [Departamento de Optica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Fac. CC. Fisicas, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used for producing reflective and refractive optical devices, including reverse engineering techniques. In this paper we apply photometric field theory and elliptic ray bundles method to study 3D asymmetric - without rotational or translational symmetry - concentrators, which can be useful components for nontracking solar applications. We study the one-sheet hyperbolic concentrator and we demonstrate its behaviour as ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator. (author)

  15. Advanced 3-D Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer

    The main purpose of the PhD project was to develop methods that increase the 3-D ultrasound imaging quality available for the medical personnel in the clinic. Acquiring a 3-D volume gives the medical doctor the freedom to investigate the measured anatomy in any slice desirable after the scan has...... beamforming. This is achieved partly because synthetic aperture imaging removes the limitation of a fixed transmit focal depth and instead enables dynamic transmit focusing. Lately, the major ultrasound companies have produced ultrasound scanners using 2-D transducer arrays with enough transducer elements...

  16. Integration of real-time 3D capture, reconstruction, and light-field display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Li, Tuotuo; Pei, Renjing; Liu, Yongchun; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-03-01

    Effective integration of 3D acquisition, reconstruction (modeling) and display technologies into a seamless systems provides augmented experience of visualizing and analyzing real objects and scenes with realistic 3D sensation. Applications can be found in medical imaging, gaming, virtual or augmented reality and hybrid simulations. Although 3D acquisition, reconstruction, and display technologies have gained significant momentum in recent years, there seems a lack of attention on synergistically combining these components into a "end-to-end" 3D visualization system. We designed, built and tested an integrated 3D visualization system that is able to capture in real-time 3D light-field images, perform 3D reconstruction to build 3D model of the objects, and display the 3D model on a large autostereoscopic screen. In this article, we will present our system architecture and component designs, hardware/software implementations, and experimental results. We will elaborate on our recent progress on sparse camera array light-field 3D acquisition, real-time dense 3D reconstruction, and autostereoscopic multi-view 3D display. A prototype is finally presented with test results to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed integrated 3D visualization system.

  17. PubChem3D: Biologically relevant 3-D similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sunghwan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of 3-D similarity techniques in the analysis of biological data and virtual screening is pervasive, but what is a biologically meaningful 3-D similarity value? Can one find statistically significant separation between "active/active" and "active/inactive" spaces? These questions are explored using 734,486 biologically tested chemical structures, 1,389 biological assay data sets, and six different 3-D similarity types utilized by PubChem analysis tools. Results The similarity value distributions of 269.7 billion unique conformer pairs from 734,486 biologically tested compounds (all-against-all from PubChem were utilized to help work towards an answer to the question: what is a biologically meaningful 3-D similarity score? The average and standard deviation for the six similarity measures STST-opt, CTST-opt, ComboTST-opt, STCT-opt, CTCT-opt, and ComboTCT-opt were 0.54 ± 0.10, 0.07 ± 0.05, 0.62 ± 0.13, 0.41 ± 0.11, 0.18 ± 0.06, and 0.59 ± 0.14, respectively. Considering that this random distribution of biologically tested compounds was constructed using a single theoretical conformer per compound (the "default" conformer provided by PubChem, further study may be necessary using multiple diverse conformers per compound; however, given the breadth of the compound set, the single conformer per compound results may still apply to the case of multi-conformer per compound 3-D similarity value distributions. As such, this work is a critical step, covering a very wide corpus of chemical structures and biological assays, creating a statistical framework to build upon. The second part of this study explored the question of whether it was possible to realize a statistically meaningful 3-D similarity value separation between reputed biological assay "inactives" and "actives". Using the terminology of noninactive-noninactive (NN pairs and the noninactive-inactive (NI pairs to represent comparison of the "active/active" and

  18. 3D Tissue Culturing: Tissue in Cube: In Vitro 3D Culturing Platform with Hybrid Gel Cubes for Multidirectional Observations (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 13/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Masaya; Kawahara, Tomohiro; Nobata, Rina

    2016-07-01

    An in vitro 3D culturing platform enabling multidirectional observations of 3D biosamples is presented by M. Hagiwara and co-workers on page 1566. 3D recognition of a sample structure can be achieved by facilitating multi-directional views using a standard microscope without a laser system. The cubic platform has the potential to promote 3D culture studies, offering easy handling and compatibility with commercial culture plates at a low price tag. PMID:27384934

  19. 3D Face Apperance Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations

  20. 3D Face Appearance Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Åström, Kalle

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}

  1. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  2. When Art Meets 3D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The presentation of the vanguard work,My Dream3D,the innovative production by the China Disabled People’s Performing Art Troupe(CDPPAT),directed by Joy Joosang Park,provided the film’s domestic premiere at Beijing’s Olympic Park onApril7.The show provided an intriguing insight not

  3. 3D terahertz beam profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Strikwerda, Andrew; Wang, Tianwu;

    2013-01-01

    We present a characterization of THz beams generated in both a two-color air plasma and in a LiNbO3 crystal. Using a commercial THz camera, we record intensity images as a function of distance through the beam waist, from which we extract 2D beam profiles and visualize our measurements into 3D beam...

  4. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  5. Viewing galaxies in 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Krajnović, Davor

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to a technique that reveals galaxies in 3D, astronomers can now show that many galaxies have been wrongly classified. Davor Krajnovi\\'c argues that the classification scheme proposed 85 years ago by Edwin Hubble now needs to be revised.

  6. An Automated 3d Indoor Topological Navigation Network Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, A.; Rahman, A. A.; Boguslawski, P.; Gold, C. M.

    2015-10-01

    Indoor navigation is important for various applications such as disaster management and safety analysis. In the last decade, indoor environment has been a focus of wide research; that includes developing techniques for acquiring indoor data (e.g. Terrestrial laser scanning), 3D indoor modelling and 3D indoor navigation models. In this paper, an automated 3D topological indoor network generated from inaccurate 3D building models is proposed. In a normal scenario, 3D indoor navigation network derivation needs accurate 3D models with no errors (e.g. gap, intersect) and two cells (e.g. rooms, corridors) should touch each other to build their connections. The presented 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. For reducing time and cost of indoor building data acquisition process, Trimble LaserAce 1000 as surveying instrument is used. The modelling results were validated against an accurate geometry of indoor building environment which was acquired using Trimble M3 total station.

  7. A 3-D SAR approach to IFSAR processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOERRY,ARMIN W.; BICKEL,DOUGLAS L.

    2000-03-01

    Interferometric SAR (IFSAR) can be shown to be a special case of 3-D SAR image formation. In fact, traditional IFSAR processing results in the equivalent of merely a super-resolved, under-sampled, 3-D SAR image. However, when approached as a 3-D SAR problem, a number of IFSAR properties and anomalies are easily explained. For example, IFSAR decorrelation with height is merely ordinary migration in 3-D SAR. Consequently, treating IFSAR as a 3-D SAR problem allows insight and development of proper motion compensation techniques and image formation operations to facilitate optimal height estimation. Furthermore, multiple antenna phase centers and baselines are easily incorporated into this formulation, providing essentially a sparse array in the elevation dimension. This paper shows the Polar Format image formation algorithm extended to 3 dimensions, and then proceeds to apply it to the IFSAR collection geometry. This suggests a more optimal reordering of the traditional IFSAR processing steps.

  8. 3D Equilibrium Reconstructions in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, L. L.; Ferraro, N. W.; Strait, E. J.; Turnbull, A. D.; King, J. D.; Hirshman, H. P.; Lazarus, E. A.; Sontag, A. C.; Hanson, J.; Trevisan, G.

    2013-10-01

    Accurate and efficient 3D equilibrium reconstruction is needed in tokamaks for study of 3D magnetic field effects on experimentally reconstructed equilibrium and for analysis of MHD stability experiments with externally imposed magnetic perturbations. A large number of new magnetic probes have been recently installed in DIII-D to improve 3D equilibrium measurements and to facilitate 3D reconstructions. The V3FIT code has been in use in DIII-D to support 3D reconstruction and the new magnetic diagnostic design. V3FIT is based on the 3D equilibrium code VMEC that assumes nested magnetic surfaces. V3FIT uses a pseudo-Newton least-square algorithm to search for the solution vector. In parallel, the EFIT equilibrium reconstruction code is being extended to allow for 3D effects using a perturbation approach based on an expansion of the MHD equations. EFIT uses the cylindrical coordinate system and can include the magnetic island and stochastic effects. Algorithms are being developed to allow EFIT to reconstruct 3D perturbed equilibria directly making use of plasma response to 3D perturbations from the GATO, MARS-F, or M3D-C1 MHD codes. DIII-D 3D reconstruction examples using EFIT and V3FIT and the new 3D magnetic data will be presented. Work supported in part by US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-FG02-95ER54309 and DE-AC05-06OR23100.

  9. Priprava 3D modelov za 3D tisk

    OpenAIRE

    Pikovnik, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    Po mnenju nekaterih strokovnjakov bo aditivna proizvodnja (ali 3D tiskanje) spremenila proizvodnjo industrijo, saj si bo vsak posameznik lahko natisnil svoj objekt po želji. V diplomski nalogi so predstavljene nekatere tehnologije aditivne proizvodnje. V nadaljevanju diplomske naloge je predstavljena izdelava makete hiše v merilu 1:100, vse od modeliranja do tiskanja. Poseben poudarek je posvečen predelavi modela, da je primeren za tiskanje, kjer je razvit pristop za hitrejše i...

  10. Post processing of 3D models for 3D printing

    OpenAIRE

    Pikovnik, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    According to the opinion of some experts the additive manufacturing or 3D printing will change manufacturing industry, because any individual could print their own model according to his or her wishes. In this graduation thesis some of the additive manufacturing technologies are presented. Furthermore in the production of house scale model in 1:100 is presented, starting from modeling to printing. Special attention is given to postprocessing of the building model elements us...

  11. 3D Cameras: 3D Computer Vision of Wide Scope

    OpenAIRE

    May, Stefan; Pervoelz, Kai; Surmann, Hartmut

    2007-01-01

    First of all, a short comparison of range sensors and their underlying principles was given. The chapter further focused on 3D cameras. The latest innovations have given a significant improvement for the measurement accuracy, wherefore this technology has attracted attention in the robotics community. This was also the motivation for the examination in this chapter. On this account, several applications were presented, which represents common problems in the domain of autonomous robotics. For...

  12. DYNA3D2000*, Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: DYNA3D2000 is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation. 2 - Method of solution: Discretization of a continuous model transforms partial differential equations into algebraic equations. A numerical solution is then obtained by solving these algebraic equations through a direct time marching scheme. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Recent software improvements have eliminated most of the user identified limitations with dynamic memory allocation and a very large format description that has pushed potential problem sizes beyond the reach of most users. The dominant restrictions remain in code execution speed and robustness, which the developers constantly strive to improve

  13. AUTOMATIC TEXTURE RECONSTRUCTION OF 3D CITY MODEL FROM OBLIQUE IMAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Junhua; Deng, Fei; LI, XINWEI; WAN, FANG

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the photorealistic 3D city models are increasingly important in various geospatial applications related to virtual city tourism, 3D GIS, urban planning, real-estate management. Besides the acquisition of high-precision 3D geometric data, texture reconstruction is also a crucial step for generating high-quality and visually realistic 3D models. However, most of the texture reconstruction approaches are probably leading to texture fragmentation and memory inefficiency....

  14. THE USE OF 3D SCANNING AND RAPID PROTOTYPING IN MEDICAL ENGINEERING

    OpenAIRE

    Octavian CIOBANU; Gabriela CIOBANU

    2013-01-01

    New cost effective scanning and modeling techniques are used today to process data acquisition and3D reconstruction in order to fabricate prostheses and orthoses by 3D printing. Paper approaches two scanningand 3D modeling techniques used in order to fabricate orthoses and prostheses. In this study, an artificialprosthetic ear was produced through 3D printing using two scanning techniques: structured light scanningtechnique and single camera stereo photogrammetric scanning technique. The proc...

  15. Automated 3D reconstruction of interiors with multiple scan views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Vitor; Ng, Kia C.; Wolfart, Erik; Goncalves, Joao G. M.; Hogg, David C.

    1998-12-01

    This paper presents two integrated solutions for realistic 3D model acquisition and reconstruction; an early prototype, in the form of a push trolley, and a later prototype in the form of an autonomous robot. The systems encompass all hardware and software required, from laser and video data acquisition, processing and output of texture-mapped 3D models in VRML format, to batteries for power supply and wireless network communications. The autonomous version is also equipped with a mobile platform and other sensors for the purpose of automatic navigation. The applications for such a system range from real estate and tourism (e.g., showing a 3D computer model of a property to a potential buyer or tenant) or as tool for content creation (e.g., creating 3D models of heritage buildings or producing broadcast quality virtual studios). The system can also be used in industrial environments as a reverse engineering tool to update the design of a plant, or as a 3D photo-archive for insurance purposes. The system is Internet compatible: the photo-realistic models can be accessed via the Internet and manipulated interactively in 3D using a common Web browser with a VRML plug-in. Further information and example reconstructed models are available on- line via the RESOLV web-page at http://www.scs.leeds.ac.uk/resolv/.

  16. 3D Printing: Print the future of ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenbin; Zhang, Xiulan

    2014-08-26

    The three-dimensional (3D) printer is a new technology that creates physical objects from digital files. Recent technological advances in 3D printing have resulted in increased use of this technology in the medical field, where it is beginning to revolutionize medical and surgical possibilities. It is already providing medicine with powerful tools that facilitate education, surgical planning, and organ transplantation research. A good understanding of this technology will be beneficial to ophthalmologists. The potential applications of 3D printing in ophthalmology, both current and future, are explored in this article.

  17. Facilitating Leader Tacit Knowledge Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svec Vlastimil

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to identify how to support the moulding of tacit knowledge which is necessary for success in a managerial position within a framework for the preparation and developmentof managers. The paper is based on an analysis of expert publications and the results of a completed project. Research respondents and theorists agree with the necessity for active involvementof trainees. It is also important to develop knowledge within the framework of manager preparation with significant reflection on learning from mistakes. From the methods of tacit knowledge transfer a close collaboration with experienced people, working in teams, training of model situations, goal-directed interviews, coaching, job rotation, short term attachments and excursions seem to be the most beneficial. It is also important to pay attention to the cultivationof organisational culture, especially in the sense of accepting knowledge sharing as the norm.

  18. 3D reconstruction of tensors and vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defrise, Michel; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2005-02-17

    Here we have developed formulations for the reconstruction of 3D tensor fields from planar (Radon) and line-integral (X-ray) projections of 3D vector and tensor fields. Much of the motivation for this work is the potential application of MRI to perform diffusion tensor tomography. The goal is to develop a theory for the reconstruction of both Radon planar and X-ray or line-integral projections because of the flexibility of MRI to obtain both of these type of projections in 3D. The development presented here for the linear tensor tomography problem provides insight into the structure of the nonlinear MRI diffusion tensor inverse problem. A particular application of tensor imaging in MRI is the potential application of cardiac diffusion tensor tomography for determining in vivo cardiac fiber structure. One difficulty in the cardiac application is the motion of the heart. This presents a need for developing future theory for tensor tomography in a motion field. This means developing a better understanding of the MRI signal for diffusion processes in a deforming media. The techniques developed may allow the application of MRI tensor tomography for the study of structure of fiber tracts in the brain, atherosclerotic plaque, and spine in addition to fiber structure in the heart. However, the relations presented are also applicable to other fields in medical imaging such as diffraction tomography using ultrasound. The mathematics presented can also be extended to exponential Radon transform of tensor fields and to other geometric acquisitions such as cone beam tomography of tensor fields.

  19. 3D Printable Graphene Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-08

    In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  20. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W = 4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure.

  1. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  2. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  3. Extending 3D city models with legal information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, A. U.; Fuhrmann, T.; Navratil, G.

    2012-10-01

    3D city models represent existing physical objects and their topological and functional relations. In everyday life the rights and responsibilities connected to these objects, primarily legally defined rights and obligations but also other socially and culturally established rights, are of importance. The rights and obligations are defined in various laws and it is often difficult to identify the rules applicable for a certain case. The existing 2D cadastres show civil law rights and obligations and plans to extend them to provide information about public law restrictions for land use are in several countries under way. It is tempting to design extensions to the 3D city models to provide information about legal rights in 3D. The paper analyses the different types of information that are needed to reduce conflicts and to facilitate decisions about land use. We identify the role 3D city models augmented with planning information in 3D can play, but do not advocate a general conversion from 2D to 3D for the legal cadastre. Space is not anisotropic and the up/down dimension is practically very different from the two dimensional plane - this difference must be respected when designing spatial information systems. The conclusions are: (1) continue the current regime for ownership of apartments, which is not ownership of a 3D volume, but co-ownership of a building with exclusive use of some rooms; such exclusive use rights could be shown in a 3D city model; (2) ownership of 3D volumes for complex and unusual building situations can be reported in a 3D city model, but are not required everywhere; (3) indicate restrictions for land use and building in 3D city models, with links to the legal sources.

  4. Organizational Learning Goes Virtual?: A Study of Employees' Learning Achievement in Stereoscopic 3D Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kung Wong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to deepen understanding of the use of stereoscopic 3D technology (stereo3D) in facilitating organizational learning. The emergence of advanced virtual technologies, in particular to the stereo3D virtual reality, has fundamentally changed the ways in which organizations train their employees. However, in academic or…

  5. 3D Printing in Instructional Settings: Identifying a Curricular Hierarchy of Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abbie

    2015-01-01

    A report of a year-long study in which the author engaged in 3D printing activity in order to determine how to facilitate and support skill building, concept attainment, and increased confidence with its use among teachers. Use of 3D printing tools and their applications in instructional settings are discussed. A hierarchy of 3D printing…

  6. [Real time 3D echocardiography in congenital heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, P; Dulac, Y; Taktak, A; Villacèque, M

    2004-05-01

    The introduction of the 3D mode in echocardiography has led to its use in everyday clinical practice. One hundred and fifty real time 3D echocardiographic examinations were performed in 20 foetus, 110 children and 20 adults with various congenital heart lesions (shunts, valvular lesions, aortic diseases). The 4x matricial probe enables the instantaneous acquisition of transthoracic volumes. Four modes of 3D imaging were used: real time, total volume, colour Doppler and biplane. Quantitative measurements were performed at an outlying station. The feasibility of the method in the foetus, the child and the adult was respectively 90%, 99% and 85%. Real time 3D echocardiography did not affect the diagnoses made by standard echocardiography. The 3D imaging gave a more accurate description of atrial septal defects and congenital valvular lesions. Biplane imaging was decisive in the quantitative approach to aortic dilatation of Marfan's syndrome and in segmental analysis of the foetal heart. 3D colour Doppler imaging has been disappointing but the possibilities of volumic quantification of blood flow are very promising. The present limitations of the method are the inadequate resolution in the small child and the absence of quantitative measurement on the echograph. The facility of utilisation of the matricial probe should lead to routine usage of 3D echocardiography as with 2D and the Doppler modes. Its value should be decisive in many congenital cardiac lesions requiring surgery or interventional catheterisation. PMID:15214550

  7. Acquisition geometry analysis in complex 3D media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Veldhuizen, E.J.; Blacquiere, G.; Berkhout, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly, we must deal with complex subsurface structures in seismic exploration, often resulting in poor illumination and, therefore, poor image quality. Consequently, it is desirable to take into consideration the effects of wave propagation in the subsurface structure when designing an acquis

  8. 3D-Printing for Analytical Ultracentrifugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Abhiksha; Krynitsky, Jonathan; Pohida, Thomas J.; Zhao, Huaying

    2016-01-01

    Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a classical technique of physical biochemistry providing information on size, shape, and interactions of macromolecules from the analysis of their migration in centrifugal fields while free in solution. A key mechanical element in AUC is the centerpiece, a component of the sample cell assembly that is mounted between the optical windows to allow imaging and to seal the sample solution column against high vacuum while exposed to gravitational forces in excess of 300,000 g. For sedimentation velocity it needs to be precisely sector-shaped to allow unimpeded radial macromolecular migration. During the history of AUC a great variety of centerpiece designs have been developed for different types of experiments. Here, we report that centerpieces can now be readily fabricated by 3D printing at low cost, from a variety of materials, and with customized designs. The new centerpieces can exhibit sufficient mechanical stability to withstand the gravitational forces at the highest rotor speeds and be sufficiently precise for sedimentation equilibrium and sedimentation velocity experiments. Sedimentation velocity experiments with bovine serum albumin as a reference molecule in 3D printed centerpieces with standard double-sector design result in sedimentation boundaries virtually indistinguishable from those in commercial double-sector epoxy centerpieces, with sedimentation coefficients well within the range of published values. The statistical error of the measurement is slightly above that obtained with commercial epoxy, but still below 1%. Facilitated by modern open-source design and fabrication paradigms, we believe 3D printed centerpieces and AUC accessories can spawn a variety of improvements in AUC experimental design, efficiency and resource allocation. PMID:27525659

  9. 3D-Printing for Analytical Ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Abhiksha; Krynitsky, Jonathan; Pohida, Thomas J; Zhao, Huaying; Schuck, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a classical technique of physical biochemistry providing information on size, shape, and interactions of macromolecules from the analysis of their migration in centrifugal fields while free in solution. A key mechanical element in AUC is the centerpiece, a component of the sample cell assembly that is mounted between the optical windows to allow imaging and to seal the sample solution column against high vacuum while exposed to gravitational forces in excess of 300,000 g. For sedimentation velocity it needs to be precisely sector-shaped to allow unimpeded radial macromolecular migration. During the history of AUC a great variety of centerpiece designs have been developed for different types of experiments. Here, we report that centerpieces can now be readily fabricated by 3D printing at low cost, from a variety of materials, and with customized designs. The new centerpieces can exhibit sufficient mechanical stability to withstand the gravitational forces at the highest rotor speeds and be sufficiently precise for sedimentation equilibrium and sedimentation velocity experiments. Sedimentation velocity experiments with bovine serum albumin as a reference molecule in 3D printed centerpieces with standard double-sector design result in sedimentation boundaries virtually indistinguishable from those in commercial double-sector epoxy centerpieces, with sedimentation coefficients well within the range of published values. The statistical error of the measurement is slightly above that obtained with commercial epoxy, but still below 1%. Facilitated by modern open-source design and fabrication paradigms, we believe 3D printed centerpieces and AUC accessories can spawn a variety of improvements in AUC experimental design, efficiency and resource allocation.

