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Sample records for acquired thermotolerance heat

  1. Acquired Thermotolerance and Heat Shock Proteins in Thermophiles from the Three Phylogenetic Domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trent, Jonathan D.; Gabrielsen, Mette; Jensen, Bo;

    1994-01-01

    Thermophilic organisms from each of the three phylogenetic domains (Bacteria, Archaea, and Eucarya) acquired thermotolerance after heat shock. Bacillus caldolyticus grown at 60 degrees C and heat shocked at 69 degrees C for 10 min showed thermotolerance at 74 degrees C, Sulfolobus shibatae grown...

  2. A review of acquired thermotolerance, heat shock proteins, and molecular chaperones in archaea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent, J.D.

    1996-05-01

    Acquired thermotolerance, the associated synthesis of heat-shock proteins (HSPs) under stress conditions, and the role of HSPs as molecular chaperones under normal growth conditions have been studied extensively in eukaryotes and bacteria, whereas research in these areas in archaea is only beginning. All organisms have evolved a variety of strategies for coping with high-temperature stress, and among these strategies is the increased synthesis of HSPs. The facts that both high temperatures and chemical stresses induce the HSPs and that some of the HSPs recognize and bind to unfolded proteins in vitro have led to the theory that the function of HSPs is to prevent protein aggregation in vivo. The facts that some HSPs are abundant under normal growth conditions and that they assist in protein folding in vitro have led to the theory that they assist protein folding in vivo; in this role, they are referred to as molecular chaperones. The limited research on acquired thermotolerance, HSPs, and molecular chaperones in archaea, particularly the hyperthermophilic archaea, suggests that these extremophiles provide a new perspective in these areas of research, both because they are members of a separate phylogenetic domain and because they have evolved to live under extreme conditions.

  3. A positive feedback loop between HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN101 and HEAT STRESS-ASSOCIATED 32-KD PROTEIN modulates long-term acquired thermotolerance illustrating diverse heat stress responses in rice varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng-yi; Chai, Kuo-hsing; Ko, Swee-suak; Kuang, Lin-yun; Lur, Huu-sheng; Charng, Yee-yung

    2014-04-01

    Heat stress is an important factor that has a negative impact on rice (Oryza sativa) production. To alleviate this problem, it is necessary to extensively understand the genetic basis of heat tolerance and adaptability to heat stress in rice. Here, we report the molecular mechanism underlying heat acclimation memory that confers long-term acquired thermotolerance (LAT) in this monocot plant. Our results showed that a positive feedback loop formed by two heat-inducible genes, HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN101 (HSP101) and HEAT STRESS-ASSOCIATED 32-KD PROTEIN (HSA32), at the posttranscriptional level prolongs the effect of heat acclimation in rice seedlings. The interplay between HSP101 and HSA32 also affects basal thermotolerance of rice seeds. These findings are similar to those reported for the dicot plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), suggesting a conserved function in plant heat stress response. Comparison between two rice cultivars, japonica Nipponbare and indica N22 showed opposite performance in basal thermotolerance and LAT assays. 'N22' seedlings have a higher basal thermotolerance level than cv Nipponbare and vice versa at the LAT level, indicating that these two types of thermotolerance can be decoupled. The HSP101 and HSA32 protein levels were substantially higher in cv Nipponbare than in cv N22 after a long recovery following heat acclimation treatment, at least partly explaining the difference in the LAT phenotype. Our results point out the complexity of thermotolerance diversity in rice cultivars, which may need to be taken into consideration when breeding for heat tolerance for different climate scenarios.

  4. Evaluation of Aegilops tauschii and Aegilops speltoides for acquired thermotolerance: Implications in wheat breeding programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairat, Suboot; Khurana, Paramjit

    2015-10-01

    Severe and frequent heat waves are predicted in the near future having dramatic and far-reaching ecological and social impact. The aim of this study was to examine acquired thermotolerance of two Aegilops species: Aegilops tauschii and Aegilops speltoides and study their potential adaptive mechanisms. The effect of two episodes of high heat stress (45 °C/12 h) with a day of recovery period was investigated on their physiology. As compared to A. speltoides, A. tauschii suffered less inhibition of photosystem II efficiency and net photosynthetic rate (Pn). Although A. tauschii showed nearly complete recovery of PSII, the adverse effect was more pronounced in A. speltoides. Measurement of the minimum fluorescence (Fo) versus temperature curves revealed a higher inflection temperature of Fo for A. tauschii than A. speltoides, reflecting greater thermo stability of the photosynthetic apparatus. Absorbed light energy distribution revealed that A. speltoides showed increased steady state fluorescence and a lower absorbed light allocated to photosynthetic chemistry (ɸPSII) relative to A. tauschii. However, A. tauschii showed higher ability to scavenge free radicals as compared to A. speltoides. This was further validated by higher expression of ascorbate peroxidase gene. These results suggest that A. tauschii showed faster recovery and a better thermostability of its photosynthetic apparatus under severe stress conditions along with a better regulation of energy channeling of PSII complexes to minimize oxidative damage and thus retains greater capability of carbon assimilation. These factors aid in imparting a greater heat tolerance to A. tauschii as compared to A. speltoides and thus make it a better candidate for alien species introgression in wheat breeding programs for thermotolerance in wheat.

  5. Perspectives on deciphering mechanisms underlying plant heat stress response and thermotolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Lucia Bokszczanin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is a major threat for agriculture and food safety and in many cases the negative effects are already apparent. The current challenge of basic and applied plant science is to decipher the molecular mechanisms of heat stress response and thermotolerance in detail and use this information to identify genotypes that will withstand unfavorable environmental conditions. Nowadays X-omics approaches complement the findings of previous targeted studies and highlight the complexity of heat stress response mechanisms giving information for so far unrecognized genes, proteins and metabolites as potential key players of thermotolerance. Even more, roles of epigenetic mechanisms and the involvement of small RNAs in thermotolerance are currently emerging and thus open new directions of yet unexplored areas of plant heat stress response. In parallel it is emerging that although the whole plant is vulnerable to heat, specific organs are particularly sensitive to elevated temperatures. This has redirected research from the vegetative to generative tissues. The sexual reproduction phase is considered as the most sensitive to heat and specifically pollen exhibits the highest sensitivity and frequently an elevation of the temperature just a few degrees above the optimum during pollen development can have detrimental effects for crop production. Compared to our knowledge on heat stress response of vegetative tissues, the information on pollen is still scarce. Nowadays, several techniques for high-throughput X-omics approaches provide major tools to explore the principles of pollen heat stress response and thermotolerance mechanisms in specific genotypes. The collection of such information will provide an excellent support for improvement of breeding programs to facilitate the development of tolerant cultivars. The review aims at describing the current knowledge of thermotolerance mechanisms and the technical advances which will foster new insights into

  6. Thermotolerant yeasts selected by adaptive evolution express heat stress response at 30ºC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    to grow at increased temperature, activated a constitutive heat stress response when grown at the optimal ancestral temperature, and that this is associated with a reduced growth rate. This preventive response was perfected by additional transcriptional changes activated when the cultivation temperature....... This demonstrates robustness of the yeast transcriptional program when exposed to heat, and that the thermotolerant strains streamlined their path to rapidly and optimally reach post-stress transcriptional and metabolic levels. Thus, long-term adaptation to heat improved yeasts ability to rapidly adapt to increased...

  7. Integrated physiological and hormonal profile of heat-induced thermotolerance in Pinus radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escandón, Mónica; Cañal, María Jesús; Pascual, Jesús; Pinto, Glória; Correia, Barbara; Amaral, Joana; Meijón, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Despite great interest, not only from the economic point of view but also in terms of basic science, research on heat stress tolerance in conifers remains scarce. To fill this gap, a time-course experiment using expected temperature increase was performed aiming to identify physiological and biochemical traits that allow the characterization of heat-induced thermotolerance and recovery in Pinus radiata D. Don plants. Several physiological parameters were assessed during heat exposure and after recovery, and multiple phytohormones-abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (CKs), gibberellins, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid (SA) and brassinosteroids-were quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry from unique sample. Furthermore, tissue specific stress-signaling was monitored by IAA and ABA immunolocalization. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data enabled clustering of the shorter- and longer-term effects of heat stress exposure. Two sequential physiological responses were identified: an immediate and a delayed response, essentially determined by specific phytohormones, proline, malondialdehyde and total soluble sugar patterns. Results showed that ABA and SA play a crucial role in the first stage of response to heat stress, probably due to the plant's urgent need to regulate stomatal closure and counteract the increase in oxidative membrane damage demonstrated in shorter-term exposures. However, in longer exposures and recovery, proline, total sugars, IAA and CKs seem to be more relevant. This integrated approach pinpointed some basic mechanisms of P. radiata physiological responses underlying thermotolerance processes and after recovery.

  8. Thermotolerance and Human Performance: Role of Heat Shock Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    of the significant teratogens in humans, animals, and insects. However, protection from teratogenic effects as is true for various aspects of the...heat shock proteins as molecular chaperones. Annu Rev Cell Biol. 1993;9:601–634 Germain M, Webster W, Edwards M. Hyperthermia as a teratogen ...physical or chemical teratogens are expressed later as enhanced induction of heat shock proteins when embryonic hearts are cultured in

  9. Thermotolerance and heat stress responses of Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine seedling populations from contrasting climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marias, Danielle E; Meinzer, Frederick C; Woodruff, David R; McCulloh, Katherine A

    2016-12-21

    Temperature and the frequency and intensity of heat waves are predicted to increase throughout the 21st century. Germinant seedlings are expected to be particularly vulnerable to heat stress because they are in the boundary layer close to the soil surface where intense heating occurs in open habitats. We quantified leaf thermotolerance and whole-plant physiological responses to heat stress in first-year germinant seedlings in two populations each of Pinus ponderosa P. and C. Lawson (PIPO) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco (PSME) from climates with contrasting precipitation and temperature regimes. Thermotolerance of detached needles was evaluated using chlorophyll fluorescence (FV/FM, FO) and electrolyte leakage. PSME was more heat tolerant than PIPO according to both independent assessments of thermotolerance. Following exposure of whole seedlings to a simulated heat wave at 45 °C for 1 h in a growth chamber, we monitored FV/FM, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) and carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C) for 14 days. Heat treatment induced significant reductions in FV/FM in both species and a transient reduction in photosynthetic gas exchange only in PIPO 1 day after treatment. Heat treatment induced an increase in glucose + fructose concurrent with a decrease in starch in both species, whereas total NSC and sucrose were not affected by heat treatment. The negative relationship between glucose + fructose and starch observed in treated plants may be due to the conversion of starch to glucose + fructose to aid recovery from heat-induced damage. Populations from drier sites displayed greater δ(13)C values than those from wetter sites, consistent with higher intrinsic water-use efficiency and drought resistance of populations from drier climates. Thermotolerance and heat stress responses appeared to be phenotypically plastic and representative of the environment in which plants were grown, whereas intrinsic water

  10. Identification of Heat Shock Transcription Factor Genes Involved in Thermotolerance of Octoploid Cultivated Strawberry

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    Liao, Wan-Yu; Lin, Lee-Fong; Jheng, Jing-Lian; Wang, Chun-Chung; Yang, Jui-Hung; Chou, Ming-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) are mainly involved in the activation of genes in response to heat stress as well as other abiotic and biotic stresses. The growth, development, reproduction, and yield of strawberry are strongly limited by extreme temperatures and droughts. In this study, we used Illumina sequencing and obtained transcriptome data set from Fragaria × ananassa Duchessne cv. Toyonoka. Six contigs and three unigenes were confirmed to encode HSF proteins (FaTHSFs). Subsequently, we characterized the biological functions of two particularly selected unigenes, FaTHSFA2a and FaTHSFB1a, which were classified into class A2 and B HSFs, respectively. Expression assays revealed that FaTHSFA2a and FaTHSFB1a expression was induced by heat shock and correlated well with elevated ambient temperatures. Overexpression of FaTHSFA2a and FaTHSFB1a resulted in the activation of their downstream stress-associated genes, and notably enhanced the thermotolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Besides, both FaTHSFA2a and FaTHSFB1a fusion proteins localized in the nucleus, indicating their similar subcellular distributions as transcription factors. Our yeast one-hybrid assay suggested that FaTHSFA2a has trans-activation activity, whereas FaTHSFB1a expresses trans-repression function. Altogether, our annotated transcriptome sequences provide a beneficial resource for identifying most genes expressed in octoploid strawberry. Furthermore, HSF studies revealed the possible insights into the molecular mechanisms of thermotolerance, thus rendering valuable molecular breeding to improve the tolerance of strawberry in response to high-temperature stress. PMID:27999304

  11. Variation in Heat-shock Proteins and Photosynthetic Thermotolerance among Natural Populations of Chenopodium album L. from Contrasting Thermal Environments: Implications for Plant Responses to Global Warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deepak Barua; Scott A. Heckathorn; James S. Coleman

    2008-01-01

    Production of heat-shock proteins (Hsps) is a key adaptation to acute heat stress and will be Important in determining plant responses to climate change. Further, intraspecifc variation in Hsps, which will influence species-level response to global warming, has rarely been examined in naturally occurring plants. To understand intraspeciflc variation in plant Hsps and its relevance to global warming, we examined Hsp content and thermotolerance in five naturally occurring populations of Chenopodium album L. from contrasting thermal environments grown at low and high temperatures. As expected,Hsp accumulation varied between populations, but this was related more to habitat variability than to mean temperature.Unexpectedly, Hsp accumulation decreased with increasing variability of habitat temperatures. Hsp accumulation also decreased with increased experimental growth temperatures. Physiological thermotolerance was partitioned into basal and induced components. As with Hsps, induced thermotolerance decreased with increasing temperature variability. Thus,populations native to the more stressful habitats, or grown at higher temperatures, had lower Hsp levels and induced thermotolerance, suggesting a greater reliance on basal mechanisms for thermotolerance. These results suggest that future global climate change will differentially impact ecotypes within species, possibly by selecting for increased basal versus inducible thermotolerance.

  12. Effects of drought preconditioning on thermotolerance of photosystem II and susceptibility of photosynthesis to heat stress in cedar seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjal, Mehdi; Epron, Daniel; Ducrey, Michel

    2000-12-01

    Changes in photosystem II (PSII) thermotolerance during drought and recovery were studied under controlled conditions in three Mediterranean cedar species (Cedrus brevifolia Henry, C. libani Loudon and C. atlantica Manetti). The temperature at which the quantum yield of PSII photochemistry was reduced by 15% of its value at 25 degrees C was 3 to 4 degrees C higher in drought-treated plants than in well-watered plants. The drought-induced increase in PSII thermotolerance was already evident 8 days after water had been withheld from the seedlings, when net CO(2) assimilation was still at 80% of its initial value, and was visible for up to 12 days after re-watering. When seedlings of the three species were exposed to temperatures above 45 degrees C for 5 h, both maximal quantum yield of PSII photochemistry and net CO(2) assimilation rate were significantly reduced in unconditioned seedlings, whereas drought-preconditioned seedlings were almost unaffected by the heat treatment. Drought-preconditioned seedlings still exhibited a higher tolerance to heat stress than unconditioned seedlings 60 days after re-watering, although the transient, drought-induced osmotic adjustment had fully disappeared. Among species, C. atlantica was the most heat sensitive, whereas the heat treatment had no significant effect on the parameters measured in C. brevifolia.

  13. QTL for the thermotolerance effect of heat hardening, knowckdown resistance to heat and chill-coma recovery in an intercontinental set of recombinant inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norry, Fabian M.; Scannapieco, Alejandra C.; Sambucetti, Pablo;

    2008-01-01

    The thermotolerance effect of heat hardening (also called short-term acclimation), knockdown resistance to high temperature (KRHT) with and without heat hardening and chill-coma recovery (CCR) are important phenotypes of thermal adaptation in insects and other organisms. Drosophila melanogaster......-hardened and nonhardened RIL. Composite interval mapping revealed a more complex genetic architecture for KRHT without heat-hardening than for KRHT in heat-hardened insects. Five quantitative trait loci (QTL) were found for KRHT, but only two of them were significant after heat hardening. KRHT and CCR showed trade...... decreased by heat hardening. We discuss candidate loci for each QTL. One HHE-QTL was found in the region of small heat-shock protein genes. However, HHE-QTL explained only a small fraction of the phenotypic variance. Most heat-resistance QTL did not colocalize with CCR-QTL. Large-effect QTL for CCR and KRHT...

  14. Changes in the transcriptome of morula-stage bovine embryos caused by heat shock: relationship to developmental acquisition of thermotolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakatani Miki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While initially sensitive to heat shock, the bovine embryo gains thermal resistance as it progresses through development so that physiological heat shock has little effect on development to the blastocyst stage by Day 5 after insemination. Here, experiments using 3’ tag digital gene expression (3’DGE and real-time PCR were conducted to determine changes in the transcriptome of morula-stage bovine embryos in response to heat shock (40 degrees C for 8 h that could be associated with thermotolerance. Results Using 3’DGE, expression of 173 genes were modified by heat shock, with 94 genes upregulated by heat shock and 79 genes downregulated by heat shock. A total of 38 differentially-regulated genes were associated with the ubiquitin protein, UBC. Heat shock increased expression of one heat shock protein gene, HSPB11, and one heat shock protein binding protein, HSPBP1, tended to increase expression of HSPA1A and HSPB1, but did not affect expression of 64 other genes encoding heat shock proteins, heat shock transcription factors or proteins interacting with heat shock proteins. Moreover, heat shock increased expression of five genes associated with oxidative stress (AKR7A2, CBR1, GGH, GSTA4, and MAP2K5, decreased expression of HIF3A, but did not affect expression of 42 other genes related to free radical metabolism. Heat shock also had little effect on genes involved in embryonic development. Effects of heat shock for 2, 4 and 8 h on selected heat shock protein and antioxidant genes were also evaluated by real-time PCR. Heat shock increased steady-state amounts of mRNA for HSPA1A (PHSP90AA1 (PSOD1 or CAT. Conclusions Changes in the transcriptome of the heat-shocked bovine morula indicate that the embryo is largely resistant to effects of heat shock. As a result, transcription of genes involved in thermal protection is muted and there is little disruption of gene networks involved in embryonic development. It is likely that

  15. Comparative genome analysis of a thermotolerant Escherichia coli obtained by Genome Replication Engineering Assisted Continuous Evolution (GREACE) and its parent strain provides new understanding of microbial heat tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Guodong; Bao, Guanhui; Lin, Zhao; Li, Yang; Chen, Zugen; Li, Yin; Cai, Zhen

    2015-12-25

    Heat tolerance of microbes is of great importance for efficient biorefinery and bioconversion. However, engineering and understanding of microbial heat tolerance are difficult and insufficient because it is a complex physiological trait which probably correlates with all gene functions, genetic regulations, and cellular metabolisms and activities. In this work, a novel strain engineering approach named Genome Replication Engineering Assisted Continuous Evolution (GREACE) was employed to improve the heat tolerance of Escherichia coli. When the E. coli strain carrying a mutator was cultivated under gradually increasing temperature, genome-wide mutations were continuously generated during genome replication and the mutated strains with improved thermotolerance were autonomously selected. A thermotolerant strain HR50 capable of growing at 50°C on LB agar plate was obtained within two months, demonstrating the efficiency of GREACE in improving such a complex physiological trait. To understand the improved heat tolerance, genomes of HR50 and its wildtype strain DH5α were sequenced. Evenly distributed 361 mutations covering all mutation types were found in HR50. Closed material transportations, loose genome conformation, and possibly altered cell wall structure and transcription pattern were the main differences of HR50 compared with DH5α, which were speculated to be responsible for the improved heat tolerance. This work not only expanding our understanding of microbial heat tolerance, but also emphasizing that the in vivo continuous genome mutagenesis method, GREACE, is efficient in improving microbial complex physiological trait.

  16. Performance of controlled atmosphere/heating block systems for assessing insect thermotolerance

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    Heated controlled atmosphere (CA) treatments have potential as alternatives to chemical fumigation for disinfesting postharvest stored products. To determine accurately the minimal thermal requirements to kill target insects over a wide range of temperatures and CA conditions, it is desirable to dev...

  17. Thermotolerance induced at a mild temperature of 40°C alleviates heat shock-induced ER stress and apoptosis in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettaieb, Ahmed; Averill-Bates, Diana A

    2015-01-01

    Hyperthermia (39-45°C) has emerged as an alternate prospect for cancer therapy in combination with radiation and chemotherapy. Despite promising progress in the clinic, molecular mechanisms involved in hyperthermia-induced cell death are not clear. Hyperthermia causes protein denaturation/aggregation, which results in cell death by apoptosis and/or necrosis. Hyperthermia also induces thermotolerance, which renders cells resistant to subsequent exposure to lethal heat shock. This study investigates the role of both lethal (42-43°C) and mild (40°C) hyperthermia in regulating ER stress and ER stress-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. The ability of mild thermotolerance induced at 40°C to alleviate either or both of these processes is also determined. Hyperthermia (42-43°C) induced ER stress, revealed by phosphorylation of PERK, eIF2α and IRE1α, cleavage of ATF6 and increased expression of BiP and sXBP1. Real-time PCR revealed that mRNA levels of ATF6, ATF4, BiP, sXBP1 and CHOP increased in cells exposed to hyperthermia. Moreover, hyperthermia caused disruption of calcium homeostasis and activated the calpain-calpastatin proteolytic system and ER resident caspase 4. Pre-exposure to mild hyperthermia (40°C) alleviated the induction of cytotoxicity and ER stress by hyperthermia (42-43°C) and protected cells against ER stress-induced apoptosis. ShRNA-mediated depletion of Hsp72 abrogated protective effects of mild thermotolerance (40°C) against heat-shock induced ER stress and sensitized cells to ER stress-mediated apoptosis. Our findings show that Hsp72 contributes to the protective effects of mild hyperthermia (40°C) against hyperthermia-induced ER stress and apoptosis.

  18. Multiple heat priming enhances thermo-tolerance to a later high temperature stress via improving subcellular antioxidant activities in wheat seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai

    2014-01-01

    Seedlings of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were firstly twice heat-primed at 32/24 °C, and subsequently subjected to a more severe high temperature stress at 35/27 °C. The later high temperature stress significantly decreased plant biomass and leaf total soluble sugars concentration. However...... an improvement of light use efficiency due to the priming pre-treatment. Under the later high temperature stress, PH could be maintained a better redox homeostasis than NH, as exemplified by the higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in chloroplasts and glutathione reductase (GR), and of peroxidase (POD......, heat priming effectively improved thermo-tolerance of wheat seedlings subjected to a later high temperature stress, which could be largely ascribed to the enhanced anti-oxidation at the subcellular level....

  19. A KH Domain-Containing Putative RNA-Binding Protein Is Critical for Heat Stress-Responsive Gene Regulation and Thermotolerance in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingmei Guan; Changlong Wen; Haitao Zeng; Jianhua Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Heat stress is a severe environmental factor that significantly reduces plant growth and delays development.Heat stress factors (HSFs) are a class of transcription factors that are synthesized rapidly in response to elevations in temperature and are responsible for the transcription of many heat stress-responsive genes including those encoding heat shock proteins (HSPs).There are 21 HSFs in Arabidopsis,and recent studies have established that the HSFA1 family members are master regulators for the remaining HSFs.However,very little is known about upstream molecular factors that control the expression of HSFA1 genes and other HSF genes under heat stress.Through a forward genetic analysis,we identified RCF3,a K homology (KH) domain-containing nuclear-localized putative RNA-binding protein.RCF3 is a negative regulator of most HSFs,including HSFAla,HSFAlb,and HSFAld.In contrast,RCF3 positively controls the expression of HSFAle,HSFA3,HSFA9,HSFB3,and DREB2C.Consistently with the overall increased accumulation of heat-responsive genes,the rcf3 mutant plants are more tolerant than the wild-type to heat stress.Together,our results suggest that a KH domain-containing putative RNA-binding protein RCF3 is an important upstream regulator for heat stress-responsive gene expression and thermotolerance in Arabidopsis.

  20. GENOTYPIC THERMOTOLERANCE IS ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED PRE-STRESS ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITY IN COTTON LEAVES AND PISTILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous studies have illustrated the need for antioxidant enzymes in acquired photosynthetic thermotolerance, but information on their possible role in promoting innate thermotolerance in either leaves or reproductive tissues is limited for cotton. We investigated the hypothesis that genotypic diff...

  1. Thermotolerance in preirradiated intestine and its influence on time-temperature relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hume, S.P.; Marigold, J.C.; Manjil, L.G.

    1988-02-01

    The crypt compartment of mouse jejunum showed a transient increase in thermal susceptibility approximately 10 days after moderate X-ray doses to the abdomen (9-10 Gy). The increase in response was manifest as an increase in slope of the crypt dose-response curve but was limited to temperatures below 43/sup 0/C. As a result, the 43/sup 0/C inflexion in the Arrhenius plot (the relationship between treatment time and temperature) for thermal sensitivity of crypts was eliminated in preirradiated tissue, and the curve became monophasic over the range 42.0-44.5/sup 0/C. At temperatures below 42/sup 0/C, the curve again deviated. At supranormal temperatures of 42/sup 0/C and below, the durations of hyperthermia needed for measurable effect were sufficient to allow thermotolerance to be expressed within the heating period. Neither the threshold heating times nor this thermotolerance were affected by prior irradiation. In the temperature range 42-43/sup 0/C, an earlier development of thermotolerance could be demonstrated in control tissue by challenging with an acute high-temperature heat treatment. This thermotolerance was eliminated in preirradiated tissue, resulting in the apparent increase in sensitivity. The findings support the view that the complex nature of the time-temperature relationship seen in normal tissue in vivo is a manifestation of the ability of the tissue to progressively acquire a thermotolerant state during treatment at temperatures below approximately 43/sup 0/C, so that the intrinsic sensitivity is modulated while being assessed.

  2. Analysis of the expression of putative heat-stress related genes in relation to thermotolerance of cork oak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Barbara; Rodriguez, José Luis; Valledor, Luis; Almeida, Tânia; Santos, Conceição; Cañal, Maria Jesús; Pinto, Glória

    2014-03-15

    Cork oak (Quercus suber L.) is a research priority in the Mediterranean area and because of cork oaks' distribution these stands are experiencing daily stress. Based on projections of intensifying climate change and considering the key role of exploring the recovery abilities, cork oak seedlings were subjected to a cumulative temperature increase from 25°C to 55°C and subsequent recovery. CO2 assimilation rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, anthocyanins, proline and lipid peroxidation were used to evaluate plant performance, while the relative abundance of seven genes encoding for proteins of cork oak with a putative role in thermal/stress regulation (POX1, POX2, HSP10.4, HSP17a.22, CHS, MTL and RBC) was analyzed by qPCR (quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction). A temperature change to 35°C showed abundance alterations in the tested genes; at 45°C, the molecular changes were associated with an antioxidant response, possibly modulated by anthocyanins. At 55°C, HSP17a.22, MTL and proline accumulation were evident. After recovery, physiological balance was restored, whereas POX1, HSP10.4 and MTL abundances were suggested to be involved in increased thermotolerance. The data presented here are expected to pinpoint some pathways changes occurring during such stress and further recovery in this particular Mediterranean species.

  3. Heat Shock Proteins: Stimulators of Innate and Acquired Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo A. Colaco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adjuvants were reintroduced into modern immunology as the dirty little secret of immunologists by Janeway and thus began the molecular definition of innate immunity. It is now clear that the binding of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs on antigen presenting cells (APCs activates the innate immune response and provides the host with a rapid mechanism for detecting infection by pathogens and initiates adaptive immunity. Ironically, in addition to advancing the basic science of immunology, Janeway’s revelation on induction of the adaptive system has also spurred an era of rational vaccine design that exploits PRRs. Thus, defined PAMPs that bind to known PRRs are being specifically coupled to antigens to improve their immunogenicity. However, while PAMPs efficiently activate the innate immune response, they do not mediate the capture of antigen that is required to elicit the specific responses of the acquired immune system. Heat shock proteins (HSPs are molecular chaperones that are found complexed to client polypeptides and have been studied as potential cancer vaccines. In addition to binding PRRs and activating the innate immune response, HSPs have been shown to both induce the maturation of APCs and provide chaperoned polypeptides for specific triggering of the acquired immune response.

  4. NnHSP17.5, a cytosolic class II small heat shock protein gene from Nelumbo nucifera, contributes to seed germination vigor and seedling thermotolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuliang; Chen, Huhui; Chu, Pu; Li, Yin; Tan, Bin; Ding, Yu; Tsang, Edward W T; Jiang, Liwen; Wu, Keqiang; Huang, Shangzhi

    2012-02-01

    In plants, small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are unusually abundant and diverse proteins involved in various abiotic stresses, but their functions in seed vigor remain to be fully explored. In this study, we report the isolation and functional characterization of a sHSP gene, NnHSP17.5, from sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) in seed germination vigor and seedling thermotolerance. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicate that NnHSP17.5 is a cytosolic class II sHSP, which was further supported by the cytosolic localization of the NnHSP17.5-YFP fusion protein. NnHSP17.5 was specifically expressed in seeds under normal conditions, and was strongly up-regulated in germinating seeds upon heat and oxidative stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis seeds ectopically expressing NnHSP17.5 displayed enhanced seed germination vigor and exhibited increased superoxide dismutase activity after accelerated aging treatment. In addition, improved basal thermotolerance was also observed in the transgenic seedlings. Taken together, this work highlights the importance of a plant cytosolic class II sHSP both in seed germination vigor and seedling thermotolerance.

  5. Multiple heat priming enhances thermo-tolerance to a later high temperature stress via improving subcellular antioxidant activities in wheat seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai; Dai, Tingbo; Cao, Weixing; Wollenweber, Bernd; Jiang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Seedlings of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were firstly twice heat-primed at 32/24 °C, and subsequently subjected to a more severe high temperature stress at 35/27 °C. The later high temperature stress significantly decreased plant biomass and leaf total soluble sugars concentration. However, plants experienced priming (PH) up-regulated the Rubisco activase B encoding gene RcaB, which was in accordance with the higher photosynthesis rate in relation to the non-primed plants (NH) under the later high temperature stress. In relation to NH, the major chlorophyll a/b-binding protein gene Cab was down-regulated in PH plants, implying a reduction of the light absorption to protect the photosystem II from excitation energy under high temperature stress. At the same time, under the later high temperature stress PH plants showed significantly higher actual photochemical efficiency, indicating an improvement of light use efficiency due to the priming pre-treatment. Under the later high temperature stress, PH could be maintained a better redox homeostasis than NH, as exemplified by the higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in chloroplasts and glutathione reductase (GR), and of peroxidase (POD) in mitochondria, which contributed to the lower superoxide radical production rate and malondialdehyde concentration in both chloroplasts and mitochondria. The improved antioxidant capacity in chloroplasts and mitochondria was related to the up-regulated expressions of Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and GR in PH. Collectively, heat priming effectively improved thermo-tolerance of wheat seedlings subjected to a later high temperature stress, which could be largely ascribed to the enhanced anti-oxidation at the subcellular level.

  6. HEAT SHOCK FACTOR 1-MEDIATED THERMOTOLERANCE PREVENTS CELL DEATH AND RESULTS IN G2/M CELL CYCLE ARREST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammalian cells respond to stress by activating heat shock transcription factors (e.g., HSF1) that regulate increased synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs). HSPs mediate protection from deleterious effects of stress by preventing permanent disruption of normal cellular mitosis...

  7. Enhanced pathway efficiency of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by introducing thermo-tolerant devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yueqin; Zhang, Genli; Sun, Huan; Sun, Xiangying; Jiang, Nisi; Rasool, Aamir; Lin, Zhanglin; Li, Chun

    2014-10-01

    In this study, thermo-tolerant devices consisting of heat shock genes from thermophiles were designed and introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae for improving its thermo-tolerance. Among ten engineered thermo-tolerant yeasts, T.te-TTE2469, T.te-GroS2 and T.te-IbpA displayed over 25% increased cell density and 1.5-4-fold cell viability compared with the control. Physiological characteristics of thermo-tolerant strains revealed that better cell wall integrity, higher trehalose content and enhanced metabolic energy were preserved by thermo-tolerant devices. Engineered thermo-tolerant strain was used to investigate the impact of thermo-tolerant device on pathway efficiency by introducing β-amyrin synthesis pathway, showed 28.1% increased β-amyrin titer, 28-35°C broadened growth temperature range and 72h shortened fermentation period. The results indicated that implanting heat shock proteins from thermophiles to S. cerevisiae would be an efficient approach to improve its thermo-tolerance.

  8. The plasma membrane H+-ATPase is related to the development of salicylic acid-induced thermotolerance in pea leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanyan; Liu, Hongtao; Pan, Qiuhong; Yang, Haoru; Zhan, Jicheng; Huang, Weidong

    2009-04-01

    The plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (PM H(+)-ATPase, EC.3.6.1.35) plays a key role in the plant response to environmental stress. In this study, a possible mechanistic link between the PM H(+)-ATPase and salicylic acid (SA)-induced thermotolerance was investigated in pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. NingXia) leaves. The burst of free SA in response to heat acclimation (38 +/- 0.5 degrees C) was observed, and peaks appeared subsequently both in activity and amount of PM H(+)-ATPase in pea leaves during heat acclimation. Similarly, exogenous SA also triggered the two peaks in the room temperature (25 +/- 0.5 degrees C). Paclobutrazol (PAC) was employed to infiltrate onto pea leaves prior to heat acclimation treatment. The results showed that the peaks of both free SA and activity of PM H(+)-ATPase still occurred after the PAC pretreatment. In acquired thermotolerance assessment (malondialdehyde content and degree of wilting), spraying SA and fusicoccin (FC, the activator of PM H(+)-ATPase) separately could protect pea leaves from heat injury. Results from RT-PCR and western blotting analysis indicated that the increase in activity of the PM H(+)-ATPase was due to its transcriptional and translational regulation. The subcellular localizations of PM H(+)-ATPase after the FC or SA pretreatment also showed that the PM H(+)-ATPase is important to maintain the integrity of plasma membrane against the heat stress. Taken together, these results suggest PM H(+)-ATPase is related to the development of SA-induced thermotolerance in pea leaves.

  9. Thermotolerance-induced goblet cell activity confers protection in post-operative gut barrier dysfunction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, Rohana

    2009-06-01

    There is evidence that some level of protection against the adverse sequelae of surgery is provided by induction of thermotolerance; this protective effect was explored by study of several indicators of bowel wall damage in animals exposed to surgical insults. It has been argued that the mechanism of the protective effect of thermotolerance involves heat shock proteins (HSPs). We hypothesized that the protective effect of thermotolerance may be due in part to changes in the bowel wall itself, and we investigated this hypothesis in an experimental rat model.

  10. Genome Sequence of the Thermotolerant Foodborne Pathogen Salmonella enterica Serovar Senftenberg ATCC 43845 and Phylogenetic Analysis of Loci Encoding Increased Protein Quality Control Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Scott V.; Harhay, Gregory P.; Bono, James L.; Smith, Timothy P. L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica bacteria are important foodborne pathogens with major economic impact. Some isolates exhibit increased heat tolerance, a concern for food safety. Analysis of a finished-quality genome sequence of an isolate commonly used in heat resistance studies, S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Senftenberg 775W (ATCC 43845), demonstrated an interesting observation that this strain contains not just one, but two horizontally acquired thermotolerance locus homologs. These two loci reside on a large 341.3-kbp plasmid that is similar to the well-studied IncHI2 R478 plasmid but lacks any antibiotic resistance genes found on R478 or other IncHI2 plasmids. As this historical Salmonella isolate has been in use since 1941, comparative analysis of the plasmid and of the thermotolerance loci contained on the plasmid will provide insight into the evolution of heat resistance loci as well as acquisition of resistance determinants in IncHI2 plasmids. IMPORTANCE Thermal interventions are commonly used in the food industry as a means of mitigating pathogen contamination in food products. Concern over heat-resistant food contaminants has recently increased, with the identification of a conserved locus shown to confer heat resistance in disparate lineages of Gram-negative bacteria. Complete sequence analysis of a historical isolate of Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg, used in numerous studies because of its novel heat resistance, revealed that this important strain possesses two distinct copies of this conserved thermotolerance locus, residing on a multireplicon IncHI2/IncHI2A plasmid. Phylogenetic analysis of these loci in comparison with homologs identified in various bacterial genera provides an opportunity to examine the evolution and distribution of loci conferring resistance to environmental stressors, such as heat and desiccation. PMID:28293682

  11. Natural variation in the thermotolerance of neural function and behavior due to a cGMP-dependent protein kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Dawson-Scully

    Full Text Available Although it is acknowledged that genetic variation contributes to individual differences in thermotolerance, the specific genes and pathways involved and how they are modulated by the environment remain poorly understood. We link natural variation in the thermotolerance of neural function and behavior in Drosophila melanogaster to the foraging gene (for, which encodes a cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG as well as to its downstream target, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A. Genetic and pharmacological manipulations revealed that reduced PKG (or PP2A activity caused increased thermotolerance of synaptic transmission at the larval neuromuscular junction. Like synaptic transmission, feeding movements were preserved at higher temperatures in larvae with lower PKG levels. In a comparative assay, pharmacological manipulations altering thermotolerance in a central circuit of Locusta migratoria demonstrated conservation of this neuroprotective pathway. In this circuit, either the inhibition of PKG or PP2A induced robust thermotolerance of neural function. We suggest that PKG and therefore the polymorphism associated with the allelic variation in for may provide populations with natural variation in heat stress tolerance. for's function in behavior is conserved across most organisms, including ants, bees, nematodes, and mammals. PKG's role in thermotolerance may also apply to these and other species. Natural variation in thermotolerance arising from genes involved in the PKG pathway could impact the evolution of thermotolerance in natural populations.

  12. Natural Variation in the Thermotolerance of Neural Function and Behavior due to a cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-Scully, Ken; Armstrong, Gary A.B.; Kent, Clement; Robertson, R. Meldrum; Sokolowski, Marla B.

    2007-01-01

    Although it is acknowledged that genetic variation contributes to individual differences in thermotolerance, the specific genes and pathways involved and how they are modulated by the environment remain poorly understood. We link natural variation in the thermotolerance of neural function and behavior in Drosophila melanogaster to the foraging gene (for, which encodes a cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG)) as well as to its downstream target, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Genetic and pharmacological manipulations revealed that reduced PKG (or PP2A) activity caused increased thermotolerance of synaptic transmission at the larval neuromuscular junction. Like synaptic transmission, feeding movements were preserved at higher temperatures in larvae with lower PKG levels. In a comparative assay, pharmacological manipulations altering thermotolerance in a central circuit of Locusta migratoria demonstrated conservation of this neuroprotective pathway. In this circuit, either the inhibition of PKG or PP2A induced robust thermotolerance of neural function. We suggest that PKG and therefore the polymorphism associated with the allelic variation in for may provide populations with natural variation in heat stress tolerance. for's function in behavior is conserved across most organisms, including ants, bees, nematodes, and mammals. PKG's role in thermotolerance may also apply to these and other species. Natural variation in thermotolerance arising from genes involved in the PKG pathway could impact the evolution of thermotolerance in natural populations. PMID:17712421

  13. Rickettsia influences thermotolerance in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marina Brumin; Svetlana Kontsedalov; Murad Ghanim

    2011-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci harbors Portiera aleyrodidarum,an obligatory symbiotic bacterium,as well as several secondary symbionts,including Rickettsia,Hamiltonella,Wolbachia,Arsenophonus,Cardinium and Fritschea,the function of which is unknown.In Israel,Rickettsia is found in both the B and Q of B.tabaci biotypes,and while all other secondary symbionts are located in the bacteriomes,Rickettsia can occupy most of the body cavity of the insect.We tested whether Rickettsia influences the biology of B.tabaci and found that exposing a Rickettsia-containing population to increasing temperatures significantly increases its tolerance to heat shock that reached 40℃,compared to a Rickettsia-free population.This increase in tolerance to heat shock was not associated with specific induction of heat-shock protein gene expression; however,it was associated with eduction in Rickettsia numbers as was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses.To assess the causes for thermotolerance when ickettsia is reduced,we tested whether its presence is associated with the induction of genes required for thermotolerance.We found that under normal 25℃ rearing temperature,genes associated with response to stress such as cytoskeleton genes are induced in the Rickettsia-containing population.Thus,the presence of Rickettsia in B.tabaci under normal conditions induces the expression of genes required for thermotolerance that under high temperatures indirectly lead to this tolerance.

  14. Impact of heat shock on heat shock proteins expression,biological and commercial traits of Bombyx mori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VASUDHA B. CHAVADI; APARNA H. S OSALEGOWDA; MANJUNATHA H.B OREGOWDA

    2006-01-01

    We report the thermotolerance of new bivoltine silkworm, Bombyx mori strains NB4D2, KSO1, NP2, CSR2 and CSR4 and differential expression of heat shock proteins at different instars. Different instars of silkworm larva were subjected to heat shock at 35℃,40℃ and 45℃ for 2 hours followed by 2 hours recovery. Heat shock proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The impact of heat shock on commercial traits of cocoons was analyzed by following different strategies in terms of acquired thermotolerance over control. Comparatively NP2 exhibited better survivability than other strains. Resistance to heat shock was increased as larval development proceeds in the order of first instar > second instar > third instar > fourth instar > fifth instar in all silkworm strains. Expression of heat shock proteins varies in different instars. 90 kDa in the first, second and third instars, 84 kDa in the fourth instar and 84, 62, 60, 47 and 33 kDa heat shock proteins in fifth instar was observed in response to heat shock. Relative influence of heat shock on commercial traits that correspond to different stages was significant in all strains. In NB4D2, cocoon and shell weight significantly increased to 17.52% and 19.44% over control respectively. Heat shock proteins as molecular markers for evaluation and evolution of thermotolerant silkworm strains for tropics was discussed.

  15. Experimental Space Shuttle Orbiter Studies to Acquire Data for Code and Flight Heating Model Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhams, T. P.; Holden, M. S.; MacLean, M. G.; Campbell, Charles

    2010-01-01

    In an experimental study to obtain detailed heating data over the Space Shuttle Orbiter, CUBRC has completed an extensive matrix of experiments using three distinct models and two unique hypervelocity wind tunnel facilities. This detailed data will be employed to assess heating augmentation due to boundary layer transition on the Orbiter wing leading edge and wind side acreage with comparisons to computational methods and flight data obtained during the Orbiter Entry Boundary Layer Flight Experiment and HYTHIRM during STS-119 reentry. These comparisons will facilitate critical updates to be made to the engineering tools employed to make assessments about natural and tripped boundary layer transition during Orbiter reentry. To achieve the goals of this study data was obtained over a range of Mach numbers from 10 to 18, with flight scaled Reynolds numbers and model attitudes representing key points on the Orbiter reentry trajectory. The first of these studies were performed as an integral part of Return to Flight activities following the accident that occurred during the reentry of the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-107) in February of 2003. This accident was caused by debris, which originated from the foam covering the external tank bipod fitting ramps, striking and damaging critical wing leading edge heating tiles that reside in the Orbiter bow shock/wing interaction region. During investigation of the accident aeroheating team members discovered that only a limited amount of experimental wing leading edge data existed in this critical peak heating area and a need arose to acquire a detailed dataset of heating in this region. This new dataset was acquired in three phases consisting of a risk mitigation phase employing a 1.8% scale Orbiter model with special temperature sensitive paint covering the wing leading edge, a 0.9% scale Orbiter model with high resolution thin-film instrumentation in the span direction, and the primary 1.8% scale Orbiter model with detailed

  16. The heterologous overexpression of hsp23, a small heat-shock protein gene from Trichoderma virens, confers thermotolerance to T. harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Barrientos, Marta; Cardoza, Rosa E; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Monte, Enrique; Hermosa, Rosa

    2007-07-01

    An EST showing high values of identity with genes coding for small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) was selected from an EST library collection of Trichoderma virens T59. The cDNA gene (hsp23) with a sequence size of 645 bp long was amplified by PCR. The expression of this gene was evaluated in cultures grown at temperatures ranging from 4 to 41 degrees C. An increased level of expression was detected when the fungus was grown at extreme temperatures (4, 10 or 41 degrees C). A high-expression level was also observed when the fungus was grown in 10% ethanol for 4 h. The hsp23 gene was present as a unique copy in the T. virens genome, and a homologous gene was also present in other five investigated Trichoderma species. Strain T. harzianum T34 was transformed with the hsp23 gene from T. virens T59 under the control of the pki (pyruvate kinase) promoter from T. reesei and the ble (phleomycin resistance) gene as selection marker. Statistically significant differences were detected between the strains T34 and two selected transformants in the biomass quantities obtained after heat shock treatment and in the colony diameters after incubation at 4 degrees C for 2 months.

  17. The Metabolic Basis of Pollen Thermo-Tolerance: Perspectives for Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine J. Paupière

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop production is highly sensitive to elevated temperatures. A rise of a few degrees above the optimum growing temperature can lead to a dramatic yield loss. A predicted increase of 1–3 degrees in the twenty first century urges breeders to develop thermo-tolerant crops which are tolerant to high temperatures. Breeding for thermo-tolerance is a challenge due to the low heritability of this trait. A better understanding of heat stress tolerance and the development of reliable methods to phenotype thermo-tolerance are key factors for a successful breeding approach. Plant reproduction is the most temperature-sensitive process in the plant life cycle. More precisely, pollen quality is strongly affected by heat stress conditions. High temperature leads to a decrease of pollen viability which is directly correlated with a loss of fruit production. The reduction in pollen viability is associated with changes in the level and composition of several (groups of metabolites, which play an important role in pollen development, for example by contributing to pollen nutrition or by providing protection to environmental stresses. This review aims to underline the importance of maintaining metabolite homeostasis during pollen development, in order to produce mature and fertile pollen under high temperature. The review will give an overview of the current state of the art on the role of various pollen metabolites in pollen homeostasis and thermo-tolerance. Their possible use as metabolic markers to assist breeding programs for plant thermo-tolerance will be discussed.

  18. The metabolic basis of pollen thermo-tolerance: perspectives for breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paupière, Marine J; van Heusden, Adriaan W; Bovy, Arnaud G

    2014-09-30

    Crop production is highly sensitive to elevated temperatures. A rise of a few degrees above the optimum growing temperature can lead to a dramatic yield loss. A predicted increase of 1-3 degrees in the twenty first century urges breeders to develop thermo-tolerant crops which are tolerant to high temperatures. Breeding for thermo-tolerance is a challenge due to the low heritability of this trait. A better understanding of heat stress tolerance and the development of reliable methods to phenotype thermo-tolerance are key factors for a successful breeding approach. Plant reproduction is the most temperature-sensitive process in the plant life cycle. More precisely, pollen quality is strongly affected by heat stress conditions. High temperature leads to a decrease of pollen viability which is directly correlated with a loss of fruit production. The reduction in pollen viability is associated with changes in the level and composition of several (groups of) metabolites, which play an important role in pollen development, for example by contributing to pollen nutrition or by providing protection to environmental stresses. This review aims to underline the importance of maintaining metabolite homeostasis during pollen development, in order to produce mature and fertile pollen under high temperature. The review will give an overview of the current state of the art on the role of various pollen metabolites in pollen homeostasis and thermo-tolerance. Their possible use as metabolic markers to assist breeding programs for plant thermo-tolerance will be discussed.

  19. Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA synthase enhances thermotolerance of mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonglei Lu

    Full Text Available Most mushrooms are thermo-sensitive to temperatures over 23°C, which greatly restricts their agricultural cultivation. Understanding mushroom's innate heat-tolerance mechanisms may facilitate genetic improvements of their thermotolerance. Agaricus bisporus strain 02 is a relatively thermotolerant mushroom strain, while strain 8213 is quite thermo-sensitive. Here, we compared their responses at proteomic level to heat treatment at 33°C. We identified 73 proteins that are differentially expressed between 02 and 8213 or induced upon heat stress in strain 02 itself, 48 of which with a known identity. Among them, 4 proteins are constitutively more highly expressed in 02 than 8213; and they can be further upregulated in response to heat stress in 02, but not in 8213. One protein is encoded by the para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA synthase gene Pabs, which has been shown to scavenge the reactive oxygen species in vitro. Pabs mRNA and its chemical product PABA show similar heat stress induction pattern as PABA synthase protein and are more abundant in 02, indicating transcriptional level upregulation of Pabs upon heat stress. A specific inhibitor of PABA synthesis impaired thermotolerance of 02, while exogenous PABA or transgenic overexpression of 02 derived PABA synthase enhanced thermotolerance of 8213. Furthermore, compared to 8213, 02 accumulated less H2O2 but more defense-related proteins (e.g., HSPs and Chitinase under heat stress. Together, these results demonstrate a role of PABA in enhancing mushroom thermotolerance by removing H2O2 and elevating defense-related proteins.

  20. Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) synthase enhances thermotolerance of mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhonglei; Kong, Xiangxiang; Lu, Zhaoming; Xiao, Meixiang; Chen, Meiyuan; Zhu, Liang; Shen, Yuemao; Hu, Xiangyang; Song, Siyang

    2014-01-01

    Most mushrooms are thermo-sensitive to temperatures over 23°C, which greatly restricts their agricultural cultivation. Understanding mushroom's innate heat-tolerance mechanisms may facilitate genetic improvements of their thermotolerance. Agaricus bisporus strain 02 is a relatively thermotolerant mushroom strain, while strain 8213 is quite thermo-sensitive. Here, we compared their responses at proteomic level to heat treatment at 33°C. We identified 73 proteins that are differentially expressed between 02 and 8213 or induced upon heat stress in strain 02 itself, 48 of which with a known identity. Among them, 4 proteins are constitutively more highly expressed in 02 than 8213; and they can be further upregulated in response to heat stress in 02, but not in 8213. One protein is encoded by the para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) synthase gene Pabs, which has been shown to scavenge the reactive oxygen species in vitro. Pabs mRNA and its chemical product PABA show similar heat stress induction pattern as PABA synthase protein and are more abundant in 02, indicating transcriptional level upregulation of Pabs upon heat stress. A specific inhibitor of PABA synthesis impaired thermotolerance of 02, while exogenous PABA or transgenic overexpression of 02 derived PABA synthase enhanced thermotolerance of 8213. Furthermore, compared to 8213, 02 accumulated less H2O2 but more defense-related proteins (e.g., HSPs and Chitinase) under heat stress. Together, these results demonstrate a role of PABA in enhancing mushroom thermotolerance by removing H2O2 and elevating defense-related proteins.

  1. Directed evolution of a filamentous fungus for thermotolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyons Thomas J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotic biocatalysts in industrial and chemical applications. Consequently, there is tremendous interest in methodology that can use the power of genetics to develop strains with improved performance. For example, Metarhizium anisopliae is a broad host range entomopathogenic fungus currently under intensive investigation as a biologically based alternative to chemical pesticides. However, it use is limited by the relatively low tolerance of this species to abiotic stresses such as heat, with most strains displaying little to no growth between 35–37°C. In this study, we used a newly developed automated continuous culture method called the Evolugator™, which takes advantage of a natural selection-adaptation strategy, to select for thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae strain 2575 displaying robust growth at 37°C. Results Over a 4 month time course, 22 cycles of growth and dilution were used to select 2 thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae. Both variants displayed robust growth at 36.5°C, whereas only one was able to grow at 37°C. Insect bioassays using Melanoplus sanguinipes (grasshoppers were also performed to determine if thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae retained entomopathogenicity. Assays confirmed that thermotolerant variants were, indeed, entomopathogenic, albeit with complex alterations in virulence parameters such as lethal dose responses (LD50 and median survival times (ST50. Conclusion We report the experimental evolution of a filamentous fungus via the novel application of a powerful new continuous culture device. This is the first example of using continuous culture to select for complex phenotypes such as thermotolerance. Temperature adapted variants of the insect-pathogenic, filamentous fungus M. anisopliae were isolated and demonstrated to show vigorous growth at a temperature that is inhibitory for the parent strain. Insect virulence assays

  2. Membrane fluidization triggers membrane remodeling which affects the thermotolerance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigapova, Natalia; Török, Zsolt; Balogh, Gábor; Goloubinoff, Pierre; Vígh, László; Horváth, Ibolya

    2005-03-25

    Treatment of Escherichia coli with non-lethal doses of heat or benzyl alcohol (BA) causes transient membrane fluidization and permeabilization, and induces the rapid transcription of heat-shock genes in a sigma32-dependent manner. This early response is followed by a rapid adaptation (priming) of the cells to otherwise lethal elevated temperature, in strong correlation with an observed remodeling of the composition and alkyl chain unsaturation of membrane lipids. The acquisition of cellular thermotolerance in BA-primed cells is unrelated to protein denaturation and is not accompanied by the formation of major heat-shock proteins, such as GroEL and DnaK. This suggests that the rapid remodeling of membrane composition is sufficient for the short-term bacterial thermotolerance.

  3. Pleurotus sajor-caju HSP100 complements a thermotolerance defect in hsp104 mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jin-Ohk Lee; Mi-Jeong Jeong; Tack-Ryun Kwon; Seung-Kon Lee; Myung-Ok Byun; Ill-Min Chung; Soo-Chul Park

    2006-09-01

    A putative Hsp100 gene was cloned from the fungus Pleurotus sajor-caju. mRNA expression studies demonstrated that this gene (designated PsHsp100) is highly induced by high temperature, induced less strongly by exposure to ethanol, and not induced by drought or salinity. Heat shock induction is detectable at 37°C and reaches a maximum level at 42°C. PsHsp100 mRNAlevels sharply increased within 15 min of exposure to high temperature, and reached a maximum expression level at 2 h that was maintained for several hours. These results indicate that PsHsp100 could work at an early step in thermotolerance. To examine its function, PsHsp100 was transformed into a temperature-sensitive hsp104 deletion mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain to test the hypothesis that PsHSP100 is an protein that functions in thermotolerance. Overexpression of PsHSP100 complemented the thermotolerance defect of the hsp104 mutant yeast, allowing them survive even at 50°C for 4 h. These results indicate that PsHSP100 protein is functional as an HSP100 in yeast and could play an important role in thermotolerance in P. sajor-caju.

  4. Pleurotus sajor-caju HSP100 complements a thermotolerance defect in hsp104 mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jin-Ohk Lee; Mi-Jeong Jeong; Tack-Ryun Kwon; Seung-Kon Lee; Myung-Ok Byun; Ill-Min Chung; Soo-Chul Park

    2006-06-01

    A putative Hsp100 gene was cloned from the fungus Pleurotus sajor-caju. mRNA expression studies demonstrated that this gene (designated PsHsp100) is highly induced by high temperature, induced less strongly by exposure to ethanol, and not induced by drought or salinity. Heat shock induction is detectable at 37°C and reaches a maximum level at 42°C. PsHsp100 mRNAlevels sharply increased within 15 min of exposure to high temperature, and reached a maximum expression level at 2 h that was maintained for several hours. These results indicate that PsHsp100 could work at an early step in thermotolerance. To examine its function, PsHsp100 was transformed into a temperature-sensitive hsp104 deletion mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain to test the hypothesis that PsHSP100 is an protein that functions in thermotolerance. Overexpression of PsHSP100 complemented the thermotolerance defect of the hsp104 mutant yeast, allowing them survive even at 50°C for 4 h. These results indicate that PsHSP100 protein is functional as an HSP100 in yeast and could play an important role in thermotolerance in P. sajor-caju.

  5. Correlation between thermotolerance and membrane properties in Paramecium aurelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Toshiaki; Konoha, Yoshimi; Toyoda, Taichi; Yasaka, Yuta; Przybos, Eva; Nakaoka, Yasuo

    2006-09-01

    The relationship between thermotolerance and membrane properties was studied by using a ciliated protozoan, Paramecium aurelia. P. aurelia is a complex of sibling species termed ;syngens' whose cell morphology appear similar on microscopic examination. From the comparison of tolerance to increasing temperature among 14 syngens of P. aurelia, we selected syngens 2 and 3 as low thermotolerant examples, and syngens 8 and 10 as high thermotolerant examples. The membrane resistance of high thermotolerant syngens measured by injection of a constant inward current was greater than that of low thermotolerant syngens. Membrane fluidity measurements of living cells using the fluorescent dye, 6-lauroyl-2-dimethylaminonaphtalene (laurdan) showed that the fluidity at the cultured temperature was decreased in high thermotolerant syngens compared to that of low thermotolerant syngens. However, when the temperature was increased to the killing temperature of each syngens, the fluidity was increased to almost the same level irrespective of syngen. Furthermore, analysis of fatty acids extracted from whole cells showed that the ratios of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids was smaller in high thermotolerant syngens than in low thermotolerant syngens. These results suggest that the thermotolerance of P. aurelia syngens is determined by the membrane fluidity which is related to the fatty acids composition.

  6. Calcium pretreatment increases thermotolerance of Laminaria japonica sporophytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Wang; Qingyun Yu; Xuexi Tang; Lili Wang

    2009-01-01

    Calcium is a secondary messenger in plant signaling,and its concentration changes spatially and temporally during the course of heat stress.In the present study,potassium antimonate was used to visualize calcium localization in blades of a marine macroalga,the juvenile Laminariajaponica sporophytes under heat stress (25 ℃).Result showed that loosely bound calcium was mainly distributed on the cell wall under normal conditions (10 ℃),and flowed into the cytoplasm when exposed to heat.The simutaneous assay on the antioxidant system changes was performed.Oxidative damage,as measured by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) malondialdehyde (MDA) content,increased significantly during heat stress,and calcium pretreatment alleviated oxidative damage.The assay on the activities of six antioxidant enzymes demonstrated that their enzymatic activities were inhibited when exposed to heat stress,but Ca2+ pretreatment effectively attenuated the inhibition.Results in the present study inferred that calcium homeostasis plays an essential role in L.japonica sporophyte when exposed to heat,and calcium pretreatment could improve its thermo-tolerance.

  7. Hyperthermia classic article commentary: 'Re-induction of hsp70 synthesis: an assay for thermotolerance' by Gloria C. Li and Johnson Y. Mak, International Journal of Hyperthermia 1989;5:389-403.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gloria C; Calderwood, Stuart K

    2009-06-01

    Of the many heat shock proteins (HSPs), hsp70 appears to correlate best with heat resistance, either permanent or transient. We have investigated various approaches to quantify the concentration of hsp70, and examined the relationship between hsp70 and cells' thermal sensitivity during the development and decay of thermotolerance in model systems. Specifically, experiments were performed to determine the possibility of using the rate of synthesis of hsp70 after a second test heat shock to predict the kinetics of thermotolerance in tumor cells in vitro and in animal tumor models. We found that the cells' ability to re-initiate hsp70 synthesis in response to the test heat shock inversely correlated with retained thermotolerance. These data suggest the level of hsp70 in thermotolerant cells regulates the rate of synthesis of additional hsp70 in response to the subsequent heat challenge. Furthermore, the results showed that the rate of re-induction of hsp70 synthesis after a test heat shock can be used as a rapid measure of retained thermotolerance. This study suggests an approach for quantifying the level of retained thermotolerance during fractionated hyperthermia.

