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Sample records for acquired thermotolerance heat

  1. Acquired Thermotolerance and Heat Shock Proteins in Thermophiles from the Three Phylogenetic Domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trent, Jonathan D.; Gabrielsen, Mette; Jensen, Bo

    1994-01-01

    Thermophilic organisms from each of the three phylogenetic domains (Bacteria, Archaea, and Eucarya) acquired thermotolerance after heat shock. Bacillus caldolyticus grown at 60 degrees C and heat shocked at 69 degrees C for 10 min showed thermotolerance at 74 degrees C, Sulfolobus shibatae grown...

  2. Acquired thermotolerance and heat shock in the extremely thermophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus sp. strain B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, J D; Osipiuk, J; Pinkau, T

    1990-03-01

    The extreme thermophile Sulfolobus sp. strain B12 exhibits an acquired thermotolerance response. Thus, survival of cells from a 70 degrees C culture at the lethal temperature of 92 degrees C was enhanced by as much as 6 orders of magnitude over a 2-h period if the culture was preheated to 88 degrees C for 60 min or longer before being exposed to the lethal temperature. In eubacteria and eucaryotes, acquired thermotolerance correlates with the induced synthesis of a dozen or so proteins known as heat shock proteins. In this Sulfolobus species, it correlates with the preferential synthesis of primarily one major protein (55 kilodaltons) and, to a much lesser extent, two minor proteins (28 and 35 kilodaltons). Since the synthesis of all other proteins was radically reduced and these proteins were apparently not degraded or exported, their relative abundance within the cell increased during the time the cells were becoming thermotolerant. They could not yet be related to known heat shock proteins. In immunoassays, they were not cross-reactive with antibodies against heat shock proteins from Escherichia coli (DnaK and GroE), which are highly conserved between eubacteria and eucaryotes. However, it appears that if acquired thermotolerance depends on the synthesis of protective proteins, then in this extremely thermophilic archaebacterium it depends primarily on one protein.

  3. Acquired thermotolerance and heat shock in the extremely thermophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus sp. strain B12.

    OpenAIRE

    Trent, J D; Osipiuk, J; Pinkau, T

    1990-01-01

    The extreme thermophile Sulfolobus sp. strain B12 exhibits an acquired thermotolerance response. Thus, survival of cells from a 70 degrees C culture at the lethal temperature of 92 degrees C was enhanced by as much as 6 orders of magnitude over a 2-h period if the culture was preheated to 88 degrees C for 60 min or longer before being exposed to the lethal temperature. In eubacteria and eucaryotes, acquired thermotolerance correlates with the induced synthesis of a dozen or so proteins known ...

  4. Perspectives on deciphering mechanisms underlying plant heat stress response and thermotolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Lucia Bokszczanin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is a major threat for agriculture and food safety and in many cases the negative effects are already apparent. The current challenge of basic and applied plant science is to decipher the molecular mechanisms of heat stress response and thermotolerance in detail and use this information to identify genotypes that will withstand unfavorable environmental conditions. Nowadays X-omics approaches complement the findings of previous targeted studies and highlight the complexity of heat stress response mechanisms giving information for so far unrecognized genes, proteins and metabolites as potential key players of thermotolerance. Even more, roles of epigenetic mechanisms and the involvement of small RNAs in thermotolerance are currently emerging and thus open new directions of yet unexplored areas of plant heat stress response. In parallel it is emerging that although the whole plant is vulnerable to heat, specific organs are particularly sensitive to elevated temperatures. This has redirected research from the vegetative to generative tissues. The sexual reproduction phase is considered as the most sensitive to heat and specifically pollen exhibits the highest sensitivity and frequently an elevation of the temperature just a few degrees above the optimum during pollen development can have detrimental effects for crop production. Compared to our knowledge on heat stress response of vegetative tissues, the information on pollen is still scarce. Nowadays, several techniques for high-throughput X-omics approaches provide major tools to explore the principles of pollen heat stress response and thermotolerance mechanisms in specific genotypes. The collection of such information will provide an excellent support for improvement of breeding programs to facilitate the development of tolerant cultivars. The review aims at describing the current knowledge of thermotolerance mechanisms and the technical advances which will foster new insights into

  5. Heat- and radiation-induced radio- and thermo-tolerance of Zea mays seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gikoshvili, T.I.; Vagabova, M.Eh.; Vilenchik, M.M.; Kuzin, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    It was shown that γ-irradiation of Zea mays seedlings with low doses (1-3 Gy) induced thermotolerance, and preheating up to 43 deg C increased their radioresistance and thermotolerance. A hypothesis of the formation of common protective proteins after exposure to low - level radiation and heat is discussed

  6. Thermotolerance and responses to short duration heat stress in tropical and temperate species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marias, D.; Meinzer, F. C.; Still, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Temperature and heat waves are predicted to increase throughout the 21st century in both tropical and temperate regions. Tropical species are vulnerable to heat stress because of the higher radiation load and the narrower distribution of temperatures typically experienced compared to extratropical species. Germinant seedlings are also vulnerable to heat stress because they inhabit the boundary layer close to the soil surface where intense heating occurs. We quantified the effect of leaf age and heat stress duration (45 min, 90 min) on leaf thermotolerance and whole plant physiological responses to heat stress in Coffea arabica (COAR) saplings. We also evaluated leaf thermotolerance and whole plant responses to heat stress of seedlings in two populations each of Pinus ponderosa (PIPO) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (PSME) from contrasting climates. Thermotolerance of detached leaves/needles was evaluated using chlorophyll fluorescence (FV/FM, FO) and electrolyte leakage. After exposure of whole plants to a simulated heat wave in a growth chamber, we monitored FV/FM, photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs), and carbon isotope ratios (δ13C). In COAR, thermotolerance and rate of recovery increased with leaf age. Following heat treatment, reductions in A and gs led to reduced intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) and increased leaf temperatures. NSC results suggested that starch was converted to sugars for recovery from heat stress and phloem transport was inhibited. Plants failed to flower in both heat stress duration treatments. In PIPO and PSME, heat treatment induced significant reductions in FV/FM and A. NSC results suggested that starch was converted to glucose + fructose to aid recovery from heat-induced damage. Populations from drier sites had greater δ13C values than those from wetter sites, consistent with higher iWUE of populations from drier climates. Thermotolerance and heat stress responses appeared to be

  7. Modification of the heat response and thermotolerance by cycloheximide, hydroxyurea, and lucanthone in CHO cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henle, K.J.; Leeper, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    Exposure of Chinese hamster ovary cells to cycloheximide for 2 hr immediately prior to 45 0 C hyperthemia increased cell survival by a factor of 1.8. The increase in cell survival was independent of the heating time for heat treatments longer than 10 min at 45 0 C and was similar with cycloheximide concentrations of 1 and 10 μg/ml. Thermotolerance was induced by an initial treatment of 10 min at 45 0 C (conditioning), developed during a 7-hr incubation period at 37 0 C, and was defined by the hyperthermia dose response with a second 45 0 C heat treatment. When cycloheximide (1μg/ml) was added to the medium after heat conditioning and removed prior to the second heat treatment, the degree of thermotolerance was 50% less than that in medium controls. A 3-hr exposure to 10 μg/ml cycloheximide at 37 0 C by itself did not result in the progressive development of thermotolerance which occurs after a conditioning heat treatment. In contrast to the effects of cycloheximide, hydroxyurea (1 mM) and lucanthone (5 μg/ml) showed little effect on the heat sensitivity and the development of thermotolerance after heat conditioning. Although the results can be interpreted that the development of thermotolerance requires the synthesis of new proteins, but not that of DNA and RNA, alternate interpretations are possible based on known cycloheximide effects aside from its primary inhibition of protein synthesis

  8. Evaluation of Aegilops tauschii and Aegilops speltoides for acquired thermotolerance: Implications in wheat breeding programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairat, Suboot; Khurana, Paramjit

    2015-10-01

    Severe and frequent heat waves are predicted in the near future having dramatic and far-reaching ecological and social impact. The aim of this study was to examine acquired thermotolerance of two Aegilops species: Aegilops tauschii and Aegilops speltoides and study their potential adaptive mechanisms. The effect of two episodes of high heat stress (45 °C/12 h) with a day of recovery period was investigated on their physiology. As compared to A. speltoides, A. tauschii suffered less inhibition of photosystem II efficiency and net photosynthetic rate (Pn). Although A. tauschii showed nearly complete recovery of PSII, the adverse effect was more pronounced in A. speltoides. Measurement of the minimum fluorescence (Fo) versus temperature curves revealed a higher inflection temperature of Fo for A. tauschii than A. speltoides, reflecting greater thermo stability of the photosynthetic apparatus. Absorbed light energy distribution revealed that A. speltoides showed increased steady state fluorescence and a lower absorbed light allocated to photosynthetic chemistry (ɸPSII) relative to A. tauschii. However, A. tauschii showed higher ability to scavenge free radicals as compared to A. speltoides. This was further validated by higher expression of ascorbate peroxidase gene. These results suggest that A. tauschii showed faster recovery and a better thermostability of its photosynthetic apparatus under severe stress conditions along with a better regulation of energy channeling of PSII complexes to minimize oxidative damage and thus retains greater capability of carbon assimilation. These factors aid in imparting a greater heat tolerance to A. tauschii as compared to A. speltoides and thus make it a better candidate for alien species introgression in wheat breeding programs for thermotolerance in wheat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Thermotolerance in preirradiated intestine and its influence on time-temperature relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hume, S.P.; Marigold, J.C.; Manjil, L.G.

    1988-01-01

    The crypt compartment of mouse jejunum showed a transient increase in thermal susceptibility approximately 10 days after moderate X-ray doses to the abdomen (9-10 Gy). The increase in response was manifest as an increase in slope of the crypt dose-response curve but was limited to temperatures below 43 0 C. As a result, the 43 0 C inflexion in the Arrhenius plot (the relationship between treatment time and temperature) for thermal sensitivity of crypts was eliminated in preirradiated tissue, and the curve became monophasic over the range 42.0-44.5 0 C. At temperatures below 42 0 C, the curve again deviated. At supranormal temperatures of 42 0 C and below, the durations of hyperthermia needed for measurable effect were sufficient to allow thermotolerance to be expressed within the heating period. Neither the threshold heating times nor this thermotolerance were affected by prior irradiation. In the temperature range 42-43 0 C, an earlier development of thermotolerance could be demonstrated in control tissue by challenging with an acute high-temperature heat treatment. This thermotolerance was eliminated in preirradiated tissue, resulting in the apparent increase in sensitivity. The findings support the view that the complex nature of the time-temperature relationship seen in normal tissue in vivo is a manifestation of the ability of the tissue to progressively acquire a thermotolerant state during treatment at temperatures below approximately 43 0 C, so that the intrinsic sensitivity is modulated while being assessed

  10. Development of thermotolerance in CHO cells: modification by procaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, D; Henle, K J; Nagle, W A; Moss, A J; Neilan, B A; Rastogi, S P

    1987-01-01

    We have tested the reported ability of procaine to inhibit the induction and the development of thermotolerance in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Thermotolerance was induced either by hyperthermia alone (10 min, 45 degrees C) or by combining hyperthermia and procaine (5 min, 45 degrees C + 10 mM procaine) with heating times adjusted to yield similar cell survival after the conditioning treatments. Both the kinetics of thermotolerance development in fresh medium without procaine and the magnitude of thermotolerance 6 h after heat conditioning were similar for the two treatment groups. Development of thermotolerance in the presence of procaine was tested by adding the drug at 5 or 10 mM to culture medium between, but not during two fractionated heat treatments. Thermotolerance development was observed even in the presence of 10 mM procaine, but only if cell survival was corrected for the 37 degrees C-procaine toxicity. Complete survival curves of cells incubated for 6 h at 37 degrees C in 7.5 mM procaine between heat conditioning and test heating showed a D0 that was only 35 per cent lower than that of thermotolerant controls. The data are consistent with the reported sensitization to heat killing by procaine, but show that thermotolerance induction and development were only minimally perturbed by procaine.

  11. Temperature dependence of heat sensitization and thermotolerance induction with ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henle, K.J.; Nagle, W.A.; Moss, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Cytoxicity of 1 M ethanol was strongly temperature dependent; survival curves between 34 0 and 39 0 C were similar to heat survival curves between 40 and 45 0 without ethanol. Ethanol was non-toxic at 22 0 ; at 34.5 0 and 35.5 0 ethanol survival curves were biphasic. The major effect of 1 M ethanol was an effective temperature shift of 6.4 Celsius degrees, although temperatures between 34 0 and 36 0 caused additional sensitization reminiscent of the stepdown heating phenomenon. Induction of thermotolerance with equitoxic ethanol exposures at 35.5 0 and 37 0 or with heat alone (10 min, 45 0 ) resulted in tolerance development with similar kinetics; in contrast, ethanol exposures at 22 0 did not induce any tolerance development with similar kinetics; in contrast, ethanol exposures at 22 0 did not induce any tolerance to hyperthermia. These data provide a rationale for conflicting reports in the literature regarding thermotolerance induction by ethanol and suggest that ethanol causes ''heat'' stress at temperatures that are generally considered to be physiological. This interpretation predicts that the use of ethanol and other organic solvents in high concentrations will cause effects at 37 0 that normally occur only at hyperthermic temperatures, including membrane perturbations and HSP synthesis, and that ''physiological'' temperatures must be precisely controlled under those conditions

  12. Thermotolerant yeasts selected by adaptive evolution express heat stress response at 30ºC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    to grow at increased temperature, activated a constitutive heat stress response when grown at the optimal ancestral temperature, and that this is associated with a reduced growth rate. This preventive response was perfected by additional transcriptional changes activated when the cultivation temperature...... is increased. Remarkably, the sum of global transcriptional changes activated in the thermotolerant strains when transferred from the optimal to the high temperature, corresponded, in magnitude and direction, to the global changes observed in the ancestral strain exposed to the same transition....... This demonstrates robustness of the yeast transcriptional program when exposed to heat, and that the thermotolerant strains streamlined their path to rapidly and optimally reach post-stress transcriptional and metabolic levels. Thus, long-term adaptation to heat improved yeasts ability to rapidly adapt to increased...

  13. Thermotolerance: recent studies on animal tissue of relevance to clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, S.B.; Law, M.P.; Ahier, R.G.; Morris, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    The induction of thermotolerance by various priming heat treatments has been mesured in the skin, intestine and cartilage of rodents. Both the magnitude and time of occurrence of thermotolerance were different in the three tissues. For each tissue, as the priming treatment was reduced, the maximum thermotolerance was also reduced and it occurred earlier. Maximal thermotolerance induced by a single heat treatment was not further increased by subsequent treatment. The time course of thermotolerance after a two priming treatment was identical to that after one. Tolerance to heat used to enhance damage by x-rays was induced in skin providing the combined treatment was heat immediately followed by radiation. The magnitude of this form of thermotolerance was much less than for direct heat damage. If radiation was given first in a combined treatment, no thermal tolerance was observed. These results are consistent with the response of skin to fractionated combined heat and x-ray treatments

  14. Thermotolerant cyclamen with reduced acrolein and methyl vinyl ketone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Hiroomi; Hirashima, Keita; Matsuda, Osamu; Ikegami, Hidetoshi; Winkelmann, Traud; Nakahara, Takao; Iba, Koh

    2012-06-01

    Reduced levels of trienoic fatty acids (TAs) in chloroplast membranes induce thermotolerance in several plant species, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. TA peroxidation in plant cell membranes generates cytotoxic, TA-derived compounds containing α,β-unsaturated carbonyl groups. The relationship between low TA levels and the amounts of cytotoxic TA-derived compounds was examined using thermotolerant transgenic cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum Mill.) with low TA contents. Changes in the levels of the cytotoxic TA-derived acrolein (ACR), methyl vinyl ketone (MVK), (E)-2-hexenal, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, and malondialdehyde were analysed in the leaf tissues of wild-type (WT) and thermotolerant transgenic cyclamen under heat stress. Levels of ACR and MVK in the WT increased in parallel with the occurrence of heat-induced tissue damage, whereas no such changes were observed in the thermotolerant transgenic lines. Furthermore, exogenous ACR and MVK infiltrated into leaves to concentrations similar to those observed in heat-stressed WT leaves caused similar disease symptoms. These results suggest that thermotolerance in transgenic cyclamen depends on reduced production rates of ACR and MVK under heat stress, due to the low level of TAs in these plants.