  10. 3D-Printing for Analytical Ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Abhiksha; Krynitsky, Jonathan; Pohida, Thomas J; Zhao, Huaying; Schuck, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a classical technique of physical biochemistry providing information on size, shape, and interactions of macromolecules from the analysis of their migration in centrifugal fields while free in solution. A key mechanical element in AUC is the centerpiece, a component of the sample cell assembly that is mounted between the optical windows to allow imaging and to seal the sample solution column against high vacuum while exposed to gravitational forces in excess of 300,000 g. For sedimentation velocity it needs to be precisely sector-shaped to allow unimpeded radial macromolecular migration. During the history of AUC a great variety of centerpiece designs have been developed for different types of experiments. Here, we report that centerpieces can now be readily fabricated by 3D printing at low cost, from a variety of materials, and with customized designs. The new centerpieces can exhibit sufficient mechanical stability to withstand the gravitational forces at the highest rotor speeds and be sufficiently precise for sedimentation equilibrium and sedimentation velocity experiments. Sedimentation velocity experiments with bovine serum albumin as a reference molecule in 3D printed centerpieces with standard double-sector design result in sedimentation boundaries virtually indistinguishable from those in commercial double-sector epoxy centerpieces, with sedimentation coefficients well within the range of published values. The statistical error of the measurement is slightly above that obtained with commercial epoxy, but still below 1%. Facilitated by modern open-source design and fabrication paradigms, we believe 3D printed centerpieces and AUC accessories can spawn a variety of improvements in AUC experimental design, efficiency and resource allocation. PMID:27525659

  11. Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FROILAN G. DESTREZA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is for the BSHRM Students of Batangas State University (BatStateU ARASOF for the researchers believe that the Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer would be helpful in their degree program especially on making creative, artistic, personalized and decorative chocolate designs. The researchers used the Prototyping model as procedural method for the successful development and implementation of the hardware and software. This method has five phases which are the following: quick plan, quick design, prototype construction, delivery and feedback and communication. This study was evaluated by the BSHRM Students and the assessment of the respondents regarding the software and hardware application are all excellent in terms of Accuracy, Effecitveness, Efficiency, Maintainability, Reliability and User-friendliness. Also, the overall level of acceptability of the design project as evaluated by the respondents is excellent. With regard to the observation about the best raw material to use in 3D printing, the chocolate is good to use as the printed material is slightly distorted,durable and very easy to prepare; the icing is also good to use as the printed material is not distorted and is very durable but consumes time to prepare; the flour is not good as the printed material is distorted, not durable but it is easy to prepare. The computation of the economic viability level of 3d printer with reference to ROI is 37.14%. The recommendation of the researchers in the design project are as follows: adding a cooling system so that the raw material will be more durable, development of a more simplified version and improving the extrusion process wherein the user do not need to stop the printing process just to replace the empty syringe with a new one.

  12. Tehokas 3D-animaatiotuotanto

    OpenAIRE

    Järvinen, Manu

    2009-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin tehokasta tapaa toteuttaa minuutin mittainen animaatio Scene.org Awards -tapahtuman avajaisseremoniaan. Kyseinen video toteutettiin osana opinnäytetyötä. Työhön osallistui tekijän lisäksi 3D-mallintaja sekä muusikko. Työkaluina käytettiin pääasiassa Autodesk 3ds Max-, sekä Adobe After Effects- ja Adobe Photoshop -ohjelmia. Opinnäytetyö koostuu animaatioprojektin tuotantoputken ja tiedostonhallintamallin perinpohjaisesta läpikäymisestä sekä sen asian tutkimisesta...

  13. Virtual 3-D Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Paul Evison

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial reconstructions in archaeology allow empathy with people who lived in the past and enjoy considerable popularity with the public. It is a common misconception that facial reconstruction will produce an exact likeness; a resemblance is the best that can be hoped for. Research at Sheffield University is aimed at the development of a computer system for facial reconstruction that will be accurate, rapid, repeatable, accessible and flexible. This research is described and prototypical 3-D facial reconstructions are presented. Interpolation models simulating obesity, ageing and ethnic affiliation are also described. Some strengths and weaknesses in the models, and their potential for application in archaeology are discussed.

  14. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  15. How 3-D Movies Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕铁雄

    2011-01-01

    难度:★★★★☆词数:450 建议阅读时间:8分钟 Most people see out of two eyes. This is a basic fact of humanity,but it’s what makes possible the illusion of depth(纵深幻觉) that 3-D movies create. Human eyes are spaced about two inches apart, meaning that each eye gives the brain a slightly different perspective(透视感)on the same object. The brain then uses this variance to quickly determine an object’s distance.

  16. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  17. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  18. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  19. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  20. Full Parallax Integral 3D Display and Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Gook Lee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Full parallax integral 3D display is one of the promising future displays that provide different perspectives according to viewing direction. In this paper, the authors review the recent integral 3D display and image processing techniques for improving the performance, such as viewing resolution, viewing angle, etc.Design/methodology/approach – Firstly, to improve the viewing resolution of 3D images in the integral imaging display with lenslet array, the authors present 3D integral imaging display with focused mode using the time-multiplexed display. Compared with the original integral imaging with focused mode, the authors use the electrical masks and the corresponding elemental image set. In this system, the authors can generate the resolution-improved 3D images with the n×n pixels from each lenslet by using n×n time-multiplexed display. Secondly, a new image processing technique related to the elemental image generation for 3D scenes is presented. With the information provided by the Kinect device, the array of elemental images for an integral imaging display is generated.Findings – From their first work, the authors improved the resolution of 3D images by using the time-multiplexing technique through the demonstration of the 24 inch integral imaging system. Authors’ method can be applied to a practical application. Next, the proposed method with the Kinect device can gain a competitive advantage over other methods for the capture of integral images of big 3D scenes. The main advantage of fusing the Kinect and the integral imaging concepts is the acquisition speed, and the small amount of handled data.Originality / Value – In this paper, the authors review their recent methods related to integral 3D display and image processing technique.Research type – general review.

  1. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680

  2. 3D biometrics systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, David

    2013-01-01

    Includes discussions on popular 3D imaging technologies, combines them with biometric applications, and then presents real 3D biometric systems Introduces many efficient 3D feature extraction, matching, and fusion algorithms Techniques presented have been supported by experimental results using various 3D biometric classifications

  3. Demonstration: A smartphone 3D functional brain scanner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahlhut, Carsten; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Larsen, Jakob Eg;

    delivery, data acquisition, logging, brain state decoding, and 3D visualization of the cortical EEG sources. Custom-made software realized in Qt has been implemented on the phone, which allow for either the phone to process the EEG data locally or transmit it to a server when more advanced machine learning...... tools are preferred. Source localization is implemented locally on the phone with a 3D brain model consisting of 1,028 vertices and 2,048 triangles stored in the mobile application. Our system design benefits from the possibility of being able to integrate with multiple hardware platforms (smartphones...

  4. Reproducibility of Two 3-D Ultrasound Carotid Plaque Quantification Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graebe, Martin; Entrekin, Robert; Collet-Billon, Antoine;

    2014-01-01

    -sectional, 2-D freehand sweep and a mechanical 3-D ultrasound investigation of 62 carotid artery plaques is reported with intra-class correlation coefficients (with 95% confidence intervals). Inter-observer agreement was 0.60 (0.29-0.77) for the freehand method and 0.89 (0.83-0.93) for the mechanical 3-D...... acquisition. The use of semi-automated computerized planimetric measurements of plaque burden has high intra-observer repeatability, but is vulnerable to systematic inter-observer differences. For the 2-D freehand sweep, a considerable contribution to variation is introduced by the scanning procedure itself...

  5. 动态三维测量中图像同步高速投影与采集的原理及实现%The principle and realization method for the synchronization of high-speed image projection and acquisition in dynamic 3 D measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红; 钟凯; 詹国敏; 李中伟; 史玉升

    2015-01-01

    基于结构光的动态物体三维面形测量对航空航天、能源和汽车等领域的科学研究与工程应用具有重要作用。然而现有测量设备单次测量时间过长,难以实现对动态物体三维面形的测量,其中主要的难点在于图像高速同步投影与采集。提出了一种图像精确同步高速投影与采集的方法,该方法通过实验测定出数字微镜翻转延时和触发曝光延时,设计了帧触发信号、数字微镜翻转、LED光源点亮和相机曝光之间耦合工作的精确时序,从而实现了220帧/秒图像的精确投影与采集,为动态物体三维面形测量设备的开发提供了良好的技术基础。%The dynamic 3D measurement base on structured light measurement technology become more and more important in field of industrial aerospace,energy,and automotive.However,the existing device cost a long time for single measurement ,so it’s hard to realize the dynamic measurement ,the main difficulty lies to the synchronization between the projection image and acquisi -tion in a high speed .Propose a method for the exactly synchronization between the projection image and acquisition ,determine the digital micromirror flip time and trigger the exposure time through the experiment ,and design precise timing relationships among the frame trigger signal ,digital micromirror flip ,LED light source and the camera exposure ,so as to realize the 220 fps projection and acquisition image synchronously ,this method provides a good technical basis for the dynamic 3D measurement device devel-opment.

  6. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city

  7. Recent Advances in Visualizing 3D Flow with LIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interrante, Victoria; Grosch, Chester

    1998-01-01

    Line Integral Convolution (LIC), introduced by Cabral and Leedom in 1993, is an elegant and versatile technique for representing directional information via patterns of correlation in a texture. Although most commonly used to depict 2D flow, or flow over a surface in 3D, LIC methods can equivalently be used to portray 3D flow through a volume. However, the popularity of LIC as a device for illustrating 3D flow has historically been limited both by the computational expense of generating and rendering such a 3D texture and by the difficulties inherent in clearly and effectively conveying the directional information embodied in the volumetric output textures that are produced. In an earlier paper, we briefly discussed some of the factors that may underlie the perceptual difficulties that we can encounter with dense 3D displays and outlined several strategies for more effectively visualizing 3D flow with volume LIC. In this article, we review in more detail techniques for selectively emphasizing critical regions of interest in a flow and for facilitating the accurate perception of the 3D depth and orientation of overlapping streamlines, and we demonstrate new methods for efficiently incorporating an indication of orientation into a flow representation and for conveying additional information about related scalar quantities such as temperature or vorticity over a flow via subtle, continuous line width and color variations.

  8. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction.

  9. Photopolymers in 3D printing applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Ramji

    2014-01-01

    3D printing is an emerging technology with applications in several areas. The flexibility of the 3D printing system to use variety of materials and create any object makes it an attractive technology. Photopolymers are one of the materials used in 3D printing with potential to make products with better properties. Due to numerous applications of photopolymers and 3D printing technologies, this thesis is written to provide information about the various 3D printing technologies with particul...

  10. Natural fibre composites for 3D Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing has been common option for prototyping. Not all the materials are suitable for 3D printing. Various studies have been done and still many are ongoing regarding the suitability of the materials for 3D printing. This thesis work discloses the possibility of 3D printing of certain polymer composite materials. The main objective of this thesis work was to study the possibility for 3D printing the polymer composite material composed of natural fibre composite and various different ...

  11. Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi;

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained...... showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared...... with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described...

  12. 3D Energy Harvester Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Janicek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the characterization and evaluation of an MEMS based electrostatic generator, a part of the power supply unit of the self-powered microsystem[1,2,3]. The designed generator is based on electrostatic converter and uses the principle of conversion of non-electric energy into electrical energy by periodical modification of gap between electrodes of a capacitor [4]. The structure is designed and modeled as three-dimensional silicon based MEMS. Innovative approach involving the achievement of very low resonant frequency of the structure (about 100Hz by usage of modified long cantilever spring design, minimum area of the chip, 3D work mode, the ability to be tuned to reach desired parameters, proves promising directions of possible further development.

  13. Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Emnéus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements.

  14. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through. The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave. This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron. High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these structures, but their orientation and

  15. 3D Printed Micro Free-Flow Electrophoresis Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anciaux, Sarah K; Geiger, Matthew; Bowser, Michael T

    2016-08-01

    The cost, time, and restrictions on creative flexibility associated with current fabrication methods present significant challenges in the development and application of microfluidic devices. Additive manufacturing, also referred to as three-dimensional (3D) printing, provides many advantages over existing methods. With 3D printing, devices can be made in a cost-effective manner with the ability to rapidly prototype new designs. We have fabricated a micro free-flow electrophoresis (μFFE) device using a low-cost, consumer-grade 3D printer. Test prints were performed to determine the minimum feature sizes that could be reproducibly produced using 3D printing fabrication. Microfluidic ridges could be fabricated with dimensions as small as 20 μm high × 640 μm wide. Minimum valley dimensions were 30 μm wide × 130 μm wide. An acetone vapor bath was used to smooth acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) surfaces and facilitate bonding of fully enclosed channels. The surfaces of the 3D-printed features were profiled and compared to a similar device fabricated in a glass substrate. Stable stream profiles were obtained in a 3D-printed μFFE device. Separations of fluorescent dyes in the 3D-printed device and its glass counterpart were comparable. A μFFE separation of myoglobin and cytochrome c was also demonstrated on a 3D-printed device. Limits of detection for rhodamine 110 were determined to be 2 and 0.3 nM for the 3D-printed and glass devices, respectively. PMID:27377354

  16. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  17. Direct contrast-enhanced 3D MR venography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehm, S.G.; Debatin, J.F. [Univ. Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Zimny, K. [Univ. Hospital Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2001-01-01

    Non-enhanced two-dimensional (2D) time-of-flight (TOF) MRA is well established for imaging of the deep venous system. However, based on the acquisition of multiple axial images, it can be time-consuming and often fails to delineate small superficial and perforating veins. The presented low-dose direct-contrast-injection 3D MR venography technique allows rapid acquisition of high-quality MR venograms and can be employed for the display of the deep and superficial venous system of upper and lower extremity including pelvic and central thoracic veins. This article describes the employed technique and provides a comprehensive image-based overview of the various indications for direct-infusion 3D MR venography such as post-/ thrombotic changes, varicosities, and assessment of the greater saphenous vein prior to bypass surgery. (orig.)

  18. ORMGEN3D, 3-D Crack Geometry FEM Mesh Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: ORMGEN3D is a finite element mesh generator for computational fracture mechanics analysis. The program automatically generates a three-dimensional finite element model for six different crack geometries. These geometries include flat plates with straight or curved surface cracks and cylinders with part-through cracks on the outer or inner surface. Mathematical or user-defined crack shapes may be considered. The curved cracks may be semicircular, semi-elliptical, or user-defined. A cladding option is available that allows for either an embedded or penetrating crack in the clad material. 2 - Method of solution: In general, one eighth or one-quarter of the structure is modelled depending on the configuration or option selected. The program generates a core of special wedge or collapsed prism elements at the crack front to introduce the appropriate stress singularity at the crack tip. The remainder of the structure is modelled with conventional 20-node iso-parametric brick elements. Element group I of the finite element model consists of an inner core of special crack tip elements surrounding the crack front enclosed by a single layer of conventional brick elements. Eight element divisions are used in a plane orthogonal to the crack front, while the number of element divisions along the arc length of the crack front is user-specified. The remaining conventional brick elements of the model constitute element group II. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of 5,500 nodes, 4 layers of clad elements

  19. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-21

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K(+) channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44(+) EGFR(+) KV1.1(+) MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44(-) EGFR(-) KV1.1(+) 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorn N.P Paulsson

    2002-05-01

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This proposal takes direct aim at this shortcoming. P/GSI is developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This array will remove the acquisition barrier to record the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring. By using 3C surface seismic or borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore facilitate 9C reservoir imaging. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the fluid types. The data quality and the data volumes from a 400 level 3C array will allow us to develop the data processing technology necessary for high resolution reservoir imaging.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2002-09-01

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This proposal takes direct aim at this shortcoming. P/GSI is developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This array will remove the acquisition barrier to record the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore facilitate 9C reservoir imaging. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the fluid types. The data quality and the data volumes from a 400 level 3C array will allow us to develop the data processing technology necessary for high resolution reservoir imaging.

  2. Exploring the educational potential of 3D virtual environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Marc ESTEVE MON

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 3D virtual environments are advanced technology systems, with some potentialities in the teaching and learning process.In recent years, different institutions have promoted the acquisition of XXI century skills. Competences such as initiative, teamwork, creativity, flexibility or digital literacy.Multi-user virtual environments, sometimes called virtual worlds or 3D simulators, are immersive, interactive, customizable, accessible and programmable systems. This kind of environments allow to design educational complex activities to develop these key competences. For this purpose it’s necessary to set an appropriate teaching strategy to put this knowledge and skills into action, and design suitable mechanisms for registration and systematization. This paper analyzes the potential of these environments and presents two experiences in 3D virtual environments: (1 to develop teamwork and self-management skills, and (2 to assess digital literacy in preservice teachers.

  3. A 3D surface imaging system for assessing human obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B.; Yu, W.; Yao, M.; Yao, X.; Li, Q.; Pepper, M. R.; Freeland-Graves, J. H.

    2009-08-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity suggests a need to develop a convenient, reliable and economical tool for assessment of this condition. Three-dimensional (3D) body surface imaging has emerged as an exciting technology for estimation of body composition. This paper presents a new 3D body imaging system, which was designed for enhanced portability, affordability, and functionality. In this system, stereo vision technology was used to satisfy the requirements for a simple hardware setup and fast image acquisitions. The portability of the system was created via a two-stand configuration, and the accuracy of body volume measurements was improved by customizing stereo matching and surface reconstruction algorithms that target specific problems in 3D body imaging. Body measurement functions dedicated to body composition assessment also were developed. The overall performance of the system was evaluated in human subjects by comparison to other conventional anthropometric methods, as well as air displacement plethysmography, for body fat assessment.

  4. Semantic 3D object maps for everyday robot manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Rusu, Radu Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    The book written by Dr. Radu B. Rusu presents a detailed description of 3D Semantic Mapping in the context of mobile robot manipulation. As autonomous robotic platforms get more sophisticated manipulation capabilities, they also need more expressive and comprehensive environment models that include the objects present in the world, together with their position, form, and other semantic aspects, as well as interpretations of these objects with respect to the robot tasks.   The book proposes novel 3D feature representations called Point Feature Histograms (PFH), as well as frameworks for the acquisition and processing of Semantic 3D Object Maps with contributions to robust registration, fast segmentation into regions, and reliable object detection, categorization, and reconstruction. These contributions have been fully implemented and empirically evaluated on different robotic systems, and have been the original kernel to the widely successful open-source project the Point Cloud Library (PCL) -- see http://poi...

  5. Kuvaus 3D-tulostamisesta hammastekniikassa

    OpenAIRE

    Munne, Mauri; Mustonen, Tuomas; Vähäjylkkä, Jaakko

    2013-01-01

    3D-tulostaminen kehittyy nopeasti ja yleistyy koko ajan. Tulostimien tarkkuuksien kehittyessä 3D-tulostus on ottamassa myös jalansijaa hammastekniikan alalta. Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on kuvata 3D-tulostamisen tilaa hammastekniikassa. 3D-tulostaminen on Suomessa vielä melko harvinaista, joten opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on koota yhteen kaikki mahdollinen tieto liittyen 3D-tulostamiseen hammastekniikassa. Tavoitteena on myös 3D-tulostimen testaaminen käytännössä aina suun skannaami...