  8. l-Leucine acts as a potential agent in reducing body temperature at hatching and affords thermotolerance in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guofeng; Yang, Hui; Bahry, Mohammad A; Tran, Phuong V; Do, Phong H; Ikeda, Hiromi; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S

    2017-02-01

    Thermal manipulation (TM) of incubation temperature causes metabolic alterations and contributes to improving thermotolerance in chicks post hatching. However, there has been no report on amino acid metabolism during TM and the part it plays in thermotolerance. In this study, we therefore first analyzed free amino acid concentrations in the embryonic brain and liver during TM (38.6°C, 6h/d during embryonic day (ED) 10 to ED 18). It was found that leucine (Leu), phenylalanine and lysine were significantly decreased in the embryonic brain and liver. We then chose l-Leu and other branched-chain amino acids (l-isoleucine (L-Ile) and l-valine (l-Val)) for in ovo injection on ED 7 to reveal their roles in thermoregulation, growth, food intake and thermotolerance in chicks. It was found that in ovo injection of l-Leu, but not of l-Ileu or l-Val, caused a significant decline in body temperature at hatching and increased food intake and body weight gain in broiler chicks. Interestingly, in ovo injection of l-Leu resulted in the acquisition of thermotolerance under high ambient temperature (35±1°C for 180min) in comparison with the control thermoneutral temperature (28±1°C for 180min). These results indicate that the free amino acid concentrations during embryogenesis were altered by TM. l-Leu administration in eggs caused a reduction in body temperature at hatching, and afforded thermotolerance in heat-exposed young chicks, further suggesting that l-Leu may be one of the key metabolic factors involved in controlling body temperature in embryos, as well as in producing thermotolerance after hatching.

  9. Plant Heat Adaptation: priming in response to heat stress [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Bäurle

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress is a major threat to crop yield stability. Plants can be primed by heat stress, which enables them to subsequently survive temperatures that are lethal to a plant in the naïve state. This is a rapid response that has been known for many years and that is highly conserved across kingdoms. Interestingly, recent studies in Arabidopsis and rice show that this thermo-priming lasts for several days at normal growth temperatures and that it is an active process that is genetically separable from the priming itself. This is referred to as maintenance of acquired thermotolerance or heat stress memory. Such a memory conceivably has adaptive advantages under natural conditions, where heat stress often is chronic or recurring. In this review, I will focus on recent advances in the mechanistic understanding of heat stress memory.

  10. Trampling Impacts on Thermotolerant Vegetation of Geothermal Areas in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Bruce R.; Ward, Jonet; Downs, Theresa M.

    2013-12-01

    Geothermal features such as geysers, mud pools, sinter terraces, fumaroles, hot springs, and steaming ground are natural attractions often visited by tourists. Visitation rates for such areas in the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand are in the order of hundreds of thousands annually. These areas are also habitat for rare and specialized plant and microbial communities that live in the steam-heated soils of unusual chemical composition. We evaluated historical and current trampling impacts of tourists on the thermotolerant vegetation of the Waimangu and Waiotapu geothermal areas near Rotorua, and compared the results to experimental trampling at a third site (Taheke) not used by tourists. Historical tourism has removed vegetation and soil from around key features, and remaining subsoil is compacted into an impervious pavement on which vegetation recolonization is unlikely in the short term. Social tracks made by tourists were present at both tourist sites often leading them onto hotter soils than constructed tracks. Vegetation height and cover were lower on and adjacent to social tracks than further from them. Thermotolerant vegetation showed extremely low resistance to experimental trampling. This confirms and extends previous research that also shows that thallophytes and woody shrubs, life forms that dominate in thermotolerant vegetation, are vulnerable to trampling damage. Preservation of these vulnerable ecosystems must ensure that tourist traffic is confined to existing tracks or boardwalks, and active restoration of impacted sites may be warranted.

  11. Trampling impacts on thermotolerant vegetation of geothermal areas in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Bruce R; Ward, Jonet; Downs, Theresa M

    2013-12-01

    Geothermal features such as geysers, mud pools, sinter terraces, fumaroles, hot springs, and steaming ground are natural attractions often visited by tourists. Visitation rates for such areas in the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand are in the order of hundreds of thousands annually. These areas are also habitat for rare and specialized plant and microbial communities that live in the steam-heated soils of unusual chemical composition. We evaluated historical and current trampling impacts of tourists on the thermotolerant vegetation of the Waimangu and Waiotapu geothermal areas near Rotorua, and compared the results to experimental trampling at a third site (Taheke) not used by tourists. Historical tourism has removed vegetation and soil from around key features, and remaining subsoil is compacted into an impervious pavement on which vegetation recolonization is unlikely in the short term. Social tracks made by tourists were present at both tourist sites often leading them onto hotter soils than constructed tracks. Vegetation height and cover were lower on and adjacent to social tracks than further from them. Thermotolerant vegetation showed extremely low resistance to experimental trampling. This confirms and extends previous research that also shows that thallophytes and woody shrubs, life forms that dominate in thermotolerant vegetation, are vulnerable to trampling damage. Preservation of these vulnerable ecosystems must ensure that tourist traffic is confined to existing tracks or boardwalks, and active restoration of impacted sites may be warranted.

  12. Genetically altering the expression of neutral trehalase gene affects conidiospore thermotolerance of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Guoxiong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum has been used as an important biocontrol agent instead of insecticides for controlling crop pests throughout the world. However, its virulence varies with environmental factors, especially temperature. Neutral trehalase (Ntl hydrolyzes trehalose, which plays a role in environmental stress response in many organisms, including M. acridum. Demonstration of a relationship between Ntl and thermotolerance or virulence may offer a new strategy for enhancing conidiospore thermotolerance of entomopathogenic fungi through genetic engineering. Results We selected four Ntl over-expression and four Ntl RNA interference (RNAi transformations in which Ntl expression is different. Compared to the wild-type, Ntl mRNA expression was reduced to 35-66% in the RNAi mutants and increased by 2.5-3.5-fold in the over-expression mutants. The RNAi conidiospores exhibited less trehalase activity, accumulated more trehalose, and were much more tolerant of heat stress than the wild-type. The opposite effects were found in conidiospores of over-expression mutants compared to RNAi mutants. Furthermore, virulence was not altered in the two types of mutants compared to the wild type. Conclusions Ntl controlled trehalose accumulation in M. acridum by degrading trehalose, and thus affected conidiospore thermotolerance. These results offer a new strategy for enhancing conidiospore thermotolerance of entomopathogenic fungi without affecting virulence.

  13. Arabidopsis thaliana WRKY25, WRKY26, and WRKY33 coordinate induction of plant thermotolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shujia; Fu, Qiantang; Chen, Ligang; Huang, Weidong; Yu, Diqiu

    2011-06-01

    Limited information is available regarding the exact function of specific WRKY transcription factors in plant responses to heat stress. We analyzed the roles of WRKY25, WRKY26, and WRKY33, three types of group I WRKY proteins, in the regulation of resistance to heat stress. Expression of WRKY25 and WRKY26 was induced upon treatment with high temperature, whereas WRKY33 expression was repressed. Heat-treated WRKY single mutants exhibited small responses, while wrky25wrky26 and wrky25wrky33 double mutants and the wrky25wrky26wrky33 triple mutants showed substantially increased susceptibility to heat stress, showing reduced germination, decreased survival, and elevated electrolyte leakage, compared with wild-type plants. In contrast, constitutive expression of WRKY25, WRKY26, or WRKY33 enhanced resistance to heat stress. Expression studies of selected heat-defense genes in single, double, and triple mutants, as well as in over-expressing lines, were correlated with their thermotolerance phenotypes and demonstrated that the three WRKY transcription factors modulate transcriptional changes of heat-inducible genes in response to heat treatment. In addition, our findings provided evidence that WRKY25, WRKY26, and WRKY33 were involved in regulation of the heat-induced ethylene-dependent response and demonstrated positive cross-regulation within these three genes. Together, these results indicate that WRKY25, WRKY26, and WRKY33 positively regulate the cooperation between the ethylene-activated and heat shock proteins-related signaling pathways that mediate responses to heat stress; and that these three proteins interact functionally and play overlapping and synergetic roles in plant thermotolerance.

  14. Interactive effects of elevated CO2 and ozone on leaf thermotolerance in field-grown Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sasmita; Heckathorn, Scott A; Barua, Deepak; Wang, Dan; Joshi, Puneet; Hamilton Iii, E William; Frantz, Jonathan

    2008-11-01

    Humans are increasing atmospheric CO2, ground-level ozone (O3), and mean and acute high temperatures. Laboratory studies show that elevated CO2 can increase thermotolerance of photosynthesis in C3 plants. O3-related oxidative stress may offset benefits of elevated CO2 during heat-waves. We determined effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on leaf thermotolerance of field-grown Glycine max (soybean, C3). Photosynthetic electron transport (et) was measured in attached leaves heated in situ and detached leaves heated under ambient CO2 and O3. Heating decreased et, which O3 exacerbated. Elevated CO2 prevented O3-related decreases during heating, but only increased et under ambient O3 in the field. Heating decreased chlorophyll and carotenoids, especially under elevated CO2. Neither CO2 nor O3 affected heat-shock proteins. Heating increased catalase (except in high O3) and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), but not Mn-SOD; CO2 and O3 decreased catalase but neither SOD. Soluble carbohydrates were unaffected by heating, but increased in elevated CO2. Thus, protection of photosynthesis during heat stress by elevated CO2 occurs in field-grown soybean under ambient O3, as in the lab, and high CO2 limits heat damage under elevated O3, but this protection is likely from decreased photorespiration and stomatal conductance rather than production of heat-stress adaptations.

  15. Interactive Effects of Elevated CO2 and Ozone on Leaf Thermotolerance in Field-grown Glycine max

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sasmita Mishra; Scott A. Heckathorn; Deepak Barua; Dan Wang; Puneet Joshi; E. William Hamilton Ⅲ; Jonathan Frantz

    2008-01-01

    Humans are increasing atmospheric CO2, ground-level ozone (O3), and mean and acute high temperatures. Laboratory studies show that elevated CO2 can increase thermotolerance of photosynthesis in C3 plants. O3-related oxidative stress may offset benefits of elevated CO2 during heat-waves. We determined effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on leaf thermotolerance of field-grown Glycine max (soybean, C3). Photosynthetic electron transport (φet) was measured in attached leaves heated in situ and detached leaves heated under ambient CO2 and O3. Heating decreased φet, which O3 exacerbated. Elevated CO2 prevented O3-related decreases during heating, but only increased φet under ambient O3 in the field. Heating decreased chlorophyll and carotenoids, especially under elevated CO2. Neither CO2 nor O3 affected heat-shock proteins. Heating increased catalase (except in high O3) and CulZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), but not MnSOD; CO2 and O3 decreased catalase but neither SOD. Soluble carbohydrates were unaffected by heating, but increased in elevated CO2. Thus, protection of photosynthesis during heat stress by elevated CO2 occurs in field-grown soybean under ambient O3, as in the lab, and high CO2 limits heat damage under elevated O3, but this protection is likely from decreased photorespiration and stomatal conductance rather than production of heat-stress adaptations.

  16. Impact of mild temperature hardening on thermotolerance, fecundity, and Hsp gene expression in Liriomyza huidobrensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Hua; Chen, Bing; Kang, Le

    2007-12-01

    The pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis, is one of the most important economic insect pests around the world. Its population fluctuates greatly with seasonal change in China, and temperature was thought to be one of the important reasons. In attempt to further explore the impact of disadvantageous temperature on L. huidobrensis, 1-day-old adults were shocked at various temperatures (10, 25, 32, and 35 degrees C, respectively) for 4h, and the effects on thermotolerance, feeding, and fecundity were studied. Meanwhile the expression of five heat shock genes (hsp90, 70, 60, 40, and 20) was examined by real-time quantitative PCR. Our results showed that both 32 and 35 degrees C hardenings remarkably increased adult heat resistance, whereas cold tolerance was not improved accordingly. No cross resistance in response to cold and heat stresses was observed. Both adult feeding and fecundity were dramatically reduced, but no effect was observed on egg hatching, larval survival, pupal eclosion, or sex ratio. The results indicate that the deleterious effect on fecundity is the result of direct cessation of oviposition during the period of stress. Simultaneously, the mRNA levels of hsp70 and hsp20 significantly increased upon thermal hardening. Taken together, our results suggest that mild heat hardening improves thermotolerance of L. huidobrensis at the cost of impairment on fecundity, and the induced expression of hsp70 and hsp20 may play an important role in balancing the functional tradeoff.

  17. Thermotolerant Yeast Strains Adapted by Laboratory Evolution Show Trade-Off at Ancestral Temperatures and Preadaptation to Other Stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    . Thermotolerant yeast strains showed horizontal displacement of their thermal reaction norms to higher temperatures. Hence, their optimal and maximum growth temperatures increased by about 3°C, whereas they showed a growth trade-off at temperatures below 34°C. Computational analysis of the physical properties...... in the ancestral strain. The latter is an advantageous attribute for acquiring thermotolerance and correlates with the reduction of yeast functions associated with loss of respiration capacity. This trait caused glycerol overproduction that was associated with the growth trade-off at ancestral temperatures....... In combination with altered sterol composition of cellular membranes, glycerol overproduction was also associated with yeast osmotolerance and improved tolerance of high concentrations of glucose and ethanol. Our study shows that thermal adaptation of yeast is suitable for improving yeast resistance...

  18. L-arginine, an active component of salmon milt nucleoprotein, promotes thermotolerance via Sirtuin in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhashi, Tsubasa; Matsunaga, Masaji; Asahara, Yuji; Sakamoto, Kazuichi

    2016-03-25

    We previously showed that salmon milt nucleoprotein (NP) promotes thermotolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans; however, the active component and physiological mechanism of this effect has remained unclear. l-arginine (AR) is a major component of protamine and thus it has been proposed as the possible active component of NP. In this study, the viability of C. elegans treated with AR under heat stress was assessed and AR was shown to extend the survival term of the heat-stressed organisms. Additionally, AR was shown to restore the thrashing movement of the worms that is suppressed by heat stress. Treatment with AR was furthermore shown to promote thermotolerance in a DAF-16- and SIR-2.1-dependent manner, where DAF-16 and SIR-2.1 are homologs of FoxO and SirT1, respectively. Taken together, these data suggest that AR is one of the active components of NP and promotes thermotolerance via the activation of DAF-16 and SIR-2.1.

  19. Exogenous application of putrescine at pre-anthesis enhances the thermotolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ranjeet R; Sharma, Sushil K; Rai, Gyanendra K; Singh, Khushboo; Choudhury, Madhumanthi; Dhawan Gaurav; Singh, Gyaneshwar P; Goswami, Suneha; Pathak, Himanshu; Rai, Raj D

    2014-10-01

    Antioxidant enzymes, besides being involved in various developmental processes, are known to be important for environmental stress tolerance in plants. In this study, the effect of treatment of 2.5 mM putrescine (Put), heat stress (HS -42 degrees C for 2 h) and their combination on the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes was studied at pre-anthesis in the leaves of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars--HDR77 (thermotolerant) and HD2329 (thermosusceptible). We observed that 2.5 mM Put before HS significantly enhanced the transcript levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), cytoplasmic and peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase (cAPX, pAPX) in both the cultivars. However, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX and GR), as well as accumulation of antioxidants (ascorbic acid and total thiol content) were higher in HDR77 than in HD2329 in response to the treatment 2.5 mM Put + HS. No significant change was observed in the proline accumulation in response to HS and combined treatment of 2.5 mM Put + HS. A decrease in the H2O2 accumulation, lipid peroxidation and increase in cell membrane stability (CMS) were observed in response to 2.5 mM Put + HS treatment, as compared to HS treatment alone in both the cultivars; HDR77 was, however, more responsive to 2.5 mM Put + HS treatment. Put (2.5 mM) treatment at pre-anthesis thus modulated the defense mechanism responsible for the thermotolerance capacity of wheat under the heat stress. Elicitors like Put, therefore, need to be further studied for temporarily manipulating the thermotolerance capacity of wheat grown under the field conditions in view of the impending global climate change.

  20. Isolation and characterization of the Arabidopsis heat-intolerant 2 (hit2) mutant reveal the essential role of the nuclear export receptor EXPORTIN1A (XPO1A) in plant heat tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shin-Jye; Wang, Lian-Chin; Yeh, Ching-Hui; Lu, Chun-An; Wu, Shaw-Jye

    2010-06-01

    *The Arabidopsis heat-intolerant 2 (hit2) mutant was isolated on the basis of its impaired ability to withstand moderate heat stress (37 degrees C). Determination of the genetic mutation that underlies the hit2 thermosensitive phenotype allowed better understanding of the mechanisms by which plants cope with heat stress. *Genetic analysis revealed that hit2 is a single recessive mutation. Map-based cloning was used to identify the hit2 locus. The response of hit2 to other types of heat stress was also investigated to characterize the protective role of HIT2. *hit2 was defective in basal but not in acquired thermotolerance. hit2 was sensitive to methyl viologen-induced oxidative stress, and the survival of hit2 seedlings in response to heat stress was affected by light conditions. The mutated locus was located at the EXPORTIN1A (XPO1A) gene, which encodes a nuclear transport receptor. Two T-DNA insertion lines, xpo1a-1 and xpo1a-3, exhibited the same phenotypes as hit2. *The results provide evidence that Arabidopsis XPO1A is dispensable for normal plant growth and development but is essential for thermotolerance, in part by mediating the protection of plants against heat-induced oxidative stress.

  1. Thermotolerance and HSP70 expression in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalosaka, Katerina; Soumaka, Elisavet; Politis, Nikos; Mintzas, Anastassios C

    2009-06-01

    The relationship between Hsp70 expression and thermotolerance has been well documented in Drosophila melanogaster. However, there is limited information on this relationship in other insect species. In this report we describe the Hsp70-thermotolerance relationship in one of the major fruit fly pests, Ceratitis capitata (medfly). Hsp70 expression and thermotolerance were assayed at a range of temperatures in several stages of medfly development. The most thermotolerant stage was found to be the late larval stage (100% survival at 41 degrees C) followed by adult flies and late embryos (100% survival at 39 degrees C). These three stages showed a positive relationship between Hsp70 expression and thermotolerance. Mid-larval and mid-embryonic stages were found less thermotolerant and the Hsp70-thermotolerance relationship was not evident. Early embryos did not express Hsp70 at any temperature and exhibited the lowest thermotolerance. The relationship between Hsp70 and inducible thermotolerance was also studied in late larvae. A pretreatment at 37-39 degrees C increased thermotolerance at higher temperatures by approximately 1 degrees C. In parallel, the pretreatment increased Hsp70 expression suggesting a close link between Hsp70 expression and inducible thermotolerance. The increased Hsp70 levels after pretreatment were found to be due to the increased levels of the hsp70 RNA.

  2. Environmental regulation of alcohol metabolism in thermotolerant methylotrophic Bacillus strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arfman, N.; Moezelaar, H.R.; Attwood, M.M.; Robinson, G.K.; Geel, M. van; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1992-01-01

    The thermotolerant methylotroph Bacillus sp. C1 possesses a novel NAD-dependent methanol dehydrogenase (MDH), with distinct structural and mechanistic properties. During growth on methanol and ethanol, MDH was responsible for the oxidation of both these substrates. MDH activity in cells grown on met

  3. Genome-wide analysis of the CaHsp20 gene family in pepper: comprehensive sequence and expression profile analysis under heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng eGuo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Hsp20 genes are present in all plant species and play important roles in alleviating heat stress and enhancing plant thermotolerance by preventing the irreversible aggregation of denaturing proteins. However, very little is known about the CaHsp20 gene family in pepper (Capsicum annuum L., an important vegetable crop with character of temperate but thermosensitive. In this study, a total of 35 putative pepper Hsp20 genes (CaHsp20s were identified and renamed on the basis of their molecular weight, and then their gene structure, genome location, gene duplication, phylogenetic relationship and interaction network were also analyzed. The expression patterns of CaHsp20 genes in four different tissues (root, stem, leaf and flower from the thermotolerant line R9 under heat stress condition were measured using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The transcripts of most CaHsp20 genes maintained a low level in all of the four tissues under normal temperature condition, but were highly induced by heat stress, while the expression of CaHsp16.6b, 16.7 and 23.8 were only detected in specific tissues and were not so sensitive to heat stress like other CaHsp20 genes. In addition, compared to those in thermotolerant line R9, the expression peak of most CaHsp20 genes in thermosensitive line B6 under heat stress was hysteretic, and several CaHsp20 genes (CaHsp16.4, 18.2a, 18.7, 21.2, 22.0, 25.8 and 25.9 showed higher expression levels in both line B6 and R9. These data suggest that the CaHsp20 genes may be involved in heat stress and defense responses in pepper, which provides the basis for further functional analyses of CaHsp20s in the formation of pepper acquired thermotoleance.

  4. Integrin-linked kinase modulates longevity and thermotolerance in C. elegans through neuronal control of HSF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsta, Caroline; Ching, Tsui-Ting; Nishimura, Mayuko; Davis, Andrew E; Gelino, Sara; Catan, Hannah H; Yu, Xiaokun; Chu, Chu-Chiao; Ong, Binnan; Panowski, Siler H; Baird, Nathan; Bodmer, Rolf; Hsu, Ao-Lin; Hansen, Malene

    2014-06-01

    Integrin-signaling complexes play important roles in cytoskeletal organization and cell adhesion in many species. Components of the integrin-signaling complex have been linked to aging in both Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, but the mechanism underlying this function is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of integrin-linked kinase (ILK), a key component of the integrin-signaling complex, in lifespan determination. We report that genetic reduction of ILK in both C. elegans and Drosophila increased resistance to heat stress, and led to lifespan extension in C. elegans without majorly affecting cytoskeletal integrity. In C. elegans, longevity and thermotolerance induced by ILK depletion was mediated by heat-shock factor-1 (HSF-1), a major transcriptional regulator of the heat-shock response (HSR). Reduction in ILK levels increased hsf-1 transcription and activation, and led to enhanced expression of a subset of genes with roles in the HSR. Moreover, induction of HSR-related genes, longevity and thermotolerance caused by ILK reduction required the thermosensory neurons AFD and interneurons AIY, which are known to play a critical role in the canonical HSR. Notably, ILK was expressed in neighboring neurons, but not in AFD or AIY, implying that ILK reduction initiates cell nonautonomous signaling through thermosensory neurons to elicit a noncanonical HSR. Our results thus identify HSF-1 as a novel effector of the organismal response to reduced ILK levels and show that ILK inhibition regulates HSF-1 in a cell nonautonomous fashion to enhance stress resistance and lifespan in C. elegans.

  5. Prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in farmed hares (Lepus europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaniello, Antonio; Dipineto, Ludovico; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Mariani, Ugo; Fioretti, Alessandro; Menna, Lucia Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 118/240 (49.2%) rectal swabs from commercially farmed hares (Lepus europaeus) in southern Italy. Using multiplex PCR, Campylobacter coli was identified in 118/118 (100%) positive samples, while 17/118 (14.4%) positive samples were also positive for Campylobacter jejuni. Adult hares had a higher prevalence of infection with Campylobacter spp. than juvenile hares.

  6. Arabidopsis AtPARK13, Which Confers Thermotolerance, Targets Misfolded Proteins*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Indranil; Pal, Ramavati; Patil, Ketan S.; Dunne, Aisling; Ho, Hsin-Pin; Lee, Sungsu; Peiris, Diluka; Maple-Grødem, Jodi; Odell, Mark; Chang, Emmanuel J.; Larsen, Jan Petter; Møller, Simon G.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in HTRA2/Omi/PARK13 have been implicated in Parkinson disease (PD). PARK13 is a neuroprotective serine protease; however, little is known about how PARK13 confers stress protection and which protein targets are directly affected by PARK13. We have reported that Arabidopsis thaliana represents a complementary PD model, and here we demonstrate that AtPARK13, similar to human PARK13 (hPARK13), is a mitochondrial protease. We show that the expression/accumulation of AtPARK13 transcripts are induced by heat stress but not by other stress conditions, including oxidative stress and metals. Our data show that elevated levels of AtPARK13 confer thermotolerance in A. thaliana. Increased temperatures accelerate protein unfolding, and we demonstrate that although AtPARK13 can act on native protein substrates, unfolded proteins represent better AtPARK13 substrates. The results further show that AtPARK13 and hPARK13 can degrade the PD proteins α-synuclein (SNCA) and DJ-1/PARK7 directly, without autophagy involvement, and that misfolded SNCA and DJ-1 represent better substrates than their native counterparts. Comparative proteomic profiling revealed AtPARK13-mediated proteome changes, and we identified four proteins that show altered abundance in response to AtPARK13 overexpression and elevated temperatures. Our study not only suggests that AtPARK13 confers thermotolerance by degrading misfolded protein targets, but it also provides new insight into possible roles of this protease in neurodegeneration. PMID:24719325

  7. Ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers at high temperature by newly isolated thermotolerant inulin-utilizing yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus using consolidated bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoensopharat, Kanlayani; Thanonkeo, Pornthap; Thanonkeo, Sudarat; Yamada, Mamoru

    2015-07-01

    Thermotolerant inulin-utilizing yeast strains were successfully isolated in this study. Among the isolated strains, Kluyveromyces marxianus DBKKU Y-102 was found to be the most effective strain for direct ethanol fermentation at high temperature from fresh Jerusalem artichoke (JA) tubers without inulin hydrolysis under consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). The maximum ethanol concentrations produced by this strain under the optimum culture conditions were 104.83 and 97.46 g L(-1) at 37 and 40 °C, respectively. Data from this study clearly demonstrated that the use of thermotolerant inulin-utilizing yeast K. marxianus for ethanol production from fresh JA tubers in the CBP process not only provided high levels of ethanol, but also could eliminate the addition of external enzyme for inulin hydrolysis, which might lead to the reduction of operating costs. The expression of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism in K. marxianus DBKKU Y-102 during ethanol fermentation was investigated by real-time RT-PCR, and the results revealed that expression levels were distinctive depending on the growth phase and growth conditions. However, among the genes tested, adh4 and tdh2 were highly expressed under high temperature conditions in both exponential- and stationary-growth phases, suggesting that these genes might play a crucial role in acquiring thermotolerance ability in this organism under stress conditions.

  8. Isothermic and fixed-intensity heat acclimation methods elicit equal increases in Hsp72 mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, O R; Mee, J A; Taylor, L; Tuttle, J A; Watt, P W; Maxwell, N S

    2015-06-01

    Thermotolerance, to which heat shock protein-72 (Hsp72) contributes, is an acquired state achieved following heat acclimation (HA), eliciting cellular adaption and protection against thermal stress. Optimal HA methods achieving the greatest heat shock response (HSR) are equivocal; therefore, investigation of methods provoking the greatest sustained HSR is required to optimize cellular adaptation. Twenty-four males performed short-term HA (STHA; five sessions) and long-term HA (LTHA; STHA plus further five sessions) utilizing fixed-intensity (FIXED; workload = 50% V ˙ O 2 p e a k ), continuous isothermic HA [ISOCONT ; target rectal temperature (Trec ) = 38.5 °C], or progressive isothermic HA (ISOPROG ; target Trec  = 38.5 °C for STHA then target Trec  = 39.0 °C for LTHA). Leukocyte Hsp72 mRNA was measured pre- and post day 1, day 5, and day 10 of HA via reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction to determine the HSR. Hsp72 mRNA increased (P  0.05). The equal Hsp72 mRNA increases occurring from consistent, reduced, or increased endogenous strain following STHA and LTHA suggest that transcription occurs following attainment of sufficient endogenous criteria. These data give confidence that all reported HA methods increase Hsp72 mRNA and are capable of eliciting adaptations toward thermotolerance.

  9. Global Gene-Expression Analysis to Identify Differentially Expressed Genes Critical for the Heat Stress Response in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiangshu; Yi, Hankuil; Lee, Jeongyeo; Nou, Ill-Sup; Han, Ching-Tack; Hur, Yoonkang

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide dissection of the heat stress response (HSR) is necessary to overcome problems in crop production caused by global warming. To identify HSR genes, we profiled gene expression in two Chinese cabbage inbred lines with different thermotolerances, Chiifu and Kenshin. Many genes exhibited >2-fold changes in expression upon exposure to 0.5- 4 h at 45°C (high temperature, HT): 5.2% (2,142 genes) in Chiifu and 3.7% (1,535 genes) in Kenshin. The most enriched GO (Gene Ontology) items included 'response to heat', 'response to reactive oxygen species (ROS)', 'response to temperature stimulus', 'response to abiotic stimulus', and 'MAPKKK cascade'. In both lines, the genes most highly induced by HT encoded small heat shock proteins (Hsps) and heat shock factor (Hsf)-like proteins such as HsfB2A (Bra029292), whereas high-molecular weight Hsps were constitutively expressed. Other upstream HSR components were also up-regulated: ROS-scavenging genes like glutathione peroxidase 2 (BrGPX2, Bra022853), protein kinases, and phosphatases. Among heat stress (HS) marker genes in Arabidopsis, only exportin 1A (XPO1A) (Bra008580, Bra006382) can be applied to B. rapa for basal thermotolerance (BT) and short-term acquired thermotolerance (SAT) gene. CYP707A3 (Bra025083, Bra021965), which is involved in the dehydration response in Arabidopsis, was associated with membrane leakage in both lines following HS. Although many transcription factors (TF) genes, including DREB2A (Bra005852), were involved in HS tolerance in both lines, Bra024224 (MYB41) and Bra021735 (a bZIP/AIR1 [Anthocyanin-Impaired-Response-1]) were specific to Kenshin. Several candidate TFs involved in thermotolerance were confirmed as HSR genes by real-time PCR, and these assignments were further supported by promoter analysis. Although some of our findings are similar to those obtained using other plant species, clear differences in Brassica rapa reveal a distinct HSR in this species. Our data could also provide a

  10. Food crops face rising temperatures: An overview of responses, adaptive mechanisms, and approaches to improve heat tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeru Kaushal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rising temperatures are resulting in heat stress for various agricultural crops to limit their growth, metabolism, and leading to significant loss of yield potential worldwide. Heat stress adversely affects normal plant growth and development depending on the sensitivity of each crop species. Each crop species has its own range of temperature maxima and minima at different developmental stages beyond which all these processes get inhibited. The reproductive stage is on the whole more sensitive to heat stress, resulting in impaired fertilization to cause abortion of flowers. During seed filling, heat stress retards seed growth by affecting all the biochemical events to reduce seed size. Unfavorable temperature may significantly affect photosynthesis, respiration, water balance, and membrane stability of leaves. To combat heat stress, plants acquire various defense mechanisms for their survival such as maintaining membrane stability, and scavenging reactive oxygen species by generating antioxidants and stress proteins. Thermo-tolerance can be improved by the accumulation of various compounds of low molecular mass known as thermo-protectants as well as phyto-hormones. Exogenous application of these molecules has benefited plants growing under heat stress. Alternatively, transgenic plants over-expressing the enzymes catalyzing the synthesis of these molecules may be raised to increase their endogenous levels to improve heat tolerance. In recent times, various transgenics have been developed with improved thermo-tolerance having potential benefits for inducing heat tolerance in food crops. Updated information about of the effects of heat stress on various food crops and their responses as well as adaptive mechanisms is reviewed here.

  11. Acquired blepharoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, HJGH

    1996-01-01

    A review is given of the aetiology and possible treatment of acquired (non-congenital) blepharoptosis, which is a common but not specific sign of neurological disease: The diagnostic categories of upper eyelid drooping are scheduled as (a) pseudo-ptosis due to a local process or overactivity of eye

  12. Human risk from thermotolerant Campylobacter on broiler meat in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Nauta, Maarten; Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach by which changes over time in the relative risk of human campylobacteriosis from broiler meat are evaluated through quantitative microbiological risk assessment modelling. Danish surveillance data collected at retail from 2001 to 2010 on numbers of thermotolerant...... providing the most relevant outcome for food safety risk managers....... Campylobacter spp. on Danish produced and imported chilled and frozen broiler meat were the basis for the investigation. The aim was to explore if the risk from the different meat categories had changed over time as a consequence of implemented intervention strategies. The results showed a slight decrease from...

  13. Acquired Methemoglobinaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Al-Lawati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acquired methemoglobinaemia is a relatively rare condition and, therefore infrequently encountered in acute medical practice. Suspicion of the condition may be triggered when the measured PaO2 is ‘out of keeping’ with the oxygen saturations that are discovered with pulse oximetry. We describe two separate cases of acquired methemoglobinaemia secondary to the recreational use of alkyl nitrites (’poppers’. The patients presented at separate times to two different teaching hospitals in London, UK. The similarity of these cases has led the authors to conclude that a raised awareness of this potentially fatal condition, and its association with a widely-available recreational drug, is necessary to ensure a correct and timely diagnosis.

  14. Proteomic and functional analyses of Nelumbo nucifera annexins involved in seed thermotolerance and germination vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Pu; Chen, Huhui; Zhou, Yuliang; Li, Yin; Ding, Yu; Jiang, Liwen; Tsang, Edward W T; Wu, Keqiang; Huang, Shangzhi

    2012-06-01

    Annexins are multifunctional proteins characterized by their capacity to bind calcium ions and negatively charged lipids. Although there is increasing evidence implicating their importance in plant stress responses, their functions in seeds remain to be further studied. In this study, we identified a heat-induced annexin, NnANN1, from the embryonic axes of sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) using comparative proteomics approach. Moreover, the expression of NnANN1 increased considerably in response to high-temperature treatment. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that the transcripts of NnANN1 were detected predominantly during seed development and germination in sacred lotus, implicating a role for NnANN1 in plant seeds. Ectopic expression of NnANN1 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced tolerance to heat stress in transgenic seeds. In addition, compared to the wild-type seeds, transgenic seeds ectopically expressing NnANN1 exhibited improved resistance to accelerated aging treatment used for assessing seed vigor. Furthermore, transgenic seeds showed enhanced peroxidase activities, accompanied with reduced lipid peroxidation and reduced ROS release levels compared to the wild-type seeds. Taken together, these results indicate that NnANN1 plays an important role in seed thermotolerance and germination vigor.

  15. Acquired Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen; Halse, Karianne

    2013-01-01

    Acquired Techniques - a Leap into the Archive, at Aarhus School of Architecture. In collaboration with Karianne Halse, James Martin and Mika K. Friis. Following the footsteps of past travelers this is a journey into tools and techniques of the architectural process. The workshop will focus upon...... architectural production as a conglomerate of various analogue and digital methods, and provide the basics, the tips/tricks - and how the tool themselves becomes operational for spatial/thematic investigations. Eventually, this will become a city, exhibition and phamplet inhabited by the (by...

  16. Heat shock factor 1 prevents the reduction in thrashing due to heat shock in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhashi, Tsubasa; Sakamoto, Kazuichi

    2015-07-01

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) is activated by heat stress and induces the expression of heat shock proteins. However, the role of HSF-1 in thermotolerance remains unclear. We previously reported that heat stress reversibly reduces thrashing movement in Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, we analyzed the function of HSF-1 on thermotolerance by monitoring thrashing movement. hsf-1 RNAi suppressed the restoration of thrashing reduced by heat stress. In contrast, hsf-1 knockdown cancelled prevention of movement reduction in insulin/IGF-1-like growth factor 1 receptor (daf-2) mutant, but didn't suppress thrashing restoration in daf-2 mutant. In addition, hsf-1 RNAi accelerated the reduction of thrashing in heat-shocked wild-type C. elegans. And, daf-16 KO didn't accelerate the reduction of thrashing by heat stress. Taken together, these results suggest that HSF-1 prevents the reduction of thrashing caused by heat shock.

  17. Production of thermotolerant entomopathogenic Isaria fumosorosea SFP-198 conidia in corn-corn oil mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Su; Je, Yeon Ho; Roh, Jong Yul

    2010-04-01

    Low thermotolerance of entomopathogenic fungi is a major impediment to long-term storage and effective application of these biopesticides under seasonal high temperatures. The effects of high temperatures on the viability of an entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea SFP-198 (KCTC 0499BP), produced on different substrates amended with various additives were explored. Ground corn was found to be superior in producing the most thermotolerant conidia compared to yellow soybean, red kidney bean, and rice in a polyethylene bag production system. Using ground corn mixed with corn oil as a substrate resulted in only 7% reduction in germination compared to ground corn alone (67% reduction) after exposure of conidia to 50 degrees C for 2 h. Corn oil as an additive for ground corn was followed by inorganic salts (KCl and NaCl), carbohydrates (sucrose and dextrin), a sugar alcohol (sorbitol), and plant oils (soybean oil and cotton seed oil) in ability to improve conidial thermotolerance. Unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid and oleic acid, the main components of corn oil, served as effective additives for conidial thermotolerance in a dosage-dependent manner, possibly explaining the improvement by corn oil. This finding suggests that the corn-corn oil mixture can be used to produce highly thermotolerant SFP-198 conidia and provides the relation of unsaturated fatty acids as substrates with conidial thermotolerance.

  18. Analysis of gene sequences indicates that quantity not quality of chloroplast small HSPs improves thermotolerance in C4 and CAM plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Samina N; Ul Haq, Noor; Heckathorn, Scott; Luthe, D S

    2012-10-01

    Chloroplast-localized small heat-shock proteins (Cp-sHSP) protect Photosystem II and thylakoid membranes during heat and other stresses, and Cp-sHSP production levels are related to plant thermotolerance. However, to date, a paucity of Cp-sHSP sequences from C4 or CAM species, or from other extremely heat-tolerant species, has precluded an examination to determine if Cp-sHSP genes or proteins might differ among plants with photosynthetic pathways or between heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant species. To investigate this, we isolated and characterized novel Cp-sHSP genes in four plant species: two moderately heat-tolerant C4 species, Spartina alterniflora (monocot) and Amaranthus retroflexus (eudicot), and two very heat-tolerant CAM species, Agave americana (monocot) and Ferocactus wislizenii (eudicot) (respective genes: SasHSP27.12, ArsHSP26.43, AasHSP26.85 and FwsHSP27.52) by PCR-based genome walking and cDNA RACE. Analysis of these Cp-sHSPs has confirmed the presence of conserved domains common to previously examined species. As expected, the transit peptide was found to be the most variable part of these proteins. Promoter analysis of these genes revealed differences in CAM versus C3 and C4 species that were independent of a general difference between monocots and eudicots observed for the entire protein. Heat-induced gene and protein expression indicated that Cp-sHSP protein levels were correlated with thermotolerance of photosynthetic electron transport, and that in most cases protein and transcript levels were correlated. Thus, available evidence indicates little variation in the amino acid sequence of Cp-sHSP mature proteins between heat-sensitive and -tolerant species, but that variation in Cp-sHSP protein production is related to heat tolerance or photosynthetic pathway (CAM vs. C3 and C4) and is driven by promoter differences. Key message We isolated and characterized four novel Cp-sHSP genes with promoters from wild plants, analysis has shown qualitative

  19. The HaDREB2 transcription factor enhances basal thermotolerance and longevity of seeds through functional interaction with HaHSFA9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carranco Raúl

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factor HaDREB2 was identified in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. as a drought-responsive element-binding factor 2 (DREB2 with unique properties. HaDREB2 and the sunflower Heat Shock Factor A9 (HaHSFA9 co-activated the Hahsp17.6G1 promoter in sunflower embryos. Both factors could be involved in transcriptional co-activation of additional small heat stress protein (sHSP promoters, and thus contribute to the HaHSFA9-mediated enhancement of longevity and basal thermotolerance of seeds. Results We found that overexpression of HaDREB2 in seeds did not enhance longevity. This was deduced from assays of basal thermotolerance and controlled seed-deterioration, which were performed with transgenic tobacco. Furthermore, the constitutive overexpression of HaDREB2 did not increase thermotolerance in seedlings or result in the accumulation of HSPs at normal growth temperatures. In contrast, when HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9 were conjointly overexpressed in seeds, we observed positive effects on seed longevity, beyond those observed with overexpression of HaHSFA9 alone. Such additional effects are accompanied by a subtle enhancement of the accumulation of subsets of sHSPs belonging to the CI and CII cytosolic classes. Conclusion Our results reveal the functional interdependency of HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9 in seeds. HaDREB2 differs from other previously characterized DREB2 factors in plants in terms of its unique functional interaction with the seed-specific HaHSFA9 factor. No functional interaction between HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9 was observed when both factors were conjointly overexpressed in vegetative tissues. We therefore suggest that additional, seed-specific factors, or protein modifications, could be required for the functional interaction between HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9.

  20. Thermotolerant Yeasts for Bioethanol Production Using Lignocellulosic Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Chand; Rao, L. Venkateswar

    glucose without a physical and chemical pre-treatment. The pre-treatment processes normally applied on the different substrates are acidic hydrolysis, steam explosion and wet oxidation. A problem for most pretreatment methods is the generation of compounds that are inhibitory towards the fermenting microorganisms, primarily phenols. Degradation products that could have inhibitory action in later fermentation steps are avoided during pre-treatment by wet oxidation. Followed by pre treatment, hydrolysed with enzymes known as cellulases and hemicellulases, which hydrolyse cellulose and hemicellulose respectively. The production of bioethanol requires two steps, fermentation and distillation. Practically all ethanol fermentation is still based on Saccharomyces cerevisiae . The fermentation using thermotolerant yeasts has more advantageous in that they have faster fermentation rates, avoid the cooling costs, and decrease the over all fermentation costs, so that ethanol can be made available at cheaper rates. In addition they can be used for efficient simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose by cellulases because the temperature optimum of cellulase enzymes (about 40 ° C to 45 ° C) is close to the fermentation temperature of thermotolerant yeasts. Hence selection and improvement of thermotolerant yeasts for bioconversion of lignocellulosic substrates is very useful.

  1. Oxygen availability strongly affects chronological lifespan and thermotolerance in batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus M.M. Bisschops

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Stationary-phase (SP batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which growth has been arrested by carbon-source depletion, are widely applied to study chronological lifespan, quiescence and SP-associated robustness. Based on this type of experiments, typically performed under aerobic conditions, several roles of oxygen in aging have been proposed. However, SP in anaerobic yeast cultures has not been investigated in detail. Here, we use the unique capability of S. cerevisiae to grow in the complete absence of oxygen to directly compare SP in aerobic and anaerobic bioreactor cultures. This comparison revealed strong positive effects of oxygen availability on adenylate energy charge, longevity and thermotolerance during SP. A low thermotolerance of anaerobic batch cultures was already evident during the exponential growth phase and, in contrast to the situation in aerobic cultures, was not substantially increased during transition into SP. A combination of physiological and transcriptome analysis showed that the slow post-diauxic growth phase on ethanol, which precedes SP in aerobic, but not in anaerobic cultures, endowed cells with the time and resources needed for inducing longevity and thermotolerance. When combined with literature data on acquisition of longevity and thermotolerance in retentostat cultures, the present study indicates that the fast transition from glucose excess to SP in anaerobic cultures precludes acquisition of longevity and thermotolerance. Moreover, this study demonstrates the importance of a preceding, calorie-restricted conditioning phase in the acquisition of longevity and stress tolerance in SP yeast cultures, irrespective of oxygen availability.

  2. Thermotolerance of human myometrium: implications for minimally invasive uterine therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Aaron C.; Grisez, Brian T.; McMillan, Kathleen; Chill, Nicholas; Harclerode, Tyler P.; Radabaugh, Rebecca; Jones, Ryan M.; Coad, James E.

    2013-02-01

    Endometrial ablation has gained significant clinical acceptance over the last decade as a minimally invasive treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding. To improve upon current thermal injury modeling, it is important to better characterize the myometrium's thermotolerance. The extent of myometrial thermal injury was determined across a spectrum of thermal histories/doses (time-temperature combinations). Fresh extirpated human myometrium was obtained from 13 subjects who underwent a previous scheduled benign hysterectomy. Within two hours of hysterectomy, the unfixed myometrium was treated in a stabilized saline bath with temperatures ranging from 45-70 °C and time intervals from 30- 150 seconds. The time-temperature combinations were selected to simulate treatment times under 2.5 minutes. A total of six such thermal matrices, each comprised of 45 time-temperature combinations, were prepared for evaluation. The treated myometrium was cryosectioned for nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) staining to assess for thermal respiratory enzyme inactivation. Image analysis was subsequently used to quantitatively assess the stained myometrium's capacity to metabolize the tetrazolium at each time-temperature combination. This colorimetric data was then used as marker of cellular viability and determine survival parameters with implications for developing minimally invasive uterine therapies.

  3. Enhanced lipid production in thermo-tolerant mutants of Chlorella pyrenoidosa NCIM 2738.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Neha; Gupta, Ravi Prakash; Mathur, Anshu Shankar; Tuli, Deepak Kumar

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to develop thermo-tolerant mutants of Chlorella pyrenoidosa NCIM 2738 for high lipids production. For this, ethyl methane sulfonate was used, which generated two effective thermo-tolerant mutants, M18 and M24 of Chlorella pyrenoidosa NCIM 2738, capable of surviving at temperature up to 47°C and showing improved lipid and biomass yields. They showed 59.62% and 50.75% increase, respectively in lipid content compared to wild type at 30°C, which could not grow at temperature above 35°C. The novelty of this study lied in incorporation of PAM Flurometry with mutagenesis to generate thermo-tolerant mutants of C. pyrenoidosa and investigating the reasons for increased yields of mutants at cellular and photosynthetic levels with the aim to use them for commercial biodiesel production.

  4. Novel arrangement and comparative analysis of hsp90 family genes in three thermotolerant species of Stratiomyidae (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astakhova, L N; Zatsepina, O G; Przhiboro, A A; Evgen'ev, M B; Garbuz, D G

    2013-06-01

    The heat shock proteins belonging to the Hsp90 family (Hsp83 in Diptera) play a crucial role in the protection of cells due to their chaperoning functions. We sequenced hsp90 genes from three species of the family Stratiomyidae (Diptera) living in thermally different habitats and characterized by extraordinarily high thermotolerance. The sequence variation and structure of the hsp90 family genes were compared with previously described features of hsp70 copies isolated from the same species. Two functional hsp83 genes were found in the species studied, that are arranged in tandem orientation at least in one of them. This organization was not previously described. Stratiomyidae hsp83 genes share a high level of identity with hsp83 of Drosophila, and the deduced protein possesses five conserved amino acid sequence motifs characteristic of the Hsp90 family as well as the C-terminus MEEVD sequence characteristic of the cytosolic isoform. A comparison of the hsp83 promoters of two Stratiomyidae species from thermally contrasting habitats demonstrated that while both species contain canonical heat shock elements in the same position, only one of the species contains functional GAF-binding elements. Our data indicate that in the same species, hsp83 family genes show a higher evolution rate than the hsp70 family.

  5. Acquired platelet function defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquired qualitative platelet disorders; Acquired disorders of platelet function ... blood clotting. Disorders that can cause problems in platelet function include: Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura Chronic myelogenous leukemia Multiple ...

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Kluyveromyces marxianus NBRC1777, a Nonconventional Thermotolerant Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuma, Kentaro; Ishii, Jun; Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Mochizuki, Masao; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-04-23

    We determined the genome sequence of the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus strain NBRC1777. The genome of strain NBRC1777 is composed of 4,912 open reading frames (ORFs) on 8 chromosomes, with a total size of 10,895,581 bp, including mitochondrial DNA.

  7. Bacillus methanolicus sp. nov., a New Species of Thermotolerant, Methanol-Utilizing, Endospore-Forming Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arfman, Nico; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kirchhof, Gudrun; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Schleifer, Karl-Heinz; Bulygina, Eugenia S.; Chumakov, Konstantin M.; Govorukhina, Natalya I.; Trotsenko, Yuri A.; White, Duncan; Sharp, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    The generic position of 14 strains of gram-positive bacteria able to use methanol as a growth substrate was determined. All are obligately aerobic, thermotolerant organisms that are able to grow at temperatures of 35 to 60°C. Nine of the strains produce oval spores at a subterminal-to-central positi

  8. Development of strains of the thermotolerant yeast Hansenula polymorpha capable of alcoholic fermentation of starch and xylan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronovsky, Andriy Y; Rohulya, Olha V; Abbas, Charles A; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2009-01-01

    The thermotolerant yeast Hansenula polymorpha ferments glucose and xylose to ethanol at high temperatures. However, H. polymorpha cannot utilize starchy materials or xylans. Heterologous amylolytic and xylanolytic enzymes have to be expressed in this yeast to provide for utilization and growth on starch and xylan. Genes SWA2 and GAM1 from the yeast Schwanniomyces occidentalis, encoding alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, respectively, were expressed in H. polymorpha. The expression was achieved by integration of the SWA2 and GAM1 genes under the strong constitutive promoter of the H. polymorpha glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (HpGAP) into H. polymorpha genome. Resulting transformants acquired the ability to grow on a minimal medium containing soluble starch as a sole carbon source. Ethanol production at high-temperature fermentation from starch by the recombinant strains was up to 10 g/L. The XYN2 gene encoding endoxylanase of the fungus Trichoderma reseei was expressed in H. polymorpha. Co-expression of xlnD gene coding for beta-xylosidase of the fungus Aspergillus niger and the XYN2 gene in H. polymorpha was achieved by integration of these genes under control of the HpGAP promoter. Resulting transformants were capable of growth and alcoholic fermentation on a minimal medium supplemented with birchwood xylan as a sole carbon source at 48 degrees C.

  9. Enhanced ethanol production from sugarcane juice by galactose adaptation of a newly isolated thermotolerant strain of Pichia kudriavzevii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhaliwal, S.S.; Oberoi, H.S.; Sandhu, S.K.; Nanda, D.; Kumar, D.; Uppal, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    The thermotolerant yeast strain isolated from sugarcane juice through enrichment technique was identified as a strain of Pichiakudriavzevii (Issatchenkiaorientalis) through molecular characterization. The P. kudriavzevii cells adapted to galactose medium produced about 30% more ethanol from sugarcan

  10. AtHsfA2 modulates expression of stress responsive genes and enhances tolerance to heat and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Chunguang; CHEN; Qijun; GAO; Xinqi; QI; Bishu; CHEN; Na

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for considerable interlinking between the responses to heat stress and oxidative stress, and recent researches suggest heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) play an important role in linking heat shock with oxidative stress signals. In this paper, we present evidence that AtHsfA2 modulated expression of stress responsive genes and enhanced tolerance to heat and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis. Using Northern blot and quantitative RT-PCR analysis, we demonstrated that the expression of AtHsfA2 was induced by not only HS but also oxidative stress. By functional analysis of AtHsfA2 knockout mutants and AtHsfA2 overexpressing transgenic plants, we also demonstrated that the mutants displayed reduced the basal and acquired thermotolerance as well as oxidative stress tolerance but the overexpression lines displayed increased tolerance to these stress. The phenotypes correlated with the expression of some Hsps and APX1, ion leakage, H2O2 level and degree of oxidative injuries. These results showed that, by modulated expression of stress responsive genes, AtHsfA2 enhanced tolerance to heat and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis. So we suggest that AtHsfA2 plays an important role in linking heat shock with oxidative stress signals.

  11. Isolation of thermo-tolerant and high lipid content green microalgae: oil accumulation is predominantly controlled by photosystem efficiency during stress treatments in Desmodesmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yi-Ying; Wang, Suz-Ting; Chuang, Lu-Te; Chang, Yen-Wei; Chen, Ching-Nen Nathan

    2011-11-01

    Discoveries of new microalgae with thermo-tolerance, high growth rate, and high lipid content are crucial to algal biodiesel production in tropical and subtropical zones. Four new green microalgae were isolated in southern Taiwan. All four species are members of the genus Desmodesmus under the family Scenedesmaceae based on molecular and morphological analyses. Two of the four species survived at 45 °C for 24 h, with 5-13% of mortality rates caused by the heat. Total lipid contents of the two species reached over 50% in dry biomass under nitrogen starvation, and their triacylglycerols constituted around 75% of the total lipids. Thus the two species are good potential feedstocks for biodiesel production. Oil accumulation in the four species positively correlates with their photosystem II efficiencies during stress treatments (R2=0.90). This finding further supports that photosynthesis is essential for oil body formation under nitrogen starvation in green microalgae.

  12. Comparison of thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli densities in freshwater bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elayse M. Hachich

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fecal bacterial indicator analyses have been widely used for monitoring the water quality. This study was designed to determine the ratio between the density of Escherichia coli and other Thermotolerant Coliforms (TtC bacteria from freshwater samples collected for a two-year period of monitoring. TtC were enumerated by membrane filtration on mFC agar. E. coli enumeration was done by two methods: TtC colonies identified in mFC were inoculated in EC-MUG or water samples were filtered and inoculated in modified mTEC agar media, and both methods were compared for quantitative recovery of E. coli. The results pointed out a mean percentage of E. coli among other thermotolerant coliforms (E. coli/TtC ratio of 84.3% in mFC media. Taking these results into account, a mandatory standard of 1000 thermotolerant coliforms would correspond to 800 E. coli and the adoption of these E. coli based standards will represent a major improvement for the monitoring of freshwater quality.

  13. Screening of thermotolerant and thermophilic fungi aiming β-xylosidase and arabinanase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Machado Benassi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell wall is mainly composed by cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The heterogeneous structure and composition of the hemicellulose are key impediments to its depolymerization and subsequent use in fermentation processes. Thus, this study aimed to perform a screening of thermophilic and thermotolerant filamentous fungi collected from different regions of the São Paulo state, and analyze the production of β-xylosidase and arabinanase at different temperatures. These enzymes are important to cell wall degradation and synthesis of end products as xylose and arabinose, respectively, which are significant sugars to fermentation and ethanol production. A total of 12 fungal species were analyzed and 9 of them grew at 45 ºC, suggesting a thermophilic or thermotolerant character. Additionally Aspergillus thermomutatus anamorph of Neosartorya and A. parasiticus grew at 50 ºC. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus thermomutatus were the filamentous fungi with the most expressive production of β-xylosidase and arabinanase, respectively. In general for most of the tested microorganisms, β-xylosidase and arabinanase activities from mycelial extract (intracellular form were higher in cultures grown at high temperatures (35-40 ºC, while the correspondent extracellular activities were favorably secreted from cultures at 30 ºC. This study contributes to catalogue isolated fungi of the state of São Paulo, and these findings could be promising sources for thermophilic and thermotolerant microorganisms, which are industrially important due to their enzymes.

  14. Resistance to heat radiosensitization and protein damage in thermotolerant and thermoresistant cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampinga, HH; Konings, AWT; Evers, AJ; Brunsting, JF; Misfud, N; Anderson, RL

    1997-01-01

    Recently, randomized phase III trials have indicated that hyperthermia combined with radiation leads to significantly better tumour control of certain malignancies than does radiotherapy alone. Yet, the full capacity of such combined treatments might not have been optimally exploited as in vitro dat

  15. Genome-wide identification, classification, and analysis of heat shock transcription factor family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X Y; Tao, P; Li, B Y; Wang, W H; Yue, Z C; Lei, J L; Zhong, X M

    2015-03-27

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide, and various methods exist for selection, propagation, and cultivation. The entire Chinese cabbage genome has been sequenced, and the heat shock transcription factor family (Hsfs) has been found to play a central role in plant growth and development and in the response to biotic and abiotic stress conditions, particularly in acquired thermotolerance. We analyzed heat tolerance mechanisms in Chinese cabbage. In this study, 30 Hsfs were identified from the Chinese cabbage genome database. The classification, phylogenetic reconstruction, chromosome distribution, conserved motifs, expression analysis, and interaction networks of the Hsfs were predicted and analyzed. Thirty BrHsfs were classified into 3 major classes (class A, B, and C) according to their structural characteristics and phylogenetic comparisons, and class A was further subdivided into 8 subclasses. Distribution mapping results showed that Hsf genes were located on 10 Chinese cabbage chromosomes. The expression profile indicated that Hsfs play differential roles in 5 organs in Chinese cabbage, and likely participate in the development of underground parts and regulation of reproductive growth. An orthologous gene interaction network was constructed, and included MBF1C, ROF1, TBP2, CDC2, and HSP70 5 genes, which are closely related to heat stress. Our results contribute to the understanding of the complexity of Hsfs in Chinese cabbage and provide a basis for further functional gene research.

  16. Performance of a Heating Block System Designed for Studying the Heat Resistance of Bacteria in Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiao-Xi; Li, Rui; Hou, Li-Xia; Huang, Zhi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shao-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of bacteria’s heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria’s heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample’s thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller. Distilled water, apple juice, mashed potato, almond powder and beef were selected to evaluate the HBS’s performance by experiment and computer simulation. The results showed that the heating rates of 1, 5 and 10 °C/min with final set-point temperatures and holding times could be easily and precisely achieved in five selected food materials. A good agreement in sample central temperature profiles was obtained under various heating rates between experiment and simulation. The experimental and simulated results showed that the HBS could provide a sufficiently uniform heating environment in food samples. The effect of heating rate on bacterial thermal resistance was evaluated with the HBS. The system may hold potential applications for rapid and accurate assessments of bacteria’s thermo-tolerances.

  17. Performance of a Heating Block System Designed for Studying the Heat Resistance of Bacteria in Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiao-Xi; Li, Rui; Hou, Li-Xia; Huang, Zhi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shao-Jin

    2016-07-28

    Knowledge of bacteria's heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria's heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample's thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller. Distilled water, apple juice, mashed potato, almond powder and beef were selected to evaluate the HBS's performance by experiment and computer simulation. The results showed that the heating rates of 1, 5 and 10 °C/min with final set-point temperatures and holding times could be easily and precisely achieved in five selected food materials. A good agreement in sample central temperature profiles was obtained under various heating rates between experiment and simulation. The experimental and simulated results showed that the HBS could provide a sufficiently uniform heating environment in food samples. The effect of heating rate on bacterial thermal resistance was evaluated with the HBS. The system may hold potential applications for rapid and accurate assessments of bacteria's thermo-tolerances.

  18. Bioprospecting thermotolerant ethanologenic yeasts for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation from diverse environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Jairam; Singh, Surender; Nain, Lata

    2017-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass, a promising renewable energy source, can be used for the production of second generation bioethanol. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), the process which alleviates the problem of separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), requires thermotolerant ethanologenic yeast for bioethanol production. Therefore, ten yeast strains isolated from diverse sources, belonging to various genera like Saccharomyces, Candida, Pichia and Wickerhamomyces were evaluated for their thermotolerance, sugar utilization pattern, inhibitor tolerance and ethanol production potential with glucose, xylose and alkali pretreated paddy straw. All the tested strains were found to be thermotolerant, capable of significant growth at 40°C. Candida tropicalis Y6 was capable of utilizing a wide range of sugars as compared with other yeast isolates. Strains of Candida showed better inhibitor tolerance as compared to Saccharomyces and Pichia strains and exhibited only 5.1-18.8% and 4.7-7.9% reduction in growth with furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, respectively. Saccharomyces cerevisiae JRC6, isolated from distillery waste, produced ethanol with 88.3% and 89.1% theoretical efficiency at 40°C and 42°C, respectively, from glucose. This strain also produced significantly higher amount of ethanol (3.8 g/L) with better fermentation efficiency (87.9%) from alkali pretreated paddy straw at 40°C, as compared with the other yeast strains. Therefore, S. cerevisiae JRC6, based on its ability to ferment sugars at a higher temperature, can be a promising candidate for production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass via SSF process.

  19. Acquired inflammatory demyelinating neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensrud, E R; Krivickas, L S

    2001-05-01

    The acquired demyelinating neuropathies can be divided into those with an acute onset and course and those with a more chronic course. The acute neuropathies present as Guillain-Barré syndrome and include acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP), Miller Fisher syndrome, acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN), and acute pandysautonomia. The chronic neuropathies are collectively known as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and include MADSAM (multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy, also know as Lewis-Sumner syndrome) and DADS (distal acquired demyelinating symmetric neuropathy) as variants. The clinical features, pathology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and prognosis of these neuropathies are discussed.

  20. Decolorization of alcohol distillery wastewater by thermotolerant white-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chairattanamanokorn, P; Imai, T; Kondo, R; Sekine, M; Higuchi, T; Ukita, M

    2005-01-01

    To detect thermotolerant fungus strain for decolorization of alcohol distillery wastewater (WAD), 38 fungus strains were studied. Ability of ligninolytic enzyme production was examined at 35 and 43 degrees C on agar media containing 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and MnCl2. At 43 degrees C, four of Pycnoporus coccineus strains showed their higher potential for WAD decolorization both on agar media and in liquid media. Immobilized mycelia on polyurethane foam removed total phenol about threefold higher than free mycelia did in shaking condition at 43 degrees C. Moreover, color removed by immobilized mycelia nearly 50% higher than free mycelia did.