  15. Enhanced pathway efficiency of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by introducing thermo-tolerant devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yueqin; Zhang, Genli; Sun, Huan; Sun, Xiangying; Jiang, Nisi; Rasool, Aamir; Lin, Zhanglin; Li, Chun

    2014-10-01

    In this study, thermo-tolerant devices consisting of heat shock genes from thermophiles were designed and introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae for improving its thermo-tolerance. Among ten engineered thermo-tolerant yeasts, T.te-TTE2469, T.te-GroS2 and T.te-IbpA displayed over 25% increased cell density and 1.5-4-fold cell viability compared with the control. Physiological characteristics of thermo-tolerant strains revealed that better cell wall integrity, higher trehalose content and enhanced metabolic energy were preserved by thermo-tolerant devices. Engineered thermo-tolerant strain was used to investigate the impact of thermo-tolerant device on pathway efficiency by introducing β-amyrin synthesis pathway, showed 28.1% increased β-amyrin titer, 28-35°C broadened growth temperature range and 72h shortened fermentation period. The results indicated that implanting heat shock proteins from thermophiles to S. cerevisiae would be an efficient approach to improve its thermo-tolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High salinity conveys thermotolerance in the coral model Aiptasia

    KAUST Repository

    Gegner, Hagen M.

    2017-12-15

    The endosymbiosis between dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium and stony corals provides the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. Coral bleaching, the expulsion of endosymbionts from the coral host tissue as a consequence of heat or light stress, poses a threat to reef ecosystem functioning on a global scale. Hence, a better understanding of the factors contributing to heat stress susceptibility and tolerance is needed. In this regard, some of the most thermotolerant corals also live in particularly saline habitats, but possible effects of high salinity on thermotolerance in corals are anecdotal. Here we test the hypothesis that high salinity may lead to increased thermotolerance. We conducted a heat stress experiment at low, intermediate, and high salinities using a set of host-endosymbiont combinations of the coral model Aiptasia. As expected, all host-endosymbiont combinations showed reduced photosynthetic efficiency and endosymbiont loss during heat stress, but the severity of bleaching was significantly reduced with increasing salinities for one of the host-endosymbiont combinations. Our results show that higher salinities can convey increased thermotolerance in Aiptasia, although this effect seems to be dependent on the particular host strain and/or associated symbiont type. This finding may help explain the extraordinarily high thermotolerance of corals in high salinity environments such as the Red Sea and the Persian/Arabian Gulf and provides novel insight regarding factors that contribute to thermotolerance. Since our results are based on a salinity effect in symbiotic sea anemones, it remains to be determined whether this salinity effect can also be observed in stony corals.

  17. High salinity conveys thermotolerance in the coral model Aiptasia

    KAUST Repository

    Gegner, Hagen M.; Ziegler, Maren; Radecker, Nils; Buitrago Lopez, Carol; Aranda, Manuel; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    The endosymbiosis between dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium and stony corals provides the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. Coral bleaching, the expulsion of endosymbionts from the coral host tissue as a consequence of heat or light stress, poses a threat to reef ecosystem functioning on a global scale. Hence, a better understanding of the factors contributing to heat stress susceptibility and tolerance is needed. In this regard, some of the most thermotolerant corals also live in particularly saline habitats, but possible effects of high salinity on thermotolerance in corals are anecdotal. Here we test the hypothesis that high salinity may lead to increased thermotolerance. We conducted a heat stress experiment at low, intermediate, and high salinities using a set of host-endosymbiont combinations of the coral model Aiptasia. As expected, all host-endosymbiont combinations showed reduced photosynthetic efficiency and endosymbiont loss during heat stress, but the severity of bleaching was significantly reduced with increasing salinities for one of the host-endosymbiont combinations. Our results show that higher salinities can convey increased thermotolerance in Aiptasia, although this effect seems to be dependent on the particular host strain and/or associated symbiont type. This finding may help explain the extraordinarily high thermotolerance of corals in high salinity environments such as the Red Sea and the Persian/Arabian Gulf and provides novel insight regarding factors that contribute to thermotolerance. Since our results are based on a salinity effect in symbiotic sea anemones, it remains to be determined whether this salinity effect can also be observed in stony corals.

  18. Effects of proliferation on the decay of thermotolerance in Chinese hamster cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, E P; Li, G C; Hahn, G M

    1985-09-01

    Development and decay of thermotolerance were observed in Chinese hamster HA-1 cells. The thermotolerance kinetics of exponentially growing and fed plateau-phase cells were compared. Following a 10-min heat exposure at 45 degrees C, cells in both growth states had similar rates of development of tolerance to a subsequent 45-min exposure at 45 degrees C. This thermotolerant state started to decay between 12 and 24 hr after the initial heat exposure. The decay appeared to initiate slightly sooner in the exponentially growing cells when compared to the fed plateau-phase cells. During the decay phase, the rate of thermotolerance decay was similar in the two growth conditions. In other experiments, cells were induced to divide at a slower rate by chronic growth (3 months) in a low concentration of fetal calf serum. Under these low serum conditions cells became more sensitive to heat and the rate of decay of thermotolerance remained the same for exponentially growing cells. Plateau-phase cells were also more sensitive, but thermotolerance decayed more rapidly in these cells. Although dramatic cell cycle perturbations were seen in the exponentially growing cells, these changes appeared not to be related to thermotolerance kinetics.

  19. DNA damage does not appear to be a trigger for thermotolerance in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.L.; Shiu, E.; Fisher, G.A.; Hahn, G.M.

    1988-08-01

    The hypothesis that DNA damage is the trigger for thermotolerance in mammalian cells was tested in Chinese hamster ovary cells by looking for evidence of thermotolerance after ionizing radiation or ultraviolet light exposure. As previous studies have demonstrated that relatively non-toxic radiation exposures do not induce thermotolerance in mammalian cells (Li et al. 1976), higher doses, comparable to those used in yeast to induce thermotolerance (Mitchel and Morison 1984), were tested in this study. Doses of this magnitude are lethal to mammalian cells, thereby precluding the use of clonogenic survival as an endpoint. The authors used three alternative assays as indicators of the subsequent development of thermotolerance: (a) heat-induced inhibition of total protein synthesis, (b) heat-induced uptake of dansyl lysine, and (c) synthesis of heat shock proteins. Only total protein synthesis revealed evidence of a small degree of thermotolerance which occurred immediately after ..gamma..-radiation exposure. By 4 h postirradiation the tolerance, as measured by this assay, was no longer evident. No evidence of thermotolerance was seen following UV exposure. In addition, when a large radiation dose was given either immediately before or after a heat treatment used to induce thermotolerance, there was no alteration in the level of heat-induced tolerance, despite the extensive number of DNA strand breaks caused by the radiation.

  20. DNA damage does not appear to be a trigger for thermotolerance in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.L.; Shiu, E.; Fisher, G.A.; Hahn, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    The hypothesis that DNA damage is the trigger for thermotolerance in mammalian cells was tested in Chinese hamster ovary cells by looking for evidence of thermotolerance after ionizing radiation or ultraviolet light exposure. As previous studies have demonstrated that relatively non-toxic radiation exposures do not induce thermotolerance in mammalian cells (Li et al. 1976), higher doses, comparable to those used in yeast to induce thermotolerance (Mitchel and Morison 1984), were tested in this study. Doses of this magnitude are lethal to mammalian cells, thereby precluding the use of clonogenic survival as an endpoint. The authors used three alternative assays as indicators of the subsequent development of thermotolerance: (a) heat-induced inhibition of total protein synthesis, (b) heat-induced uptake of dansyl lysine, and (c) synthesis of heat shock proteins. Only total protein synthesis revealed evidence of a small degree of thermotolerance which occurred immediately after γ-radiation exposure. By 4 h postirradiation the tolerance, as measured by this assay, was no longer evident. No evidence of thermotolerance was seen following UV exposure. In addition, when a large radiation dose was given either immediately before or after a heat treatment used to induce thermotolerance, there was no alteration in the level of heat-induced tolerance, despite the extensive number of DNA strand breaks caused by the radiation. (author)

  1. QTL for the thermotolerance effect of heat hardening, knowckdown resistance to heat and chill-coma recovery in an intercontinental set of recombinant inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norry, Fabian M.; Scannapieco, Alejandra C.; Sambucetti, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    The thermotolerance effect of heat hardening (also called short-term acclimation), knockdown resistance to high temperature (KRHT) with and without heat hardening and chill-coma recovery (CCR) are important phenotypes of thermal adaptation in insects and other organisms. Drosophila melanogaster...

  2. Parallel Changes in H2O2 and Catalase during Thermotolerance Induced by Salicylic Acid or Heat Acclimation in Mustard Seedlings1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat, James F.; Lopez-Delgado, Humberto; Foyer, Christine H.; Scott, Ian M.

    1998-01-01

    Spraying mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings with salicylic acid (SA) solutions between 10 and 500 μm significantly improved their tolerance to a subsequent heat shock at 55°C for 1.5 h. The effects of SA were concentration dependent, with higher concentrations failing to induce thermotolerance. The time course of thermotolerance induced by 100 μm SA was similar to that obtained with seedlings acclimated at 45°C for 1 h. We examined the hypothesis that induced thermotolerance involved H2O2. Heat shock at 55°C caused a significant increase in endogenous H2O2 and reduced catalase activity. A peak in H2O2 content was observed within 5 min of either SA treatment or transfer to the 45°C acclimation temperature. Between 2 and 3 h after SA treatment or heat acclimation, both H2O2 and catalase activity significantly decreased below control levels. The lowered H2O2 content and catalase activity occurred in the period of maximum thermoprotection. It is suggested that thermoprotection obtained either by spraying SA or by heat acclimation may be achieved by a common signal transduction pathway involving an early increase in H2O2. PMID:9536052

  3. Chloroplast Signaling Gates Thermotolerance in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Dickinson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is a key environmental variable influencing plant growth and survival. Protection against high temperature stress in eukaryotes is coordinated by heat shock factors (HSFs, transcription factors that activate the expression of protective chaperones such as HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 70 (HSP70; however, the pathway by which temperature is sensed and integrated with other environmental signals into adaptive responses is not well understood. Plants are exposed to considerable diurnal variation in temperature, and we have found that there is diurnal variation in thermotolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana, with maximal thermotolerance coinciding with higher HSP70 expression during the day. In a forward genetic screen, we identified a key role for the chloroplast in controlling this response, suggesting that light-induced chloroplast signaling plays a key role. Consistent with this, we are able to globally activate binding of HSFA1a to its targets by altering redox status in planta independently of a heat shock.

  4. Synthesis and thermotolerance of heat shock proteins in Campylobacter jejuni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.K.; Kim, H.O.; Lee, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    The heat shock responses of Campylobacter jejuni were studied by examination of their survival rates and synthesis of heat shock proteins. When C. jejuni cells were treated at the sublethal temperatures of 48C° for 30 minutes, most of the cells maintained their viabilities and synthesized the heat shock proteins of 90, 73, and 66 kD in molecular weight. By the method of two-dimensional electrophoresis, the heat shock proteins of C. jejuni were identified to be Hsp90, Hsp73, and Hsp66. During the heat shock at 48C°, the heat shock proteins were induced from about 5 minutes after the heat shock treatment. Their synthesis was continued upto 30 minutes, but remarkably retarded after 50 minutes. When C. jejune cells were heat shocked at 51C° for 30 minutes, the survival rates of the cells were decreased by about 10 3 fold and synthesis of heat shock proteins and normal proteins was also generally retarded. The cells exposed to 55C° for 30 minutes died off by more than 10 5 cells and the new protein synthesis was not observed. But when C. jejuni cells were heat-shocked at the sublethal temperature of 48C° for 15 to 20 minutes and then were exposed at the lethal temperature of 55C° for 30 minutes, their viabilities were higher than those exposed at 55C° for 30 minutes without pre-heat shock at 48C°. Therefore, the heat shock proteins synthesized at the sublethal temperature of 48C° in C. jejuni were thought to be responsible for thermotolerance. However, when C. jejuni cells heat-shocked at various ranges of sublethal and lethal temperatures were placed back to the optimum temperature of 42C°, the multiplication patterns of the cells pretreated at different temperatures were not much different each other

  5. Thermotolerance and protein glycosylation: Inhibition studies with sodium fluoride, azauridine and tunicamycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursey, D.L.; Henle, K.J.; Nagle, W.A.; Moss, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    The glycosylation hypothesis predicts increased incorporation of monosaccharides into 0-linked glycoproteins during thermotolerance development and inhibition of thermotolerance when this process is blocked. Specific inhibitors of 0-linked glycosylation are not available. The authors examined the effect of non-specific inhibition of glycosylation on thermotolerance development by: 1. restriction of both exogenous sugars and endogeneous sugar synthesis with NaF to block glycolysis while providing L-glutamine as a substrate for ATP synthesis in the TCA cycle; or 2. inhibition of UDP-sugar synthesis using azauridine and tunicamycin. Inhibitors were added to cell cultures after heat conditioning (10 min, 45 0 ) and removed after 6 hr prior to 45 0 -test heating. Sugar deprivation was achieved with 10mM NaF in glucose-free EBSS, supplemented with 2mM L-glutamine. Synthesis of UDP-sugars was inhibited with 1mM azauridine + 1μg/ml tunicamycin. Thermotolerance development was inhibited 87% by NaF/glutamine and 47% by azauridine/tunicamycin. For example, the D/sub o/ of the thermotolerant cells was 42.5 min (control D/sub o/ = 3 min), but only 5.5 min with inhibition by the NaF solution. These results support the absolute requirement of sugar precursors for thermotolerance development as predicted by the glycosylation hypothesis

  6. Heat shock and thermotolerance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a model beef gravy system and ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, V K; Klein, P G; Marmer, B S

    1998-04-01

    Duplicate beef gravy or ground beef samples inoculated with a suspension of a four-strain cocktail of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were subjected to sublethal heating at 46 degrees C for 15-30 min, and then heated to a final internal temperature of 60 degrees C. Survivor curves were fitted using a linear model that incorporated a lag period (TL), and D-values and 'time to a 4D inactivation' (T4D) were calculated. Heat-shocking allowed the organism to survive longer than non-heat-shocked cells; the T4D values at 60 degrees C increased 1.56- and 1.50-fold in beef gravy and ground beef, respectively. In ground beef stored at 4 degrees C, thermotolerance was lost after storage for 14 h. However, heat-shocked cells appeared to maintain their thermotolerance for at least 24 h in ground beef held to 15 or 28 degrees C. A 25 min heat shock at 46 degrees C in beef gravy resulted in an increase in the levels of two proteins with apparent molecular masses of 60 and 69 kDa. These two proteins were shown to be immunologically related to GroEL and DnaK, respectively. Increased heat resistance due to heat shock must be considered while designing thermal processes to assure the microbiological safety of thermally processed foods.

  7. Continuous fever-range heat stress induces thermotolerance in odontoblast-lineage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morotomi, Takahiko; Kitamura, Chiaki; Okinaga, Toshinori; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Sakagami, Ryuji; Anan, Hisashi

    2014-07-01

    Heat shock during restorative procedures can trigger damage to the pulpodentin complex. While severe heat shock has toxic effects, fever-range heat stress exerts beneficial effects on several cells and tissues. In this study, we examined whether continuous fever-range heat stress (CFHS) has beneficial effects on thermotolerance in the rat clonal dental pulp cell line with odontoblastic properties, KN-3. KN-3 cells were cultured at 41°C for various periods, and the expression level of several proteins was assessed by Western blot analysis. After pre-heat-treatment at 41°C for various periods, KN-3 cells were exposed to lethal severe heat shock (LSHS) at 49°C for 10min, and cell viability was examined using the MTS assay. Additionally, the expression level of odontoblast differentiation makers in surviving cells was examined by Western blot analysis. CFHS increased the expression levels of several heat shock proteins (HSPs) in KN-3 cells, and induced transient cell cycle arrest. KN-3 cells, not pre-heated or exposed to CFHS for 1 or 3h, died after exposure to LSHS. In contrast, KN-3 cells exposed to CFHS for 12h were transiently lower on day 1, but increased on day 3 after LSHS. The surviving cells expressed odontoblast differentiation markers, dentine sialoprotein and dentine matrix protein-1. These results suggest that CFHS for 12h improves tolerance to LSHS by inducing HSPs expression and cell cycle arrest in KN-3 cells. The appropriate pretreatment with continuous fever-range heat stress can provide protection against lethal heat shock in KN-3 cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Metabolic Basis of Pollen Thermo-Tolerance: Perspectives for Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine J. Paupière

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop production is highly sensitive to elevated temperatures. A rise of a few degrees above the optimum growing temperature can lead to a dramatic yield loss. A predicted increase of 1–3 degrees in the twenty first century urges breeders to develop thermo-tolerant crops which are tolerant to high temperatures. Breeding for thermo-tolerance is a challenge due to the low heritability of this trait. A better understanding of heat stress tolerance and the development of reliable methods to phenotype thermo-tolerance are key factors for a successful breeding approach. Plant reproduction is the most temperature-sensitive process in the plant life cycle. More precisely, pollen quality is strongly affected by heat stress conditions. High temperature leads to a decrease of pollen viability which is directly correlated with a loss of fruit production. The reduction in pollen viability is associated with changes in the level and composition of several (groups of metabolites, which play an important role in pollen development, for example by contributing to pollen nutrition or by providing protection to environmental stresses. This review aims to underline the importance of maintaining metabolite homeostasis during pollen development, in order to produce mature and fertile pollen under high temperature. The review will give an overview of the current state of the art on the role of various pollen metabolites in pollen homeostasis and thermo-tolerance. Their possible use as metabolic markers to assist breeding programs for plant thermo-tolerance will be discussed.