  6. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  7. 3D interactive visualization of crowd simulations at urban scale

    OpenAIRE

    Fanini, Bruno; Calori, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Digital representations of the urban environment have constantly increased their complexity: starting from fixed chunks of 2D segment depicting the building base to complex data-sets comprising several layer of information such as multi-resolution GIS data combined with on field 3D data acquisition. Cities in particular and urban development in general emerge from the bottom up, so crowd is an essential part of the city environment but it is often absent from most of the intera...

  8. Twenty-fold acceleration of 3D projection reconstruction MPI

    OpenAIRE

    Konkle, Justin J.; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Saritas, Emine Ulku; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Kuan; Conolly, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a 20-fold improvement in acquisition time in projection reconstruction (PR) magnetic particle imaging (MPI) relative to the state-of-the-art PR MPI imaging results. We achieve this acceleration in our imaging system by introducing an additional Helmholtz electromagnet pair, which creates a slow shift (focus) field. Because of magnetostimulation limits in humans, we show that scan time with three-dimensional (3D) PR MPI is theoretically within the same order of ma...

  9. Volumetric motion quantification by 3D tissue phase mapped CMR

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz Anja; Paul Jan; Bornstedt Axel; Nienhaus G; Etyngier Patrick; Bernhardt Peter; Rottbauer Wolfgang; Rasche Volker

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was the quantification of myocardial motion from 3D tissue phase mapped (TPM) CMR. Recent work on myocardial motion quantification by TPM has been focussed on multi-slice 2D acquisitions thus excluding motion information from large regions of the left ventricle. Volumetric motion assessment appears an important next step towards the understanding of the volumetric myocardial motion and hence may further improve diagnosis and treatments in patien...

  10. Ordered subsets convex algorithm for 3D terahertz transmission tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Recur, Benoît; Balacey, Hugo; Bou Sleiman, Joyce; Perraud, Jean-Baptiste; Guillet, Jean-Paul; Kingston, Andrew; Mounaix, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    International audience We investigate in this paper a new reconstruction method in order to perform 3D Terahertz (THz) tomography using a continuous wave acquisition setup in transmission mode. This method is based on the Maximum Likelihood for TRansmission tomography (ML-TR) first developed for X-ray imaging. We optimize the Ordered Subsets Convex (OSC) implementation of the ML-TR by including the Gaussian propagation model of THz waves and take into account the intensity distributions of...

  11. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  12. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  13. Reliability of trunk shape measurements based on 3-D surface reconstructions

    OpenAIRE

    Pazos, Valérie; Cheriet, Farida; Danserau, Jean; Ronsky, Janet; Zernicke, Ronald F.; Labelle, Hubert

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the reliability of 3-D trunk surface measurements for the characterization of external asymmetry associated with scoliosis. Repeated trunk surface acquisitions using the Inspeck system (Inspeck Inc., Montreal, Canada), with two different postures A (anatomical position) and B (‘‘clavicle’’ position), were obtained from patients attending a scoliosis clinic. For each acquisition, a 3-D model of the patient’s trunk was built and a series of measurements was computed...

  14. THE IMPACT OF 3D PRINTING TECHNOLOGY ON THE SOCIETY AND ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Pîrjan; Dana-Mihaela Petroşanu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the evolution of 3D printing technology, its applications and numerous social, economic, geopolitical, security and environmental consequences. We compare some of the most significant existing 3D printing solutions, taking into account the acquisition price, the technical specifications, their main advantages and limitations. Just as it happened in the past decades with the personal computers and Internet, the impact of 3-D printing will gradually increase in the fut...

  15. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture. PMID:27136560

  16. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Vázquez-Arellano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture.

  17. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W.; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S.

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture. PMID:27136560

  18. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Arellano, Manuel; Griepentrog, Hans W; Reiser, David; Paraforos, Dimitris S

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D) sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture.

  19. An annotation system for 3D fluid flow visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, Maria M.; Hughes, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Annotation is a key activity of data analysis. However, current systems for data analysis focus almost exclusively on visualization. We propose a system which integrates annotations into a visualization system. Annotations are embedded in 3D data space, using the Post-it metaphor. This embedding allows contextual-based information storage and retrieval, and facilitates information sharing in collaborative environments. We provide a traditional database filter and a Magic Lens filter to create specialized views of the data. The system has been customized for fluid flow applications, with features which allow users to store parameters of visualization tools and sketch 3D volumes.

  20. Double Negativity in 3D Space Coiling Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Santosh K.; Pandey, Abhishek; Shukla, Shobha; Saxena, Sumit

    2016-09-01

    Metamaterials displaying negative refractive index has remarkable potential to facilitate the manipulation of incident waves for wide variety of applications such as cloaking, superlensing and the like. Space-coiling approach is a recently explored technique to achieve extreme properties. The space coiling phenomena cause less energy absorption as compared to local resonating phenomena for obtaining extreme parameters. Here we show extreme properties in doubly negative 3D space coiling acoustic metamaterials. Frequency dispersive spectrum of extreme constitutive parameters has been calculated for 2D maze and 3D space coiling labyrinthine structure. This is in good agreement to the calculated acoustic band dispersion.

  1. Double Negativity in 3D Space Coiling Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Santosh K; Pandey, Abhishek; Shukla, Shobha; Saxena, Sumit

    2016-09-21

    Metamaterials displaying negative refractive index has remarkable potential to facilitate the manipulation of incident waves for wide variety of applications such as cloaking, superlensing and the like. Space-coiling approach is a recently explored technique to achieve extreme properties. The space coiling phenomena cause less energy absorption as compared to local resonating phenomena for obtaining extreme parameters. Here we show extreme properties in doubly negative 3D space coiling acoustic metamaterials. Frequency dispersive spectrum of extreme constitutive parameters has been calculated for 2D maze and 3D space coiling labyrinthine structure. This is in good agreement to the calculated acoustic band dispersion.

  2. Eesti 3D jaoks kitsas / Virge Haavasalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haavasalu, Virge

    2009-01-01

    Produktsioonifirma Digitaalne Sputnik: Kaur ja Kaspar Kallas tegelevad filmide produtseerimise ning 3D digitaalkaamerate tootearendusega (Silicon Imaging LLC). Vendade Kallaste 3D-kaamerast. Kommenteerib Eesti Filmi Sihtasutuse direktor Marge Liiske

  3. Will 3D printers manufacture your meals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommel, K.J.C. van

    2013-01-01

    These days, 3D printers are laying down plastics, metals, resins, and other materials in whatever configurations creative people can dream up. But when the next 3D printing revolution comes, you'll be able to eat it.

  4. 3D Flash LIDAR Space Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) is a small business that has developed 3D Flash LIDAR systems for space and terrestrial applications. 3D Flash LIDAR is...

  5. Automatic inventory of components by laser 3D scanner; Inventario de automatico de componentes mediante laser escaner 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Garcia, R.; Munoz Prieto, C.; Sarti Fernandez, F.

    2014-07-01

    One of the existing needs in nuclear decommissioning projects is to provide an inventory of components to be dismantled, which is available from its spatial location and elements that exist in your environment. The Laser scanner technology is a system of data acquisition that allows 3D models composed of millions of points, it's models with pinpoint accuracy and are available in a very short space of time. (Author)

  6. Face Detection with a 3D Model

    OpenAIRE

    Barbu, Adrian; Lay, Nathan; Gramajo, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a part-based face detection approach where the spatial relationship between the face parts is represented by a hidden 3D model with six parameters. The computational complexity of the search in the six dimensional pose space is addressed by proposing meaningful 3D pose candidates by image-based regression from detected face keypoint locations. The 3D pose candidates are evaluated using a parameter sensitive classifier based on difference features relative to the 3D pose. A...

  7. 3D Additive Manufacturing Symposium & Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Unver, Ertu; Taylor, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The IMI /3M BIC 3D Additive Manufacturing Symposium and Workshop was hosted by 3M Buckley Innovation Centre on March 17th 2015. The event was attended by the major players in precision engineering, 3D additive design and manufacturing: Representatives from EOS, Renishaw, HK 3D Printing IMI Plc Senior Management team, design engineers, programmers and academics from the University of Huddersfield School of Art Design & Architecture, 3M Buckley centre 3D printing management and designers shared...

  8. Forward ramp in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's forward rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This ramp was not used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. When this image was taken, Sojourner was still latched to one of the lander's petals, waiting for the command sequence that would execute its descent off of the lander's petal.The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine whether to deploy the rover using the forward or backward ramps and the nature of the first rover traverse. The metallic object at the lower left of the image is the lander's low-gain antenna. The square at the end of the ramp is one of the spacecraft's magnetic targets. Dust that accumulates on the magnetic targets will later be examined by Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer instrument for chemical analysis. At right, a lander petal is visible.The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  9. A comprehensive evaluation of the PRESAGE/optical-CT 3D dosimetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakhalkar, H. S.; Adamovics, J.; Ibbott, G.; Oldham, M. [Department of Radiation Oncology Physics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biology, Rider University, Lawrenceville, New Jersey 08648 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology Physics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    This work presents extensive investigations to evaluate the robustness (intradosimeter consistency and temporal stability of response), reproducibility, precision, and accuracy of a relatively new 3D dosimetry system comprising a leuco-dye doped plastic 3D dosimeter (PRESAGE) and a commercial optical-CT scanner (OCTOPUS 5x scanner from MGS Research, Inc). Four identical PRESAGE 3D dosimeters were created such that they were compatible with the Radiologic Physics Center (RPC) head-and-neck (H and N) IMRT credentialing phantom. Each dosimeter was irradiated with a rotationally symmetric arrangement of nine identical small fields (1x3 cm{sup 2}) impinging on the flat circular face of the dosimeter. A repetitious sequence of three dose levels (4, 2.88, and 1.28 Gy) was delivered. The rotationally symmetric treatment resulted in a dose distribution with high spatial variation in axial planes but only gradual variation with depth along the long axis of the dosimeter. The significance of this treatment was that it facilitated accurate film dosimetry in the axial plane, for independent verification. Also, it enabled rigorous evaluation of robustness, reproducibility and accuracy of response, at the three dose levels. The OCTOPUS 5x commercial scanner was used for dose readout from the dosimeters at daily time intervals. The use of improved optics and acquisition technique yielded substantially improved noise characteristics (reduced to {approx}2%) than has been achieved previously. Intradosimeter uniformity of radiochromic response was evaluated by calculating a 3D gamma comparison between each dosimeter and axially rotated copies of the same dosimeter. This convenient technique exploits the rotational symmetry of the distribution. All points in the gamma comparison passed a 2% difference, 1 mm distance-to-agreement criteria indicating excellent intradosimeter uniformity even at low dose levels. Postirradiation, the dosimeters were all found to exhibit a slight increase in

  10. 3D modelling for multipurpose cadastre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduhl Rahman, A.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Hua, T.C.; Sharkawi, K.H.; Duncan, E.E.; Azri, N.; Hassan, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of cadastral objects (such as legal spaces around buildings, around utility networks and other spaces) is one of the important aspects for a multipurpose cadastre (MPC). This paper describes the 3D modelling of the objects for MPC and its usage to the knowledge of 3D

  11. Beowulf 3D: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Rob

    2008-02-01

    This paper discusses the creative and technical challenges encountered during the production of "Beowulf 3D," director Robert Zemeckis' adaptation of the Old English epic poem and the first film to be simultaneously released in IMAX 3D and digital 3D formats.

  12. 3D Printing and Its Urologic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Youssef; Feibus, Allison H; Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is the development of 3D objects via an additive process in which successive layers of material are applied under computer control. This article discusses 3D printing, with an emphasis on its historical context and its potential use in the field of urology.

  13. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  14. Investigating Mobile Stereoscopic 3D Touchscreen Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Colley, Ashley; Hakkila, Jonna; SCHOENING, Johannes; Posti, Maaret

    2013-01-01

    3D output is no longer limited to large screens in cinemas or living rooms. Nowadays more and more mobile devices are equipped with autostereoscopic 3D (S3D) touchscreens. As a consequence interaction with 3D content now also happens whilst users are on the move. In this paper we carried out a user study with 27 participants to assess how mobile interaction, i.e. whilst walking, with mobile S3D devices, differs from interaction with 2D mobile touchscreens. We investigate the difference in tou...

  15. User-centered 3D geovisualisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anette Hougaard

    2004-01-01

    . In a broader perspective, the overall aim is to develop a language in 3D Geovisualisation gained through usability projects and the development of a theoretical background. A conceptual level of user-centered 3D Geovisualisation is introduced by applying a categorisation originating from Virtual Reality......3D Geovisualisation is a multidisciplinary science mainly utilizing geographically related data, developing software systems for 3D visualisation and producing relevant models. In this paper the connection between geoinformation stored as 3D objects and the end user is of special interest...

  16. Wafer level 3-D ICs process technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Chuan Seng; Reif, L Rafael

    2009-01-01

    This book focuses on foundry-based process technology that enables the fabrication of 3-D ICs. The core of the book discusses the technology platform for pre-packaging wafer lever 3-D ICs. However, this book does not include a detailed discussion of 3-D ICs design and 3-D packaging. This is an edited book based on chapters contributed by various experts in the field of wafer-level 3-D ICs process technology. They are from academia, research labs and industry.

  17. View-based 3-D object retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Content-based 3-D object retrieval has attracted extensive attention recently and has applications in a variety of fields, such as, computer-aided design, tele-medicine,mobile multimedia, virtual reality, and entertainment. The development of efficient and effective content-based 3-D object retrieval techniques has enabled the use of fast 3-D reconstruction and model design. Recent technical progress, such as the development of camera technologies, has made it possible to capture the views of 3-D objects. As a result, view-based 3-D object retrieval has become an essential but challenging res

  18. Esiselvitys elintarvikkeiden 3D-tulostamisesta

    OpenAIRE

    Teva, Arno

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli laatia esiselvitys 3D-tulostamisesta elintarvikealalla. 3D-tulostaminen on uusi ja jatkuvasti kehittyvä ala, joka tulee vaikuttamaan myös elintarvikealan kehittymiseen. Työn tarkoituksena oli selvittää elintarvikenäkökulmasta 3D-tulostamiseen liittyviä tekijöitä. Aiheen toimeksiantajana oli Hämeen ammattikorkeakoulu ja kohderyhmänä elintarvikealan Pk-yritykset. Opinnäytetyössä esitellään yleisimpiä 3D-tulostusmenetelmiä ja selvitetään 3D-tulostamista tietokone...

  19. PRIPRAVA MODELOV ZA 3D - TISK

    OpenAIRE

    Črešnik, Igor

    2015-01-01

    V diplomskem delu predstavljamo pripravo modela na 3D-tisk. V prvem delu smo preleteli zgodovino tiska. Predstavili smo tehnologijo 3D-tiska ter različne tehnike tiskanja, ki jih uporabljajo določeni tiskalniki. V nadaljevanju smo pregledali različne tipe 3D-tiskalnikov, ki se uporabljajo za domačo ali komercialno uporabo ter izpostavili njihove prednosti in slabosti. V zadnjem delu diplomskega dela smo na praktičnem primeru 3D-modela hiše prikazali proces priprave modela za 3D-tisk. Pri delu...

  20. 3D-tulostimien tutkiminen painotalolle

    OpenAIRE

    Toivonen, Aleksi

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli perehtyä 3D-tulostamiseen ja tutkia painotaloon sopivia 3D-tulostimia ja 3D-tulostamiseen liittyviä tekniikoita. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli myös pohtia painotalolle mahdollisia 3D-tulostamiseen liittyviä tuotekonsepteja yrityksille ja yksityisille kuluttajille. Painoalan yrityksen tarkoituksena on sijoittaa lähitulevaisuudessa 3D-tulostimeen, joten opinnäytetyö oli ajankohtainen tutkimustyö yritykselle. Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana toimi painoalan yritys. ...

  1. BUILDING A HOMEMADE 3D PRINTER

    OpenAIRE

    Tunc, Baran

    2015-01-01

    3D printing has been attracted much attention around the world due to its high potential of new application fields. In this respect, developing and inventing new filament materials for 3D printers or new techniques of 3D printing are the main interest of the many materials scientists. This paper reports a comprehensive overview of 3D printing followed by a summary of my ongoing study of building a composite homemade 3D printer. At this stage of this study, a CNC router was successfully conver...

  2. 3D Printing our future: Now

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Andrew; Unver, Ertu

    2015-01-01

    This 3D Printing our Future:Now talk and visual presentation was given to delegates at the IMI 3D Workshop held at 3M Buckley Innovation Centre on 17th March 2015. The event was hosted by 3Mbuckley Innovation Centre for IMI plc a global engineering company, 3M, and leading 3D additive manufacturing technology providers: EOS, Renishaw and HK 3D printing to disseminate and share their experience on the latest 3D additive design and manufacturing technologies available to the engineering an...

  3. Web-based interactive visualization of 3D video mosaics using X3D standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHON Jaechoon; LEE Yang-Won; SHIBASAKI Ryosuke

    2006-01-01

    We present a method of 3D image mosaicing for real 3D representation of roadside buildings, and implement a Web-based interactive visualization environment for the 3D video mosaics created by 3D image mosaicing. The 3D image mosaicing technique developed in our previous work is a very powerful method for creating textured 3D-GIS data without excessive data processing like the laser or stereo system. For the Web-based open access to the 3D video mosaics, we build an interactive visualization environment using X3D, the emerging standard of Web 3D. We conduct the data preprocessing for 3D video mosaics and the X3D modeling for textured 3D data. The data preprocessing includes the conversion of each frame of 3D video mosaics into concatenated image files that can be hyperlinked on the Web. The X3D modeling handles the representation of concatenated images using necessary X3D nodes. By employing X3D as the data format for 3D image mosaics, the real 3D representation of roadside buildings is extended to the Web and mobile service systems.

  4. Single-shot 3D motion picture camera with a dense point cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Willomitzer, Florian

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a method and a 3D-camera for single-shot 3D shape measurement, with unprecedented features: The 3D-camera does not rely on pattern codification and acquires object surfaces at the theoretical limit of the information efficiency: Up to 30% of the available camera pixels display independent (not interpolated) 3D points. The 3D-camera is based on triangulation with two properly positioned cameras and a projected multi-line pattern, in combination with algorithms that solve the ambiguity problem. The projected static line pattern enables 3D-acquisition of fast processes and the take of 3D-motion-pictures. The depth resolution is at its physical limit, defined by electronic noise and speckle noise. The requisite low cost technology is simple.

  5. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  6. RELAP5-3D User Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemke, Richard Allan

    2002-09-01

    The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature5,6,7,8,9,10. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution.

  7. 3D laptop for defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Richard; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Polaris Sensor Technologies has developed numerous 3D display systems using a US Army patented approach. These displays have been developed as prototypes for handheld controllers for robotic systems and closed hatch driving, and as part of a TALON robot upgrade for 3D vision, providing depth perception for the operator for improved manipulation and hazard avoidance. In this paper we discuss the prototype rugged 3D laptop computer and its applications to defense missions. The prototype 3D laptop combines full temporal and spatial resolution display with the rugged Amrel laptop computer. The display is viewed through protective passive polarized eyewear, and allows combined 2D and 3D content. Uses include robot tele-operation with live 3D video or synthetically rendered scenery, mission planning and rehearsal, enhanced 3D data interpretation, and simulation.

  8. 3D Chaotic Functions for Image Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan N. Khade

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the chaotic encryption algorithm based on 3D logistic map, 3D Chebyshev map, and 3D, 2D Arnolds cat map for color image encryption. Here the 2D Arnolds cat map is used for image pixel scrambling and 3D Arnolds cat map is used for R, G, and B component substitution. 3D Chebyshev map is used for key generation and 3D logistic map is used for image scrambling. The use of 3D chaotic functions in the encryption algorithm provide more security by using the, shuffling and substitution to the encrypted image. The Chebyshev map is used for public key encryption and distribution of generated private keys.

  9. 3D Stratigraphic Modeling of Central Aachen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, M.; Neukum, C.; Azzam, R.; Hu, H.