  1. Screening, Identification and Antibacterial Activities of Effective Thermotolerant Bacillus spp. Strains Isolated from Raw Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannikar SANTONG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one isolates of Bacillus species were isolated from raw milk, analyzed using the spot on lawn and agar diffusion method in terms of their general inhibition effects to test bacteria (Escherichia coli TISTR 887 and Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 517. The results demonstrated that most isolates are effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria whereas their extensive inhibition effect is particularly against Gram-positive bacteria. Only 2 effective thermotolerant isolates, BA8 and BA16, exerted broad spectrum antibacterial activities against both test bacteria.  Based on biochemical and physiological properties, they were classified as Brevibacillus laterosporus and Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius, respectively.

  2. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tends to be more serious than other lung infections because: People in the hospital are often very sick and cannot fight off ... prevent pneumonia. Most hospitals have programs to prevent hospital-acquired infections.

  3. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  4. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  5. Thermo-tolerant phosphate-solubilizing microbes for multi-functional biofertilizer preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Hsiung; Yang, Shang-Shyng

    2009-02-01

    In order to prepare the multi-functional biofertilizer, thermo-tolerant phosphate-solubilizing microbes including bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi were isolated from different compost plants and biofertilizers. Except Streptomycesthermophilus J57 which lacked pectinase, all isolates possessed amylase, CMCase, chitinase, pectinase, protease, lipase, and nitrogenase activities. All isolates could solubilize calcium phosphate and Israel rock phosphate; various isolates could solubilize aluminum phosphate, iron phosphate, and hydroxyapatite. During composting, biofertilizers inoculated with the tested microbes had a significantly higher temperature, ash content, pH, total nitrogen, soluble phosphorus content, and germination rate than non-inoculated biofertilizer; total organic carbon and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio showed the opposite pattern. Adding these microbes can shorten the period of maturity, improve the quality, increase the soluble phosphorus content, and enhance the populations of phosphate-solubilizing and proteolytic microbes in biofertilizers. Therefore, inoculating thermo-tolerant phosphate-solubilizing microbes into agricultural and animal wastes represents a practical strategy for preparing multi-functional biofertilizer.

  6. Production of Bioethanol from Carrot Pomace Using the Thermotolerant Yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kow-Jen Duan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carrot pomace, a major agricultural waste from the juice industry, was used as a feedstock for bioethanol production by fermentation with the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. Treatment of the carrot pomace with AccelleraseTM 1000 and pectinase at 50 °C for 84 h, resulted in conversion of 42% of its mass to fermentable sugars, mainly glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF at 42 °C was performed on 10% (w/v carrot pomace; the concentration of ethanol reached 18 g/L and the yield of ethanol from carrot pomace was 0.18 g/g. The highest ethanol concentration of 37 g/L was observed with an additional charge of 10% supplemented to the original 10% of carrot pomace after 12 h; the corresponding yield was 0.185 g/g. Our results clearly demonstrated the potential of combining a SSF process with thermotolerant yeast for the production of bioethanol using carrot pomace as a feedstock.

  7. Production of Bioethanol from Carrot Pomace Using the Thermotolerant Yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi-Yang Yu; Bo-Hong Jiang; Kow-Jen Duan [Tatung University, Tapei, Taiwan (China). Department of Bioengineering

    2013-03-15

    Carrot pomace, a major agricultural waste from the juice industry, was used as a feedstock for bioethanol production by fermentation with the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. Treatment of the carrot pomace with Accellerase(TM) 1000 and pectinase at 50 °C for 84 h, resulted in conversion of 42% of its mass to fermentable sugars, mainly glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 42 °C was performed on 10% (w/v) carrot pomace; the concentration of ethanol reached 18 g/L and the yield of ethanol from carrot pomace was 0.18 g/g. The highest ethanol concentration of 37 g/L was observed with an additional charge of 10% supplemented to the original 10% of carrot pomace after 12 h; the corresponding yield was 0.185 g/g. Our results clearly demonstrated the potential of combining a SSF process with thermotolerant yeast for the production of bioethanol using carrot pomace as a feedstock.

  8. Thermotolerant Acanthamoeba spp. isolated from therapeutic hot springs in Northwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solgi, Rahmat; Niyyati, Maryam; Haghighi, Ali; Taghipour, Niloofar; Tabaei, Seyyed Javad Seyyed; Eftekhar, Mohamad; Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ehsan

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted to address the distribution of Acanthamoeba genotypes in therapeutic hot springs in Iran. Sixty water and sediment samples were collected from bicarbonate, sulphur, and sodium chloride thermal springs in the northwest. All hot springs examined are used mainly for health purposes in Iran. Acanthamoeba were identified by both morphology and PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Genotype identification was based on the sequencing of a highly variable and informative region of Diagnostic Fragment 3 (stem 29-1 of 18S rRNA gene) within Acanthamoeba-specific amplimer (ASA.S1). Twenty percent of hot springs were contaminated with thermotolerant Acanthamoeba belonging to the potentially pathogenic T4 and T3 genotypes. A high number (91.7%) of strains showed growth at 37 °C, and eight isolates showed growth at 42 °C. A single isolate (HSNW2) was detected in waters at 70 °C. The presence of thermotolerant Acanthamoeba highlights a risk factor for susceptible individuals, as Acanthamoeba-related keratitis continues to rise in Iran. Periodic surveillance of thermal waters as well as improved filtration and disinfection is recommended to prevent disease related to pathogenic Acanthamoeba. This is the first comprehensive molecular study of Acanthamoeba genotypes in hot springs in Iran and the first to report the occurrence of the T3 genotype (corresponding to Acanthamoeba griffini) in thermal water sources in this country.

  9. Salinity modulates thermotolerance, energy metabolism and stress response in amphipods Gammarus lacustris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniya P. Vereshchagina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and salinity are important abiotic factors for aquatic invertebrates. We investigated the influence of different salinity regimes on thermotolerance, energy metabolism and cellular stress defense mechanisms in amphipods Gammarus lacustris Sars from two populations. We exposed amphipods to different thermal scenarios and determined their survival as well as activity of major antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and parameters of energy metabolism (content of glucose, glycogen, ATP, ADP, AMP and lactate. Amphipods from a freshwater population were more sensitive to the thermal challenge, showing higher mortality during acute and gradual temperature change compared to their counterparts from a saline lake. A more thermotolerant population from a saline lake had high activity of antioxidant enzymes. The energy limitations of the freshwater population (indicated by low baseline glucose levels, downward shift of the critical temperature of aerobic metabolism and inability to maintain steady-state ATP levels during warming was observed, possibly reflecting a trade-off between the energy demands for osmoregulation under the hypo-osmotic condition of a freshwater environment and protection against temperature stress.

  10. Electron Microscopic Analysis and Biochemical Characterization of a Novel Methanol Dehydrogenase from the Thermotolerant Bacillus sp. C1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonck, Janet; Arfman, Nico; Vries, Gert E. de; Beeumen, Jozef van; Bruggen, Ernst F.J. van; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    1991-01-01

    Methanol dehydrogenase from the thermotolerant Bacillus sp. C1 was studied by electron microscopy and image processing. Two main projections can be distinguished: one exhibits 5-fold symmetry and has a diameter of 15 nm, the other is rectangular with sides of 15 and 9 nm. Subsequent image processing

  11. BACILLUS-METHANOLICUS SP-NOV, A NEW SPECIES OF THERMOTOLERANT, METHANOL-UTILIZING, ENDOSPORE-FORMING BACTERIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ARFMAN, N; DIJKHUIZEN, L; KIRCHHOF, G; LUDWIG, W; SCHLEIFER, KH; BULYGINA, ES; CHUMAKOV, KM; GOVORUKHINA, NI; TROTSENKO, YA; WHITE, D; SHARP, RJ

    1992-01-01

    The generic position of 14 strains of gram-positive bacteria able to use methanol as a growth substrate was determined. All are obligately aerobic, thermotolerant organisms that are able to grow at temperatures of 35 to 60-degrees-C. Nine of the strains produce oval spores at a subterminal-to-centra

  12. Validation of a PCR-based method for detection of food-borne thermotolerant Campylobacters in a multicenter collaborative trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Cook, N.; D'Agostino, M.;

    2004-01-01

    A PCR-based method for rapid detection of food-borne thermotolerant campylobacters was evaluated through a collaborative trial with 12 laboratories testing spiked carcass rinse samples. The method showed an interlaboratory diagnostic sensitivity of 96.7% and a diagnostic specificity of 100% for c...

  13. Yes-associated protein homolog, YAP-1, is involved in the thermotolerance and aging in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasa, Hiroaki [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Maimaiti, Sainawaer [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Department of Psychotherapy, The Fourth People' s Hospital of Urumqi, Urumqi 830000 (China); Kuroyanagi, Hidehito [Laboratory of Gene Expression, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Kawano, Shodai; Inami, Kazutoshi; Timalsina, Shikshya; Ikeda, Mitsunobu; Nakagawa, Kentaro [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Hata, Yutaka, E-mail: yuhammch@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan)

    2013-04-15

    The mammalian Hippo pathway comprises mammalian Ste20-like kinases (MST1/2) and large tumor suppressor kinases (LATS1/2). LATS1/2, which are activated by MST1/2, phosphorylate a transcriptional co-activator, yes-associated protein (YAP), and induce the recruitment of YAP by 14-3-3 to cytoplasm, so that the TEAD-dependent gene transcriptions are turned off. Although the core components of the Hippo pathway are well conserved in metazoans, it has been discussed that Caenorhabditis elegans lacks YAP ortholog, we found that F13E6.4 gene encodes a protein that shows sequence similarities to YAP in the N-terminal TEAD-binding domain and in the WW domain. We designated this gene as yap-1. YAP-1 is widely expressed in various cells such as epithelial cells, muscles, hypodermal cells, gonadal sheath cells, spermatheca, and hypodermal cells. YAP-1 is distributed in cytoplasm and nuclei. wts-1 (LATS ortholog) and ftt-2 (14-3-3 ortholog) knockdowns cause nuclear accumulation of YAP-1, supporting that the subcellular localization of YAP-1 is regulated in a similar way as that of YAP. Heat shock also causes the nuclear accumulation of YAP-1 but after heat shock, YAP-1 translocates to cytoplasm. Knockdowns of DAF-21 (HSP90 ortholog) and HSF-1block the nuclear export of YAP-1 during this recovery. YAP-1 overexpression is beneficial for thermotolerance, whereas YAP-1 hyperactivity induced by wts-1 and ftt-2 knockdowns is deleterious on thermal response and yap-1 deficiency promotes health aging. In short, YAP-1 partially shares basal characters with mammalian YAP and plays a role in thermal stress response and healthy aging. - Highlights: ► We named Caenorhabditis elegans F13E6.4 gene yap-1 as a putative YAP homolog. ► The localization of YAP-1 is regulated by WTS-1 and FTT-2. ► YAP-1 is involved in healthy aging and thermosensitivity.

  14. Acquired cutis laxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaliar S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A 13-yeat-old male patient born of non consanguineous marriage with history of recurrent urticaria and angioedema for the past 2 years presented with wrinkling and laxity of the skin over the face, axilla and abdomen. Histopathology was consistent with cutis laxa. We are reporting a rare case of acquired cutis laxa due to recurrent urticaria.

  15. Acquired cutis laxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaliar S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-yeat-old male patient born of non consanguineous marriage with history of recurrent urticaria and angioedema for the past 2 years presented with wrinkling and laxity of the skin over the face, axilla and abdomen. Histopathology was consistent with cutis laxa. We are reporting a rare case of acquired cutis laxa due to recurrent urticaria.

  16. Blood heat shock proteins evoked by some Salmonella strains infection in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kamelia; Ibrahim, Ihab; Yousef, Ashgan; Nabil, Tanios; Nayerah, Alatfeehy

    2012-05-01

    Bacterial heat-shock response is a global regulatory system required for effective adaptation to changes (stress) in the environment. An in vitro study was conducted to investigate the impact of a sublethal temperature (42°C) on heat shock protein (HSP) expression in 6 Salmonella strains (Salmonella Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, S. Virchow, S. Shubra, S. Haifa and S. Eingedi). The 6 Salmonella strains were isolated from the tissues of ducklings that had died from avian salmonellosis. To determine the induction of HSP in the 6 Salmonella strains, they were exposed to the selected temperature level for 24 h and further kept for 48 h at culturing condition of 42°C. Growth under a sublethal temperature of 42°C increased the expression of several proteins of Salmonella, including a 63 kDa protein in addition to the generation and/or overexpression of 143 proteins which were specific to heat shock, concurrent to this acquired thermotolerance. The 6 Salmonella strains responded to 24 h of thermal stress at an elevated temperature 42°C by synthesizing different heat shock proteins (HSP) with molecular weights ranging between 13.62 and 96.61 kDa. At 48 h, the 6 Salmonella strains synthesized different HSPs with molecular weights ranging between 14.53 and 103.43 kDa. It follows that salmonellae would produce HSPs during the course of the infectious process. Salmonellosis produced several proteins after 24 and 48 h of infection. Seven of these proteins (100, 80, 60, 40, 30, 20 and 10 kDa) were recognized in the serum obtained from the ducklings infected with S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, S. Virchow, S. Shubra, S. Haifa and S. Eingedi after 24 h of infection. After 48 h, the 1-7 kDa HSP became more evident and indicated their de novo generation.

  17. Acquired methemoglobinemia in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Mutlu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine the etiologic factors of acquired methemoglobinemia in infants younger than three months in our region. Material and Methods: This study was carried out retrospectively in infants with methemoglobinemia admitted to Karadeniz Technical University, Pediatric Clinic, during the period 2000-2009. Infants with methemoglobinemia were identified according to the medical records or ICD-10 code. Results: Nine infants with acquired methemoglobinemia (8 male, 1 female were included in the study. Seven cases were associated with the use of prilocaine for circumcision, one case with the use of prilocaine-lidocaine for local pain therapy, and one case with neonatal sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus.Conclusion: Prilocaine should not be used in infants less than three months of age because of the risk of methemoglobinemia. Ascorbic acid is an effective therapy if methylene blue is not obtained. It should not be forgotten that sepsis caused by S. aureus may cause methemoglobinemia in infants.

  18. Acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pramod

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired hypertirichosis lanuginose developed rapidly in a patient with no detectable malignancy. Soft, fine, downy hair growth was noticed on the face, ears, limbs and trunk. Bilaterally symmetrical vitiliginous macules were present on the ear and preauricular region. This case is reported because of its rarity, absence of any detectable malignancy and development of vitiligo, which to our knowledge has not been reported earlier.

  19. Understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in crossbred bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Rajib; Sajjanar, Basavaraj; Singh, Umesh; Alex, Rani; Raja, T. V.; Alyethodi, Rafeeque R.; Kumar, Sushil; Sengar, Gyanendra; Sharma, Sheetal; Singh, Rani; Prakash, B.

    2015-12-01

    Na+/K+-ATPase is an integral membrane protein composed of a large catalytic subunit (alpha), a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta), and gamma subunit. The beta subunit is essential for ion recognition as well as maintenance of the membrane integrity. Present study was aimed to analyze the expression pattern of ATPase beta subunit genes (ATPase B1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3) among the crossbred bulls under different ambient temperatures (20-44 °C). The present study was also aimed to look into the relationship of HSP70 with the ATPase beta family genes. Our results demonstrated that among beta family genes, transcript abundance of ATPase B1 and ATPase B2 is significantly ( P P < 0.01) with HSP70, representing that the change in the expression pattern of these genes is positive and synergistic. These may provide a foundation for understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in cattle.

  20. High alcohol production by solid substrate fermentation from starchy substrates using thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sree, N.K.; Sridhar, M.; Suresh, K.; Rao, L.V. [Department of Microbiology, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500007, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    1999-06-01

    Solid Substrate Fermentation system (SSF) was used to produce ethanol from various starchy substrates like sweet sorghum, sweet potato, wheat flour, rice starch, soluble starch and potato starch using thermotolerant yeast isolate (VS{sub 3}) by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process. Alcohol produced was estimated by gas chromatography after an incubation time of 96 hrs at 37 C and 42 C. More ethanol was produced from rice starch and sweet sorghum. The maximum amount of ethanol produced from these substrates using VS{sub 3} was 10 g/100 g and 3.5 g/100 g substrate (rice starch) and 8.2 g and 7.5 g/100 g substrate (sweet sorghum) at 37 C and 42 C respectively. (orig.) With 2 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs.

  1. Pigment production by a new thermotolerant microalga Coelastrella sp. F50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Che-Wei; Chuang, Lu-Te; Yu, Po-Chien; Chen, Ching-Nen Nathan

    2013-06-15

    Microalgae are good crops to produce natural pigments because of their high growth rates. Tropical zones are better locations than temperate areas for microalgal cultivation because they have longer duration of daylight and more stable temperatures throughout the year, but the high temperatures pose a challenge to microalgal cultivation. A newly isolated thermotolerant microalga produces reddish pigments under environmental stress. Morphological and molecular evidence including meridional ribs on the cell wall, pigment production, and its 18S rDNA sequence suggests that this microalga belongs to the genus Coelastrella. Salt stress and high light intensity accelerated biosynthesis of the pigments, and significant quantities of oil accumulated as the cells experienced stress due to nutrient deficiency. This microalga could withstand temperature of 50°C for more than 8h, which is a necessary trait for outdoor cultivation in tropical areas. The pigments contain astaxanthin, lutein, canthaxanthin, and β-carotene as analysed by using HPLC.

  2. Deletion of a KU80 homolog enhances homologous recombination in the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Jin Ho; Han, Changpyo; Kim, Jae-Young; Kang, Hyun Ah

    2014-10-01

    Targeted gene replacement in the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus KCTC 17555 has been hampered by its propensity to non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). To enhance homologous recombination (HR) by blocking NHEJ, we identified and disrupted the K. marxianus KU80 gene. The ku80 deletion mutant strain (Kmku80∆) of K. marxianus KCTC 17555 did not show apparent growth defects under several conditions with the exception of exposure to tunicamycin. The targeted disruption of the three model genes, KmLEU2, KmPDC1, and KmPDC5, was increased by 13-70 % in Kmku80∆, although the efficiency was greatly affected by the length of the homologous flanking fragments. In contrast, the double HR frequency was 0-13.7 % in the wild-type strain even with flanking fragments 1 kb long. Therefore, Kmku80∆ promises to be a useful recipient strain for targeted gene manipulation.

  3. The effect of slaughter operations on the contamination of chicken carcasses with thermotolerant Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Nielsen, Niels L.;

    2006-01-01

    concentration of 0.5 log(10) cfu/g in average, whereas no significant changes were observed during this operation in Plant II. Air chilling (Plant 1) and water chilling (Plant 11), both including a carcass wash prior to the chilling operation, caused similar, but significant reductions of 0.83 and 0.97 log(10......) cfu/g, respectively. In packed frozen chickens (Plant II) an additional reduction of 1.38 log(10) cfu/g in average was obtained due to the freezing operation. In packed chilled chickens (Plant 1), however, the number of thermotolerant Campylobacter per gram remained at the same level as after air......) and had intestinal mean counts ranging from 6.65 to 8.20 log(10) cfu/g. A correlation between Campylobacter concentrations in intestinal content and on chicken carcasses after the defeathering operation was documented. This finding indicates that a reduction in the Campylobacter concentration on chicken...

  4. Tuning Chocolate Flavor through Development of Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Starter Cultures with Increased Acetate Ester Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Struyf, Nore; Paulus, Tinneke; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Allegaert, Leen; Vrancken, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Microbial starter cultures have extensively been used to enhance the consistency and efficiency of industrial fermentations. Despite the advantages of such controlled fermentations, the fermentation involved in the production of chocolate is still a spontaneous process that relies on the natural microbiota at cocoa farms. However, recent studies indicate that certain thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures can be used as starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentation. In this study, we investigate the potential of specifically developed starter cultures to modulate chocolate aroma. Specifically, we developed several new S. cerevisiae hybrids that combine thermotolerance and efficient cocoa pulp fermentation with a high production of volatile flavor-active esters. In addition, we investigated the potential of two strains of two non-Saccharomyces species that produce very large amounts of fruity esters (Pichia kluyveri and Cyberlindnera fabianii) to modulate chocolate aroma. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the cocoa liquor revealed an increased concentration of various flavor-active esters and a decrease in spoilage-related off-flavors in batches inoculated with S. cerevisiae starter cultures and, to a lesser extent, in batches inoculated with P. kluyveri and Cyb. fabianii. Additionally, GC-MS analysis of chocolate samples revealed that while most short-chain esters evaporated during conching, longer and more-fat-soluble ethyl and acetate esters, such as ethyl octanoate, phenylethyl acetate, ethyl phenylacetate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl dodecanoate, remained almost unaffected. Sensory analysis by an expert panel confirmed significant differences in the aromas of chocolates produced with different starter cultures. Together, these results show that the selection of different yeast cultures opens novel avenues for modulating chocolate flavor. PMID:26590272

  5. Screening of thermotolerant microorganisms and application for oil separation from palm oil mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aran H-Kittikun

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of palm oil mill wastewater (POMW were brown color, pH 3.8-4.3, temperature 48-55oC, total solids 68.2-82.1 g/l, suspended solids 26.2-65.6 g/l, oil and grease 19.1-25.1 g/l, COD 49.9-160.7g/l and BOD 32.5-75.3 g/l. After centrifugation (3,184 xg of 50 ml POMW for 10 min, the POMW was separated into 3 layers: top (oil, middle (supernatant and bottom layer (sediment. The sediment containeddry weight 1.19 g and oil and grease 1.07 g. In order to release oil and grease trapped in palm fiber debris in the POMW, cellulase- and/or xylanase-enzyme-producing and thermotolerant microorganisms wereisolated. The isolates SO1 and SO2 were isolated from soil near the first anaerobic pond of the palm oil mill. They were aerobic, Gram positive, rod shaped, thermotolerant microorganisms and produced cellulase 12.11 U/ml (3 days and 7.2 U/ml (4 days, and xylanase 50.98 U/ml (4 days and 20.42 U/ml (4 days, respectivelyin synthetic medium containing carboxymethycellulose as a carbon source. When these 2 isolates were added into the steriled POMW under shaking condition for 7 days, after centrifugation at 3,184 xg the isolate SO1gave the better % reduction of dry weight (64.66 % and of oil and grease in the bottom layer (85.32 % of the POMW.

  6. Tuning Chocolate Flavor through Development of Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Starter Cultures with Increased Acetate Ester Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Struyf, Nore; Paulus, Tinneke; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Allegaert, Leen; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-11-20

    Microbial starter cultures have extensively been used to enhance the consistency and efficiency of industrial fermentations. Despite the advantages of such controlled fermentations, the fermentation involved in the production of chocolate is still a spontaneous process that relies on the natural microbiota at cocoa farms. However, recent studies indicate that certain thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures can be used as starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentation. In this study, we investigate the potential of specifically developed starter cultures to modulate chocolate aroma. Specifically, we developed several new S. cerevisiae hybrids that combine thermotolerance and efficient cocoa pulp fermentation with a high production of volatile flavor-active esters. In addition, we investigated the potential of two strains of two non-Saccharomyces species that produce very large amounts of fruity esters (Pichia kluyveri and Cyberlindnera fabianii) to modulate chocolate aroma. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the cocoa liquor revealed an increased concentration of various flavor-active esters and a decrease in spoilage-related off-flavors in batches inoculated with S. cerevisiae starter cultures and, to a lesser extent, in batches inoculated with P. kluyveri and Cyb. fabianii. Additionally, GC-MS analysis of chocolate samples revealed that while most short-chain esters evaporated during conching, longer and more-fat-soluble ethyl and acetate esters, such as ethyl octanoate, phenylethyl acetate, ethyl phenylacetate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl dodecanoate, remained almost unaffected. Sensory analysis by an expert panel confirmed significant differences in the aromas of chocolates produced with different starter cultures. Together, these results show that the selection of different yeast cultures opens novel avenues for modulating chocolate flavor.

  7. Enhancement of reproductive heat tolerance in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Burke

    Full Text Available Comparison of average crop yields with reported record yields has shown that major crops exhibit annual average yields three- to seven-fold lower than record yields because of unfavorable environments. The current study investigated the enhancement of pollen heat tolerance through expressing an Arabidopsis thaliana heat shock protein 101 (AtHSP101 that is not normally expressed in pollen but reported to play a crucial role in vegetative thermotolerance. The AtHSP101 construct under the control of the constitutive ocs/mas 'superpromoter' was transformed into cotton Coker 312 and tobacco SRI lines via Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Thermotolerance of pollen was evaluated by in vitro pollen germination studies. Comparing with those of wild type and transgenic null lines, pollen from AtHSP101 transgenic tobacco and cotton lines exhibited significantly higher germination rate and much greater pollen tube elongation under elevated temperatures or after a heat exposure. In addition, significant increases in boll set and seed numbers were also observed in transgenic cotton lines exposed to elevated day and night temperatures in both greenhouse and field studies. The results of this study suggest that enhancing heat tolerance of reproductive tissues in plant holds promise in the development of crops with improved yield production and yield sustainability in unfavorable environments.

  8. Acquired von Willebrand Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭涛

    2005-01-01

    @@ Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AvWS) is kind of bleeding disorder with laboratory findings similar to those in congenital yon Willebrand disease (vWD).AvWS doesn's have any personal or family history of bleeding, but is associated with certain diseases or abnormal conditions or drugs. Although AvWS is being stated as a rare disease, it has gained more and more attention during the past years. Not because of the severity of the disease, but it is more common than we thought and most patients don' t have a proper diagnosis.

  9. Acquired hyperostosis syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dihlmann, W.; Hering, L.; Bargon, G.W.

    1988-10-01

    Sterno-costo-clavicular hyperostosis (SCCH) is the most common manifestation of a syndrome, consisting of increased bone metabolism, mostly new bone formation and heterotopic ossification of fibrous tissue, which we have characterised as the acquired hyperostosis syndrome. In part I we discuss the terminology, radiological appearances, scintigraphy, clinical and laboratory findings, bacteriology, histology, nosology, complications, treatment and differential diagnosis of SCCH. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is regarded as a phaenotype of SCCH, depending on the age. CRMO occurs in children, adolescents and young adults, SCCH predominantly in middleaged and elderly adults.

  10. "Ready to Acquire"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yetton, Philip; Henningsson, Stefan; Bjørn-Andersen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of Danisco (a global food ingredients company) as it followed a growth-by-acquisition business strategy, focusing on how a new CIO built the IT resources to ensure the IT organization was "ready to acquire." We illustrate how these IT capabilities expedited...... the IT integration following two acquisitions, one of which involved Danisco expanding the scale of its business and the other extending the scope. Based on insights gained from Danisco, we provide lessons for CIOs to realize business benefits when managing post-acquisition IT integration....

  11. Prior storage conditions influence the destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during heating of apple cider and juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, S C; Uljas, H E

    1998-04-01

    In apple beverage manufacture, cider and juice may be stored for a short time prior to pasteurization. Storage time and temperature may affect the subsequent thermotolerance of bacteria in these beverages. This study examined whether prior storage in pH 3.4 apple cider or apple juice affected the thermotolerance of two Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains in the same beverages at 61 degrees C. Both strains exhibited biphasic survivor curves. Strain ATCC 43894 was consistently more thermotolerant than strain ATCC 43889, with 33 to 153% greater D values derived from the linear portion of each survivor curve. Prior storage at 21 degrees C for 2 or 6 h hastened thermal destruction of both strains in apple cider, but not to a statistically significant extent. In apple juice, prior storage at 21 degrees C for 2 h significantly decreased thermotolerance of strain ATCC 43889, but not of strain ATCC 43894. During 6 h of storage in 21 degrees C apple juice, populations of strains ATCC 43889 and 43894 decreased by 2.1 and 0.5 log10 CFU/ml, respectively, and died rapidly during subsequent heating. Prior storage in apple juice at 4 degrees C for 24 h significantly decreased thermotolerance of both strains, but this effect was not seen after 2 h of storage at 4 degrees C. Experiments with filtered apple cider showed that presence of filterable pulp enhanced the thermotolerance of both strains. These results show that short-term (juice may enhance the lethality of subsequent pasteurization.

  12. HsfA2 Controls the Activity of Developmentally and Stress-Regulated Heat Stress Protection Mechanisms in Tomato Male Reproductive Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios; Mesihovic, Anida; Simm, Stefan; Paupière, Marine Josephine; Hu, Yangjie; Paul, Puneet; Mishra, Shravan Kumar; Tschiersch, Bettina; Theres, Klaus; Bovy, Arnaud; Schleiff, Enrico; Scharf, Klaus Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Male reproductive tissues are more sensitive to heat stress (HS) compared to vegetative tissues, but the basis of this phenomenon is poorly understood. Heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) regulate the transcriptional changes required for protection from HS. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), HsfA2 acts as coactivator of HsfA1a and is one of the major Hsfs accumulating in response to elevated temperatures. The contribution of HsfA2 in heat stress response (HSR) and thermotolerance was inve...

  13. Learning-by-Being-Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo Gaetano; Moreira, Solon; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    2016-01-01

    of new teams with both inventors of the acquiring and acquired firms-and assess the impact of this integration action in the period that immediately follows the acquisition. Drawing on social identity and self-categorization theories, we argue that R&D team reorganization increases the acquired inventors......’ use of the prior stock of technological knowledge of the acquiring firm after the acquisition. Furthermore, this effect is enhanced if the focal acquired inventor has high relative innovation ability but is weakened for acquired inventors with high ingroup collaborative strength. We construct a sample...

  14. Learning-By-Being-Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo G.; Moreira, Solon; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    In this paper we study post-acquisition integration in terms of R&D team reorganization—i.e., the creation of new teams with both inventors of the acquiring and acquired firms—and assess its impact on knowledge transfer in the period that follows the acquisition. Drawing on social identity and self......-categorization theories, we argue that R&D team reorganization increases the acquired inventors’ use of the prior stock of technological knowledge of the acquiring firm after the acquisition. Furthermore, this effect is enhanced if acquired inventors have higher innovation ability relative to their acquiring peers...

  15. Surgical treatment of acquired tracheocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porubsky, Edward A; Gourin, Christine G

    2006-06-01

    Acquired tracheoceles are rare clinical entities that can cause a variety of chronic and recurrent aerodigestive tract symptoms. The management of acquired tracheoceles is primarily conservative, but surgical intervention may be indicated for patients with refractory symptoms. We present a case of acquired tracheocele and describe a method of successful surgical management.

  16. Acquiring specific interpreting competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zidar Forte

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In postgraduate interpreter training, the main objective of the course is to help trainees develop various competences, from linguistic, textual and cultural competence, to professional and specific interpreting competence. For simultaneous interpreting (SI, the main focus is on mastering the SI technique and strategies as well as on developing and strengthening communicative skills, which is discussed and illustrated with examples in the present paper. First, a brief overview is given of all the necessary competences of a professional interpreter with greater emphasis on specific interpreting competence for SI. In the second part of the paper, various approaches are described in terms of acquiring specific skills and strategies, specifically through a range of exercises. Besides interpreting entire speeches, practical courses should also consist of targeted exercises, which help trainees develop suitable coping strategies and mechanisms (later on almost automatisms, while at the same time "force" them to reflect on their individual learning process and interpreting performance. This provides a solid base on which trained interpreters can progress and develop their skills also after joining the professional sphere.

  17. Prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter in broiler flocks and broiler carcasses in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Migliorati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with European Union regulations, from 5 February until 15 December 2008, sampling and analysis activities were conducted in Italy to assess the extent of contamination caused by thermotolerant Campylobacter in broiler chickens farmed nationwide. The survey involved 48 poultry slaughterhouses distributed across eleven regions of Italy, where the caeca and carcasses of 393 slaughter batches were sampled. A total of 284 batches (72.3% gave positive results for Campylobacter spp. as follows: 52.1% were contaminated by C. jejuni, 55.6% by C. coli and 1.1% by C. lari. C. jejuni and C. coli were isolated together in 37 batches (13% of positive results. Campylobacter spp. was isolated only from the caeca in 251 slaughter batches (63.9% including caecal isolates of C. jejuni (48.2%, C. coli (50.6%, and C. lari (1.2%. Carcasses from 182 batches (46.3% were contaminated by C. jejuni in 40.7% of cases, C. coli in 57.7% and the absence of C. lari from all batches examined. The contamination level observed in the carcasses ranged between 10 and 1.6 × 107 cfu/g.

  18. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF A THERMOTOLERANT PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA PRODUCING TREHALOSE SYNTHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sk.Z.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A thermotolerant plant growth promoting Pseudomonas isolate growing at 40oC producing trehalose synthase (TreS was isolated from rhizosphere soil under semi arid conditions of India. Trehalose synthase was extracted; purified and enzymatic activity was examined at various temperatures and pH. The optimum temperature and pH was 38oC and pH 7.5 and the activity declined at above or below the optimum pH and temperature. The enzyme was active on maltose and trehalose among saccharides tested. The enzyme had a higher catalytic activity for maltose with a trehalose yield of 72% than for trehalose where 30% yield of maltose was achieved, indicating maltose as preferred substrate. The isolate showed multiple plant growth promoting traits (indole acetic acid (IAA, phosphate solubilization, siderophore and ammonia both at ambient (28oC and high temperature (40oC. Based on phenotypic and 16SrRNA analysis the isolate was identified as Pseudomonas putida (Accession No. GU396283.

  19. Purification and Characterization of Organic Solvent and Detergent Tolerant Lipase from Thermotolerant Bacillus sp. RN2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiko Kajiwara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the organic solvent and detergent tolerant properties of recombinant lipase isolated from thermotolerant Bacillus sp. RN2 (Lip-SBRN2. The isolation of the lipase-coding gene was achieved by the use of inverse and direct PCR. The complete DNA sequencing of the gene revealed that the lip-SBRN2 gene contains 576 nucleotides which corresponded to 192 deduced amino acids. The purified enzyme was homogeneous with the estimated molecular mass of 19 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. The Lip-SBRN2 was stable in a pH range of 9–11 and temperature range of 45–60 °C. The enzyme was a non metallo-monomeric protein and was active against pNP-caprylate (C8 and pNP-laurate (C12 and coconut oil. The Lip-SBRN2 exhibited a high level of activity in the presence of 108% benzene, 102.4% diethylether and 112% SDS. It is anticipated that the organic solvent and detergent tolerant enzyme secreted by Bacillus sp. RN2 will be applicable as catalysts for reaction in the presence of organic solvents and detergents.

  20. The Thermotolerant Yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus Is a Useful Organism for Structural and Biochemical Studies of Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hayashi; Shima, Takayuki; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Mochizuki, Yuh; Hoshida, Hisashi; Kakuta, Soichiro; Kondo-Kakuta, Chika; Noda, Nobuo N; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Itoh, Takehiko; Akada, Rinji; Ohsumi, Yoshinori

    2015-12-04

    Autophagy is a conserved degradation process in which autophagosomes are generated by cooperative actions of multiple autophagy-related (Atg) proteins. Previous studies using the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have provided various insights into the molecular basis of autophagy; however, because of the modest stability of several Atg proteins, structural and biochemical studies have been limited to a subset of Atg proteins, preventing us from understanding how multiple Atg proteins function cooperatively in autophagosome formation. With the goal of expanding the scope of autophagy research, we sought to identify a novel organism with stable Atg proteins that would be advantageous for in vitro analyses. Thus, we focused on a newly isolated thermotolerant yeast strain, Kluyveromyces marxianus DMKU3-1042, to utilize as a novel system elucidating autophagy. We developed experimental methods to monitor autophagy in K. marxianus cells, identified the complete set of K. marxianus Atg homologs, and confirmed that each Atg homolog is engaged in autophagosome formation. Biochemical and bioinformatic analyses revealed that recombinant K. marxianus Atg proteins have superior thermostability and solubility as compared with S. cerevisiae Atg proteins, probably due to the shorter primary sequences of KmAtg proteins. Furthermore, bioinformatic analyses showed that more than half of K. marxianus open reading frames are relatively short in length. These features make K. marxianus proteins broadly applicable as tools for structural and biochemical studies, not only in the autophagy field but also in other fields.

  1. The use of a thermotolerant fermentative Kluyveromyces marxianus IMB3 yeast strain for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banat, I.M. [Univ. of the United Arab Emirates, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Biolology; Singh, D. [Haryana Agriculture Univ., Hisar (India). Dept. of Microbiology; Marchant, R. [Ulster Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Applied Biological and Chemical Sciences

    1996-12-31

    An investigation was carried out on the growth and ethanol production of a novel thermotolerant ethanol-producing Kluyveromyces marxianus IMB3 yeast strain. It grew aerobically on glucose, lactose, cellobiose, xylose and whey permeate and fermented all the above carbon sources to ethanol at 45 C. This strain was capable of growing under anaerobic chemostat fermentation conditions at 45 C and a dilution rate of 0.15 h{sup -1} and produced {<=}0.9 g/l biomass and 1.8% (v/v) ethanol. An increase in biomass (up to 10.0 g/l) and ethanol (up to 4.3% v/v at 45 C and 7.7% v/v at 40 C) were achieved by applying a continuous two-stage fermentation in sequence (one aerobic and one anerobic stage) or a two-stage anaerobic fermentation with cell recycling. Potential applications, involving alcohol production systems, for use in dairy and wood related industries, were discussed. (orig.)

  2. Studies on the biosorption of uranium by a thermotolerant, ethanol-producing strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustard, M. [Biotechnology Research Group, School of Applied Biological and Chemical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, Co. Londonderry, BT52 1SA (United Kingdom); Donnellan, N. [Biotechnology Research Group, School of Applied Biological and Chemical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, Co. Londonderry, BT52 1SA (United Kingdom); Rollan, A. [Biotechnology Research Group, School of Applied Biological and Chemical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, Co. Londonderry, BT52 1SA (United Kingdom); McHale, A.P. [Biotechnology Research Group, School of Applied Biological and Chemical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, Co. Londonderry, BT52 1SA (United Kingdom)

    1997-06-01

    The ability of residual biomass from the thermotolerant ethanol-producing yeast strain Kluyveromyces marxianus IMB3 to function as a biosorbent for uranium has been examined. It was found that the biomass had an observed maximum biosorption capacity of 120 mg U/g dry weight of biomass. The calculated value for the biosorption maximum, obtained by fitting the data to the Langmuir model was found to be 130 mg U/g dry weight biomass. Maximum biosorption capacities were examined at a number of temperatures and both the observed and calculated values obtained for those capacities increased with increasing temperature. Decreasing the pH of the biosorbate solution resulted in a decrease in uptake capacity. When biosorption reactions were carried out using sea-water as the diluent it was found that the maximum biosorption capacity of the biomass increased significantly. Using transmission electron microscopy, uranium crystals were shown to be concentrated on the outer surface of the cell wall, although uranium deposition was also observed in the interior of the cell. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Bioconversion of Airborne Methylamine by Immobilized Recombinant Amine Oxidase from the Thermotolerant Yeast Hansenula polymorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasi Sigawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aliphatic amines, including methylamine, are air-pollutants, due to their intensive use in industry and the natural degradation of proteins, amino acids, and other nitrogen-containing compounds in biological samples. It is necessary to develop systems for removal of methylamine from the air, since airborne methylamine has a negative effect on human health. The primary amine oxidase (primary amine : oxygen oxidoreductase (deaminating or amine oxidase, AMO; EC 1.4.3.21, a copper-containing enzyme from the thermotolerant yeast Hansenula polymorpha which was overexpressed in baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was tested for its ability to oxidize airborne methylamine. A continuous fluidized bed bioreactor (CFBR was designed to enable bioconversion of airborne methylamine by AMO immobilized in calcium alginate (CA beads. The results demonstrated that the bioreactor with immobilized AMO eliminates nearly 97% of the airborne methylamine. However, the enzymatic activity of AMO causes formation of formaldehyde. A two-step bioconversion process was therefore proposed. In the first step, airborne methylamine was fed into a CFBR which contained immobilized AMO. In the second step, the gas flow was passed through another CFBR, with alcohol oxidase from the yeast H. polymorpha immobilized in CA, in order to decompose the formaldehyde formed in the first step. The proposed system provided almost total elimination of the airborne methylamine and the formaldehyde.

  4. Occurrence of Thermotolerant Hartmannella Vermiformis and Naegleria Spp. in Hot Springs of Ardebil Province, Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Nazemalhosseini Mojarad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Geothermal waters could be suitable niches for thermophilic free living amoebae including Naegleria and Hartmannella. Ardebil Province, northwest Iran is popular for having many hot springs for recreational and health purposes activity. The present research is the first molecular based investigation regarding the presence of Naegleria and Hartmannella in the hot springs of Ardebil Province in Iran.Methods: Overall, 30 water samples were taken from waters of thermal hot springs in Ardebil Province, Iran during 2010-2011. All collected samples were transferred to Dept. of Parasitology and Mycology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Cultivation of concentrated water samples was performed using culture-enrichment method. Cloning of the target amoebae was obtained and morphological and molecular analysis was done using page key combined with two sets of primers, respectively. Sequence analysis and homology search was used for strains identification.Results: Of 30 water samples, 8 (26.7% were positive for thermotolerant Vahlkampfiids and Hartman­nella based on morphological characteristics of vegetative form and double walled cysts. Cloning of the target amoebae were done successfully. Sequencing of the positive isolates revealed that the strains belonged to Naegleria (N. carteri and N. spp and H. vermiformis.Conclusion: The result highlights a need for improved filtration and disinfection and periodic monitoring of recreational thermal waters in order to prevent disease related to free- living amoebae. This is the first comprehensive molecular study of thermophilic Naegleria and Hartmannella in hot springs of Iran.

  5. Isolation, Production, and Characterization of Thermotolerant Xylanase from Solvent Tolerant Bacillus vallismortis RSPP-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeeva Gaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty bacterial strains isolated from the soils sample in the presence of organic solvent were screened for xylanase production. Among them, strain RSPP-15 showed the highest xylanase activity which was identified as Bacillus vallismortis. The isolate showed maximum xylanase production (3768 U/mL in the presence of birch wood xylan and beef extract at 55°C pH 7.0 within 48 h of incubation. The enzyme activity and stability were increased 181.5, 153.7, 147.2, 133.6, and 127.9% and 138.2, 119.3, 113.9, 109, and 104.5% in the presence of Co2+, Ca2+, Mg+2, Zn+2, and Fe+3 ions (10 mM. Xylanase activity and stability were strongly inhibited in the presence of Hg and Cu ions. The enzyme was also stable in the presence of 30% of n-dodecane, isooctane, n-decane, xylene, toluene, n-hexane, n-butanol, and cyclohexane, respectively. The presence of benzene, methanol, and ethanol marginally reduced the xylanase stability, respectively. This isolate may be useful in several industrial applications owing to its thermotolerant and organic solvent resistance characteristics.

  6. Differential response of aspen and birch trees to heat stress under elevated carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darbah, Joseph N.T., E-mail: darbah@ohio.ed [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, 315 Porter Hall, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Sharkey, Thomas D. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Calfapietra, Carlo [Institute of Agro-Environmental and Forest Biology (IBAF), National Research Council (CNR), Via Salaria km 29300, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo, Roma (Italy); Karnosky, David F. [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The effect of high temperature on photosynthesis of isoprene-emitting (aspen) and non-isoprene-emitting (birch) trees were measured under elevated CO{sub 2} and ambient conditions. Aspen trees tolerated heat better than birch trees and elevated CO{sub 2} protected photosynthesis of both species against moderate heat stress. Elevated CO{sub 2} increased carboxylation capacity, photosynthetic electron transport capacity, and triose phosphate use in both birch and aspen trees. High temperature (36-39 deg. C) decreased all of these parameters in birch regardless of CO{sub 2} treatment, but only photosynthetic electron transport and triose phosphate use at ambient CO{sub 2} were reduced in aspen. Among the two aspen clones tested, 271 showed higher thermotolerance than 42E possibly because of the higher isoprene-emission, especially under elevated CO{sub 2}. Our results indicate that isoprene-emitting trees may have a competitive advantage over non-isoprene emitting ones as temperatures rise, indicating that biological diversity may be affected in some ecosystems because of heat tolerance mechanisms. - We report that elevated CO{sub 2} confers increased thermotolerance on both aspen and birch trees while isoprene production in aspen confers further thermotolerance in aspen.

  7. A new search for thermotolerant yeasts, its characterization and optimization using response surface methodology for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Richa; Behera, Shuvashish; Sharma, Nilesh K; Kumar, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    The progressive rise in energy crisis followed by green house gas (GHG) emissions is serving as the driving force for bioethanol production from renewable resources. Current bioethanol research focuses on lignocellulosic feedstocks as these are abundantly available, renewable, sustainable and exhibit no competition between the crops for food and fuel. However, the technologies in use have some drawbacks including incapability of pentose fermentation, reduced tolerance to products formed, costly processes, etc. Therefore, the present study was carried out with the objective of isolating hexose and pentose fermenting thermophilic/thermotolerant ethanologens with acceptable product yield. Two thermotolerant isolates, NIRE-K1 and NIRE-K3 were screened for fermenting both glucose and xylose and identified as Kluyveromyces marxianus NIRE-K1 and K. marxianus NIRE-K3. After optimization using Face-centered Central Composite Design (FCCD), the growth parameters like temperature and pH were found to be 45.17°C and 5.49, respectively for K. marxianus NIRE-K1 and 45.41°C and 5.24, respectively for K. marxianus NIRE-K3. Further, batch fermentations were carried out under optimized conditions, where K. marxianus NIRE-K3 was found to be superior over K. marxianus NIRE-K1. Ethanol yield (Y x∕s ), sugar to ethanol conversion rate (%), microbial biomass concentration (X) and volumetric product productivity (Q p ) obtained by K. marxianus NIRE-K3 were found to be 9.3, 9.55, 14.63, and 31.94% higher than that of K. marxianus NIRE-K1, respectively. This study revealed the promising potential of both the screened thermotolerant isolates for bioethanol production.

  8. A new search for thermotolerant yeasts, its characterization and optimization using response surface methodology for ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa eArora

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The progressive rise in energy crisis followed by green house gas (GHG emissions is serving as the driving force for bioethanol production from renewable resources. Current bioethanol research focuses on lignocellulosic feedstocks as these are abundantly available, renewable, sustainable and exhibit no competition between the crops for food and fuel. However, the technologies in use have some drawbacks including incapability of pentose fermentation, reduced tolerance to products formed, costly processes, etc. Therefore, the present study was carried out with the objective of isolating hexose and pentose fermenting thermophilic/ thermotolerant ethanologens with acceptable product yield. Two thermotolerant isolates, NIRE-K1 and NIRE-K3 were screened for fermenting both glucose and xylose and identified as Kluyveromyces marxianus NIRE-K1 and K. marxianus NIRE-K3. After optimization using FCCD (Face-centered Central Composite Design, the growth parameters like temperature and pH were found to be 45.17 oC and 5.49, respectively for K. marxianus NIRE-K1 and 45.41 oC and 5.24, respectively for K. marxianus NIRE-K3. Further, batch fermentations were carried out under optimized conditions, where K. marxianus NIRE-K3 was found to be superior over K. marxianus NIRE-K1. Ethanol yield (Yx/s, sugar to ethanol conversion rate (%, microbial biomass concentration (X and volumetric product productivity (Qp obtained by K. marxianus NIRE-K3 were found to be 9.3%, 9.55%, 14.63% and 31.94% higher than that of K. marxianus NIRE-K1, respectively. This study revealed the promising potential of both the screened thermotolerant isolates for bioethanol production.

  9. Hyperthermia combined with 5-fluorouracil promoted apoptosis and enhanced thermotolerance in human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu T

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tao Liu,* Yan-Wei Ye,* A-li Zhu, Zhen Yang, Yang Fu, Chong-Qing Wei, Qi Liu, Chun-Lin Zhao, Guo-Jun Wang, Xie-Fu Zhang Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the proliferation inhibition and apo­ptosis-promoting effect under hyperthermia and chemotherapy treatment, at cellular level. Human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 was cultivated with 5-fluorouracil at different temperatures. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined, and expression of Bcl-2 and HSP70 was measured at different treatments. Cell survival rates and inhibition rates in chemotherapy group, thermotherapy group, and thermo-chemotherapy group were drastically lower than the control group (P<0.05. For tumor cells in the thermo-chemotherapy group, survival rates and inhibition rates at three different temperatures were all significantly lower than those in chemotherapy group and thermotherapy group (P<0.05. 5-Fluorouracil induced apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells with a strong temperature dependence, which increased gradually with increase in temperature. At 37°C and 43°C there were significant differences between the thermotherapy group and chemotherapy group and between the thermo-chemotherapy group and thermotherapy group (P<0.01. The expression of Bcl-2 was downregulated and HSP70 was upregulated, with increase in temperature in all groups. Cell apoptosis was not significant at 46°C (P>0.05, which was probably due to thermotolerance caused by HSP70 accumulation. These results suggested that hyperthermia combined with 5-fluorouracil had a synergistic effect in promoting apoptosis and enhancing thermotolerance in gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901. Keywords: gastric cancer, thermotherapy, 5-fluorouracil, Bcl-2, HSP70, thermotolerance

  10. Decolorization of a recalcitrant organic compound (Melanoidin by a novel thermotolerant yeast, Candida tropicalis RG-9

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    Tiwari Soni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane distilleries use molasses for ethanol production and generate large volume of effluent containing high biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD along with melanoidin pigment. Melanoidin is a recalcitrant compound that causes several toxic effects on living system, therefore, may be treated before disposal. The aim of this study was to isolate a potential thermotolerant melanoidin decolorizing yeast from natural resources, and optimized different physico-chemical and nutritional parameters. Results Total 24 yeasts were isolated from the soil samples of near by distillery site, in which isolate Y-9 showed maximum decolorization and identified as Candida tropicalis by Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC Chandigarh, India. The decolorization yield was expressed as the decrease in the absorbance at 475 nm against initial absorbance at the same wavelength. Uninoculated medium served as control. Yeast showed maximum decolorization (75% at 45°C using 0.2%, glucose; 0.2%, peptone; 0.05%, MgSO4; 0.01%, KH2PO4; pH-5.5 within 24 h of incubation under static condition. Decolorizing ability of yeast was also confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. Conclusion The yeast strain efficiently decolorized melanoidin pigment of distillery effluent at higher temperature than the other earlier reported strains of yeast, therefore, this strain could also be used at industrial level for melanoidin decolorization as it tolerated a wide range of temperature and pH with very small amount of carbon and nitrogen sources.

  11. Biosorption of heavy metal by thermotolerant polymerproducing bacterial cells and the bioflocculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saithong Kaewchai

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Three strains of thermotolerant polymer-producing bacteria; Bacillus subtilis WD 90, Bacillus subtilis SM 29, and Enterobacter agglomerans SM 38 as well as their biofloculants were used to investigate on the adsorption of heavy metal, nickel and cadmium. The effects of pH and concentrations of heavy metal were investigated. The optimum pH for nickel and cadmium adsorption by the dried cells of E. agglomerans SM 38 were found to be 7.0 (25.5% removal and 8.0 (32% removal, respectively. For B. subtilis WD 90 and B. subtilis SM 29, the optimum pH at 8.0 exhibited the nickel removal of 27% and 25%, respectively, and cadmium removal of 28% and 28.5%, respectively. The heavy metal adsorption by the dried cells and wet cells of E. agglomerans SM 38 were slightly increased with increasing initial concentrations of nickel and cadmium up to 60 and 30 ppm, respectively. The bioflocculant of B. subtilis WD 90 and B. subtilis SM 29 showed the highest nickel removal of 90.7% and 87.0% respectively, while the cadmium removal was 90.9 and 91.4%, respectively. The optimum pH for adsorption of both nickel and cadmium by the bioflocculant of E. agglomerans SM 38 was 7.0 with the removal of 92.8 and 84.2%, respectively. The optimum nickel concentration for adsorption by the bioflocculant of E. agglomerans SM 38 was 10 ppm, with the removal of 92.5%, and rather stable up to 60 ppm. The optimum cadmium concentration for adsorption by the bioflocculant of B. subtilis SM 29 was 60 ppm at pH 8.0 with the removal of 85.7%. Therefore, the bioflocculant of the three isolates gave higher heavy metal adsorption than the cells.

  12. Volatiles formation from grape must fermentation using a cryophilic and thermotolerant yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Bosnea, Loulouda; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2012-07-01

    Grape must fermentation performance and volatiles formation by simultaneously cryophilic and thermotolerant yeast (strain AXAZ-1), isolated from grapes in Greece, was evaluated in a wide temperature range (5-40°C). Yeast strain was immobilized on brewer's spent grains (BSG) and the formed biocatalyst was introduced into a Multi-Stage Fixed Bed Tower (MFBT) bioreactor. Almost complete sugar utilization from the aforementioned biocatalyst was observed in a wide temperature spectrum, ranging from 5 °C to 37 °C, while at 40 °C residual sugar was up to 29 g/l. Time to complete fermentation with the immobilized yeast ranged from 290 h at 5 °C and 120 h at 40 °C to 25 h at 33 °C. The daily ethanol productivity reached maximum (88.6 g/l) and minimum (5.6 g/l) levels at 33 °C and 5 °C, respectively. The aroma-related compounds' profiles of immobilized cells at different fermentation temperatures were evaluated by using solid phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Must fermentation resulted in a high-quality fermentation product due to the low concentrations of higher and amyl alcohols at all temperatures tested. AXAZ-1 is a very promising strain for quality wine production, as it is capable of performing fermentations of high ethanol concentration and productivities in both low and high temperatures.

  13. Mutualistic association of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10 offers thermotolerance to Cucumis sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Hamayun, Muhammad; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Waqas, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Shin, Jae-Ho; Choo, Yeon-Sik; Kim, Jong-Guk; Lee, In-Jung

    2012-02-01

    We investigated in this study the influence of an endophytic fungus, Paecilomyces formosus LHL10, on the thermotolerance of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) upon exposure to high (38°C) and low (8°C) temperature stresses. The results showed that endophyte-inoculated plants had significantly higher plant growth attributes under high-temperature stress. However, they were either low or insignificant in non-inoculated control and inoculated plants with 8°C treatments. Lower stress-promulgated water deficit and cellular membrane damage were observed in endophyte-treated plants after 38°C treatment than in control plants under 8°C stress. Total polyphenol, reduced glutathione, and lipid peroxidation activities were reduced in endophyte-associated plants after exposure to 38°C as compared with control and 8°C-treated plants. The concentration of saturated fatty acids (palmitic-C16:0; stearic-C18:0) was lower in endophyte-treated plants with or without low-temperature stress, but after 8°C treatment increased compared with controls. Unsaturated fatty acids (oleic-C18:1; linoleic-C18:2; linolenic-C18:3 acids) were similar at normal conditions; however, at 38°C, C18:2 and C18:3 were decreased, and C18:1 was increased in endophyte-treated plants compared with controls, while the inverse relationship was found at 8°C. Low levels of abscisic acid in P. formosus-associated plants after 38°C treatments revealed stress tolerance compared with control and 8°C-treated plants. In contrast, salicylic acid was pronounced in endophyte-treated plants after low-temperature stress as compared to other treatments. The results provide evidence that the response to P. formosus association was beneficial at normal growth temperature and had varying effects in response to temperature stress.

  14. Effects of Heat Shock on Glucocorticoid Receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋亮年

    1994-01-01

    The changes of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) during the heat shock response have been studied using a human osteosarcoma cell line (HOS-8603) as the model. The expression of the heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) mRNA in HOS-8603 cells has been enhanced markedly after a heat treatment at 43 ℃ for 30 min. A mild thermal pretreatment (42℃ for 1 h) protects the HOS-8603 cells against a subsequent heat challenge (46℃). This induced thermotolerance is reflected by the increase of cell viability of HOS-8603 cells. The GR binding activity in HOS-8603 cells decreased rapidly after the heat treatment at 43℃; only 42. 61% of controls were detected 60 min after the heat treatment. However, there was no significant change in the dissociation constant value (Kd). These results indicate that the heat shock induce not only the heat shock mRNA expression, but also the rapid reduction in GR binding activity, suggesting that there might be a functional relationship between GR action and the heat shock response.

  15. A comprehensive assessment of geographic variation in heat tolerance and hardening capacity in populations of Drosophila melanogaster from eastern Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sgrò, C M; Overgaard, J; Kristensen, T N;

    2010-01-01

    We examined latitudinal variation in adult and larval heat tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster from eastern Australia. Adults were assessed using static and ramping assays. Basal and hardened static heat knockdown time showed significant linear clines; heat tolerance increased towards the tropics...... knockdown temperature increased towards temperate latitudes, probably reflecting a greater capacity of temperate flies to withstand sudden temperature increases during summer in temperate Australia. Larval viability showed a quadratic association with latitude under heat stress. Thus, patterns of heat...... resistance depend on assay methods. Genetic correlations in thermotolerance across life stages and evolutionary potential for critical thermal limits should be the focus of future studies....

  16. Thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains representing potentials for bioethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke by consolidated bioprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Nan [Agricultural Univ., Qingdao, SD (China). College of Animal Science and Technology; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, SD (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels; Yuan, Bo; Wang, Shi-An; Li, Fu-Li [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, SD (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels; Sun, Juan [Agricultural Univ., Qingdao, SD (China). College of Animal Science and Technology

    2012-09-15

    Thermotolerant inulin-utilizing yeast strains are desirable for ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). To obtain such strains, 21 naturally occurring yeast strains isolated by using an enrichment method and 65 previously isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were investigated in inulin utilization, extracellular inulinase activity, and ethanol fermentation from inulin and Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour at 40 C. The strains Kluyveromyces marxianus PT-1 (CGMCC AS2.4515) and S. cerevisiae JZ1C (CGMCC AS2.3878) presented the highest extracellular inulinase activity and ethanol yield in this study. The highest ethanol concentration in Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour fermentation (200 g L{sup -1}) at 40 C achieved by K. marxianus PT-1 and S. cerevisiae JZ1C was 73.6 and 65.2 g L{sup -1}, which corresponded to the theoretical ethanol yield of 90.0 and 79.7 %, respectively. In the range of 30 to 40 C, temperature did not have a significant effect on ethanol production for both strains. This study displayed the distinctive superiority of K. marxianus PT-1 and S. cerevisiae JZ1C in the thermotolerance and utilization of inulin-type oligosaccharides reserved in Jerusalem artichoke tubers. It is proposed that both K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae have considerable potential in ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by a high temperature CBP. (orig.)

  17. Triazole Susceptibilities in Thermotolerant Fungal Isolates from Outdoor Air in the Seoul Capital Area in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungeun; Xu, Siyu; Bivila, Chemmeri Padasseri; Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Myung Soo; Lim, Young Woon; Yamamoto, Naomichi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungi resistant to triazoles are a concern because of the increased use of medical triazoles and exposure to agricultural triazoles. However, little is known about the levels of triazole susceptibility in outdoor airborne fungi making it difficult to assess the risks of inhalation exposure to airborne, antifungal-resistant fungi. This study examined triazole susceptibilities of the airborne thermotolerant fungi isolated from the ambient air of the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We used impactor air sampling with triazole-containing nutrient agar plates as the collection substrates to screen for airborne fungal isolates based on their triazole susceptibilities. This study estimated that 0.17% of all the culturable fungi belong to the pathogenic thermotolerant taxa, among which each isolate of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 μg/mL or greater for itraconazole. Their concentration in air was 0.4 CFU/m3. Seven human pathogenic Paecilomyces variotii isolates had MICs of 32 μg/mL or greater and lower than 2 μg/mL for the agricultural fungicide tebuconazole and the medical triazole itraconazole, respectively. Though the concentration was low, our results confirm the presence of airborne fungi with high MICs for itraconazole in ambient air. Inhalation is an important exposure route because people inhale more than 10 m3 of air each day. Vigilance is preferred over monitoring for the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal pathogens in ambient outdoor air.