  9. The metabolic basis of pollen thermo-tolerance: perspectives for breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paupière, Marine J; van Heusden, Adriaan W; Bovy, Arnaud G

    2014-09-30

    Crop production is highly sensitive to elevated temperatures. A rise of a few degrees above the optimum growing temperature can lead to a dramatic yield loss. A predicted increase of 1-3 degrees in the twenty first century urges breeders to develop thermo-tolerant crops which are tolerant to high temperatures. Breeding for thermo-tolerance is a challenge due to the low heritability of this trait. A better understanding of heat stress tolerance and the development of reliable methods to phenotype thermo-tolerance are key factors for a successful breeding approach. Plant reproduction is the most temperature-sensitive process in the plant life cycle. More precisely, pollen quality is strongly affected by heat stress conditions. High temperature leads to a decrease of pollen viability which is directly correlated with a loss of fruit production. The reduction in pollen viability is associated with changes in the level and composition of several (groups of) metabolites, which play an important role in pollen development, for example by contributing to pollen nutrition or by providing protection to environmental stresses. This review aims to underline the importance of maintaining metabolite homeostasis during pollen development, in order to produce mature and fertile pollen under high temperature. The review will give an overview of the current state of the art on the role of various pollen metabolites in pollen homeostasis and thermo-tolerance. Their possible use as metabolic markers to assist breeding programs for plant thermo-tolerance will be discussed.

  10. Thermotolerance and thermosensitization in CHO and R1H cells: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikomey, E.; Eickhoff, J.; Jung, H.

    1984-01-01

    In CHO and R1H cells thermotolerance was induced by a pre-incubation at 40 0 C, by an acute heat shock at 43 0 C followed by a time interval at 37 0 C, and during continuous heating at 42 0 C. Thermotolerance, which was tested at 43 0 , primarily causes an increase in D 0 of the heat-response curve. The degree of maximum thermotolerance was found to be generally more pronounced in CHO than in R1H cells, but the time interval at 37 0 C, as well as at 40 0 C, to reach this maximum level was the same in both cell lines. CHO and R1H cells could be sensitized to 40 0 C by a pre-treatment at 43 0 C. When compared for the same survival rate after pre-treatment at 43 0 C alone the degree of thermosensitization was about the same in both cell lines. In either cell line thermosensitization was found to be suppressed when cells were made thermotolerant by a previous incubation at 40 0 C for 16 hours. (author)

  11. The importance of triggering dose and conditions of split dose incubation to the development of thermotolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, P.Y.; Blakely, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    We have observed a lack of development of thermotolerance in CHO-TSH1, a protein synthetic mutant hamster cell line, under continuous heat stress treatments of 41.5 0 C, 42 0 C, and 42.5 0 C. The parental CHO-SC1 line develops thermotolerance under similar conditions. During the past year we have further examined this phenomenon in the mutant by studying the role of the level of the triggering heat dose and the time of administration to the ultimate development of thermotolerance. By increasing the temperature of the triggering dose for a brief interval, followed by the time at the permissive temperature, we were able to induce the development of thermotolerance in the protein-synthetic mutant cell. 4 refs., 2 figs

  12. Thermotolerance-induced goblet cell activity confers protection in post-operative gut barrier dysfunction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, Rohana

    2009-06-01

    There is evidence that some level of protection against the adverse sequelae of surgery is provided by induction of thermotolerance; this protective effect was explored by study of several indicators of bowel wall damage in animals exposed to surgical insults. It has been argued that the mechanism of the protective effect of thermotolerance involves heat shock proteins (HSPs). We hypothesized that the protective effect of thermotolerance may be due in part to changes in the bowel wall itself, and we investigated this hypothesis in an experimental rat model.

  13. Endothelial Thermotolerance Impairs Nanoparticle Transport in Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Alexander F; Scherz-Shouval, Ruth; Galie, Peter A; Zhang, Angela Q; Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Whitesell, Luke; Chen, Christopher S; Lindquist, Susan; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2015-08-15

    The delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents to solid tumors is limited by physical transport barriers within tumors, and such restrictions directly contribute to decreased therapeutic efficacy and the emergence of drug resistance. Nanomaterials designed to perturb the local tumor environment with precise spatiotemporal control have demonstrated potential to enhance drug delivery in preclinical models. Here, we investigated the ability of one class of heat-generating nanomaterials called plasmonic nanoantennae to enhance tumor transport in a xenograft model of ovarian cancer. We observed a temperature-dependent increase in the transport of diagnostic nanoparticles into tumors. However, a transient, reversible reduction in this enhanced transport was seen upon reexposure to heating, consistent with the development of vascular thermotolerance. Harnessing these observations, we designed an improved treatment protocol combining plasmonic nanoantennae with diffusion-limited chemotherapies. Using a microfluidic endothelial model and genetic tools to inhibit the heat-shock response, we found that the ability of thermal preconditioning to limit heat-induced cytoskeletal disruption is an important component of vascular thermotolerance. This work, therefore, highlights the clinical relevance of cellular adaptations to nanomaterials and identifies molecular pathways whose modulation could improve the exposure of tumors to therapeutic agents. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Active Hexose Correlated Compound Extends the Lifespan and Increases the Thermotolerance of Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Okuyama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC is the extract from cultured mycelia of Lentinula edodes, a species of Basidiomycetes mushroom. AHCC contains various polysaccharides, including partially acylated -1,4-glucan, which is one of its major constituents. The application of AHCC has been markedly increased in complementary and alternative medicine as a functional food because AHCC improved the prognosis of postoperative hepatocellular carcinoma patients. AHCC has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, such as the suppression of nitric oxide production in hepatocytes. AHCC might affect resistance to environmental stress, which is assumed to play a pivotal role in the longevity of many organisms.Objective: To investigate the effect of AHCC on longevity, we measured the lifespan of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a model animal that is widely used to assess longevity. We also examined the effect of AHCC on resistance to heat stress, i.e., thermotolerance.Methods: The lifespan of C. elegans animals grown on media in the absence or presence of AHCC at 20°C was evaluated. Thermotolerance assays were performed at 35°C, the restrictive temperature of the animals. The effects of AHCC on lifespan and thermotolerance were analyzed with longevity mutants. Expression levels of stress-related genes, including heat shock genes, were measured by strand-specific reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction after heat shock.Results: Wild-type C. elegans animals exhibited a longer mean lifespan by up to 10% in the presence of AHCC in the growth media than animals in the absence of AHCC. Furthermore, AHCC markedly increased thermotolerance at 35°C. Epistasis analyses showed that lifespan extension by AHCC at least partly required two longevity-promoting transcription factors: DAF-16 (C. elegans homolog of FOXO and HSF-1 (C. elegans homolog of heat shock transcription factor 1. After heat shock, AHCC activated the transcription

  15. Prospects of engineering thermotolerance in crops through modulation of heat stress transcription factor and heat shock protein networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios; Röth, Sascha; Schleiff, Enrico; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-09-01

    Cell survival under high temperature conditions involves the activation of heat stress response (HSR), which in principle is highly conserved among different organisms, but shows remarkable complexity and unique features in plant systems. The transcriptional reprogramming at higher temperatures is controlled by the activity of the heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs). Hsfs allow the transcriptional activation of HSR genes, among which heat shock proteins (Hsps) are best characterized. Hsps belong to multigene families encoding for molecular chaperones involved in various processes including maintenance of protein homeostasis as a requisite for optimal development and survival under stress conditions. Hsfs form complex networks to activate downstream responses, but are concomitantly subjected to cell-type-dependent feedback regulation through factor-specific physical and functional interactions with chaperones belonging to Hsp90, Hsp70 and small Hsp families. There is increasing evidence that the originally assumed specialized function of Hsf/chaperone networks in the HSR turns out to be a complex central stress response system that is involved in the regulation of a broad variety of other stress responses and may also have substantial impact on various developmental processes. Understanding in detail the function of such regulatory networks is prerequisite for sustained improvement of thermotolerance in important agricultural crops. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effects of heat stress on bovine preimplantation embryos produced in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakatani, Miki

    2017-08-19

    Summer heat stress decreases the pregnancy rate in cattle and has been thought to be associated with the early embryonic death caused by the elevation of maternal body temperature. In vitro cultures have been widely used for the evaluation of effects of heat stress on oocytes, fertilization, preimplantation, and embryonic development. Susceptibility to heat stress is present in developmental stages from oocytes to cleavage-stage (before embryonic gene activation, EGA) embryos, leading to a consequent decrease in developmental competence. On the other hand, advanced-stage embryos such as morula or blastocysts have acquired thermotolerance. The mechanism for the developmental stage-dependent change in thermotolerance is considered to be the accumulation of antioxidants in embryos in response to heat-inducible production of reactive oxygen species. The supplementation of antioxidants to the culture media has been known to neutralize the detrimental effects of heat stress. Besides, EGA could be involved in acquisition of thermotolerance in later stages of embryos. Morulae or blastocysts can repair heat-induced unfolded proteins or prevent DNA damage occurring in processes such as apoptosis. Therefore, embryo transfer (ET) that can bypass the heat-sensitive stage could be a good solution to improve the pregnancy rate under heat stress. However, frozen-thawed ET could not improve the pregnancy rate as expected. Frozen-thawed blastocysts were more sensitive to heat stress and showed less proliferation upon heat exposure, compared to fresh blastocysts. Therefore, further research is required to improve the reduction in pregnancy rates due to summer heat stress.

  17. Changes in Salicylic Acid and Antioxidants during Induced Thermotolerance in Mustard Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat, James F.; Foyer, Christine H.; Scott, Ian M.

    1998-01-01

    Heat-acclimation or salicylic acid (SA) treatments were previously shown to induce thermotolerance in mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings from 1.5 to 4 h after treatment. In the present study we investigated changes in endogenous SA and antioxidants in relation to induced thermotolerance. Thirty minutes into a 1-h heat-acclimation treatment glucosylated SA had increased 5.5-fold and then declined during the next 6 h. Increases in free SA were smaller (2-fold) but significant. Changes in antioxidants showed the following similarities after either heat-acclimation or SA treatment. The reduced-to-oxidized ascorbate ratio was 5-fold lower than the controls 1 h after treatment but recovered by 2 h. The glutathione pool became slightly more oxidized from 2 h after treatment. Glutathione reductase activity was more than 50% higher during the first 2 h. Activities of dehydroascorbate reductase and monodehydroascorbate reductase decreased by at least 25% during the first 2 h but were 20% to 60% higher than the control levels after 3 to 6 h. One hour after heat acclimation ascorbate peroxidase activity was increased by 30%. Young leaves appeared to be better protected by antioxidant enzymes following heat acclimation than the cotyledons or stem. Changes in endogenous SA and antioxidants may be involved in heat acclimation. PMID:9847121

  18. Mg2+ improves the thermotolerance of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei Zhang and Lactobacillus plantarum P-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Huang, S; Wang, J; Jan, G; Jeantet, R; Chen, X D

    2017-04-01

    Food-related carbohydrates and proteins are often used as thermoprotectants for probiotic lactobacilli during industrial production and processing. However, the effect of inorganic salts is rarely reported. Magnesium is the second-most abundant cation in bacteria, and commonly found in various foods. Mg 2+ homeostasis is important in Salmonella and has been reported to play a critical role in their thermotolerance. However, the role of Mg 2+ in thermotolerance of other bacteria, in particular probiotic bacteria, still remains a hypothesis. In this study, the effect of Mg 2+ on thermotolerance of probiotic lactobacilli was investigated in three well-documented probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus casei Zhang and Lactobacillus plantarum P-8, in comparison with Zn 2+ and Na + . Concentrations of Mg 2+ between 10 and 50 mmol l -1 were found to increase the bacterial survival upon heat challenge. Remarkably, Mg 2+ addition at 20 mmol l -1 led to a 100-fold higher survival of L. rhamnosus GG upon heat challenge. This preliminary study also showed that Mg 2+ shortened the heat-induced extended lag time of bacteria, which indicated the improvement in bacterial recovery from thermal injury. In order to improve the productivity and stability of live probiotics, extensive investigations have been carried out to improve thermotolerance of probiotics. However, most of these studies focused on the effects of carbohydrates, proteins or amino acids. The roles of inorganic salts in various food materials, which have rarely been reported, should be considered when incorporating probiotics into these foods. In this study, Mg 2+ was found to play a significant role in the thermotolerance of probiotic lactobacilli. A novel strategy may be available in the near future by employing magnesium salts as protective agents of probiotics during manufacturing process. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Comparative genome analysis of a thermotolerant Escherichia coli obtained by Genome Replication Engineering Assisted Continuous Evolution (GREACE) and its parent strain provides new understanding of microbial heat tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Guodong; Bao, Guanhui; Lin, Zhao; Li, Yang; Chen, Zugen; Li, Yin; Cai, Zhen

    2015-12-25

    Heat tolerance of microbes is of great importance for efficient biorefinery and bioconversion. However, engineering and understanding of microbial heat tolerance are difficult and insufficient because it is a complex physiological trait which probably correlates with all gene functions, genetic regulations, and cellular metabolisms and activities. In this work, a novel strain engineering approach named Genome Replication Engineering Assisted Continuous Evolution (GREACE) was employed to improve the heat tolerance of Escherichia coli. When the E. coli strain carrying a mutator was cultivated under gradually increasing temperature, genome-wide mutations were continuously generated during genome replication and the mutated strains with improved thermotolerance were autonomously selected. A thermotolerant strain HR50 capable of growing at 50°C on LB agar plate was obtained within two months, demonstrating the efficiency of GREACE in improving such a complex physiological trait. To understand the improved heat tolerance, genomes of HR50 and its wildtype strain DH5α were sequenced. Evenly distributed 361 mutations covering all mutation types were found in HR50. Closed material transportations, loose genome conformation, and possibly altered cell wall structure and transcription pattern were the main differences of HR50 compared with DH5α, which were speculated to be responsible for the improved heat tolerance. This work not only expanding our understanding of microbial heat tolerance, but also emphasizing that the in vivo continuous genome mutagenesis method, GREACE, is efficient in improving microbial complex physiological trait. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation and characterization of thermotolerant ethanol-fermenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-02-10

    Feb 10, 2016 ... 6Research Center for Thermotolerant Microbial Resources, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8315, Japan. Received 18 September, 2015; Accepted 29 December, 2015. Thermotolerant yeasts, which are expected to be applicable for high-temperature fermentation as an economical process, were ...