    2010-05-01

    , -y, -z coordinates, down-hole depth, and stratigraphic information are available. 4) We grouped stratigraphic units into four main layers based on analysis of geological settings of the modeling area. The stratigraphic units extend from Quaternary, Cretaceous, Carboniferous to Devonian. In order to facilitate the determination of each unit boundaries, a series of standard code was used to integrate data with different descriptive attributes. 5) The Quaternary and Cretaceous units are characterized by subhorizontal layers. Kriging interpolation was processed to the borehole data in order to estimate data distribution and surface relief for the layers. 6) The Carboniferous and Devonian units are folded. The lack of software support, concerning simulating folds and the shallow depth of boreholes and cross sections constrained the determination of geological boundaries. A strategy of digitalizing the fold surfaces from cross sections and establishing them as inclined strata was followed. The modeling was simply subdivided into two steps. The first step consisted of importing data into the modeling software. The second step involved the construction of subhorizontal layers and folds, which were constrained by geological maps, cross sections and outcrops. The construction of the 3D stratigraphic model is of high relevance to further simulation and application, such as 1) lithological modeling; 2) answering simple questions such as "At which unit is the water table?" and calculating volume of groundwater storage during assessment of aquifer vulnerability to contamination; and 3) assigned by geotechnical properties in grids and providing them for user required application. Acknowledgements: Borehole data is kindly provided by the Municipality of Aachen. References: 1. Janet T. Watt, Jonathan M.G. Glen, David A. John and David A. Ponce (2007) Three-dimensional geologic model of the northern Nevada rift and the Beowawe geothermal system, north-central Nevada. Geosphere, v. 3

  10. 3-D Technology Approaches for Biological Ecologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liyu; Austin, Robert; U. S-China Physical-Oncology Sciences Alliance (PS-OA) Team

    Constructing three dimensional (3-D) landscapes is an inevitable issue in deep study of biological ecologies, because in whatever scales in nature, all of the ecosystems are composed by complex 3-D environments and biological behaviors. Just imagine if a 3-D technology could help complex ecosystems be built easily and mimic in vivo microenvironment realistically with flexible environmental controls, it will be a fantastic and powerful thrust to assist researchers for explorations. For years, we have been utilizing and developing different technologies for constructing 3-D micro landscapes for biophysics studies in in vitro. Here, I will review our past efforts, including probing cancer cell invasiveness with 3-D silicon based Tepuis, constructing 3-D microenvironment for cell invasion and metastasis through polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography, as well as explorations of optimized stenting positions for coronary bifurcation disease with 3-D wax printing and the latest home designed 3-D bio-printer. Although 3-D technologies is currently considered not mature enough for arbitrary 3-D micro-ecological models with easy design and fabrication, I hope through my talk, the audiences will be able to sense its significance and predictable breakthroughs in the near future. This work was supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2013CB837200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474345) and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 7154221).

  11. FROM 3D MODEL DATA TO SEMANTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Abdellah Kassimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The semantic-based 3D models retrieval systems have become necessary since the increase of 3D modelsdatabases. In this paper, we propose a new method for the mapping problem between 3D model data andsemantic data involved in semantic based retrieval for 3D models given by polygonal meshes. First, wefocused on extracting invariant descriptors from the 3D models and analyzing them to efficient semanticannotation and to improve the retrieval accuracy. Selected shape descriptors provide a set of termscommonly used to describe visually a set of objects using linguistic terms and are used as semanticconcept to label 3D model. Second, spatial relationship representing directional, topological anddistance relationships are used to derive other high-level semantic features and to avoid the problem ofautomatic 3D model annotation. Based on the resulting semantic annotation and spatial concepts, anontology for 3D model retrieval is constructed and other concepts can be inferred. This ontology is usedto find similar 3D models for a given query model. We adopted the query by semantic example approach,in which the annotation is performed mostly automatically. The proposed method is implemented in our3D search engine (SB3DMR, tested using the Princeton Shape Benchmark Database.

  12. Automatic 3D video format detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Zhe; Zhai, Jiefu; Doyen, Didier

    2011-03-01

    Many 3D formats exist and will probably co-exist for a long time even if 3D standards are today under definition. The support for multiple 3D formats will be important for bringing 3D into home. In this paper, we propose a novel and effective method to detect whether a video is a 3D video or not, and to further identify the exact 3D format. First, we present how to detect those 3D formats that encode a pair of stereo images into a single image. The proposed method detects features and establishes correspondences between features in the left and right view images, and applies the statistics from the distribution of the positional differences between corresponding features to detect the existence of a 3D format and to identify the format. Second, we present how to detect the frame sequential 3D format. In the frame sequential 3D format, the feature points are oscillating from frame to frame. Similarly, the proposed method tracks feature points over consecutive frames, computes the positional differences between features, and makes a detection decision based on whether the features are oscillating. Experiments show the effectiveness of our method.

  13. Three Dimensional (3D Lumbar Vertebrae Data Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bennani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available 3D modelling can be used for a variety of purposes, including biomedical modelling for orthopaedic or anatomical applications. Low back pain is prevalent in society yet few validated 3D models of the lumbar spine exist to facilitate assessment. We therefore created a 3D surface data set for lumbar vertebrae from human vertebrae. Models from 86 lumbar vertebrae were constructed using an inexpensive method involving image capture by digital camera and reconstruction of 3D models via an image-based technique. The reconstruction method was validated using a laser-based arm scanner and measurements derived from real vertebrae using electronic callipers. Results show a mean relative error of 5.2% between image-based models and real vertebrae, a mean relative error of 4.7% between image-based and arm scanning models and 95% of vertices’ errors are less than 3.5 millimetres with a median of 1.1 millimetres. The accuracy of the method indicates that the generated models could be useful for biomechanical modelling or 3D visualisation of the spine.

  14. Optical-CT imaging of complex 3D dose distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Mark; Kim, Leonard; Hugo, Geoffrey

    2005-04-01

    The limitations of conventional dosimeters restrict the comprehensiveness of verification that can be performed for advanced radiation treatments presenting an immediate and substantial problem for clinics attempting to implement these techniques. In essence, the rapid advances in the technology of radiation delivery have not been paralleled by corresponding advances in the ability to verify these treatments. Optical-CT gel-dosimetry is a relatively new technique with potential to address this imbalance by providing high resolution 3D dose maps in polymer and radiochromic gel dosimeters. We have constructed a 1st generation optical-CT scanner capable of high resolution 3D dosimetry and applied it to a number of simple and increasingly complex dose distributions including intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy (IMRT). Prior to application to IMRT, the robustness of optical-CT gel dosimetry was investigated on geometry and variable attenuation phantoms. Physical techniques and image processing methods were developed to minimize deleterious effects of refraction, reflection, and scattered laser light. Here we present results of investigations into achieving accurate high-resolution 3D dosimetry with optical-CT, and show clinical examples of 3D IMRT dosimetry verification. In conclusion, optical-CT gel dosimetry can provide high resolution 3D dose maps that greatly facilitate comprehensive verification of complex 3D radiation treatments. Good agreement was observed at high dose levels (>50%) between planned and measured dose distributions. Some systematic discrepancies were observed however (rms discrepancy 3% at high dose levels) indicating further work is required to eliminate confounding factors presently compromising the accuracy of optical-CT 3D gel-dosimetry.

  15. Which 3D Geometric Facial Features Give Up Your Identity ?

    OpenAIRE

    Ballihi, Lahoucine; Boulbaba, Ben Amor; Daoudi, Mohamed; Srivastava, Anuj; Aboutajdine, Driss

    2012-01-01

    International audience The 3D face recognition literature has many papers that represent facial shapes as collections of curves of different kinds (level-curves, iso-level curves, radial curves, profiles, geodesic polarization, iso-depth lines, iso-stripes, etc.). In contrast with the holistic approaches, the approaches that match faces based on whole surfaces, the curve-based parametrization allows local analysis of facial shapes. This, in turn, facilitates handling of pose variations (pr...

  16. A Study and Future of 3D Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Chhaya Mehar

    2014-01-01

    The Internet is a living, dynamic “wizard” who is constantly and rapidly evolving, reshaping and transforming and consequently .The world wide web which has started as a document bank is rapidly transforming to full fledged virtual environment that facilitates services ,interaction, and communication However, Internet was designed and primarily used by scientists for networking research and for exchanging information. Here we going to implement 3D internet against 2D technolog...

  17. Emerging technologies for 3D video creation, coding, transmission and rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Dufaux, Frederic; Cagnazzo, Marco

    2013-01-01

    With the expectation of greatly enhanced user experience, 3D video is widely perceived as the next major advancement in video technology. In order to fulfil the expectation of enhanced user experience, 3D video calls for new technologies addressing efficient content creation, representation/coding, transmission and display. Emerging Technologies for 3D Video will deal with all aspects involved in 3D video systems and services, including content acquisition and creation, data representation and coding, transmission, view synthesis, rendering, display technologies, human percepti

  18. Fast implementations of 3D PET reconstruction using vector and parallel programming techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computationally intensive techniques that offer potential clinical use have arisen in nuclear medicine. Examples include iterative reconstruction, 3D PET data acquisition and reconstruction, and 3D image volume manipulation including image registration. One obstacle in achieving clinical acceptance of these techniques is the computational time required. This study focuses on methods to reduce the computation time for 3D PET reconstruction through the use of fast computer hardware, vector and parallel programming techniques, and algorithm optimization. The strengths and weaknesses of i860 microprocessor based workstation accelerator boards are investigated in implementations of 3D PET reconstruction

  19. Mapping Infrared Data on Terrestrial Laser Scanning 3D Models of Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Mattia Previtali; Elisabetta Rosina; Marco Scaioni; Luigi Barazzetti; Mario Ivan Alba

    2011-01-01

    A new 3D acquisition and processing procedure to map RGB, thermal IR and near infrared images (NIR) on a detailed 3D model of a building is presented. The combination and fusion of different data sources allows the generation of 3D thermal data useful for different purposes such as localization, visualization, and analysis of anomalies in contemporary architecture. The classic approach, which is currently used to map IR images on 3D models, is based on the direct registration of each single i...

  20. 3D Systems” ‘Stuck in the Middle’ of the 3D Printer Boom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hoffmann (Alan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstract3D Systems, the pioneer of 3D printing, predicted a future where "kids from 8 to 80" could design and print their ideas at home. By 2013, 9 years after the creation of the first working 3D printer, there were more than 30 major 3D printing companies competing for market share. 3DS and it

  1. 3D-tulostus : case Printrbot

    OpenAIRE

    Arvekari, Lassi

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on selvittää 3D-tulostustekniikan perusteita ja 3D-tulostuksen nykytilannetta. 3D-tulostukseen sopivien mallien luomista tutkitaan ja mallin tekemiseen on etsitty toimivia ohjesääntöjä. Tärkeä osa työtä on tutkia mitä vaiheita 3D-tulostimen hankinnassa kotikäyttöön tulee vastaan. Käytännön kokeita varten opinnäytetyössä on case Printrbot, jossa on tutustuttu edulliseen 3D-tulostuslaitteeseen kokoonpanosta lähtien. Työn kuluessa selvisi että edulliset 3D-tulos...

  2. Spatial data modelling for 3D GIS

    CERN Document Server

    Abdul-Rahman, Alias

    2007-01-01

    This book covers fundamental aspects of spatial data modelling specifically on the aspect of three-dimensional (3D) modelling and structuring. Realisation of ""true"" 3D GIS spatial system needs a lot of effort, and the process is taking place in various research centres and universities in some countries. The development of spatial data modelling for 3D objects is the focus of this book.

  3. Compression of 3D models with NURBS

    OpenAIRE

    Santa Cruz Ducci, Diego; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2005-01-01

    With recent progress in computing, algorithmics and telecommunications, 3D models are increasingly used in various multimedia applications. Examples include visualization, gaming, entertainment and virtual reality. In the multimedia domain 3D models have been traditionally represented as polygonal meshes. This piecewise planar representation can be thought of as the analogy of bitmap images for 3D surfaces. As bitmap images, they enjoy great flexibility and are particularly well suited to des...

  4. Examination about Influence for Precision of 3d Image Measurement from the Ground Control Point Measurement and Surface Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anai, T.; Kochi, N.; Yamada, M.; Sasaki, T.; Otani, H.; Sasaki, D.; Nishimura, S.; Kimoto, K.; Yasui, N.

    2015-05-01

    As the 3D image measurement software is now widely used with the recent development of computer-vision technology, the 3D measurement from the image is now has acquired the application field from desktop objects as wide as the topography survey in large geographical areas. Especially, the orientation, which used to be a complicated process in the heretofore image measurement, can be now performed automatically by simply taking many pictures around the object. And in the case of fully textured object, the 3D measurement of surface features is now done all automatically from the orientated images, and greatly facilitated the acquisition of the dense 3D point cloud from images with high precision. With all this development in the background, in the case of small and the middle size objects, we are now furnishing the all-around 3D measurement by a single digital camera sold on the market. And we have also developed the technology of the topographical measurement with the air-borne images taken by a small UAV [1~5]. In this present study, in the case of the small size objects, we examine the accuracy of surface measurement (Matching) by the data of the experiments. And as to the topographic measurement, we examine the influence of GCP distribution on the accuracy by the data of the experiments. Besides, we examined the difference of the analytical results in each of the 3D image measurement software. This document reviews the processing flow of orientation and the 3D measurement of each software and explains the feature of the each software. And as to the verification of the precision of stereo-matching, we measured the test plane and the test sphere of the known form and assessed the result. As to the topography measurement, we used the air-borne image data photographed at the test field in Yadorigi of Matsuda City, Kanagawa Prefecture JAPAN. We have constructed Ground Control Point which measured by RTK-GPS and Total Station. And we show the results of analysis made

  5. Novel Aerial 3D Mapping System Based on UAV Platforms and 2D Laser Scanners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Roca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of 3D geometric data from an aerial view implies a high number of advantages with respect to terrestrial acquisition, the greatest being that aerial view allows the acquisition of information from areas with no or difficult accessibility, such as roofs and tops of trees. If the aerial platform is copter-type, other advantages are present, such as the capability of displacement at very low-speed, allowing for a more detailed acquisition. This paper presents a novel Aerial 3D Mapping System based on a copter-type platform, where a 2D laser scanner is integrated with a GNSS sensor and an IMU for the generation of georeferenced 3D point clouds. The accuracy and precision of the system are evaluated through the measurement of geometries in the point clouds generated by the system, as well as through the geolocation of target points for which the real global coordinates are known.

  6. Extraordinary 3D Surface Materials: A practice based exhibition of 3D learning artefacts and prototypes.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Andrew; Harris, Joanne; Unver, Ertu; Lewis, Linda

    2011-01-01

    A collection of 3D prototyped research learning artefacts were exhibited at Surface Design Show 2011. The artefacts on display provided tacit evidence of the 3D concept modelling and reflective learning experiences of a final year BA (Hons) Surface Design for Fashion & Interiors student group using 3D polygon modelling software and additive prototyping technologies (3D Printing) for the first time. The student authored project blog http://extraordinary-3d-materials.blogspot.co.uk/ documen...

  7. Automatic Reconstruction of 3D Building Models from Terrestrial Laser Scanner Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Meouche, R.; Rezoug, M.; Hijazi, I.; Maes, D.

    2013-11-01

    With modern 3D laser scanners we can acquire a large amount of 3D data in only a few minutes. This technology results in a growing number of applications ranging from the digitalization of historical artifacts to facial authentication. The modeling process demands a lot of time and work (Tim Volodine, 2007). In comparison with the other two stages, the acquisition and the registration, the degree of automation of the modeling stage is almost zero. In this paper, we propose a new surface reconstruction technique for buildings to process the data obtained by a 3D laser scanner. These data are called a point cloud which is a collection of points sampled from the surface of a 3D object. Such a point cloud can consist of millions of points. In order to work more efficiently, we worked with simplified models which contain less points and so less details than a point cloud obtained in situ. The goal of this study was to facilitate the modeling process of a building starting from 3D laser scanner data. In order to do this, we wrote two scripts for Rhinoceros 5.0 based on intelligent algorithms. The first script finds the exterior outline of a building. With a minimum of human interaction, there is a thin box drawn around the surface of a wall. This box is able to rotate 360° around an axis in a corner of the wall in search for the points of other walls. In this way we can eliminate noise points. These are unwanted or irrelevant points. If there is an angled roof, the box can also turn around the edge of the wall and the roof. With the different positions of the box we can calculate the exterior outline. The second script draws the interior outline in a surface of a building. By interior outline we mean the outline of the openings like windows or doors. This script is based on the distances between the points and vector characteristics. Two consecutive points with a relative big distance will form the outline of an opening. Once those points are found, the interior outline

  8. 3D modelling for multipurpose cadastre

    OpenAIRE

    Abduhl Rahman, A.; P. J. M. Van Oosterom; T. C. Hua; Sharkawi, K.H.; E. E. Duncan; Azri, N.; Hassan, M. I.

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of cadastral objects (such as legal spaces around buildings, around utility networks and other spaces) is one of the important aspects for a multipurpose cadastre (MPC). This paper describes the 3D modelling of the objects for MPC and its usage to the knowledge of 3D cadastre since more and more related agencies attempt to develop or embed 3D components into the MPC. We also intend to describe the initiative by Malaysian national mapping and cadastral agency (...

  9. Getting started in 3D with Maya

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Deliver professional-level 3D content in no time with this comprehensive guide to 3D animation with Maya. With over 12 years of training experience, plus several award winning students under his belt, author Adam Watkins is the ideal mentor to get you up to speed with 3D in Maya. Using a structured and pragmatic approach Getting Started in 3D with Maya begins with basic theory of fundamental techniques, then builds on this knowledge using practical examples and projects to put your new skills to the test. Prepared so that you can learn in an organic fashion, each chapter builds on the know

  10. Can 3D Printing change your business?

    OpenAIRE

    Unver, Ertu

    2013-01-01

    This presentation is given to businesses / companies with an interest in 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing in West Yorkshire, UK Organised by the Calderdale and Kirklees Manufacturing Alliance. http://www.ckma.co.uk/ by Dr Ertu Unver Senior Lecturer / Product Design / MA 3D Digital Design / University of Huddersfield Location : 3M BIC, Date : 11th April, Time : 5.30 – 8pm Additive manufacturing or 3D printing is a process of making a three-dimensional (3D) objects from...

  11. A 3d game in python

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Minghui

    2014-01-01

    3D game has widely been accepted and loved by many game players. More and more different kinds of 3D games were developed to feed people’s needs. The most common programming language for development of 3D game is C++ nowadays. Python is a high-level scripting language. It is simple and clear. The concise syntax could speed up the development cycle. This project was to develop a 3D game using only Python. The game is about how a cat lives in the street. In order to live, the player need...

  12. Virtual Realization using 3D Password

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.Gadicha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Current authentication systems suffer from many weaknesses. Textual passwords are commonly used; however, users do not follow their requirements. Users tend to choose meaningful words from dictionaries, which make textual passwords easy to break and vulnerable to dictionary or brute force attacks. Many available graphical passwords have a password space that is less than or equal to the textual password space. Smart cards or tokens can be stolen. Many biometric authentications have been proposed; however, users tend to resist using biometrics because of their intrusiveness and the effect on their privacy. Moreover, biometrics cannot be revoked. In this paper, we present and evaluate our contribution, i.e., the 3D password. The 3D password is a multifactor authentication scheme. To be authenticated, we present a 3D virtual environment where the user navigates and interacts with various objects. The sequence of actions and interactions toward the objects inside the 3D environment constructs the user’s 3D password. The 3D password can combine most existing authentication schemes such as textual passwords, graphical passwords, and various types of biometrics into a 3D virtual environment. The design of the 3D virtual environment and the type of objects selected determine the 3D password key space.

  13. Calibration for 3D Structured Light Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A calibration procedure was developed for three-dimensional(3D) binocular structured light measurement systems. In virtue of a specially designed pattern, matching points in stereo images are extracted. And then sufficient 3D space points are obtained through pairs of images with the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of each camera estimated prior and consequently some lights are calibrated by means of multi point fitting. Finally, a mathematical model is applied to interpolate and approximate all dynamic scanning lights based on geometry. The process of calibration method is successfully used in the binocular 3D measurement system based on structured lights and the 3D reconstruction results are satisfying.

  14. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  15. 3D Printing Making the Digital Real .

    OpenAIRE

    Miss Prachi More

    2013-01-01

    3D printing is quickly expanding field, with the popularity and uses for 3D printers growing every day. 3D printing can be used to prototype, create replacement parts, and is even versatile enough to print prostheses and medical implants. It will have a growing impact on our world, as more and more people gain access to these amazing machines.[1] In this article, we would like to attempt to give an introduction of the technology. 3Dimensions printing is a method of converting a virtual 3D mod...

  16. 3D-tulostuksen viipalointiohjelmien vertailu

    OpenAIRE

    Virolainen, Ville

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on selventää 3D-tulostamisen prosessia yksityisen käyttäjän näkökulmasta sekä luoda testitulostuksia, joiden perusteella pystytään vertailemaan prosessissa käytettävien viipalointiohjelmien toimintaa keskenään. Työssä perehdytään aluksi 3D-tulostuksen teoriataustaan, jonka jälkeen suoritetaan 3D-tulostimella testitulostukset käyttäen kolmea eri viipalointiohjelmaa. 3D-tulostamisella tarkoitetaan prosessia, jonka tarkoituksena on luoda kolmiulotteinen objekti käyt...