  18. Adult Heat Tolerance Variation in Drosophila melanogaster is Not Related to Hsp70 Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Toft; Cockerell, Fiona Elizabeth; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard;

    2010-01-01

    Expression of heat-inducible Hsp70 is considered closely linked to thermotolerance in Drosophila melanogaster and other ectotherms. However, intra-specific variation of Hsp70 expression levels and its relationship to heat resistance has only been investigated in a few studies. Although...... in adult heat tolerance. Therefore, although Hsp70 expression is a major component of the cellular heat stress response, its influence on intra-specific heat tolerance variation may be life-stage specific. J. Exp. Zool. 313A:35-44, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc...... in Drosophila larvae Hsp70 expression may be a key determinant of heat tolerance, the evidence for this in adults is equivocal. We therefore examined heat-induced Hsp70 expression and several measurements of adult heat tolerance in three independent collections of D. melanogaster, measured in three laboratories...

  19. Short communication: heat resistance of Escherichia coli strains in raw milk at different subpasteurization conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, S; Hummerjohann, J; Stephan, R; Hammer, P

    2013-06-01

    A commonly applied treatment of raw milk to reduce bacterial loads is the short-time application of heat at subpasteurization levels under continuous flow, generally referred to as thermization, because this method retains some of the beneficial properties of raw milk. In a previous study, Escherichia coli strains exhibiting increased thermotolerance were found, demanding investigations into their ability to survive thermization. Nine E. coli strains, including 4 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains, were investigated for their reduction during a thermization treatment in raw milk using a pilot-plant pasteurizer to reflect typically applied commercial conditions. Six of the 9 E. coli strains, including the 4 STEC strains, were similarly inactivated at 60, 62.5, and 65°C, whereas increased thermotolerance was observed for 3 E. coli strains. All strains were reduced to thermization treatment.

  20. Divergent distribution of the sensor kinase CosS in non-thermotolerant campylobacter species and its functional incompatibility with the response regulator CosR of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunyoung Hwang

    Full Text Available Two-component signal transduction systems are commonly composed of a sensor histidine kinase and a cognate response regulator, modulating gene expression in response to environmental changes through a phosphorylation-dependent process. CosR is an OmpR-type response regulator essential for the viability of Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborne pathogenic species causing human gastroenteritis. Although CosR is a response regulator, its cognate sensor kinase has not been identified in C. jejuni. In this study, DNA sequence analysis of the cosR flanking regions revealed that a gene encoding a putative sensor kinase, which we named cosS, is prevalent in non-thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., but not in thermotolerant campylobacters. Phosphorylation assays indicated that C. fetus CosS rapidly autophosphorylates and then phosphorylates C. fetus CosR, suggesting that the CosRS system constitutes a paired two-component signal transduction system in C. fetus. However, C. fetus CosS does not phosphorylate C. jejuni CosR, suggesting that CosR may have different regulatory cascades between thermotolerant and non-thermotolerant Campylobacter species. Comparison of CosR homolog amino acid sequences showed that the conserved phosphorylation residue (D51, which is present in all non-thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., is absent from the CosR homologs of thermotolerant Campylobacter species. However, C. jejuni CosR was not phosphorylated by C. fetus CosS even after site-directed mutagenesis of N51D, implying that C. jejuni CosR may possibly function phosphorylation-independently. In addition, the results of cosS mutational analysis indicated that CosS is not associated with the temperature dependence of the Campylobacter spp. despite its unique divergent distribution only in non-thermotolerant campylobacters. The findings in this study strongly suggest that thermotolerant and non-thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. have different signal sensing mechanisms

  1. Acquired ichthyosis with hoffman's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathyanarayana B

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A middle aged man presented with features of acquired ichthyosis with Hoffman's syndrome. Laboratory tests support hypothyodism. Myoedema and hypertrophy of muscles were present. Patient was previously treated for Pellagra.

  2. Towards an international standard for PCR-based detection of foodborne thermotolerant campylobacters: interaction of enrichment media and pre-PCR treatment on carcass rinse samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Hansen, F.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a large EU project for standardisation of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a systematic evaluation of the interaction of enrichment media, type of DNA polymerase and pre-PCR sample treatment for a PCR detecting thermotolerant campylobacters was carried out. The growth-supporting capaci...

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of the Nonpathogenic, Thermotolerant, and Exopolysaccharide-Producing Bacillus anthracis Strain PFAB2 from Panifala Hot Water Spring in West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aparna; Halder, Urmi; Chaudhry, Vasvi; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Mantri, Shrikant

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of fatal anthrax in both animals and humans. It is prevalently pathogenic. Here, we present a Bacillus anthracis PFAB2 strain from a relatively unexplored Panifala hot water spring in West Bengal, India. It is nonpathogenic, exopolysaccharide producing, and thermotolerant in nature. PMID:28007848

  4. Evaluation of data from the literature on the transport and survival of Escherichia coli and thermotolerant coliforms in aquifers under saturated conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foppen, J W A; Schijven, J F

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli and thermotolerant coliforms are of major importance as indicators of fecal contamination of water. Due to its negative surface charge and relatively low die-off or inactivation rate coefficient, E. coli is able to travel long distances underground and is therefore also a useful ind

  5. Somatically acquired structural genetic differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magaard Koldby, Kristina; Nygaard, Marianne; Christensen, Kaare;

    2016-01-01

    Structural genetic variants like copy number variants (CNVs) comprise a large part of human genetic variation and may be inherited as well as somatically acquired. Recent studies have reported the presence of somatically acquired structural variants in the human genome and it has been suggested t...... with age.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 20 April 2016; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2016.34.......Structural genetic variants like copy number variants (CNVs) comprise a large part of human genetic variation and may be inherited as well as somatically acquired. Recent studies have reported the presence of somatically acquired structural variants in the human genome and it has been suggested...... that they may accumulate in elderly individuals. To further explore the presence and the age-related acquisition of somatic structural variants in the human genome, we investigated CNVs acquired over a period of 10 years in 86 elderly Danish twins as well as CNV discordances between co-twins of 18 monozygotic...

  6. Sulfuric acid hydrolysis and detoxification of red alga Pterocladiella capillacea for bioethanol fermentation with thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chien-Hui; Chien, Wei-Chen; Chou, Han-Kai; Yang, Jungwoo; Lin, Hong-Ting Victor

    2014-09-01

    One-step sulfuric acid saccharification of the red alga Pterocladiella capillacea was optimized, and various detoxification methods (neutralization, overliming, and electrodialysis) of the acid hydrolysate were evaluated for fermentation with the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. A proximate composition analysis indicated that P. capillacea was rich in carbohydrates. A significant galactose recovery of 81.1 ± 5% was also achieved under the conditions of a 12% (w/v) biomass load, 5% (v/v) sulfuric acid, 121°C, and hydrolysis for 30 min. Among the various detoxification methods, electrodialysis was identified as the most suitable for fermentable sugar recovery and organic acid removal (100% reduction of formic and levulinic acids), even though it failed to reduce the amount of the inhibitor 5-HMF. As a result, K. marxianus fermentation with the electrodialyzed acid hydrolysate of P. capillacea resulted in the best ethanol levels and fermentation efficiency.

  7. Ethanol fermentation by the thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus TISTR5925, of extracted sap from old oil palm trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Murata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Palm sap extracted from old oil palm trunks was previously found to contain sugar and nutrients (amino acids and vitamins. Some palm saps contain a low content of sugar due to differences in species or in plant physiology. Here we condensed palm sap with a low content of sugar using flat membrane filtration, then fermented the condensed palm sap at high temperature using the thermotolerant, high ethanol-producing yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus. Ethanol production under non-optimum conditions was evaluated. Furthermore, the energy required to concentrate the palm sap, and the amount of energy that could be generated from the ethanol, was calculated. The condensation of sugar in sap from palm trunk required for economically viable ethanol production was evaluated.

  8. Central nervous system promotes thermotolerance via FoxO/DAF-16 activation through octopamine and acetylcholine signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhashi, Tsubasa; Sakamoto, Kazuichi

    2016-03-25

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) responds to many kinds of stressors to maintain homeostasis. Although the ANS is believed to regulate stress tolerance, the exact mechanism underlying this is not well understood. To understand this, we focused on longevity genes, which have functions such as lifespan extension and promotion of stress tolerance. To understand the relationship between ANS and longevity genes, we analyzed stress tolerance of Caenorhabditis elegans treated with octopamine, which has an affinity to noradrenaline in insects, and acetylcholine. Octopamine and acetylcholine did not show resistance against H2O2, but the neurotransmitters promoted thermotolerance via DAF-16. However, chronic treatment with octopamine and acetylcholine did not extend the lifespan, although DAF-16 plays an important role in longevity. In conclusion, our results show that octopamine and acetylcholine activate DAF-16 in response to stress, but chronic induction of octopamine and acetylcholine is not beneficial for increasing longevity.

  9. Acquired aplastic anemia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Helge D; Olson, Timothy S; Bessler, Monica

    2013-12-01

    This article provides a practice-based and concise review of the etiology, diagnosis, and management of acquired aplastic anemia in children. Bone marrow transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy, and supportive care are discussed in detail. The aim is to provide the clinician with a better understanding of the disease and to offer guidelines for the management of children with this uncommon yet serious disorder.

  10. Calcium/calmodulin kinase1 and its relation to thermotolerance and HSP90 in Sporothrix schenckii: an RNAi and yeast two-hybrid study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Mendez Ricardo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sporothrix schenckii is a pathogenic dimorphic fungus of worldwide distribution. It grows in the saprophytic form with hyaline, regularly septated hyphae and pyriform conidia at 25°C and as the yeast or parasitic form at 35°C. Previously, we characterized a calcium/calmodulin kinase in this fungus. Inhibitors of this kinase were observed to inhibit the yeast cell cycle in S. schenckii. Results The presence of RNA interference (RNAi mechanism in this fungus was confirmed by the identification of a Dicer-1 homologue in S. schenckii DNA. RNAi technology was used to corroborate the role of calcium/calmodulin kinase I in S. schenckii dimorphism. Yeast cells were transformed with the pSilent-Dual2G (pSD2G plasmid w/wo inserts of the coding region of the calcium/calmodulin kinase I (sscmk1 gene. Transformants were selected at 35°C using resistance to geneticin. Following transfer to liquid medium at 35°C, RNAi transformants developed as abnormal mycelium clumps and not as yeast cells as would be expected. The level of sscmk1 gene expression in RNAi transformants at 35°C was less than that of cells transformed with the empty pSD2G at this same temperature. Yeast two-hybrid analysis of proteins that interact with SSCMK1 identified a homologue of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 as interacting with this kinase. Growth of the fungus similar to that of the RNAi transformants was observed in medium with geldanamycin (GdA, 10 μM, an inhibitor of HSP90. Conclusions Using the RNAi technology we silenced the expression of sscmk1 gene in this fungus. RNAi transformants were unable to grow as yeast cells at 35°C showing decreased tolerance to this temperature. The interaction of SSCMK1 with HSP90, observed using the yeast two-hybrid assay suggests that this kinase is involved in thermotolerance through its interaction with HSP90. SSCMK1 interacted with the C terminal domain of HSP90 where effector proteins and co-chaperones interact. These

  11. Genetic and epigenetic control of plant heat responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junzhong eLiu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved sophisticated genetic and epigenetic regulatory systems to respond quickly to unfavorable environmental conditions such as heat, cold, drought, and pathogen infections. In particular, heat greatly affects plant growth and development, immunity and circadian rhythm, and poses a serious threat to the global food supply. According to temperatures exposing, heat can be usually classified as warm ambient temperature (about 22-27℃, high temperature (27-30℃ and extremely high temperature (37-42℃, also known as heat stress for the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The genetic mechanisms of plant responses to heat have been well studied, mainly focusing on elevated ambient temperature-mediated morphological acclimation and acceleration of flowering, modulation of plant immunity and circadian clock by high temperatures, and thermotolerance to heat stress. Recently, great progress has been achieved on epigenetic regulation of heat responses, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, histone variants, ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling, histone chaperones, small RNAs, long non-coding RNAs and other undefined epigenetic mechanisms. These epigenetic modifications regulate the expression of heat-responsive genes and function to prevent heat-related damage. This review focuses on recent progresses regarding the genetic and epigenetic control of heat responses in plants, and pays more attention to the role of the major epigenetic mechanisms in plant heat responses. Further research perspectives are also discussed.

  12. Nursing home-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Solh, Ali A

    2009-02-01

    Nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) was first described in 1978. Since then there has been much written regarding NHAP and its management despite the lack of well-designed studies in this patient population. The most characteristic features of patients with NHAP are the atypical presentation, which may lead to delay in diagnosis and therapy. The microbial etiology of pneumonia encompasses a wide spectrum that spans microbes recovered from patients with community-acquired pneumonia to organisms considered specific only to nosocomial settings. Decision to transfer a nursing home patient to an acute care facility depends on a host of factors, which include the level of staffing available at the nursing home, patients' advance directives, and complexity of treatment. The presence of risk factors for multidrug-resistant pathogens dictates approach to therapy. Prevention remains the cornerstone of reducing the incidence of disease. Despite the advance in medical services, mortality from NHAP remains high.

  13. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL: one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE. Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis.

  14. CNOOC Acquires Oversea Assets Successfully

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Senlin

    2006-01-01

    @@ After last year CNOOC's bidding for buy the US energy company Unocal Corp lost out to the Chevron Corporation, it conducted the crossing-border asset-acquirement again in the beginning of this year. On Jan. 9, 2006,CNOOC Ltd signed a definitive agreement with Nigeria South Atlantic Petroleum Limited (SAPETRO) to acquire a 45 % working interest in an offshore oil developing license OML 130 in Nigeria for US$2.268 billion cash. The purchase will be funded by the internal capital resources of CNOOC Ltd. In which, US$1.75 billion will pay for buying SAPETRO, and the remaining cash will be used to pay for the early operation cost.

  15. [Acquired disorders of color vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascu, Lidia; Balaş, Mihaela

    2002-01-01

    This article is a general view of acquired disorders of color vision. The revision of the best known methods and of the etiopathogenic classification is not very important in ophthalmology but on the other hand, the detection of the blue defect advertise and associated ocular pathology. There is a major interest in serious diseases as multiple sclerosis, AIDS, diabetes melitus, when the first ocular sign can be a defect in the color vision.

  16. Microencapsulation of alginate-immobilized bagasse with Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL 442: enhancement of survivability and thermotolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaharuddin, Shahrulzaman; Muhamad, Ida Idayu

    2015-03-30

    The aim of this research was to enhance the survivability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL 442 against heat exposure via a combination of immobilization and microencapsulation processes using sugarcane bagasse (SB) and sodium alginate (NaA), respectively. The microcapsules were synthesized using different alginate concentration of 1, 2 and 3% and NaA:SB ratio of 1:0, 1:1 and 1:1.5. This beneficial step of probiotic immobilization before microencapsulation significantly enhanced microencapsulation efficiency and cell survivability after heat exposure of 90°C for 30s. Interestingly, the microcapsule of SB-immobilized probiotic could obtain protection from heat using microencapsulation of NaA concentration as low as 1%. SEM images illustrated the incorporation of immobilized L. rhamnosus within alginate matrices and its changes after heat exposure. FTIR spectra confirmed the change in functional bonding in the presence of sugarcane bagasse, probiotic and alginate. The results demonstrated a great potential in the synthesis of heat resistant microcapsules for probiotic.

  17. [Cultural detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in food--potentials and limitations of diagnostic tools in the context of official food control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messelhäusser, Ute; Thärigen, Diana; Fella, Christiane; Schreiner, Hermann; Busch, Ulrich; Höller, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. rank among the most important foodborne pathogens in Germany. Therefore a necessity for rapid and routinely useable detection methods exists also in the area of food microbiology. A reliable, cultura qualitative, but also quantitative detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. pose a challenge, at least concerning special food matrices, especially because in the context of official food control the cultural detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. is needed. This was the reason, why different cultural detection methods, beside the standard procedure of ISO 10272:2006, in combination with molecular and immunological screening methods were tested at the Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority (LGL) during the last years for the use in routine diagnostic using different food matrices of animal and plant origin. The results of the comparative studies showed clearly that no enrichment broth tested gave completely satisfactory results for an only culture-based detection the combination with a screening method is therefore recommended for a rapid and reliable detection. But in this case the user should take into account that the sensitivity of such molecular and immunological methods is normally so high that in some cases, depending on the food matrix and processing step, the isolation of the pathogen would not be possible in samples, which were positive in the screening methods.

  18. Thermotolerance adaptation to human-modified habitats occurs in the native range of the invasive ant Wasmannia auropunctata before long-distance dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucaud, Julien; Rey, Olivier; Robert, Stéphanie; Crespin, Laurent; Orivel, Jérôme; Facon, Benoit; Loiseau, Anne; Jourdan, Hervé; Kenne, Martin; Masse, Paul Serge Mbenoun; Tindo, Maurice; Vonshak, Merav; Estoup, Arnaud

    2013-06-01

    Key evolutionary events associated with invasion success are traditionally thought to occur in the introduced, rather than the native range of species. In the invasive ant Wasmannia auropunctata, however, a shift in reproductive system has been demonstrated within the native range, from the sexual non-dominant populations of natural habitats to the clonal dominant populations of human-modified habitats. Because abiotic conditions of human- modified habitats are hotter and dryer, we performed lab experiments on workers from a set of native and introduced populations, to investigate whether these ecological and genetic transitions were accompanied by a change in thermotolerance and whether such changes occurred before establishment in the introduced range. Thermotolerance levels were higher in native populations from human-modified habitats than in native populations from natural habitats, but were similar in native and introduced populations from human-modified habitats. Differences in thermotolerance could not be accounted for by differences in body size. A scenario based on local adaptation in the native range before introduction in remote areas represents the most parsimonious hypothesis to account for the observed phenotypic pattern. These findings highlight the importance of human land use in explaining major contemporary evolutionary changes.

  19. Pneumonia acquired in the Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Caridad Fragoso Marchante

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A bibliographical revision of the main aspects in the diagnosis and treatment of the patients suffering from pneumonia acquired in the community is carried out. Microorganisms responsible for this type of pneumonia are mention in this paper as well as the available diagnostic methods for germs isolation. Different guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of this disease published by several medical societies and scientific institutions are analyzed by means of a review of the stratification index of the patients used in each of them. Aspects related to the duration of the treatment and the possible causes associated with the unfavorable evolution are stated.

  20. Foodborne listeriosis acquired in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Benjamin J; McCoy, Morgan H; Iwamoto, Martha; Griffin, Patricia M

    2014-08-15

    Listeriosis is characterized by bacteremia or meningitis. We searched for listeriosis case series and outbreak investigations published in English by 2013, and assessed the strength of evidence for foodborne acquisition among patients who ate hospital food. We identified 30 reports from 13 countries. Among the case series, the median proportion of cases considered to be hospital-acquired was 25% (range, 9%-67%). The median number of outbreak-related illnesses considered to be hospital-acquired was 4.0 (range, 2-16). All patients were immunosuppressed in 18 of 24 (75%) reports with available data. Eight outbreak reports with strong evidence for foodborne acquisition in a hospital implicated sandwiches (3 reports), butter, precut celery, Camembert cheese, sausage, and tuna salad (1 report each). Foodborne acquisition of listeriosis among hospitalized patients is well documented internationally. The number of listeriosis cases could be reduced substantially by establishing hospital policies for safe food preparation for immunocompromised patients and by not serving them higher-risk foods.

  1. Pruritic acquired nevus of Ota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenan, S; Strueven, V; Saxer, N; Laffitte, E; Kaya, G; Krischer, J; Hafezi, F; Le Gal, F-A

    2013-01-01

    Nevus of Ota is a unilateral, asymptomatic cutaneous and mucosal hyperpigmentation of the face that is congenital or may appear during childhood. We present a case of symptomatic acquired nevus of Ota in an adult, associated with intense pruritus, not described in the literature so far. A 32-year-old woman presented with brownish mottled macules which appeared on her face progressively over 8 days, following the distribution of the first and second divisions of the left trigeminal nerve and partially covering the iris and sclera of the left eye. She reported an intense pruritus in this area. We performed a biopsy on the left forehead, which confirmed the diagnosis of nevus of Ota. Specific stains and immunohistochemistry revealed increased numbers of mast cells. Ophthalmological tests showed acute acquired melanocytosis of the left iris and sclera. The origin of the nevus is still unclear. Several hypotheses suggest a reactivation of melanocytes during their migration from the neural crest. The pruritus reported in our patient may be explained by the increased quantity of mast cells observed in the lesion and/or neuronal stimulation of the ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the fifth cranial nerve.

  2. 痰热清注射液联合注射用头孢呋辛钠治疗痰热壅肺型社区获得性肺炎30例疗效观察%Investigation of Tanreqing injection combined with cefuroxime sodium for injection on the treatment of phlegm-heat obstructing lung syndrome in patient with community acquired pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季蓓

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察痰热清注射液联合注射用头孢呋辛钠治疗痰热壅肺型社区获得性肺炎的临床疗效。方法将60例痰热壅肺型社区获得性肺炎患者随机分为2组。治疗组30例予痰热清注射液联合注射用头孢呋辛钠治疗,对照组30例予注射用头孢呋辛钠治疗。2组疗程均为10 d。观察2组治疗前后中医症状、中医证候积分情况及临床疗效。结果2组治疗后咳嗽咳痰、气急、发热、恶心呕吐、口渴、乏力、食欲不振、全身不适、胸闷、小便短赤、便秘,舌苔黄腻及脉濡数或滑数等程度与本组治疗前比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗组在咳嗽咳痰、恶心呕吐、口渴、便秘、食欲不振、全身不适、舌苔、脉象改善方面均优于对照组(P<0.05)。2组治疗后中医证候积分均较本组治疗前减少(P<0.01),且治疗后治疗组证候积分明显低于对照组(P<0.01)。治疗组总有效率93.33%,对照组总有效率83.33%,2组总有效率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),治疗组疗效优于对照组。结论痰热清注射液联合注射用头孢呋辛钠治疗痰热壅肺型社区获得性肺炎疗效确切。%Objective To observe effect of Tanreqing injection combined with cefuroxime sodium for injec-tion on the treatment of phlegm -heat obstructing lung syndrome in patient with community acquired pneumonia . Methods Sixty patients of phlegm -heat obstructing lung syndrome with community acquired pneumonia were ran-domly divided into two groups ,30 cases of each group .The treatment group was treated with Tanreqing injection com-bined with cefuroxime sodium for injection; the control group was treated with cefuroxime sodium for injection ,10 days for a course .The curative effect before and after treatment were evaluated by observing the main traditional Chi -nese medicine symptoms and signs in two groups .Results There were

  3. Small heat-shock proteins and leaf cooling capacity account for the unusual heat tolerance of the central spike leaves in Agave tequilana var. Weber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján, Rosario; Lledías, Fernando; Martínez, Luz María; Barreto, Rita; Cassab, Gladys I; Nieto-Sotelo, Jorge

    2009-12-01

    Agaves are perennial crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants distributed in tropical and subtropical arid environments, features that are attractive for studying the heat-shock response. In agaves, the stress response can be analysed easily during leaf development, as they form a spirally shaped rosette, having the meristem surrounded by folded leaves in the centre (spike) and the unfolded and more mature leaves in the periphery. Here, we report that the spike of Agave tequilana is the most thermotolerant part of the rosette withstanding shocks of up to 55 degrees C. This finding was inconsistent with the patterns of heat-shock protein (Hsp) gene expression, as maximal accumulation of Hsp transcripts was at 44 degrees C in all sectors (spike, inner, middle and outer). However, levels of small HSP (sHSP)-CI and sHSP-CII proteins were conspicuously higher in spike leaves at all temperatures correlating with their thermotolerance. In addition, spike leaves showed a higher stomatal density and abated more efficiently their temperature several degrees below that of air. We propose that the greater capacity for leaf cooling during the day in response to heat stress, and the elevated levels of sHSPs, constitute part of a set of strategies that protect the SAM and folded leaves of A. tequilana from high temperatures.

  4. Lymphoma in acquired generalized lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebecca J; Chan, Jean L; Jaffe, Elaine S; Cochran, Elaine; DePaoli, Alex M; Gautier, Jean-Francois; Goujard, Cecile; Vigouroux, Corinne; Gorden, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Acquired generalized lipodystrophy (AGL) is a rare disease thought to result from autoimmune destruction of adipose tissue. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) has been reported in two AGL patients. We report five additional cases of lymphoma in AGL, and analyze the role of underlying autoimmunity and recombinant human leptin (metreleptin) replacement in lymphoma development. Three patients developed lymphoma during metreleptin treatment (two PTCL and one ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma), and two developed lymphomas (mycosis fungoides and Burkitt lymphoma) without metreleptin. AGL is associated with high risk for lymphoma, especially PTCL. Autoimmunity likely contributes to this risk. Lymphoma developed with or without metreleptin, suggesting metreleptin does not directly cause lymphoma development; a theoretical role of metreleptin in lymphoma progression remains possible. For most patients with AGL and severe metabolic complications, the proven benefits of metreleptin on metabolic disease will likely outweigh theoretical risks of metreleptin in lymphoma development or progression.

  5. Complement's participation in acquired immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Leslie, Robert Graham Quinton

    2002-01-01

    of the B cell receptor for antigen (BCR), a complex composed of the iC3b/C3d fragment-binding complement type 2 receptor (CR2, CD21) and its signaling element CD19 and the IgG-binding receptor FcgammaRIIb (CD32). The positive or negative outcome of signaling through this triad is determined by the context...... in which antigen is seen, be it alone or in association with natural or induced antibodies and/or C3-complement fragments. The aim of this review is to describe the present status of our understanding of complement's participation in acquired immunity and the regulation of autoimmune responses....

  6. Bejel: acquirable only in childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Bruce M; Rothschild, Christine; Naples, Virginia; Billard, Michel; Panero, Barbara

    2006-10-01

    Bejel clearly has a long history in the Middle East and the Sudan, but was it transmitted to Europe? As the major manifestation of bejel is presence of periosteal reaction in 20-40% of afflicted populations, absence of significant population frequency of periosteal reaction in Europe would exclude that diagnosis. Examination of skeletal populations from continental Europe revealed no significant periosteal reaction at the time of and immediately subsequent to the Crusades. Thus, there is no evidence for bejel in Europe, in spite of clear contact (the mechanism of bejel transmission in children) between warring groups, at least during the Crusades. This supports the hypothesis that bejel is a childhood-acquired disease and apparently cannot be contracted in adulthood.

  7. Exploring the high lipid production potential of a thermotolerant microalga using statistical optimization and semi-continuous cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shih-Hsin; Chen, Ching-Nen Nathan; Lai, Yen-Ying; Lu, Wei-Bin; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2014-07-01

    A recently isolated thermotolerant microalga Desmodesmus sp. F2 has the traits of becoming potential biodiesel feedstock, such as high growth rate, high lipid content, and quick precipitation. Its overall lipid productivity was 113 mg/L/d when grown under non-optimal conditions using batch cultivation. A two-step response surface methodology was adopted to optimize its cultivation conditions. The overall lipid productivity was increased to 263 mg/L/d when the cells were grown under the optimized conditions of 6.6mM initial nitrogen level and 6 days nitrogen depletion treatment in 700 μmol/m(2)/s light intensity at 35°C using batch cultivation. Fed-batch and semi-continuous cultivations were employed to further increase its lipid productivity to 213 and 302 mg/L/d, respectively. The 302 mg/L/d is the highest overall lipid productivity of microalgae ever reported in the literature. This study provides the information required for the design and operation of photobioreactors for large scale outdoor cultivation of this species.

  8. Achieving high lipid productivity of a thermotolerant microalga Desmodesmus sp. F2 by optimizing environmental factors and nutrient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shih-Hsin; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lai, Yen-Ying; Chen, Ching-Nen Nathan

    2014-03-01

    The optimal conditions for cultivating the thermotolerant lipid-rich microalga Desmodesmus sp. F2 to achieve maximal lipid productivity were determined in this study. The conditions were light intensity, 700μmol/m(2)s; temperature, 35°C; cultivation nitrogen source, nitrate; initial nitrogen level, 6.6mM nitrogen. Carbon dioxide (2.5%, 0.2 vvm) was pumped into the cultures continuously. In the pre-optimized conditions, the maximal lipid productivity of this microalga was 113mg/L/d, which was raised to 263mg/L/d in the optimized conditions. This level of lipid productivity of microalgae is the highest ever reported in the literature. Fatty acid composition of the lipid produced by Desmodesmus sp. F2 in the optimal conditions was determined, in which C16 and C18 species accounted for 95% of the fatty acids. Saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids accounted for 38.9%, 33.1% and 22.6%, respectively. Based on the analysis, this lipid quality makes it a good feedstock for biodiesel production.

  9. Number of residual thermotolerant coliforms on plants and in soil when using reclaimed domestic wastewater for irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamkure, Sasirot; Cervantes, Edmundo Peña; Zermeño González, Alejandro; Cervantes, Rubén López; Melo, Prócoro Gamero; Ramírez, Homero

    2013-01-01

    The reclamation of domestic wastewater for irrigation is one alternative approach to solve the water scarcity crisis, but it is essential to control the microbiological quality of wastewater used for irrigation. The removal of thermotolerant coliforms, also known as faecal coliforms (FC), from treated domestic wastewater by intermittent media infiltration (IMI) in column was studied. The columns were filled with natural filter media (soil, soil/charcoal and zinc-modified zeolite, Zeo-Zn), and wastewater, IMI-treated wastewater and disinfected wastewater were compared. The numbers of residual FC on Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris) and in agricultural soil were determined over a 4-month period. The column using Zeo-Zn had a higher FC removal efficiency (2.98 log) than columns with other filter media and disinfection (1.87-2.57 log) due to the bactericidal properties of Zn(2+). The treatment of wastewater using Zeo-Zn and disinfection both decreased the accumulation of FC on plants and in soil to approximately 1-20 MPN/g dry matter. IMI-treated wastewater using the column with Zeo-Zn was suitable for unrestricted agricultural use, complied with Mexican regulations (as did disinfected wastewater) and had a low risk of FC contamination of plants and soil.

  10. Direct ethanol production from cellulosic materials at high temperature using the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus displaying cellulolytic enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanase, Shuhei; Yamada, Ryosuke; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Fukuda, Hideki [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Organization of Advanced Science and Technology

    2010-09-15

    To exploit cellulosic materials for fuel ethanol production, a microorganism capable of high temperature and simultaneous saccharification-fermentation has been required. However, a major drawback is the optimum temperature for the saccharification and fermentation. Most ethanol-fermenting microbes have an optimum temperature for ethanol fermentation ranging between 28 C and 37 C, while the activity of cellulolytic enzymes is highest at around 50 C and significantly decreases with a decrease in temperature. Therefore, in the present study, a thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus, which has high growth and fermentation at elevated temperatures, was used as a producer of ethanol from cellulose. The strain was genetically engineered to display Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase and Aspergillus aculeatus {beta}-glucosidase on the cell surface, which successfully converts a cellulosic {beta}-glucan to ethanol directly at 48 C with a yield of 4.24 g/l from 10 g/l within 12 h. The yield (in grams of ethanol produced per gram of {beta}-glucan consumed) was 0.47 g/g, which corresponds to 92.2% of the theoretical yield. This indicates that high-temperature cellulose fermentation to ethanol can be efficiently accomplished using a recombinant K. marxianus strain displaying thermostable cellulolytic enzymes on the cell surface. (orig.)

  11. Selection of a thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus strain with potential application for cellulosic ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Rafael Cunha A; Roberto, Inês C

    2014-02-01

    The development of technologies for cellulosic ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) depends on the use of microorganisms with high fermentative rates and thermotolerance. In this study, the ability of five Kluyveromyces marxianus strains to produce ethanol from glucose at 45 °C was investigated. The highest fermentative parameters were observed with K. marxianus NRRL Y-6860, which was then further studied. An initial evaluation of the oxygen supply on ethanol production by the selected yeast and a comparison of SSF process from acid pretreated rice straw between K. marxianus NRRL Y-6860 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 30 and 45 °C were carried out. Under the lowest evaluated conditions of aeration and agitation, K. marxianus NRRL Y-6860 produced 21.5 g/L ethanol from 51.3 g/L glucose corresponding to YP/S of 0.44 g/g and QP of 3.63 g/L h. In the SSF experiments, K. marxianus NRRL Y-6860 was more efficient than S. cerevisiae at both evaluated temperatures (30 and 45 °C), attained at the highest temperature an ethanol yield of 0.24 g/g and productivity of 1.44 g/L h.

  12. Production of Ethanol by Indigenous Wild and Mutant Strain of Thermotolerant Kluyveromyces Marxianus Under Optimized Fermentation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Aziz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The maximum ethanol production and β-fructofuranocidase formation under fermentation studies were carried out in microprocessor controlled 23-L stainless steel fermenter at the following conditions: Temp = 40 ˚C (wild &mutant organism , pH= 5.5, carbon source (molasses=15% sugar nitrogen source (ammonium sulphate 0.75%, 300 RPM stirring speed and oxygen flow rate was 0.1 vvm. Mutant. Strain of thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus M15 produced maximum production of ethanol at 48hr.All Kinetic Parameters have been studied for the utilization of substrate and production of maximum ethanol for both wild and mutant strains. It has been observed that wild strain was growing up to 550C while the mutant strain was growing up to 650C. In this comparison study, wild and mutant strain showed that Mutant-derived M15 was stronger over its parental culture due to its more thermal stability and production of ethanol at 65 oC at which wild organism could not grow.

  13. Identification and characterization of thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria strains isolated from coconut water vinegar in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumpuli, P A B N; Watanabe, Taisuke; Toyama, Hirohide

    2014-01-01

    From the pellicle formed on top of brewing coconut water vinegar in Sri Lanka, three Acetobacter strains (SL13E-2, SL13E-3, and SL13E-4) that grow at 42 °C and four Gluconobacter strains (SL13-5, SL13-6, SL13-7, and SL13-8) grow at 37 °C were identified as Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii, respectively. Acetic acid production by the isolated Acetobacter strains was examined. All three strains gave 4% acetic acid from 6% initial ethanol at 37 °C, and 2.5% acetic acid from 4% initial ethanol at 40 °C. Compared with the two other strains, SL13E-4 showed both slower growth and slower acetic acid production. As well as the thermotolerant SKU1108 strain, the activities of the alcohol dehydrogenase and the aldehyde dehydrogenase of SL13E-2 and SL13E-4 were more stable than those of the mesophilic strain. The isolated strains were used to produce coconut water vinegar at higher temperatures than typically used for vinegar production.

  14. 12 CFR 583.1 - Acquire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.1 Acquire. The term acquire means to acquire, directly or indirectly, ownership or control through an acquisition of shares, an acquisition of assets or assumption of liabilities, a merger or consolidation, or any similar transaction....

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with thermoregulation in lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, S; Wang, X-z; Ortega, M S; Cole, J B; Null, D J; Hansen, P J

    2015-12-01

    Dairy cows with increased rectal temperature experience lower milk yield and fertility. Rectal temperature during heat stress is heritable, so genetic selection for body temperature regulation could reduce effects of heat stress on production. One aim of the study was to validate the relationship between genotype and heat tolerance for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with resistance to heat stress. A second aim was to identify new SNPs associated with heat stress resistance. Thermotolerance was assessed in lactating Holsteins during the summer by measuring rectal temperature (a direct measurement of body temperature regulation; n = 435), respiration rate (an indirect measurement of body temperature regulation, n = 450) and sweating rate (the major evaporative cooling mechanism in cattle, n = 455). The association between genotype and thermotolerance was evaluated for 19 SNPs previously associated with rectal temperature from a genomewide analysis study (GWAS), four SNPs previously associated with change in milk yield during heat stress from GWAS, 2 candidate gene SNPs previously associated with rectal temperature and respiration rate during heat stress (ATPA1A and HSP70A) and 66 SNPs in genes previously shown to be associated with reproduction, production or health traits in Holsteins. For SNPs previously associated with heat tolerance, regions of BTA4, BTA6 and BTA24 were associated with rectal temperature; regions of BTA6 and BTA24 were associated with respiration rate; and regions of BTA5, BTA26 and BTA29 were associated with sweating rate. New SNPs were identified for rectal temperature (n = 12), respiration rate (n = 8) and sweating rate (n = 3) from among those previously associated with production, reproduction or health traits. The SNP that explained the most variation were PGR and ASL for rectal temperature, ACAT2 and HSD17B7 for respiration rate, and ARL6IP1 and SERPINE2 for sweating rate. ARL6IP1 was associated with all three

  16. Dissecting the proteome dynamics of the early heat stress response leading to plant survival or death in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarría-Zomeño, Sira; Fernández-Calvino, Lourdes; Castro-Sanz, Ana B; López, Juan Antonio; Vázquez, Jesús; Castellano, M Mar

    2016-06-01

    In many plant species, an exposure to a sublethal temperature triggers an adaptative response called acclimation. This response involves an extensive molecular reprogramming that allows the plant to further survive to an otherwise lethal increase of temperature. A related response is also launched under an abrupt and lethal heat stress that, in this case, is unable to successfully promote thermotolerance and therefore ends up in plant death. Although these molecular programmes are expected to have common players, the overlapping degree and the specific regulators of each process are currently unknown. We have carried out a high-throughput comparative proteomics analysis during acclimation and during the early stages of the plant response to a severe heat stress that lead Arabidopsis seedlings either to survival or death. This analysis dissects these responses, unravels the common players and identifies the specific proteins associated with these different fates. Thermotolerance assays of mutants in genes with an uncharacterized role in heat stress demonstrate the relevance of this study to uncover both positive and negative heat regulators and pinpoint a pivotal role of JR1 and BAG6 in heat tolerance.

  17. Inherited or acquired metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Florian; Ratai, Eva; Carroll, Jason J; Masdeu, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    This chapter starts with a description of imaging of inherited metabolic disorders, followed by a discussion on imaging of acquired toxic-metabolic disorders of the adult brain. Neuroimaging is crucial for the diagnosis and management of a number of inherited metabolic disorders. Among these, inherited white-matter disorders commonly affect both the nervous system and endocrine organs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has enabled new classifications of these disorders that have greatly enhanced both our diagnostic ability and our understanding of these complex disorders. Beyond the classic leukodystrophies, we are increasingly recognizing new hereditary leukoencephalopathies such as the hypomyelinating disorders. Conventional imaging can be unrevealing in some metabolic disorders, but proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) may be able to directly visualize the metabolic abnormality in certain disorders. Hence, neuroimaging can enhance our understanding of pathogenesis, even in the absence of a pathologic specimen. This review aims to present pathognomonic brain MRI lesion patterns, the diagnostic capacity of proton MRS, and information from clinical and laboratory testing that can aid diagnosis. We demonstrate that applying an advanced neuroimaging approach enhances current diagnostics and management. Additional information on inherited and metabolic disorders of the brain can be found in Chapter 63 in the second volume of this series.

  18. 17 CFR 210.8-04 - Financial statements of businesses acquired or to be acquired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... businesses acquired or to be acquired. (a) If a business combination has occurred or is probable, financial... section. The required financial statements of related businesses may be presented on a combined basis for... financial statements of the business acquired or to be acquired and the smaller reporting company's...

  19. Decontamination of drinking water by direct heating in solar panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjendbo Jørgensen, A J; Nøhr, K; Sørensen, H; Boisen, F

    1998-09-01

    A device was developed for direct heating of water by solar radiation in a flow-through system of copper pipes. An adjustable thermostat valve prevents water below the chosen temperature from being withdrawn. The results show that it is possible to eliminate coliform and thermotolerant coliform bacteria from naturally contaminated river water by heating to temperatures of 65 degrees C or above. Artificial additions of Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli to contaminated river water were also inactivated after heating to 65 degrees C and above. The total viable count could be reduced by a factor of 1000. The heat-resistant bacteria isolated from the Mlalakuva River (Tanzania) were spore-forming bacteria which exhibited greater heat resistance than commonly used test bacteria originating from countries with colder climates. To provide a good safety margin it is recommended that an outlet water temperature of 75 degrees C be used. At that temperature the daily production was about 501 of decontaminated water per m2 of solar panel, an amount that could be doubled by using a heat exchanger to recycle the heat.

  20. Enrichment followed by quantitative PCR both for rapid detection and as a tool for quantitative risk assessment of food-borne thermotolerant campylobacters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Jacobsen, N. R.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    naturally contaminated chicken samples, which indicates PCR's additional potential as a tool for quantitative risk assessment. Signal from the internal amplification control was detected in all culture-negative samples (VIC Ct: 23.1 to 28.1). The method will be taken further and validated......As part of a large international project for standardization of PCR (Food-PCR; www.pcr.dk), a multiplex, multiplatform, ready-to-go enrichment followed by a real-time PCR method, including an internal amplification control, was developed for detection of food-borne thermotolerant campylobacters...

  1. Expression of C-5 sterol desaturase from an edible mushroom in fisson yeast enhances its ethanol and thermotolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamthan, Ayushi; Kamthan, Mohan; Datta, Asis

    2017-01-01

    Bioethanol is an environment friendly and renewable source of energy produced by the fermentation of agricultural raw material by a variety of microorganisms including yeast. Obtaining yeast strains that are tolerant to stresses like high levels of ethanol and high temperature is highly desirable as it reduces cost and increases yield during bioethanol production. Here, we report that heterologous expression of C-5 Sterol desaturase (FvC5SD)-an ergosterol biosynthesis enzyme from an edible mushroom Flammulina velutipes in fission yeast, not only imparts increased thermotolerance but also tolerance towards high ethanol concentration and low pH. This tolerance could be attributed to an increase of ≈1.5 fold in the level of ergosterol and oleic acid (C-18 unsaturated fatty acid) as analysed by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry. FvC5SD is a membrane localized iron binding enzyme that introduces double bond at C-5 position into the Δ7-sterol substrates to yield Δ5, 7- sterols as products. In F. velutipes, FvC5SD transcript was observed to be upregulated by ≈5 fold under low pH condition and by ≈ 9 folds and ≈5 fold at 40°C and 4°C respectively when compared to normal growth temperature of 23°C. Besides, susceptibility to cell wall inhibiting drugs like Congo red and Calcoflour white was also found to increase in FvC5SD expressing S. pombe strain. Alteration in membrane sterol and fatty acid composition could also lead to increase in susceptibility to cell wall inhibiting drugs. Thus, this study has immense industrial application and can be employed to ensure competitiveness of fermentation process.

  2. ADPase activity of recombinantly expressed thermotolerant ATPases may be caused by copurification of adenylate kinase of Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baoyu; Sysoeva, Tatyana A.; Chowdhury, Saikat; Guo, Liang; Nixon, B.Tracy; (IIT); (Penn)

    2009-10-06

    Except for apyrases, ATPases generally target only the {gamma}-phosphate of a nucleotide. Some non-apyrase ATPases from thermophilic microorganisms are reported to hydrolyze ADP as well as ATP, which has been described as a novel property of the ATPases from extreme thermophiles. Here, we describe an apparent ADP hydrolysis by highly purified preparations of the AAA+ ATPase NtrC1 from an extremely thermophilic bacterium, Aquifex aeolicus. This activity is actually a combination of the activities of the ATPase and contaminating adenylate kinase (AK) from Escherichia coli, which is present at 1/10 000 of the level of the ATPase. AK catalyzes conversion of two molecules of ADP into AMP and ATP, the latter being a substrate for the ATPase. We raise concern that the observed thermotolerance of E. coli AK and its copurification with thermostable proteins by commonly used methods may confound studies of enzymes that specifically catalyze hydrolysis of nucleoside diphosphates or triphosphates. For example, contamination with E. coli AK may be responsible for reported ADPase activities of the ATPase chaperonins from Pyrococcus furiosus, Pyrococcus horikoshii, Methanococcus jannaschii and Thermoplasma acidophilum; the ATP/ADP-dependent DNA ligases from Aeropyrum pernix K1 and Staphylothermus marinus; or the reported ATP-dependent activities of ADP-dependent phosphofructokinase of P. furiosus. Purification methods developed to separate NtrC1 ATPase from AK also revealed two distinct forms of the ATPase. One is tightly bound to ADP or GDP and able to bind to Q but not S ion exchange matrixes. The other is nucleotide-free and binds to both Q and S ion exchange matrixes.

  3. Purification, characterization, and overexpression of an endo-1,4-β-mannanase from thermotolerant Bacillus sp. SWU60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seesom, Weeranuch; Thongket, Polphet; Yamamoto, Tomohiro; Takenaka, Shigeo; Sakamoto, Tatsuji; Sukhumsirichart, Wasana

    2017-03-01

    Endo-β-1,4-mannanases are important catalytic agents in several industries. The enzymes randomly cleave the β-1,4-linkage in the mannan backbone and release short β-1,4-mannooligosaccharides and mannose. In the present study, mannanase (ManS2) from thermotolerant Bacillus sp. SWU60 was purified, characterized, and its gene was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. ManS2 was purified from culture filtrate (300 ml) by using hydrophobic, ion-exchange, and size-exclusive liquid chromatography. The apparent molecular mass was 38 kDa. Optimal pH and temperature for enzyme activity were 6.0 and 60 °C, respectively. The enzyme was stable up to 60 °C for 1 h and at pH 5-9 at 4 °C for 16 h. Its enzyme activity was inhibited by Hg(2+). The full-length mans2 gene was 1,008 bp, encoding a protein of 336 amino acids. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that it belonged to glycoside hydrolase family 26. Konjac glucomannan was a favorable substrate for recombinant ManS2 (rManS2). rManS2 also degraded galactomannan from locust bean gum, indicating its potential for production of glucomanno- and galactomanno-oligosaccharides. Both native and recombinant ManS2 from Bacillus sp. SWU60 can be applied in several industries especially food and feed.

  4. NADPH-Thioredoxin Reductase C Mediates the Response to Oxidative Stress and Thermotolerance in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Riego, Ana M; Mata-Cabana, Alejandro; Galmozzi, Carla V; Florencio, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    NADPH-thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC) is a bimodular enzyme composed of an NADPH-thioredoxin reductase and a thiioredoxin domain extension in the same protein. In plants, NTRC has been described to be involved in the protection of the chloroplast against oxidative stress damage through reduction of the 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (2-Cys Prx) as well as through other functions related to redox enzyme regulation. In cyanobacteria, the Anabaena NTRC has been characterized in vitro, however, nothing was known about its in vivo function. In order to study that, we have generated the first knockout mutant strain (ΔntrC), apart from the previously described in Arabidopsis. Detailed characterization of this strain reveals a differential sensitivity to oxidative stress treatments with respect to the wild-type Anabaena strain, including a higher level of ROS (reactive oxygen species) in normal growth conditions. In the mutant strain, different oxidative stress treatments such as hydrogen peroxide, methyl-viologen or high light irradiance provoke an increase in the expression of genes related to ROS detoxification, including AnNTRC and peroxiredoxin genes, with a concomitant increase in the amount of AnNTRC and 2-Cys Prx. Moreover, the role of AnNTRC in the antioxidant response is confirmed by the observation of a pronounced overoxidation of the 2-Cys Prx and a time-delay recovery of the reduced form of this protein upon oxidative stress treatments. Our results suggest the participation of this enzyme in the peroxide detoxification in Anabaena. In addition, we describe the role of Anabaena NTRC in thermotolerance, by the appearance of high molecular mass AnNTRC complexes, showing that the mutant strain is more sensitive to high temperature treatments.

  5. NADPH-thioredoxin reductase C mediates the response to oxidative stress and thermotolerance in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARÍA SÁNCHEZ-RIEGO

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available NTRC (NADPH-thioredoxin reductase C is a bimodular enzyme composed of an NADPH-thioredoxin reductase and a thioredoxin domain extension in the same protein. In plants, NTRC has been described to be involved in the protection of the chloroplast against oxidative stress damage through reduction of the 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (2-Cys Prx as well as through other functions related to redox enzyme regulation. In cyanobacteria, the Anabaena NTRC has been characterized in vitro, however nothing was known about its in vivo function. In order to study that, we have generated the first knockout mutant strain (∆ntrC, apart from the previously described in Arabidopsis. Detailed characterization of this strain reveals a differential sensitivity to oxidative stress treatments with respect to the wild-type Anabaena strain, including a higher level of ROS (reactive oxygen species in normal growth conditions. In the mutant strain, different oxidative stress treatments such as hydrogen peroxide, methyl-viologen or high light irradiance provoke an increase in the expression of genes related to ROS detoxification, including AnNTRC and peroxiredoxin genes, with a concomitant increase in the amount of AnNTRC and 2-Cys Prx. Moreover, the role of AnNTRC in the antioxidant response is confirmed by the observation of a pronounced overoxidation of the 2-Cys Prx and a time-delay recovery of the reduced form of this protein upon oxidative stress treatments. Our results suggest the participation of this enzyme in the peroxide detoxification in Anabaena. In addition, we describe the role of Anabaena NTRC in thermotolerance, by the appearance of high molecular mass AnNTRC complexes, showing that the mutant strain is more sensitive to high temperature treatments.

  6. Cryptosporidiosis in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, D A; Wodak, A; Marriot, D J; Harkness, J L; Ralston, M; Hill, A; Penny, R

    1984-10-01

    Cryptosporidiosis was found in a patient with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The microbiological and morphological features of this newly recognized opportunistic infection are distinctive and diagnostic.

  7. Comparison and Recovery of Escherichia coli and Thermotolerant Coliforms in Water with a Chromogenic Medium Incubated at 41 and 44.5°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jose L.; Soriano, Adela; Carbajo, Oscar; Amoros, Inmaculada; Garelick, Hemda

    1999-01-01

    This study compared the performance of a commercial chromogenic medium, CHROMagarECC (CECC), and CECC supplemented with sodium pyruvate (CECCP) with the membrane filtration lauryl sulfate-based medium (mLSA) for enumeration of Escherichia coli and non-E. coli thermotolerant coliforms (KEC). To establish that we could recover the maximum KEC and E. coli population, we compared two incubation temperature regimens, 41 and 44.5°C. Statistical analysis by the Fisher test of data did not demonstrate any statistically significant differences (P = 0.05) in the enumeration of E. coli for the different media (CECC and CECCP) and incubation temperatures. Variance analysis of data performed on KEC counts showed significant differences (P = 0.01) between KEC counts at 41 and 44.5°C on both CECC and CECCP. Analysis of variance demonstrated statistically significant differences (P = 0.05) in the enumeration of total thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) on CECC and CECCP compared with mLSA. Target colonies were confirmed to be E. coli at a rate of 91.5% and KEC of likely fecal origin at a rate of 77.4% when using CECCP incubated at 41°C. The results of this study showed that CECCP agar incubated at 41°C is efficient for the simultaneous enumeration of E. coli and KEC from river and marine waters. PMID:10427079

  8. A novel thermotolerant Pediococcus acidilactici B-25 strain for color, COD, and BOD reduction of distillery effluent for end use applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Soni; Rai, Priyanka; Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Gaur, Rajeeva

    2013-06-01

    The present study was aimed to characterize physico-chemical and microbial population of distillery effluent and isolate a novel thermotolerant bacterium for color, COD, and BOD reduction of spentwash. The level of alkalinity, TSS, DO, COD, BOD, TN, ammonical nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, chloride, and calcium of spentwash (SW), bioreactor effluent (BE), and secondary treated effluent (STE) were well above the permissible limits. The level of color, TS, and TDS were under the permissible limits for STE but not for SW and BE. The microbial population was higher in BE. The results revealed that effluent was highly polluted and require suitable treatment before discharge. A novel thermotolerant bacterium, identified as Pediococcus acidilactici, was isolated which exhibited maximum 79 % decolorization, 85 % COD, and 94 % BOD reduction at 45 °C using 0.1 %, glucose; 0.1 %, peptone; 0.05 %, MgSO4; 0.05 %, K2HPO4; pH 6.0 within 24 h under static condition. The ability of this strain to decolorize melanoidin at minimum carbon and nitrogen supplementation warrants its possible application for effluent treatment at industrial level. In addition, it is first instance when melanoidin decolorization was reported by P. acidilactici. This study could be an approach towards control of environmental pollution and health hazards of people in and around the effluent distillery unit.

  9. And the Winner is – Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Joachim; Rønde, Thomas; Wagner, Marcus

    value in case of success—that is, a more radical innovation. In the second stage, successful entrants bid to be acquired by the incumbent. We assume that entrants cannot survive on their own, so being acquired amounts to a ‘prize’ in a contest. We identify an equilibrium in which the incumbent chooses...

  10. An efficient thermotolerant and halophilic biosurfactant-producing bacterium isolated from Dagang oil field for MEOR application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Langping; Richnow, Hans; Yao, Jun; Jain, Anil

    2014-05-01

    Dagang Oil field (Petro China Company Limited) is one of the most productive oil fields in China. In this study, 34 biosurfactant-producing strains were isolated and cultured from petroleum reservoir of Dagang oil field, using haemolytic assay and the qualitative oil-displacement test. On the basis of 16S rDNA analysis, the isolates were closely related to the species in genus Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Bacillus. One of the isolates identified as Bacillus subtilis BS2 were selected for further study. This bacterium was able to produce a type of biosurfactant with excessive foam-forming properties at 37ºC as well as at higher temperature of 55ºC. The biosurfactant produced by the strain BS2 could reduce the surface tension of the culture broth from 70.87 mN/m to 28.97 mN/m after 8 days of incubation at 37ºC and to 36.15 mN/m after 20 days of incubation at 55ºC, respectively. The biosurfactant showed stability at high temperature (up to 120ºC), a wide range of pH (2 to 12) and salt concentrations (up to 12%) offering potential for biotechnology. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of extracted biosurfactant tentatively characterized the produced biosurfactant as glycolipid derivative. Elemental analysis of the biosurfactant by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) reveals that the biosurfactant was anionic in nature. 15 days of biodegradation of crude oil suggested a preferential usage of n-alkane upon microbial metabolism of BS2 as a carbon substrate and consequently also for the synthesis of biosurfactants. Core flood studies for oil release indicated 9.6% of additional oil recovery over water flooding at 37ºC and 7.2% of additional oil recovery at 55 ºC. Strain BS2 was characterized as an efficient biosurfactant-producing, thermotolerant and halophillic bacterium and has the potential for application for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) through water flooding in China's oil fields even in situ as adapted to reservoir chemistry and

  11. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DATA COLLECTION, REPORTING AND RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire....

  12. Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In October 2014, CMS began reducing Medicare payments for subsection (d) hospitals that rank in the worst performing quartile with respect to hospital-acquired...

  13. Enhancing Medicares Hospital Acquired Conditions Policy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The current Medicare policy of non-payment to hospitals for Hospital Acquired Conditions (HAC) seeks to avoid payment for preventable complications identified within...

  14. Acquiring Evolving Technologies: Web Services Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    2006 Carnegie Mellon University Acquiring Evolving Technologies: Web Services Standards Harry L. Levinson Software Engineering Institute Carnegie...Acquiring Evolving Technologies: Web Services Standards 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...NUMBER OF PAGES 22 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form

  15. Acquired uniparental disomy in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Score, Joannah; Cross, Nicholas C P

    2012-10-01

    The finding of somatically acquired uniparental disomy, where both copies of a chromosome pair or parts of chromosomes have originated from one parent, has led to the discovery of several novel mutated genes in myeloproliferative neoplasms and related disorders. This article examines how the development of single nucleotide polymorphism array technology has facilitated the identification of regions of acquired uniparental disomy and has led to a much greater understanding of the molecular pathology of these heterogeneous diseases.

  16. Acquiring Secure Systems Through Information Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Acquiring Secure Systems Through Information Economics Chad Dacus Research Professor of Defense Economics Air Force Research Institute Dr. Pano...to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acquiring Secure Systems Through Information Economics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...If adversary can hack into mission essential software/hardware, then mission is compromised • Mission assurance requires materiel solutions, educated

  17. Acquired pure red cell aplasia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata R Dafale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired Pure Red Cell Aplasia (PRCA is a rare occurrence in children.This is a case of an eight year old girl child who developed acquired PRCA secondary to long term intake of sodium Valproate. This case is reported to review the causes of PRCA in children and to reconsider the use of drugs of longer duration in children and adults.

  18. Heating automation

    OpenAIRE

    Tomažič, Tomaž

    2013-01-01

    This degree paper presents usage and operation of peripheral devices with microcontroller for heating automation. The main goal is to make a quality system control for heating three house floors and with that, increase efficiency of heating devices and lower heating expenses. Heat pump, furnace, boiler pump, two floor-heating pumps and two radiator pumps need to be controlled by this system. For work, we have chosen a development kit stm32f4 - discovery with five temperature sensors, LCD disp...

  19. Sensing the Heat Stress by Mammalian Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cates Jordan

    2011-08-01

    consecutive shocks (i.e., no recovery time in between shocks depends on the order of the input shocks, that is the shocks do not commute; (ii the responses may be classified as mild or severe, depending on the temperature level and the duration of the heat shock and (iii the response is highly sensitive to small variations in temperature. Conclusions We propose a mathematical model that maps temperature into the transient activity using experimental data that describes the time course of the response to input thermal stress. The model is built on thermotolerance without recovery time, sharp sensitivity to small variations in temperature and the existence of mild and severe classes of stress responses. The theoretical predictions are tested against experimental data using a series of double-shock inputs. The theoretical structure is represented by a sequence of three cascade processes that transform the input stress into the transient activity. The structure of the cascade is nonlinear-linear-nonlinear (NLN. The first nonlinear system (N from the NLN structure represents the amplification of small changes in the environmental temperature; the linear system (L represents the thermotolerance without recovery time, whereas the last system (N represents the transition of the cell's response from a mild to a severe shock.

  20. Heat exchanger leakage problem location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent compact heat exchangers are very often assembled from numerous parts joined together to separate heat transfer fluids and to form the required heat exchanger arrangement. Therefore, the leak tightness is very important property of the compact heat exchangers. Although, the compact heat exchangers have been produced for many years, there are still technological problems associated with manufacturing of the ideal connection between the individual parts, mainly encountered with special purpose heat exchangers, e.g. gas turbine recuperators. This paper describes a procedure used to identify the leakage location inside the prime surface gas turbine recuperator. For this purpose, an analytical model of the leaky gas turbine recuperator was created to assess its performance. The results obtained are compared with the experimental data which were acquired during the recuperator thermal performance analysis. The differences between these two data sets are used to indicate possible leakage areas.

  1. Heat exchanger leakage problem location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejčík, Jiří; Jícha, Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Recent compact heat exchangers are very often assembled from numerous parts joined together to separate heat transfer fluids and to form the required heat exchanger arrangement. Therefore, the leak tightness is very important property of the compact heat exchangers. Although, the compact heat exchangers have been produced for many years, there are still technological problems associated with manufacturing of the ideal connection between the individual parts, mainly encountered with special purpose heat exchangers, e.g. gas turbine recuperators. This paper describes a procedure used to identify the leakage location inside the prime surface gas turbine recuperator. For this purpose, an analytical model of the leaky gas turbine recuperator was created to assess its performance. The results obtained are compared with the experimental data which were acquired during the recuperator thermal performance analysis. The differences between these two data sets are used to indicate possible leakage areas.

  2. Heat Transfer Basics and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Böckh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The book provides an easy way to understand the fundamentals of heat transfer. The reader will acquire the ability to design and analyze heat exchangers. Without extensive derivation of the fundamentals, the latest correlations for heat transfer coefficients and their application are discussed. The following topics are presented - Steady state and transient heat conduction - Free and forced convection - Finned surfaces - Condensation and boiling - Radiation - Heat exchanger design - Problem-solving After introducing the basic terminology, the reader is made familiar with the different mechanisms of heat transfer. Their practical application is demonstrated in examples, which are available in the Internet as MathCad files for further use. Tables of material properties and formulas for their use in programs are included in the appendix. This book will serve as a valuable resource for both students and engineers in the industry. The author’s experience indicates that students, after 40 lectures and exercises ...