  1. Electron transport chain in a thermotolerant yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Barajas, Jorge A; Martínez-Mora, José A; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Noriega-Cisneros, Ruth; Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Cortés-Rojo, Christian; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo

    2017-04-01

    Yeasts capable of growing and surviving at high temperatures are regarded as thermotolerant. For appropriate functioning of cellular processes and cell survival, the maintenance of an optimal redox state is critical of reducing and oxidizing species. We studied mitochondrial functions of the thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus SLP1 and the mesophilic OFF1 yeasts, through the evaluation of its mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ), ATPase activity, electron transport chain (ETC) activities, alternative oxidase activity, lipid peroxidation. Mitochondrial membrane potential and the cytoplasmic free Ca 2+ ions (Ca 2+ cyt) increased in the SLP1 yeast when exposed to high temperature, compared with the mesophilic yeast OFF1. ATPase activity in the mesophilic yeast diminished 80% when exposed to 40° while the thermotolerant SLP1 showed no change, despite an increase in the mitochondrial lipid peroxidation. The SLP1 thermotolerant yeast exposed to high temperature showed a diminution of 33% of the oxygen consumption in state 4. The uncoupled state 3 of oxygen consumption did not change in the mesophilic yeast when it had an increase of temperature, whereas in the thermotolerant SLP1 yeast resulted in an increase of 2.5 times when yeast were grown at 30 o , while a decrease of 51% was observed when it was exposed to high temperature. The activities of the ETC complexes were diminished in the SLP1 when exposed to high temperature, but also it was distinguished an alternative oxidase activity. Our results suggest that the mitochondria state, particularly ETC state, is an important characteristic of the thermotolerance of the SLP1 yeast strain.

  2. Inorganic salts and intracellular polyphosphate inclusions play a role in the thermotolerance of the immunobiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL 1505.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa Deza, María A; Grillo-Puertas, Mariana; Salva, Susana; Rapisarda, Viviana A; Gerez, Carla L; Font de Valdez, Graciela

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the thermotolerance of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505, an immunobiotic strain, was studied as a way to improve the tolerance of the strain to industrial processes involving heat stress. The strain displayed a high intrinsic thermotolerance (55°C, 20 min); however, after 5 min at 60°C in phosphate buffer a two log units decrease in cell viability was observed. Different heat shock media were tested to improve the cell survival. Best results were obtained in the mediumcontaining inorganic salts (KH2PO4, Na2HPO4, MnSO4, and MgSO4) likely as using 10% skim milk. Flow cytometry analysis evinced 25.0% live cells and a large number of injured cells (59.7%) in the inorganic salts medium after heat stress. The morphological changes caused by temperature were visualized by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). In addition, TEM observations revealed the presence of polyphosphate (polyP) granules in the cells under no-stress conditions. A DAPI-based fluorescence technique, adjusted to Gram-positive bacteria for the first time, was used to determine intracellular polyP levels. Results obtained suggest that the high initial polyP content in L. rhamnosus CRL 1505 together with the presence of inorganic salts in the heat shock medium improve the tolerance of the cells to heat shock. To our knowledge, this is the first report giving evidence of the relationship between polyP and inorganic salts in thermotolerance of lactic acid bacteria.

  3. Effect of probiotic thermotolerant lactic bacteria on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics of cooked meat batters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nallely Saucedo-Briviesca

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB can overexpress heat shock proteins and thus survive the heat treatment of meat products. The objective of this work was the effect of probiotic thermotolerant lactic acid bacteria on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics in a meat batter. Two thermotolerant probiotic lactic bacteria were used: Pediococcus pentosaceus and Enterococcus faecium, which were inoculated to 5% in a meat batter, another batter was made with the mixture of both strains; a batter without bacteria was the control. Both physicochemical and microbiological analyses were performed at day 1, 6, 13 and 16. At day 1 a discriminatory sensory evaluation was performed. The results show that the stability to cooking, expressible moisture, hardness and cohesion increased during storage in the batters inoculated with the 2 strains of LAB. The LAB increased in the inoculated meat batters and the coliforms decreased overall, when the strain mixture was used, the inhibition was total at day 6. Sensory analysis showed that judges detect when E. faecium are inoculated. Thermotolerant BALs can be used as functional ingredients in meat batters and improve physical-chemical and microbiological characteristics.

  4. Role of redox homeostasis in thermo-tolerance under a climate change scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pinto, Maria Concetta; Locato, Vittoria; Paradiso, Annalisa; De Gara, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background Climate change predictions indicate a progressive increase in average temperatures and an increase in the frequency of heatwaves, which will have a negative impact on crop productivity. Over the last decade, a number of studies have addressed the question of how model plants or specific crops modify their metabolism when exposed to heat stress. Scope This review provides an overview of the redox pathways that contribute to how plants cope with heat stress. The focus is on the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS), redox metabolites and enzymes in the signalling pathways leading to the activation of defence responses. Additional attention is paid to the regulating mechanisms that lead to an increase in specific ROS-scavenging systems during heat stress, which have been studied in different model systems. Finally, increasing thermo-tolerance in model and crop plants by exposing them to heat acclimation or to exogenous treatments is discussed. Conclusions Although there is clear evidence that several strategies are specifically activated according to the intensity and the duration of heat stress, as well as the capacity of the different species or genotypes to overcome stress, an alteration in redox homeostasis seems to be a common event. Different mechanisms that act to enhance redox systems enable crops to overcome heat stress more effectively. Knowledge of thermo-tolerance within agronomic biodiversity is thus of key importance to enable researchers to identify new strategies for overcoming the impacts of climate change, and for decision-makers in planning for an uncertain future with new choices and options open to them. PMID:26034009

  5. The Wheat NAC Transcription Factor TaNAC2L Is Regulated at the Transcriptional and Post-Translational Levels and Promotes Heat Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weiwei; Zhang, Jinxia; Zhang, Ning; Xin, Mingming; Peng, Huiru; Hu, Zhaorong; Ni, Zhongfu; Du, Jinkun

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress poses a serious threat to global crop production. In efforts that aim to mitigate the adverse effects of heat stress on crops, a variety of genetic tools are being used to develop plants with improved thermotolerance. The characterization of important regulators of heat stress tolerance provides essential information for this aim. In this study, we examine the wheat (Triticum aestivum) NAC transcription factor gene TaNAC2L. High temperature induced TaNAC2L expression in wheat and overexpression of TaNAC2L in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced acquired heat tolerance without causing obvious alterations in phenotype compared with wild type under normal conditions. TaNAC2L overexpression also activated the expression of heat-related genes in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants, suggesting that TaNAC2L may improve heat tolerance by regulating the expression of stress-responsive genes. Notably, TaNAC2L is also regulated at the post-translational level and might be degraded via a proteasome-mediated pathway. Thus, this wheat transcription factor may have potential uses in enhancing thermotolerance in crops.

  6. The Wheat NAC Transcription Factor TaNAC2L Is Regulated at the Transcriptional and Post-Translational Levels and Promotes Heat Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Guo

    Full Text Available Heat stress poses a serious threat to global crop production. In efforts that aim to mitigate the adverse effects of heat stress on crops, a variety of genetic tools are being used to develop plants with improved thermotolerance. The characterization of important regulators of heat stress tolerance provides essential information for this aim. In this study, we examine the wheat (Triticum aestivum NAC transcription factor gene TaNAC2L. High temperature induced TaNAC2L expression in wheat and overexpression of TaNAC2L in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced acquired heat tolerance without causing obvious alterations in phenotype compared with wild type under normal conditions. TaNAC2L overexpression also activated the expression of heat-related genes in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants, suggesting that TaNAC2L may improve heat tolerance by regulating the expression of stress-responsive genes. Notably, TaNAC2L is also regulated at the post-translational level and might be degraded via a proteasome-mediated pathway. Thus, this wheat transcription factor may have potential uses in enhancing thermotolerance in crops.

  7. Physiological responses in a variable environment: relationships between metabolism, hsp and thermotolerance in an intertidal-subtidal species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-wei Dong

    Full Text Available Physiological responses to temperature reflect the evolutionary adaptations of organisms to their thermal environment and the capability of animals to tolerate thermal stress. Contrary to conventional metabolism theory, increasing environmental temperatures have been shown to reduce metabolic rate in rocky-eulittoral-fringe species inhabiting highly variable environments, possibly as a strategy for energy conservation. To study the physiological adaptations of an intertidal-subtidal species to the extreme and unpredictable heat stress of the intertidal zone, oxygen consumption rate and heat shock protein expression were quantified in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Using simulate natural temperatures, the relationship between temperature, physiological performance (oxygen consumption and heat shock proteins and thermotolerance were assessed. Depression of oxygen consumption rate and upregulation of heat shock protein genes (hsps occurred in sequence when ambient temperature was increased from 24 to 30°C. Large-scale mortality of the sea cucumber occurred when temperatures rose beyond 30°C, suggesting that the upregulation of heat shock proteins and mortality are closely related to the depression of aerobic metabolism, a phenomenon that is in line with the concept of oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT. The physiologically-related thermotolerance of this sea cucumber should be an adaptation to its local environment.

  8. Trampling Impacts on Thermotolerant Vegetation of Geothermal Areas in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Bruce R.; Ward, Jonet; Downs, Theresa M.

    2013-12-01

    Geothermal features such as geysers, mud pools, sinter terraces, fumaroles, hot springs, and steaming ground are natural attractions often visited by tourists. Visitation rates for such areas in the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand are in the order of hundreds of thousands annually. These areas are also habitat for rare and specialized plant and microbial communities that live in the steam-heated soils of unusual chemical composition. We evaluated historical and current trampling impacts of tourists on the thermotolerant vegetation of the Waimangu and Waiotapu geothermal areas near Rotorua, and compared the results to experimental trampling at a third site (Taheke) not used by tourists. Historical tourism has removed vegetation and soil from around key features, and remaining subsoil is compacted into an impervious pavement on which vegetation recolonization is unlikely in the short term. Social tracks made by tourists were present at both tourist sites often leading them onto hotter soils than constructed tracks. Vegetation height and cover were lower on and adjacent to social tracks than further from them. Thermotolerant vegetation showed extremely low resistance to experimental trampling. This confirms and extends previous research that also shows that thallophytes and woody shrubs, life forms that dominate in thermotolerant vegetation, are vulnerable to trampling damage. Preservation of these vulnerable ecosystems must ensure that tourist traffic is confined to existing tracks or boardwalks, and active restoration of impacted sites may be warranted.

  9. Trampling impacts on thermotolerant vegetation of geothermal areas in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Bruce R; Ward, Jonet; Downs, Theresa M

    2013-12-01

    Geothermal features such as geysers, mud pools, sinter terraces, fumaroles, hot springs, and steaming ground are natural attractions often visited by tourists. Visitation rates for such areas in the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand are in the order of hundreds of thousands annually. These areas are also habitat for rare and specialized plant and microbial communities that live in the steam-heated soils of unusual chemical composition. We evaluated historical and current trampling impacts of tourists on the thermotolerant vegetation of the Waimangu and Waiotapu geothermal areas near Rotorua, and compared the results to experimental trampling at a third site (Taheke) not used by tourists. Historical tourism has removed vegetation and soil from around key features, and remaining subsoil is compacted into an impervious pavement on which vegetation recolonization is unlikely in the short term. Social tracks made by tourists were present at both tourist sites often leading them onto hotter soils than constructed tracks. Vegetation height and cover were lower on and adjacent to social tracks than further from them. Thermotolerant vegetation showed extremely low resistance to experimental trampling. This confirms and extends previous research that also shows that thallophytes and woody shrubs, life forms that dominate in thermotolerant vegetation, are vulnerable to trampling damage. Preservation of these vulnerable ecosystems must ensure that tourist traffic is confined to existing tracks or boardwalks, and active restoration of impacted sites may be warranted.

  10. Genetically altering the expression of neutral trehalase gene affects conidiospore thermotolerance of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Guoxiong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum has been used as an important biocontrol agent instead of insecticides for controlling crop pests throughout the world. However, its virulence varies with environmental factors, especially temperature. Neutral trehalase (Ntl hydrolyzes trehalose, which plays a role in environmental stress response in many organisms, including M. acridum. Demonstration of a relationship between Ntl and thermotolerance or virulence may offer a new strategy for enhancing conidiospore thermotolerance of entomopathogenic fungi through genetic engineering. Results We selected four Ntl over-expression and four Ntl RNA interference (RNAi transformations in which Ntl expression is different. Compared to the wild-type, Ntl mRNA expression was reduced to 35-66% in the RNAi mutants and increased by 2.5-3.5-fold in the over-expression mutants. The RNAi conidiospores exhibited less trehalase activity, accumulated more trehalose, and were much more tolerant of heat stress than the wild-type. The opposite effects were found in conidiospores of over-expression mutants compared to RNAi mutants. Furthermore, virulence was not altered in the two types of mutants compared to the wild type. Conclusions Ntl controlled trehalose accumulation in M. acridum by degrading trehalose, and thus affected conidiospore thermotolerance. These results offer a new strategy for enhancing conidiospore thermotolerance of entomopathogenic fungi without affecting virulence.

  11. Thermotolerant Yeast Strains Adapted by Laboratory Evolution Show Trade-Off at Ancestral Temperatures and Preadaptation to Other Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspeta, Luis; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-07-21

    A major challenge for the production of ethanol from biomass-derived feedstocks is to develop yeasts that can sustain growth under the variety of inhibitory conditions present in the production process, e.g., high osmolality, high ethanol titers, and/or elevated temperatures (≥ 40 °C). Using adaptive laboratory evolution, we previously isolated seven Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with improved growth at 40 °C. Here, we show that genetic adaptations to high temperature caused a growth trade-off at ancestral temperatures, reduced cellular functions, and improved tolerance of other stresses. Thermotolerant yeast strains showed horizontal displacement of their thermal reaction norms to higher temperatures. Hence, their optimal and maximum growth temperatures increased by about 3 °C, whereas they showed a growth trade-off at temperatures below 34 °C. Computational analysis of the physical properties of proteins showed that the lethal temperature for yeast is around 49 °C, as a large fraction of the yeast proteins denature above this temperature. Our analysis also indicated that the number of functions involved in controlling the growth rate decreased in the thermotolerant strains compared with the number in the ancestral strain. The latter is an advantageous attribute for acquiring thermotolerance and correlates with the reduction of yeast functions associated with loss of respiration capacity. This trait caused glycerol overproduction that was associated with the growth trade-off at ancestral temperatures. In combination with altered sterol composition of cellular membranes, glycerol overproduction was also associated with yeast osmotolerance and improved tolerance of high concentrations of glucose and ethanol. Our study shows that thermal adaptation of yeast is suitable for improving yeast resistance to inhibitory conditions found in industrial ethanol production processes. Yeast thermotolerance can significantly reduce the production costs of biomass

  12. Application of thermotolerant microorganisms for biofertilizer preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Shu; Lin, Yann-Shying; Yang, Shang-Shyng

    2007-12-01

    Intensive agriculture is practised in Taiwan, and compost application is very popular as a means of improving the soil physical properties and supplying plant nutrition. We tested the potential of inoculation with thermotolerant microorganisms to shorten the maturity and improve the quality of biofertilizer prepared by composting. Thermotolerant microorganisms were isolated from compost and reinoculated for the preparation of biofertilizer. The physical, chemical and biological properties of the biofertilizer were determined during composting. The effects of biofertilizer application on the growth and yield of rape were also studied. Among 3823 colonies of thermotolerant microorganisms, Streptomyces thermonitrificans NTU-88, Streptococcus sp. NTU-130 and Aspergillus fumigatus NTU-132 exhibited high growth rates and cellulolytic and proteolytic activities. When a mixture of rice straw and swine manure were inoculated with these isolates and composted for 61 days, substrate temperature increased initially and then decreased gradually during composting. Substrate pH increased from 7.3 to 8.5. Microbial inoculation enhanced the rate of maturity, and increased the content of ash and total and immobilized nitrogen, improved the germination rate of alfalfa seed, and decreased the content of total organic carbon and the carbon/nitrogen ratio. Biofertilizer application increased the growth and yield of rape. Inoculation of thermotolerant and thermophilic microorganisms to agricultural waste for biofertilizer preparation enhances the rate of maturity and improves the quality of the resulting biofertilizer. Inoculation of appropriate microorganisms in biofertilizer preparation might be usefully applied to agricultural situations.