  17. Illustrating Mathematics using 3D Printers

    OpenAIRE

    Knill, Oliver; Slavkovsky, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    3D printing technology can help to visualize proofs in mathematics. In this document we aim to illustrate how 3D printing can help to visualize concepts and mathematical proofs. As already known to educators in ancient Greece, models allow to bring mathematics closer to the public. The new 3D printing technology makes the realization of such tools more accessible than ever. This is an updated version of a paper included in book Low-Cost 3D Printing for science, education and Sustainable Devel...

  18. BIM tietomalli ja 3D-tulostus

    OpenAIRE

    Myllykoski, Joonas; Palonen, Teemu

    2015-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää miten Tekla Structures ohjelmalla luotu 3D-malli saadaan tulostettua koulun 3D-tulostimella sekä tutkittiin voidaanko Tekla Structuresin ominaisuuksia hyödyntää 3D-tulostamisessa ja miten tulostus onnistuu autocadilla. Selvitimme myös mahdollisia 3D-tulostusteknologian sovelluksia tulevaisuuden rakennustuotannossa ja sen näkymiä rakennusteollisuudessa sekä erilaisia tulostus menetelmiä joita voitaisiin mahdollisesti hyödyntää rakennusteollisuudess...

  19. 3D Printers Can Provide an Added Dimension for Teaching Structure-Energy Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauch, David N.; Carroll, Felix A.

    2014-01-01

    A 3D printer is used to prepare a variety of models representing potential energy as a function of two geometric coordinates. These models facilitate the teaching of structure-energy relationships in molecular conformations and in chemical reactions.

  20. Volumetric motion quantification by 3D tissue phase mapped CMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Anja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was the quantification of myocardial motion from 3D tissue phase mapped (TPM CMR. Recent work on myocardial motion quantification by TPM has been focussed on multi-slice 2D acquisitions thus excluding motion information from large regions of the left ventricle. Volumetric motion assessment appears an important next step towards the understanding of the volumetric myocardial motion and hence may further improve diagnosis and treatments in patients with myocardial motion abnormalities. Methods Volumetric motion quantification of the complete left ventricle was performed in 12 healthy volunteers and two patients applying a black-blood 3D TPM sequence. The resulting motion field was analysed regarding motion pattern differences between apical and basal locations as well as for asynchronous motion pattern between different myocardial segments in one or more slices. Motion quantification included velocity, torsion, rotation angle and strain derived parameters. Results All investigated motion quantification parameters could be calculated from the 3D-TPM data. Parameters quantifying hypokinetic or asynchronous motion demonstrated differences between motion impaired and healthy myocardium. Conclusions 3D-TPM enables the gapless volumetric quantification of motion abnormalities of the left ventricle, which can be applied in future application as additional information to provide a more detailed analysis of the left ventricular function.

  1. Applying a 3D Situational Virtual Learning Environment to the Real World Business--An Extended Research in Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shwu-huey

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand (1) what kind of students can be facilitated through the help of three-dimensional virtual learning environment (3D VLE), and (2) the relationship between a conventional test (ie, paper and pencil test) and the 3D VLE used in this study, the study designs a 3D virtual supermarket (3DVS) to help students transform their role…

  2. Canada in 3D - Toward a Sustainable 3D Model for Canadian Geology from Diverse Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaric, B.; Pilkington, M.; Snyder, D. B.; St-Onge, M. R.; Russell, H.

    2015-12-01

    Many big science issues span large areas and require data from multiple heterogeneous sources, for example climate change, resource management, and hazard mitigation. Solutions to these issues can significantly benefit from access to a consistent and integrated geological model that would serve as a framework. However, such a model is absent for most large countries including Canada, due to the size of the landmass and the fragmentation of the source data into institutional and disciplinary silos. To overcome these barriers, the "Canada in 3D" (C3D) pilot project was recently launched by the Geological Survey of Canada. C3D is designed to be evergreen, multi-resolution, and inter-disciplinary: (a) it is to be updated regularly upon acquisition of new data; (b) portions vary in resolution and will initially consist of four layers (surficial, sedimentary, crystalline, and mantle) with intermediary patches of higher-resolution fill; and (c) a variety of independently managed data sources are providing inputs, such as geophysical, 3D and 2D geological models, drill logs, and others. Notably, scalability concerns dictate a decentralized and interoperable approach, such that only key control objects, denoting anchors for the modeling process, are imported into the C3D database while retaining provenance links to original sources. The resultant model is managed in the database, contains full modeling provenance as well as links to detailed information on rock units, and is to be visualized in desktop and online environments. It is anticipated that C3D will become the authoritative state of knowledge for the geology of Canada at a national scale.

  3. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  4. Managing Geological Profiles in Databases for 3D Visualisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarna, A.; Grøtan, B. O.; Henderson, I. H. C.; Iversen, S.; Khloussy, E.; Nordahl, B.; Rindstad, B. I.

    2016-10-01

    Geology and all geological structures are three-dimensional in space. GIS and databases are common tools used by geologists to interpret and communicate geological data. The NGU (Geological Survey of Norway) is the national institution for the study of bedrock, mineral resources, surficial deposits and groundwater and marine geology. 3D geology is usually described by geological profiles, or vertical sections through a map, where you can look at the rock structure below the surface. The goal is to gradually expand the usability of existing and new geological profiles to make them more available in the retail applications as well as build easier entry and registration of profiles. The project target is to develop the methodology for acquisition of data, modification and use of data and its further presentation on the web by creating a user-interface directly linked to NGU's webpage. This will allow users to visualise profiles in a 3D model.

  5. Action and gait recognition from recovered 3-D human joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Junxia; Ding, Xiaoqing; Wang, Shengjin; Wu, Youshou

    2010-08-01

    A common viewpoint-free framework that fuses pose recovery and classification for action and gait recognition is presented in this paper. First, a markerless pose recovery method is adopted to automatically capture the 3-D human joint and pose parameter sequences from volume data. Second, multiple configuration features (combination of joints) and movement features (position, orientation, and height of the body) are extracted from the recovered 3-D human joint and pose parameter sequences. A hidden Markov model (HMM) and an exemplar-based HMM are then used to model the movement features and configuration features, respectively. Finally, actions are classified by a hierarchical classifier that fuses the movement features and the configuration features, and persons are recognized from their gait sequences with the configuration features. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated with experiments on the Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et Automatique Xmas Motion Acquisition Sequences data set.

  6. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  7. Perception of detail in 3D images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyndrickx, I.; Kaptein, R.

    2009-01-01

    A lot of current 3D displays suffer from the fact that their spatial resolution is lower compared to their 2D counterparts. One reason for this is that the multiple views needed to generate 3D are often spatially multiplexed. Besides this, imperfect separation of the left- and right-eye view leads t

  8. 3D printing of functional structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, G.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The technology colloquial known as ‘3D printing’ has developed in such diversity in printing technologies and application fields that meanwhile it seems anything is possible. However, clearly the ideal 3D Printer, with high resolution, multi-material capability, fast printing, etc. is yet to be deve

  9. Parametrizable cameras for 3D computational steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.D.; Wijk, J.J. van

    1997-01-01

    We present a method for the definition of multiple views in 3D interfaces for computational steering. The method uses the concept of a point-based parametrizable camera object. This concept enables a user to create and configure multiple views on his custom 3D interface in an intuitive graphical man

  10. 3D Cadastre modelling in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandysheva, N.; Tikhonov, V.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Stoter, J.E.; Ploeger, H.D.; Wouters, R.; Penkov, V.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the on-going project on 3D cadastre modelling in Russia. The aim of this project is to provide guidance in the development of a prototype and to create favourable legal and institutional conditions for the introduction of 3D cadastre modelling in Russia based on experience of the

  11. Recognition of 3D facial expression dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandbach, G.; Zafeiriou, S.; Pantic, Maja; Rueckert, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method that exploits 3D motion-based features between frames of 3D facial geometry sequences for dynamic facial expression recognition. An expressive sequence is modelled to contain an onset followed by an apex and an offset. Feature selection methods are applied in order

  12. 3-D structures of planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the 3-D reconstruction of planetary nebulae are reviewed. We include not only results for 3-D reconstructions, but also the current techniques in terms of general methods and software. In order to obtain more accurate reconstructions, we suggest to extend the widely used assumption of homologous nebula expansion to map spectroscopically measured velocity to position along the line of sight.

  13. 3D, or Not to Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  14. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  15. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  16. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  17. Multiway calibration in 3D QSAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, J; de Jong, Sietse; Smilde, A

    1997-01-01

    We have introduced multilinear PLS in 3D QSAR and applied it to GRID descriptors from a set of benzamides with affinity to the dopamine D-3 receptor subtype, synthesized as potential drugs against schizophrenia. The key issue in 3D QSAR modelling is to obtain a predictive model that is easy to inter

  18. Limited Feedback for 3D Massive MIMO under 3D-UMa and 3D-UMi Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For three-dimensional (3D massive MIMO utilizing the uniform rectangular array (URA in the base station (BS, we propose a limited feedback transmission scheme in which the channel state information (CSI feedback operations for horizontal domain and vertical domain are separate. Compared to the traditional feedback scheme, the scheme can reduce the feedback overhead, code word index search complexity, and storage requirement. Also, based on the zenith of departure angle (ZoD distribution in 3D-Urban Macro Cell (3D-UMa and 3D-Urban Micro Cell (3D-UMi scenarios, we propose the angle quantization codebook for vertical domain, while the codebook of long term evolution-advanced (LTE-Advanced is still adopted in horizontal domain to preserve compatibility with the LTE-Advanced. Based on the angle quantization codebook, the subsampled 3-bit DFT codebook is designed for vertical domain. The system-level simulation results reveal that, to compromise the feedback overhead and system performance, 2-bit codebook for 3D-UMa scenario and 3-bit codebook for 3D-UMi scenario can meet requirements in vertical domain. The feedback period for vertical domain can also be extended appropriately to reduce the feedback overhead.

  19. Probabilistic sparse matching for robust 3D/3D fusion in minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Dominik; Grbic, Sasa; John, Matthias; Navab, Nassir; Hornegger, Joachim; Ionasec, Razvan

    2015-01-01

    Classical surgery is being overtaken by minimally invasive and transcatheter procedures. As there is no direct view or access to the affected anatomy, advanced imaging techniques such as 3D C-arm computed tomography (CT) and C-arm fluoroscopy are routinely used in clinical practice for intraoperative guidance. However, due to constraints regarding acquisition time and device configuration, intraoperative modalities have limited soft tissue image quality and reliable assessment of the cardiac anatomy typically requires contrast agent, which is harmful to the patient and requires complex acquisition protocols. We propose a probabilistic sparse matching approach to fuse high-quality preoperative CT images and nongated, noncontrast intraoperative C-arm CT images by utilizing robust machine learning and numerical optimization techniques. Thus, high-quality patient-specific models can be extracted from the preoperative CT and mapped to the intraoperative imaging environment to guide minimally invasive procedures. Extensive quantitative experiments on 95 clinical datasets demonstrate that our model-based fusion approach has an average execution time of 1.56 s, while the accuracy of 5.48 mm between the anchor anatomy in both images lies within expert user confidence intervals. In direct comparison with image-to-image registration based on an open-source state-of-the-art medical imaging library and a recently proposed quasi-global, knowledge-driven multi-modal fusion approach for thoracic-abdominal images, our model-based method exhibits superior performance in terms of registration accuracy and robustness with respect to both target anatomy and anchor anatomy alignment errors. PMID:25095250

  20. Density-Based 3D Shape Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt Francis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel probabilistic framework for the extraction of density-based 3D shape descriptors using kernel density estimation. Our descriptors are derived from the probability density functions (pdf of local surface features characterizing the 3D object geometry. Assuming that the shape of the 3D object is represented as a mesh consisting of triangles with arbitrary size and shape, we provide efficient means to approximate the moments of geometric features on a triangle basis. Our framework produces a number of 3D shape descriptors that prove to be quite discriminative in retrieval applications. We test our descriptors and compare them with several other histogram-based methods on two 3D model databases, Princeton Shape Benchmark and Sculpteur, which are fundamentally different in semantic content and mesh quality. Experimental results show that our methodology not only improves the performance of existing descriptors, but also provides a rigorous framework to advance and to test new ones.

  1. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; /SINTEF, Oslo; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; /SLAC; Da Via, C.; /Manchester U.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  2. Maintaining and troubleshooting your 3D printer

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining and Troubleshooting Your 3D Printer by Charles Bell is your guide to keeping your 3D printer running through preventive maintenance, repair, and diagnosing and solving problems in 3D printing. If you've bought or built a 3D printer such as a MakerBot only to be confounded by jagged edges, corner lift, top layers that aren't solid, or any of a myriad of other problems that plague 3D printer enthusiasts, then here is the book to help you get past all that and recapture the joy of creative fabrication. The book also includes valuable tips for builders and those who want to modify the

  3. 3D-grafiikka ja pelimoottorit

    OpenAIRE

    Sillanpää, Otto

    2014-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutkitaan miten 3D-mallit saadaan sellaiseen muotoon, että ne olisivat käytettävissä eri pelimoottoreissa. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää, miten luodaan 3D-malleja pelimoottoreihin, sekä miten 3D-mallinnusohjelmat ja pelimoottorit eroavat toisistaan, kun käsitellään 3D-malleja. Tässä työssä pelimoottoreina toimivat Valven Source sekä Epic Gamesin Unreal Engine 3. 3D-mallinnusohjelmista käytössä olivat Autodeskin 3ds Max 2014 ja Blender Foundationin Blender 2.7...

  4. 6D Interpretation of 3D Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Herfray, Yannick; Scarinci, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We show that 3D gravity, in its pure connection formulation, admits a natural 6D interpretation. The 3D field equations for the connection are equivalent to 6D Hitchin equations for the Chern-Simons 3-form in the total space of the principal bundle over the 3-dimensional base. Turning this construction around one gets an explanation of why the pure connection formulation of 3D gravity exists. More generally, we interpret 3D gravity as the dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory. To this end, we show that any SU(2) invariant closed 3-form in the total space of the principal SU(2) bundle can be parametrised by a connection together with a 2-form field on the base. The dimensional reduction of the 6D Hitchin theory then gives rise to 3D gravity coupled to a topological 2-form field.

  5. The psychology of the 3D experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  6. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  7. Robust model-based 3d/3D fusion using sparse matching for minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Dominik; Grbic, Sasa; John, Matthias; Navab, Nassir; Hornegger, Joachim; Ionasec, Razvan

    2013-01-01

    Classical surgery is being disrupted by minimally invasive and transcatheter procedures. As there is no direct view or access to the affected anatomy, advanced imaging techniques such as 3D C-arm CT and C-arm fluoroscopy are routinely used for intra-operative guidance. However, intra-operative modalities have limited image quality of the soft tissue and a reliable assessment of the cardiac anatomy can only be made by injecting contrast agent, which is harmful to the patient and requires complex acquisition protocols. We propose a novel sparse matching approach for fusing high quality pre-operative CT and non-contrasted, non-gated intra-operative C-arm CT by utilizing robust machine learning and numerical optimization techniques. Thus, high-quality patient-specific models can be extracted from the pre-operative CT and mapped to the intra-operative imaging environment to guide minimally invasive procedures. Extensive quantitative experiments demonstrate that our model-based fusion approach has an average execution time of 2.9 s, while the accuracy lies within expert user confidence intervals. PMID:24505663

  8. Semi- and virtual 3D dosimetry in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    In this review, 3D dosimetry is divided in three categories; "true" 3D, semi-3D and virtual 3D. Virtual 3D involves the use of measurement arrays either before or after beam entry in the patient/phantom, whereas semi-3D involves use of measurement arrays in phantoms mimicking the patient. True 3D...

  9. Advancing the field of 3D biomaterial printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakus, Adam E; Rutz, Alexandra L; Shah, Ramille N

    2016-01-11

    3D biomaterial printing has emerged as a potentially revolutionary technology, promising to transform both research and medical therapeutics. Although there has been recent progress in the field, on-demand fabrication of functional and transplantable tissues and organs is still a distant reality. To advance to this point, there are two major technical challenges that must be overcome. The first is expanding upon the limited variety of available 3D printable biomaterials (biomaterial inks), which currently do not adequately represent the physical, chemical, and biological complexity and diversity of tissues and organs within the human body. Newly developed biomaterial inks and the resulting 3D printed constructs must meet numerous interdependent requirements, including those that lead to optimal printing, structural, and biological outcomes. The second challenge is developing and implementing comprehensive biomaterial ink and printed structure characterization combined with in vitro and in vivo tissue- and organ-specific evaluation. This perspective outlines considerations for addressing these technical hurdles that, once overcome, will facilitate rapid advancement of 3D biomaterial printing as an indispensable tool for both investigating complex tissue and organ morphogenesis and for developing functional devices for a variety of diagnostic and regenerative medicine applications.

  10. 3D target array for pulsed multi-sourced radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Galloudec, Nathalie Joelle

    2016-02-23

    The various technologies presented herein relate to the generation of x-rays and other charged particles. A plurality of disparate source materials can be combined on an array to facilitate fabrication of co-located mixed tips (point sources) which can be utilized to form a polychromatic cloud, e.g., a plurality of x-rays having a range of energies and or wavelengths, etc. The tips can be formed such that the x-rays are emitted in a direction different to other charged particles to facilitate clean x-ray sourcing. Particles, such as protons, can be directionally emitted to facilitate generation of neutrons at a secondary target. The various particles can be generated by interaction of a laser irradiating the array of tips. The tips can be incorporated into a plurality of 3D conical targets, the conical target sidewall(s) can be utilized to microfocus a portion of a laser beam onto the tip material.

  11. 3D facial expression modeling for recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoguang; Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.

    2005-03-01

    Current two-dimensional image based face recognition systems encounter difficulties with large variations in facial appearance due to the pose, illumination and expression changes. Utilizing 3D information of human faces is promising for handling the pose and lighting variations. While the 3D shape of a face does not change due to head pose (rigid) and lighting changes, it is not invariant to the non-rigid facial movement and evolution, such as expressions and aging effect. We propose a facial surface matching framework to match multiview facial scans to a 3D face model, where the (non-rigid) expression deformation is explicitly modeled for each subject, resulting in a person-specific deformation model. The thin plate spline (TPS) is applied to model the deformation based on the facial landmarks. The deformation is applied to the 3D neutral expression face model to synthesize the corresponding expression. Both the neutral and the synthesized 3D surface models are used to match a test scan. The surface registration and matching between a test scan and a 3D model are achieved by a modified Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate that the proposed expression modeling and recognition-by-synthesis schemes improve the 3D matching accuracy.

  12. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  13. Digital relief generation from 3D models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meili; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Hongming; Qian, Kun; Chang, Jian; He, Dongjian

    2016-09-01

    It is difficult to extend image-based relief generation to high-relief generation, as the images contain insufficient height information. To generate reliefs from three-dimensional (3D) models, it is necessary to extract the height fields from the model, but this can only generate bas-reliefs. To overcome this problem, an efficient method is proposed to generate bas-reliefs and high-reliefs directly from 3D meshes. To produce relief features that are visually appropriate, the 3D meshes are first scaled. 3D unsharp masking is used to enhance the visual features in the 3D mesh, and average smoothing and Laplacian smoothing are implemented to achieve better smoothing results. A nonlinear variable scaling scheme is then employed to generate the final bas-reliefs and high-reliefs. Using the proposed method, relief models can be generated from arbitrary viewing positions with different gestures and combinations of multiple 3D models. The generated relief models can be printed by 3D printers. The proposed method provides a means of generating both high-reliefs and bas-reliefs in an efficient and effective way under the appropriate scaling factors.

  14. 3D Hilbert Space Filling Curves in 3D City Modeling for Faster Spatial Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ujang, Uznir; Antón Castro, Francesc/François; Azri, Suhaibah;

    2014-01-01

    objects. In this research, the authors propose an opponent data constellation technique of space-filling curves (3D Hilbert curves) for 3D city model data representation. Unlike previous methods, that try to project 3D or n-dimensional data down to 2D or 3D using Principal Component Analysis (PCA......) or Hilbert mappings, in this research, they extend the Hilbert space-filling curve to one higher dimension for 3D city model data implementations. The query performance was tested for single object, nearest neighbor and range search queries using a CityGML dataset of 1,000 building blocks and the results...... are presented in this paper. The advantages of implementing space-filling curves in 3D city modeling will improve data retrieval time by means of optimized 3D adjacency, nearest neighbor information and 3D indexing. The Hilbert mapping, which maps a sub-interval of the ([0,1]) interval to the corresponding...