  3. 中国耐热真菌三个新记录种%Three new records of thermotolerant fungi from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 李多川

    2011-01-01

    报道3个耐热真菌中国新记录种,瘤突毛壳Chaetomium strumarium,耐热梭孢壳Thielavia subthermophila,榛色钩囊菌Hamigera avellanea.根据所采集的标本和菌种对这些种进行了描述和讨论.研究标本保存在山东农业大学植物病理学标本室(HSAUP).%Three new Chinese records of thermotolerant fungi are reported,they are Chaetomium strumarium,Thielavia subthermophila and Hamigera avellanea.Illustrated descriptions of the species were given according to our strains,and their taxonomy was discussed.Specimens and living cultures examined arc deposited in the Herbarium of Shandong Agricultural University,Plant Pathology(HSAUP).

  4. A collaborative study on a Nordic standard protocol for detection and enumeration of thermotolerant Campylobacter in food (NMKL 119, 3. Ed., 2007)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Bengtsson, Anja; Hansen, Tina Beck

    2007-01-01

    A Nordic standard protocol for detection and enumeration of thermotolerant Campylobacter in food has been elaborated (NMKL 119, 3. Ed., 2007). Performance and precision characteristics of this protocol were evaluated in a collaborative study with participation of 14 laboratories from seven European...... countries. The laboratories performed qualitative, semi-quantitative and quantitative analyses on samples of chicken meat, cut lettuce, and milk artificially inoculated with different concentrations including blank duplicates of one strain of Campylobacter coli (SLV-27 1) and one strain of Campylobacter...... jejuni (SLV-542). Expected concentrations (95% C.I.) (cfu g(-1) or ml(-1)) of both strains in matrices were 0.6-1.4 and 23-60 for qualitative detection, and 0.6-1.4; 23-60; and 420-1200 for semi-quantitative detection. For quantitative determination, the expected concentrations of C. jejuni/C. coli were...

  5. Adaptation to thermotolerance in Rhizopus coincides with virulence as revealed by avian and invertebrate infection models, phylogeny, physiological and metabolic flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaerger, Kerstin; Schwartze, Volker U; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Nyilasi, Ildikó; Kovács, Stella A; Binder, Ulrike; Papp, Tamás; Hoog, Sybren de; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Voigt, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Mucormycoses are fungal infections caused by the ancient Mucorales. They are rare, but increasingly reported. Predisposing conditions supporting and favoring mucormycoses in humans and animals include diabetic ketoacidosis, immunosuppression and haematological malignancies. However, comprehensive surveys to elucidate fungal virulence in ancient fungi are limited and so far focused on Lichtheimia and Mucor. The presented study focused on one of the most important causative agent of mucormycoses, the genus Rhizopus (Rhizopodaceae). All known clinically-relevant species are thermotolerant and are monophyletic. They are more virulent compared to non-clinically, mesophilic species. Although adaptation to elevated temperatures correlated with the virulence of the species, mesophilic strains showed also lower virulence in Galleria mellonella incubated at permissive temperatures indicating the existence of additional factors involved in the pathogenesis of clinical Rhizopus species. However, neither specific adaptation to nutritional requirements nor stress resistance correlated with virulence, supporting the idea that Mucorales are predominantly saprotrophs without a specific adaptation to warm blooded hosts.

  6. Heat and pulsed electric field resistance of pigmented and non-pigmented enterotoxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus in exponential and stationary phase of growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrián, G; Sagarzazu, N; Pagán, R; Condón, S; Mañas, P

    2007-09-30

    The survival of four enterotoxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus (with different pigment content) to heat and to pulsed electric fields (PEF) treatments, and the increase in resistance to both processing stresses associated with entrance into stationary phase was examined. Survival curves to heat (58 degrees C) and to PEF (26 kV/cm) of cells in the stationary and in the exponential phase of growth were obtained. Whereas a wide variation in resistance to heat treatments was detected amongst the four strains, with decimal reduction time values at 58 degrees C (D(58 degrees C)) ranging from 0.93 to 0.20 min, the resistance to PEF was very similar. The occurrence of a higher tolerance to heat in stationary phase was coincident with a higher content in carotenoid pigmentation in S. aureus colonies. However, cells of the most heat resistant (pigmented) and the most heat sensitive (non-pigmented) strains in the mid-exponential phase of growth showed similar resistance to heat and to PEF. Therefore the increase in thermotolerance upon entrance into stationary phase of growth was more marked for the pigmented strains. Recovery in anaerobic conditions particularly enhanced survival to heat treatments in a non-pigmented strain. Strain CECT 4630, which possess a deficient sigma B activity, showed low heat resistance, low pigmentation, and reduced increase in thermotolerance in stationary phase. These results indicate that the magnitude of the development of a higher heat resistance in S. aureus in stationary phase is positively related to the carotenoid content of the strain. The development of tolerance to pulsed electric field was less relevant and not linked to the carotenoid content.

  7. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  8. Examination of KNK437- and quercetin-mediated inhibition of heat shock-induced heat shock protein gene expression in Xenopus laevis cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwell, Laurie A; Heikkila, John J

    2007-11-01

    We examined the effect of quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavon) and KNK437 (N-formyl-3,4-methylenedioxy-benzylidene-gamma-butyrolactam), a benzylidene lactam compound, on heat-induced heat shock protein (hsp) gene expression in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells. In previous studies, both quercetin and KNK437 inhibited heat shock factor activity resulting in a repression of hsp mRNA and protein accumulation in human cultured cells. In this first study of the effect of these hsp gene expression inhibitors in a non-mammalian cell line, we report that both quercetin and KNK437 reduced the heat shock-induced accumulation of hsp30, hsp47 and hsp70 mRNA in X. laevis cultured cells. However, these inhibitors had no effect on the relative level of a non-heat shock protein mRNA, ef1alpha, in either control or heat shocked cells. Western blot and immunocytochemical analyses revealed that quercetin partially inhibited HSP30 protein accumulation. In contrast, HSP30 protein was not detectable in KNK437-treated cells. Finally, treatment of A6 cells with KNK437 inhibited the heat shock-induced acquisition of thermotolerance, as determined by preservation of actin filaments and cellular morphology using immunocytochemistry and laser scanning confocal microscopy.

  9. Temperature stress differentially modulates transcription in meiotic anthers of heat-tolerant and heat-sensitive tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezzotti Mario

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluctuations in temperature occur naturally during plant growth and reproduction. However, in the hot summers this variation may become stressful and damaging for the molecular mechanisms involved in proper cell growth, impairing thus plant development and particularly fruit-set in many crop plants. Tolerance to such a stress can be achieved by constitutive gene expression or by rapid changes in gene expression, which ultimately leads to protection against thermal damage. We have used cDNA-AFLP and microarray analyses to compare the early response of the tomato meiotic anther transcriptome to moderate heat stress conditions (32°C in a heat-tolerant and a heat-sensitive tomato genotype. In the light of the expected global temperature increases, elucidating such protective mechanisms and identifying candidate tolerance genes can be used to improve breeding strategies for crop tolerance to heat stress. Results The cDNA-AFLP analysis shows that 30 h of moderate heat stress (MHS alter the expression of approximately 1% of the studied transcript-derived fragments in a heat-sensitive genotype. The major effect is gene down-regulation after the first 2 h of stress. The microarray analysis subsequently applied to elucidate early responses of a heat-tolerant and a heat-sensitive tomato genotype, also shows about 1% of the genes having significant changes in expression after the 2 h of stress. The tolerant genotype not only reacts with moderate transcriptomic changes but also exhibits constitutively higher expression levels of genes involved in protection and thermotolerance. Conclusion In contrast to the heat-sensitive genotype, the heat-tolerant genotype exhibits moderate transcriptional changes under moderate heat stress. Moreover, the heat-tolerant genotype also shows a different constitutive gene expression profile compared to the heat-sensitive genotype, indicating genetic differences in adaptation to increased temperatures. In

  10. Previous heat shock treatment inhibits Mayaro virus replication in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgilio, P L; Godinho-Netto, M C; Carvalho Mda, G

    1997-01-01

    Human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549) were submitted to mild or severe heat shock (42 degrees C or 44 degrees C) for 1 h, while another group of cells was double-heat-shocked (submitted to 42 degrees C for 1 h, returned to 37 degrees C for 3 h, then exposed to 44 degrees C for 1 h). After each heat treatment, the cells were infected with Mayaro virus for 24 h and incubated at 37 degrees C. The results showed that the double-heat-shocked thermotolerant cells exhibited a 10(4)-fold virus titre inhibition, despite the recovery of protein synthesis and original morphology 24 h post-infection. In contrast, cells submitted to mild or severe heat shock exhibited weaker inhibition of Mayaro virus titre (10(2)-fold). The mildly heat-shocked cells also presented a full recovery in protein synthesis, which was not observed in severely heat-shocked cells. These results indicate that exposure of A549 cells to a mild or to a double heat shock treatment before Mayaro virus infection induces an antiviral state.

  11. Models to predict mortality of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) exposed to elevated temperatures during structural heat treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Fuji; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju; Jayas, Digvir S; White, Noel D G

    2013-10-01

    Novel thermal death models were developed with certain assumptions, and these models were validated by using actual heat treatment data collected under laboratory conditions at constant temperatures over time and in commercial food-processing facilities where temperatures were dynamically changing over time. The predicted mortalities of both young larvae and adults of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), were within 92-99% of actual measured insect mortalities. There was good concordance between predicted and observed mortalities of young larvae and adults of T. castaneum exposed to constant temperatures in laboratory growth chambers and at variable temperatures during structural heat treatments of commercial food-processing facilities. The models developed in this study can be used to determine effectiveness of structural heat treatments in killing young larvae and adults of T. castaneum and for characterizing insect thermotolerance.

  12. Change in algal symbiont communities after bleaching, not prior heat exposure, increases heat tolerance of reef corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Rachel N; Cunning, Ross; Baker, Andrew C

    2015-01-01

    Mutualistic organisms can be particularly susceptible to climate change stress, as their survivorship is often limited by the most vulnerable partner. However, symbiotic plasticity can also help organisms in changing environments by expanding their realized niche space. Coral-algal (Symbiodinium spp.) symbiosis exemplifies this dichotomy: the partnership is highly susceptible to 'bleaching' (stress-induced symbiosis breakdown), but stress-tolerant symbionts can also sometimes mitigate bleaching. Here, we investigate the role of diverse and mutable symbiotic partnerships in increasing corals' ability to thrive in high temperature conditions. We conducted repeat bleaching and recovery experiments on the coral Montastraea cavernosa, and used quantitative PCR and chlorophyll fluorometry to assess the structure and function of Symbiodinium communities within coral hosts. During an initial heat exposure (32 °C for 10 days), corals hosting only stress-sensitive symbionts (Symbiodinium C3) bleached, but recovered (at either 24 °C or 29 °C) with predominantly (>90%) stress-tolerant symbionts (Symbiodinium D1a), which were not detected before bleaching (either due to absence or extreme low abundance). When a second heat stress (also 32 °C for 10 days) was applied 3 months later, corals that previously bleached and were now dominated by D1a Symbiodinium experienced less photodamage and symbiont loss compared to control corals that had not been previously bleached, and were therefore still dominated by Symbiodinium C3. Additional corals that were initially bleached without heat by a herbicide (DCMU, at 24 °C) also recovered predominantly with D1a symbionts, and similarly lost fewer symbionts during subsequent thermal stress. Increased thermotolerance was also not observed in C3-dominated corals that were acclimated for 3 months to warmer temperatures (29 °C) before heat stress. These findings indicate that increased thermotolerance post-bleaching resulted from

  13. 17 CFR 210.3-05 - Financial statements of businesses acquired or to be acquired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... General Instructions As to Financial Statements § 210.3-05 Financial statements of businesses acquired or... financial statements of related businesses may be presented on a combined basis for any periods they are... registered to be offered to the security holders of the business to be acquired, the financial...

  14. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... rental market, comparative rents, occupancy rates) and expenses (including but not limited to, utilities... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...

  15. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  16. Monitoring Agitated Behavior After acquired Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadal, Lena; Mortensen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbaek

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the onset, duration, intensity, and nursing shift variation of agitated behavior in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI) at a rehabilitation hospital. Design: Prospective descriptive study. Methods: A total of 11 patients with agitated behavior were included. Agitated...

  17. Immunomodulation in community-acquired pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmelts, H.H.F.

    2013-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common disease with considerable morbidity and mortality, despite effective antibiotic treatment. In this thesis, we showed that the major causative microorganisms in CAP trigger distinct inflammatory response profiles in the host. While an inflammatory respon

  18. Acquired antibiotic resistance genes:an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, A.H. van; Mevius, D.; Guerra, B.; Mullany, P.; Robberts, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    In this review an overview is given on antibiotic resistance (AR) mechanisms with special attentions to the AR genes described so far preceded by a short introduction on the discovery and mode of action of the different classes of antibiotics. As this review is only dealing with acquired resistance,

  19. Acquired antibiotic resistance genes: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van A.H.; Mevius, D.J.; Guerra, B.; Mullany, P.; Roberts, A.P.; Aarts, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this review an overview is given on antibiotic resistance (AR) mechanisms with special attentions to the AR genes described so far preceded by a short introduction on the discovery and mode of action of the different classes of antibiotics. As this review is only dealing with acquired resistance,

  20. Acquired double pylorus:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Yu Chen; Yan Chen; Liang; Jing Wang; Qin Du; Jian-Ting Cai; Jia-Min Chen

    2012-01-01

    Double pylorus is one of the rare anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract, it can be congenital or acquired. In this case we report a case of double pylorus because of chronic peptic ulcer. Upper GI endoscopy revealed gastroduodenal fistula located on the lesser curve of the antrum, the patient's symptoms were improved rapidly by intensive antiulcer treatment.

  1. Acquired nasal deformities in fighter pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreinemakers, Joyce R C; van Amerongen, Pieter; Kon, Moshe

    2010-07-01

    Fighter pilots may develop slowly progressive deformities of their noses during their flying careers. The spectrum of deformities that may be acquired ranges from soft tissue to osseous changes. The main cause is the varying pressure exerted by the oxygen mask on the skin and bony pyramid of the nose during flying.

  2. Sexually acquired Salmonella Typhi urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielding, Sally; Scott, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    We report a case of isolated urinary Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi in an HIV-positive man who has sex with men. He was clinically well and blood and stool cultures were negative, indicating that this may have been a sexually acquired urinary tract infection.

  3. Acquired Demyelinating Syndromes and Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A. Ketelslegers (Immy)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Acquired inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) cause damage to myelin sheaths and typically result in white matter lesions due to inflammation, myelin loss and axonal pathology. Clinically, this may result in transient, relapsing or pro

  4. Does chromatin remodeling mark systemic acquired resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van den H.A.; Takken, F.L.W.

    2009-01-01

    The recognition of plant pathogens activates local defense responses and triggers a long-lasting systemic acquired resistance (SAR) response. Activation of SAR requires the hormone salicylic acid (SA), which induces SA-responsive gene expression. Recent data link changes in gene expression to chroma

  5. Mitral valve repair in acquired dextrocardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmistekawy, Elsayed; Chan, Vincent; Hynes, Mark; Mesana, Thierry

    2015-10-01

    Surgical correction of valvular heart disease in patients with dextrocardia is extremely rare. We report a surgical case of mitral valve repair in a patient with acquired dextrocardia. Successful mitral valve repair was performed through a right lateral thoracotomy. We describe our surgical strategy and summarize the literature.

  6. Severe acquired anaemia in Africa: new concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Boele van Hensbroek; F. Jonker; I. Bates

    2011-01-01

    Severe anaemia is common in Africa. It has a high mortality and particularly affects young children and pregnant women. Recent research provides new insights into the mechanisms and causes of severe acquired anaemia and overturns accepted dogma. Deficiencies of vitamin B12 and vitamin A, but not of

  7. Chronic Acquired Demyelinating Polyneuropathy following Renal Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Younger, D. S.; Stuart Orsher

    2013-01-01

    The clinical, laboratory, and treatment findings of a patient with chronic acquired demyelinating polyneuropathy (CADP) in association with renal transplantation are described. Like the present case, many such patients have been described under the rubric of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP).

  8. ACQUIRED CUTIS LAXA WITH RECURRENT URTICARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganaparthi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 30 year old male patient presented with progressive laxity and wrinkling of skin over the face for past 10 years, patient also gives history of recurrent urticaria since 12 years. Skin biopsy using Verhoff Van Gieson stain suggestive of cutis laxa. We are reporting a rare case of acquired cutis laxa with recurrent urticaria

  9. Soybean roots grown under heat stress show global changes in their transcriptional and proteomic profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo eValdes-Lopez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress is likely to be a key factor in the negative impact of climate change on crop production. Heat stress significantly influences the functions of roots, which provide support, water and nutrients to other plant organs. Likewise, roots play an important role in the establishment of symbiotic associations with different microorganisms. Despite the physiological relevance of roots, few studies have examined their response to heat stress. In this study, we performed genome-wide transcriptomic and proteomic analyses on isolated root hairs, which are a single, epidermal cell type, and compared their response to stripped roots. On average, we identified 1,849 and 3,091 genes differentially regulated in root hairs and stripped roots, respectively, in response to heat stress. Our gene regulatory module analysis identified ten key modules that might control the majority of the transcriptional response to heat stress. We also conducted proteomic analysis on membrane fractions isolated from root hairs and compared these responses to stripped roots. These experiments identified a variety of proteins whose expression changed within 3 hours of application of heat stress. Most of these proteins were predicted to play a significant role in thermo-tolerance, as well as in chromatin remodeling and post-transcriptional regulation. The data presented represent an in-depth analysis of the heat stress response of a single cell type in soybean.

  10. Interactive Effects of Elevated CO2 and Growth Temperature on the Tolerance of Photosynthesis to Acute Heat Stress in C3 and C4 Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. William Hamilton Ⅲ; Scott A. Heckathorn; Puneet Joshi; Dan Wang; Deepak Barua

    2008-01-01

    Determining effects of elevated CO2 on the tolerance of photosynthesis to acute heat-stress (heat wave) is necessary for predicting plant responses to global warming, as photosynthesis is thermolabile and acute heat-stress and atmospheric CO2 will increase in the future. Few studies have examined this, and past results are variable, which may be due to methodological variation. To address this, we grew two C3 and two C4 species at current or elevated CO2 and three different growth temperatures (GT). We assessed photosynthetic thermotolerance in both unacclimated (basal tolerance) and preheat-stressed (preHS = acclimated) plants. In C3 species, basal thermotolerance of net photosynthesis (Pn) was increased In high CO2, but in C4 species, Pn thermotlerance was decreased by high CO2 (except Zea maya at low GT); CO2 effects in preHS plants were mostly small or absent, though high CO2 was detrimental in one C3 and one C4 species at warmer GT. Though high CO2 generally decreased stomatal conductance, decreases in Pn during heat stress were mostly due to non-stomatal effects. Photosystem II (PSII) efficiency was often decreased by high CO2 during heat stress, especially at high GT; CO2 effects on post-PSll electron transport were variable. Thus, high CO2 often affected photosynthetic theromotolerance, and the effects varied with photosynthetic pathway, growth temperature, and acclimation state. Most importantly, in heat-stressed plants at normal or warmer growth temperatures, high CO2 may often decrease, or not benefit as expected, tolerance of photosynthesis to acute heat stress. Therefore, interactive effects of elevated CO2 and warmer growth temperatures on acute heat tolerance may contribute to future changes in plant productivity, distribution, and diversity.

  11. HEAT RECUPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat recovery is an effective method of shortening specific energy consumption. new constructions of recuperators for heating and cupola furnaces have been designed and successfully introduced. two-stage recuperator with computer control providing blast heating up to 600 °C and reducing fuel consumption by 30% is of special interest.

  12. Evaluation of in vitro gas production and nutrient digestibility of complete diets supplemented with different levels of thermotolerant yeast in Nellore rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Harikrishna

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the present study was to know the effect of dietary supplementation of varied levels of thermotolerant yeast to determine best levels for sheep diets by in vitro gas production. An in vivo study on Nellore rams was used for further evaluation of diets with three best levels of yeast (obtained from in vitro data to determine diet with optimum yeast level for growing lambs by assessing nutrient digestibility, plane of nutrition and nitrogen balance. Materials and methods: A complete diet was formulated and supplemented with five levels (0 g/kg (D ; 1 g/kg (D ; 2 g/kg 1 2 (D ; 3 g/kg (D ; 4 g/kg (D and 5 g/kg (D of thermotolerant yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, OBV-9 @ 5x108 cfu/g to 3 4 5 6 determine best levels for sheep diets by IVGP technique. An in vivo study was conducted on Nellore rams (39.75 0.24 kg body weight, aged 3 years in a 4 x 4 latin square design for further evaluation of diets with three best yeast levels based on in vitro data, to determine optimum yeast level for diets of growing lambs by assessing nutrient digestibility, plane of nutrition and nitrogen balance. The rams were housed individually in metabolic cages that allowed separation of urine and faeces to evaluate digestibility of nutrients and N balance. Animals were given 10 days adaptation period followed by 7-day collection period, feed intake and refusals were recorded. During the digestibility and N balance study, feed, refusals and faeces were analyzed for dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM and crude protein (CP as per AOAC, USA, while fibre fractions like neutral detergent fibre (aNDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF were analyzed. Data were analyzed as per the procedures suggested by Snedecor, G. W. and Cochran, W. G. (1994 and the difference between treatment means was tested for significance by Duncan's multiple-range and F Test. Results: Higher (P<0.01 IVGP volumes, in vitro organic matter degradability, metabolizable energy (ME and total

  13. Subcortical infarction resulting in acquired stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciabarra, A M; Elkind, M S; Roberts, J K; Marshall, R S

    2000-10-01

    Stuttering is an uncommon presentation of acute stroke. Reported cases have often been associated with left sided cortical lesions, aphasia, and difficulties with other non-linguistic tests of rhythmic motor control. Three patients with subcortical lesions resulting in stuttering are discussed. In one patient the ability to perform time estimations with a computerised repetitive time estimation task was characterised. One patient had a pontine infarct with clinical evidence of cerebellar dysfunction. A second patient had a left basal ganglionic infarct and a disruption of timing estimation. A third patient had a left subcortical infarct and a mild aphasia. These findings expand the reported distribution of infarction that can result in acquired stuttering. Subcortical mechanisms of speech control and timing may contribute to the pathophysiology of acquired stuttering.

  14. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Andrea Farias de Melo; Mota Junior, Americo, E-mail: andreafariasm@gmail.com [Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira de Pernambuco (IMIP), Recife, PE (Brazil); Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaete [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2016-07-15

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common - increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations. (author)

  15. Recognising and managing community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Vanessa

    2015-11-18

    Pneumonia remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the UK and yet the seriousness of the disease is underestimated. Pneumonia can be life-threatening because the delicate tissues of the alveoli and pulmonary capillaries are susceptible to damage from the inflammatory response. This damage leads to consolidation that prevents the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide, and this in turn can lead to respiratory failure. This article summarises guidance on the diagnosis and management of community-acquired pneumonia, and also includes information on the prevention of pneumonia. This information should be valuable to nurses working in a variety of clinical areas since patients with community-acquired pneumonia are encountered in primary, intermediate, secondary and critical care.

  16. Prevention of hospital-acquired hyponatraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunøe, Mathilde; Overgaard-Steensen, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Large amounts of fluids are daily prescribed to hospitalised patients across different medical specialities. Unfortunately, inappropriate fluid administration commonly causes iatrogenic hyponatraemia with associated increase in morbidity and mortality. METHODS/RESULTS: Fundamental...... for prevention of hospital-acquired hyponatraemia is an understanding of what determines plasma sodium concentration (P-[Na(+) ]) in the individual patient. P-[Na(+) ] is determined by balances of water and cations according to Edelman. This paper discusses the mechanisms influencing water and cation balances...... like Ringer-acetate/Ringer-lactate can increase the intracranial pressure dramatically. Consequently, 0.9 % NaCl is recommended as first-line fluid for such patients. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of hospital-acquired hyponatraemia may be reduced by prescribing fluids, type and amount, with the same...

  17. Acquired versus familial demyelinative neuropathies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R G; Gutmann, L; Lewis, R A; Sumner, A J

    1985-01-01

    The electrophysiologic differences between chronic acquired demyelinative neuropathy and the demyelinative form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease have recently been reported. The present report extends these observations to include the genetically determined demyelinating neuropathies seen in metachromatic leukodystrophy, Krabbe's leukodystrophy, and Cockayne's syndrome. The electrophysiologic features of metachromatic leukodystrophy (five patients), Krabbe's (four patients), and Cockayne's syndrome (three patients) were all similar. There was uniform slowing of conduction (both in different nerves and in different nerve segments), and conduction block was not seen. These findings are consistent with a uniform degree of demyelination in multiple nerves and throughout the entire length of individual axons. Thus, uniform slowing of nerve conduction constitutes strong evidence for a familial demyelinative neuropathy, as opposed to the multifocal slowing seen in acute and chronic acquired demyelinative neuropathy.

  18. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Andréa Farias de Melo; Mota Jr., Américo; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaeté; Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common-increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations. PMID:27777479

  19. The pathophysiology of acquired premature ejaculation

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Chris G; Jannini, Emmanuele A.; Serefoglu, Ege C.; Hellstrom, Wayne J.G.

    2016-01-01

    The second Ad Hoc International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation defined acquired premature ejaculation (PE) as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by a the development of a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in ejaculation latency time in men with previous normal ejaculatory experiences, often to about 3 minutes or less, the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and the presence of ne...

  20. Acquired antibiotic resistance genes: an overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoek, Angela H.A.M. van; Dik eMevius; Beatriz eGuerra; Peter eMullany; Adam Paul Roberts; Aarts, Henk J. M.

    2011-01-01

    In this review an overview is given on antibiotic resistance mechanisms with special attentions to the antibiotic resistance genes described so far preceded by a short introduction on the discovery and mode of action of the different classes of antibiotics. As this review is only dealing with acquired resistance, attention is paid to mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons and integrons, which are associated with antibiotic resistance genes, and involved in the dispersal of anti...

  1. Acquired Antibiotic Resistance Genes: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Hoek, Angela H.A.M. van; Mevius, Dik; Guerra, Beatriz; Mullany, Peter; Roberts, Adam Paul; Aarts, Henk J. M.

    2011-01-01

    In this review an overview is given on antibiotic resistance (AR) mechanisms with special attentions to the AR genes described so far preceded by a short introduction on the discovery and mode of action of the different classes of antibiotics. As this review is only dealing with acquired resistance, attention is also paid to mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons, and integrons, which are associated with AR genes, and involved in the dispersal of antimicrobial determinants betw...

  2. Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ride, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM), an education activity, allows middle school students to program a digital camera on board the International Space Station to photograph a variety of geographical targets for study in the classroom. Photos are made available on the web for viewing and study by participating schools around the world. Educators use the images for projects involving Earth Science, geography, physics, and social science.

  3. Acquired Factor VIII Inhibitors: Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tay Za Kyaw

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Acquired hemophilia A is a rare, but devastating bleeding disorder caused by spontaneous development of autoantibodies directed against coagulation factor VIII. In 40%-50% of patients it is associated with such conditions as the postpartum period, malignancy, use of medications, and autoimmune diseases; however, its cause is unknown in most cases. Acquired hemophilia A should be suspected in patients that present with a coagulation abnormality, and a negative personal and family history of bleeding. Herein we report 3 patients with acquired hemophilia A that had different underlying pathologies, clinical presentations, and therapeutic responses. Factor VIII inhibitor formation in case 1 occurred 6 months after giving birth; underlying disorders were not identified in cases 2 or 3. The bleeding phenotype in these patients’ ranged from no bleeding tendency with isolated prolongation of APTT (activated partial thromboplastin time to severe intramuscular hematoma and hemarthrosis necessitating recombinant activated factor VII infusion and blood components transfusion. Variable responses to immunosuppressive treatment were also observed.

  4. The pathophysiology of acquired premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Serefoglu, Ege C; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2016-08-01

    The second Ad Hoc International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation defined acquired premature ejaculation (PE) as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by a the development of a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in ejaculation latency time in men with previous normal ejaculatory experiences, often to about 3 minutes or less, the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and the presence of negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. The literature contains a diverse range of biological and psychological etiological theories. Acquired PE is commonly due to sexual performance anxiety, psychological or relationship problems, erectile dysfunction (ED), and occasionally prostatitis and hyperthyroidism, consistent with the predominant organic etiology of acquired PE, men with this complaint are usually older, have a higher mean BMI and a greater incidence of comorbid disease including hypertension, sexual desire disorder, diabetes mellitus, chronic prostatitis, and ED compared to lifelong, variable and subjective PE.

  5. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  6. Heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, L.B.; Farma, A.J.

    1987-01-06

    This invention concerns a heat exchanger as used in a space heater, of the type in which hot exhaust gases transfer heat to water or the like flowing through a helical heat exchange coil. A significant improvement to the efficiency of the heat exchange occurring between the air and water is achieved by using a conduit for the water having external helical fluting such that the hot gases circulate along two paths, rather than only one. A preferred embodiment of such a heat exchanger includes a porous combustion element for producing radiant heat from a combustible gas, surrounded by a helical coil for effectively transferring the heat in the exhaust gas, flowing radially from the combustion element, to the water flowing through the coil. 4 figs.

  7. Heat reduces nitric oxide production required for auxin-mediated gene expression and fate determination in tree tobacco guard cell protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Robert A; Anderson, David J; Bufford, Jennifer L; Tallman, Gary

    2012-08-01

    Tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca) is an equatorial perennial with a high basal thermotolerance. Cultured tree tobacco guard cell protoplasts (GCPs) are useful for studying the effects of heat stress on fate-determining hormonal signaling. At lower temperatures (32°C or less), exogenous auxin (1-naphthalene acetic acid) and cytokinin (6-benzylaminopurine) cause GCPs to expand 20- to 30-fold, regenerate cell walls, dedifferentiate, reenter the cell cycle, and divide. At higher temperatures (34°C or greater), GCPs expand only 5- to 6-fold; they do not regenerate walls, dedifferentiate, reenter the cell cycle, or divide. Heat (38°C) suppresses activation of the BA auxin-responsive transgene promoter in tree tobacco GCPs, suggesting that inhibition of cell expansion and cell cycle reentry at high temperatures is due to suppressed auxin signaling. Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in auxin signaling in other plant systems. Here, we show that heat inhibits NO accumulation by GCPs and that L-N(G)-monomethyl arginine, an inhibitor of NO production in animals and plants, mimics the effects of heat by limiting cell expansion and preventing cell wall regeneration; inhibiting cell cycle reentry, dedifferentiation, and cell division; and suppressing activation of the BA auxin-responsive promoter. We also show that heat and L-N(G)-monomethyl arginine reduce the mitotic indices of primary root meristems and inhibit lateral root elongation similarly. These data link reduced NO levels to suppressed auxin signaling in heat-stressed cells and seedlings of thermotolerant plants and suggest that even plants that have evolved to withstand sustained high temperatures may still be negatively impacted by heat stress.

  8. Soybean Roots Grown under Heat Stress Show Global Changes in Their Transcriptional and Proteomic Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes-Lopez, Oswaldo; Batek Rios, Josef M.; Gomez-Hernandez, Nicolas; Nguyen, Cuong T.; Isidra-Arellano, Mariel C.; Zhang, Ning; Joshi, Trupti; Xu, Dong; Hixson, Kim K.; Weitz, Karl K.; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Stacey, Gary

    2016-04-25

    Heat stress is likely to be a key factor in the negative impact of climate change on crop production. Roots provide support, water and nutrients to other plant organs. Likewise, roots play an important role in the establishment of symbiotic associations with different microorganisms. Despite the physiological relevance of roots, few studies have examined the response of these plant organs to heat stress. In this study, we performed genome-wide transcriptomic and proteomic analyses on isolated root hairs, which are a single, epidermal cell type, and compared their response to whole roots. We identified 2,013 genes differentially regulated in root hairs in response to heat stress. Our gene regulatory module analysis identified ten, key modules that controlled the majority of the transcriptional response to heat stress. We also conducted proteomic analysis on membrane fractions isolated from roots and root hairs. These experiments identified a variety of proteins whose expression changed within 3 hours of application of heat stress. Most of these proteins were predicted to play a role in thermotolerance, as well as in chromatin remodeling and post-transcriptional regulation. The data presented represent an in-depth analysis of the heat stress response of a single cell type in soybean.

  9. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhaohui, E-mail: lzhtrhos@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: lijingxbh@yahoo.com.cn [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhao, Pengfei, E-mail: zhaopengf05@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Lv, Han, E-mail: chrislvhan@126.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Dong, Cheng, E-mail: derc007@sina.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Liu, Wenjuan, E-mail: wenjuanliu@163.com [Jining No. 1 People' s Hospital, No. 6 Health Street, Jining 272100 (China); Wang, Zhenchang, E-mail: cjr.wzhch@vip.163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition.

  10. Acquired prosopagnosia without word recognition deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, Tirta; Wright, Victoria; Tree, Jeremy J; Duchaine, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    It has long been suggested that face recognition relies on specialized mechanisms that are not involved in visual recognition of other object categories, including those that require expert, fine-grained discrimination at the exemplar level such as written words. But according to the recently proposed many-to-many theory of object recognition (MTMT), visual recognition of faces and words are carried out by common mechanisms [Behrmann, M., & Plaut, D. C. ( 2013 ). Distributed circuits, not circumscribed centers, mediate visual recognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 210-219]. MTMT acknowledges that face and word recognition are lateralized, but posits that the mechanisms that predominantly carry out face recognition still contribute to word recognition and vice versa. MTMT makes a key prediction, namely that acquired prosopagnosics should exhibit some measure of word recognition deficits. We tested this prediction by assessing written word recognition in five acquired prosopagnosic patients. Four patients had lesions limited to the right hemisphere while one had bilateral lesions with more pronounced lesions in the right hemisphere. The patients completed a total of seven word recognition tasks: two lexical decision tasks and five reading aloud tasks totalling more than 1200 trials. The performances of the four older patients (3 female, age range 50-64 years) were compared to those of 12 older controls (8 female, age range 56-66 years), while the performances of the younger prosopagnosic (male, 31 years) were compared to those of 14 younger controls (9 female, age range 20-33 years). We analysed all results at the single-patient level using Crawford's t-test. Across seven tasks, four prosopagnosics performed as quickly and accurately as controls. Our results demonstrate that acquired prosopagnosia can exist without word recognition deficits. These findings are inconsistent with a key prediction of MTMT. They instead support the hypothesis that face

  11. Phototrophic cultivation of a thermo-tolerant Desmodesmus sp. for lutein production: effects of nitrate concentration, light intensity and fed-batch operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Youping; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Chen, Ching-Nen Nathan; Chen, Chun-Yen; Ng, I-Son; Jing, Ke-Ju; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lu, Yinghua

    2013-09-01

    Four indigenous thermo-tolerant Desmodesmus sp. strains were examined for their ability to produce lutein. Among them, Desmodesmus sp. F51 was the best strain for this purpose. The medium composition, nitrate concentration and light intensity were manipulated to improve the phototrophic growth and lutein production of Desmodesmus sp. F51. It was found that a nitrogen-sufficient condition was required for lutein accumulation, while a high light intensity enhanced cell growth but caused a decrease in the lutein content. The best cell growth and lutein production occurred when the light intensity and initial nitrate concentration were 600 μmol/m(2)/s and 8.8 mM, respectively. The fed-batch cultivation strategy was shown to further improve lutein production. The highest lutein productivity (3.56±0.10 mg/L/d) and content (5.05±0.20 mg/g) were obtained when pulse-feeding of 2.2 mM nitrate was employed. This study demonstrated the potential of using Desmodesmus sp. F51 as a lutein producer in practical applications.

  12. Cultivation of two thermotolerant microalgae under tropical conditions: Influences of carbon sources and light duration on biomass and lutein productivity in four seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Pai-Ho; Soong, Keryea; Chen, Ching-Nen Nathan

    2016-07-01

    Biomass and lutein productivities of two thermotolerant microalgae were assessed in tropical outdoor conditions in all four seasons. Generally, addition of bicarbonate at 0.2g/L every two days or 2% CO2 did not enhance the productivities compared to the controls, and the productivities in the spring were higher than in the fall. Durations of effective irradiance positively correlated to the productivity of Coelastrella sp. F50 well, but not for Desmodesmus sp. F2. The ineffective light intensity was below 5000 lux (about 106μmol/m(2)s). The productivities produced in the 17cm diameter bottles were 1.5- to 1.9-fold higher than that in the 27cm ones. Lutein content, about 0.5% in biomass on average, did not change significantly grown in different carbon sources or seasons. The annual productivities of the microalgal biomass and lutein in one hectare were estimated to be 33tons and 180kg, respectively, using the non-optimized photobioreactor cultivation.

  13. Cultivation of a thermo-tolerant microalga in an outdoor photobioreactor: influences of CO2 and nitrogen sources on the accelerated growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chai-Cheng; Hung, Jia-Jang; Peng, Shao-Hung; Chen, Ching-Nen Nathan

    2012-05-01

    A photobioreactor was designed to evaluate the performance of a newly isolated thermo-tolerant microalga Desmodesmus sp. F2 in municipal wastewater under tropical outdoor conditions. The environmental parameters, levels of nutrients, and growth rates were monitored during the cultivations to elucidate the factors that contributed to accelerated growth after lag phase. Cultures bubbled with CO(2)-air had about 20% higher yields than the air-bubbled culture, and 2% of CO(2) at a flux rate of 5L/min was sufficient to reach this increased yield. In the cultures bubbled with CO(2)-air, the microalgal cells preferentially utilized ammonium and nitrate, while the air-bubbled culture made greater use of ammonium and organic nitrogen. In conclusion, the factors required for microalga Desmodesmus sp. F2 to achieve accelerated growth in tropical outdoor conditions include (1) 2% CO(2) bubbling; (2) a level of ammonium higher than 100 μM; and (3) a level of nitrate higher than 400 μM.

  14. Towards an international standard for PCR-based detection of foodborne thermotolerant campylobacters: interaction of enrichment media and pre-PCR treatment on carcass rinse samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsen, M H; Lübeck, P S; Hansen, F; Hoorfar, J

    2004-07-01

    As part of a large EU project for standardisation of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a systematic evaluation of the interaction of enrichment media, type of DNA polymerase and pre-PCR sample treatment for a PCR detecting thermotolerant campylobacters was carried out. The growth-supporting capacity and PCR compatibility of enrichment in Preston, Mueller-Hinton and Bolton broth (blood-containing and blood-free) were evaluated. The effect of resin-based DNA extraction and DNA extraction by boiling on the final PCR assay was investigated. The time-course studies indicated that a 20-h sample enrichment in blood-containing Bolton broth, followed by a simple resin-based extraction of DNA and a PCR amplification using Tth polymerase, resulted in strong and clear PCR amplicons for target (287 bp) and internal amplification control (IAC, 124 bp). The enrichment PCR-based method, tested on 68 presumably naturally contaminated poultry-rinse samples, showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 97.5% (39 PCR-positive/40 total positive samples) and a diagnostic specificity of 100% (28 PCR-negative/28 total negative samples; P=0.32) when compared to a standard bacteriological method (ISO 10272).

  15. Purification, biochemical characterization, and gene cloning of a new extracellular thermotolerant and glucose tolerant maltooligosaccharide-forming alpha-amylase from an endophytic ascomycete Fusicoccum sp. BCC4124.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champreda, Verawat; Kanokratana, Pattanop; Sriprang, Rutchadaporn; Tanapongpipat, Sutipa; Eurwilaichitr, Lily

    2007-08-01

    An endophytic fungus, Fusicoccum sp. BCC4124, showed strong amylolytic activity when cultivated on multi-enzyme induction enriched medium and agro-industry substrates. alpha-Amylase and alpha-glucosidase activities were highly induced in the presence of maltose and starch. The purified target alpha-amylase, Amy-FC1, showed strong hydrolytic activity on soluble starch (kcat/Km=6.47 x 10(3) min(-1)(ml/mg)) and selective activity on gamma- and beta-cyclodextrins, but not on alpha-cyclodextrin. The enzyme worked optimally at 70 degrees C in a neutral pH range with t(1/2) of 240 min in the presence of Ca(2+) and starch. Maltose, matotriose, and maltotetraose were the major products from starch hydrolysis but prolonged reaction led to the production of glucose, maltose, and maltotriose from starch, cyclodextrins, and maltooligosaccharides (G3-G7). The amylase showed remarkable glucose tolerance up to 1 M, but was more sensitive to inhibition by maltose. The deduced protein primary structure from the putative gene revealed that the enzyme shared moderate homology between alpha-amylases from Aspergilli and Lipomyces sp. This thermotolerant, glucose tolerant maltooligosaccharide-forming alpha-amylase is potent for biotechnological application.

  16. Five new records of thermotolerant fungi from China%耐热真菌五个中国新记录种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 李多川

    2013-01-01

    Based on morphological characteristics and the sequence of ribosomal DNA-ITS, five new records of thermotolerant fungi are reported, they are: Trichoderma ghanense, Neosartorya fennelliae, Hypoxylon fragiforme, Chaetomium jodhpurense, Chaetomium luteum. Illustrated descriptions of the species were given according to the Chinese strains, and the taxonomy of these species was discussed. Specimens and living cultures examined are deposited in the Herbarium of Shandong Agricultural University, Plant Pathology (HSAUP).%通过形态特征观察、rDNA-ITS序列测定及分析,报道5个耐热真菌中国新记录种,即加纳木霉Trichoderma ghanense,芬尼新萨托菌Neosartorya fennelliae,草莓状炭团菌Hypoxylon fragiforme,焦特普尔毛壳Chaetomium jodhpurense,黄色毛壳Chaetomium luteum.根据所采集的标本和菌种对这些种进行了描述和讨论.研究标本保存在山东农业大学植物病理学标本室(HSAUP).

  17. The profile of antibiotics resistance and integrons of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing thermotolerant coliforms isolated from the Yangtze River basin in Chongqing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hao [Department of Environmental Hygiene, School of Military Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, 30 Gaotanyan Street, Chongqing 400038 (China); Shu Weiqun, E-mail: west2003@sohu.co [Department of Environmental Hygiene, School of Military Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, 30 Gaotanyan Street, Chongqing 400038 (China); Chang Xiaosong; Chen Jian; Guo Yebin; Tan Yao [Department of Environmental Hygiene, School of Military Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, 30 Gaotanyan Street, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2010-07-15

    The spreading of extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamases (ESBL)-producing thermotolerant coliforms (TC) in the water environment is a threat to human health but little is known about ESBL-producing TCs in the Yangtze River. We received 319 ESBL-producing stains obtained from the Chongqing basin and we investigated antibiotic susceptibility, bla gene types and the presence of integrons and gene cassettes. 16.8% of TC isolates were ESBL-producing bacteria and bla{sub TEM+CTx-M} was the predominant ESBL type. 65.2% of isolates contained class 1 integrons, but only 3 carried intI 2. Gene cassettes were amplified and sequenced. aadA, drfA, cmlA, sat1, aar3 and two ORF cassettes were found. In conclusion, Yangtze River is heavily polluted by ESBL-producing TC bacteria and the combined bla gene type could enhance antibiotic resistance. Class 1 integrons were widespread in ESBL-producing isolates and play an important role in multi-drug resistance. Characterization of gene cassettes could reveal the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. - Yangtze River is heavily polluted by ESBL-producing TC bacteria and Class 1 integrons play an important role in multi-drug resistance.

  18. Prevalence of E. coli, thermotolerant coliforms, Salmonella spp. and Vibrio spp. in ready-to-eat foods: Pemba Island, United Republic of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, A; Pellissier, N; Hamad, H J; Ame, S A; Pontello, M

    2007-01-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat foods in Pemba island. A total of 300 food samples have been analysed: 66 household preparations, 115 samples of raw cow milk, and 119 fried sea-foods. The thermotolerant coliforms have been detected in 34% sea-foods, 58% household meals, and 98% milk samples; the coliforms count is 5 x 10(2), 10(3), and 3 x 10(4) cfu/g, respectively. E. coli is the species most frequently isolated: 60 on 100 strains agglutinate one of the tested polyvalent antisera. Salmonella spp. have been found exclusively in cow milk (11%); in 15% sea-foods V. alginolyticus has been isolated. The prevalence of faecal contamination is extremely high in cow milk, a critical vehicle for the transmission of pathogens, probably for a lacking thermal treatment (pasteurization). Salmonella spp., V. cholerae, and V. parahaemolyticus have not been isolated from boiled or fried foodstuffs, but in any case the cooked foods are faecally contaminated: their contamination occurs likely after preparation and before consumption. The identification of risk factors for the faecal contamination could be helpful to plan educational programmes involving food operators and may be an effective preventive measure, especially in settings where financial resources are lacking for the construction of adequate infrastructures.

  19. The effect of soluble alginate and calcium on {beta}-galactosidase activity produced by the thermotolerant, ethanol-producing yeast strain Kluyveromyces marxianus imb3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, D.; Logan, S.R.; McHale, A.P. [Biotechnology Research Group, School of Applied Biological and Chemical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, Co. Londonderry, BT52 1SA (United Kingdom)

    1998-02-01

    Since it has previously been demonstrated that ethanol production by the thermotolerant yeast strain, Kluyveromyces marxianus IMB3 is more efficient in calcium alginate-based immobilization systems during growth on lactose-containing media, it was decided to examine the separate effects of soluble alginate and free calcium on the {beta}-galactosidase activity produced by that organism. It was found that the presence of Ca{sup 2+} significantly increased the thermal stability of the activity at 45 C, although the pH and temperature optima remained the same in the presence and absence of that cation. It was also found that the presence of 2% (w/v) sodium alginate (soluble) had a very limited positive effect on the thermal stability of the enzyme at 45 C, although it was found that activity was very significantly stimulated at that temperature. The activity was found to have an enhanced thermal stability at 30 C in the presence of sodium alginate. The presence of sodium alginate in assay mixtures had no significant effect on the Km of the activity for the substrate o-nitrophenyl-{beta}-D-galactoside. The results observed in the presence of either free calcium or soluble alginate may at least partially explain enhanced ethanol production by this microorganism in alginate-based immobilization systems. (orig.) With 2 figs., 14 refs.

  20. Growth and ethanol fermentation ability on hexose and pentose sugars and glucose effect under various conditions in thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrussamee, Nadchanok; Hirata, Katsushi; Suprayogi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Lertwattanasakul, Noppon; Kosaka, Tomoyuki [Yamaguchi Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture; Limtong, Savitree [Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Faculty of Science; Yamada, Mamoru [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Yamaguchi Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    2011-05-15

    Ethanol fermentation ability of the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, which is able to utilize various sugars including glucose, mannose, galactose, xylose, and arabinose, was examined under shaking and static conditions at high temperatures. The yeast was found to produce ethanol from all of these sugars except for arabinose under a shaking condition but only from hexose sugars under a static condition. Growth and sugar utilization rate under a static condition were slower than those under a shaking condition, but maximum ethanol yield was slightly higher. Even at 40 C, a level of ethanol production similar to that at 30 C was observed except for galactose under a static condition. Glucose repression on utilization of other sugars was observed, and it was more evident at elevated temperatures. Consistent results were obtained by the addition of 2-deoxyglucose. The glucose effect was further examined at a transcription level, and it was found that KmGAL1 for galactokinase and KmXYL1 for xylose reductase for galactose and xylose/arabinose utilization, respectively, were repressed by glucose at low and high temperatures, but KmHXK2 for hexokinase was not repressed. We discuss the possible mechanism of glucose repression and the potential for utilization of K. marxianus in high-temperature fermentation with mixed sugars containing glucose. (orig.)

  1. Rapid ethanol production at elevated temperatures by engineered thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus via the NADP(H)-preferring xylose reductase-xylitol dehydrogenase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Biao; Wang, Dongmei; Gao, Xiaolian; Sun, Lianhong; Hong, Jiong

    2015-09-01

    Conversion of xylose to ethanol by yeasts is a challenge because of the redox imbalances under oxygen-limited conditions. The thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus grows well with xylose as a carbon source at elevated temperatures, but its xylose fermentation ability is weak. In this study, a combination of the NADPH-preferring xylose reductase (XR) from Neurospora crassa and the NADP(+)-preferring xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) mutant from Scheffersomyces stipitis (Pichia stipitis) was constructed. The xylose fermentation ability and redox balance of the recombinant strains were improved significantly by over-expression of several downstream genes. The intracellular concentrations of coenzymes and the reduced coenzyme/oxidized coenzyme ratio increased significantly in these metabolic strains. The byproducts, such as glycerol and acetic acid, were significantly reduced by the disruption of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1). The resulting engineered K. marxianus YZJ088 strain produced 44.95 g/L ethanol from 118.39 g/L xylose with a productivity of 2.49 g/L/h at 42 °C. Additionally, YZJ088 realized glucose and xylose co-fermentation and produced 51.43 g/L ethanol from a mixture of 103.97 g/L xylose and 40.96 g/L glucose with a productivity of 2.14 g/L/h at 42 °C. These promising results validate the YZJ088 strain as an excellent producer of ethanol from xylose through the synthetic xylose assimilation pathway.

  2. Expression and characterization of thermotolerant lipase with broad pH profiles isolated from an Antarctic Pseudomonas sp strain AMS3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A gene encoding a thermotolerant lipase with broad pH was isolated from an Antarctic Pseudomonas strain AMS3. The recombinant lipase AMS3 was purified by single-step purification using affinity chromatography, yielding a purification fold of approximately 1.52 and a recovery of 50%. The molecular weight was approximately ∼60 kDa including the strep and affinity tags. Interestingly, the purified Antarctic AMS3 lipase exhibited broad temperature profile from 10–70 °C and stable over a broad pH range from 5.0 to pH 10.0. Various mono and divalent metal ions increased the activity of the AMS3 lipase, but Ni2+ decreased its activity. The purified lipase exhibited the highest activity in the presence of sunflower oil. In addition, the enzyme activity in 25% v/v solvents at 50 °C particularly to n-hexane, DMSO and methanol could be useful for catalysis reaction in organic solvent and at broad temperature. PMID:27781152

  3. Recovery from bleaching is mediated by threshold densities of background thermo-tolerant symbiont types in a reef-building coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Line K; Doyle, Jason; Logan, Murray; Berkelmans, Ray

    2016-06-01

    Sensitive molecular analyses show that most corals host a complement of Symbiodinium genotypes that includes thermo-tolerant types in low abundance. While tolerant symbiont types are hypothesized to facilitate tolerance to temperature and recovery from bleaching, empirical data on their distribution and relative abundance in corals under ambient and stress conditions are still rare. We quantified visual bleaching and mortality of coral hosts, along with relative abundance of C- and D-type Symbiodinium cells in 82 Acropora millepora colonies from three locations on the Great Barrier Reef transplanted to a central inshore site over a 13 month period. Our analyses reveal dynamic change in symbiont associations within colonies and among populations over time. Coral bleaching and declines in C- but not D-type symbionts were observed in transplanted corals. Survival and recovery of 25% of corals from one population was associated with either initial D-dominance or an increase in D-type symbionts that could be predicted by a minimum pre-stress D : C ratio of 0.003. One-third of corals from this population became D dominated at the bleached stage despite no initial detection of this symbiont type, but failed to recover and died in mid to late summer. These results provide a predictive threshold minimum density of background D-type symbionts in A. millepora, above which survival following extreme thermal stress is increased.

  4. [Iris heterochromia in acquired Horner's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beynat, J; Soichot, P; Bidot, S; Dugas, B; Creuzot-Garcher, C; Bron, A

    2007-09-01

    Horner's syndrome (HS) is related to an interruption of the oculosympathetic nerve pathway. The classic clinical findings associated with this condition are ptosis, miosis, and enophthalmos. Heterochromia is typically described in congenital HS, but it is an uncommon finding in acquired HS. We report a case of post-traumatic HS associated with heterochromia. A literature review indicates that this type of heterochromia may be related to a reduction in the number of iris melanocytes. This mechanism may be the same in the physiological iris color modifications in adulthood.

  5. Clinicopathological correlation of acquired hypopigmentary disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha B Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired hypopigmentary disorders comprise a significant group of disorders that affect Indians and Asians. The pigment disturbance in darker skin individuals can be very distressing to the patient and the family. These disorders cover a wide array of pathologies including infections, autoimmune processes, lymphoproliferative disorders, and sclerosing diseases. Histological diagnosis is particularly important because treatments for these diseases are varied and specific. This review will focus on histopathological diagnosis based on clinicopathological correlation for commonly encountered disorders such as leprosy, vitiligo, lichen sclerosus, pityriasis alba (PA, and pityriasis versicolor (PV. Atypical or uncommon clinical presentation of classic diseases such as hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (HMF and hypopigmented sarcoidosis are also included.

  6. Triple arthrodesis for adult acquired flatfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzariti, Alan R; Dix, Brian T; Richardson, Phillip E; Mendicino, Robert W

    2014-07-01

    The primary goal of triple arthrodesis for stage III and IV adult acquired flatfoot is to obtain a well-aligned plantigrade foot that will support the ankle in optimal alignment. Ancillary procedures including posterior muscle group lengthening, medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy, medial column stabilization, peroneus brevis tenotomy, or transfer and harvest of regional bone graft are often necessary to achieve adequate realignment. Image intensification is helpful in confirming optimal realignment before fixation. Results of triple arthrodesis are enhanced with adequate preparation of joint surfaces, bone graft/orthobiologics, 2-point fixation of all 3 tritarsal joints, and a vertical heel position.

  7. Acquired plate-like osteoma cutis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashi, Neelam; Chu, Julie; Patel, Rishi

    2011-10-15

    Plate-like osteoma cutis is a rare disorder that has been historically classified as a congenital syndrome. It has a possible relationship to a mutation in the gene (GNAS1) that encodes the α-subunit of the stimulatory G protein, which regulates adenyl cyclase activity. We report a case of extensive plaque-like masses on the scalp and face with no abnormalities in calcium or phosphate metabolism and no preceding inflammatory cutaneous conditions. With less than ten reported cases, to our knowledge, this is one the few cases of acquired plate-like osteoma cutis described in the literature.

  8. Acquired Inventors’ Productivity after Horizontal Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo G.; Moreira, Solon; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    of the multifaceted nature of the integration process further enhances our understanding of which conditions will be more or less detrimental for corporate inventors. We focus on R&D teams which are the immediate organizational context in which inventors operate and drawing on insights from learning theory...... and evolutionary economics we posit and find that the reorganization of R&D teams after acquisition harms acquired inventors? innovative performance. Though, the implementation of other integration decisions can mitigate or aggravate this negative effect....

  9. Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young R; Houngue, Coovi; Hall, Ronald G

    2015-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia is the sixth leading cause of death in the USA. Adherence to the 2007 Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society community-acquired pneumonia guidelines has been associated with improved clinical outcomes. However, choice between guideline-recommended treatments is at the discretion of the prescribing clinician. This review is intended to discuss the characteristics of these treatment options including dosing frequency, dose adjustment for renal/hepatic dysfunction, serious/common adverse events, drug interactions, lung penetration, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic target and effect of obesity to help guide antimicrobial selection. An increasing portion of patients are receiving expanded empiric coverage for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as recommended by the American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America for healthcare-associated pneumonia. However, this expanded coverage may not be achieving the desired improvements in clinical outcomes. We expect this increasingly diverse spectrum of patients with pneumonia to eventually result in the merger of these two guidelines to include all patients with pneumonia.

  10. Clinicopathological correlation of acquired hyperpigmentary disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha B Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired pigmentary disorders are group of heterogenous entities that share single, most significant, clinical feature, that is, dyspigmentation. Asians and Indians, in particular, are mostly affected. Although the classic morphologies and common treatment options of these conditions have been reviewed in the global dermatology literature, the value of histpathological evaluation has not been thoroughly explored. The importance of accurate diagnosis is emphasized here as the underlying diseases have varying etiologies that need to be addressed in order to effectively treat the dyspigmentation. In this review, we describe and discuss the utility of histology in the diagnostic work of hyperpigmentary disorders, and how, in many cases, it can lead to targeted and more effective therapy. We focus on the most common acquired pigmentary disorders seen in Indian patients as well as a few uncommon diseases with distinctive histological traits. Facial melanoses, including mimickers of melasma, are thoroughly explored. These diseases include lichen planus pigmentosus, discoid lupus erythematosus, drug-induced melanoses, hyperpigmentation due to exogenous substances, acanthosis nigricans, and macular amyloidosis.

  11. Asian elephants acquire inaccessible food by blowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kaori; Irie, Naoko; Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Mariko; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Many animals acquire otherwise inaccessible food with the aid of sticks and occasionally water. As an exception, some reports suggest that elephants manipulate breathing through their trunks to acquire inaccessible food. Here, we report on two female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Kamine Zoo, Japan, who regularly blew to drive food within their reach. We experimentally investigated this behaviour by placing foods in inaccessible places. The elephants blew the food until it came within accessible range. Once the food was within range, the elephants were increasingly less likely to blow as the distance to the food became shorter. One subject manipulated her blowing duration based on food distance: longer when the food was distant. These results suggest that the elephants used their breath to achieve goals: that is, they used it not only to retrieve the food but also to fine-tune the food position for easy grasping. We also observed individual differences in the elephants' aptitude for this technique, which altered the efficiency of food acquisition. Thus, we added a new example of spontaneous behaviour for achieving a goal in animals. The use of breath to drive food is probably unique to elephants, with their dexterous trunks and familiarity with manipulating the act of blowing, which is commonly employed for self-comfort and acoustic communication.

  12. Software for Acquiring Image Data for PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Cheung, H. M.; Kressler, Brian

    2003-01-01

    PIV Acquisition (PIVACQ) is a computer program for acquisition of data for particle-image velocimetry (PIV). In the PIV system for which PIVACQ was developed, small particles entrained in a flow are illuminated with a sheet of light from a pulsed laser. The illuminated region is monitored by a charge-coupled-device camera that operates in conjunction with a data-acquisition system that includes a frame grabber and a counter-timer board, both installed in a single computer. The camera operates in "frame-straddle" mode where a pair of images can be obtained closely spaced in time (on the order of microseconds). The frame grabber acquires image data from the camera and stores the data in the computer memory. The counter/timer board triggers the camera and synchronizes the pulsing of the laser with acquisition of data from the camera. PIVPROC coordinates all of these functions and provides a graphical user interface, through which the user can control the PIV data-acquisition system. PIVACQ enables the user to acquire a sequence of single-exposure images, display the images, process the images, and then save the images to the computer hard drive. PIVACQ works in conjunction with the PIVPROC program which processes the images of particles into the velocity field in the illuminated plane.

  13. Borders and Legal Criteria for Acquiring Nationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elósegui Itxaso

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Legal criteria for acquiring nationality are crucial in the integration of persons into society, since they provide access to the right to vote. Until now, the criteria most frequently used are those of ius soli (birth and ius sanguinis (nationality is inherited from the parents, which comply with previous anthropological approaches and which jurists accept without reflection, or consider to be unshakeable traditions.The author’s proposal in this article is to accept that some of these legal criteria should be reformed, though not in an anarchic manner. On one hand, some of the ethnic criteria may be respected, but on the other, the processes of acquiring nationality should be streamlined by accepting the desire of persons wanting to change their nationality on moving to a new country of residence. Meanwhile, we must establish channels of demand for accepting the democratic values and legal system of the welcoming country, as a result of which it would be fair to call for a prior learning period before the rights to nationality and suffrage are granted. The author also adds – and accepts as being a fundamental element – some of Habermas’ inclusion theses, though she stresses that this discourse should be organised into two specific, feasible legal solutions or rather, in a realistic manner.