  13. Thermotolerance, oxidative stress, apoptosis, heat-shock proteins and damages to reproductive cells of insecticide-susceptible and -resistant strains of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L J; Chen, J L; Yang, B L; Kong, X G; Bourguet, D; Wu, G

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we investigated thermotolerance, several physiological responses and damage to reproductive cells in chlorpyrifos-resistant (Rc) and -susceptible (Sm) strains of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella subjected to heat stress. The chlorpyrifos resistance of these strains was mediated by a modified acetylcholinesterase encoded by an allele, ace1R, of the ace1 gene. Adults of the Rc strain were less heat resistant than those of the Sm strain; they also had lower levels of enzymatic activity against oxidative damage, higher reactive oxygen species contents, weaker upregulation of two heat shock protein (hsp) genes (hsp69s and hsp20), and stronger upregulation of two apoptotic genes (caspase-7 and -9). The damage to sperm and ovary cells was greater in Rc adults than in Sm adults and was temperature sensitive. The lower fitness of the resistant strain, compared with the susceptible strain, is probably due to higher levels of oxidative stress and apoptosis, which also have deleterious effects on several life history traits. The greater injury observed in conditions of heat stress may be due to both the stronger upregulation of caspase genes and weaker upregulation of hsp genes in resistant than in susceptible individuals.

  14. Genome-wide analysis of the CaHsp20 gene family in pepper: comprehensive sequence and expression profile analysis under heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng eGuo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Hsp20 genes are present in all plant species and play important roles in alleviating heat stress and enhancing plant thermotolerance by preventing the irreversible aggregation of denaturing proteins. However, very little is known about the CaHsp20 gene family in pepper (Capsicum annuum L., an important vegetable crop with character of temperate but thermosensitive. In this study, a total of 35 putative pepper Hsp20 genes (CaHsp20s were identified and renamed on the basis of their molecular weight, and then their gene structure, genome location, gene duplication, phylogenetic relationship and interaction network were also analyzed. The expression patterns of CaHsp20 genes in four different tissues (root, stem, leaf and flower from the thermotolerant line R9 under heat stress condition were measured using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The transcripts of most CaHsp20 genes maintained a low level in all of the four tissues under normal temperature condition, but were highly induced by heat stress, while the expression of CaHsp16.6b, 16.7 and 23.8 were only detected in specific tissues and were not so sensitive to heat stress like other CaHsp20 genes. In addition, compared to those in thermotolerant line R9, the expression peak of most CaHsp20 genes in thermosensitive line B6 under heat stress was hysteretic, and several CaHsp20 genes (CaHsp16.4, 18.2a, 18.7, 21.2, 22.0, 25.8 and 25.9 showed higher expression levels in both line B6 and R9. These data suggest that the CaHsp20 genes may be involved in heat stress and defense responses in pepper, which provides the basis for further functional analyses of CaHsp20s in the formation of pepper acquired thermotoleance.

  15. Global Gene-Expression Analysis to Identify Differentially Expressed Genes Critical for the Heat Stress Response in Brassica rapa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangshu Dong

    Full Text Available Genome-wide dissection of the heat stress response (HSR is necessary to overcome problems in crop production caused by global warming. To identify HSR genes, we profiled gene expression in two Chinese cabbage inbred lines with different thermotolerances, Chiifu and Kenshin. Many genes exhibited >2-fold changes in expression upon exposure to 0.5- 4 h at 45°C (high temperature, HT: 5.2% (2,142 genes in Chiifu and 3.7% (1,535 genes in Kenshin. The most enriched GO (Gene Ontology items included 'response to heat', 'response to reactive oxygen species (ROS', 'response to temperature stimulus', 'response to abiotic stimulus', and 'MAPKKK cascade'. In both lines, the genes most highly induced by HT encoded small heat shock proteins (Hsps and heat shock factor (Hsf-like proteins such as HsfB2A (Bra029292, whereas high-molecular weight Hsps were constitutively expressed. Other upstream HSR components were also up-regulated: ROS-scavenging genes like glutathione peroxidase 2 (BrGPX2, Bra022853, protein kinases, and phosphatases. Among heat stress (HS marker genes in Arabidopsis, only exportin 1A (XPO1A (Bra008580, Bra006382 can be applied to B. rapa for basal thermotolerance (BT and short-term acquired thermotolerance (SAT gene. CYP707A3 (Bra025083, Bra021965, which is involved in the dehydration response in Arabidopsis, was associated with membrane leakage in both lines following HS. Although many transcription factors (TF genes, including DREB2A (Bra005852, were involved in HS tolerance in both lines, Bra024224 (MYB41 and Bra021735 (a bZIP/AIR1 [Anthocyanin-Impaired-Response-1] were specific to Kenshin. Several candidate TFs involved in thermotolerance were confirmed as HSR genes by real-time PCR, and these assignments were further supported by promoter analysis. Although some of our findings are similar to those obtained using other plant species, clear differences in Brassica rapa reveal a distinct HSR in this species. Our data could also provide a

  16. Food crops face rising temperatures: An overview of responses, adaptive mechanisms, and approaches to improve heat tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeru Kaushal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rising temperatures are resulting in heat stress for various agricultural crops to limit their growth, metabolism, and leading to significant loss of yield potential worldwide. Heat stress adversely affects normal plant growth and development depending on the sensitivity of each crop species. Each crop species has its own range of temperature maxima and minima at different developmental stages beyond which all these processes get inhibited. The reproductive stage is on the whole more sensitive to heat stress, resulting in impaired fertilization to cause abortion of flowers. During seed filling, heat stress retards seed growth by affecting all the biochemical events to reduce seed size. Unfavorable temperature may significantly affect photosynthesis, respiration, water balance, and membrane stability of leaves. To combat heat stress, plants acquire various defense mechanisms for their survival such as maintaining membrane stability, and scavenging reactive oxygen species by generating antioxidants and stress proteins. Thermo-tolerance can be improved by the accumulation of various compounds of low molecular mass known as thermo-protectants as well as phyto-hormones. Exogenous application of these molecules has benefited plants growing under heat stress. Alternatively, transgenic plants over-expressing the enzymes catalyzing the synthesis of these molecules may be raised to increase their endogenous levels to improve heat tolerance. In recent times, various transgenics have been developed with improved thermo-tolerance having potential benefits for inducing heat tolerance in food crops. Updated information about of the effects of heat stress on various food crops and their responses as well as adaptive mechanisms is reviewed here.

  17. Thermotolerance of apple tree leaves probed by chlorophyll a fluorescence and modulated 820 nm reflection during seasonal shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ying; Zhang, Mengxia; Gao, Jin; Li, Pengmin; Goltsev, Vasilij; Ma, Fengwang

    2015-11-01

    During the seasonal shift from June to August, air temperatures increase. To explore how apple trees improve their thermotolerance during this shift, we examined the photochemical reaction capacity of apple tree leaves by simultaneous measurement of prompt chlorophyll fluorescence, delayed chlorophyll fluorescence, and modulated 820 nm reflection at varying temperatures. It was found that the reaction centers and antennae of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI), the donor side of PSII, the electron transfer capacity from QA to QB, and the reoxidation capacity of plastoquinol were all sensitive to heat stress, particularly in June. As the season shifted, apple tree leaves improved in thermotolerance. Interestingly, the acclimation to seasonal shift enhanced the thermotolerance of PSII and PSI reaction centers more than that of their antennae, and the activity of PSII more than that of PSI. This may be a strategy for plant adaptation to changes in environmental temperatures. In addition, results from prompt and delayed fluorescence, as well as modulated 820 nm reflection corroborate each other. We suggest that the simultaneous measurement of the three independent signals may provide more information on thermal acclimation mechanisms of photochemical reactions in plant leaves. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Heat stress proteins in hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malo, D.; Tremblay, J.; Pang, S.C.; Schlager, G.; Hamet, P.

    1986-01-01

    It has been described that spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are more sensitive to an acute environmental heat stress and that cultured cardiomyocytes from neonatal SHR are demonstrated to be more thermosensitive. In addition, chronically heat exposed spontaneously hypertensive mice leads to a decrease of blood pressure in these animals. Heat shock is known to induce the synthesis of a new set of proteins (HSP) in every cell tested. This ubiquitous response seems to be involved in the induction of a thermotolerant state. The synthesis of 70K HSP was observed in lymphocytes isolated from the spleen of chronically heated mice. They used lymphocytes, previously isolated on a ficoll gradient, to evaluate the HSP induction in normotensive (WKY) and hypertensive (SHR) rats. The heat shock was induced by exposing the lymphocytes at 46 0 C during 5 min in a hot water bath. The cells were then labeled with ( 75 Se)-methionine, washed, homogenized and separated on 5-30% SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Preliminary results suggest an abnormal pattern of induction of 70K and 90K HSP in hypertension. Heat sensitivity, thermotolerance and expression of HSP may, thus, be related to hypertension

  19. Identification of thermophilic bacterial strains producing thermotolerant hydrolytic enzymes from manure compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, David M; Meddeb-Mouelhi, Fatma; Boissinot, Maurice; Sirois, Marc; Beauregard, Marc

    2012-03-01

    Ten thermophilic bacterial strains were isolated from manure compost. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA genes and biochemical characterization allowed identification of four different species belonging to four genera: Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, Bacillus smithii, Ureibacillus suwonensis and Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus. PCR-RFLP profiles of the 16S-ITS-23S rRNA region allowed us to distinguish two subgroups among the G. thermodenitrificans isolates. Isolates were screened for thermotolerant hydrolytic activities (60-65°C). Thermotolerant lipolytic activities were detected for G. thermodenitrificans, A. thermoaerophilus and B. smithii. Thermotolerant protease, α-amylase and xylanase activities were also observed in the G. thermodenitrificans group. These species represent a source of potential novel thermostable enzymes for industrial applications.

  20. FoxO/Daf-16 restored thrashing movement reduced by heat stress in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhashi, Tsubasa; Sakamoto, Kazuichi

    2014-04-01

    Many studies on thermotolerance have been done in Caenorhabditis elegans in order to extend survival under heat stress; Daf-16, a homolog of FoxO in C. elegans, was detected as the key factor in thermotolerance. However, the recovery process from heat stress damage has been seldom discussed. In this study, we analyzed the roles of FoxO/Daf-16 on the recovery from heat stress damage by monitoring thrashing movement. Heat shock reduced the movement, which was restored by culturing at 20°C. Thrashing movement was not restored in the daf-16 mutant, which suggests that Daf-16 is one of the essential factors in repairing the damage. Movement restoration was promoted in the daf-2 mutant, a homolog of insulin/IGF-1-like receptor, in a daf-16-dependent manner. In addition, heat stress decreased the expression of daf-28 and ins-7, agonists of Daf-2. Taken together, these results revealed that FoxO/Daf-16 removes heat stress damage and restores movement via inhibition of the insulin-like signaling pathway in C. elegans, suggesting that FoxO/Daf-16 plays a critical role in thermotolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance of a Heating Block System Designed for Studying the Heat Resistance of Bacteria in Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiao-xi; Li, Rui; Hou, Li-xia; Huang, Zhi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shao-jin

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of bacteria’s heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria’s heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample’s thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller. Distilled water, apple juice, mashed potato, almond powder and beef were selected to evaluate the HBS’s performance by experiment and computer simulation. The results showed that the heating rates of 1, 5 and 10 °C/min with final set-point temperatures and holding times could be easily and precisely achieved in five selected food materials. A good agreement in sample central temperature profiles was obtained under various heating rates between experiment and simulation. The experimental and simulated results showed that the HBS could provide a sufficiently uniform heating environment in food samples. The effect of heating rate on bacterial thermal resistance was evaluated with the HBS. The system may hold potential applications for rapid and accurate assessments of bacteria’s thermo-tolerances. PMID:27465120

  2. Isolation, cloning and molecular characterization of a thermotolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation, cloning and molecular characterization of a thermotolerant xylanase from Streptomyces sp. THW31. Thayat Sriyapai, Peechapack Somyoonsap, Supatra Areekit, Paisarn Khawsak, Arda Pakpitcharoen, Kosum Chansiri ...

  3. Morphological and enzymatic response of the thermotolerant fungus Fomes sp. EUM1 in solid state fermentation under thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordaz-Hernández, Armando; Ortega-Sánchez, Eric; Montesinos-Matías, Roberto; Hernández-Martínez, Ricardo; Torres-Martínez, Daniel; Loera, Octavio

    2016-08-01

    Thermotolerance of the fungus Fomes sp. EUM1 was evaluated in solid state fermentation (SSF). This thermotolerant strain improved both hyphal invasiveness (38%) and length (17%) in adverse thermal conditions exceeding 30°C and to a maximum of 40°C. In contrast, hyphal branching decreased by 46% at 45°C. The production of cellulases over corn stover increased 1.6-fold in 30°C culture conditions, xylanases increased 2.8-fold at 40°C, while laccase production improved 2.7-fold at 35°C. Maximum production of lignocellulolytic enzymes was obtained at elevated temperatures in shorter fermentation times (8-6 days), although the proteases appeared as a thermal stress response associated with a drop in lignocellulolytic activities. Novel and multiple isoenzymes of xylanase (four bands) and cellulase (six bands) were secreted in the range of 20-150 kDa during growth in adverse temperature conditions. However, only a single laccase isoenzyme (46 kDa) was detected. This is the first report describing the advantages of a thermotolerant white-rot fungus in SSF. These results have important implications for large-scale SSF, where effects of metabolic heat are detrimental to growth and enzyme production, which are severely affected by the formation of high temperature gradients. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Plantation forestry under global warming: hybrid poplars with improved thermotolerance provide new insights on the in vivo function of small heat shock protein chaperones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Irene; Contreras, Angela; Jing, Zhong-Ping; Gallardo, Fernando; Cánovas, Francisco M; Gómez, Luis

    2014-02-01

    Climate-driven heat stress is a key factor affecting forest plantation yields. While its effects are expected to worsen during this century, breeding more tolerant genotypes has proven elusive. We report here a substantial and durable increase in the thermotolerance of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula×Populus alba) through overexpression of a major small heat shock protein (sHSP) with convenient features. Experimental evidence was obtained linking protective effects in the transgenic events with the unique chaperone activity of sHSPs. In addition, significant positive correlations were observed between phenotype strength and heterologous sHSP accumulation. The remarkable baseline levels of transgene product (up to 1.8% of total leaf protein) have not been reported in analogous studies with herbaceous species. As judged by protein analyses, such an accumulation is not matched either by endogenous sHSPs in both heat-stressed poplar plants and field-grown adult trees. Quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction analyses supported these observations and allowed us to identify the poplar members most responsive to heat stress. Interestingly, sHSP overaccumulation was not associated with pleiotropic effects that might decrease yields. The poplar lines developed here also outperformed controls under in vitro and ex vitro culture conditions (callus biomass, shoot production, and ex vitro survival), even in the absence of thermal stress. These results reinforce the feasibility of improving valuable genotypes for plantation forestry, a field where in vitro recalcitrance, long breeding cycles, and other practical factors constrain conventional genetic approaches. They also provide new insights into the biological functions of the least understood family of heat shock protein chaperones.

  5. The HaDREB2 transcription factor enhances basal thermotolerance and longevity of seeds through functional interaction with HaHSFA9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carranco Raúl

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factor HaDREB2 was identified in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. as a drought-responsive element-binding factor 2 (DREB2 with unique properties. HaDREB2 and the sunflower Heat Shock Factor A9 (HaHSFA9 co-activated the Hahsp17.6G1 promoter in sunflower embryos. Both factors could be involved in transcriptional co-activation of additional small heat stress protein (sHSP promoters, and thus contribute to the HaHSFA9-mediated enhancement of longevity and basal thermotolerance of seeds. Results We found that overexpression of HaDREB2 in seeds did not enhance longevity. This was deduced from assays of basal thermotolerance and controlled seed-deterioration, which were performed with transgenic tobacco. Furthermore, the constitutive overexpression of HaDREB2 did not increase thermotolerance in seedlings or result in the accumulation of HSPs at normal growth temperatures. In contrast, when HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9 were conjointly overexpressed in seeds, we observed positive effects on seed longevity, beyond those observed with overexpression of HaHSFA9 alone. Such additional effects are accompanied by a subtle enhancement of the accumulation of subsets of sHSPs belonging to the CI and CII cytosolic classes. Conclusion Our results reveal the functional interdependency of HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9 in seeds. HaDREB2 differs from other previously characterized DREB2 factors in plants in terms of its unique functional interaction with the seed-specific HaHSFA9 factor. No functional interaction between HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9 was observed when both factors were conjointly overexpressed in vegetative tissues. We therefore suggest that additional, seed-specific factors, or protein modifications, could be required for the functional interaction between HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9.