  15. 3D Reconstruction Technique for Tomographic PIV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜楠; 包全; 杨绍琼

    2015-01-01

    Tomographic particle image velocimetry(Tomo-PIV) is a state-of-the-art experimental technique based on a method of optical tomography to achieve the three-dimensional(3D) reconstruction for three-dimensional three-component(3D-3C) flow velocity measurements. 3D reconstruction for Tomo-PIV is carried out herein. Meanwhile, a 3D simplified tomographic reconstruction model reduced from a 3D volume light inten-sity field with 2D projection images into a 2D Tomo-slice plane with 1D projecting lines, i.e., simplifying this 3D reconstruction into a problem of 2D Tomo-slice plane reconstruction, is applied thereafter. Two kinds of the most well-known algebraic reconstruction techniques, algebraic reconstruction technique(ART) and multiple algebraic reconstruction technique(MART), are compared as well. The principles of the two reconstruction algorithms are discussed in detail, which has been performed by a series of simulation images, yielding the corresponding recon-struction images that show different features between the ART and MART algorithm, and then their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Further discussions are made for the standard particle image reconstruction when the background noise of the pre-initial particle image has been removed. Results show that the particle image recon-struction has been greatly improved. The MART algorithm is much better than the ART. Furthermore, the computa-tional analyses of two parameters(the particle density and the number of cameras), are performed to study their effects on the reconstruction. Lastly, the 3D volume particle field is reconstructed by using the improved algorithm based on the simplified 3D tomographic reconstruction model, which proves that the algorithm simplification is feasible and it can be applied to the reconstruction of 3D volume particle field in a Tomo-PIV system.

  16. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  17. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnykh, Anatoly K

    2003-01-01

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results.

  18. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  19. 3D Printing the ATLAS' barrel toroid

    CERN Document Server

    Goncalves, Tiago Barreiro

    2016-01-01

    The present report summarizes my work as part of the Summer Student Programme 2016 in the CERN IR-ECO-TSP department (International Relations – Education, Communication & Outreach – Teacher and Student Programmes). Particularly, I worked closely with the S’Cool LAB team on a science education project. This project included the 3D designing, 3D printing, and assembling of a model of the ATLAS’ barrel toroid. A detailed description of the project' development is presented and a short manual on how to use 3D printing software and hardware is attached.

  20. Matching Feature Points in 3D World

    OpenAIRE

    Avdiu, Blerta

    2012-01-01

    This thesis work deals with the most actual topic in Computer Vision field which is scene understanding and this using matching of 3D feature point images. The objective is to make use of Saab’s latest breakthrough in extraction of 3D feature points, to identify the best alignment of at least two 3D feature point images. The thesis gives a theoretical overview of the latest algorithms used for feature detection, description and matching. The work continues with a brief description of the simu...

  1. Computer Modelling of 3D Geological Surface

    CERN Document Server

    Kodge, B G

    2011-01-01

    The geological surveying presently uses methods and tools for the computer modeling of 3D-structures of the geographical subsurface and geotechnical characterization as well as the application of geoinformation systems for management and analysis of spatial data, and their cartographic presentation. The objectives of this paper are to present a 3D geological surface model of Latur district in Maharashtra state of India. This study is undertaken through the several processes which are discussed in this paper to generate and visualize the automated 3D geological surface model of a projected area.

  2. General Concept of 3D SLAM

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Peter; Millos, Evangelous; Gu, Jason

    2009-01-01

    This chapter established an approach to solve the full 3D SLAM problem, applied to an underwater environment. First, a general approach to the 3D SLAM problem was presented, which included the models in 3D case, data association and estimation algorithm. For an underwater mobile robot, a new measurement system was designed for large area's globally-consistent SLAM: buoys for long-range estimation, and camera for short-range estimation and map building. Globally-consistent results could be obt...

  3. The reactor dynamics code DYN3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliem, Soeren; Bilodid, Yuri; Fridman, Emil; Baier, Silvio; Grahn, Alexander; Gommlich, Andre; Nikitin, Evgeny; Rohde, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The article provides an overview on the code DYN3D which is a three-dimensional core model for steady-state, dynamic and depletion calculations in reactor cores with quadratic or hexagonal fuel assembly geometry being developed by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf for more than 20 years. The current paper gives an overview on the basic DYN3D models and the available code couplings. The verification and validation status is shortly outlined. The paper concludes with the current developments of the DYN3D code. For more detailed information the reader is referred to the publications cited in the corresponding chapters.

  4. 3D background aerodynamics using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.

    2002-01-01

    3D rotor computations for the Greek Geovilogiki (GEO) 44 meter rotor equipped with 19 meters blades are performed. The lift and drag polars are extracted at five spanvise locations r/R= (.37, .55, .71, .82, .93) based on identification of stagnationpoints between 2D and 3D computations. The inner...... most sections shows clear evidence of 3D radial pumping, with increased lift compared to 2D values. In contrast to earlier investigated airfoils a very limited impact on the drag values are observed....

  5. 3D tulostus - digitaalisesta mallista esineeksi

    OpenAIRE

    Muurinen, Kimmo

    2013-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä esitellään 3D tulostuksen tekniikka ja materiaaleja, suunnitellaan ja tuotetaan esimerkkikappaleen digitaalinen malli, sekä tulostetaan muovinen esine digi-taalisen mallin pohjalta. Työn tavoitteena on perehdyttää lukija prosessiin, jossa itse tuotettu digitaalinen malli tulostetaan käyttäen harrastajakäyttöön tarkoitettua edullista 3D tulostinta. Esimerkkikappaleen eri osien mallinnusprosessi näytetään kokonaisuudessaan ja kerro-taan perusteita 3D mallinnuksesta...

  6. Automatic balancing of 3D models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Schmidt, Ryan; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2014-01-01

    3D printing technologies allow for more diverse shapes than are possible with molds and the cost of making just one single object is negligible compared to traditional production methods. However, not all shapes are suitable for 3D print. One of the remaining costs is therefore human time spent......, in these cases, we will apply a rotation of the object which only deforms the shape a little near the base. No user input is required but it is possible to specify manufacturing constraints related to specific 3D print technologies. Several models have successfully been balanced and printed using both polyjet...

  7. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results

  8. FIT3D: Fitting optical spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; González, J. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cano-Díaz, M.; López-Cobá, C.; Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Mollá, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Ascasibar, Y.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.

    2016-09-01

    FIT3D fits optical spectra to deblend the underlying stellar population and the ionized gas, and extract physical information from each component. FIT3D is focused on the analysis of Integral Field Spectroscopy data, but is not restricted to it, and is the basis of Pipe3D, a pipeline used in the analysis of datasets like CALIFA, MaNGA, and SAMI. It can run iteratively or in an automatic way to derive the parameters of a large set of spectra.

  9. FUN3D Manual: 12.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.5, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational uid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables ecient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  10. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  11. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  12. FUN3D Manual: 12.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Thomas, James L.; Wood, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.4, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixedelement unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  13. 3D grafika a hry

    OpenAIRE

    Vataščinová, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    In my bachelor thesis, I am going to introduce the topic of 3D graphics in the game environment. Firstly, I will provide a brief introduction of history of 3D graphics in general, but with the emphasis on history of game industry in particular. Next, I will present 3D graphics of RPG games in particular, and I will analyse the graphical side of digital work production. The main contribution of this thesis is provided in the practical part, which deals with creation of an environment for an an...

  14. 3-D Human Modeling and Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Peter

    2012-01-01

    3-D Human Modeling and Animation Third Edition All the tools and techniques you need to bring human figures to 3-D life Thanks to today's remarkable technology, artists can create and animate realistic, three-dimensional human figures that were not possible just a few years ago. This easy-to-follow book guides you through all the necessary steps to adapt your own artistic skill in figure drawing, painting, and sculpture to this exciting digital canvas. 3-D Human Modeling and Animation, Third Edition starts you off with simple modeling, then prepares you for more advanced techniques for crea

  15. 3D face modeling, analysis and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Daoudi, Mohamed; Veltkamp, Remco

    2013-01-01

    3D Face Modeling, Analysis and Recognition presents methodologies for analyzing shapes of facial surfaces, develops computational tools for analyzing 3D face data, and illustrates them using state-of-the-art applications. The methodologies chosen are based on efficient representations, metrics, comparisons, and classifications of features that are especially relevant in the context of 3D measurements of human faces. These frameworks have a long-term utility in face analysis, taking into account the anticipated improvements in data collection, data storage, processing speeds, and application s

  16. The reactor dynamics code DYN3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article provides an overview on the code DYN3D which is a three-dimensional core model for steady-state, dynamic and depletion calculations in reactor cores with quadratic or hexagonal fuel assembly geometry being developed by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf for more than 20 years. The current paper gives an overview on the basic DYN3D models and the available code couplings. The verification and validation status is shortly outlined. The paper concludes with the current developments of the DYN3D code. For more detailed information the reader is referred to the publications cited in the corresponding chapters.

  17. 3D-hahmojen toteutus mobiilipeliin

    OpenAIRE

    Kemppainen, Matti

    2012-01-01

    Mobiilipelien suosio on kasvanut räjähdysmäisesti viime vuosina älypuhelinten kehittymisen myötä. Tässä opinnäytetyössä selvitetään kolmiulotteisen pelihahmon toteutusprosessi mobiilipeliin. Lisäksi pohditaan maksullisten ja ilmaisten ohjelmien eroja toteutuksessa. Pelihahmojen toteutus perustuu mobiilipeliprojektiin peliyrityksessä, jossa työskentelin graafikkona. Ohjelmien vertailussa on mukana 3D Studio Max, Blender 3D, Photoshop ja GIMP. Käytännön osuudessa käydään läpi 3D-pelihahmon...

  18. 3D-MR cholangio-angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkawa, Shinichi [Isehara Kyohdoh Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Hiramatsu, Kyoichi

    1995-04-01

    This report introduces a new 3D-MR cholangio-angiography technique using 3D Fast SE MR cholangiography and 3D phase contrast MR angiography for obstructive jaundice. In all eight cases, dilated biliary tracts as well as portal veins were clearly visualized in the same image. This new technique helped to determine the operability and surgical strategy for cases with obstructive jaundice. It also provided anatomical guidance for surgical procedures. This study suggests that this technique may replace the currently used modalities for obstructive jaundice. (author).

  19. Compressed sensing reconstruction for whole-heart imaging with 3D radial trajectories: a graphics processing unit implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Seunghoon; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Basha, Tamer; Stehning, Christian; Manning, Warren J; Tarokh, Vahid; Nezafat, Reza

    2013-01-01

    A disadvantage of three-dimensional (3D) isotropic acquisition in whole-heart coronary MRI is the prolonged data acquisition time. Isotropic 3D radial trajectories allow undersampling of k-space data in all three spatial dimensions, enabling accelerated acquisition of the volumetric data. Compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction can provide further acceleration in the acquisition by removing the incoherent artifacts due to undersampling and improving the image quality. However, the heavy computational overhead of the CS reconstruction has been a limiting factor for its application. In this article, a parallelized implementation of an iterative CS reconstruction method for 3D radial acquisitions using a commercial graphics processing unit is presented. The execution time of the graphics processing unit-implemented CS reconstruction was compared with that of the C++ implementation, and the efficacy of the undersampled 3D radial acquisition with CS reconstruction was investigated in both phantom and whole-heart coronary data sets. Subsequently, the efficacy of CS in suppressing streaking artifacts in 3D whole-heart coronary MRI with 3D radial imaging and its convergence properties were studied. The CS reconstruction provides improved image quality (in terms of vessel sharpness and suppression of noise-like artifacts) compared with the conventional 3D gridding algorithm, and the graphics processing unit implementation greatly reduces the execution time of CS reconstruction yielding 34-54 times speed-up compared with C++ implementation. PMID:22392604

  20. The 3D Object Mediator : Handling 3D Models on Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.J.F.; Lawick van Pabst, J. van; Afsarmanesh, H.

    1997-01-01

    The 3D Object MEdiator (3DOME 3) offers two services for handling 3D models: a modelshop and a renderfarm. These services can be consulted through the Internet. The modelshop meets the demands for brokerage of geometric descriptions of 3D models. People who create geometric models of objects can sup

  1. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing. PMID:24808080

  2. 3D presentatie van geluid in de cockpit [3D sound presentation in the cockpit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronkhorst, A.W.

    2003-01-01

    A.W. Bronkhorst, 3D-presentatie van geluid in de cockpit 1 Using virtual acoustics, sound can be presented from virtual sources located in the 3D space around the listener. This 3D sound has interesting applications in the cockpit. Sounds can be used to convey directional information, and interferen

  3. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  4. Quantitative data analysis methods for 3D microstructure characterization of Solid Oxide Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    the microstructure. The methods are exemplied by the analysis of Ni-YSZ and LSC-CGO electrode samples. Automatic methods for preprocessing the raw 3D image data are developed. The preprocessing steps correct for errors introduced by the image acquisition by the focused ion beam serial sectioning. Alignment...... for gaining further fundamental understanding of how microstructure affects performance. In this work, methods for automatic 3D characterization of microstructure are studied: from the acquisition of 3D image data by focused ion beam tomography to the extraction of quantitative measures that characterize...... of the individual image slices is performed by automatic detection of ducial marks. Uneven illumination is corrected by tting hypersurfaces to the spatial intensity variation in the 3D image data. Routine use of quantitative three dimensional analysis of microstructure is generally restricted by the time consuming...

  5. The 3D Genome as Moderator of Chromosomal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Job; Mirny, Leonid

    2016-03-10

    Proper expression of genes requires communication with their regulatory elements that can be located elsewhere along the chromosome. The physics of chromatin fibers imposes a range of constraints on such communication. The molecular and biophysical mechanisms by which chromosomal communication is established, or prevented, have become a topic of intense study, and important roles for the spatial organization of chromosomes are being discovered. Here we present a view of the interphase 3D genome characterized by extensive physical compartmentalization and insulation on the one hand and facilitated long-range interactions on the other. We propose the existence of topological machines dedicated to set up and to exploit a 3D genome organization to both promote and censor communication along and between chromosomes.

  6. 3-D Printed Slit Nozzles for Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewberry, Chris; Mackenzie, Becca; Green, Susan; Leopold, Ken

    2015-06-01

    3-D printing is a new technology whose applications are only beginning to be explored. In this report, we describe the application of 3-D printing to the facile design and construction of supersonic nozzles. The efficacy of a variety of designs is assessed by examining rotational spectra OCS and Ar-OCS using a Fourier transform microwave spectrometer with tandem cavity and chirped-pulse capabilities. This work focuses primarily on the use of slit nozzles but other designs have been tested as well. New nozzles can be created for 0.50 or less each, and the ease and low cost should facilitate the optimization of nozzle performance (e.g., jet temperature or cluster size distribution) for the needs of any particular experiment.

  7. Technical illustration based on 3D CSG models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Wei-dong; DING Lei; YU Hong-feng; PAN Yun-he

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic non-photorealistic rendering approach to generating technical illustration from 3D models. It first decomposes the 3D object into a set of CSG primitives, and then performs the hidden surface removal based on the prioritized list, in which the rendition order of CSG primitives is sorted out by depth. Then, each primitive is illustrated by the pre-defined empirical lighting model, and the system mimics the stroke-drawing by user-specified style. In order to artistically and flexibly modulate the illumination, the empirical lighting model is defined by three major components: parameters of multi-level lighting intensities, parametric spatial occupations for each lighting level, and an interpolation method to calculate the lighting units into the spatial occupation of CSG primitives, instead of"pixel-by-pixel" painting. This region-by-region shading facilitates the simulation of illustration styles.

  8. 3D Printing of Biocompatible Supramolecular Polymers and their Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Lewis R; Li, Siwei; Sturgess, Craig; Wildman, Ricky; Jones, Julian R; Hayes, Wayne

    2016-02-10

    A series of polymers capable of self-assembling into infinite networks via supramolecular interactions have been designed, synthesized, and characterized for use in 3D printing applications. The biocompatible polymers and their composites with silica nanoparticles were successfully utilized to deposit both simple cubic structures, as well as a more complex twisted pyramidal feature. The polymers were found to be not toxic to a chondrogenic cell line, according to ISO 10993-5 and 10993-12 standard tests and the cells attached to the supramolecular polymers as demonstrated by confocal microscopy. Silica nanoparticles were then dispersed within the polymer matrix, yielding a composite material which was optimized for inkjet printing. The hybrid material showed promise in preliminary tests to facilitate the 3D deposition of a more complex structure.

  9. 3D Printing of Biocompatible Supramolecular Polymers and their Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Lewis R; Li, Siwei; Sturgess, Craig; Wildman, Ricky; Jones, Julian R; Hayes, Wayne

    2016-02-10

    A series of polymers capable of self-assembling into infinite networks via supramolecular interactions have been designed, synthesized, and characterized for use in 3D printing applications. The biocompatible polymers and their composites with silica nanoparticles were successfully utilized to deposit both simple cubic structures, as well as a more complex twisted pyramidal feature. The polymers were found to be not toxic to a chondrogenic cell line, according to ISO 10993-5 and 10993-12 standard tests and the cells attached to the supramolecular polymers as demonstrated by confocal microscopy. Silica nanoparticles were then dispersed within the polymer matrix, yielding a composite material which was optimized for inkjet printing. The hybrid material showed promise in preliminary tests to facilitate the 3D deposition of a more complex structure. PMID:26766139

  10. Lightning fast animation in Element 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Audronis, Ty

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow and all-inclusive guide, in which the underlying principles of 3D animation as well as their importance are explained in detail. The lessons are designed to teach you how to think of 3D animation in such a way that you can troubleshoot any problem, or animate any scene that comes your way.If you are a Digital Artist, Animation Artist, or a Game Programmer and you want to become an expert in Element 3D, this is the book for you. Although there are a lot of basics for beginners in this book, it includes some advanced techniques for both animating in Element 3D, and overcoming i

  11. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  12. 3D Flash LIDAR Space Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc (ASC) is a small business, which has developed a compact, eye-safe 3D Flash LIDARTM Camera (FLC) well suited for real-time...

  13. 3D-FPA Hybridization Improvements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) is a small business, which has developed a compact, eye-safe 3D Flash LIDARTM Camera (FLC) well suited for real-time...

  14. Copper Electrodeposition for 3D Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Beica, Rozalia; Ritzdorf, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Two dimensional (2D) integration has been the traditional approach for IC integration. Due to increasing demands for providing electronic devices with superior performance and functionality in more efficient and compact packages, has driven the semiconductor industry to develop more advanced packaging technologies. Three-dimensional (3D) approaches address both miniaturization and integration required for advanced and portable electronic products. Vertical integration proved to be essential in achieving a greater integration flexibility of disparate technologies, reason for which a general trend of transition from 2D to 3D integration is currently being observed in the industry. 3D chip integration using through silicon via (TSV) copper is considered one of the most advanced technologies among all different types of 3D packaging technologies. Copper electrodeposition is one of technologies that enable the formation of TSV structures. Because of its well-known application for copper damascene, it was believed ...

  15. 3D Biomaterial Microarrays for Regenerative Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Andresen, Thomas Lars;

    2015-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) biomaterial microarrays hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine because of their ability to accelerate the design and fabrication of biomimetic materials. Such tissue-like biomaterials can provide an appropriate microenvironment for stimulating and controlling stem...

  16. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafti, Ahmad P; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B; Holz, Jessica D; Owen, Heather A; Yu, Zeyun

    2016-03-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples. PMID:26779561

  17. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad P. Tafti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples.

  18. 3D Visualization of Recent Sumatra Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Atul; Kilb, Debi

    2005-04-01

    Scientists and visualization experts at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography have created an interactive three-dimensional visualization of the 28 March 2005 magnitude 8.7 earthquake in Sumatra. The visualization shows the earthquake's hypocenter and aftershocks recorded until 29 March 2005, and compares it with the location of the 26 December 2004 magnitude 9 event and the consequent seismicity in that region. The 3D visualization was created using the Fledermaus software developed by Interactive Visualization Systems (http://www.ivs.unb.ca/) and stored as a ``scene'' file. To view this visualization, viewers need to download and install the free viewer program iView3D (http://www.ivs3d.com/products/iview3d).

  19. 3D VISUALIZATION FOR VIRTUAL MUSEUM DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Skamantzari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the development of virtual museums is nowadays rising rapidly. During the last decades there have been numerous efforts concerning the 3D digitization of cultural heritage and the development of virtual museums, digital libraries and serious games. The realistic result has always been the main concern and a real challenge when it comes to 3D modelling of monuments, artifacts and especially sculptures. This paper implements, investigates and evaluates the results of the photogrammetric methods and 3D surveys that were used for the development of a virtual museum. Moreover, the decisions, the actions, the methodology and the main elements that this kind of application should include and take into consideration are described and analysed. It is believed that the outcomes of this application will be useful to researchers who are planning to develop and further improve the attempts made on virtual museums and mass production of 3D models.

  20. High accuracy 3-D laser radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Jens; Heiselberg, Henning

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a mono-static staring 3-D laser radar based on gated viewing with range accuracy below 1 m at 10 m and 1 cm at 100. We use a high sensitivity, fast, intensified CCD camera, and a Nd:Yag passively Q-switched 32.4 kHz pulsed green laser at 532 nm. The CCD has 752x582 pixels. Camera...... shutter is controlled in steps of 100 ps. Camera delay is controlled in steps of 100 ps. Each laser pulse triggers the camera delay and shutter. A 3-D image is constructed from a sequence of 50-100 2-D reflectivity images, where each frame integrates about 700 laser pulses on the CCD. In 50 Hz video mode...... we record a 2-D sequence in a second and process a 3-D image in few seconds. We compare 3-D images with a system performance model....