  14. Time and Space Resolved Heat Flux Measurements During Nucleate Boiling with Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerramilli, Vamsee K.; Myers, Jerry G.; Hussey, Sam W.; Yee, Glenda F.; Kim, Jungho

    2005-01-01

    The lack of temporally and spatially resolved measurements under nucleate bubbles has complicated efforts to fully explain pool-boiling phenomena. The objective of this current work was to acquire time and space resolved temperature distributions under nucleating bubbles on a constant heat flux surface using a microheater array with 100x 100 square microns resolution, then numerically determine the wall to liquid heat flux. This data was then correlated with high speed (greater than l000Hz) visual recordings of The bubble growth and departure from the heater surface acquired from below and from the side of the heater. The data indicate that microlayer evaporation and contact line heat transfer are not major heat transfer mechanisms for bubble growth. The dominant heat transfer mechanism appears to be transient conduction into the liquid as the liquid rewets the wall during the bubble departure process.

  15. In vivo mechanisms of acquired thymic tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, W; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Sayegh, M H;

    1997-01-01

    Injection of antigen into the thymus of adult animals induces specific systemic tolerance, but the mechanisms of acquired thymic tolerance are not well understood. To investigate these mechanisms we used a model of intrathymic injection of ovalbumin (OVA) in BALB/c mice. We show an antigen......-specific decrease in proliferative responses to OVA, as well as a significant decrease in antigen-specific IL-2 secretion and IFN-gamma production by splenocytes and lymph node cells of tolerant mice. Addition of recombinant IL-2 in vitro reversed the defect in IFN-gamma production by cells from OVA-tolerized...... expansion of transferred CD4+ TCR transgenic cells in tolerant mice in vivo. There was an increase in clonotype-positive T cells in the thymus after immunization, confirming that activated T cells circulate through the thymus. Furthermore, thymectomy after intrathymic injection abrogates the effect...

  16. Time dysperception perspective for acquired brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica ePiras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distortions of time perception are presented by a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we survey timing abilities in clinical populations with acquired brain injuries in key cerebral areas recently implicated in human studies of timing. We purposely analyzed the complex relationship between cognitive and contextual factors involved in time estimation, as to characterize the correlation between timed and other cognitive behaviors in each group. We assume that interval timing is a solid construct to study cognitive dysfunctions following brain injury, as timing performance is a sensitive metric of information processing, while temporal cognition has the potential of influencing a wide range of cognitive processes. Moreover, temporal performance is a sensitive assay of damage to the underlying neural substrate after a brain insult. Further research in neurological and psychiatric patients will definitively answer the question of whether time distortions are manifestations of cognitive and behavioral symptoms of brain damage and definitively clarify their mechanisms.

  17. Synesthetic colors for Japanese late acquired graphemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Michiko; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

    2012-06-01

    Determinants of synesthetic color choice for the Japanese logographic script, Kanji, were studied. The study investigated how synesthetic colors for Kanji characters, which are usually acquired later in life than other types of graphemes in Japanese language (phonetic characters called Hiragana and Katakana, and Arabic digits), are influenced by linguistic properties such as phonology, orthography, and meaning. Of central interest was a hypothesized generalization process from synesthetic colors for graphemes, learned prior to acquisition of Kanji, to Kanji characters learned later. Results revealed that color choices for Kanji characters depend on meaning and phonological information. Some results suggested that colors are generalized from Hiragana characters and Arabic digits to Kanji characters via phonology and meaning, respectively. Little influence of orthographic information was observed. The findings and approach of this study contributes to a clarification of the mechanism underlying grapheme-color synesthesia, especially in terms of its relationship to normal language processing.

  18. Multiple myeloma associated with acquired cutis laxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S Y; Maguire, R F

    1980-08-01

    Acquired cutis laxa is a rare disorder characterized by diffuse laxity of the skin and loss of connective tissue support with involvement of the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, pelvic organs, and aorta. The case report presented herein describes a forty-six year old woman with multiple myeloma and cutis laxa. Her history included several severe allergic reactions and the gradual development of lax skin, loss of connective tissue support throughout the body, and emphysema. At autopsy, multiple myeloma, diffuse laxity of the skin, and panacinar emphysema were found. The amount of elastic fiber in the skin, lungs, and aorta was decreased and showed abnormal fragmentation. Results of direct immunofluorescence study demonstrated IgG bound to dermal elastic fibers. Speculation regarding an immunologic etiology of the elastic tissue abnormality is presented herein.

  19. Acquiring Correct Knowledge for Natural Language Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Reiter, E; Sripada, S G; 10.1613/jair.1176

    2011-01-01

    Natural language generation (NLG) systems are computer software systems that produce texts in English and other human languages, often from non-linguistic input data. NLG systems, like most AI systems, need substantial amounts of knowledge. However, our experience in two NLG projects suggests that it is difficult to acquire correct knowledge for NLG systems; indeed, every knowledge acquisition (KA) technique we tried had significant problems. In general terms, these problems were due to the complexity, novelty, and poorly understood nature of the tasks our systems attempted, and were worsened by the fact that people write so differently. This meant in particular that corpus-based KA approaches suffered because it was impossible to assemble a sizable corpus of high-quality consistent manually written texts in our domains; and structured expert-oriented KA techniques suffered because experts disagreed and because we could not get enough information about special and unusual cases to build robust systems. We bel...

  20. Hospital Acquired Pneumonia: Issues in Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel A Mandell

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In December 1992. a meeting was convened in Toronto to develop guidelines for the initial treatment of hospital acquired pneumonia. Issues considered related lo the patient. the possible drugs used for treatment, and the pathogen(s. From the perspective of the patient. the two major issues were the presence or absence of risk factors for specific microbial pathogens and the severity of illness upon clinical presentation, Criteria for defining severly ill patients were developed and are presented in this paper. Drug and pathogen related issues focused on selection of antimicrobial agents thal would provide coverage for the likely pathogens. Concern was also expressed regarding use of aminoglycosides as single-agent treatment of Gram-negative infections in the lung. and the issue of monotherapy versus combination therapy of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections was discussed. The use of various diagnostic tests was briefly reviewed. including the protected specimen brush and bronchoalveolar lavage. Treatment regimens are presented in tabular format.

  1. Acquired hepatocerebral degeneration: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Xing Chen; Ping Wang; Sen-Xiang Yan; You-Ming Li; Chao-Hui Yu; Ling-Ling Jiang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Acquired hepatocerebral degeneration (AHD) is an exceptional type of hepatic encephalopathies (HE). It is characterized by neuropsychiatric and extrapyramidal symptomathology similar to that seen in hepatolenticular degeneration (Wilson's disease). In this paper, we report a case of AHD with unusual presenting features.METHODS: A 28-year-old man with AHD was described and the literature was reviewed.RESULTS: The man had a history of HBV-related liver cirrhosis. He was admitted to our hospital with apathy,dysarthria, mild consciousness impairment and extrapyramidal symptoms after hematemesis. By review of the literature,cases with AHD often did not present consciousness impairment. So our case was once diagnosed incorrectly as Wilson's disease.CONCLUSION: AHD is a rare syndrome and its variable clinical manifestations make it difficult to be diagnosed.But we believe that extensive examination and thorough understanding of the disease are beneficial to a correct diagnosis. Moreover, biocoene is effective in treating the case.

  2. Acquired Localized Hypertrichosis Induced by Rivastigmine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbernón-Moya, Adrian; Podlipnik, Sebastian; Burgos, Fernando; Vargas-Laguna, Elena; Aguilar-Martínez, Antonio; Fernández-Cogolludo, Eva; Gallego-Valdes, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrichosis is the excessive hair growth in any area of the skin surface. Acquired localized hypertrichosis may be secondary to multiple causes and there is a secondary form due to several drugs, which is usually reversible with discontinuation of the causative agent. Rivastigmine is a reversible and competitive inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase used for symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer dementia and Parkinson's disease. It has an adequate safety profile and cutaneous side effects are unusual. Irritant contact dermatitis, allergic dermatitis, baboon syndrome, and cutaneous rash due to rivastigmine have been reported. We report on a Caucasian 80-year-old male with personal history of Alzheimer's disease. The patient started therapy with oral rivastigmine one month prior to clinical presentation of localized hypertrichosis on both forearms. Norgalanthamine has been shown to promote hair growth activity via the proliferation of dermal papilla. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can induce hair growth. PMID:27073702

  3. Acquired Localized Hypertrichosis Induced by Rivastigmine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Imbernón-Moya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrichosis is the excessive hair growth in any area of the skin surface. Acquired localized hypertrichosis may be secondary to multiple causes and there is a secondary form due to several drugs, which is usually reversible with discontinuation of the causative agent. Rivastigmine is a reversible and competitive inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase used for symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer dementia and Parkinson’s disease. It has an adequate safety profile and cutaneous side effects are unusual. Irritant contact dermatitis, allergic dermatitis, baboon syndrome, and cutaneous rash due to rivastigmine have been reported. We report on a Caucasian 80-year-old male with personal history of Alzheimer’s disease. The patient started therapy with oral rivastigmine one month prior to clinical presentation of localized hypertrichosis on both forearms. Norgalanthamine has been shown to promote hair growth activity via the proliferation of dermal papilla. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can induce hair growth.

  4. Does Acquired Hypothyroidism Affect the Hearing Functions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Arduç

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: It is well known that congenital hypothyroidism can cause hearing loss. However, conflicting results were found in studies investigating hearing functions in acquired hypothyroidism. Therefore, we evaluated the audiometric findings in patients with acquired hypothyroidism. Material and Method: The study included 58 patients with hypothyroidism and age- and gender-matched 34 healthy controls. Twenty eight (48.27% patients had subclinical hypothyroidism, and 30 (51.73% had obvious hypothyroidism. All subjects had a normal otoscopic examination and tympanometry. Pure tone audiometry at 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hertz (Hz was performed in both groups. Blood pressure measurements and the levels of plasma electrolytes, lipids and vitamin B12 were available in all subjects. Results: Hypothyroidism group and control group were similar with respect to systolic and diastolic blood pressures and plasma glucose, lipid, vitamin B12, calcium, sodium, potassium, and chloride levels. Significantly higher audiometric thresholds (dB at 250 (10 (0-45 vs. 5 (0-15, p<0.001 and 500 Hz (10 (0-40 vs. 10 (-5-15, p=0.003 were recorded in hypothyroid patients compared to that in healthy controls. Hearing thresholds at 250 and 500 Hz correlated positively with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, and negatively with free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine. Subclinical hypothyroid patients had a higher hearing threshold at 250 Hz than healthy controls (p=0.001. Discussion: Our study demonstrated that hearing ability decreases in hypothyroidism, even in subclinical hypothyroidism. The changes in TSH and thyroid hormone levels seem to be directly related to the hearing loss in this population of patients.

  5. Experiences Acquired by a Building Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Durusu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it has been purposed to share practice of event-scene administration, search and rescue and evacuation of injured and acquired experiences carried out throughout a building collapse. After an explosion at Diyarbakir Kurdoglu housings at 11 December 2006 about 08:20AM, five flats of an apartment that has five floors-ten flats were collapsed. Local military hospital ambulances, city ambulances, and fire-fighting vehicles arrived to event-place 10 minutes later. It has been found out that there were 13 people inside, 6 of which were children. Army rescue team arrived event-place about 01:30PM, then all non-professional persons has been sent away from region. Eight dead including five children, and five injured including one child have been taken out. Two people from close area have been also injured mildly due to the explosion. It has been found out that accident caused by boiler tank exploding. Sixth of total eight injured had only superficial wounds. Other two injured have been followed because of head trauma at first one and hepatic contusion and rib fracture at the other one. No complication observed after follow-up. Building collapses can create disaster potential according to the number of people inside and facilities of nearby region of the place accident taken place. The evaluation of the direction of building collapse during search and rescue operation would enhance possibility to reach more living in shorter time. Building collapses which can be considered as a miniature of big disaster potentials like earthquakes can be appraised as an important practical training and experience source on event-place administration, search and rescue operations and injured evacuation. We believe that share of the analysis and acquired experiences of this kind of studies would contribute interfering big disaster potentials. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 241-244

  6. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of the heat stress response in the filamentous fungus Metarhizium anisopliae using RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhang-Xun; Zhou, Xia-Zhi; Meng, Hui-Min; Liu, Yu-Jun; Zhou, Quan; Huang, Bo

    2014-06-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is widely used for biological control of a variety of insect pests. The effectiveness of the microbial pest control agent, however, is limited by poor thermotolerance. The molecular mechanism underlying the response to heat stress in the conidia of entomopathogenic fungi remains unclear. Here, we conducted high-throughput RNA-Seq to analyze the differential gene expression between control and heat treated conidia of M. anisopliae at the transcriptome level. RNA-Seq analysis generated 6,284,262 and 5,826,934 clean reads in the control and heat treated groups, respectively. A total of 2,722 up-regulated and 788 down-regulated genes, with a cutoff of twofold change, were identified by expression analysis. Among these differentially expressed genes, many were related to metabolic processes, biological regulation, cellular processes and response to stimuli. The majority of genes involved in endocytic pathways, proteosome pathways and regulation of autophagy were up-regulated, while most genes involved in the ribosome pathway were down-regulated. These results suggest that these differentially expressed genes may be involved in the heat stress response in conidia. As expected, significant changes in expression levels of genes encoding heat shock proteins and proteins involved in trehalose accumulation were observed in conditions of heat stress. These results expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the heat stress response of conidia and provide a foundation for future investigations.

  7. Late-onset Ito's nevus: an uncommon acquired dermal melanocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataix, Javier; López, Norberto; Haro, Rosario; González, Elena; Angulo, Jorge; Requena, Luis

    2007-08-01

    Dermal melanocytoses comprise a variety of congenital and acquired conditions characterized by a sparse population of intradermal dendritic, variably pigmented, spindle-shaped melanocytes. While Mongolian spot, Ota's and Ito's nevi are usually present at birth or appear around puberty; acquired dermal melanocytoses that appear in adult life are extremely rare. They include the facial lesions of acquired bilateral nevus of Ota-like macules, also named Hori's nevus, and the acquired unilateral nevus of Ota, also known as Sun's nevus. Uncommon extrafacial examples of acquired dermal melanocytoses include lesions involving upper extremities, wrist, back, lower extremities and dorsal aspects of the hands and feet. They are more prevalent among Asian women. In general, dermal melanocytoses are rare lesions in Caucasian patients and acquired variants are exceedingly uncommon. We report a rare example of acquired Ito's nevus that appeared in a Caucasian elderly woman and review the literature about acquired dermal melanocytoses.

  8. 48 CFR 970.4102 - Acquiring utility services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquiring utility services... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Acquisition of Utility Services 970.4102 Acquiring utility services....

  9. Management of bleeding in acquired hemophilia A : results from the European Acquired Haemophilia (EACH2) Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baudo, Francesco; Collins, Peter; Huth-Kuehne, Angela; Levesque, Herve; Marco, Pascual; Nemes, Laszlo; Pellegrini, Fabio; Tengborn, Lilian; Knoebl, Paul; Aspoeck, G.; Heistinger, M.; Knobl, P.; Makipernaa, A.; Andre, H; Aouba, A.; Bellucci, S.; Beurrier, P.; Borg, J.Y.; Darnige, L.; Devignes, J.; d'Oiron, R.; Gautier, P.; Gay, V.; Girault, S.; Gruel, Y.; Guerin, V.; Hezard, N.; Khellaf, M.; Koenig, M.; Levesque, H.; Lifermann, F; Marlu, R; Ninet, J.; Peynet, J.; Quemeneur, T.; Rothschild, C.; Schleinitz, N.; Sigaud, M.; Trouillier, S; Voisin, S.; Giebl, A.; Holstein, K.; Huth-Kuhne, A; Loreth, R.M.; Steigerwald, U.; Tiede, A.; Theodossiades, G.; Nemes, L.; Radvanyi, G.; Schlammadinger, A.; Barillari, G.; Pasca, S.; Baudo, F; Caimi, T.; Contino, L.; D'Angelo Armando, C.L.; Fattorini, A.; Di Minno, G.; Cerbone, A.M.; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; D'inca, M.; Falanga, A.; Maggioni, A.; Lerede, T.; Franchini, M.; Gaidano, G.; De Paoli, L.; Gamba, G.; Ghirardi, R; Girotto, M.; Tasca, D.; Grandone, E.; Tiscia, G.; Imberti, D.; Iorio, A.; Landolfi, R; Di Gennaro, L.; Novarese, L.; Mariani, G.; Lapecorella, M.; Marietta, M.; Pedrazzi, P.; Mazzucconi, M.G.; Santoro, C.; Morfini, M.; Linari, S.; Moratelli, S.; Paolini, R.; Piseddu, G.; Poggio, R.; Pogliani, E.; Carpenedo, M.; Remiddi, C.; Santagostino, E.; Mancuso, M.E.; Santoro, R.; Papaleo, G.; Schinco, P.; Borchiellini, A.; Valeri, F.; Scortechini, A.R.; Siragusa, S.; Sottilotta, G.; Squizzato, A.; Tagariello, G.; Sartori, R; Tagliaferri, A.R.; Di Perna, C.; Rivolta, G.F.; Testa, S.; Paoletti, O.; Toschi, V.; Zanon, E.; Brandolin, B.; Hamulyak, K.; Kamphuisen, P.; Laros-van Gorkom, B.; Leebeek, F.W.; Marten, N.; Novakova, I.; Schutgens, R.; van der Linden, P.W.; van Esser, J.; van der Meer, J.; Ypma, P.; Campos, M.; Aguilar, C.; Altisent, C.; Bermejo, N.; Del Campo, R.; Ferreiro Arguelles, M.; Gonzalez Bolos', R.; Gutierrez Pimentel, M.J.; Jimenez-Yuste, V.; Jose-Felix, L.; Marco, P.; Mingot, M.E.; Perez Garrido, R.; Perez Gonzale, N.Z.; Prieto Garcia, M.; Rodriguez-Huerta, A.M.; Sedano, C.; Tolosa Munoz, A.; Baghaei, F.; Tengborn, L.; Boehlen, F.; Korte, W.; Chowdary, P.; Collins, P.; Evans, G.; Pavord, S.; Rangarajan, S.; Wilde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Acquired hemophilia A is a rare bleeding disorder caused by autoantibodies to coagulation FVIII. Bleeding episodes at presentation are spontaneous and severe in most cases. Optimal hemostatic therapy is controversial, and available data are from observational and retrospective studies only. The EACH

  10. Immunosuppression for acquired hemophilia A : results from the European Acquired Haemophilia Registry (EACH2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, Peter; Baudo, Francesco; Knoebl, Paul; Levesque, Herve; Nemes, Laszlo; Pellegrini, Fabio; Marco, Pascual; Tengborn, Lilian; Huth-Kuehne, Angela; Aspoeck, Gerold; Heistinger, Max; Knobl, Paul; Makipernaa, Anne; Andre, Helene; Aouba, A; Bellucci, Sylvia; Beurrier, Philippe; Borg, Jeanne Yvonne; Darnige, Luc; Devignes, Jean; dOiron, Roseline; Gautier, Philippe; Gay, Valerie; Girault, Stephane; Gruel, Yves; Guerin, Viviane; Hezard, Nathalie; Khellaf, Mehdi; Koenig, Martial; Levesque, Herve; Lifermann, Francois; Marlu, Raphael; Ninet, J.; Peynet, Jocelyne; Quemeneur, Thomas; Rothschild, Chantal; Schleinitz, Nicolas; Sigaud, Marianne; Trouillier, Sebastien; Voisin, Sophie; Giebl, Andreas; Holstein, Katharina; Huth-Kuhne, Angela; Loreth, Ralph M.; Steigerwald, Udo; Tiede, Andreas; Theodossiades, George; Nemes, Laszlo; Radvanyi, Gaspar; Schlammadinger, Agota; Barillari, Giovanni; Pasca, Samantha; Baudo, Francesco; Caimi, T.; Contino, L.; D'Angelo, Armando; Crippa, Luciano; Fattorini, Annalisa; Di Minno, Giovanni; Cerbone, Anna Maria; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; D'inca, Marco; Falanga, Anna; Maggioni, Anna; Lerede, Teresa; Franchini, Massimo; Gaidano, Gianluca; De Paoli, Lorenzo; Gamba, Gabriella; Ghirardi, Raffaele; Girotto, Mauro; Tasca, Delios; Grandone, Elvira; Tiscia, Giovanni; Imberti, Davide; Iorio, Alfonso; Landolfi, Raffaele; Di Gennaro, Leonardo; Novarese, Linda; Mariani, Guglielmo; Lapecorella, Mario; Marietta, Marco; Pedrazzi, Paola; Mazzucconi, Maria Gabriella; Santoro, Cristina; Morfini, Massimo; Linari, Silvia; Moratelli, Stefano; Paolini, Rossella; Piseddu, Gavino; Poggio, Renzo; Pogliani, Enrico; Carpenedo, Monica; Remiddi, Chiara; Santagostino, Elena; Mancuso, Maria Elisa; Santoro, Rita; Papaleo, Giuseppina; Schinco, Piercarla; Borchiellini, Alessandra; Valeri, Federica; Scortechini, Anna Rita; Siragusa, Sergio; Sottilotta, Gianluca; Squizzato, Alessandro; Tagariello, Giuseppe; Sartori, Roberto; Tagliaferri, Anna Rita; Di Perna, Caterina; Rivolta, Gianna Franca; Testa, Sophie; Paoletti, Oriana; Toschi, Vincenzo; Zanon, Ezio; Brandolin, Barbara; Hamulyak, Karly; Kamphuisen, Pieter; Laros-van Gorkom, Britta; Leebeek, Frank W.G.; Marten, Nijziel; Novakova, Irena; Schutgens, Roger; van der Linden, P.W.G; van Esser, Joost; van der Meer, J.; Ypma, Paula; Campos, Manuel; Aguilar, Carlos; Altisent, Carmen; Bermejo, Nuria; Del Campo, Raquel; Ferreiro Arguelles, M.; Gonzalez Boullosa, Rosario; Gutierrez Pimentel, Maria Jose; Jimenez-Yuste, Victor [No Value; Jose-Felix, Lucia; Marco, Pascual; Mingot, Maria Eva; Perez Garrido, Rosario; Perez Gonzale, Noelia z; Prieto Garcia, Manuel; Rodriguez-Huerta, Ana Maria; Maranon, HGUG [No Value; Sedano, Carmen; Tolosa Munoz, Alexandra; Baghaei, Fariba; Tengborn, Lilian; Boehlen, Francoise; Korte, Wolfgang; Chowdary, Pratima; Collins, Peter; Evans, Gillian; Pavord, Suzanne; Rangarajan, Savita; Wilde, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is an autoimmune disease caused by an autoantibody to factor VIII. Patients are at risk of severe and fatal hemorrhage until the inhibitor is eradicated, and guidelines recommend immunosuppression as soon as the diagnosis has been made. The optimal immunosuppressive regim

  11. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1994-01-01

    It is approximately 10 years since the Third Edition of Heat Pipes was published and the text is now established as the standard work on the subject. This new edition has been extensively updated, with revisions to most chapters. The introduction of new working fluids and extended life test data have been taken into account in chapter 3. A number of new types of heat pipes have become popular, and others have proved less effective. This is reflected in the contents of chapter 5. Heat pipes are employed in a wide range of applications, including electronics cooling, diecasting and injection mo

  12. 19 CFR 148.33 - Articles acquired abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... combined with the duty in determining which rates are highest. (c) Gifts. An article acquired abroad by a... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles acquired abroad. 148.33 Section 148.33... Articles acquired abroad. (a) Exemption. Each returning resident is entitled to bring in free of duty...

  13. 14 CFR 1274.402 - Contractor acquired property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Property § 1274.402 Contractor acquired property. As provided in § 1274.923(c), title to property acquired with government funds vests in the government. Under a cost shared... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contractor acquired property....

  14. Impact of urban contamination of the La Paz River basin on thermotolerant coliform density and occurrence of multiple antibiotic resistant enteric pathogens in river water, irrigated soil and fresh vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Violeta; Mamani, Nataniel; Iñiguez, Volga

    2016-01-01

    La Paz River in Andean highlands is heavily polluted with urban run-off and further contaminates agricultural lowlands and downstream waters at the Amazon watershed. Agricultural produce at this region is the main source of vegetables for the major Andean cities of La Paz and El Alto. We conducted a 1 year study, to evaluate microbial quality parameters and occurrence of multiple enteropathogenic bacteria (Enterohemorrhagic E. coli-EHEC, Enteroinvasive E. coli or Shigella-EIEC/Shigella, Enteroaggregative E. coli-EAEC, Enteropathogenic E. coli-EPEC Enterotoxigenic E. coli-ETEC and Salmonella) and its resistance to 11 antibiotics. Four sampling locations were selected: a fresh mountain water reservoir (un-impacted, site 1) and downstream sites receiving wastewater discharges (impacted, sites 2-4). River water (sites 1-4, N = 48), and soil and vegetable samples (site 3, N = 24) were collected during dry (April-September) and rainy seasons (October-March). Throughout the study, thermotolerant coliform density values at impacted sites greatly exceeded the guidelines for recreational and agricultural water uses. Seasonal differences were found for thermotolerant coliform density during dry season in water samples nearby a populated and hospital compound area. In contrast to the un-impacted site, where none of the tested enteropathogens were found, 100 % of surface water, 83 % of soil and 67 % of vegetable samples at impacted sites, were contaminated with at least one enteropathogen, being ETEC and Salmonella the most frequently found. ETEC isolates displayed different patterns of toxin genes among sites. The occurrence of enteropathogens was associated with the thermotolerant coliform density. At impacted sites, multiple enteropathogens were frequently found during rainy season. Among isolated enteropathogens, 50 % were resistant to at least two antibiotics, with resistance to ampicillin, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline commonly

  15. Isolation and Alcohol Fermentation Characteristics of Thermotolerant Yeasts%耐高温酵母菌的筛选及其乙醇发酵特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超帝; 缪礼鸿; 陈瑾; 刘蒲临

    2016-01-01

    In this study, 69 thermotolerant yeast strains were isolated from 29 different soil samples, and the fermentation performance of these strains at high temperature was also detected. Based on 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain sequence analysis and physiological characterization, these strains were phylogenetically related to 7 species in 6 genera, includingCandida tropicalis (39.1% of the total yeast strains),K. marxianus (23.4%), I. orientalis (29.7%),M. guilliermondii (1.6%),K. bovina (1.6%),C. palmioleophila(1.6%) andS. cerevisiae (3.1%).C. tropicalis were the most widely distributed species. The best thermotolerant and ethanol fermentation ability were detected inK. marxianus. The ethanol production reached up to 6.56% (V/V) in 72 h at 40℃. These results demonstrated thatK. marxianus has obvious advantages in ethanol fermentation at high temperature, which makes it a good potential candidate for commercial biomass ethanol production.%采用平板分离法,从29份新鲜采集的土样中分离获得64株耐高温酵母菌株,并对其在高温条件下的乙醇发酵性能进行了分析比较。26S rDNA D1/D2区域序列测定和生理特征分析结果表明,这些酵母菌株在亲缘关系上可归类于6个属7个种,分别为热带假丝酵母(Candida tropicalis)(占总分离株的39.1%)、马克斯克鲁维酵母(Kluyveromyces marxianus)(占23.4%)、东方伊萨酵母(Issatchenkia orientalis)(占29.7%)、季也蒙毕赤酵母(M. guilliermondii)(占1.6%)、Kazachstania bovina(占1.6%)、Candida palmioleophila(占1.6%)和酿酒酵母(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)(占3.1%)。其中,马克斯克鲁维酵母的耐高温能力和乙醇发酵能力最强;40℃条件下发酵72 h后,发酵液中乙醇体积分数最高可达6.56%,显著高于相同条件下其他耐高温酵母的乙醇产量。上述结果表明,马克斯克鲁维酵母在高温乙醇发酵过程中具有明显优势,可作

  16. Magnetar heating

    CERN Document Server

    Beloborodov, Andrei M

    2016-01-01

    We examine four candidate mechanisms that could explain the high surface temperatures of magnetars. (1) Heat flux from the liquid core heated by ambipolar diffusion. It could sustain the observed surface luminosity $L_s\\approx 10^{35}$ erg s$^{-1}$ if core heating offsets neutrino cooling at a temperature $T_{\\rm core}>6\\times 10^8$ K. This scenario is viable if the core magnetic field exceeds $10^{16}$ G, the magnetar has mass $M10^{16}$ G varying on a 100 meter scale could provide $L_s\\approx 10^{35}$ erg s$^{-1}$. (4) Bombardment of the stellar surface by particles accelerated in the magnetosphere. This mechanism produces hot spots on magnetars. Observations of transient magnetars show evidence for external heating.

  17. Heat emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... death. The early symptoms of heat cramps include: Muscle cramps and pains that most often occur in the ... do if salt beverages are not available. For muscle cramps , give beverages as noted above and massage affected ...

  18. SSH Analysis of Endosperm Transcripts and Characterization of Heat Stress Regulated Expressed Sequence Tags in Bread Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Suneha; Kumar, Ranjeet R.; Dubey, Kavita; Singh, Jyoti P.; Tiwari, Sachidanand; Kumar, Ashok; Smita, Shuchi; Mishra, Dwijesh C.; Kumar, Sanjeev; Grover, Monendra; Padaria, Jasdeep C.; Kala, Yugal K.; Singh, Gyanendra P.; Pathak, Himanshu; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Rai, Anil; Praveen, Shelly; Rai, Raj D.

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the major problems in agriculturally important cereal crops, especially wheat. Here, we have constructed a subtracted cDNA library from the endosperm of HS-treated (42°C for 2 h) wheat cv. HD2985 by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). We identified ~550 recombinant clones ranging from 200 to 500 bp with an average size of 300 bp. Sanger's sequencing was performed with 205 positive clones to generate the differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Most of the ESTs were observed to be localized on the long arm of chromosome 2A and associated with heat stress tolerance and metabolic pathways. Identified ESTs were BLAST search using Ensemble, TriFLD, and TIGR databases and the predicted CDS were translated and aligned with the protein sequences available in pfam and InterProScan 5 databases to predict the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). We observed eight different types of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in the DEPs corresponds to the cloned ESTs-147 sites with phosphorylation, 21 sites with sumoylation, 237 with palmitoylation, 96 sites with S-nitrosylation, 3066 calpain cleavage sites, and 103 tyrosine nitration sites, predicted to sense the heat stress and regulate the expression of stress genes. Twelve DEPs were observed to have transmembrane helixes (TMH) in their structure, predicted to play the role of sensors of HS. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of randomly selected ESTs showed very high relative expression of HSP17 under HS; up-regulation was observed more in wheat cv. HD2985 (thermotolerant), as compared to HD2329 (thermosusceptible) during grain-filling. The abundance of transcripts was further validated through northern blot analysis. The ESTs and their corresponding DEPs can be used as molecular marker for screening or targeted precision breeding program. PTMs identified in the DEPs can be used to elucidate the thermotolerance mechanism of wheat—a novel step toward the development of

  19. SSH Analysis of Endosperm Transcripts and Characterization of Heat Stress Regulated Expressed Sequence Tags in Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Suneha; Kumar, Ranjeet R; Dubey, Kavita; Singh, Jyoti P; Tiwari, Sachidanand; Kumar, Ashok; Smita, Shuchi; Mishra, Dwijesh C; Kumar, Sanjeev; Grover, Monendra; Padaria, Jasdeep C; Kala, Yugal K; Singh, Gyanendra P; Pathak, Himanshu; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Rai, Anil; Praveen, Shelly; Rai, Raj D

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the major problems in agriculturally important cereal crops, especially wheat. Here, we have constructed a subtracted cDNA library from the endosperm of HS-treated (42°C for 2 h) wheat cv. HD2985 by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). We identified ~550 recombinant clones ranging from 200 to 500 bp with an average size of 300 bp. Sanger's sequencing was performed with 205 positive clones to generate the differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Most of the ESTs were observed to be localized on the long arm of chromosome 2A and associated with heat stress tolerance and metabolic pathways. Identified ESTs were BLAST search using Ensemble, TriFLD, and TIGR databases and the predicted CDS were translated and aligned with the protein sequences available in pfam and InterProScan 5 databases to predict the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). We observed eight different types of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in the DEPs corresponds to the cloned ESTs-147 sites with phosphorylation, 21 sites with sumoylation, 237 with palmitoylation, 96 sites with S-nitrosylation, 3066 calpain cleavage sites, and 103 tyrosine nitration sites, predicted to sense the heat stress and regulate the expression of stress genes. Twelve DEPs were observed to have transmembrane helixes (TMH) in their structure, predicted to play the role of sensors of HS. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of randomly selected ESTs showed very high relative expression of HSP17 under HS; up-regulation was observed more in wheat cv. HD2985 (thermotolerant), as compared to HD2329 (thermosusceptible) during grain-filling. The abundance of transcripts was further validated through northern blot analysis. The ESTs and their corresponding DEPs can be used as molecular marker for screening or targeted precision breeding program. PTMs identified in the DEPs can be used to elucidate the thermotolerance mechanism of wheat-a novel step toward the development of "climate-smart" wheat.

  20. SSH analysis of endosperm transcripts and characterization of heat stress regulated expressed sequence tags in bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneha Goswami

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress is one of the major problems in agriculturally important cereal crops, especially wheat. Here, we have constructed a subtracted cDNA library from the endosperm of HS-treated (42°C for 2 h wheat cv. HD2985 by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH. We identified ~550 recombinant clones ranging from 200 to 500 bp with an average size of 300 bp. Sanger’s sequencing was performed with 205 positive clones to generate the differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Most of the ESTs were observed to be localized on the long arm of chromosome 2A and associated with heat stress tolerance and metabolic pathways. Identified ESTs were BLAST search using Ensemble, TriFLD and TIGR databases and the predicted CDS were translated and aligned with the protein sequences available in pfam and InterProScan 5 databases to predict the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs. We observed eight different types of post-translational modifications (PTMs in the DEPs corresponds to the cloned ESTs—147 sites with phosphorylation, 21 sites with sumoylation, 237 with palmitoylation, 96 sites with S-nitrosylation, 3066 calpain cleavage sites, and 103 tyrosine nitration sites, predicted to sense the heat stress and regulate the expression of stress genes. Twelve DEPs were observed to have transmembrane helixes (TMH in their structure, predicted to play the role of sensors of HS. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of randomly selected ESTs showed very high relative expression of HSP17 under HS; up-regulation was observed more in wheat cv. HD2985 (thermotolerant, as compared to HD2329 (thermosusceptible during grain-filling. The abundance of transcripts was further validated through northern blot analysis. The ESTs and their corresponding DEPs can be used as molecular marker for screening or targeted precision breeding program. PTMs identified in the DEPs can be used to elucidate the thermotolerance mechanism of wheat – a novel step towards the development of

  1. Engineering of xylose reductase and overexpression of xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulokinase improves xylose alcoholic fermentation in the thermotolerant yeast Hansenula polymorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronovsky Andriy Y

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The thermotolerant methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha is capable of alcoholic fermentation of xylose at elevated temperatures (45 – 48°C. Such property of this yeast defines it as a good candidate for the development of an efficient process for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. However, to be economically viable, the main characteristics of xylose fermentation of H. polymorpha have to be improved. Results Site-specific mutagenesis of H. polymorpha XYL1 gene encoding xylose reductase was carried out to decrease affinity of this enzyme toward NADPH. The modified version of XYL1 gene under control of the strong constitutive HpGAP promoter was overexpressed on a Δxyl1 background. This resulted in significant increase in the KM for NADPH in the mutated xylose reductase (K341 → R N343 → D, while KM for NADH remained nearly unchanged. The recombinant H. polymorpha strain overexpressing the mutated enzyme together with native xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulokinase on Δxyl1 background was constructed. Xylose consumption, ethanol and xylitol production by the constructed strain were determined for high-temperature xylose fermentation at 48°C. A significant increase in ethanol productivity (up to 7.3 times was shown in this recombinant strain as compared with the wild type strain. Moreover, the xylitol production by the recombinant strain was reduced considerably to 0.9 mg × (L × h-1 as compared to 4.2 mg × (L × h-1 for the wild type strain. Conclusion Recombinant strains of H. polymorpha engineered for improved xylose utilization are described in the present work. These strains show a significant increase in ethanol productivity with simultaneous reduction in the production of xylitol during high-temperature xylose fermentation.

  2. Effect of nickel-cobaltite nanoparticles on production and thermostability of cellulases from newly isolated thermotolerant Aspergillus fumigatus NS (class: Eurotiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Neha; Rawat, Rekha; Sharma, Reetika; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Srivastava, Manish; Singh, Jay

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, effect of nickel-cobaltite (NiCo2O4) nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated on production and thermostability of the cellulase enzyme system using newly isolated thermotolerant Aspergillus fumigatus NS belonging to the class Euratiomycetes. The NiCo2O4 NPs were synthesized via hydrothermal method assisted by post-annealing treatment and characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. In the absence of NPs in the growth medium, filter paper cellulase (FP) activity of 18 IU/gds was achieved after 96 h, whereas 40 % higher FP activity in 72 h was observed with the addition of 1 mM concentration of NPs in the growth medium. Maximum production of endoglucanase (211 IU/gds), β-glucosidase (301 IU/gds), and xylanase (803 IU/gds) was achieved after 72 h without NPs (control), while in the presence of 1 mM concentration of NPs, endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, and xylanase activity increased by about 49, 53, and 19.8 %, respectively, after 48 h of incubation, against control, indicating a substantial increase in cellulase productivity with the addition of NiCo2O4 NPs in the growth medium. Crude enzyme was thermally stable for 7 h at 80 °C in presence of NPs, as against 4 h at the same temperature for control samples. Significant increase in the activity and improved thermal stability of cellulases in the presence of the NiCo2O4 NPs holds potential for use of NiCo2O4 NPs during enzyme production as well as hydrolysis. From the standpoint of biofuel production, these results hold enormous significance.

  3. Genome sequence of thermotolerant Bacillus methanolicus: features and regulation related to methylotrophy and production of L-lysine and L-glutamate from methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggeset, Tonje M B; Krog, Anne; Balzer, Simone; Wentzel, Alexander; Ellingsen, Trond E; Brautaset, Trygve

    2012-08-01

    Bacillus methanolicus can utilize methanol as its sole carbon and energy source, and the scientific interest in this thermotolerant bacterium has focused largely on exploring its potential as a biocatalyst for the conversion of methanol into L-lysine and L-glutamate. We present here the genome sequences of the important B. methanolicus model strain MGA3 (ATCC 53907) and the alternative wild-type strain PB1 (NCIMB13113). The physiological diversity of these two strains was demonstrated by a comparative fed-batch methanol cultivation displaying highly different methanol consumption and respiration profiles, as well as major differences in their L-glutamate production levels (406 mmol liter(-1) and 11 mmol liter(-1), respectively). Both genomes are small (ca 3.4 Mbp) compared to those of other related bacilli, and MGA3 has two plasmids (pBM19 and pBM69), while PB1 has only one (pBM20). In particular, we focus here on genes representing biochemical pathways for methanol oxidation and concomitant formaldehyde assimilation and dissimilation, the important phosphoenol pyruvate/pyruvate anaplerotic node, the tricarboxylic acid cycle including the glyoxylate pathway, and the biosynthetic pathways for L-lysine and L-glutamate. Several unique findings were made, including the discovery of three different methanol dehydrogenase genes in each of the two B. methanolicus strains, and the genomic analyses were accompanied by gene expression studies. Our results provide new insight into a number of peculiar physiological and metabolic traits of B. methanolicus and open up possibilities for system-level metabolic engineering of this bacterium for the production of amino acids and other useful compounds from methanol.

  4. Data for rapid ethanol production at elevated temperatures by engineered thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus via the NADP(H-preferring xylose reductase–xylitol dehydrogenase pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A thermo-tolerant NADP(H-preferring xylose pathway was constructed in Kluyveromyces marxianus for ethanol production with xylose at elevated temperatures (Zhang et al., 2015 [25]. Ethanol production yield and efficiency was enhanced by pathway engineering in the engineered strains. The constructed strain, YZJ088, has the ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose for ethanol and xylitol production, which is a critical step toward enabling economic biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass. This study contains the fermentation results of strains using the metabolic pathway engineering procedure. The ethanol-producing abilities of various yeast strains under various conditions were compared, and strain YZJ088 showed the highest production and fastest productivity at elevated temperatures. The YZJ088 xylose fermentation results indicate that it fermented well with xylose at either low or high inoculum size. When fermented with an initial cell concentration of OD600=15 at 37 °C, YZJ088 consumed 200 g/L xylose and produced 60.07 g/L ethanol; when the initial cell concentration was OD600=1 at 37 °C, YZJ088 consumed 98.96 g/L xylose and produced 33.55 g/L ethanol with a productivity of 0.47 g/L/h. When fermented with 100 g/L xylose at 42 °C, YZJ088 produced 30.99 g/L ethanol with a productivity of 0.65 g/L/h, which was higher than that produced at 37 °C.

  5. Characterization of a Thermotolerant Phytase Produced by Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus Biofilm on an Inert Support Using Sugarcane Bagasse as Carbon Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Vanessa Sayuri; Jorge, João Atílio; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza

    2016-06-01

    The Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus biofilm was able to produce increased levels of an extracellular thermotolerant phytase using polyethylene and viscose as an inert support in both modified NBRIP medium and modified Khanna medium containing sugarcane bagasse as the carbon source. The enzyme production was strictly regulated by the phosphorus content with optimal production at 0.5 mM of sodium phytate and KH2PO4. The extracellular phytase, RMPhy1, was purified 4.18-fold with 4.78 % recovery using DEAE-cellulose and CM-cellulose. A single protein band with a molecular mass of 35.4 kDa was obtained when the samples were subjected to 10 % SDS-PAGE. The optimum temperature for activity was 55 °C and the optimum pH was 4.5. R. microsporus var. microsporus phytase exhibited high stability at 30 and 40 °C with a half-life of 115 min at 60 °C. The enzyme activity increased in the presence of Ca (2+) and was inhibited by Zn(2+), arsenate, and sodium phosphate. Phytase demonstrated high substrate specificity for sodium phytate with K m = 0.72 mM and V max = 94.55 U/mg of protein and for p-NPP with K m = 0.04 mM and V max = 106.38 U/mg of protein. The enzyme also hydrolyzed ATP, AMPc, glucose 6-phosphate, glucose 1-phosphate, and UDPG. This is the first report on phytase characterization delivered with biofilm technology. The properties of the enzyme account for its high potential for use in biotechnology and the possibility of application in different industrial sectors as feed in the future.

  6. Data for rapid ethanol production at elevated temperatures by engineered thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus via the NADP(H)-preferring xylose reductase-xylitol dehydrogenase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Biao; Zhang, Jia; Wang, Dongmei; Gao, Xiaolian; Sun, Lianhong; Hong, Jiong

    2015-12-01

    A thermo-tolerant NADP(H)-preferring xylose pathway was constructed in Kluyveromyces marxianus for ethanol production with xylose at elevated temperatures (Zhang et al., 2015 [25]). Ethanol production yield and efficiency was enhanced by pathway engineering in the engineered strains. The constructed strain, YZJ088, has the ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose for ethanol and xylitol production, which is a critical step toward enabling economic biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass. This study contains the fermentation results of strains using the metabolic pathway engineering procedure. The ethanol-producing abilities of various yeast strains under various conditions were compared, and strain YZJ088 showed the highest production and fastest productivity at elevated temperatures. The YZJ088 xylose fermentation results indicate that it fermented well with xylose at either low or high inoculum size. When fermented with an initial cell concentration of OD600=15 at 37 °C, YZJ088 consumed 200 g/L xylose and produced 60.07 g/L ethanol; when the initial cell concentration was OD600=1 at 37 °C, YZJ088 consumed 98.96 g/L xylose and produced 33.55 g/L ethanol with a productivity of 0.47 g/L/h. When fermented with 100 g/L xylose at 42 °C, YZJ088 produced 30.99 g/L ethanol with a productivity of 0.65 g/L/h, which was higher than that produced at 37 °C.

  7. Community-acquired pneumonia among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirall, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Bello, Salvador

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have left absolutely no doubt that tobacco increases susceptibility to bacterial lung infection, even in passive smokers. This relationship also shows a dose-response effect, since the risk reduces spectacularly 10 years after giving up smoking, returning to the level of non-smokers. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative microorganism responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most frequently associated with smoking, particularly in invasive pneumococcal disease and septic shock. It is not clear how it acts on the progress of pneumonia, but there is evidence to suggest that the prognosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is worse. In CAP caused by Legionella pneumophila, it has also been observed that smoking is the most important risk factor, with the risk rising 121% for each pack of cigarettes smoked a day. Tobacco use may also favor diseases that are also known risk factors for CAP, such as periodontal disease and upper respiratory viral infections. By way of prevention, while giving up smoking should always be proposed, the use of the pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended, regardless of the presence of other comorbidities.

  8. In vivo models of cortical acquired epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvette, Sylvain; Soltani, Sara; Seigneur, Josée; Timofeev, Igor

    2016-02-15

    The neocortex is the site of origin of several forms of acquired epilepsy. Here we provide a brief review of experimental models that were recently developed to study neocortical epileptogenesis as well as some major results obtained with these methods. Most of neocortical seizures appear to be nocturnal and it is known that neuronal activities reveal high levels of synchrony during slow-wave sleep. Therefore, we start the review with a description of mechanisms of neuronal synchronization and major forms of synchronized normal and pathological activities. Then, we describe three experimental models of seizures and epileptogenesis: ketamine-xylazine anesthesia as feline seizure triggered factor, cortical undercut as cortical penetrating wound model and neocortical kindling. Besides specific technical details describing these models we also provide major features of pathological brain activities recorded during epileptogenesis and seizures. The most common feature of all models of neocortical epileptogenesis is the increased duration of network silent states that up-regulates neuronal excitability and eventually leads to epilepsy.

  9. Identification of acquired antimicrobial resistance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zankari, Ea; Hasman, Henrik; Cosentino, Salvatore;

    2012-01-01

    ObjectivesIdentification of antimicrobial resistance genes is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms and the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. As the costs of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) continue to decline, it becomes increasingly available in routine diagnostic laborato......ObjectivesIdentification of antimicrobial resistance genes is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms and the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. As the costs of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) continue to decline, it becomes increasingly available in routine diagnostic...... laboratories and is anticipated to substitute traditional methods for resistance gene identification. Thus, the current challenge is to extract the relevant information from the large amount of generated data.MethodsWe developed a web-based method, ResFinder that uses BLAST for identification of acquired...... antimicrobial resistance genes in whole-genome data. As input, the method can use both pre-assembled, complete or partial genomes, and short sequence reads from four different sequencing platforms. The method was evaluated on 1862 GenBank files containing 1411 different resistance genes, as well as on 23 de...

  10. Acquired Hemophilia A successfully treated with rituximab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni D'Arena

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Acquired hemophilia A (AHA is a rare bleeding disorder due to the development of specific autoantibodies against factor VIII. The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody Rituximab has been proven to be effective in  obtaining a long-term suppression of inhibitors of AHA,  besides other immunosuppressive standard treatments. Here we describe a case of idiopathic AHA in a 60-year old man successfully treated with rituximab. He showed a complete clinical response with  a normalization of clotting  parameters after 5 weekly courses of rituximab given at a dose of 375 mg/sqm. , but after stopping rituximab, an initial worsening of coagulation  parameters  induced the addition of 3 further courses. At present, the patient is in complete clinical and hematological remission after 200 days.  This case confirms that Rituximab may be a safe and useful tool to treat AHA and, a prolonged administration can overcome the initial resistance. However, the precise position of this drug in the therapeutic strategy (first or second-line, alone or in combination with other drugs remains to be established and warrants further investigation.

  11. Pathology of thyroid in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaneshwar Namdeorao Lanjewar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The course of human immunodeficiency virus infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome can be complicated by a variety of endocrine abnormalities, including abnormalities of thyroid gland. Materials and Methods: This study was designed to understand the spectrum of pathology of thyroid in Indian patients with AIDS. The present study describes the findings of retrospective autopsy findings of 158 patients with AIDS which revealed infectious diseases from a time period before the use of highly active antiretroviral regimen. Results: A wide range of bacterial, fungal, and viral infections were observed. Tuberculosis was recorded in 14 (09% patients, Cryptococcus neoformans in 11 (7% patients and cytomegalovirus in 3 (2% patients. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and lymphocytic thyroiditis were seen in 02 (01% patients each. One patient had dual infection comprising of tuberculosis and cytomegalovirus infection. The other microscopic findings observed were goiter (2 patients, interstitial fibrosis in thyroid (7 patients, and calcification in thyroid (8 patients. Conclusions: Abnormalities of thyroid are uncommon findings in patients with HIV infection however several case reports of thyroid involvement by infectious agents and neoplasm are described in these patients; hence patients with HIV infection should be closely followed up for development of goiter or abnormalities of thyroid functions.

  12. Acquired prosopagnosia: structural basis and processing impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Thompson, Jodie; Pancaroglu, Raika; Barton, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models propose a hierarchy of parallel processing stages in face perception, and functional neuroimaging shows a network of regions involved in face processing. Reflecting this, acquired prosopagnosia is not a single entity but a family of disorders with different anatomic lesions and different functional deficits. One classic distinction is between an apperceptive variant, in which there is impaired perception of facial structure, and an associative/amnestic variant, in which perception is relatively intact, with subsequent problems matching perception to facial memories, because of either disconnection or loss of those memories. These disorders also have to be distinguished from people-specific amnesia, a multimodal impairment, and prosop-anomia, in which familiarity with faces is preserved but access to names is disrupted. These different disorders can be conceived as specific deficits at different processing stages in cognitive models, and suggests that these functional stages may have distinct neuroanatomic substrates. It remains to be seen whether a similar anatomic and functional variability is present in developmental prosopagnosia.

  13. [Acquired bullous diseases of the oral mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, L; Hüttenberger, B

    2005-11-01

    Bullous diseases of the oral cavity cause painful erosion. They must be distinguished from aphthae and vesicles which may have a similar presentation. Acute, chronic and congenital conditions are recognized. Acute lesions may involve a polymorphous oral erhythema which has an polymorphous erythematous presentation or toxidermia (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, Lyell syndrome, fixed pigmented erythema). Examination of the skin and history taking are the keys to diagnosis. Patients with chronic bullous diseases may have a congenital condition (bullous epidermolysis or lymphangioma) suggested by the age at onset and the clinical presentation. Acquired chronic bullous diseases include lichen planus and autoimmune bullous diseases. Careful examination is essential to identify mucosal or cutaneous involvement and to obtain a biopsy for histological examination. Search for antibodies deposited in the perilesional mucosa is necessary. Chronic erosive gingivitis is a frequent presentation. Most of the patients have cicatricial pemphigoid, lichen planus, and more rarely pemphigus. The pinch sign is highly discriminative to differentiate the cause of this syndrome. Symptomatic treatment of bullous lesions of the oral cavity include adapted diet and correct and early use of antalgesics.

  14. Heat priming induces trans-generational tolerance to high temperature stress in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao eWang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat plants are very sensitive to high temperature stress during grain filling. Effects of heat priming applied to the first generation on tolerance of the successive generation to post-anthesis high temperature stress were investigated. Compared with the progeny of non-heat primed plants (NH, the progeny of heat-primed plants (PH possessed higher grain yield, leaf photosynthesis and activities of antioxidant enzymes and lower cell membrane damage under high temperature stress. In the transcriptome profile, 1430 probes showed obvious difference in expression between PH and NH. These genes were related to signal transduction, transcription, energy, defense, and protein destination and storage, respectively. The gene encoding the lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1 which was involved in histone demethylation related to epigenetic modification was up-regulated in the PH compared with NH. The proteome analysis indicated that the proteins involved in photosynthesis, energy production and protein destination and storage were up-regulated in the PH compared with NH. In short, thermos-tolerance was induced through heritable epigenetic alternation and signaling transduction, both processes further triggered prompt modifications of defense related responses in anti-oxidation, transcription, energy production, and protein destination and storage in the progeny of the primed plants under high temperature stress. It was concluded that trans-generation thermo-tolerance was induced by heat priming in the first generation, and this might be an effective measure to cope with severe high-temperature stresses during key growth stages in wheat production.

  15. Cyclic variations in incubation conditions induce adaptive responses to later heat exposure in chickens: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyau, T; Bedrani, L; Berri, C; Métayer-Coustard, S; Praud, C; Coustham, V; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Duclos, M J; Tesseraud, S; Rideau, N; Hennequet-Antier, C; Everaert, N; Yahav, S; Collin, A

    2015-01-01

    Selection programs have enabled broiler chickens to gain muscle mass without similar enlargement of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems that are essential for thermoregulatory efficiency. Meat-type chickens cope with high ambient temperature by reducing feed intake and growth during chronic and moderate heat exposure. In case of acute heat exposure, a dramatic increase in morbidity and mortality can occur. In order to alleviate heat stress in the long term, research has recently focused on early thermal manipulation. Aimed at stimulation of long-term thermotolerance, the thermal manipulation of embryos is a method based on fine tuning of incubation conditions, taking into account the level and duration of increases in temperature and relative humidity during a critical period of embryogenesis. The consequences of thermal manipulation on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens have been explored to ensure the potential application of this strategy. The physiological basis of the method is the induction of epigenetic and metabolic mechanisms that control body temperature in the long term. Early thermal manipulation can enhance poultry resistance to environmental changes without much effect on growth performance. This review presents the main strategies of early heat exposure and the physiological concepts on which these methods were based. The cellular mechanisms potentially underlying the adaptive response are discussed as well as the potential interest of thermal manipulation of embryos for poultry production.

  16. Heat Priming Induces Trans-generational Tolerance to High Temperature Stress in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Xin, Caiyun; Cai, Jian; Zhou, Qin; Dai, Tingbo; Cao, Weixing; Jiang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Wheat plants are very sensitive to high temperature stress during grain filling. Effects of heat priming applied to the first generation on tolerance of the successive generation to post-anthesis high temperature stress were investigated. Compared with the progeny of non-heat primed plants (NH), the progeny of heat-primed plants (PH) possessed higher grain yield, leaf photosynthesis and activities of antioxidant enzymes and lower cell membrane damage under high temperature stress. In the transcriptome profile, 1430 probes showed obvious difference in expression between PH and NH. These genes were related to signal transduction, transcription, energy, defense, and protein destination and storage, respectively. The gene encoding the lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1) which was involved in histone demethylation related to epigenetic modification was up-regulated in the PH compared with NH. The proteome analysis indicated that the proteins involved in photosynthesis, energy production and protein destination and storage were up-regulated in the PH compared with NH. In short, thermos-tolerance was induced through heritable epigenetic alternation and signaling transduction, both processes further triggered prompt modifications of defense related responses in anti-oxidation, transcription, energy production, and protein destination and storage in the progeny of the primed plants under high temperature stress. It was concluded that trans-generation thermo-tolerance was induced by heat priming in the first generation, and this might be an effective measure to cope with severe high-temperature stresses during key growth stages in wheat production. PMID:27148324

  17. Isolation and characterization of a thermotolerant ene reductase from Geobacillus sp. 30 and its heterologous expression in Rhodococcus opacus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Naoto; Honda, Kohsuke; Wada, Mayumi; Okano, Kenji; Ohtake, Hisao

    2014-07-01

    Rhodococcus opacus B-4 cells are adhesive to and even dispersible in water-immiscible hydrocarbons owing to their highly lipophilic nature. In this study, we focused on the high operational stability of thermophilic enzymes and applied them to a biocatalytic conversion in an organic reaction medium using R. opacus B-4 as a lipophilic capsule of enzymes to deliver them into the organic medium. A novel thermo- and organic-solvent-tolerant ene reductase, which can catalyze the enantioselective reduction of ketoisophorone to (6R)-levodione, was isolated from Geobacillus sp. 30, and the gene encoding the enzyme was heterologously expressed in R. opacus B-4. Another thermophilic enzyme which catalyzes NAD(+)-dependent dehydrogenation of cyclohexanol was identified from the gene-expression library of Thermus thermophilus and the gene was coexpressed in R. opacus B-4 for cofactor regeneration. While the recombinant cells were not viable in the mixture due to high reaction temperature, 634 mM of (6R)-levodione could be produced with an enantiopurity of 89.2 % ee by directly mixing the wet cells of the recombinant R. opacus with a mixture of ketoisophorone and cyclohexanol at 50 °C. The conversion rate observed with the heat-killed recombinant cells was considerably higher than that obtained with a cell-free enzyme solution, demonstrating that the accessibility between the substrates and enzymes could be improved by employing R. opacus cells as a lipophilic enzyme capsule. These results imply that a combination of thermophilic enzymes and lipophilic cells can be a promising approach for the biocatalytic production of water-insoluble chemicals.

  18. Cytomegalovirus retinitis associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Shuang; YE Jun-jie; ZHAO Jia-liang; LI Tai-sheng; HAN Yang

    2011-01-01

    Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is the most severe intraocular complication that results in total retinal destruction and loss of visual acuity in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study aimed to investigate the fundus characteristics, systemic manifestations and therapeutic outcomes of CMV retinitis associated with AIDS.Methods It was a retrospective case series. CMV retinitis was present in 39 eyes (25 patients). Best corrected visual acuities, anterior segment, fundus features, fundus fluorescence angiography (FFA) and CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts of the patients with CMV retinitis associated with AIDS were analyzed. Intravitreal injections of ganciclovir (400 μg) were performed in 4 eyes (2 patients).Results Retinal vasculitis, dense, full-thickness, yellow-white lesions along vascular distribution with irregular granules at the border, and hemorrhage on the retinal surface were present in 28 eyes. The vitreous was clear or mildly opaque.Late stage of the retinopathy was demonstrated in 8 eyes characterized as atrophic retina, sclerotic and attenuated vessels, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy, and optic nerve atrophy. Retinal detachment was found in 3 eyes. The average CD4+ T-lymphocyte count in peripheral blood of the patients with CMV retinitis was (30.6±25.3) ×106/L (range,(0-85) × 106/L). After intravitreal injections of ganciclovir, visual acuity was improved and fundus lesions regressed.Conclusions CMV retinitis is the most severe and the most common intraocular complication in patients with AIDS. For the patients with yellow-white retinal lesions, hemorrhage and retinal vasculitis without clear cause, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serology should be performed. Routine eye examination is also indicated in HIV positive patients.

  19. Chapter 22: Hereditary and acquired angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgy, Mary S; Pongracic, Jacqueline A

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disorder defined by a deficiency of functional C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH). Acquired angioedema (AAE) is caused by either consumption (type 1) or inactivation (type 2) of CI-INH. Both HAE and AAE can be life-threatening. The screening test for both conditions is complement component C4, which is low to absent at times of angioedema or during quiescent periods. A useful test to differentiate HAE from AAE is C1q protein, which is normal in HAE and low in AAE. There are three types of HAE: type 1 HAE is most common, occurring in ∼85% of patients and characterized by decreased production of C1-INH, resulting in reduced functional activity to 5-30% of normal. In type 2, which occurs in 15% of cases, C1-INH is detectable in normal or elevated quantities but is dysfunctional. Finally, type 3, which is rare and almost exclusively occurs in women, is estrogen dependent and associated with normal CI-INH and C4 levels. One-third of these patients have a gain-of-function mutation in clotting factor XII leading to kallikrein-driven bradykinin production. Although the anabolic steroid, danazol, is useful in increasing the concentration of C4 and reducing the episodes of angioedema in HAE and AAE, it has expected adverse effects. Fortunately, disease-specific therapies are available and include C1-INH enzyme for i.v. infusion either acutely or empirically, ecallantide, an inhibitor of kallikrein, and icatibant, a bradykinin B2-receptor antagonist, both approved for acute angioedema and administered, subcutaneously.