  6. Isolation and characterization of thermotolerant ethanol-fermenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermotolerant yeasts, which are expected to be applicable for high-temperature fermentation as an economical process, were isolated from four provinces in Laos. Of these yeasts, five isolates exhibited stronger fermentation abilities in a 16% sugars-containing medium of glucose, sucrose, sugarcane or molasses at 40°C ...

  7. Oxygen availability strongly affects chronological lifespan and thermotolerance in batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus M.M. Bisschops

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Stationary-phase (SP batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which growth has been arrested by carbon-source depletion, are widely applied to study chronological lifespan, quiescence and SP-associated robustness. Based on this type of experiments, typically performed under aerobic conditions, several roles of oxygen in aging have been proposed. However, SP in anaerobic yeast cultures has not been investigated in detail. Here, we use the unique capability of S. cerevisiae to grow in the complete absence of oxygen to directly compare SP in aerobic and anaerobic bioreactor cultures. This comparison revealed strong positive effects of oxygen availability on adenylate energy charge, longevity and thermotolerance during SP. A low thermotolerance of anaerobic batch cultures was already evident during the exponential growth phase and, in contrast to the situation in aerobic cultures, was not substantially increased during transition into SP. A combination of physiological and transcriptome analysis showed that the slow post-diauxic growth phase on ethanol, which precedes SP in aerobic, but not in anaerobic cultures, endowed cells with the time and resources needed for inducing longevity and thermotolerance. When combined with literature data on acquisition of longevity and thermotolerance in retentostat cultures, the present study indicates that the fast transition from glucose excess to SP in anaerobic cultures precludes acquisition of longevity and thermotolerance. Moreover, this study demonstrates the importance of a preceding, calorie-restricted conditioning phase in the acquisition of longevity and stress tolerance in SP yeast cultures, irrespective of oxygen availability.

  8. Pleurotus sajor-caju HSP100 complements a thermotolerance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    a maximum expression level at 2 h that was maintained for several hours. These results ... work at an early step in thermotolerance. ... hsp104 mutant yeast, allowing them survive even at 50°C for 4 h. .... They were cultured for one week.

  9. Thermotolerant coliforms are not a good surrogate for Campylobacter spp. in environmental water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Karen; Lévesque, Simon; Frost, Eric; Carrier, Nathalie; Arbeit, Robert D; Michaud, Sophie

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the importance of quantitatively detecting Campylobacter spp. in environmental surface water. The prevalence and the quantity of Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and Escherichia coli in 2,471 samples collected weekly, over a 2-year period, from 13 rivers and 12 streams in the Eastern Townships, Québec, Canada, were determined. Overall, 1,071 (43%), 1,481 (60%), and 1,463 (59%) samples were positive for Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and E. coli, respectively. There were weak correlations between the weekly distributions of Campylobacter spp. and thermotolerant coliforms (Spearman's rho coefficient = 0.27; P = 0.008) and between the quantitative levels of the two classes of organisms (Kendall tau-b correlation coefficient = 0.233; P water samples from the Eastern Townships were also tested. Five (10%) of 53 samples from private surface wells were positive for Campylobacter jejuni, of which only 2 were positive for thermotolerant coliforms. These findings suggest that microbial monitoring of raw water by using only fecal indicator organisms is not sufficient for assessing the occurrence or the load of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Insights into the role of environmental water as sources for sporadic Campylobacter infection will require genus-specific monitoring techniques.

  10. Differential response of aspen and birch trees to heat stress under elevated carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darbah, Joseph N.T., E-mail: darbah@ohio.ed [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, 315 Porter Hall, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Sharkey, Thomas D. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Calfapietra, Carlo [Institute of Agro-Environmental and Forest Biology (IBAF), National Research Council (CNR), Via Salaria km 29300, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo, Roma (Italy); Karnosky, David F. [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The effect of high temperature on photosynthesis of isoprene-emitting (aspen) and non-isoprene-emitting (birch) trees were measured under elevated CO{sub 2} and ambient conditions. Aspen trees tolerated heat better than birch trees and elevated CO{sub 2} protected photosynthesis of both species against moderate heat stress. Elevated CO{sub 2} increased carboxylation capacity, photosynthetic electron transport capacity, and triose phosphate use in both birch and aspen trees. High temperature (36-39 deg. C) decreased all of these parameters in birch regardless of CO{sub 2} treatment, but only photosynthetic electron transport and triose phosphate use at ambient CO{sub 2} were reduced in aspen. Among the two aspen clones tested, 271 showed higher thermotolerance than 42E possibly because of the higher isoprene-emission, especially under elevated CO{sub 2}. Our results indicate that isoprene-emitting trees may have a competitive advantage over non-isoprene emitting ones as temperatures rise, indicating that biological diversity may be affected in some ecosystems because of heat tolerance mechanisms. - We report that elevated CO{sub 2} confers increased thermotolerance on both aspen and birch trees while isoprene production in aspen confers further thermotolerance in aspen.

  11. Differential response of aspen and birch trees to heat stress under elevated carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darbah, Joseph N.T.; Sharkey, Thomas D.; Calfapietra, Carlo; Karnosky, David F.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of high temperature on photosynthesis of isoprene-emitting (aspen) and non-isoprene-emitting (birch) trees were measured under elevated CO 2 and ambient conditions. Aspen trees tolerated heat better than birch trees and elevated CO 2 protected photosynthesis of both species against moderate heat stress. Elevated CO 2 increased carboxylation capacity, photosynthetic electron transport capacity, and triose phosphate use in both birch and aspen trees. High temperature (36-39 deg. C) decreased all of these parameters in birch regardless of CO 2 treatment, but only photosynthetic electron transport and triose phosphate use at ambient CO 2 were reduced in aspen. Among the two aspen clones tested, 271 showed higher thermotolerance than 42E possibly because of the higher isoprene-emission, especially under elevated CO 2 . Our results indicate that isoprene-emitting trees may have a competitive advantage over non-isoprene emitting ones as temperatures rise, indicating that biological diversity may be affected in some ecosystems because of heat tolerance mechanisms. - We report that elevated CO 2 confers increased thermotolerance on both aspen and birch trees while isoprene production in aspen confers further thermotolerance in aspen.

  12. Characterization of novel heat-responsive transcription factor (TaHSFA6e) gene involved in regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) - A key member of heat stress-tolerance network of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ranjeet R; Goswami, Suneha; Singh, Khushboo; Dubey, Kavita; Rai, Gyanendra K; Singh, Bhupinder; Singh, Shivdhar; Grover, Monendra; Mishra, Dwijesh; Kumar, Sanjeev; Bakshi, Suman; Rai, Anil; Pathak, Himanshu; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Praveen, Shelly

    2018-08-10

    Heat stress has an adverse effect on the quality and quantity of agriculturally important crops, especially wheat. The tolerance mechanism has not been explored much in wheat and very few genes/ TFs responsive to heat stress is available on public domain. Here, we identified, cloned and characterized a putative TaHSFA6e TF gene of 1.3 kb from wheat cv. HD2985. We observed an ORF of 368 aa with Hsf DNA binding signature domain in the amino acid sequence. Single copy number of TaHSFA6e was observed integrated in the genome of wheat. Expression analysis of TaHSFA6e under differential HS showed maximum transcripts in wheat cv. Halna (thermotolerant) in response to 38 °C for 2 h during pollination and grain-filling stages, as compared to PBW343, HD2329 and HD2985. Putative target genes of TaHSFA6e (HSP17, HSP70 and HSP90) showed upregulation in response to differential HS (30 & 38 °C, 2 h) during pollination and grain-filling stages. Small HSP17 was observed most triggered in Halna under HS. We observed increase in the catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and decrease in the lipid peroxidation in thermotolerant cvs. (Halna, HD2985), as compared to thermosusceptible (PBW343, HD2329) under differential HS. Multiple stresses (heat - 38 °C, 2 h, and drought - 100 mL of 20% polyethylene Glycol 6000) during seedling stage of wheat showed positive correlation between the expression of TaHSFA6e, putative targets (HSP70, HSP90, HSP17) and TAC. Halna (thermotolerant) performed better, as compared to other contrasting cvs. TaHSFA6e TF can be used as promising candidate gene for manipulating the heat stress-tolerance network. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. CELLS OVEREXPRESSING HSP27 SHOW ACCELERATED RECOVERY FROM HEAT-INDUCED NUCLEAR-PROTEIN AGGREGATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KAMPINGA, HH; BRUNSTING, JF; STEGE, GJJ; KONINGS, AWT; LANDRY, J

    1994-01-01

    Protein denaturation/aggregation upon cell exposure to heat shock is a likely cause of cell death. in the nucleus, protein aggregation has often been correlated to inhibition of nuclear located processes and heat-induced cell killing. in Chinese hamster 023 cells made thermotolerant by a prior

  14. Whole genome detection of signature of positive selection in African cattle reveals selection for thermotolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Mengistie; Lee, Wonseok; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Dessie, Tadelle; Hanotte, Olivier; Mwai, Okeyo Ally; Kemp, Stephen; Cho, Seoae; Oh, Sung Jong; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Kim, Heebal

    2017-12-01

    As African indigenous cattle evolved in a hot tropical climate, they have developed an inherent thermotolerance; survival mechanisms include a light-colored and shiny coat, increased sweating, and cellular and molecular mechanisms to cope with high environmental temperature. Here, we report the positive selection signature of genes in African cattle breeds which contribute for their heat tolerance mechanisms. We compared the genomes of five indigenous African cattle breeds with the genomes of four commercial cattle breeds using cross-population composite likelihood ratio (XP-CLR) and cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH) statistical methods. We identified 296 (XP-EHH) and 327 (XP-CLR) positively selected genes. Gene ontology analysis resulted in 41 biological process terms and six Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Several genes and pathways were found to be involved in oxidative stress response, osmotic stress response, heat shock response, hair and skin properties, sweat gland development and sweating, feed intake and metabolism, and reproduction functions. The genes and pathways identified directly or indirectly contribute to the superior heat tolerance mechanisms in African cattle populations. The result will improve our understanding of the biological mechanisms of heat tolerance in African cattle breeds and opens an avenue for further study. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Overexpression of heat stress-responsive TaMBF1c, a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Multiprotein Bridging Factor, confers heat tolerance in both yeast and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Dandan; Wang, Fei; Geng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Liyuan; Yao, Yingyin; Ni, Zhongfu; Peng, Huiru; Sun, Qixin

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we found an ethylene-responsive transcriptional co-activator, which was significantly induced by heat stress (HS) in both thermo-sensitive and thermo-tolerant wheat. The corresponding ORF was isolated from wheat, and named TaMBF1c (Multiprotein Bridging Factor1c). The deduced amino acid sequence revealed the presence of conserved MBF1 and helix-turn-helix domains at the N- and C-terminus, respectively, which were highly similar to rice ERTCA (Ethylene Response Transcriptional Co-Activator) and Arabidopsis MBF1c. The promoter region of TaMBF1c contained three heat shock elements (HSEs) and other stress-responsive elements. There was no detectable mRNA of TaMBF1c under control conditions, but the transcript was rapidly and significantly induced by heat stress not only at the seedling stage, but also at the flowering stage. It was also slightly induced by drought and H2O2 stresses, as well as by application of the ethylene synthesis precursor ACC, but not, however, by circadian rhythm, salt, ABA or MeJA treatments. Under normal temperatures, TaMBF1c-eGFP protein showed predominant nuclear localization with some levels of cytosol localization in the bombarded onion epidermal cells, but it was mainly detected in the nucleus with almost no eGFP signals in cytosol when the bombarded onion cells were cultured under high temperature conditions. Overexpression of TaMBF1c in yeast imparted tolerance to heat stress compared to cells expressing the vector alone. Most importantly, transgenic rice plants engineered to overexpress TaMBF1c showed higher thermotolerance than control plants at both seedling and reproductive stages. In addition, transcript levels of six Heat Shock Protein and two Trehalose Phosphate Synthase genes were higher in TaMBF1c transgenic lines than in wild-type rice upon heat treatment. Collectively, the present data suggest that TaMBF1c plays a pivotal role in plant thermotolerance and holds promising possibilities for improving heat tolerance

  16. Thermotolerant Yeast Strains Adapted by Laboratory Evolution Show Trade-Off at Ancestral Temperatures and Preadaptation to Other Stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    adaptive laboratory evolution, we previously isolated seven Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with improved growth at 40°C. Here, we show that genetic adaptations to high temperature caused a growth trade-off at ancestral temperatures, reduced cellular functions, and improved tolerance of other stresses...... in the ancestral strain. The latter is an advantageous attribute for acquiring thermotolerance and correlates with the reduction of yeast functions associated with loss of respiration capacity. This trait caused glycerol overproduction that was associated with the growth trade-off at ancestral temperatures....... In combination with altered sterol composition of cellular membranes, glycerol overproduction was also associated with yeast osmotolerance and improved tolerance of high concentrations of glucose and ethanol. Our study shows that thermal adaptation of yeast is suitable for improving yeast resistance...

  17. Consortium inoculum of five thermo-tolerant phosphate solubilizing Actinomycetes for multipurpose biofertilizer preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandimath, Arusha P; Karad, Dilip D; Gupta, Shantikumar G; Kharat, Arun S

    2017-10-01

    Alkaline pH of the soil facilitates the conversion of phosphate present in phosphate fertilizer applied in the field to insoluble phosphate which is not available to plants. Problem of soluble phosphate deficiency arises, primarily due to needless use of phosphate fertilizer. We sought to biofertilizer with the thermo-tolerant phosphate solubilizing actinomycetes consortium that could convert insoluble phosphate to soluble phosphate at wider temperature range. In the present investigation consortium of five thermo-tolerant phosphate solubilizing actinomycetes was applied for preparation of inoculum to produce multipurpose bio-fertilizer. Phosphates solubilizing thermo-tolerant 32 actinomycetes strains were processed for identification with the use of PIBWIN software and were screened for phosphate solubilizing activity. Amongst these five actinomycetes were selected on the basis of their ability to produce cellulase, chitinase, pectinase, protease, lipase, amylase and phosphate solubilizing enzymes. Ability to produce these enzymes at 28°C and 50°C were examined. Biofertilizer was prepared by using agricultural waste as a raw material. While preparation of bio-fertilizer the pH decreased from 7.5 to 4.3 and temperature increased up to 74°C maximum at the end of 4 th week and in subsequent week it started to decline gradually till it reached around 50°C, which was found to be stable up to eighth week. This thermo-tolerant actinomycetes consortium released soluble phosphate of up to 46.7 μg ml -1 . As the mesophilic organisms die out at high temperature of composting hence thormo-tolerant actinomycetes would be the better substitute for preparation of phosphate solubilizing bio-fertilizer with added potential to degrade complex macromolecules in composting.

  18. Polyphasic identification of a new thermotolerant species of lactic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two thermotolerant and desiccation tolerant lactic acid bacteria (TDLAB) were pointed out from twenty isolated strains from soils and dried chicken faeces. Samples were collected in poultry farms in the vicinity of Dakar, Senegal (West Africa). The two new isolates were called Sp.4 (Sp.4=CWBI-B534=LMG7278) and Sp.20 ...

  19. AGPase: its role in crop productivity with emphasis on heat tolerance in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saripalli, Gautam; Gupta, Pushpendra Kumar

    2015-10-01

    AGPase, a key enzyme of starch biosynthetic pathway, has a significant role in crop productivity. Thermotolerant variants of AGPase in cereals may be used for developing cultivars, which may enhance productivity under heat stress. Improvement of crop productivity has always been the major goal of plant breeders to meet the global demand for food. However, crop productivity itself is influenced in a large measure by a number of abiotic stresses including heat, which causes major losses in crop productivity. In cereals, crop productivity in terms of grain yield mainly depends upon the seed starch content so that starch biosynthesis and the enzymes involved in this process have been a major area of investigation for plant physiologists and plant breeders alike. Considerable work has been done on AGPase and its role in crop productivity, particularly under heat stress, because this enzyme is one of the major enzymes, which catalyses the rate-limiting first committed key enzymatic step of starch biosynthesis. Keeping the above in view, this review focuses on the basic features of AGPase including its structure, regulatory mechanisms involving allosteric regulators, its sub-cellular localization and its genetics. Major emphasis, however, has been laid on the genetics of AGPases and its manipulation for developing high yielding cultivars that will have comparable productivity under heat stress. Some important thermotolerant variants of AGPase, which mainly involve specific amino acid substitutions, have been highlighted, and the prospects of using these thermotolerant variants of AGPase in developing cultivars for heat prone areas have been discussed. The review also includes a brief account on transgenics for AGPase, which have been developed for basic studies and crop improvement.