  1. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  2. Tvorba 3D modelů

    OpenAIRE

    Musálek, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Práce řeší 3D rekonstrukci objektu pomocí metody nasvícení vzorem. Projektor nasvěcuje měřený objekt definovaným vzorem a dvojice kamer z něj snímá body. Podstavec s objektem se otáčí, a během více měření je objekt sejmut z více úhlů. Body jsou identifikovány z naměřených snímků, transformovány na 3D pomocí stereovidění, spojeny do 3D modelu a zobrazeny. Thesis solves 3D reconstruction of an object by method of lighting by pattern. A projector lights the measured object by defined pattern ...

  3. 3D Maps Representation Using GNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Morell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current RGB-D sensors provide a big amount of valuable information for mobile robotics tasks like 3D map reconstruction, but the storage and processing of the incremental data provided by the different sensors through time quickly become unmanageable. In this work, we focus on 3D maps representation and propose the use of the Growing Neural Gas (GNG network as a model to represent 3D input data. GNG method is able to represent the input data with a desired amount of neurons or resolution while preserving the topology of the input space. Experiments show how GNG method yields a better input space adaptation than other state-of-the-art 3D map representation methods.

  4. 3D-printed bioanalytical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E.; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices.

  5. Advanced 3D Object Identification System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optra will build an Advanced 3D Object Identification System utilizing three or more high resolution imagers spaced around a launch platform. Data from each imager...

  6. Measuring Visual Closeness of 3-D Models

    KAUST Repository

    Morales, Jose A.

    2012-09-01

    Measuring visual closeness of 3-D models is an important issue for different problems and there is still no standardized metric or algorithm to do it. The normal of a surface plays a vital role in the shading of a 3-D object. Motivated by this, we developed two applications to measure visualcloseness, introducing normal difference as a parameter in a weighted metric in Metro’s sampling approach to obtain the maximum and mean distance between 3-D models using 3-D and 6-D correspondence search structures. A visual closeness metric should provide accurate information on what the human observers would perceive as visually close objects. We performed a validation study with a group of people to evaluate the correlation of our metrics with subjective perception. The results were positive since the metrics predicted the subjective rankings more accurately than the Hausdorff distance.

  7. Transportstromen verschuiven door toepassing 3-D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    3-D printing is aan een gestage opmars bezig.ln een paar jaar tijd is er een miljardenmarkt ontstaan die exponentieel groeit. TNO deed onderzoek naar de impact van deze ontwikkelingen op supply chains.

  8. Pentingnya Pengetahuan Anatomi untuk 3D Artist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Sugito Kurniawan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available No matter how far the current technological advances, anatomical knowledge will still be needed as a basis for making a good character design. Understanding anatomy will help us in the placement of the articulation of muscles and joints, thus more realistic modeling of 3d characters will be achieved in the form and movement. As a 3d character artist, anatomy should be able to inform in every aspect of our work. Each 3D/CG (Computer Graphics-artist needs to know how to use software applications, but what differentiates a 3d artist with a computer operator is an artistic vision and understanding of the basic shape of the human body. Artistic vision could not easily be taught, but a CG-artist may study it on their own from which so many reference sources may help understand and deepen their knowledge of anatomy.

  9. 3D Indoor Building Environment Reconstruction using calibration of Range finder Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamali, Ali; Anton, François; Rahman, Alias Abdul;

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, municipalities intend to have 3D city models for facility management, disaster management and architectural planning. 3D data acquisition can be done by laser scanning for indoor environment which is a costly and time consuming process. Currently, for indoor surveying, Electronic Distance...... Measurement (EDM) and Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) are mostly used. In this paper, several techniques for indoor 3D building data acquisition have been investigated. For reducing the time and cost of indoor building data acquisition process, the Trimble LaserAce 1000 range finder is used. The accuracy...... of the rangefinder is evaluated and a simple spatial model is reconstructed from real data. This technique is rapid (it requires a shorter time as compared to others), but the results show inconsistencies in horizontal angles for short distances in indoor environments. The range finder was calibrated using a least...

  10. Embedding 3D into multipurpose cadastre

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Rahman; T. C. Hua; P. J. M. Van Oosterom

    2011-01-01

    There is no doubt that the cadastral map provides a useful entrance to information in a land parcel based information system. However, such information system could be made more meaningful and useful if it can be extended for multiple usages with multi data layers, and in three-dimensions (3D). Currently, many national mapping and cadastral agencies (NMCAs) and users deal with complex situations, and we believe that 3D could enhance the understanding of the situations better. This paper descr...

  11. Luovasta konseptisuunnittelusta 3D-mainoselokuvaan

    OpenAIRE

    Salo, Suvi

    2015-01-01

    Insinöörityön tavoite oli luoda 3D-mainoselokuva myynnin tueksi ja nostaa esiin IT-alan yrityksen ja sen yksikön tuottamien palveluiden laajuutta ja yrityksen tapaa tuottaa tulostuspalvelua. Toteutettu mainoselokuva on tarkoitettu julkaistavaksi verkossa yrityksen omalla Youtube-kanavalla ja verkkosivuilla. 3D-mainoselokuvan suunnittelussa käytettiin luovan konseptisuunnittelun keinoja jalostaa tarina kohderyhmälähtöiseksi. Aluksi selvitettiin asiakasrajapinnan haastattelujen avulla kohde...

  12. 3D printing: technology and processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kurinov, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the research was to improve the process of 3D printing on the laboratory machine. In the study processes of designing, printing and post-print-ing treatment were improved. The study was commissioned by Mikko Ruotsalainen, head of the laboratory. The data was collected during the test work. All the basic information about 3D printing was taken from the Internet or library. As the results of the project higher model accuracy, solutions for post-printing treatment, printin...

  13. The Idaho Virtualization Laboratory 3D Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Holmer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three dimensional (3D virtualization and visualization is an important component of industry, art, museum curation and cultural heritage, yet the step by step process of 3D virtualization has been little discussed. Here we review the Idaho Virtualization Laboratory’s (IVL process of virtualizing a cultural heritage item (artifact from start to finish. Each step is thoroughly explained and illustrated including how the object and its metadata are digitally preserved and ultimately distributed to the world.

  14. 3D Printing Electrically Small Spherical Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2013-01-01

    3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations.......3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations....

  15. Integration of Petrophysical Methods and 3D Printing Technology to Replicate Reservoir Pore Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishutov, S.; Hasiuk, F.; Gray, J.; Harding, C.

    2014-12-01

    Pore-scale imaging and modeling are becoming routine geoscience techniques of reservoir analysis and simulation in oil and gas industry. Three-dimensional printing may facilitate the transformation of pore-space imagery into rock models, which can be compared to traditional laboratory methods and literature data. Although current methodologies for rapid rock modeling and printing obscure many details of grain geometry, computed tomography data is one route to refine pore networks and experimentally test hypotheses related to rock properties, such as porosity and permeability. This study uses three-dimensional printing as a novel way of interacting with x-ray computed tomography data from reservoir core plugs based on digital modeling of pore systems in coarse-grained sandstones and limestones. The advantages of using artificial rocks as a proxy are to better understand the contributions of pore system characteristics at various scales to petrophysical properties in oil and gas reservoirs. Pore radii of reservoir sandstones used in this study range from 1 to 100s of microns, whereas the pore radii for limestones vary from 0.01 to 10s of microns. The resolution of computed tomography imaging is ~10 microns; the resolution of 3D digital printing used in the study varies from 2.5 to 300 microns. For this technology to be useful, loss of pore network information must be minimized in the course of data acquisition, modeling, and production as well as verified against core-scale measurements. The ultimate goal of this study is to develop a reservoir rock "photocopier" that couples 3D scanning and modeling with 3D printing to reproduce a) petrophyscially accurate copies of reservoir pore systems and b) digitally modified pore systems for testing hypotheses about reservoir flow. By allowing us to build porous media with known properties (porosity, permeability, surface area), technology will also advance our understanding of the tools used to measure these quantities (e

  16. A Pipeline for 3D Multimodality Image Integration and Computer-assisted Planning in Epilepsy Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Nowell, Mark; Rodionov, Roman; Zombori, Gergely; Sparks, Rachel; Rizzi, Michele; Ourselin, Sebastien; Miserocchi, Anna; McEvoy, Andrew; Duncan, John

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy surgery is challenging and the use of 3D multimodality image integration (3DMMI) to aid presurgical planning is well-established. Multimodality image integration can be technically demanding, and is underutilised in clinical practice. We have developed a single software platform for image integration, 3D visualization and surgical planning. Here, our pipeline is described in step-by-step fashion, starting with image acquisition, proceeding through image co-registration, manual segmen...

  17. LandSIM3D: modellazione in real time 3D di dati geografici

    OpenAIRE

    Lambo Srl Lambo Srl

    2009-01-01

    LandSIM3D: realtime 3D modelling of geographic dataLandSIM3D allows to model in 3D an existing landscape in a few hours only and geo-referenced offering great landscape analysis and understanding tools. 3D projects can then be inserted into the existing landscape with ease and precision. The project alternatives and impact can then be visualized and studied into their immediate environmental. The complex evolution of the landscape in the future can also be simulated and the landscape model ca...

  18. ASSESSING 3D PHOTOGRAMMETRY TECHNIQUES IN CRANIOMETRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Moshobane

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc® three-dimensional (3D modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model’s accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  19. Assessing 3d Photogrammetry Techniques in Craniometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshobane, M. C.; de Bruyn, P. J. N.; Bester, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features) has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc®) three-dimensional (3D) modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model's accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  20. Metrological analysis of the human foot: 3D multisensor exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Potosi, A.; Meneses Fonseca, J.; León Téllez, J.

    2011-08-01

    In the podiatry field, many of the foot dysfunctions are mainly generated due to: Congenital malformations, accidents or misuse of footwear. For the treatment or prevention of foot disorders, the podiatrist diagnoses prosthesis or specific adapted footwear, according to the real dimension of foot. Therefore, it is necessary to acquire 3D information of foot with 360 degrees of observation. As alternative solution, it was developed and implemented an optical system of threedimensional reconstruction based in the principle of laser triangulation. The system is constituted by an illumination unit that project a laser plane into the foot surface, an acquisition unit with 4 CCD cameras placed around of axial foot axis, an axial moving unit that displaces the illumination and acquisition units in the axial axis direction and a processing and exploration unit. The exploration software allows the extraction of distances on three-dimensional image, taking into account the topography of foot. The optical system was tested and their metrological performances were evaluated in experimental conditions. The optical system was developed to acquire 3D information in order to design and make more appropriate footwear.

  1. Infiltration front monitoring using 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxarango, Laurent; Audebert, Marine; Guyard, Helene; Clement, Remi

    2016-04-01

    The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) geophysical method is commonly used to identify the spatial distribution of electrical resisitivity in the soil at the field scale. Recent progress in commercial acquisition systems allows repeating fast acquisitions (10 min) in order to monitor a 3D dynamic phenomenon. Since the ERT method is sensitive to moisture content variations, it can thus be used to delineate the infiltration shape during water infiltration. In heterogeneous conditions, the 3D infiltration shape is a crucial information because it could differ significantly from the homogeneous behavior. In a first step, the ERT method is validated at small scale ( 10m). Two examples of leachate injection monitoring in municipal solid waste landfills are used to put forward benefits and limitations of the ERT-MICS method. Effective infiltration porosities in a range between 3% and 8% support the assumption of a flow in heterogeneous media. Audebert, M., R. Clément, N. Touze-Foltz, T. Günther, S. Moreau, and C. Duquennoi (2014), Time-lapse ERT interpretation methodology for leachate injection monitoring based on multiple inversions and a clustering strategy (MICS), Journal of Applied Geophysics, 111, 320-333. Keywords: ERT, infiltration front, field survey

  2. Acquiring 3D indoor environments with variability and repetition

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngmin

    2012-11-01

    Large-scale acquisition of exterior urban environments is by now a well-established technology, supporting many applications in search, navigation, and commerce. The same is, however, not the case for indoor environments, where access is often restricted and the spaces are cluttered. Further, such environments typically contain a high density of repeated objects (e.g., tables, chairs, monitors, etc.) in regular or non-regular arrangements with significant pose variations and articulations. In this paper, we exploit the special structure of indoor environments to accelerate their 3D acquisition and recognition with a low-end handheld scanner. Our approach runs in two phases: (i) a learning phase wherein we acquire 3D models of frequently occurring objects and capture their variability modes from only a few scans, and (ii) a recognition phase wherein from a single scan of a new area, we identify previously seen objects but in different poses and locations at an average recognition time of 200ms/model. We evaluate the robustness and limits of the proposed recognition system using a range of synthetic and real world scans under challenging settings. © 2012 ACM.

  3. 3D Reconstruction of Irregular Buildings and Buddha Statues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Li, M.-j.

    2014-04-01

    Three-dimensional laser scanning could acquire object's surface data quickly and accurately. However, the post-processing of point cloud is not perfect and could be improved. Based on the study of 3D laser scanning technology, this paper describes the details of solutions to modelling irregular ancient buildings and Buddha statues in Jinshan Temple, which aiming at data acquisition, modelling and texture mapping, etc. In order to modelling irregular ancient buildings effectively, the structure of each building is extracted manually by point cloud and the textures are mapped by the software of 3ds Max. The methods clearly combine 3D laser scanning technology with traditional modelling methods, and greatly improves the efficiency and accuracy of the ancient buildings restored. On the other hand, the main idea of modelling statues is regarded as modelling objects in reverse engineering. The digital model of statues obtained is not just vivid, but also accurate in the field of surveying and mapping. On this basis, a 3D scene of Jinshan Temple is reconstructed, which proves the validity of the solutions.

  4. Method for modeling post-mortem biometric 3D fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeev, Srijith; Shreyas, Kamath K. M.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2016-05-01

    Despite the advancements of fingerprint recognition in 2-D and 3-D domain, authenticating deformed/post-mortem fingerprints continue to be an important challenge. Prior cleansing and reconditioning of the deceased finger is required before acquisition of the fingerprint. The victim's finger needs to be precisely and carefully operated by a medium to record the fingerprint impression. This process may damage the structure of the finger, which subsequently leads to higher false rejection rates. This paper proposes a non-invasive method to perform 3-D deformed/post-mortem finger modeling, which produces a 2-D rolled equivalent fingerprint for automated verification. The presented novel modeling method involves masking, filtering, and unrolling. Computer simulations were conducted on finger models with different depth variations obtained from Flashscan3D LLC. Results illustrate that the modeling scheme provides a viable 2-D fingerprint of deformed models for automated verification. The quality and adaptability of the obtained unrolled 2-D fingerprints were analyzed using NIST fingerprint software. Eventually, the presented method could be extended to other biometric traits such as palm, foot, tongue etc. for security and administrative applications.

  5. An automated 3D reconstruction method of UAV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, He; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Feng; Sun, Guangtong; Song, Ping

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a novel fully automated 3D reconstruction approach based on low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle system (UAVs) images will be presented, which does not require previous camera calibration or any other external prior knowledge. Dense 3D point clouds are generated by integrating orderly feature extraction, image matching, structure from motion (SfM) and multi-view stereo (MVS) algorithms, overcoming many of the cost, time limitations of rigorous photogrammetry techniques. An image topology analysis strategy is introduced to speed up large scene reconstruction by taking advantage of the flight-control data acquired by UAV. Image topology map can significantly reduce the running time of feature matching by limiting the combination of images. A high-resolution digital surface model of the study area is produced base on UAV point clouds by constructing the triangular irregular network. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is robust and feasible for automatic 3D reconstruction of low-altitude UAV images, and has great potential for the acquisition of spatial information at large scales mapping, especially suitable for rapid response and precise modelling in disaster emergency.

  6. Single-shot 3D sensing with improved data density

    CERN Document Server

    Willomitzer, Florian; Faber, Christian; Häusler, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a novel concept for motion robust optical 3D-sensing. The concept is based on multi-line triangulation. The aim is to evaluate a large number of projected lines (high data density) in a large measurement volume with high precision. Implementing all those three attributes at the same time allows for the "perfect" real-time 3D movie camera (our long term goal). The key problem towards this goal is ambiguous line indexing: we will demonstrate that the necessary information for unique line indexing can be acquired by two synchronized cameras and a back projection scheme. The introduced concept preserves high lateral resolution, since the lines are as narrow as the sampling theorem allows, no spatial bandwidth is consumed by encoding of the lines. In principle, the distance uncertainty is only limited by shot noise and coherent noise. The concept can be also advantageously implemented with a hand-guided sensor and real-time registration, for a complete and dense 3D-acquisition of complicated scenes.

  7. Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brian; Chen, Brian R; Chen, Beverly B; Lu, James Y; Giannotta, Steven L

    2015-06-01

    Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging can present more information to the viewer and further enhance the learning experience over traditional two-dimensional (2D) video. Most 3D surgical videos are recorded from the operating microscope and only feature the crux, or the most important part of the surgery, leaving out other crucial parts of surgery including the opening, approach, and closing of the surgical site. In addition, many other surgeries including complex spine, trauma, and intensive care unit procedures are also rarely recorded. We describe and share our experience with a commercially available head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to obtain stereoscopic 3D recordings of these seldom recorded aspects of neurosurgery. The strengths and limitations of using the GoPro(®) 3D system as a head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system in the operating room are reviewed in detail. Over the past several years, we have recorded in stereoscopic 3D over 50 cranial and spinal surgeries and created a library for education purposes. We have found the head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to be a valuable asset to supplement 3D footage from a 3D microscope. We expect that these comprehensive 3D surgical videos will become an important facet of resident education and ultimately lead to improved patient care.

  8. RAG-3D: a search tool for RNA 3D substructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-10-30

    To address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D-a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool-designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding. PMID:26304547

  9. 3D-mallien muokkaus 3D-tulostamista varten CAD-ohjelmilla

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtimäki, Jarmo

    2013-01-01

    Insinöörityössäni käsitellään 3D-mallien tulostamista ja erityisesti 3D-mallien mallintamista niin, että kappaleiden valmistaminen 3D-tulostimella onnistuisi mahdollisimman hyvin. Työ tehtiin Prohoc Oy:lle, joka sijaitsee Vaasassa. 3D-tulostuspalveluun tuli jatkuvasti 3D-malleja, joiden tulostuksessa oli ongelmia. Työssäni tutkin näiden ongelmien syntyä ja tein ohjeita eri 3D-mallinnusohjelmille, joiden tarkoituksena on auttaa tekemään helpommin tulostettavia 3D-malleja. Työhön kuului myös et...

  10. Thin slice three dimentional (3D reconstruction versus CT 3D reconstruction of human breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: With improvement in the early diagnosis of breast cancer, breast conserving therapy (BCT is being increasingly used. Precise preoperative evaluation of the incision margin is, therefore, very important. Utilizing three dimentional (3D images in a preoperative evaluation for breast conserving surgery has considerable significance, but the currently 3D CT scan reconstruction commonly used has problems in accurately displaying breast cancer. Thin slice 3D reconstruction is also widely used now to delineate organs and tissues of breast cancers. This study was aimed to compare 3D CT with thin slice 3D reconstruction in breast cancer patients to find a better technique for accurate evaluation of breast cancer. Methods: A total of 16-slice spiral CT scans and 3D reconstructions were performed on 15 breast cancer patients. All patients had been treated with modified radical mastectomy; 2D and 3D images of breast and tumours were obtained. The specimens were fixed and sliced at 2 mm thickness to obtain serial thin slice images, and reconstructed using 3D DOCTOR software to gain 3D images. Results: Compared with 2D CT images, thin slice images showed more clearly the morphological characteristics of tumour, breast tissues and the margins of different tissues in each slice. After 3D reconstruction, the tumour shapes obtained by the two reconstruction methods were basically the same, but the thin slice 3D reconstruction showed the tumour margins more clearly. Interpretation & conclusions: Compared with 3D CT reconstruction, thin slice 3D reconstruction of breast tumour gave clearer images, which could provide guidance for the observation and application of CT 3D reconstructed images and contribute to the accurate evaluation of tumours using CT imaging technology.