  20. Seeing the eyes in acquired prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancaroglu, Raika; Hills, Charlotte S; Sekunova, Alla; Viswanathan, Jayalakshmi; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-08-01

    Case reports have suggested that perception of the eye region may be impaired more than that of other facial regions in acquired prosopagnosia. However, it is unclear how frequently this occurs, whether such impairments are specific to a certain anatomic subtype of prosopagnosia, and whether these impairments are related to changes in the scanning of faces. We studied a large cohort of 11 subjects with this rare disorder, who had a variety of occipitotemporal or anterior temporal lesions, both unilateral and bilateral. Lesions were characterized by functional and structural imaging. Subjects performed a perceptual discrimination test in which they had to discriminate changes in feature position, shape, or external contour. Test conditions were manipulated to stress focused or divided attention across the whole face. In a second experiment we recorded eye movements while subjects performed a face memory task. We found that greater impairment for eye processing was more typical of subjects with occipitotemporal lesions than those with anterior temporal lesions. This eye selectivity was evident for both eye position and shape, with no evidence of an upper/lower difference for external contour. A greater impairment for eye processing was more apparent under attentionally more demanding conditions. Despite these perceptual deficits, most subjects showed a normal tendency to scan the eyes more than the mouth. We conclude that occipitotemporal lesions are associated with a partially selective processing loss for eye information and that this deficit may be linked to loss of the right fusiform face area, which has been shown to have activity patterns that emphasize the eye region.

  1. Changes in thermo-tolerance and survival under simulated gastrointestinal conditions of Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 and Salmonella Typhimurium PT4 in chicken breast meat after exposure to sequential stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Adma Nadja Ferreira de; Souza, Geany Targino de; Schaffner, Donald; Oliveira, Tereza C Moreira de; Maciel, Janeeyre Ferreira; Souza, Evandro Leite de; Magnani, Marciane

    2017-03-29

    This study assessed changes in thermo-tolerance and capability to survive to simulated gastrointestinal conditions of Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 and Salmonella Typhimurium PT4 inoculated in chicken breast meat following exposure to stresses (cold, acid and osmotic) commonly imposed during food processing. The effects of the stress imposed by exposure to oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil (OVEO) on thermo-tolerance were also assessed. After exposure to cold stress (5°C for 5h) in chicken breast meat the test strains were sequentially exposed to the different stressing substances (lactic acid, NaCl or OVEO) at sub-lethal amounts, which were defined considering previously determined minimum inhibitory concentrations, and finally to thermal treatment (55°C for 30min). Resistant cells from distinct sequential treatments were exposed to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The exposure to cold stress did not result in increased tolerance to acid stress (lactic acid: 5 and 2.5μL/g) for both strains. Cells of S. Typhimurium PT4 and S. Enteritidis PT4 previously exposed to acid stress showed higher (pthermo-tolerance in both strains. The cells that survived the sequential stress exposure (resistant) showed higher tolerance (pthermo-tolerance and enhance the survival under gastrointestinal conditions of S. Enteritidis PT4 and S. Typhimurium PT4.

  2. Heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, J P

    2010-01-01

    As one of the most popular heat transfer texts, Jack Holman's "Heat Transfer" is noted for its clarity, accessible approach, and inclusion of many examples and problem sets. The new tenth edition retains the straight-forward, to-the-point writing style while covering both analytical and empirical approaches to the subject. Throughout the book, emphasis is placed on physical understanding while, at the same time, relying on meaningful experimental data in those situations that do not permit a simple analytical solution. New examples and templates provide students with updated resources for computer-numerical solutions.

  3. Identification of a heat shock protein 90 gene involved in resistance to temperature stress in two wing-morphs of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wenting; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is one of the most destructive pests damaging rice in Asia and exhibits wing dimorphism, with brachypters possessing severely reduced wings and macropters bearing fully developed wings. Previous studies have shown that macropters are more heat resistant than brachypters. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying the differential thermotolerance abilities of these two morphs, a full-length Hsp gene, NlHsp90 was cloned from N. lugen. Our results showed that the relative expression levels of NlHsp90 in N. lugens females increased with the rise of temperature. Interestingly, NlHsp90 in macropters females could be induced at lower temperature (32°C) than that in brachypters (34°C), and the NlHsp90 mRNA levels in macropters were significantly higher than those in brachypters from 34 to 40°C. In addition, the maximum expression levels of NlHsp90 were achieved much earlier in macropters, and NlHsp90 mRNA levels in macropters were significantly higher than those in brachypters from 1 to 6h of recovery after temperature stress. Furthermore, knockdown of NlHsp90 by dsRNA injection reduced survival in both morphs with a greater reduction in the macropters relative to that of the brachyters. These results indicated that NlHsp90 plays an important role for thermotolerance in N. lugens, and there is difference on induction between two morphs.

  4. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for signs of heat stroke or exhaustion. Heat Stroke and Exhaustion Symptoms of early heat exhaustion symptoms ... heavy sweating; nausea; and giddiness. Symptoms of heat stroke (late stage of heat illness) include flushed, hot, ...

  5. Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... result of accidental contact with hot surfaces or steam. Workers at risk of heat stress include outdoor workers and workers in hot environments such as firefighters, bakery workers, farmers, construction workers, miners, boiler room workers, factory workers, and others. Workers at ...

  6. Infrared heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    IR heating was first industrially used in the 1930s for automotive curing applications and rapidly became a widely applied technology in the manufacturing industry. Contrarily, a slower pace in the development of IR technologies for processing foods and agricultural products was observed, due to lim...

  7. Evaluation of Serratia and Pseudomonas in hospital acquired infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etemadi H

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospital acquired infection have 2 origins: 1 Infections acquired from the hospitalization. 2 Infections that transmit from hospital personnel and those who referred to a hospital. According to the studies approximately half of hospital acquired infection is under the first group. Gram-negative bacilli is of prime importance from all bacteries that caused hospital acquired infection. There are 3 main ways spreading hospital acquired infections include: 1 Auto infections 2 Transmit infections 3-environmental infections. In addition, three following factor's will help to cause hospital acquired infections. 1 Reduced immunologic defenses in patient. 2 Local reducing of immunologic defense. 3 Hospital pathogens. From 7/7/1367 to 30/3/1368 samples from patients were collected from 4 hospitals. Then with use of microbiological methods, identified pathogenic organisms

  8. Laser Measurement Of Convective-Heat-Transfer Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, A. Robert; Hingst, Warren R.; Chriss, Randall M.; Seablom, Kirk D.; Keith, Theo G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Coefficient of convective transfer of heat at spot on surface of wind-tunnel model computed from measurements acquired by developmental laser-induced-heat-flux technique. Enables non-intrusive measurements of convective-heat-transfer coefficients at many points across surfaces of models in complicated, three-dimensional, high-speed flows. Measurement spot scanned across surface of model. Apparatus includes argon-ion laser, attenuator/beam splitter electronic shutter infrared camera, and subsystem.

  9. Two-phase Flow Distribution in Heat Exchanger Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Vist, Sivert

    2004-01-01

    The current study has investigated two-phase refrigerant flow distribution in heat exchange manifolds. Experimental data have been acquired in a heat exchanger test rig specially made for measurement of mass flow rate and gas and liquid distribution in the manifolds of compact heat exchangers. Twelve different manifold designs were used in the experiments, and CO2 and HFC-134a were used as refrigerants.

  10. Purification and immobilization of L-arginase from thermotolerant Penicillium chrysogenum KJ185377.1; with unique kinetic properties as thermostable anticancer enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Ashraf S; Shindia, Ahmed A; Diab, Ayman A; Rady, Amgad M

    2014-10-18

    L-Arginase, hydrolyzing L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea, is a powerful anticancer, L-arginine-depleting agent, against argininosuccinate synthase expressing tumors. Otherwise, the higher antigenicity and lower thermal stability of this enzyme was the main biochemical hurdles. Since, the intrinsic thermal stability of enzymes follow the physiological temperature of their producer, thus, characterization of L-arginase from thermotolerant Penicillium chrysogenum was the objective of this study. L-Arginase (Arg) was purified to its homogeneity from P. chrysogenum by 10.1-fold, with 37.0 kDa under denaturing PAGE, optimum reaction at 50 °C, pH stability (6.8-7.9), with highest molar ratio of constitutional arginine, glutamic acid, lysine and aspartic acid. The purified enzyme was PEGylated and immobilized on chitosan, with 41.9 and 22.1 % yield of immobilization. At 40 °C, the T1/2 value of free-Arg, PEG-Arg and Chit-Arg was 10.4, 15.6, 20.5 h, respectively. The free-Arg and Chit-Arg have a higher affinity to L-arginine (K m 4.8 mM), while, PEG-Arg affinity was decreased by about 3 fold (K m 15.2 mM). The inhibitory constants to the free and PEG-Arg were relatively similar towards HA and PPG. The IC50 for the free enzyme against HEPG-2 and A549 tumor cells was 0.136 and 0.165 U/ml, comparing to 0.232 and 0.496 U/ml for PEG-Arg, respectively. The in vivo T1/2 to the free Arg and PEG-Arg was 16.4 and 20.4 h, respectively as holo-enzyme. The residual L-arginine level upon using free Arg was 156.9 and 144.5 µM, after 6 and 8 h, respectively, regarding to initials at 253.6 µM, while for Peg-Arg the level of L-arginine was nil till 7 h of initial dosing. The titer of IgG was induced by 10-15 % in response to free-Arg after 28 days comparing to IgG titer for PEG-Arg.

  11. Enrichment followed by quantitative PCR both for rapid detection and as a tool for quantitative risk assessment of food-borne thermotolerant campylobacters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsen, M H; Jacobsen, N R; Hoorfar, J

    2004-06-01

    As part of a large international project for standardization of PCR (Food-PCR; www.pcr.dk), a multiplex, multiplatform, ready-to-go enrichment followed by a real-time PCR method, including an internal amplification control, was developed for detection of food-borne thermotolerant campylobacters in chickens. Chicken rinse samples were enriched in Bolton broth for 20 h, a simple and rapid (1-h) resin-based DNA extraction was performed, and DNA samples were then tested with two instrument platforms: ABI-PRISM 7700 and RotorGene 3000. The method was validated against an International Standard Organization (ISO)-based culture method by testing low, medium, and high levels of 12 spiked and 66 unspiked, presumably naturally contaminated, chicken rinse samples. In the RotorGene, a positive PCR response was detected in 40 samples of the 66. This was in complete agreement with the enriched ISO culture. The ABI-PRISM 7700 missed one culture-positive sample. Positive samples contained 10(2) to 10(7) CFU/ml after enrichment in Bolton broth. In the enriched samples a detection probability of 95% was obtained at levels of 1 x 10(3) and 2 x 10(3) CFU/ml in the RotorGene and ABI-PRISM, respectively. The amplification efficiency in both platforms was 90%, although the linear range of amplification of purified genomic DNA was 1.5 x 10(1) to 1 x 10(7) (R(2) = 1.00) for the RotorGene and 10(3) to 10(7) (R(2) = 0.99) for the ABI-PRISM. In RotorGene and ABI-PRISM the levels of precision of detection as determined by standard deviation (coefficients of variation) of 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM) threshold cycle (Ct) values were 0.184 to 0.417 (0.65 to 2.57%) and 0.119 to 0.421 (0.59 to 1.82%), respectively. The results showed a correlation (R(2)) of 0.94 between the target FAM Ct values and CFU per milliliter of enriched naturally contaminated chicken samples, which indicates PCR's additional potential as a tool for quantitative risk assessment. Signal from the internal amplification control

  12. Genetic Variation for Thermotolerance in Lettuce Seed Germination Is Associated with Temperature-Sensitive Regulation of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (ERF1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoong, Fei-Yian; O'Brien, Laurel K; Truco, Maria Jose; Huo, Heqiang; Sideman, Rebecca; Hayes, Ryan; Michelmore, Richard W; Bradford, Kent J

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of most lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivars are susceptible to thermoinhibition, or failure to germinate at temperatures above approximately 28°C, creating problems for crop establishment in the field. Identifying genes controlling thermoinhibition would enable the development of cultivars lacking this trait and, therefore, being less sensitive to high temperatures during planting. Seeds of a primitive accession (PI251246) of lettuce exhibited high-temperature germination capacity up to 33°C. Screening a recombinant inbred line population developed from PI215246 and cv Salinas identified a major quantitative trait locus (Htg9.1) from PI251246 associated with the high-temperature germination phenotype. Further genetic analyses discovered a tight linkage of the Htg9.1 phenotype with a specific DNA marker (NM4182) located on a single genomic sequence scaffold. Expression analyses of the 44 genes encoded in this genomic region revealed that only a homolog of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (termed LsERF1) was differentially expressed between PI251246 and cv Salinas seeds imbibed at high temperature (30°C). LsERF1 belongs to a large family of transcription factors associated with the ethylene-signaling pathway. Physiological assays of ethylene synthesis, response, and action in parental and near-isogenic Htg9.1 genotypes strongly implicate LsERF1 as the gene responsible for the Htg9.1 phenotype, consistent with the established role for ethylene in germination thermotolerance of Compositae seeds. Expression analyses of genes associated with the abscisic acid and gibberellin biosynthetic pathways and results of biosynthetic inhibitor and hormone response experiments also support the hypothesis that differential regulation of LsERF1 expression in PI251246 seeds elevates their upper temperature limit for germination through interactions among pathways regulated by these hormones. Our results support a model in which LsERF1 acts through

  13. Hsp27gene in Drosophila ananassae subgroup was split by a recently acquired intron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LI ZHANG; HAN KANG; SHAN JIN; QING TAO ZENG; YONG YANG

    2016-06-01

    InDrosophila , heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is a critical single-copy intron-free nuclear gene involved in the defense responseagainst fungi and bacteria, and is a regulator of adult lifespan. In the present study, 33 homologousHsp27nucleotide sequencesfrom differentDrosophilaspecies were amplified by PCR and reverse transcription PCR, and the phylogenetic relationshipswere analysed using neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods. The phylogenetic topologies from anal-ysis with different algorithms were similar, suggesting that theHsp27gene was split by a recently acquired intron during theevolution of theDrosophila ananassaesubgroup

  14. Geothermal district heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, G. S.; Childs, F.

    1982-06-01

    Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

  15. Heat Related Illnesses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Carter III; Samuel N. Cheuvront; Michael N. Sawka

    2007-01-01

    @@ KEY POINTS · Heat illnesses range in severity from mild (heat rash, heat syncope, cramps) to serious (heat exhaustion, heat injury, heat stroke). · Although heat illness can occur in anyone, an increased risk is associated with a variety of environmental factors, personal characteristics,health conditions, and medications.

  16. Ethanol fermentation characteristics of thermotolerant Issatchenkia orientalis%耐高温东方伊萨酵母乙醇发酵特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王风芹; 汪媛媛; 陶西; 张瑞; 谢慧; 宋安东

    2014-01-01

    As a renewable and clean energy, bio-ethanol has been received widespread attention in recent years. Ethanol fermentation at high temperature can reduce the consumption of cooling water and energy in the process of fermentation, it also solve the problems caused by saccharification and uncontrolled fermentation temperature, resulting in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulosic ethanol. Therefore, the fermentation period can be shorten and the production cost be reduced. A thermotolerant yeast strain HN-1 isolated from rotting tobacco leaves was identified and its ethanol fermentation characteristics was investigated in this study. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that phylogenetic strain HN-1 behaved likeIssatchenkia orientalis.This strain useed glucose and D-fructose but could not use xylose, maltose, lactose, sucrose, starch and cellobiose as sole carbon source to produce ethanol. When HN-1 was cultivated in 50 g/L glucose liquid medium, the highest biomass was obtained at 35 and 38℃. Increasing the cultivation temperature to 42 and 45℃ decreased the biomass growth and intensified the cell death. There was no major difference between ethanol productions (21.43~23.12 g/L) fermented at 35~45℃ from 50 g/L glucose. When increasing the fermentation temperature, the ethanol productivity was increased from 0.31 g/(L·h) at 35℃ to 0.65 g/(L·h) at 45℃ after 24h fermentation. The fermentation time was shortened. When the fermentation was conducted at 38℃, 28.77, 43.21, 58.19 and 59.53 g/L ethanol were produced from 60, 90, 120 and 150 g/L glucose with yields of 0.457, 0.468, 0.460 and 0.386 g/g and productivities of 0.38, 0.39, 0.48 and 0.40 g/(L·h) The results also indicated that fed batch fermentation could not enhance the ethanol production. Strain HN-1 could utilize corn straw hydrolysate with 43.08 g/L glucose and 27.13 g/L xylose to produce 20.74 g/L ethanol. The glucose conversion rate was 0.468 g/g, which was 91.6% of the

  17. Differential response of aspen and birch trees to heat stress under elevated carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbah, Joseph N T; Sharkey, Thomas D; Calfapietra, Carlo; Karnosky, David F

    2010-04-01

    The effect of high temperature on photosynthesis of isoprene-emitting (aspen) and non-isoprene-emitting (birch) trees were measured under elevated CO(2) and ambient conditions. Aspen trees tolerated heat better than birch trees and elevated CO(2) protected photosynthesis of both species against moderate heat stress. Elevated CO(2) increased carboxylation capacity, photosynthetic electron transport capacity, and triose phosphate use in both birch and aspen trees. High temperature (36-39 degrees C) decreased all of these parameters in birch regardless of CO(2) treatment, but only photosynthetic electron transport and triose phosphate use at ambient CO(2) were reduced in aspen. Among the two aspen clones tested, 271 showed higher thermotolerance than 42E possibly because of the higher isoprene-emission, especially under elevated CO(2). Our results indicate that isoprene-emitting trees may have a competitive advantage over non-isoprene emitting ones as temperatures rise, indicating that biological diversity may be affected in some ecosystems because of heat tolerance mechanisms.

  18. Acquiring Knowledge of Derived Nominals and Derived Adjectives in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinellie, Sally A.; Kneile, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigated children's ability to acquire semantic and syntactic knowledge of derived nominals and derived adjectives in the context of short passages. The study also investigated the relation of morphological awareness and the ability to acquire knowledge of derived words in context. Method: A total of 106 children in…

  19. 33 CFR 211.2 - Authority to acquire real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority to acquire real estate..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Real Estate; General § 211.2 Authority to acquire real estate. (a) Congressional...

  20. Clinical aspects of acquired aphasia and dysarthria in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. van Dongen (Hugo)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractFor the last decade, it has been a common clinical belief that the prognosis of acquired childhood aphasia is good. However, our own clinical experiences were rather conflicting on this point. As a consequence, we re-examined all the children (15) with an acquired aphasia who in a period

  1. The challenge of retaining customers acquired with free trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, H.; Foubert, B.; van Heerde, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Many service firms acquire customers by offering free-trial promotions. A crucial challenge is to retain customers acquired with these free trials. To address this challenge, firms need to understand how free-trial customers differ from regular customers in terms of their decision making to retain t

  2. 26 CFR 1.9002-6 - Acquiring corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acquiring corporation. 1.9002-6 Section 1.9002... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-6 Acquiring corporation. Section 5(d) of the... corporation by another corporation in a distribution or transfer described in section 381(a) of the Code...

  3. 26 CFR 1.472-7 - Inventories of acquiring corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories of acquiring corporations. 1.472-7 Section 1.472-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.472-7 Inventories of acquiring corporations....

  4. 26 CFR 1.471-9 - Inventories of acquiring corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories of acquiring corporations. 1.471-9 Section 1.471-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.471-9 Inventories of acquiring corporations....

  5. PATHOGENETIC MECHANISMS OF CHRONIC ACQUIRED TOXOPLASMOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotsyna S.S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan that infects approximately one-third of the world’s population. Infection in human generally occurs through consuming food or drink contaminated with oocysts and tissue cysts from undercooked meat. Although latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii is among the most prevalent of human infections, it has been generally assumed that, except for congenital transmission, it is asymptomatic. Different conditions such as, number of parasite, virulence of the organism, genetic background, sex, and immunological status seem to affect the course of infection The demonstration that Toxoplasma infections can alter behavior, reproductive function in patients has led to a reconsideration of this assumption. During chronic acquired toxoplasmosis (САT identified the regularities of changes in the ratio of the immune system and the basal levels of sex hormones available informative methods, which made it possible to evaluate the severity of the flow chart and predict treatment outcome without resorting to complex research methods. Found that the host-parasite relationships and clinical manifestations of chronic toxoplasmosis depend largely on protective and adaptive responses and compensatory abilities of the human body. Material & methods. 112 patients attended in the 6 Department of Kharkiv Regional Infectious Diseases Hospital №22 (Department of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Diseases of Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, in Kharkiv, Ukraine were enrolled in the study. Forty four patients (39,3±4,6% were male and sixty eight (60,7±4,6% were female. The age of the patients was 18 till 72 years. Results & discussion. All of 112 CAT patients had subjective clinical symptoms in various combinations: increased fatigue 99,1 ± 0,9%, headache and tiredness 95,5 ± 1,9%, pain in the liver 88,4 ± 3,1%, bitter taste in the mouth 93,8 ± 2,2%, muscle pain 81,3 ± 3,7% and joint pain

  6. Acquired childhood dysarthria: review of its clinical presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, M; Catsman-Berrevoets, C E; Paquier, P F; Yousef-Bak, E; van Dongen, H R

    1997-11-01

    The adult classification of dysarthria correlating with the pathophysiology of the motor systems is usually applied to classify acquired childhood dysarthria. However, the validity of this adult model for children has not been studied systematically. All studies pertaining to analysis of speech features in acquired childhood dysarthria published since 1980 were reviewed. Studies were classified on the basis of neuroradiologic evidence of lesion site and associated motor disorder. This review demonstrates that knowledge of acquired childhood dysarthria is based on a limited number of single case studies, most of which pertain to dysarthria occurring after resection of cerebellar tumor. Definite similarities to adult dysarthria were not evident. Some similarity to acquired childhood dysarthria due to basal ganglia lesions was detected. We conclude that acquired childhood dysarthria requires its own classification.

  7. Hospital-acquired and Community-acquired Uropathogens; Modelling of Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija ?ilevi?a

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections are among the most common human infections. They may be community-acquired or nosocomial, and caused by a variety of microorganisms. In the present study, we analysed more than 4000 urine samples collected from in-patients and outpatients, and registered the differences in the etiological spectrum of agents. The most widespread uropathogens are gram-negative rods, from them E. coli, Klebsiella spp. and the non-fermentive genus Pseudomonas. Women are more intensively affected by E. coli. From gram-positive cocci, the leading agents are coagulase negative Staphylococci, followed by S. aureus. No differences were registered between the genders. Polyresistance among gram-negative uropathogens is high.

  8. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  9. Hydride heat pump with heat regenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative hydride heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system. A series of at least four canisters containing a lower temperature performing hydride and a series of at least four canisters containing a higher temperature performing hydride is provided. Each canister contains a heat conductive passageway through which a heat transfer fluid is circulated so that sensible heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  10. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of the theory, design and manufacture of heat pipes and their applications. This latest edition has been thoroughly revised, up-dated and expanded to give an in-depth coverage of the new developments in the field. Significant new material has been added to all the chapters and the applications section has been totally rewritten to ensure that topical and important applications are appropriately emphasised. The bibliography has been considerably enlarged to incorporate much valuable new information. Thus readers of the previous edition, which has established

  11. Heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Jorge, Kubie; Thomas, Grassie

    2012-01-01

    A core task of engineers is to analyse energy related problems. The analytical treatment is usually based on principles of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer, but is increasingly being handled computationally.This unique resource presents a practical textbook, written for both undergraduates and professionals, with a series of over 60 computer workbooks on an accompanying CD.The book emphasizes how complex problems can be deconstructed into a series of simple steps. All thermophysical property computations are illustrated using diagrams within text and on the compani

  12. Low temperature nuclear heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotakorpi, J.; Tarjanne, R. (comps.)

    1977-08-01

    The meeting was concerned with the use of low grade nuclear heat for district heating, desalination, process heat, and agriculture and aquaculture. The sessions covered applications and demand, heat sources, and economics.

  13. Regenerative Hydride Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Hydride heat pump features regenerative heating and single circulation loop. Counterflow heat exchangers accommodate different temperatures of FeTi and LaNi4.7Al0.3 subloops. Heating scheme increases efficiency.

  14. Equivalence Comparison Between Two Methods for Detecting Thermotolerant Coliform Group Bacteria in Water%两种检测水中耐热大肠菌群方法的等效性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯玫; 杨玮

    2011-01-01

    Two detection methods, multiple-tube fermentation technique and enzyme substrate technique are applied to thermotolerant coliform bacteria detection in source water, and their detection effects are compared. Results demonstrate that multiple-tube fermentation technique shows equivalence with enzyme substrate technique. It is proposal that enzyme substrate technique can be used as an alternative method to evaluate water microbiological pollution evaluation which comes from fecal.%用多管发酵法和酶底物法检测水源水样本中耐热大肠菌群,比较了两者检测结果的等效性.结果表明,多管发酵法与酶底物法检测水中耐热大肠菌群的结果是等效的.酶底物法可以用作评价水中粪源性微生物污染的可替代方法.

  15. Dramatic regression of presumed acquired retinal astrocytoma with photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuray Tuncer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT has been used for treatment of various intraocular tumors including choroidal hemangioma, vasoproliferative tumor, amelanotic choroidal melanoma and choroidal neovascular membrane due to choroidal osteoma. This case report documents the effect of PDT for a presumed acquired retinal astrocytoma. A 42-year-old female with a juxtapapillary acquired astrocytoma was treated with a single session of PDT using standard parameters. The tumor showed dramatic regression over 6 months into a fibrotic scar. It remained regressed and stable with 20/20 vision after 51 months of follow-up. We believe that PDT can be used as a primary treatment for acquired retinal astrocytoma.

  16. The electrodiagnostic distinctions between chronic familial and acquired demyelinative neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R A; Sumner, A J

    1982-06-01

    We compared the electrodiagnostic studies of 40 patients with chronic acquired demyelinative neuropathy and 18 patients with familial demyelinative neuropathy. Patients with acquired neuropathy had differential slowing of conduction velocity when distal latencies were compared with more proximal conduction velocities in the same nerve, when equivalent segments of different nerves were compared, and when dispersion of compound motor action potentials was examined. Conduction block was noted in some patients. Patients with familial disease had uniform conduction slowly of all nerve segments, and conduction block was not seen. Chronic acquired demyelinative neuropathy is characterized by multifocal slowing of nerve conduction, whereas familial demyelinative neuropathy is characterized by uniform conduction slowing.

  17. 耐热马克斯克鲁维酵母发酵产乙醇研究%Ethanol fermentation by thermotolerant yeast K.marxianus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴振鹏; 王永红; 储炬; 庄英萍; 张嗣良

    2012-01-01

    Using the thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus strain with semi-defined medium, the optimum ethanol fermentation temperature range was 34 ℃ ~ 40 ℃, at which the glucose conversion and ethanol productivity were over 86% and 4.4 g/(L · h) , respectively. When temperature was below 34 ℃, the fermentation period became 2-3 hours longer than that at 34 ℃ ~ 40 ℃, and the glucose conversion and ethanol productivity were 81.4% and 4.15g/(L·h), respectively. While at 45 ℃. K. Marxianus produced 30.52 g/L ethanol, 74. 8% glucose conversion and 2. 95 g/( L · h) ethanol productivity were obtained. Using steam-exploded corn stover enzymatic hydrolysate ( containing 75. 8 g/L glucose) as substrate at 30 ℃ , 37 ℃ , 45 ℃ , all the glucose conversions of 69. 1% 71. 9% , 59. 3% and the ethanol productivity of 0. 56 g/( L · h) , 0. 58 g/( L · h) , 0. 37 g/( L · h) were obviously lower than those with the semi-defined medium. When yeast extract and inorganic salts were added into the enzymatic hydrolysate, the ethanol production increased. Both at 30 ℃ and 37 ℃ glucose conversions were about 10% higher than that without adding yeast extract and inorganic salts, but the ethanol productivities did not increase at all. The results indicated that K. Marxianus had advantages over Saccharomyces cerevisiae in ethanol fermentation at above 37℃ by using steam-exploded corn stover as substrate.%在采用半合成培养基的条件下,耐热的马克斯克鲁维酵母(Kluyveromyces marxianus)的最佳乙醇发酵温度范围是34℃~ 40℃,糖醇转化率超过86%,产率到达4.4 g/(L·h);温度低于34℃,发酵周期要比34℃~40℃长2~3h,其糖醇转化率为81.4%,产率为4.15 g/L·h;在45℃时能发酵产生30.5 g/L乙醇,转化率达到74.8%,产率为2.95 g/(L·).在汽爆玉米秸秆酶解液(含75.8 g/L的葡萄糖)中用K.marxianus进行的发酵实验表明,在30℃、37℃和45℃时,糖醇转化率比在半合成培

  18. Heritable variation in heat shock gene expression: a potential mechanism for adaptation to thermal stress in embryos of sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, J N; Kennington, W J; Tomkins, J L; Berry, O; Whiting, S; Meekan, M G; Mitchell, N J

    2016-01-13

    The capacity of species to respond adaptively to warming temperatures will be key to their survival in the Anthropocene. The embryos of egg-laying species such as sea turtles have limited behavioural means for avoiding high nest temperatures, and responses at the physiological level may be critical to coping with predicted global temperature increases. Using the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) as a model, we used quantitative PCR to characterise variation in the expression response of heat-shock genes (hsp60, hsp70 and hsp90; molecular chaperones involved in cellular stress response) to an acute non-lethal heat shock. We show significant variation in gene expression at the clutch and population levels for some, but not all hsp genes. Using pedigree information, we estimated heritabilities of the expression response of hsp genes to heat shock and demonstrated both maternal and additive genetic effects. This is the first evidence that the heat-shock response is heritable in sea turtles and operates at the embryonic stage in any reptile. The presence of heritable variation in the expression of key thermotolerance genes is necessary for sea turtles to adapt at a molecular level to warming incubation environments.

  19. Heat pipe thermosyphon heat performance calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novomestský, Marcel; Kapjor, Andrej; Papučík, Štefan; Siažik, Ján

    2016-06-01

    In this article the heat performance of the heat pipe thermosiphon is achieved through numerical model. The heat performance is calculated from few simplified equations which depends on the working fluid and geometry. Also the thermal conductivity is good to mentioning, because is really interesting how big differences are between heat pipes and full solid surfaces.

  20. Segmented heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  1. Management of bleeding in acquired hemophilia A: results from the European Acquired Haemophilia (EACH2) Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudo, Francesco; Collins, Peter; Huth-Kühne, Angela; Lévesque, Hervé; Marco, Pascual; Nemes, László; Pellegrini, Fabio; Tengborn, Lilian; Knoebl, Paul

    2012-07-05

    Acquired hemophilia A is a rare bleeding disorder caused by autoantibodies to coagulation FVIII. Bleeding episodes at presentation are spontaneous and severe in most cases. Optimal hemostatic therapy is controversial, and available data are from observational and retrospective studies only. The EACH2 registry, a multicenter, pan-European, Web-based database, reports current patient management. The aim was to assess the control of first bleeding episodes treated with a bypassing agent (rFVIIa or aPCC), FVIII, or DDAVP among 501 registered patients. Of 482 patients with one or more bleeding episodes, 144 (30%) received no treatment for bleeding; 31 were treated with symptomatic therapy only. Among 307 patients treated with a first-line hemostatic agent, 174 (56.7%) received rFVIIa, 63 (20.5%) aPCC, 56 (18.2%) FVIII, and 14 (4.6%) DDAVP. Bleeding was controlled in 269 of 338 (79.6%) patients treated with a first-line hemostatic agent or ancillary therapy alone. Propensity score matching was applied to allow unbiased comparison between treatment groups. Bleeding control was significantly higher in patients treated with bypassing agents versus FVIII/DDAVP (93.3% vs 68.3%; P = .003). Bleeding control was similar between rFVIIa and aPCC (93.0%; P = 1). Thrombotic events were reported in 3.6% of treated patients with a similar incidence between rFVIIa (2.9%) and aPCC (4.8%).

  2. Immunosuppression for acquired hemophilia A: results from the European Acquired Haemophilia Registry (EACH2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Peter; Baudo, Francesco; Knoebl, Paul; Lévesque, Hervé; Nemes, László; Pellegrini, Fabio; Marco, Pascual; Tengborn, Lilian; Huth-Kühne, Angela

    2012-07-05

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is an autoimmune disease caused by an autoantibody to factor VIII. Patients are at risk of severe and fatal hemorrhage until the inhibitor is eradicated, and guidelines recommend immunosuppression as soon as the diagnosis has been made. The optimal immunosuppressive regimen is unclear; therefore, data from 331 patients entered into the prospective EACH2 registry were analyzed. Steroids combined with cyclophosphamide resulted in more stable complete remission (70%), defined as inhibitor undetectable, factor VIII more than 70 IU/dL and immunosuppression stopped, than steroids alone (48%) or rituximab-based regimens (59%). Propensity score-matched analysis controlling for age, sex, factor VIII level, inhibitor titer, and underlying etiology confirmed that stable remission was more likely with steroids and cyclophosphamide than steroids alone (odds ratio = 3.25; 95% CI, 1.51-6.96; P < .003). The median time to complete remission was approximately 5 weeks for steroids with or without cyclophosphamide; rituximab-based regimens required approximately twice as long. Immunoglobulin administration did not improve outcome. Second-line therapy was successful in approximately 60% of cases that failed first-line therapy. Outcome was not affected by the choice of first-line therapy. The likelihood of achieving stable remission was not affected by underlying etiology but was influenced by the presenting inhibitor titer and FVIII level.

  3. The Impact of Hospital-Acquired Conditions on Medicare..

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in The Impact of Hospital-Acquired Conditions on Medicare Program Payments, published in Volume 4, Issue 4 of the Medicare and...

  4. Examination of the Accuracy of Coding Hospital-Acquired...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A new study, Examination of the Accuracy of Coding Hospital-Acquired Pressure Ulcer Stages, published in Volume 4, Issue 1 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research...

  5. A methodology for acquiring qualitative knowledge for probabilistic graphical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Uffe Bro; Madsen, Anders L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a practical and general methodology that simplifies the task of acquiring and formulating qualitative knowledge for constructing probabilistic graphical models (PGMs). The methodology efficiently captures and communicates expert knowledge, and has significantly eased the model...

  6. Acquired disorders of elastic tissue: Part II. decreased elastic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kevan G; Bercovitch, Lionel; Dill, Sara W; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie

    2004-08-01

    Elastic fibers in the extracellular matrix are integral components of dermal connective tissue. The resilience and elasticity required for normal structure and function of the skin are attributable to the network of elastic tissue. Advances in our understanding of elastic tissue physiology provide a foundation for studying the pathogenesis of elastic tissue disorders. Many acquired disorders are nevertheless poorly understood owing to the paucity of reported cases. Several acquired disorders in which loss of dermal elastic tissue produces prominent clinical and histopathologic features have recently been described, including middermal elastolysis, papular elastorrhexis, and pseudoxanthoma-like papillary dermal elastolysis, which must be differentiated from more well-known disorders such as anetoderma, acquired cutis laxa, and acrokeratoelastoidosis. Learning objective At the conclusion of this learning activity, participants should have an understanding of the similarities and differences between acquired disorders of elastic tissue that are characterized by a loss of elastic tissue.

  7. Preschoolers acquire general knowledge by sharing in pretense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Shelbie L; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar kind of animal). For instance, in one scenario, the nerp ate and disliked a carrot. When subsequently asked generic questions about real nerps, children's responses suggested that they had learned general facts (e.g., nerps dislike carrots). In Experiment 2, thirty-two 4- to 5-year-olds learned from scenarios lacking pretend speech or sound effects. The findings reveal a long overlooked means by which children can acquire generic knowledge.

  8. Heat shock response of the blue crab Portunus pelagicus:thermal stress and acclimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suhaila Qari

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the effect of prior heat shock on the CTMax of differently acclimated Portunus pelagicus (P. pelagicus) as well as the time course of the changes in CTMax post heat shock. Methods: Crabs P. pelagicus were held in laboratory aquaria in tanks, which were supplied with filtered and aerated seawater. Crabs were acclimated at 20 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C and 35 °C for 3 weeks before their CTMax was determined. The CTMax was recorded for each crab as the median temperature during the 5 min period when a crab was not able to right itself, the average CTMax was calculated. The effect of heat shock on subsequent CTMax was measured. Crabs were heat shocked at temperature 1 °C lower than the CTMax for 20 min, followed by either 0.5 h, 1 h or 1.5 h recovery at 20 °C. The same procedure was repeated at other acclimation temperatures (25 °C, 30 °C and 35 °C). Results: Temperature acclimation of P. pelargicus from 20-35 °C progressively increased the CTMax. Acclimation at 35 °C the CTMax was 42.66 °C, whereas acclimation at 20 °C the CTMax was 39.8 °C. In P. pelagicus acclimated, at 20 °C the CTMax values after heat shock were significantly higher than crabs in control for 30 min, 1 h and 1.5 h after heat shock. In the 25 °C and 30 °C acclimated crabs, the CTMax values after heat shock were significantly higher than control only in 30 min and 1 h after heat shock. No significant differences in 35 °C acclimated crabs between control and heat shocked crabs were found after recovery for 30 min, 1 h, or 1.5 h. Conclusions: Heat shock caused significant rises in the CTMax, however, this increase was progressively reduced with longer recovery times at the acclimation temperature. For 20 °C acclimated crabs, the increased CTMax was still evident after 90 min, but for 25 °C and 30 °C crabs, the response was over after 90 min. Heat shock of 35 °C crabs was problematical, the CTMax gave no increased thermotolerance. It must be concluded that the

  9. Investigation of direct expansion in ground source heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, M. D.

    A fully instrumented subscale ground coupled heat pump system was developed, and built, and used to test and obtain data on three different earth heat exchanger configurations under heating conditions (ground cooling). Various refrigerant flow control and compressor protection devices were tested for their applicability to the direct expansion system. Undistributed Earth temperature data were acquired at various depths. The problem of oil return at low evaporator temperatures and low refrigerant velocities was addressed. An analysis was performed to theoretically determine what evaporator temperature can be expected with an isolated ground pipe configuration with given length, pipe size, soil conditions and constant heat load. Technical accomplishments to data are summarized.

  10. Adult-Onset Acquired Partial Lipodystrophy Accompanied by Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Muto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipodystrophy is a group of metabolic disorders, possibly caused by autoimmune disease. In this report, we describe a case of adult-onset acquired partial lipodystrophy accompanied by rheumatoid arthritis without a family history. Interestingly, immunohistochemical staining revealed dense infiltration of IL-27-producing cells as well as MMP-7- and MMP-28-expressing cells, both of which have been reported to facilitate the development of autoimmune disease. Our present case might suggest possible mechanisms for acquired partial lipodystrophy.

  11. Acquired pure megakaryocytic aplasia successfully treated with cyclosporine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halima El Omri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Acquired pure megakaryocytic aplasia is a rare hematological disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia with absent or markedly reduced megakaryocytes in the bone marrow. We report a case of a 25-year-old male diagnosed as acquired pure megakaryocytic aplasia. Treatment with prednisone and intravenous immunoglobulin failed, but he was successfully treated with cyclosporine, with complete remission after 90 days and normal platelet count maintained thereafter.

  12. [Differential diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and community-acquired pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deĭkina, O N; Mishin, V Iu; Demikhova, O V

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to enhance the efficiency of differential diagnosis of pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis. A hundred and fifty-nine adult patients were examined. These included 78 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 81 with community-acquired p neumonia. The clinical features of infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 48) and mild community-acquired pneumonia (n = 51) were compared. The course of caseous pneumonia (n = 30) was compared with that of moderate and severe community-acquired pneumonia (n = 30). Significant differences in the manifestations of the intoxication and bronchopulmonary syndrome were not found in patients with community-acquired pneumonia and infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Physical studies showed that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, moist rale (54.9%) and crepitation (11.8%) were prevalent, but in those with infiltrative tuberculosis rale was absent in 60.4% of cases and the pattern of respiration was unchanged in 79.2%. Chest X-ray studies indicated that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, lower lobar inflammatory changes were predominant in 62.8% of cases whereas in those with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis the process was mainly bilateral (43.8%) with the presence of destructive changes (83.3%) and bronchogenic dissemination (66.7%). In patients with caseous pneumonia, the intoxication syndrome was more significant than in those with severe community-acquired pneumonia. Chest X-ray studies demonstrated that in patients with caseous pneumonia, specific changes were bilateral with the involvement of 2 lobes or more, with destruction and bronchogenic dissemination while in those with community-acquired pneumonia, the pulmonary processes were predominantly bilateral (76.6%) at the lower lobar site (36.7%).

  13. Acquired Dyslexia in Japanese: Implications for Reading Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, H.

    2007-01-01

    Acquired dyslexia research has been conducted mainly on English neurological patients. A limited number of dyslexia studies on non-alphabetic orthographies are available. Classical case studies for acquired dyslexia in Japanese, which has two distinctive scripts (morphographic Kanji and phonographic Kana), reported 'script-dependent' dyslexia patterns. Although recent case studies showed 'script-independent' dyslexia patterns for surface and phonological dyslexia, a 'script-independent'...

  14. System Acquires And Displays Signal-Propagation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckeeman, John C.; Remaklus, P. William

    1991-01-01

    Electronic system acquires, controls processing of, and displays data from experiments on propagation of phase-coherent radio signals at frequencies of 12, 20, and 30 GHz. Acquisition equipment coordinates flow of data from multiple input channels to computer. Software provides for multi-tasking and for interactive graphical displays, including easy-to-use windows and pulldown menus with mouse input. Offers outstanding accuracy; acquires and displays data and controls associated equipment, all in real time.

  15. Surgical management of stage 2 adult acquired flatfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Jared M; Cottom, James M

    2014-07-01

    Adult acquired flatfoot deformity is a progressive disorder with multiple symptoms and degrees of deformity. Stage II adult acquired flatfoot can be divided into stage IIA and IIB based on severity of deformity. Surgical procedures should be chosen based on severity as well as location of the flatfoot deformity. Care must be taken not to overcorrect the flatfoot deformity so as to decrease the possibility of lateral column overload as well as stiffness.

  16. Orthostatic intolerance in multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramontozzi, Louis A; Russell, James A

    2012-09-01

    We report a patient with orthostatic intolerance and syncope as a major clinical manifestation of an acquired multifocal neuropathy with the clinical, electrodiagnostic, and cerebrospinal fluid features of multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy or the Lewis-Sumner syndrome. Immunomodulatory therapy led to clinical remission of both somatic and autonomic signs and symptoms. We are unaware of a previous description of symptomatic dysautonomia in this disorder.

  17. Nonazeotropic Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealker, David H.; Deming, Glenn

    1991-01-01

    Heat pump collects heat from water circulating in heat-rejection loop, raises temperature of collected heat, and transfers collected heat to water in separate pipe. Includes sealed motor/compressor with cooling coils, evaporator, and condenser, all mounted in outer housing. Gradients of temperature in evaporator and condenser increase heat-transfer efficiency of vapor-compression cycle. Intended to recover relatively-low-temperature waste heat and use it to make hot water.

  18. Heat Calculation of Borehole Heat Exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Filatov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a heat calculation method of borehole heat exchangers (BHE which can be used for designing and optimization of their design values and included in a comprehensive mathematical model of heat supply system with a heat pump based on utilization of low-grade heat from the ground.The developed method of calculation is based on the reduction of the problem general solution pertaining to heat transfer in BHE with due account of heat transfer between top-down and bottom-up flows of heat carrier to the solution for a boundary condition of one kind on the borehole wall. Used the a method of electrothermal analogy has been used for a calculation of the thermal resistance and  the required shape factors for calculation of  a borehole filler thermal resistance have been obtained numerically. The paper presents results of heat calculation of various BHE designs in accordance with the proposed method.

  19. Thermal limit for metazoan life in question: in vivo heat tolerance of the Pompeii worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaux, Juliette; Hamel, Gérard; Zbinden, Magali; Tasiemski, Aurélie A; Boutet, Isabelle; Léger, Nelly; Tanguy, Arnaud; Jollivet, Didier; Shillito, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The thermal limit for metazoan life, expected to be around 50°C, has been debated since the discovery of the Pompeii worm Alvinella pompejana, which colonizes black smoker chimney walls at deep-sea vents. While indirect evidence predicts body temperatures lower than 50°C, repeated in situ temperature measurements depict an animal thriving at temperatures of 60°C and more. This controversy was to remain as long as this species escaped in vivo investigations, due to irremediable mortalities upon non-isobaric sampling. Here we report from the first heat-exposure experiments with live A. pompejana, following isobaric sampling and subsequent transfer in a laboratory pressurized aquarium. A prolonged (2 hours) exposure in the 50-55°C range was lethal, inducing severe tissue damages, cell mortalities and triggering a heat stress response, therefore showing that Alvinella's upper thermal limit clearly is below 55°C. A comparison with hsp70 stress gene expressions of individuals analysed directly after sampling in situ confirms that Alvinella pompejana does not experience long-term exposures to temperature above 50°C in its natural environment. The thermal optimum is nevertheless beyond 42°C, which confirms that the Pompeii worm ranks among the most thermotolerant metazoans.

  20. Thermal limit for metazoan life in question: in vivo heat tolerance of the Pompeii worm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Ravaux

    Full Text Available The thermal limit for metazoan life, expected to be around 50°C, has been debated since the discovery of the Pompeii worm Alvinella pompejana, which colonizes black smoker chimney walls at deep-sea vents. While indirect evidence predicts body temperatures lower than 50°C, repeated in situ temperature measurements depict an animal thriving at temperatures of 60°C and more. This controversy was to remain as long as this species escaped in vivo investigations, due to irremediable mortalities upon non-isobaric sampling. Here we report from the first heat-exposure experiments with live A. pompejana, following isobaric sampling and subsequent transfer in a laboratory pressurized aquarium. A prolonged (2 hours exposure in the 50-55°C range was lethal, inducing severe tissue damages, cell mortalities and triggering a heat stress response, therefore showing that Alvinella's upper thermal limit clearly is below 55°C. A comparison with hsp70 stress gene expressions of individuals analysed directly after sampling in situ confirms that Alvinella pompejana does not experience long-term exposures to temperature above 50°C in its natural environment. The thermal optimum is nevertheless beyond 42°C, which confirms that the Pompeii worm ranks among the most thermotolerant metazoans.

  1. Evaluation of heat treatment schedules for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Scott W; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2009-12-01

    The thermotolerance of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was evaluated by subjecting larvae and prepupae to a number of time-temperature regimes. Three independent experiments were conducted during 2006 and 2007 by heating emerald ash borer infested firewood in laboratory ovens. Heat treatments were established based on the internal wood temperature. Treatments ranged from 45 to 65 degrees C for 30 and 60 min, and the ability of larvae to pupate and emerge as adults was used to evaluate the success of each treatment. A fourth experiment was conducted to examine heat treatments on exposed prepupae removed from logs and subjected to ambient temperatures of 50, 55, and 60 degrees C for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. Results from the firewood experiments were consistent in the first experiment. Emergence data showed emerald ash borer larvae were capable of surviving a temperatures-time combination up to 60 degrees C for 30 min in wood. The 65 degrees C for 30 min treatment was, however, effective in preventing emerald ash borer emergence on both dates. Conversely, in the second experiment using saturated steam heat, complete mortality was achieved at 50 and 55 degrees C for both 30 and 60 min. Results from the prepupae experiment showed emerald ash borer survivorship in temperature-time combinations up to 55 degrees C for 30 min, and at 50 degrees C for 60 min; 60 degrees C for 15 min and longer was effective in preventing pupation in exposed prepupae. Overall results suggest that emerald ash borer survival is variable depending on heating conditions, and an internal wood temperature of 60 degrees C for 60 min should be considered the minimum for safe treatment for firewood.

  2. Cryogenic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, Randall F

    2016-01-01

    Cryogenic Heat Transfer, Second Edition continues to address specific heat transfer problems that occur in the cryogenic temperature range where there are distinct differences from conventional heat transfer problems. This updated version examines the use of computer-aided design in cryogenic engineering and emphasizes commonly used computer programs to address modern cryogenic heat transfer problems. It introduces additional topics in cryogenic heat transfer that include latent heat expressions; lumped-capacity transient heat transfer; thermal stresses; Laplace transform solutions; oscillating flow heat transfer, and computer-aided heat exchanger design. It also includes new examples and homework problems throughout the book, and provides ample references for further study.

  3. Heat pump technology

    CERN Document Server

    Von Cube, Hans Ludwig; Goodall, E G A

    2013-01-01

    Heat Pump Technology discusses the history, underlying concepts, usage, and advancements in the use of heat pumps. The book covers topics such as the applications and types of heat pumps; thermodynamic principles involved in heat pumps such as internal energy, enthalpy, and exergy; and natural heat sources and energy storage. Also discussed are topics such as the importance of the heat pump in the energy industry; heat pump designs and systems; the development of heat pumps over time; and examples of practical everyday uses of heat pumps. The text is recommended for those who would like to kno

  4. Mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somenath Sarkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoparathyroidism is a disorder of calcium and phosphorus metabolism due to decreased secretion of parathyroid hormone. Hypoparathyroidism can be hereditary and acquired. Acquired hypoparathyroidism usually occurs following neck surgery (thyroid surgery or parathyroid surgery. Along with systemic manifestations, hypoparathyroidism produces some skin manifestations. Lack of study regarding mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism prompted us to undertake this study. To evaluate the mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism. An observational study done in a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata by comprehensive history taking, through clinical examination and relevant laboratory investigations. Twenty-one patients were included in the study. The commonest form of acquired hypoparathyroidism was neck surgery (thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy operation. Mucocutaneous manifestations were present in 76.19% of patients. The most frequent mucocutaneous manifestation was found in the hairs like the loss of axillary hair (61.9%, loss of pubic hair (52.38%, coarsening of body hair (47.62%, and alopecia areata (9.52%. The nail changes noted were brittle and ridged nail, followed by onycholysis, onychosezia, and onychomedesis. The most common skin features were xerotic skin in 11 patients (52.38%, followed by pellagra-like skin pigmentation, pustular psoriasis and acne form eruption, bullous impetigo, etc. Mucosa was normal in all the cases excepting the one which showed oral candidiasis.

  5. Getting lost: Topographic skills in acquired and developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrow, Jeffrey C; Corrow, Sherryse L; Lee, Edison; Pancaroglu, Raika; Burles, Ford; Duchaine, Brad; Iaria, Giuseppe; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies report that acquired prosopagnosia is frequently associated with topographic disorientation. Whether this is associated with a specific anatomic subtype of prosopagnosia, how frequently it is seen with the developmental variant, and what specific topographic function is impaired to account for this problem are not known. We studied ten subjects with acquired prosopagnosia from either occipitotemporal or anterior temporal (AT) lesions and seven with developmental prosopagnosia. Subjects were given a battery of topographic tests, including house and scene recognition, the road map test, a test of cognitive map formation, and a standardized self-report questionnaire. House and/or scene recognition were frequently impaired after either occipitotemporal or AT lesions in acquired prosopagnosia. Subjects with occipitotemporal lesions were also impaired in cognitive map formation: an overlap analysis identified right fusiform and parahippocampal gyri as a likely correlate. Only one subject with acquired prosopagnosia had mild difficulty with directional orientation on the road map test. Only one subject with developmental prosopagnosia had difficulty with cognitive map formation, and none were impaired on the other tests. Scores for house and scene recognition correlated most strongly with the results of the questionnaire. We conclude that topographic disorientation in acquired prosopagnosia reflects impaired place recognition, with a contribution from poor cognitive map formation when there is occipitotemporal damage. Topographic impairments are less frequent in developmental prosopagnosia.

  6. Diminished acquired equivalence yet good discrimination performance in older participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper eRobinson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We asked younger and older human participants to perform computer-based configural discriminations that were designed to detect acquired equivalence. Both groups solved the discriminations but only the younger participants demonstrated acquired equivalence. The discriminations involved learning the preferences (‘like’ [+] or ‘dislike’ [-] for sports (e.g., tennis [t] and hockey [h] of four fictitious people (e.g., Alice [A], Beth [B], Charlotte [C] & Dorothy [D]. In one experiment, the discrimination had the form: At+, Bt-, Ct+, Dt-, Ah-, Bh+, Ch-, Dh+. Notice that, e.g., Alice and Charlotte are ‘equivalent’ in liking tennis but disliking hockey. Acquired equivalence was assessed in ancillary components of the discrimination (e.g., by looking at the subsequent rate of ‘whole’ versus ‘partial’ reversal learning. Acquired equivalence is anticipated by a network whose hidden units are shared when inputs (e.g., A and C signal the same outcome (e.g., + when accompanied by the same input (t. One interpretation of these results is that there are age-related differences in the mechanisms of configural acquired equivalence.

  7. Connectionist neuropsychology: uncovering ultimate causes of acquired dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollams, Anna M

    2014-01-01

    Acquired dyslexia offers a unique window on to the nature of the cognitive and neural architecture supporting skilled reading. This paper provides an integrative overview of recent empirical and computational work on acquired dyslexia within the context of the primary systems framework as implemented in connectionist neuropsychological models. This view proposes that damage to general visual, phonological or semantic processing abilities are the root causes of different forms of acquired dyslexia. Recent case-series behavioural evidence concerning pure alexia, phonological dyslexia and surface dyslexia that supports this perspective is presented. Lesion simulations of these findings within connectionist models of reading demonstrate the viability of this approach. The commitment of such models to learnt representations allows them to capture key aspects of performance in each type of acquired dyslexia, particularly the associated non-reading deficits, the role of relearning and the influence of individual differences in the premorbid state of the reading system. Identification of these factors not only advances our understanding of acquired dyslexia and the mechanisms of normal reading but they are also relevant to the complex interactions underpinning developmental reading disorders.

  8. Heat exchangers for waste heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rabghi, O.M.; Akyurt, M.; Najjar, Y.S.H.; Alp, T. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). College of Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    A survey is made of the equipment used for heat recovery and utilization. Types and merits of commonly employed heat exchangers are presented, and criteria for selecting heat exchangers are summarized. Applications for waste heat recovery are emphasized. It is concluded that careful selection and operation of such equipment would be expected to result in energy savings as well as problem-free operation. (author)

  9. Oscillating heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental fluid flow and heat transfer principles occurring in oscillating heat pipes and also provides updated developments and recent innovations in research and applications of heat pipes. Starting with fundamental presentation of heat pipes, the focus is on oscillating motions and its heat transfer enhancement in a two-phase heat transfer system. The book covers thermodynamic analysis, interfacial phenomenon, thin film evaporation,  theoretical models of oscillating motion and heat transfer of single phase and two-phase flows, primary  factors affecting oscillating motions and heat transfer,  neutron imaging study of oscillating motions in an oscillating heat pipes, and nanofluid’s effect on the heat transfer performance in oscillating heat pipes.  The importance of thermally-excited oscillating motion combined with phase change heat transfer to a wide variety of applications is emphasized. This book is an essential resource and learning tool for senior undergraduate, gradua...

  10. REVIEW OF A CASE OF CHILD WITH ACQUIRED APHASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana FILIPOVA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Achieved children speech disabilities are manifested at certain level of development of speech from the age of 3 to 12 years. The speech disabilities with children from the age of one to three years have developmental and acquired characteristics. It is well-known when and why the disabilities occurr at acquired aphasia or disphasia.The child with acquired aphasia or disphasia has early brain impairements and a relative improvement happens with adequate treatment and prompt rehabilitation treatment. It is more obvious with children than with adults.This fast and complete rehabilitation happens due to the plastic character of child’s brain and the possibilities for intro-hemisphere and inter-hemisphere reorganization of speech functions in childhood.

  11. Detecting mechanisms of acquired BRAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Roger S; Shi, Hubing

    2014-01-01

    (V600)BRAF mutation was identified as an ideal target for clinical therapy due to its indispensable roles in supporting melanoma initiation and progression. Despite the fact that BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) can elicit anti-tumor responses in the majority of treated patients and confer overall survival benefits, acquired drug resistance is a formidable obstacle to long-term management of the disease. Several aberrant events including RTK upregulation, NRAS mutation, mutant BRAF amplification or alternative splicing, and MEK mutation have been reported as acquired BRAFi resistance mechanisms. Clinially, detection of these resistance mechanisms help understand drug response patterns and help guide combinatorial therapeutic strategies. Therefore, quick and accurate diagnosis of the resistant mechanisms in tumor biopsies has become an important starting point for personalized therapy. In this chapter, we review the major acquired BRAFi resistance mechanisms, highlight their therapeutic implications, and provide the diagnostic methods from clinical samples.

  12. Narratives of athletic identity after acquiring a permanent physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Marie-José; Smith, Brett; Strachan, Shaelyn M; Latimer, Amy E

    2014-04-01

    Individuals with acquired physical disabilities report lower levels of athletic identity. The objective of this study was to further explore why athletic identity may be lost or (re)developed after acquiring a physical disability. Seven women and four men (range = 28-60 years) participated in approximately 1-hour-long semistructured interviews; data were subjected to a narrative analysis. The structural analysis revealed three narrative types. The nonathlete narrative described physical changes in the body as reasons for diminished athletic identity. The athlete as a future self primarily focused on present sport behavior and performance goals such that behavior changes diminished athletic identity. The present self as athlete narrative type focused on the aspects of their present sport involvement, such as feedback from other athletes and skill development, which supported their athletic identity. Implications of these narrative types with respect to sport promotion among people with acquired physical disabilities are discussed.

  13. Hospital-acquired infections - when are hospitals legally liable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuoid-Mason, David

    2012-04-12

    Hospital-acquired infections (nosocomial infections) are acquired in healthcare settings by patients admitted for reasons unrelated to the infection or not previously infected when admitted to the facility. Liability for hospital-acquired infections depends on whether the hospital: (i) has introduced best practice infection control measures; (ii) has implemented best practice infection control measures; or (iii) will be vicariously liable for negligent or intentional failures by staff to comply with the infection control measures implemented. A hospital and hospital administrators may be held directly liable for not introducing or implementing best practice infection control measures, resulting in harm to patients. The hospital may also be held vicariously liable where patients have been harmed because hospital staff negligently or intentionally failed to comply with the infection control measures that have been implemented by the hospital, during the course and scope of their employment.

  14. Mycosis fungoides: an important differential diagnosis for acquired palmoplantar keratoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Janet; Foster, Rachael; Lam, Minh; Kumarasinghe, Sujith Prasad

    2015-02-01

    Mycosis fungoides is the most common subtype of primary cutaneous lymphoma and has several clinical variants. We report a 74-year-old man presenting with an acquired palmoplantar keratoderma initially diagnosed and treated as psoriasis with suboptimal improvement. Several months later the patient developed patches and plaques that were histologically consistent with mycosis fungoides. These lesions were ameliorated with the treatment of the underlying mycosis fungoides and the palmoplantar keratoderma resolved promptly with radiotherapy. This case highlights the importance of considering mycosis fungoides as an infrequent but serious cause of acquired palmoplantar keratoderma.

  15. Recurrent stroke as a presenting feature of acquired partial lipodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namburi R Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired partial lipodystrophy (PL (Barraquer-Simons syndrome is a rare condition with onset in childhood, and it is characterized by progressive loss of subcutaneous fat in a cephalocaudal fashion. This report describes a case of acquired PL in a 16-year-old girl, who had progressive loss of facial fat since 3 years. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, anticardiolipin antibody, primary hypothyroidism, diabetes, and dyslipidemia may antedate the development of complications such as cerebrovascular stroke and cardiovascular disease. The girl had developed recurrent left hemiparesis, and withdrawn from school due to poor performance.