  20. The effect of slaughter operations on the contamination of chicken carcasses with thermotolerant Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Sommer, Helle M; Nielsen, Niels L; Christensen, Bjarke B

    2006-04-25

    To evaluate the effect of specific slaughter operations on the contamination of broiler carcasses with naturally occurring thermotolerant Campylobacter, experiments were carried out in two Danish commercial slaughter plants (Plant I and Plant II). Six broiler flocks determined Campylobacter positive prior to slaughter were investigated at four sampling locations within each slaughter plant. Quantification of thermotolerant Campylobacter in 30 neck skin samples per flock per sampling location showed that the evisceration operation in Plant I led to a significant increase in the Campylobacter concentration of 0.5 log(10) cfu/g in average, whereas no significant changes were observed during this operation in Plant II. Air chilling (Plant I) and water chilling (Plant II), both including a carcass wash prior to the chilling operation, caused similar, but significant reductions of 0.83 and 0.97 log(10) cfu/g, respectively. In packed frozen chickens (Plant II) an additional reduction of 1.38 log(10) cfu/g in average was obtained due to the freezing operation. In packed chilled chickens (Plant I), however, the number of thermotolerant Campylobacter per gram remained at the same level as after air chilling. Enumeration of thermotolerant Campylobacter in 30 intestinal samples per flock showed that in two of the six flocks examined the within flock colonization was very low (defeathering operation was documented. This finding indicates that a reduction in the Campylobacter concentration on chicken carcasses may also be obtained by interventions aimed at reducing the concentration of Campylobacter in the intestines of the living birds.

  1. Thermo-tolerant phosphate-solubilizing microbes for multi-functional biofertilizer preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Hsiung; Yang, Shang-Shyng

    2009-02-01

    In order to prepare the multi-functional biofertilizer, thermo-tolerant phosphate-solubilizing microbes including bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi were isolated from different compost plants and biofertilizers. Except Streptomycesthermophilus J57 which lacked pectinase, all isolates possessed amylase, CMCase, chitinase, pectinase, protease, lipase, and nitrogenase activities. All isolates could solubilize calcium phosphate and Israel rock phosphate; various isolates could solubilize aluminum phosphate, iron phosphate, and hydroxyapatite. During composting, biofertilizers inoculated with the tested microbes had a significantly higher temperature, ash content, pH, total nitrogen, soluble phosphorus content, and germination rate than non-inoculated biofertilizer; total organic carbon and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio showed the opposite pattern. Adding these microbes can shorten the period of maturity, improve the quality, increase the soluble phosphorus content, and enhance the populations of phosphate-solubilizing and proteolytic microbes in biofertilizers. Therefore, inoculating thermo-tolerant phosphate-solubilizing microbes into agricultural and animal wastes represents a practical strategy for preparing multi-functional biofertilizer.

  2. Heat shock proteins in relation to heat stress tolerance of creeping bentgrass at different N levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kehua; Zhang, Xunzhong; Goatley, Mike; Ervin, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress is a primary factor causing summer bentgrass decline. Changes in gene expression at the transcriptional and/or translational level are thought to be a fundamental mechanism in plant response to environmental stresses. Heat stress redirects protein synthesis in higher plants and results in stress protein synthesis, particularly heat shock proteins (HSPs). The goal of this work was to analyze the expression pattern of major HSPs in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) during different heat stress periods and to study the influence of nitrogen (N) on the HSP expression patterns. A growth chamber study on 'Penn-A4' creeping bentgrass subjected to 38/28°C day/night for 50 days, was conducted with four nitrate rates (no N-0, low N-2.5, medium N-7.5, and high N-12.5 kg N ha-1) applied biweekly. Visual turfgrass quality (TQ), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), shoot electrolyte leakage (ShEL), and root viability (RV) were monitored, along with the expression pattern of HSPs. There was no difference in measured parameters between treatments until week seven, except TQ at week five. At week seven, grass at medium N had better TQ, NDVI, and Fv/Fm accompanied by lower ShEL and higher RV, suggesting a major role in improved heat tolerance. All the investigated HSPs (HSP101, HSP90, HSP70, and sHSPs) were up-regulated by heat stress. Their expression patterns indicated cooperation between different HSPs and their roles in bentgrass thermotolerance. In addition, their production seems to be resource dependent. This study could further improve our understanding about how different N levels affect bentgrass thermotolerance.

  3. Screening of thermotolerant and thermophilic fungi aiming β-xylosidase and arabinanase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Vivian Machado; de Lucas, Rosymar Coutinho; Jorge, João Atílio; Polizeli, Maria de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell wall is mainly composed by cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The heterogeneous structure and composition of the hemicellulose are key impediments to its depolymerization and subsequent use in fermentation processes. Thus, this study aimed to perform a screening of thermophilic and thermotolerant filamentous fungi collected from different regions of the São Paulo state, and analyze the production of β-xylosidase and arabinanase at different temperatures. These enzymes are important to cell wall degradation and synthesis of end products as xylose and arabinose, respectively, which are significant sugars to fermentation and ethanol production. A total of 12 fungal species were analyzed and 9 of them grew at 45 °C, suggesting a thermophilic or thermotolerant character. Additionally Aspergillus thermomutatus anamorph of Neosartorya and A. parasiticus grew at 50 °C. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus thermomutatus were the filamentous fungi with the most expressive production of β-xylosidase and arabinanase, respectively. In general for most of the tested microorganisms, β-xylosidase and arabinanase activities from mycelial extract (intracellular form) were higher in cultures grown at high temperatures (35-40 °C), while the correspondent extracellular activities were favorably secreted from cultures at 30 °C. This study contributes to catalogue isolated fungi of the state of São Paulo, and these findings could be promising sources for thermophilic and thermotolerant microorganisms, which are industrially important due to their enzymes.

  4. An R2R3-MYB gene, LeAN2, positively regulated the thermo-tolerance in transgenic tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xia; Wang, Jie-Ru; Wang, Guo-Dong; Liang, Xiao-Qing; Li, Xiao-Dong; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2015-03-01

    LeAN2 is an anthocyanin-associated R2R3-MYB transcription factor, but little is known about its function in imparting thermo-tolerance to higher plants. To examine the function of LeAN2 in the regulation of heat stress in tomato, LeAN2 was isolated and transgenic tomato plants were obtained. Overexpression of LeAN2 under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in tomato induced the up-regulation of several structural genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway as well as anthocyanin accumulation in transgenic tomato plants. Transgenic tomato plants showed enhanced tolerance to heat stress by maintaining higher fresh weight (FW), net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) (Fv/Fm) compared with wild-type (WT) plants. Furthermore, transgenic plants showed higher non-enzymatic antioxidant activity, lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and higher contents of D1 protein than that in WT plants under heat stress. These results indicate that LeAN2 had an important function in heat stress resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Screening of thermotolerant and thermophilic fungi aiming β-xylosidase and arabinanase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Machado Benassi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell wall is mainly composed by cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The heterogeneous structure and composition of the hemicellulose are key impediments to its depolymerization and subsequent use in fermentation processes. Thus, this study aimed to perform a screening of thermophilic and thermotolerant filamentous fungi collected from different regions of the São Paulo state, and analyze the production of β-xylosidase and arabinanase at different temperatures. These enzymes are important to cell wall degradation and synthesis of end products as xylose and arabinose, respectively, which are significant sugars to fermentation and ethanol production. A total of 12 fungal species were analyzed and 9 of them grew at 45 ºC, suggesting a thermophilic or thermotolerant character. Additionally Aspergillus thermomutatus anamorph of Neosartorya and A. parasiticus grew at 50 ºC. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus thermomutatus were the filamentous fungi with the most expressive production of β-xylosidase and arabinanase, respectively. In general for most of the tested microorganisms, β-xylosidase and arabinanase activities from mycelial extract (intracellular form were higher in cultures grown at high temperatures (35-40 ºC, while the correspondent extracellular activities were favorably secreted from cultures at 30 ºC. This study contributes to catalogue isolated fungi of the state of São Paulo, and these findings could be promising sources for thermophilic and thermotolerant microorganisms, which are industrially important due to their enzymes.

  6. Screening of thermotolerant and thermophilic fungi aiming β-xylosidase and arabinanase production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Vivian Machado; de Lucas, Rosymar Coutinho; Jorge, João Atílio; Polizeli, Maria de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell wall is mainly composed by cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The heterogeneous structure and composition of the hemicellulose are key impediments to its depolymerization and subsequent use in fermentation processes. Thus, this study aimed to perform a screening of thermophilic and thermotolerant filamentous fungi collected from different regions of the São Paulo state, and analyze the production of β-xylosidase and arabinanase at different temperatures. These enzymes are important to cell wall degradation and synthesis of end products as xylose and arabinose, respectively, which are significant sugars to fermentation and ethanol production. A total of 12 fungal species were analyzed and 9 of them grew at 45 °C, suggesting a thermophilic or thermotolerant character. Additionally Aspergillus thermomutatus anamorph of Neosartorya and A. parasiticus grew at 50 °C. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus thermomutatus were the filamentous fungi with the most expressive production of β-xylosidase and arabinanase, respectively. In general for most of the tested microorganisms, β-xylosidase and arabinanase activities from mycelial extract (intracellular form) were higher in cultures grown at high temperatures (35–40 °C), while the correspondent extracellular activities were favorably secreted from cultures at 30 °C. This study contributes to catalogue isolated fungi of the state of São Paulo, and these findings could be promising sources for thermophilic and thermotolerant microorganisms, which are industrially important due to their enzymes. PMID:25763055

  7. Production of pullulan by a thermotolerant Aureobasidium pullulans strain in non-stirred fed batch fermentation process

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ranjan; Gaur, Rajeeva; Tiwari, Soni; Gaur, Manogya Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Total 95 isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans were isolated from different flowers and leaves samples, out of which 11 thermotolerant strains produced pullulan. One thermotolerant non-melanin pullulan producing strain, designated as RG-5, produced highest pullulan (37.1±1.0 g/l) at 42ºC, pH 5.5 in 48h of incubation with 3% sucrose and 0.5% ammonium sulphate in a non-stirred fed batch fermentor of 6 liters capacity. The two liters of initial volume of fermentation medium was further fed with th...

  8. Induction of thermotolerance through heat acclimation in lablab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Myrene

    2013-09-18

    Sep 18, 2013 ... 58, Palace Road, Bangalore, 560 052, India. 2Department of Biochemistry, Central College .... stress (SS + HS) was carried out by subjecting salt-stressed plants. (100 mM NaCl at 25°C for 24 h) to the heat .... observed in HS treated seedlings even after the removal of the stressing conditions. Response of ...

  9. Wood Degradation by Thermotolerant and Thermophilic Fungi for Sustainable Heat Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caizan Juanarena, Leire; ter Heijne, Annemiek; Buisman, Cees; Van der Wal, A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of renewable biomass for production of heat and electricity plays an important role in the circular economy. Degradation of wood biomass to produce heat is a clean and novel process proposed as an alternative to wood burning, and could be used for various heating applications. So far, wood

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with thermoregulation in lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, S; Wang, X-z; Ortega, M S; Cole, J B; Null, D J; Hansen, P J

    2015-12-01

    Dairy cows with increased rectal temperature experience lower milk yield and fertility. Rectal temperature during heat stress is heritable, so genetic selection for body temperature regulation could reduce effects of heat stress on production. One aim of the study was to validate the relationship between genotype and heat tolerance for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with resistance to heat stress. A second aim was to identify new SNPs associated with heat stress resistance. Thermotolerance was assessed in lactating Holsteins during the summer by measuring rectal temperature (a direct measurement of body temperature regulation; n = 435), respiration rate (an indirect measurement of body temperature regulation, n = 450) and sweating rate (the major evaporative cooling mechanism in cattle, n = 455). The association between genotype and thermotolerance was evaluated for 19 SNPs previously associated with rectal temperature from a genomewide analysis study (GWAS), four SNPs previously associated with change in milk yield during heat stress from GWAS, 2 candidate gene SNPs previously associated with rectal temperature and respiration rate during heat stress (ATPA1A and HSP70A) and 66 SNPs in genes previously shown to be associated with reproduction, production or health traits in Holsteins. For SNPs previously associated with heat tolerance, regions of BTA4, BTA6 and BTA24 were associated with rectal temperature; regions of BTA6 and BTA24 were associated with respiration rate; and regions of BTA5, BTA26 and BTA29 were associated with sweating rate. New SNPs were identified for rectal temperature (n = 12), respiration rate (n = 8) and sweating rate (n = 3) from among those previously associated with production, reproduction or health traits. The SNP that explained the most variation were PGR and ASL for rectal temperature, ACAT2 and HSD17B7 for respiration rate, and ARL6IP1 and SERPINE2 for sweating rate. ARL6IP1 was associated with all three

  11. Expression and thermotolerance of calreticulin during pollen development in tobacco

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubá, Petra; Honys, David; Tupý, Jaroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2005), s. 143-148 ISSN 0934-0882 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP522/02/D075; GA MŠk LZ1K03018; GA AV ČR KJB6038409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : tobacco * pollen development * thermotolerance Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.278, year: 2005

  12. Influence of physiological environment on the expression of thermotolerance in proliferating (P) and quiescent (Q) tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallen, C.A.; Gutierrez, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Alteration of the physiological environment of Q 66 and 67 mouse mammary tumor cells by placing them in either fresh, complete medium or a balanced salt solution supplemented with 24 mM glucose resulted in a significant increase in the time at 45 0 C necessary to measure cytotoxicity. The degree of increased resistance was dependent on the solution used to change the environment and the length of time the cells were allowed to equilibrate in this new environment. The aim of the present study is to determine if alterations in the Q cell environment has significant effects on the expression of thermotolerance. Pure P and Q cell populations of both 66 and 67 cell lines are exposed continuously to either 42 or 43 0 C and assayed for colony formation at various times for the development of thermotolerance. The comparison of thermotolerance development both in terms of time course and extent are measured in Q cells under 5 conditions: 1) normal, depleted medium (pH 6.8), 2) fresh, complete medium (pH 7.2), 3) balanced salt solution with 24 mM glucose (pH 7.2), 4) balanced salt solution with no glucose (pH 7.2), and 5) depleted medium supplemented with fresh serum (pH 6.8). These data have implications for the importance of Q cells in determining the outcome of clinical hyperthermia and the role of other stressors on the expression of thermotolerance

  13. Heterogeneity in induced thermal resistance of rat tumor cell clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasovic, S.P.; Rosenblatt, P.L.; Heitzman, D.

    1983-01-01

    Four 13762NF rat mammary adenocarcinoma clones were examined for their survival response to heating under conditions that induced transient thermal resistance (thermotolerance). Clones MTC and MTF7 were isolated from the subcutaneous locally growing tumor, whereas clones MTLn2 and MTLn3 were derived from spontaneous lung metastases. There was heterogeneity among these clones in thermotolerance induced by either fractionated 45 0 C or continuous 42 0 C heating, but the order of sensitivity was not necessarily the same. The clones developed thermal resistance at different rates and to different degrees within the same time intervals. There was heterogeneity between clones isolated from within either the primary site or metastatic lesions. However, clones derived from metastatic foci did not intrinsically acquire more or less thermotolerance to fractionated 45 0 C or continuous 42 0 C heating than did clones from the primary tumor. Further, there was no apparent relationship between any phenotypic properties that conferred more or less thermotolerance in vitro and any phenotypic properties that conferred enhanced metastatic success of these same clones by spontaneous (subcutaneous) or experimental (intravenous) routes in vivo. These tumor clones also differ in their karyotype, metastatic potential, cell surface features, sensitivity to x-irradiation and drugs, and ability to repair sublethal radiation damage. These results provide further credence to the concept that inherent heterogeneity within tumors may be as important in therapeutic success as other known modifiers of outcome such as site and treatment heterogeneity

  14. Effects of CO2 on the tolerance of photosynthesis to heat stress can be affected by photosynthetic pathway and nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Heckathorn, Scott A; Hamilton, E William; Frantz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Determining effects of elevated CO2 and N on photosynthetic thermotolerance is critical for predicting plant responses to global warming. We grew Hordeum vulgare (barley, C3) and Zea mays (corn, C4) at current or elevated CO2 (370, 700 ppm) and limiting or optimal soil N (0.5, 7.5 mmol/L). We assessed thermotolerance of net photosynthesis (Pn), photosystem II efficiency in the light (Fv'/Fm'), photochemical quenching (qp), carboxylation efficiency (CE), and content of rubisco activase and major heat-shock proteins (HSPs). For barley, elevated CO2 had no effect on Pn, qp, and CE at both high and low N and only a positive effect on Fv'/Fm' at high N. However, for corn, Pn, Fv'/Fm', qp, and CE were decreased substantially by elevated CO2 under high and low N, with greater decreases at high N for all but qp. The negative effects of high CO2 during heat stress on photosynthesis were correlated with rubisco activase and HSPs content, which decreased with heat stress, especially for low-N corn. These results indicate that stimulatory effects of elevated CO2 at normal temperatures on photosynthesis and growth (only found for high-N barley) may be partly offset by neutral or negative effects during heat stress, especially for C4 species. Thus, CO2 and N effects on photosynthetic thermotolerance may contribute to changes in plant productivity, distribution, and diversity in future.