  11. 3D-PRINTING OF BUILD OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAVYTSKYI M. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Today, in all spheres of our life we can constate the permanent search for new, modern methods and technologies that meet the principles of sustainable development. New approaches need to be, on the one hand more effective in terms of conservation of exhaustible resources of our planet, have minimal impact on the environment and on the other hand to ensure a higher quality of the final product. Construction is not exception. One of the new promising technology is the technology of 3D -printing of individual structures and buildings in general. 3Dprinting - is the process of real object recreating on the model of 3D. Unlike conventional printer which prints information on a sheet of paper, 3D-printer allows you to display three-dimensional information, i.e. creates certain physical objects. Currently, 3D-printer finds its application in many areas of production: machine building elements, a variety of layouts, interior elements, various items. But due to the fact that this technology is fairly new, it requires the creation of detailed and accurate technologies, efficient equipment and materials, and development of common vocabulary and regulatory framework in this field. Research Aim. The analysis of existing methods of creating physical objects using 3D-printing and the improvement of technology and equipment for the printing of buildings and structures. Conclusion. 3D-printers building is a new generation of equipment for the construction of buildings, structures, and structural elements. A variety of building printing technics opens up wide range of opportunities in the construction industry. At this stage, printers design allows to create low-rise buildings of different configurations with different mortars. The scientific novelty of this work is to develop proposals to improve the thermal insulation properties of constructed 3D-printing objects and technological equipment. The list of key terms and notions of construction

  12. Powering an in-space 3D printer using solar light energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Skye; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Hirsch, Michael P.; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes how a solar power source can enable in-space 3D printing without requiring conversion to electric power and back. A design for an in-space 3D printer is presented, with a particular focus on the power generation system. Then, key benefits are presented and evaluated. Specifically, the approach facilitates the design of a spacecraft that can be built, launched, and operated at very low cost levels. The proposed approach also facilitates easy configuration of the amount of energy that is supplied. Finally, it facilitates easier disposal by removing the heavy metals and radioactive materials required for a nuclear-power solution.

  13. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  14. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies. (paper)

  15. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.

  16. A Comparative Analysis between Active and Passive Techniques for Underwater 3D Reconstruction of Close-Range Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Bianco, Gianfranco; Gallo, Alessandro; Bruno, Fabio; Muzzupappa, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    In some application fields, such as underwater archaeology or marine biology, there is the need to collect three-dimensional, close-range data from objects that cannot be removed from their site. In particular, 3D imaging techniques are widely employed for close-range acquisitions in underwater environment. In this work we have compared in water two 3D imaging techniques based on active and passive approaches, respectively, and whole-field acquisition. The comparison is performed under poor v...

  17. Fast 3D T1-weighted brain imaging at 3 Tesla with modified 3D FLASH sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longitudinal relaxation times (T1) of white and gray matter become close at high magnetic field. Therefore, classical T1 sensitive methods, like spoiled FLASH fail to give a sufficient contrast in human brain imaging at 3 Tesla. An excellent T1 contrast can be achieved at high field by gradient echo imaging with a preparatory inversion pulse. The inversion recovery (IR) preparation can be combined with a fast 2D gradient echo scans. In this paper we present an application of this technique to rapid 3-dimensional imaging. New technique called 3D SIR FLASH was implemented on Burker MSLX system equipped with a 3T, 90 cm horizontal bore magnet working in Centre Hospitalier in Rouffach, France. The new technique was used for comparison of MRI images of healthy volunteers obtained with a traditional 3D imaging. White and gray matter are clearly distinguishable when 3D SIR FLASH is used. The total acquisition time for 128x128x128 image was 5 minutes. Three dimensional visualization with facet representation of surfaces and oblique sections was done off-line on the INDIGO Extreme workstation. New technique is widely used in FORENAP, Centre Hospitalier in Reuffach, Alsace. (author)

  18. Enrichment of a 3D building model with windows using oblique-view ALS and façade textures

    OpenAIRE

    Hribernik, Urša

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of applications using 3D building models exists; such as computer games, city marketing, disaster management, tourist information systems, simulations of noise propagation and surveillance of sustainable construction. Complete acquisition of large urban scenes has become feasible using multi-aspect-oblique-view ALS; however, automated generation of detailed 3D models, the main focus of this thesis, still poses a significant challenge. To enable enrichment of a 3D building mo...

  19. High-speed 3D shape measurement using array projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heist, Stefan; Sieler, Marcel; Breitbarth, Andreas; Kühmstedt, Peter; Notni, Gunther

    2013-04-01

    Measuring the three-dimensional (3D) surface shape of objects in real time has become an important task e.g. in industrial quality management or medical sciences. Stereo vision-based arrangements in connection with pattern projection offer high data acquisition speed and low computation time. However, these coded-light techniques are limited by the projection speed which is conventionally in the range of 200. . .250Hz. In this contribution, we present the concepts and a realized setup of a so-called 3D array projector. It is ultra-slim, but nonetheless able to project fixed patterns with high brightness and depth of focus. Furthermore, frame rates up to the 100 kHz range are achievable without any need of mechanically moving parts since the projection speed is limited mainly by the switching frequency of the used LEDs. According to the measurement requirements, type and structure of the patterns can be chosen almost freely: linear or sinusoidal fringes, binary codes such as the Gray code, square, hexagonal or random patterns and many more. First investigations on the functionality of such a 3D array projector were conducted using a prototype with a combination of Gray codes and phase-shifted sinusoidal fringes. Our contribution proves the high brightness of the proposed projector, its sharpness and the good Michelson contrast of the fringe patterns. We deal with the patterns' homogeneity and the accuracy of the phase shift between the sinusoidal patterns. Furthermore, we present first measurement results and outline future research which is, inter alia, addressed to the use of other structured light techniques with the help of new purpose-built 3D array projector prototypes.

  20. The importance of 3D dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy has been getting progressively more complex for the past 20 years. Early radiation therapy techniques needed only basic dosimetry equipment; motorized water phantoms, ionization chambers, and basic radiographic film techniques. As intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided therapy came into widespread practice, medical physicists were challenged with developing effective and efficient dose measurement techniques. The complex 3-dimensional (3D) nature of the dose distributions that were being delivered demanded the development of more quantitative and more thorough methods for dose measurement. The quality assurance vendors developed a wide array of multidetector arrays that have been enormously useful for measuring and characterizing dose distributions, and these have been made especially useful with the advent of 3D dose calculation systems based on the array measurements, as well as measurements made using film and portal imagers. Other vendors have been providing 3D calculations based on data from the linear accelerator or the record and verify system, providing thorough evaluation of the dose but lacking quality assurance (QA) of the dose delivery process, including machine calibration. The current state of 3D dosimetry is one of a state of flux. The vendors and professional associations are trying to determine the optimal balance between thorough QA, labor efficiency, and quantitation. This balance will take some time to reach, but a necessary component will be the 3D measurement and independent calculation of delivered radiation therapy dose distributions

  1. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  2. 3D analysis methods - Study and seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the report results from a study that was performed as a Nordic co-operation activity with active participation from Studsvik Scandpower and Westinghouse Atom in Sweden, and VTT in Finland. The purpose of the study was to identify and investigate the effects rising from using the 3D transient com-puter codes in BWR safety analysis, and their influence on the transient analysis methodology. One of the main questions involves the critical power ratio (CPR) calculation methodology. The present way, where the CPR calculation is per-formed with a separate hot channel calculation, can be artificially conservative. In the investigated cases, no dramatic minimum CPR effect coming from the 3D calculation is apparent. Some cases show some decrease in the transient change of minimum CPR with the 3D calculation, which confirms the general thinking that the 1D calculation is conservative. On the other hand, the observed effect on neutron flux behaviour is quite large. In a slower transient the 3D effect might be stronger. The second part of the report is a summary of a related seminar that was held on the 3D analysis methods. The seminar was sponsored by the Reactor Safety part (NKS-R) of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Programme (NKS). (au)

  3. Recent Progress on 3D Silicon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    3D silicon detectors, in which the electrodes penetrate the sensor bulk perpendicular to the surface, have recently undergone a rapid development from R\\&D over industrialisation to their first installation in a real high-energy-physics experiment. Since June 2015, the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer is taking first collision data with 3D pixel detectors. At the same time, preparations are advancing to install 3D pixel detectors in forward trackers such as the ATLAS Forward Proton detector or the CMS-TOTEM Proton Precision Spectrometer. For those experiments, the main requirements are a slim edge and the ability to cope with non-uniform irradiation. Both have been shown to be fulfilled by 3D pixel detectors. For the High-Luminosity LHC pixel upgrades of the major experiments, 3D detectors are promising candidates for the innermost pixel layers to cope with harsh radiation environments up to fluences of $2\\times10^{16}$\\,n$_{eq}$/cm$^2$ thanks to their excellent radiation hardness at low operational voltages and ...

  4. Lifting Object Detection Datasets into 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Joao; Vicente, Sara; Agapito, Lourdes; Batista, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    While data has certainly taken the center stage in computer vision in recent years, it can still be difficult to obtain in certain scenarios. In particular, acquiring ground truth 3D shapes of objects pictured in 2D images remains a challenging feat and this has hampered progress in recognition-based object reconstruction from a single image. Here we propose to bypass previous solutions such as 3D scanning or manual design, that scale poorly, and instead populate object category detection datasets semi-automatically with dense, per-object 3D reconstructions, bootstrapped from:(i) class labels, (ii) ground truth figure-ground segmentations and (iii) a small set of keypoint annotations. Our proposed algorithm first estimates camera viewpoint using rigid structure-from-motion and then reconstructs object shapes by optimizing over visual hull proposals guided by loose within-class shape similarity assumptions. The visual hull sampling process attempts to intersect an object's projection cone with the cones of minimal subsets of other similar objects among those pictured from certain vantage points. We show that our method is able to produce convincing per-object 3D reconstructions and to accurately estimate cameras viewpoints on one of the most challenging existing object-category detection datasets, PASCAL VOC. We hope that our results will re-stimulate interest on joint object recognition and 3D reconstruction from a single image. PMID:27295458

  5. Biocompatible 3D Matrix with Antimicrobial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ion

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the biological activity of a new regenerative 3D matrix with antimicrobial properties, based on collagen (COLL, hydroxyapatite (HAp, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD and usnic acid (UA. The prepared 3D matrix was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FT-IRM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, and X-ray Diffraction (XRD. In vitro qualitative and quantitative analyses performed on cultured diploid cells demonstrated that the 3D matrix is biocompatible, allowing the normal development and growth of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and exhibited an antimicrobial effect, especially on the Staphylococcus aureus strain, explained by the particular higher inhibitory activity of usnic acid (UA against Gram positive bacterial strains. Our data strongly recommend the obtained 3D matrix to be used as a successful alternative for the fabrication of three dimensional (3D anti-infective regeneration matrix for bone tissue engineering.

  6. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies.

  7. 3D culture for cardiac cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppinger, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This review discusses historical milestones, recent developments and challenges in the area of 3D culture models with cardiovascular cell types. Expectations in this area have been raised in recent years, but more relevant in vitro research, more accurate drug testing results, reliable disease models and insights leading to bioartificial organs are expected from the transition to 3D cell culture. However, the construction of organ-like cardiac 3D models currently remains a difficult challenge. The heart consists of highly differentiated cells in an intricate arrangement.Furthermore, electrical “wiring”, a vascular system and multiple cell types act in concert to respond to the rapidly changing demands of the body. Although cardiovascular 3D culture models have been predominantly developed for regenerative medicine in the past, their use in drug screening and for disease models has become more popular recently. Many sophisticated 3D culture models are currently being developed in this dynamic area of life science. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  8. Towards Precise Metadata-set for Discovering 3D Geospatial Models in Geo-portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamyadi, A.; Pouliot, J.; Bédard, Y.

    2013-09-01

    Accessing 3D geospatial models, eventually at no cost and for unrestricted use, is certainly an important issue as they become popular among participatory communities, consultants, and officials. Various geo-portals, mainly established for 2D resources, have tried to provide access to existing 3D resources such as digital elevation model, LIDAR or classic topographic data. Describing the content of data, metadata is a key component of data discovery in geo-portals. An inventory of seven online geo-portals and commercial catalogues shows that the metadata referring to 3D information is very different from one geo-portal to another as well as for similar 3D resources in the same geo-portal. The inventory considered 971 data resources affiliated with elevation. 51% of them were from three geo-portals running at Canadian federal and municipal levels whose metadata resources did not consider 3D model by any definition. Regarding the remaining 49% which refer to 3D models, different definition of terms and metadata were found, resulting in confusion and misinterpretation. The overall assessment of these geo-portals clearly shows that the provided metadata do not integrate specific and common information about 3D geospatial models. Accordingly, the main objective of this research is to improve 3D geospatial model discovery in geo-portals by adding a specific metadata-set. Based on the knowledge and current practices on 3D modeling, and 3D data acquisition and management, a set of metadata is proposed to increase its suitability for 3D geospatial models. This metadata-set enables the definition of genuine classes, fields, and code-lists for a 3D metadata profile. The main structure of the proposal contains 21 metadata classes. These classes are classified in three packages as General and Complementary on contextual and structural information, and Availability on the transition from storage to delivery format. The proposed metadata set is compared with Canadian Geospatial

  9. A new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-05-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing day to day for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally three main image based approaches are using for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling and third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete solution available to create complete 3D city model by using images. These image based methods also have limitations This paper gives a new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry. This approach is divided into three sections. First, data acquisition process, second is 3D data processing, and third is data combination process. In data acquisition process, a multi-camera setup developed and used for video recording of an area. Image frames created from video data. Minimum required and suitable video image frame selected for 3D processing. In second section, based on close range photogrammetric principles and computer vision techniques, 3D model of area created. In third section, this 3D model exported to adding and merging of other pieces of large area. Scaling and alignment of 3D model was done. After applying the texturing and rendering on this model, a final photo-realistic textured 3D model created. This 3D model transferred into walk-through model or in movie form. Most of the processing steps are automatic. So this method is cost effective and less laborious. Accuracy of this model is good. For this research work, study area is the campus of department of civil engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. This campus acts as a prototype for city. Aerial photography is restricted in many country

  10. Over-expression of the GluN2B subunit in the forebrain facilitates the acquisition of morphine-related positive and aversive memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yijing; Ping, Xingjie; Yu, Peng; Liang, Jing; Shen, Fang; Han, Jisheng; Cui, Cailian

    2016-09-15

    GluN2B-containing N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the brain are known to have an important role in drug-associated learning and memory. Selective blockage of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors (GluN2B-NMDARs) has been shown to impair morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) without affecting natural reward-induced CPP. In the present study, GluN2B transgenic rats with over-expressed GluN2B-subunits in the forebrain were used to assess the susceptibility to CPP induced by morphine and natural rewards as well as to naloxone-induced conditioned place aversion (CPA). The results showed that GluN2B transgenic rats exhibited a relatively higher susceptibility to morphine-induced CPP and naloxone-induced CPA than their wild-type littermates did, while they retained the similar sensitivity as wild-type rats to CPP induced by natural reinforcers (food and sucrose). These findings suggest that increased level of GluN2B-NMDARs in forebrain facilitates formation of drug-related memory, but not that associated with natural rewards. GluN2B-NMDARs might be a potential target for the treatment of drug abuse. PMID:27217103

  11. An Empirical Research on Cooperative Writing and Its Facilitation of Metacognitive Writing Strategy Acquisition in College Writing Classes%合作写作促进元认知策略习得的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋冬美; 李红军

    2012-01-01

    To test its effectiveness in facilitating the acquisition of writing metacognitive strategies and improv- ing learners' writing proficiency, an empirical research was carried out in a college writing class. The results indicate that cooperative writing encourages both the sharing of metacognitive strategies in writing among students and their self-analysis, and raises the effectiveness of writing feedback, which leads to the growth of the width and depth of learners' construction of writing metacognitive strategies, and therefore increases the acquisition and their writing achievement greatly.%为探讨合作学习对促进写作元认知策略的习得以及提高学生写作水平的效果,在大学英语写作课堂进行实证研究。结果表明:合作写作促进学习者之间写作元认知策略的相互分享和自我反思,也提高了反馈的有效性,从而增强了他们写作元认知策略建构的广度和深度,大大提高了写作元认知策略的习得和写作水平。

  12. Particle Acceleration in 3D Magnetic Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, J.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is an important driver of energetic particles in phenomena such as magnetospheric storms and solar flares. Using kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we show that the stochastic magnetic field structure which develops during 3D reconnection plays a vital role in particle acceleration and transport. In a 2D system, electrons are trapped in magnetic islands which limits their energy gain. In a 3D system, however, the stochastic magnetic field enables the energetic electrons to access volume-filling acceleration regions and therefore gain energy much more efficiently than in the 2D system. We also examine the relative roles of two important acceleration drivers: parallel electric fields and a Fermi mechanism associated with reflection of charged particles from contracting field lines. We find that parallel electric fields are most important for accelerating low energy particles, whereas Fermi reflection dominates energetic particle production. We also find that proton energization is reduced in the 3D system.

  13. Participation and 3D Visualization Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael; Jensen, Mikkel Holm; Henriksen, Sune;

    2004-01-01

    With a departure point in a workshop held at the VR Media Lab at Aalborg University , this paper deals with aspects of public participation and the use of 3D visualisation tools. The workshop grew from a desire to involve a broad collaboration between the many actors in the city through using new...... perceptions of architectural representation in urban design where 3D visualisation techniques are used. It is the authors? general finding that, while 3D visualisation media have the potential to increase understanding of virtual space for the lay public, as well as for professionals, the lay public require...... communication and visualisation media. It is largely experimental in nature and has a qualitative approach in analysing some of the actions and arguments which took place. These experiences and preliminary results form the basis for a discussion towards an understanding of virtual space and the varying...

  14. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  15. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Mikkilineni, Aravind K [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  16. Spectroradiometric characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Spectroradiometric measurements have been made for the experimental characterization of the RGB channels of autostereoscopic 3D displays, giving results for different measurement angles with respect to the normal direction of the plane of the display. In the study, 2 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and resolutions were used, making measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). From the measurements made, goniometric results were recorded for luminance contrast, and the fundamental hypotheses have been evaluated for the characterization of the displays: independence of the RGB channels and their constancy. The results show that the display with the lower angle variability in the contrast-ratio value and constancy of the chromaticity coordinates nevertheless presented the greatest additivity deviations with the measurement angle. For both displays, when the parameters evaluated were taken into account, lower angle variability consistently resulted in the 2D mode than in the 3D mode.

  17. The CIFIST 3D model atmosphere grid

    CERN Document Server

    Ludwig, H -G; Steffen, M; Freytag, B; Bonifacio, P

    2009-01-01

    Grids of stellar atmosphere models and associated synthetic spectra are numerical products which have a large impact in astronomy due to their ubiquitous application in the interpretation of radiation from individual stars and stellar populations. 3D model atmospheres are now on the verge of becoming generally available for a wide range of stellar atmospheric parameters. We report on efforts to develop a grid of 3D model atmospheres for late-type stars within the CIFIST Team at Paris Observatory. The substantial demands in computational and human labor for the model production and post-processing render this apparently mundane task a challenging logistic exercise. At the moment the CIFIST grid comprises 77 3D model atmospheres with emphasis on dwarfs of solar and sub-solar metallicities. While the model production is still ongoing, first applications are already worked upon by the CIFIST Team and collaborators.

  18. 3D Gravity Inversion using Tikhonov Regularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toushmalani Reza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Subsalt exploration for oil and gas is attractive in regions where 3D seismic depth-migration to recover the geometry of a salt base is difficult. Additional information to reduce the ambiguity in seismic images would be beneficial. Gravity data often serve these purposes in the petroleum industry. In this paper, the authors present an algorithm for a gravity inversion based on Tikhonov regularization and an automatically regularized solution process. They examined the 3D Euler deconvolution to extract the best anomaly source depth as a priori information to invert the gravity data and provided a synthetic example. Finally, they applied the gravity inversion to recently obtained gravity data from the Bandar Charak (Hormozgan, Iran to identify its subsurface density structure. Their model showed the 3D shape of salt dome in this region

  19. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Steven J; Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Patrick, William G; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  20. 3D-printed microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Reza; Knowlton, Stephanie; Hart, Alexander; Yenilmez, Bekir; Ghaderinezhad, Fariba; Katebifar, Sara; Messina, Michael; Khademhosseini, Ali; Tasoglu, Savas

    2016-06-20

    Microfluidics is a flourishing field, enabling a wide range of biochemical and clinical applications such as cancer screening, micro-physiological system engineering, high-throughput drug testing, and point-of-care diagnostics. However, fabrication of microfluidic devices is often complicated, time consuming, and requires expensive equipment and sophisticated cleanroom facilities. Three-dimensional (3D) printing presents a promising alternative to traditional techniques such as lithography and PDMS-glass bonding, not only by enabling rapid design iterations in the development stage, but also by reducing the costs associated with institutional infrastructure, equipment installation, maintenance, and physical space. With the recent advancements in 3D printing technologies, highly complex microfluidic devices can be fabricated via single-step, rapid, and cost-effective protocols, making microfluidics more accessible to users. In this review, we discuss a broad range of approaches for the application of 3D printing technology to fabrication of micro-scale lab-on-a-chip devices.