  16. Acquired hemophilia A in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, T; Tsukamoto, N; Suto, M; Uchiumi, H; Mitsuhashi, H; Yokohama, A; Maesawa, A; Nojima, Y; Naruse, T

    2001-06-01

    A patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) developed acquired hemophilia A. The patient, a 24-year-old Japanese woman, was referred to our hospital because of uncontrollable bleeding following a tooth extraction. Laboratory examination revealed prolonged APTT (116 seconds), reduced factor VIII activity (2.8 %) and the presence of factor VIII inhibitor at a titer of 46.5 Bethesda units/ml. Transfusion of prothrombin complex concentrate and activated prothrombin complex concentrate followed by administration of prednisolone and cyclophosphamide successfully arrested bleeding and reduced the factor VIII inhibitor level. Acquired hemophilia A is a rare but lethal condition. Rapid diagnosis and introduction of adequate therapies are critical.

  17. [Acquired coronary-cameral fistula complicated by a ventricular pseudoaneurysm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, R; Bosmans, J; Voormolen, M; Vermeulen, T; Salgado, R; Vrints, C

    2013-12-01

    Coronary-cameral fistulas are usually congenital, rarely acquired; the complication of this anomaly with ventricular pseudoaneurysm is exceptional. We report a new case of acquired coronary-cameral fistula, occurred in a patient who had received a bypass graft and who had suffered from angina 1 year after the surgery. On computed tomography coronary angiography, the fistula seems to communicate the first diagonal to a left ventricle pseudoaneurysm. Embolization of the fistula and filling of the pseudoaneurysm by neurocoil were successfully performed. The clinical and angiographic control after 3 months showed symptoms improvement and absence of recanalization of the fistula.

  18. Acquired dorsal intraspinal epidermoid cyst in an adult female

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kulwant; Pandey, Sharad; Gupta, Praveen Kumar; Sharma, Vivek; Santhosh, Deepa; Ghosh, Amrita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidermoid and dermoid cyst comprise <1% of spinal tumors and may be congenital (hamartoma) or acquired (iatrogenic) in origin. Epidermoid cysts within the neuraxis are rare benign neoplasms that are most commonly located in the intracranial region. Case Description: Here, we report the a case of an acquired intradural extramedullary epidermoid cyst involving the thoracic region in an adult female who had no associated history of an accompanying congenital spinal deformity. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and immediate surgical intervention reduce patient morbidity. Near complete or subtotal excision of the cyst wall is warranted to prevent inadvertent injury to the spinal cord thus minimizing neurological morbidity. PMID:26904369

  19. Acquired pathology of the pediatric spine and spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palasis, Susan; Hayes, Laura L. [Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Radiology at Scottish Rite, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric spine pathology poses a diagnostic challenge for radiologists. Acquired spine pathology often yields nonspecific signs and symptoms in children, especially in the younger age groups, and diagnostic delay can carry significant morbidity. This review is focused on some of the more common diagnostic dilemmas we face when attempting to evaluate and diagnose acquired pediatric spine anomalies in daily practice. An understanding of some of the key differentiating features of these disease processes in conjunction with pertinent history, physical exam, and advanced imaging techniques can indicate the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  20. Endoscopic Management of Obstruction due to an Acquired Bronchial Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin L Kovitz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial webs are thin, membrane-like diaphragms that may obstruct the airway. Several congenital cases have been reported. Though rare, the true incidence of these lesions is probably underestimated because many of them are unrecognized. The case of a 71-year-old woman with an acquired bronchial web causing right main stem bronchus obstruction that went unrecognized for 47 years post-trauma is reported. The lesion was successfully treated using rigid bronchoscopy with laser therapy, balloon dilation and stent placement. This is the first reported case of an acquired bronchial web formation. It is also the first reported case that was successfully treated with this technique.

  1. Regenerative adsorbent heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system and at least a portion of the heat of adsorption. A series of at least four compressors containing an adsorbent is provided. A large amount of heat is transferred from compressor to compressor so that heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  2. Contribution of Advective and Non-advective Heat Fluxes to the Heat Budget of a Shallow Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez Miguel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The heat budget in a shallow lagoon has been established from field measurements at a bihourly scale. Information on the main advective and non-advective heat fluxes were collected during year 2003 at Nueva lagoon (Almería, Southern Spain. Heat storage data was obtained from a thermistor chain located in the deepest part of the lagoon and meteorological information was acquired using an automatic meteorological station placed near the lagoon's shore. In addition, estimation of evaporation was inferred from climatic approaches. Inputs of heat energy were dominated by radiative fluxes, with received net radiation accounting on average for around 95% of the non-advective total gains and radiation losses accounting for around 70% of the non-advective total losses. Sensible heat transfer from/to the atmosphere constituted the second energy input (4% and output (20%, although heat losses by evaporation were also significant. Conduction of heat into the sediments was a relatively constant form of energy loss but constitutes a minor contribution on the overall heat budget. Considerable variability was evident in non-advective heat fluxes at different time scales, from diel to seasonal. In relation to advective heat fluxes, groundwater and irrigation surpluses added to the heat storage of Nueva lagoon, whereas heat advected via precipitation was negligible.

  3. Preliminary Analysis on Heat Removal Capacity of Passive Air-Water Combined Cooling Heat Exchanger Using MARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung-Sin; Jeon, Seong-Su; Hong, Soon-Joon [FNC Tech, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sung-Won; Kwon, Tae-Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Current design requirement for working time of PAFS heat exchanger is about 8 hours. Thus, it is not satisfied with the required cooling capability for the long term SBO(Station Black-Out) situation that is required to over 72 hours cooling. Therefore PAFS is needed to change of design for 72 hours cooling. In order to acquirement of long terms cooling using PAFS, heat exchanger tube has to be submerged in water tank for long time. However, water in the tank is evaporated by transferred heat from heat exchanger tubes, so water level is gradually lowered as time goes on. The heat removal capacity of air cooling heat exchanger is core parameter that is used for decision of applicability on passive air-water combined cooling system using PAFS in long term cooling. In this study, the development of MARS input model and plant accident analysis are performed for the prediction of the heat removal capacity of air cooling heat exchanger. From analysis result, it is known that inflow air velocity is the decisive factor of the heat removal capacity and predicted air velocity is lower than required air velocity. But present heat transfer model and predicted air velocity have uncertainty. So, if changed design of PAFS that has over 4.6 kW heat removal capacity in each tube, this type heat exchanger can be applied to long term cooling of the nuclear power plant.

  4. Optimal Number of Thermoelectric Couples in a Heat Pipe Assisted Thermoelectric Generator for Waste Heat Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongjun; Wang, Tongcai; Luan, Weiling; Cao, Qimin

    2017-01-01

    Waste heat recovery through thermoelectric generators is a promising way to improve energy conversion efficiency. This paper proposes a type of heat pipe assisted thermoelectric generator (HP-TEG) system. The expandable evaporator and condenser surface of the heat pipe facilitates the intensive assembly of thermoelectric (TE) modules to compose a compact device. Compared with a conventional layer structure thermoelectric generator, this system is feasible for the installment of more TE couples, thus increasing power output. To investigate the performance of the HP-TEG and the optimal number of TE couples, a theoretical model was presented and verified by experiment results. Further theoretical analysis results showed the performance of the HP-TEG could be further improved by optimizing the parameters, including the inlet air temperature, the thermal resistance of the heating section, and thermal resistance of the cooling structure. Moreover, applying a proper number of TE couples is important to acquire the best power output performance.

  5. Thermal design of spiral heat exchangers and heat pipes through global best algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Oğuz Emrah; Çoban, Mustafa Turhan

    2017-03-01

    This study deals with global best algorithm based thermal design of spiral heat exchangers and heat pipes. Spiral heat exchangers are devices which are highly efficient in extremely dirty and fouling process duties. Spirals inherent in design maintain high heat transfer coefficients while avoiding hazardous effects of fouling and uneven fluid distribution in the channels. Heat pipes have wide usage in industry. Thanks to the two phase cycle which takes part in operation, they can transfer high amount of heat with a negligible temperature gradient. In this work, a new stochastic based optimization method global best algorithm is applied for multi objective optimization of spiral heat exchangers as well as single objective optimization for heat pipes. Global best algorithm is easy-to-implement, free of derivatives and it can be reliably applied to any optimization problem. Case studies taken from the literature approaches are solved by the proposed algorithm and results obtained from the literature approaches are compared with thosed acquired by GBA. Comparisons reveal that GBA attains better results than literature studies in terms of solution accuracy and efficiency.

  6. Heat transfer at the sintered layer-polysynthetic material interface inside heat micro pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinceana, Siviu; Mihai, Ioan

    2016-12-01

    If micro heat pipe heat transfers, the inside working fluid goes through a biphasic state. The flow of the liquid and the vapor thereof by the capillary beds of frittered copper and the layer of capillary polysynthetic material and migration of vapors liquid from the end, takes the heat flow towards the end where a transfer of heat may occur only if there is a difference in temperature between the end of a flat micro heat pipe that gives the acquirer heat and heat flux. The porosity of the material is total pore of the total material volume. In the analysis of heat and mass transfer through porous media, both convective and conductive transfer forms can not be separated, because of the surfaces in contact between the two capillar layers. It had been studied the dependence of the rate of flow of liquid through the frittered porous media, and Reynolds polysynthetic. It tracks changes in the Reynolds number based on the interior capillary porosity. They traced in Mathcad [1] the graphs for changing the Reynolds number of capillary pressure by capillary porosity.

  7. Solar heat storages in district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellehauge, K. (Ellehauge og Kildemoes, AArhus (DK)); Engberg Pedersen, T. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2007-07-15

    This report gives information on the work carried out and the results obtained in Denmark on storages for large solar heating plants in district heating networks. Especially in Denmark the share of district heating has increased to a large percentage. In 1981 around 33% of all dwellings in DK were connected to a district heating network, while the percentage in 2006 was about 60% (in total 1.5 mio. dwellings). In the report storage types for short term storage and long term storages are described. Short term storages are done as steel tanks and is well established technology widely used in district heating networks. Long term storages are experimental and used in connection with solar heating. A number of solar heating plants have been established with either short term or long term storages showing economy competitive with normal energy sources. Since, in the majority of the Danish district heating networks the heat is produced in co-generation plants, i.e. plants producing both electricity and heat for the network, special attention has been put on the use of solar energy in combination with co-generation. Part of this report describes that in the liberalized electricity market central solar heating plants can also be advantageous in combination with co-generation plants. (au)

  8. Heat pumps in district heating networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian

    constraints limit the power plants. Efficient heat pumps can be used to decouple the constraints of electricity and heat production, while maintaining the high energy efficiency needed to match the politically agreed carbon emission goals. The requirements in terms of COP, location, capacity and economy...... are calculated using an energy system model which includes power plants, heat pumps and district heating consumption profiles. The model is developed with focus on accurate representation of the performance of the units in different locations and operating modes. The model can assist in investment decisions...... and strategic planning in the energy sector. The paper presents a case study of optimal implementation of heat pumps in the present energy system of the Copenhagen area. By introduction of the correct capacity of heat pumps, a 1,6 % reduction in fuel consumption for electricity and heat production can...

  9. Atypical pathogens in community acquired pneumonia of Egyptian children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deraz TE; El Sahriggy SA; Shaheen MA; Motawea AA; Gomaa HE; Fawzy SH; Mohamed AA

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Diagnosis of atypical pathogens as an aetiology for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)in chil-dren is a challenge world wide.The aim of this study was to detect the frequency of atypical pathogens as a cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)in Egyptian children.Methods:From 50 children (with age ranged from 2 months to 1 2 years)hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia;respiratory sputum samples were collected by induction or spontaneously.All samples were subjected to conventional cultures and Polymer-ase Chain Reaction(PCR)technique DNA extraction for identification of Mycoplasma,Chlamydia pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila.Results:A definite pathogen was identified in 78% of the studied children;30%typical bacteria,8% candida albicans and atypical bacteria in 40% of the pneumonic children.Chlamydia pneumoniae was isolated from 26% of the children while Mycoplasma pneumoniae was isolated from 1 4%, whereas Legionella pneumophilla was not isolated at all.Conclusion:Atypical pathogens are evident as a po-tential aetiology for community-acquired pneumonia in (1 3.3%)of young and (80%)of older Egyptian chil-dren.

  10. Corticosteroids for all adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia?

    OpenAIRE

    Ger Rijkers; Simone Spoorenberg; Stefan Vestjens; Werner Albrich

    2015-01-01

    Corticosteroid therapy as adjunctive treatment in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a promising but controversial subject. The potentially beneficial effect of corticosteroids is based on the ability of steroids to dampen an excessive inflammatory response that often occurs in patients with CAP. This excessive inflammatory response can cause damage to the lungs and other organs, and is associated with poor outcome.

  11. On the difficulties of acquiring mathematical experience: Case rural education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm

    2014-01-01

    Based on a variety of philosophical approaches and my own work for decades in pure and applied mathematics teaching and research, I explain my view upon the basic difficulties of acquiring the “Mathematical Experience” (in the sense of P.J. Davis and R. Hersh 1981) and submit a list of claims how...

  12. Management of Travel-Related Illness Acquired in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Michele

    2015-12-01

    Management of travel-related diseases acquired in Haiti begins with the identification of tropical diseases that are prevalent in the region. Knowledge of various tropical disease incubation periods and presenting symptoms is crucial to ensure rapid triage and management of care.

  13. Learning through Business Games: Acquiring Competences within Virtual Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortmuller, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The didactic function of business games is often seen only in the development of sociocommunicative competences and general problem-solving strategies. An equally important aspect of business games lies in the acquirement of technical and problem-oriented knowledge, which is the focus of this article. Moreover, this knowledge dimension is further…

  14. Idiopathic Acquired Hemophilia A with Undetectable Factor VIII Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas B. Abt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We present the case of a 73-year-old female, with no family or personal history of a bleeding disorder, who had a classic presentation for acquired hemophilia A. Factor VIII activity was low but detectable and a factor VIII inhibitor was undetectable. Methods. The patient’s plasma was comprehensively studied to determine the cause of the acquired coagulopathy. Using the Nijmegen modification of the Bethesda assay, no factor VIII autoantibody was measureable despite varying the incubation time from 1 to 3 hours. Results. The aPTT was prolonged at 46.8 seconds, which did not correct in the 4 : 1 mix but did with 1 : 1 mix. Using a one stage factor VIII activity assay, the FVIII activity was 16% and chromogenic FVIII activity was also 16%. The patient was treated with recombinant FVII and transfusion, significantly reducing bleeding. Long-term therapy was initiated with cyclophosphamide and prednisone with normalization of FVIII activity. Conclusions. Physicians can be presented with the challenging clinical picture of an acquired factor VIII inhibitor without a detectable inhibitor by the Bethesda assay. Standard therapy for an acquired hemophilia A should be considered.

  15. Prognostic relevance of acquired uniparental disomy in serous ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Tuna (Musaffe); Z. Ju (Zhenlin); M. Smid (Marcel); C.I. Amos (Christopher I.); G.B. Mills (Gordon B.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Acquired uniparental disomy (aUPD) can lead to homozygosity for tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. Our purpose is to determine the frequency and profile aUPD regions in serous ovarian cancer (SOC) and investigated the association of aUPD with clinical features and patient o

  16. Prognostic relevance of acquired uniparental disomy in serous ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Tuna (Musaffe); Z. Ju (Zhenlin); M. Smid (Marcel); W. Amos; G. Mills

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Acquired uniparental disomy (aUPD) can lead to homozygosity for tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. Our purpose is to determine the frequency and profile aUPD regions in serous ovarian cancer (SOC) and investigated the association of aUPD with clinical features and patient o

  17. Transnasal endoscopic repair of acquired posterior choanal stenosis and atresia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qin-ying; WANG Shen-qing; LIN Shan; CHEN Hai-hong; LU Yu-yu

    2008-01-01

    Background There are conqenital and acquired choanal atresias and many approaches have been used for their repair.We assessed the clinical effect of power instrument.endoscopic repair of acquired choanaI stenosis and atresia.Methods Nineteen patients,aged from 32 to 61 years,with acquired choanal stenosis and atresia (from trauma in 5 cases and from radiotherapy after nasopharyngeal carcinoma in 14:6 bilateral and 13 unilateral cases),underwent transnasal endoscopic repair of choanal stenosis and atresia.No patient had stenting.Antibiotic and local glucocorticoid were administered postoperatively.Results Eiqhteen patients remained free of symptoms for 12-40 months after the surgery,and the diameter of the neochoana was more than 1 cm after the procedure.One patient required revision surgery and recovered completely with no restenosis at 12 months after the second surgery.There were no postoperative complications.Histology of the resected tissue revealed respiratory epithelial-lined stromal tissue with chronic inflammation,edema and fibrosis,but no tumor cells.Conclusions Transnasal endoscopic approach is a useful procedure for the repair of acquired choanal stenosis and atresia:it is highly successful,safe and effective with swift recovery and short time of hospitalizalion.It is very important in postoperative care to remove any granulation or polyps at the site of the neochoana at that time.

  18. Pathology of the thoracic wall: congenital and acquired

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Pena, Pilar; Barber, Ignasi [Hospital Materno-Infantil, Pediatric Radiology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    This review aims to cover the main congenital and acquired lesions that arise in the thoracic wall of infants and children. Imaging often plays an essential role in the evaluation of symptomatic and asymptomatic thoracic wall abnormalities. The use of appropriate imaging modalities for each condition will be addressed, as well as the range of benign and malignant conditions that can occur. (orig.)

  19. Acquired Dysarthria in Conversation: Identifying Sources of Understandability Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Steven; Wilkinson, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Background: Acquired progressive dysarthria is traditionally assessed, rated, and researched using measures of speech perception and intelligibility. The focus is commonly on the individual with dysarthria and how speech deviates from a normative range. A complementary approach is to consider the features and consequences of dysarthric speech as…

  20. Ceftobiprole medocaril in the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, Thomas W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Ceftobiprole medocaril is a fifth-generation cephalosporin approved in Europe as single-agent therapy for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), excluding ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). It is rapidly converted to the active metabolite ceftobiprole following intravenous administration. Ceftobipro

  1. Hydrocephalus in adults with community-acquired bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Soemirien Kasanmoentalib; M.C. Brouwer; A. van der Ende; D. van de Beek

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the occurrence, treatment, and outcome of hydrocephalus complicating community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults. Methods: Case series from a prospective nationwide cohort study from Dutch hospitals from 2006 to 2009. Results: Hydrocephalus was diagnosed in 26 of 577 epi

  2. Diabetes and risk of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Jesper; Søgaard, Mette; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with diabetes may experience higher risk of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) than patients without diabetes due to decreased immunity or coexisting morbidities. We investigated the risk of community-acquired (CA) SAB in persons with and without diabetes. DESIGN: Using...

  3. Grief and Needs of Adults with Acquired Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Shirley A.; McKay, Robert C.; Nieuwoudt, Johan M.

    2010-01-01

    This report aims to illuminate the complex phenomenon of grief and the needs experienced throughout the time course of their impairments by adults with acquired visual impairments. The study applied a phenomenological research strategy using 10 case studies of South African adults, visually impaired within and beyond six years. Qualitative…

  4. 45 CFR 7.4 - Option to acquire foreign rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assignment of such rights in all or in any specified foreign countries. In case where the inventor is not... by the Commissioner of Patents, any application for a patent which may be filed in such country or... Option to acquire foreign rights. In any case where it is determined that all domestic rights should...

  5. School Reentry for Children with Acquired Central Nervous Systems Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Joan; Porter, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Onset of acquired central nervous system (CNS) injury during the normal developmental process of childhood can have impact on cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. This alteration of function often necessitates special education programming, modifications, and accommodations in the education setting for successful school reentry. Special…

  6. Myopericarditis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosed by gallium scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cregler, L.L.; Sosa, I.; Ducey, S.; Abbey, L. (Bronx VA Medical Center, NY (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Myocarditis is among the cardiac complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and, yet, is often not discovered until autopsy. Gallium scintigraphy has been employed in diagnosing this entity, but few data are available about its diagnostic accuracy and value. Here, the authors report two cases of myopericarditis as diagnosed by gallium scan.

  7. Surgical decision making for stage IV adult acquired flatfoot disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kyle S; Hyer, Christopher F

    2014-07-01

    Adult acquired flatfoot deformity is a debilitating musculoskeletal condition affecting the lower extremity. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) is the primary etiology for the development of a flatfoot deformity in an adult. PTTD is classified into 4 stages (with stage IV subdivided into stage IV-A and IV-B). This classification is described in detail in this article.

  8. A Corpus-Based Comparative Study of "Learn" and "Acquire"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bei

    2016-01-01

    As an important yet intricate linguistic feature in English language, synonymy poses a great challenge for second language learners. Using the 100 million-word British National Corpus (BNC) as data and the software Sketch Engine (SkE) as an analyzing tool, this article compares the usage of "learn" and "acquire" used in natural…

  9. Itochu to Acquire 30% Share in Apparel Firm Shandong Ruyi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In its bid to expand in China's clothing sector, Itochu Corp, a Japanese trading firm which owns textile plants across Asia including China, Japan and Hong Kong, is set to acquire a 30 percent stake in Chinese apparel company Shandong Ruyi Group.

  10. 10 CFR 626.6 - Acquiring oil by direct purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.6 Acquiring oil by direct purchase. (a) General. For the direct purchase... availability of ships, pipelines and terminals to move and receive the oil. (3) Based on the market...

  11. An unusual ocular presentation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunachalam Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old male who presented with bilateral keratomalacia and on subsequent evaluation was found to be human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive is being reported. A MEDLINE search of the literature did not reveal any report of keratomalacia as the initial presenting feature of HIV/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

  12. Impact of microbiological samples in the hospital management of community-acquired, nursing home-acquired and hospital-acquired pneumonia in older patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putot, A; Tetu, J; Perrin, S; Bailly, H; Piroth, L; Besancenot, J-F; Bonnotte, B; Chavanet, P; d'Athis, P; Charles, P-E; Sordet-Guépet, H; Manckoundia, P

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the positivity rate, the detection rates for non-covered pathogens and the therapeutic impact of microbiological samples (MS) in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) in elderly hospitalised patients. Patients aged 75 years and over with pneumonia and hospitalised between 1/1/2013 and 30/6/2013 in the departments of medicine (5) and intensive care (1) of our university hospital were included. Microbiological findings, intra-hospital mortality and one-year mortality were recorded. Among the 217 patients included, there were 138 CAP, 56 NHAP and 23 HAP. MS were performed in 89.9, 91.1 and 95.6 % of CAP, NHAP and HAP, respectively. Microbiological diagnosis was made for 29, 11.8 and 27.3 % of patients for CAP, NHAP and HAP, respectively (p = 0.05). Non-covered pathogens were detected for 8 % of CAP, 2 % of NHAP and 13.6 % of HAP (p = 0.1). The antimicrobial spectrum was significantly more frequently reduced when the MS were positive (46.7 % vs. 10.8 % when MS were negative, p = 10(-7)). The MS positivity rate was significantly lower in NHAP than in CAP and HAP. MS revealed non-covered pathogens in only 2 % of NHAP. These results show the poor efficiency and weak clinical impact of MS in the management of pneumonia in hospitalised older patients and suggest that their use should be rationalised.

  13. Intersexual differences of heat shock response between two amphipods (Eulimnogammarus verrucosus and Eulimnogammarus cyaneus) in Lake Baikal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedulina, Daria; Meyer, Michael F.; Gurkov, Anton; Kondratjeva, Ekaterina; Baduev, Boris; Gusdorf, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Acute temperature fluctuations are common in surface waters, and aquatic organisms may manifest physiological responses to punctuated temperature spikes long before behavioral responses. Ectotherms, especially cryophilic stenotherms such as those endemic to Lake Baikal (Siberia), may demonstrate specialized physiological responses to acute temperature increases because their proteomes have evolved to function most efficiently at lower temperatures (e.g., <10 °C). Therefore, our study questioned the nature and degree of variation in physiological response to acute thermal stress in two congenerous, endemic Baikal amphipod species, Eulimnogammarus verrucosus and Eulimnogammarus cyaneus. We hypothesized that because interspecific and intersexual thermosensitivity varies significantly among ectotherms, there would be divergent intersexual and interspecific strategies to withstand acute thermal stress, manifested in different protein compositions and concentrations. We exposed individuals to the species’ respective LT50 for one hour followed by a three-hour recovery period. We then performed 1D-PAGE, Western blotting, 2D-PAGE, and Mass Spectrometry techniques and assessed relative intersexual and interspecific changes in proteomic composition and heat shock protein 70 level. Our results demonstrate that females tend to be more sensitive to an acute thermal stimulus than males, most likely because females allocate significant energy to reproduction and less to heat shock response, evidenced by females’ significantly lower LT50time. Lower level of Hsp70 was found in females of the thermosensitive E. verrucosus compared to males of this species. No intersexual differences were found in Hsp70 level in thermotolerant E. cyaneus. Higher levels of hemocyanin subunits and arginine kinase were found in E. cyaneus females after heat shock and recovery compared to males, which was not found for E. verrucosus, suggesting interspecific mechanisms for E. cyaneus’s higher

  14. Nature's Heat Exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, George

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the heat-transfer systems of different animals. Systems include heat conduction into the ground, heat transferred by convection, heat exchange in lizards, fish and polar animals, the carotid rete system, electromagnetic radiation from animals and people, and plant and animal fiber optics. (MDH)

  15. Transient Heat Conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Analytical theory of transient heat conduction.Fourier's law. General heat conducation equation. Thermal diffusivity. Biot and Fourier numbers. Lumped analysis and time constant. Semi-infinite body: fixed surface temperature, convective heat transfer at the surface, or constant surface heat flux...

  16. Heat Roadmap Europe 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Østergaard, Poul Alberg;

    2012-01-01

    % district heating These scenarios are investigated in two steps. Firstly, district heating replaces individual boilers by converting condensing power plants to combined heat and power plants (CHP) to illustrate how district heating improves the overall efficiency of the energy system. In the second step......, additional resources are utilised for heat in the district heating network that would otherwise be wasted such as surplus industrial heat, waste incineration, large-scale solar thermal, and geothermal. In all scenarios considered, the results indicate that in the current (2010) and future (2030/2050) EU27...

  17. Demographic and clinical data in acquired hemophilia A : results from the European Acquired Haemophilia Registry (EACH2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoebl, P.; Marco, P.; Baudo, F.; Collins, P.; Huth-Kuhne, A.; Nemes, L.; Pellegrini, F.; Tengborn, L.; Levesque, H.; Aspoek, G.; Heistinger, M.; Knobl, P.; Makipernaa, A; Andre, H.; Aouba, A.; Bellucci, Sylvia; Beurrier, P.; Borg, J.Y.; Darnige, L.; Devignes, J.; D'Oiron, R.; Gautier, P.; Gay, V.; Girault, S.; Gruel, Y.; Guerin, V.; Hezard, N.; Khellaf, M.; Koenig, M.; Levesque, H.; Lifermann, F.; Marlu, R.; Ninet, Jacques; Peynet, J.; Quemeneur, T.; Rothschild, C.; Schleinitz, N.; Sigaud, M.; Trouillier, S.; Voisin, S.; Giebl, A.; Holstein, K; Huth-Kuhne, A.; Loreth, R.M.; Steigerwald, U.; Tiede, A.; Theodossiades, G.; Nemes, L.; Radvanyi, G.; Schlammadinger, A.; Barillari, G.; Pasca, S.; Baudo, F.; Caimi, T.; Contino, L.; Di Minno, G.; Cerbone, A.M.; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; D'inca, M.; Falanga, A.; Maggioni, A.; Lerede, T.; Franchini, M.; Gaidano, G.; De Paoli, L.; Gamba, G.; Ghirardi, R.; Girotto, M; Tasca, D.; Grandone, E.; Tiscia, G.; Imberti, D.; Iorio, A.; Landolfi, R.; Di Gennaro, L.; Novarese, L.; Mariani, G.; Lapecorella, M.; Marietta, M.; Pedrazzi, P.; Mazzucconi, M.G.; Santoro, C.; Morfini, M.; Linari, S.; Moratelli, S.; Paolini, R.; Piseddu, G.; Poggio, R.; Pogliani, E; Carpenedo, M.; Remiddi, C; Santagostino, E; Mancuso, Maria Elisa; Santoro, R.; Papaleo, G.; Schinco, P.; Borchiellini, A.; Valeri, Federica; Scortechini, A.R.; Siragusa, Sergio; Sottilotta, G.; Squizzato, A.; Sartori, R.; Tagariello, G.; Tagliaferri, A.R.; Di Perna, C.; Rivolta, G.F.; Testa, S.; Paoletti, O.; Toschi, V.; Zanon, E; Brandolini, B.; Hamulyak, K.; Kamphuisen, P.; Laros-van Gorkom, B.; Leebeek, F.W.; Marten, N.; Novakova, I.; Schutgens, R.; van der Linden, P.W.; van Esser, J.; van der Meer, J.; Ypma, P.; Campos, M.; Aguilar, C.; Altisent, C.; Bermejo, N.; Del Campo, R.; Ferreiro Arguelles, M.; Gonzalez Boullosa, R.; Gutierrez Pimentel, M.J.; Jimenez-Yuste, V.; Jose-Felix, L.; Pascual, M; Mingot, M.E.; Garrido, R.P.; Perez Gonzale, Nz; Prieto Garcia, M.; Rodriguez-Huerta, A.M.; Sedano, C; Tolosa Munoz, A.; Baghaei, F; Tengborn, L.; Boehlen, F.; Korte, W.; Chowdary, P.; Collins, P.; Evans, G.; Pavord, S.; Rangarajan, S.; Wilde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare autoimmune disease caused by autoantibodies against coagulation factor VIII and characterized by spontaneous hemorrhage in patients with no previous family or personal history of bleeding. Although data on several AHA cohorts have been collected, lim

  18. Heat transfer, thermal control, and heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    This volume provides information on recent progress in spacecraft thermal control and the supporting disciplines of conduction, thermal radiation, and heat pipe theory and application. Four problem areas are considered: conduction heat transfer, radiation heat transfer, thermal control, and heat pipes. The topics covered include finite-element methodology for transient conduction/forced-convection thermal analysis; effects of surface finish on thermal contact resistance between different materials; mathematical models for wide-band nongray gas radiation in spherical and cylindrical geometries; thermal design, analysis and testing of the Shuttle remote manipulator arm; porous heat pipe; and transient behavior of liquid trap heat-pipe thermal diodes. Also discussed is the thermal design concept for a high-resolution UV spectrometer.

  19. Thermoelectric heat exchange element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callas, James J.; Taher, Mahmoud A.

    2007-08-14

    A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

  20. Introduction to heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    SUNDÉN, B

    2012-01-01

    Presenting the basic mechanisms for transfer of heat, Introduction to Heat Transfer gives a deeper and more comprehensive view than existing titles on the subject. Derivation and presentation of analytical and empirical methods are provided for calculation of heat transfer rates and temperature fields as well as pressure drop. The book covers thermal conduction, forced and natural laminar and turbulent convective heat transfer, thermal radiation including participating media, condensation, evaporation and heat exchangers.

  1. Heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A simple heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump process with rejected or waste heat from a higher temperature chemisorption circuit (HTCC) powering a lower temperature physisorption circuit (LTPC) which provides a 30% total improvement over simple regenerative physisorption compression heat pumps when ammonia is both the chemisorbate and physisorbate, and a total improvement of 50% or more for LTPC having two pressure stages. The HTCC contains ammonia and a chemisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of canisters, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, and a heater, operatively connected together. The LTPC contains ammonia and a physisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of compressors, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. A closed heat transfer circuit (CHTC) is provided which contains a flowing heat transfer liquid (FHTL) in thermal communication with each canister and each compressor for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTPC. Heat is regenerated within the LTPC by transferring heat from one compressor to another. In one embodiment the regeneration is performed by another CHTC containing another FHTL in thermal communication with each compressor. In another embodiment the HTCC powers a lower temperature ammonia water absorption circuit (LTAWAC) which contains a generator-absorber system containing the absorbent, and a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. The absorbent is water or an absorbent aqueous solution. A CHTC is provided which contains a FHTL in thermal communication with the generator for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTAWAC. Heat is regenerated within the LTAWAC by transferring heat from the generator to the absorber. The chemical composition of the chemisorbent is different than the chemical composition of the physisorbent, and the absorbent. The chemical composition of the FHTL is different than the chemisorbent, the physisorbent, the absorbent, and ammonia.

  2. Improvement of multiple tube fermentation technique in thermotolerant coliforms in daily drinking water%生活饮用水耐热大肠菌群检测多管发酵法的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永亮; 杨天佑; 黄忠实

    2012-01-01

    目的:改进国标生活饮用水中耐热大肠菌群的测定方法.方法:将水样接种于乳糖蛋白胨培养液后,直接在44.5℃培养箱中培养24h观察结果,并与原法进行对比.结果:改进法节省时间约24h,两者结果差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:改进法适用于生活饮用水和环境水样的检测.%Objective:To improve the method for determination of thermotolerant coliforms in drinking water. Methods: The water samples were added into the lactose peptone culture medium and then cultured for 24 h in the incubator at 44.5℃. Then the result was compared with that of original method. Results; The improved method had saved 24 hours compared to the method before optimizing, and the results of two methods had no statistical difference (P>0.05). Conclusion:The improved method was suitable for the detection of fecal eoliforms in drinking water and environmental water smaples.

  3. Influence of high gas production during thermophilic anaerobic digestion in pilot-scale and lab-scale reactors on survival of the thermotolerant pathogens Clostridium perfringens and Campylobacter jejuni in piggery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillman, L C; Bajsa, O; Ho, L; Santhanam, B; Kumar, M; Ho, G

    2009-07-01

    Safe reuse of animal wastes to capture energy and nutrients, through anaerobic digestion processes, is becoming an increasingly desirable solution to environmental pollution. Pathogen decay is the most important safety consideration and is in general, improved at elevated temperatures and longer hydraulic residence times. During routine sampling to assess pathogen decay in thermophilic digestion, an inversely proportional relationship between levels of Clostridium perfringens and gas production was observed. Further samples were collected from pilot-scale, bench-scale thermophilic reactors and batch scale vials to assess whether gas production (predominantly methane) could be a useful indicator of decay of the thermotolerant pathogens C. perfringens and Campylobacter jejuni. Pathogen levels did appear to be lower where gas production and levels of methanogens were higher. This was evident at each operating temperature (50, 57, 65 degrees C) in the pilot-scale thermophilic digesters, although higher temperatures also reduced the numbers of pathogens detected. When methane production was higher, either when feed rate was increased, or pH was lowered from 8.2 (piggery wastewater) to 6.5, lower numbers of pathogens were detected. Although a number of related factors are known to influence the amount and rate of methane production, it may be a useful indicator of the removal of the pathogens C. perfringens and C. jejuni.

  4. The discuss on quality control methods of culture medium for thermotolerant coliform bacteria%检测耐热大肠菌群培养基的质量控制方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟宁

    2012-01-01

      The quality of culture medium is the foundation of the microbial detection, affecting directly the reliability of the test results. In this paper, combining with the actual situation, the discuss on quality control of the EC culture medium for thermotolerant coliform bacteria was carried out through the outside,pH value, asepsis check, sensitivity check and others aspects so as to microbiology laboratory perfect and improve continuously culture medium quality level , and to ensure the accuracy of the test results.%  培养基的质量是微生物检测工作的基础,直接影响检测结果的可靠性。本文结合实际情况,从外观、pH值、无菌检查及灵敏度检查等几个方面,对检测耐热大肠菌群所用EC培养基的质量控制进行讨论,以便微生物实验室不断完善和提高培养基的质控水平,从而保证检验结果的准确性。

  5. Protecting Yourself from Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast Facts Protecting Yourself from He at Stress Heat stress, from exertion or hot environments, places workers at risk for illnesses such as heat stroke, heat exhaustion, or heat cramps. Heat Stroke ...

  6. Тhe features of severe community acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramenko I.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on data from a prospective analysis for the year of observation, the article presents information about the features of severe community acquired pneumonia in patients who were hospitalized at the department of pulmonology (or therapy, as well as department of the intensive care from three teaching hospitals in Dnepropetrovsk, namely "Dnipropetrovsk City Hospital №6», "Dnipropetrovsk City Hospital №2», "Dnipropetrovsk City Hospital №16», which are the clinical ones of "Dnepropetrovsk Medical Academy of the Ministry of Health Ukraine". Dependence of the severity of the condition shown on duration of illness before admission, features of season character of disease. The effect of breathing exercises on the course of the disease. The results can be the basis for a more personal approach to the development of diagnostic and therapeutic programs for patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia.

  7. Microsoft Acquired Nokia in Unipolar Operating System Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netra Pal Singh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent big tickets include Microsoft acquiring part of Nokia for US$ 7.2 billion, Verizon buy 45% stake in Vodafone for US$130 billion, Google acquiring Motorola for 12.5 billion. These buyouts are analyzed and commented by experts of the industry. This research paper attempted to collate their view in the context of Microsoft and Nokia deal on six parameters. These parameters are (i reasons for the downfall of the Nokia market share, (ii general comments of the experts, (iii similarities / dissimilarities of past and business models of the smartphone business, (iv reasons for Microsoft to buy out Nokia, (vi impact of buyout on Microsoft, Nokia, consumers and markets.

  8. Predictors of inferior outcome in community acquired bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streharova, A; Krcmery, V; Kisac, P; Kalavsky, E; Holeckova, K; Lesnakova, A; Luzinsky, L; Adamkovicova, E; Pavlikova, Z; Spilakova, N; Kacunova, B; Dovalova, V; Wiczmandyova, O; Spanik, S; Liskova, A; Chovancova, D; Kovac, M; Ondrusova, A; Bauer, F; Benca, J; Rudinsky, B; Sramka, M; Kralova, J; Krsakova, J; Krumpolcova, M; Findova, L; Svabova, V; Sladeckova, V; Seckova, S; Saniova, J; Pavlicova, B; Taziarova, M; Bukovinova, P; Kolenova, A; Horvathova, E; Hvizdak, F; Luzica, R; Rolnikova, B; Bocakova, A; Grey, E; Bielova, M; Huttova, M; Sabo, I; Jalili, N

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess mortality and sequellae within cases from Nationwide survey of community acquired meningitis and identify risk factors for inferior outcome. Risk factors such as underlying disease (diabetes mellitus, cancer, trauma, neonatal age, splenectomy, alcoholism, sepsis, other infections), etiology, clinical symptoms and outcome (death, improvement and cured after modifications of ATB therapy, cured without change of therapy, cured with neurologic sequellae) were recorded and analysed with univariate analysis (chi2 or t test for trends, CDC Atlanta 2004). Analysing risk factors for inferior outcome (death or cured with neurologic sequellae), we compared patients who died or survived with neurologic sequellae to all patients with community acquired bacterial meningitis. Univariate analysis showed that trauma (palcohol abuse (pdiabetes, S. aureus (pdiabetes mellitus (palcoholism (palcohol abuse (p<0.05), craniocerbral trauma (p<0.05) and less common in meningitis with pneumococcal etiology (p<0.05).

  9. Community-acquired Acinetobacter baumannii: clinical characteristics, epidemiology and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Carina; Murray, Gerald L; Paulsen, Ian T; Peleg, Anton Y

    2015-05-01

    Community-acquired Acinetobacter baumannii (CA-Ab) is a rare but serious cause of community-acquired pneumonia in tropical regions of the world. CA-Ab infections predominantly affect individuals with risk factors, which include excess alcohol consumption, diabetes mellitus, smoking and chronic lung disease. CA-Ab pneumonia presents as a surprisingly fulminant course and is characterized by a rapid onset of fever, severe respiratory symptoms and multi-organ dysfunction, with a mortality rate reported as high as 64%. It is unclear whether the distinct clinical syndrome caused by CA-Ab is because of host predisposing factors or unique bacterial characteristics, or a combination of both. Deepening our understanding of the drivers of overwhelming CA-Ab infection will provide important insights into preventative and therapeutic strategies.

  10. Acquired antiprothrombin antibodies: an unusual cause of bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Cristiana; Viveiro, Carolina; Maia, Paulo; Rezende, Teresa

    2013-01-07

    Acquired inhibitors of coagulation causing bleeding manifestations are rare in children. They emerge, normally in the context of autoimmune diseases or drug ingestion, but transient and self-limiting cases can occur after viral infection. We describe, an otherwise healthy, 7-year-old girl who had gingival bleeding after a tooth extraction. The prothrombin time (PT) and the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were both prolonged with evidence of an immediate acting inhibitor (lupic anticoagulant). Further coagulation studies demonstrated prothrombin (FII) deficiency and prothrombin directed (FII) antibodies. The serological tests to detect an underlying autoimmune disease were all negative. The coagulation studies normalised alongside the disappearance of the antibody. This article presents lupus anticoagulant hypoprothrombinaemia syndrome (LAHS) as a rare case of acquired bleeding diathesis in childhood.

  11. Acquired and natural immunity to gonococcal infection in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, S J; Brown, W J; Arko, R J

    1975-01-01

    Despite the fact that gonorrhea is our most common reportable infectious disease, little is known about natural and acquired resistance to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. With the chimpanzee model, which mimics human gonococcal infection in signs, symptoms, and host response, a natural resistance to gonococcal challenge was found. One aspect of this natural resistance became evident when the cervix and oral pharynx resisted more gonococci than the urethra. Natural resistance was also shown when environmental factors were found to influence resistance to gonococcal pharyngitis. In addition to natural resistance a postinfection-acquired immunity to the gonococcus was demonstrated. Following gonococcal pharyngitis, this anatomical location successfully resisted more gonococci than were initially resisted. Similarly, more gonococci were successfully resisted in rechallenging the urethra. These findings are related to the clinic situation and suggest possible new approaches to gonorrhea control. PMID:805797

  12. Acquired factor VIII inhibitor syndrome: A rare cause of hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthuvel Seral Kannan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old woman presented with gross hematuria for 1 month. Clinical examinations, laboratory investigations, ultrasound and contrast computed tomography were normal, except anemia. Cystoscopy revealed bloody efflux from the right side. Retrograde pyelogram showed filling defect in the renal pelvis and biopsy was inconclusive. Renal angiogram was normal. She developed ecchymosis on the right thigh and arm with elevated activated partial thromboplastin time. The partial thromboplastin time correction study and Bethesda study confirmed the presence of acquired factor VIII inhibitor (acquired hemophilia. With flexible ureterorenoscopy, the mass in the renal pelvis was removed and its histopathology revealed clotted blood. The patient was subsequently managed with steroids and Factor eight inhibitor bypass activity.

  13. Canadian-Acquired Hydatid Disease: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al Saghier

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcal cysts are unusual in Canada, and most cases seen are in immigrants. In northern Canadian communities, Echinococcus granulosis infection occasionally is acquired from dogs that feed on the entrails of caribou or moose. Seventeen patients with Canadian-acquired hydatid cysts were seen over an 11-year period. One challenging case is described in detail. An 18-year-old aboriginal woman presented with jaundice, pain, lower extremity edema and coagulopathy from a 26 cm echinococcal hepatic cyst. She was successfully treated with a combination of oral albendazole, percutaneous drainage and surgery. One-year follow-up showed no recurrence of disease. The management options for echinococcal cysts are extensively reviewed.

  14. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome associated with blood-product transfusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jett, J.R.; Kuritsky, J.N.; Katzmann, J.A.; Homburger, H.A.

    1983-11-01

    A 53-year-old white man had fever, malaise, and dyspnea on exertion. His chest roentgenogram was normal, but pulmonary function tests showed impaired diffusion capacity and a gallium scan showed marked uptake in the lungs. Results of an open-lung biopsy documented Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Immunologic test results were consistent with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The patient denied having homosexual contact or using intravenous drugs. Twenty-nine months before the diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia was made, the patient had had 16 transfusions of whole blood, platelets, and fresh-frozen plasma during coronary artery bypass surgery at another medical center. This patient is not a member of any currently recognized high-risk group and is believed to have contracted the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from blood and blood-product transfusions.

  15. Label-acquired magnetorotation for biosensing: An asynchronous rotation assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, Ariel, E-mail: hecht@umich.ed [University of Michigan, Department of Biomedical Engineering, 2200 Bonisteel, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2099 (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Chemistry, 930 North University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Kinnunen, Paivo, E-mail: pkkinn@umich.ed [University of Michigan, Department of Chemistry, 930 North University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); University of Michigan, Applied Physics Program, 2477 Randall Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120 (United States); McNaughton, Brandon, E-mail: bmcnaugh@umich.ed [University of Michigan, Department of Biomedical Engineering, 2200 Bonisteel, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2099 (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Chemistry, 930 North University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); University of Michigan, Applied Physics Program, 2477 Randall Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120 (United States); Kopelman, Raoul, E-mail: kopelman@umich.ed [University of Michigan, Department of Biomedical Engineering, 2200 Bonisteel, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2099 (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Chemistry, 930 North University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); University of Michigan, Applied Physics Program, 2477 Randall Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents a novel application of magnetic particles for biosensing, called label-acquired magnetorotation (LAM). This method is based on a combination of the traditional sandwich assay format with the asynchronous magnetic bead rotation (AMBR) method. In label-acquired magnetorotation, an analyte facilitates the binding of a magnetic label bead to a nonmagnetic solid phase sphere, forming a sandwich complex. The sandwich complex is then placed in a rotating magnetic field, where the rotational frequency of the sandwich complex is a function of the amount of analyte attached to the surface of the sphere. Here, we use streptavidin-coated beads and biotin-coated particles as analyte mimics, to be replaced by proteins and other biological targets in future work. We show this sensing method to have a dynamic range of two orders of magnitude.

  16. Improving survival among Brazilian children with perinatally-acquired AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Harunari Matida

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil was the first developing country to provide free, universal access to antiretroviral treatment for AIDS patients. The Brazilian experience thus provides the first evidence regarding the impact of such treatment on the survival of perinatally acquired AIDS cases in the developing world. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used medical record reviews to examine characteristics and trends in the survival of a representative sample of 914 perinatally acquired AIDS cases in 10 Brazilian cities diagnosed between 1983 and 1998. RESULTS: Survival time increased steadily and substantially. Whereas half of the children died within 20 months of diagnosis at the beginning of the epidemic, 75% of children diagnosed in 1997 and 1998 were still alive after four years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Advances in management and treatment have made a great difference in the survival of Brazilian children with AIDS. These results argue strongly for making such treatment available to children in the entire developing world.

  17. Targets for Combating the Evolution of Acquired Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culyba, Matthew J; Mo, Charlie Y; Kohli, Rahul M

    2015-06-16

    Bacteria possess a remarkable ability to rapidly adapt and evolve in response to antibiotics. Acquired antibiotic resistance can arise by multiple mechanisms but commonly involves altering the target site of the drug, enzymatically inactivating the drug, or preventing the drug from accessing its target. These mechanisms involve new genetic changes in the pathogen leading to heritable resistance. This recognition underscores the importance of understanding how such genetic changes can arise. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the processes that contribute to the evolution of antibiotic resistance, with a particular focus on hypermutation mediated by the SOS pathway and horizontal gene transfer. We explore the molecular mechanisms involved in acquired resistance and discuss their viability as potential targets. We propose that additional studies into these adaptive mechanisms not only can provide insights into evolution but also can offer a strategy for potentiating our current antibiotic arsenal.

  18. Structural characterization and lipid composition of acquired cholesteatoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Maria; Svane-Knudsen, Viggo; Sørensen, Jens A

    2012-01-01

    along a depth of more than 200 μm and resembles the stratum corneum of hyperorthokeratotic skin. Lipid compositional analyses of the cholesteatoma show the presence of all major lipid classes found in normal skin stratum corneum (ceramides, long chain fatty acids, and cholesterol). Consistent with this......HYPOTHESIS: The goal of this work is to characterize the morphology and lipid composition of acquired cholesteatoma. We hypothesize that constitutive lipid membranes are present in the cholesteatoma and resemble those found in human skin stratum corneum. METHODS: We performed a comparative...... noninvasive structural and lipid compositional study of acquired cholesteatoma and control human skin using multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy-related techniques and high-performance thin-layer chromatography. RESULTS: The structural arrangement of the cholesteatoma is morphologically invariant...

  19. Acquiring Word-Meaning Mappings for Natural Language Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, C

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on a system, WOLFIE (WOrd Learning From Interpreted Examples), that acquires a semantic lexicon from a corpus of sentences paired with semantic representations. The lexicon learned consists of phrases paired with meaning representations. WOLFIE is part of an integrated system that learns to transform sentences into representations such as logical database queries. Experimental results are presented demonstrating WOLFIE's ability to learn useful lexicons for a database interface in four different natural languages. The usefulness of the lexicons learned by WOLFIE are compared to those acquired by a similar system, with results favorable to WOLFIE. A second set of experiments demonstrates WOLFIE's ability to scale to larger and more difficult, albeit artificially generated, corpora. In natural language acquisition, it is difficult to gather the annotated data needed for supervised learning; however, unannotated data is fairly plentiful. Active learning methods attempt to select for annotation...

  20. A social identity approach to acquired brain injury (ABI)

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    peer-reviewed The central argument put forward in this thesis is that, in the context of acquired brain injury (ABI) social identity matters. The first article is a theoretical paper which reviews an emerging literature that is trying to draw together social psychology and neuropsychology in the study of ABI. This article argues that the social identity approach is an appropriate vehicle for such integration and introduces the concept of identity sub-types based on belonging and based on p...

  1. Psychotherapy after acquired brain injury: Is less more?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Coetzer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the challenges and dilemmas facing psychotherapists working with neurological patients, and in particular those who work in the context of under-resourced brain injury rehabilitation healthcare systems. Through the subjective process of reflective practice integral to clinical supervision, the author attempts to identify five core aspects of psychotherapy intended to augment post-acute long- term rehabilitation programmes and interventions after acquired brain injury.

  2. Acquired antiprothrombin antibodies: an unusual cause of bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Cristiana; Viveiro, Carolina; Maia, Paulo; Rezende, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Acquired inhibitors of coagulation causing bleeding manifestations are rare in children. They emerge, normally in the context of autoimmune diseases or drug ingestion, but transient and self-limiting cases can occur after viral infection. We describe, an otherwise healthy, 7-year-old girl who had gingival bleeding after a tooth extraction. The prothrombin time (PT) and the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were both prolonged with evidence of an immediate acting inhibitor (lupic an...

  3. Cellular Memory of Acquired Stress Resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Qiaoning; Haroon, Suraiya; Bravo, Diego González; Will, Jessica L.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2012-01-01

    Cellular memory of past experiences has been observed in several organisms and across a variety of experiences, including bacteria “remembering” prior nutritional status and amoeba “learning” to anticipate future environmental conditions. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae maintains a multifaceted memory of prior stress exposure. We previously demonstrated that yeast cells exposed to a mild dose of salt acquire subsequent tolerance to severe doses of H2O2. We set out to characterize ...

  4. Improving outcomes in patients with community-acquired pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Bewick, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of adult morbidity and mortality worldwide despite decades of effective antibiotics and vaccination initiatives. There have been no recent significant improvements in outcomes, including 30-day mortality. The bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most prevalent causative pathogen in CAP, being found in up to half of cases. In September 2006 a childhood pneumococcal vaccine (PCV-7) was introduced, leading to reductions in vaccine-type (...

  5. Combination antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero, Jesus; Rello, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common and potentially serious illness that is associated with morbidity and mortality. Although medical care has improved during the past decades, it is still potentially lethal. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent microorganism isolated. Treatment includes mandatory antibiotic therapy and organ support as needed. There are several antibiotic therapy regimens that include β-lactams or macrolides or fluoroquinolones alone or in combination. Co...

  6. Cerebral computed tomography in men with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, B.; Boesen, F.; Gerstoft, J.; Nielsen, J.O.; Praestholm, J.

    Cerebral CT scannings were performed in 19 homosexual men with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Nearly half of them (9 patients) had cortical atrophy. Three patients with toxoplasmosis had cerebral pathology, in two of them with ring enhancement while the third had an ill-defined nonspecific lesion with slight heterogeneous enhancement without ring formation. Two patients with multifocal leucoencephalopathy and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, respectively, presented non-enhancing, low attenuating lesions at CT.

  7. Onychomycosis by Fusarium oxysporum probably acquired in utero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania O. Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum has been described as a pathogen causing onychomycosis, its incidence has been increasing in immunocompetent and disseminated infection can occur in immunosuppressed individuals. We describe the first case of congenital onychomycosis in a child caused by Fusarium oxysporum. The infection being acquired in utero was proven by molecular methods with the identification of the fungus both in the nail and placenta, most probably as an ascending contamination/infection in a HIV-positive, immunosuppressed mother.

  8. Arabidopsis map kinase 4 negatively regulates systemic acquired resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, P; Johansen, Bo; Petersen, M;

    2000-01-01

    Transposon inactivation of Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 produced the mpk4 mutant exhibiting constitutive systemic acquired resistance (SAR) including elevated salicylic acid (SA) levels, increased resistance to virulent pathogens, and constitutive pathogenesis-related gene expression shown by Northern...... of NPR1. PDF1.2 and THI2.1 gene induction by jasmonate was blocked in mpk4 expressing NahG, suggesting that MPK4 is required for jasmonic acid-responsive gene expression....

  9. An Increased Risk of Osteoporosis during Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Annapoorna, N.; Rao, G. Venkateswara; Reddy, N S; Rambabu, P.; Rao, K.R.S.Samabasiva

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by decreased bone mineral density and mechanistic imbalances of bone tissue that may result in reduced skeletal strength and an enhanced susceptibility to fractures. Osteoporosis in its most common form affects the elderly (both sexes) and all racial groups of human beings. Multiple environmental risk factors like acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are believed to be one of the causes of osteoporosis. Recently a high incidence of osteoporosis has been obs...

  10. Improving Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Related Cancer Outcomes through International Collaboration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mostafa Nokta

    2011-01-01

    @@ The spectrum of cancers seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)infected individuals is diverse and complex,and reflects an ever-changing HIV epidemic.In parts of the world where combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is available,HIV-infected patients are living longer and are less likely to die of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)defining malignancies within a year or two of developing AIDS.

  11. Battlefield Acquired Immunogenicity to Metals Affects Orthopaedic Implant Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-10-2-0138 TITLE: "Battlefield-Acquired Immunogenicity to Metals Affects Orthopaedic Implant Outcome." PRINCIPAL...Orthopaedic Implant Outcome." 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Nadim James Hallab, PhD 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...battlefield injuries resulting in increased exposure to metal may sensitize individuals and lead to excessive immune responses to orthopedic implants

  12. Differential Protein Expression in Congenital and Acquired Cholesteatomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Ho Shin

    Full Text Available Congenital cholesteatomas are epithelial lesions that present as an epithelial pearl behind an intact eardrum. Congenital and acquired cholesteatomas progress quite differently from each other and progress patterns can provide clues about the unique origin and pathogenesis of the abnormality. However, the exact pathogenic mechanisms by which cholesteatomas develop remain unknown. In this study, key proteins that directly affect cholesteatoma pathogenesis are investigated with proteomics and immunohistochemistry. Congenital cholesteatoma matrices and retroauricular skin were harvested during surgery in 4 patients diagnosed with a congenital cholesteatoma. Tissue was also harvested from the retraction pocket in an additional 2 patients during middle ear surgery. We performed 2-dimensional (2D electrophoresis to detect and analyze spots that are expressed only in congenital cholesteatoma and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS to separate proteins by molecular weight. Protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. The image analysis of 2D electrophoresis showed that 4 congenital cholesteatoma samples had very similar protein expression patterns and that 127 spots were exclusively expressed in congenital cholesteatomas. Of these 127 spots, 10 major spots revealed the presence of titin, forkhead transcription activator homolog (FKH 5-3, plectin 1, keratin 10, and leucine zipper protein 5 by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. Immunohistochemical staining showed that FKH 5-3 and titin were expressed in congenital cholesteatoma matrices, but not in acquired cholesteatomas. Our study shows that protein expression patterns are completely different in congenital cholesteatomas, acquired cholesteatomas, and skin. Moreover, non-epithelial proteins, including FKH 5-3 and titin, were unexpectedly expressed in congenital cholesteatoma tissue. Our data indicates that congenital cholesteatoma origins

  13. Streamlining the Process of Acquiring Secure Open Architecture Software Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Office of Small Business Programs, Department of the Navy  Director, Office of Acquisition Resources and Analysis ( ARA )  Deputy Assistant...innovative ways and means to acquire/develop component-based OA software systems that are subject to diverse, heterogeneous IP licenses (Alspaugh... heterogeneously licensed systems. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 11(11), 730–755. Anderson, S. (2012, July-September). Software

  14. Cognitive rehabilitation in children with acquired brain injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Hagberg-van't Hooft, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    Deficits in attention, memory and executive functions are the most common cognitive dysfunctions after acquired brain injuries (ABI) and may have a major negative influence on academic and social adjustment. Neuropsychological measures can assess these dysfunctions and shortcomings in academic and social life, but there is a great need for new efficacious cognitive treatment programmes. The main aims of this thesis were to evaluate the direct and maintained effects of a ...

  15. Procedure selection for the flexible adult acquired flatfoot deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentges, Matthew J; Moore, Kyle R; Catanzariti, Alan R; Derner, Richard

    2014-07-01

    Adult acquired flatfoot represents a spectrum of deformities affecting the foot and the ankle. The flexible, or nonfixed, deformity must be treated appropriately to decrease the morbidity that accompanies the fixed flatfoot deformity or when deformity occurs in the ankle joint. A comprehensive approach must be taken, including addressing equinus deformity, hindfoot valgus, forefoot supinatus, and medial column instability. A combination of osteotomies, limited arthrodesis, and medial column stabilization procedures are required to completely address the deformity.

  16. Surgical treatment of the adult acquired flexible flatfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gestel, Lise; Van Bouwel, Saskia; Somville, Johan

    2015-06-01

    In this review article, the authors give an overview of the currently available soft tissue and bony procedures in the treatment of the adult acquired flexible flatfoot. Instead of starting from the classification for posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, described by Johnson and Storm, the authors address the flatfoot from a more anatomical point of view. Based on this, they will try to define a treatment algorithm.

  17. Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 negatively regulates systemic acquired resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, M.; Brodersen, P.; Naested, H.

    2000-01-01

    Transposon inactivation of Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 produced the mpk4 mutant exhibiting constitutive systemic acquired resistance (SAR) including elevated salicylic acid (SA) revels, increased resistance to virulent pathogens, and constitutive pathogenesis-related gene expression shown by Northern...... of NPR1. PDF1.2 and THI2.1 gene induction by jasmonate was blocked in mpk4 expressing NahG, suggesting that MPK4 is required for jasmonic acid-responsive gene expression....

  18. Acquiring Expertise? Developing Expertise in the Defense Acquisition Workforce

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to tell the story of acquisition expertise development within the DOD using the evolution of the Defense Acquisition University as its backdrop. It is a story about the persistent frame that claims expertise leads to acquisition success. It is about 40 plus years of competing perspectives of how best to acquire that expertise and their shaping effects. It is about technology choices amidst cultural and political conflict. It is about how budget, users, ...

  19. Congenital and acquired mitochondrial disorders of the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Nikitina; A. N. Pravdina

    2014-01-01

    Clinical presentations of disorders of the nervous system manifest in young and middle-aged patients with congenital and acquired mitochondrial dysfunctions and cognitive disorders manifest in patients with mitochondrial diseases more often. Nowadays the effective methods of initial diagnosing of these conditions are neurological and neuropsychological examination of patients, using of biochemical markers of mitochondrial diseases: the indices of lactate, total homocysteine in plasma and liqu...

  20. State policies and the financing of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, A; Cvitanic, M; Bennett, C; Gorman, M; Serrato, C A

    1989-01-01

    State policies, with respect to the operation of Medicaid programs and the regulation of private health insurance, affect who gets what care, how much is spent, and who ultimately pays. A RAND Corporation study was used to assess States and the District of Columbia in terms of the effects of their Medicaid and health insurance regulations on people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and other human immunodeficiency virus-related illnesses. State characteristics are used to explain the individual State policy rankings.