  15. Small heat-shock proteins and leaf cooling capacity account for the unusual heat tolerance of the central spike leaves in Agave tequilana var. Weber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján, Rosario; Lledías, Fernando; Martínez, Luz María; Barreto, Rita; Cassab, Gladys I; Nieto-Sotelo, Jorge

    2009-12-01

    Agaves are perennial crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants distributed in tropical and subtropical arid environments, features that are attractive for studying the heat-shock response. In agaves, the stress response can be analysed easily during leaf development, as they form a spirally shaped rosette, having the meristem surrounded by folded leaves in the centre (spike) and the unfolded and more mature leaves in the periphery. Here, we report that the spike of Agave tequilana is the most thermotolerant part of the rosette withstanding shocks of up to 55 degrees C. This finding was inconsistent with the patterns of heat-shock protein (Hsp) gene expression, as maximal accumulation of Hsp transcripts was at 44 degrees C in all sectors (spike, inner, middle and outer). However, levels of small HSP (sHSP)-CI and sHSP-CII proteins were conspicuously higher in spike leaves at all temperatures correlating with their thermotolerance. In addition, spike leaves showed a higher stomatal density and abated more efficiently their temperature several degrees below that of air. We propose that the greater capacity for leaf cooling during the day in response to heat stress, and the elevated levels of sHSPs, constitute part of a set of strategies that protect the SAM and folded leaves of A. tequilana from high temperatures.

  16. Production of Bioethanol from Carrot Pomace Using the Thermotolerant Yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi-Yang Yu; Bo-Hong Jiang; Kow-Jen Duan [Tatung University, Tapei, Taiwan (China). Department of Bioengineering

    2013-03-15

    Carrot pomace, a major agricultural waste from the juice industry, was used as a feedstock for bioethanol production by fermentation with the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. Treatment of the carrot pomace with Accellerase(TM) 1000 and pectinase at 50 °C for 84 h, resulted in conversion of 42% of its mass to fermentable sugars, mainly glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 42 °C was performed on 10% (w/v) carrot pomace; the concentration of ethanol reached 18 g/L and the yield of ethanol from carrot pomace was 0.18 g/g. The highest ethanol concentration of 37 g/L was observed with an additional charge of 10% supplemented to the original 10% of carrot pomace after 12 h; the corresponding yield was 0.185 g/g. Our results clearly demonstrated the potential of combining a SSF process with thermotolerant yeast for the production of bioethanol using carrot pomace as a feedstock.

  17. Genome-wide characterization of differentially expressed genes provides insights into regulatory network of heat stress response in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ronghua; Mei, Yi; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Yan; Guo, Jun; Liu, Liwang

    2018-03-01

    Heat stress (HS) causes detrimental effects on plant morphology, physiology, and biochemistry that lead to drastic reduction in plant biomass production and economic yield worldwide. To date, little is known about HS-responsive genes involved in thermotolerance mechanism in radish. In this study, a total of 6600 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from the control and Heat24 cDNA libraries of radish were isolated by high-throughput sequencing. With Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, some genes including MAPK, DREB, ERF, AP2, GST, Hsf, and Hsp were predominantly assigned in signal transductions, metabolic pathways, and biosynthesis and abiotic stress-responsive pathways. These pathways played significant roles in reducing stress-induced damages and enhancing heat tolerance in radish. Expression patterns of 24 candidate genes were validated by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Based mainly on the analysis of DEGs combining with the previous miRNAs analysis, the schematic model of HS-responsive regulatory network was proposed. To counter the effects of HS, a rapid response of the plasma membrane leads to the opening of specific calcium channels and cytoskeletal reorganization, after which HS-responsive genes are activated to repair damaged proteins and ultimately facilitate further enhancement of thermotolerance in radish. These results could provide fundamental insight into the regulatory network underlying heat tolerance in radish and facilitate further genetic manipulation of thermotolerance in root vegetable crops.

  18. Identification of novel genes responsible for ethanol and/or thermotolerance by transposon mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Soo [Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Life Sciences; Kim, Na-Rae [Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences; Yang, Jungwoo [Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Microbial Resources Research Center; Choi, Wonja [Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Life Sciences; Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences; Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Microbial Resources Research Center

    2011-08-15

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains tolerant to ethanol and heat stresses are important for industrial ethanol production. In this study, five strains (Tn 1-5) tolerant to up to 15% ethanol were isolated by screening a transposon-mediated mutant library. Two of them displayed tolerance to heat (42 C). The determination of transposon insertion sites and Northern blot analysis identified seven putative genes (CMP2, IMD4, SSK2, PPG1, DLD3, PAM1, and MSN2) and revealed simultaneous down-regulations of CMP2 and IMD4, and SSK2 and PPG1, down-regulation of DLD3, and disruptions of the open reading frame of PAM1 and MSN2, indicating that ethanol and/or heat tolerance can be conferred. Knockout mutants of these seven individual genes were ethanol tolerant and three of them (SSK2, PPG1, and PAM1) were tolerant to heat. Such tolerant phenotypes reverted to sensitive phenotypes by the autologous or overexpression of each gene. Five transposon mutants showed higher ethanol production and grew faster than the control strain when cultured in rich media containing 30% glucose and initial 6% ethanol at 30 C. Of those, two thermotolerant transposon mutants (Tn 2 and Tn 3) exhibited significantly enhanced growth and ethanol production compared to the control at 42 C. The genes identified in this study may provide a basis for the application in developing industrial yeast strains. (orig.)

  19. Cloning and characterization of a new cold-adapted and thermo-tolerant ι-carrageenase from marine bacterium Flavobacterium sp. YS-80-122.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shangyong; Hao, Jianhua; Sun, Mi

    2017-09-01

    ι-Carrageenases play a role in marine ι-carrageenan degradation, and their enzymatic hydrolysates are thought to be excellent antioxidants. In this study, we identified a new ι-carrageenase, encoded by cgiF, in psychrophilic bacterium Flavobacterium sp. YS-80-122. The deduced ι-carrageenase, CgiF, belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 82 and shows less than 40% amino acid identity with characterized ι-carrageenases. The activity of recombinant CgiF peaked at 30°C (1,207.8U/mg). Notably, CgiF is a cold-adapted ι-carrageenase, which showed 36.5% and 57% of the maximum activity at 10°C and 15°C, respectively. In addition, it is a thermo-tolerant enzyme that recovered 58.2% of its initial activity after heat shock. Furthermore, although the activity of CgiF was enhanced by NaCl, the enzyme is active in absence of NaCl. This study also shows that CgiF is an endo-type ι-carrageenase that hydrolyzes β-1,4-linkages of ι-carrageenan, yielding neo-ι-carratetraose as the main product. Its cold-adaptation, thermo-tolerance, NaCl independence and high neo-ι-carratetraose yield make CgiF an excellent candidate for industrial applications in production of ι-carrageen oligosaccharides from seaweed polysaccharides. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. High-temperature ethanol production using thermotolerant yeast newly isolated from Greater Mekong Subregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiya Techaparin

    Full Text Available Abstract The application of high-potential thermotolerant yeasts is a key factor for successful ethanol production at high temperatures. Two hundred and thirty-four yeast isolates from Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS countries, i.e., Thailand, The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR and Vietnam were obtained. Five thermotolerant yeasts, designated Saccharomyces cerevisiae KKU-VN8, KKU-VN20, and KKU-VN27, Pichia kudriavzevii KKU-TH33 and P. kudriavzevii KKU-TH43, demonstrated high temperature and ethanol tolerance levels up to 45 °C and 13% (v/v, respectively. All five strains produced higher ethanol concentrations and exhibited greater productivities and yields than the industrial strain S. cerevisiae TISTR5606 during high-temperature fermentation at 40 °C and 43 °C. S. cerevisiae KKU-VN8 demonstrated the best performance for ethanol production from glucose at 37 °C with an ethanol concentration of 72.69 g/L, a productivity of 1.59 g/L/h and a theoretical ethanol yield of 86.27%. The optimal conditions for ethanol production of S. cerevisiae KKU-VN8 from sweet sorghum juice (SSJ at 40 °C were achieved using the Box-Behnken experimental design (BBD. The maximal ethanol concentration obtained during fermentation was 89.32 g/L, with a productivity of 2.48 g/L/h and a theoretical ethanol yield of 96.32%. Thus, the newly isolated thermotolerant S. cerevisiae KKU-VN8 exhibits a great potential for commercial-scale ethanol production in the future.

  1. Production of pullulan by a thermotolerant aureobasidium pullulans strain in non-stirred fed batch fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjan; Gaur, Rajeeva; Tiwari, Soni; Gaur, Manogya Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Total 95 isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans were isolated from different flowers and leaves samples, out of which 11 thermotolerant strains produced pullulan. One thermotolerant non-melanin pullulan producing strain, designated as RG-5, produced highest pullulan (37.1±1.0 g/l) at 42(o)C, pH 5.5 in 48h of incubation with 3% sucrose and 0.5% ammonium sulphate in a non-stirred fed batch fermentor of 6 liters capacity. The two liters of initial volume of fermentation medium was further fed with the 2 liters in two successive batches at 5 h interval into the fermentor. The sterile air was supplied only for 10h at the rate of 0.5 vvm.

  2. The effect of slaughter operations on the contamination of chicken carcasses with thermotolerant Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Nielsen, Niels L.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of specific slaughter operations on the contamination of broiler carcasses with naturally occurring thermotolerant Campylobacter, experiments were carried out in two Danish commercial slaughter plants (Plant I and Plant 11). Six broiler flocks determined Campylobacter...

  3. Salinity modulates thermotolerance, energy metabolism and stress response in amphipods Gammarus lacustris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniya P. Vereshchagina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and salinity are important abiotic factors for aquatic invertebrates. We investigated the influence of different salinity regimes on thermotolerance, energy metabolism and cellular stress defense mechanisms in amphipods Gammarus lacustris Sars from two populations. We exposed amphipods to different thermal scenarios and determined their survival as well as activity of major antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and parameters of energy metabolism (content of glucose, glycogen, ATP, ADP, AMP and lactate. Amphipods from a freshwater population were more sensitive to the thermal challenge, showing higher mortality during acute and gradual temperature change compared to their counterparts from a saline lake. A more thermotolerant population from a saline lake had high activity of antioxidant enzymes. The energy limitations of the freshwater population (indicated by low baseline glucose levels, downward shift of the critical temperature of aerobic metabolism and inability to maintain steady-state ATP levels during warming was observed, possibly reflecting a trade-off between the energy demands for osmoregulation under the hypo-osmotic condition of a freshwater environment and protection against temperature stress.

  4. Selection of thermal-resistant leavening (Saccharomyces boulardii) through gamma irradiation; Selecao de linhagens termotolerantes de levedura (Saccharomyces boulardii) atraves da irradiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Maria Jose; Martins, Flaviano Santos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    Yeast cells acquire resistance to a several stress condition when they are previously exposed to a mild form of the same or of a different stress. In this way yeast cells exposure to temperatures higher than the optimum for growth results in a enhancement of the heat shock proteins and accumulation of trehalose. These cells then acquire the ability to survive under more extreme conditions, a phenomenon referred as transitory thermo-tolerance. We decided to test if gamma irradiation can induced a permanent thermo-tolerance in survival cells irradiated. Lyophilized cells of S. boulardii were irradiated with a {sup 60} cobalt source. This cells were plated in solid medium. The survival cells were counted and the trehalose level were determined. In a second step, this survivals cells were incubated in liquid medium then submitted to a lethal heat shock (52 deg C, 15 min). The cells were plated and again grown at 30 deg C. The survival index and the level of trehalose were again determined. The procedure were repeated successively. The strains showed more thermo-resistance and the level of trehalose was increased without linear correlation with the number of viable cells. (author)

  5. Selection of thermal-resistant leavening (Saccharomyces boulardii) through gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, Maria Jose; Martins, Flaviano Santos

    2000-01-01

    Yeast cells acquire resistance to a several stress condition when they are previously exposed to a mild form of the same or of a different stress. In this way yeast cells exposure to temperatures higher than the optimum for growth results in a enhancement of the heat shock proteins and accumulation of trehalose. These cells then acquire the ability to survive under more extreme conditions, a phenomenon referred as transitory thermo-tolerance. We decided to test if gamma irradiation can induced a permanent thermo-tolerance in survival cells irradiated. Lyophilized cells of S. boulardii were irradiated with a 60 cobalt source. This cells were plated in solid medium. The survival cells were counted and the trehalose level were determined. In a second step, this survivals cells were incubated in liquid medium then submitted to a lethal heat shock (52 deg C, 15 min). The cells were plated and again grown at 30 deg C. The survival index and the level of trehalose were again determined. The procedure were repeated successively. The strains showed more thermo-resistance and the level of trehalose was increased without linear correlation with the number of viable cells. (author)

  6. Production of pullulan by a thermotolerant Aureobasidium pullulans strain in non-stirred fed batch fermentation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Total 95 isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans were isolated from different flowers and leaves samples, out of which 11 thermotolerant strains produced pullulan. One thermotolerant non-melanin pullulan producing strain, designated as RG-5, produced highest pullulan (37.1±1.0 g/l at 42ºC, pH 5.5 in 48h of incubation with 3% sucrose and 0.5% ammonium sulphate in a non-stirred fed batch fermentor of 6 liters capacity. The two liters of initial volume of fermentation medium was further fed with the 2 liters in two successive batches at 5 h interval into the fermentor. The sterile air was supplied only for 10h at the rate of 0.5 vvm.

  7. BACILLUS-METHANOLICUS SP-NOV, A NEW SPECIES OF THERMOTOLERANT, METHANOL-UTILIZING, ENDOSPORE-FORMING BACTERIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ARFMAN, N; DIJKHUIZEN, L; KIRCHHOF, G; LUDWIG, W; SCHLEIFER, KH; BULYGINA, ES; CHUMAKOV, KM; GOVORUKHINA, NI; TROTSENKO, YA; WHITE, D; SHARP, RJ

    The generic position of 14 strains of gram-positive bacteria able to use methanol as a growth substrate was determined. All are obligately aerobic, thermotolerant organisms that are able to grow at temperatures of 35 to 60-degrees-C. Nine of the strains produce oval spores at a

  8. Biofuels. Altered sterol composition renders yeast thermotolerant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Chen, Yun; Ghiaci, Payam

    2014-01-01

    adaptive laboratory evolution to select yeast strains with improved growth and ethanol production at ≥40°C. Sequencing of the whole genome, genome-wide gene expression, and metabolic-flux analyses revealed a change in sterol composition, from ergosterol to fecosterol, caused by mutations in the C-5 sterol......Ethanol production for use as a biofuel is mainly achieved through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation by yeast. Operating at ≥40°C would be beneficial in terms of increasing efficiency of the process and reducing costs, but yeast does not grow efficiently at those temperatures. We used...... desaturase gene, and increased expression of genes involved in sterol biosynthesis. Additionally, large chromosome III rearrangements and mutations in genes associated with DNA damage and respiration were found, but contributed less to the thermotolerant phenotype....

  9. Differential proteomic analysis reveals sequential heat stress-responsive regulatory network in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) taproot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ronghua; Mei, Yi; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Wang, Yan; Guo, Jun; Liu, Liwang

    2018-05-01

    Differential abundance protein species (DAPS) involved in reducing damage and enhancing thermotolerance in radish were firstly identified. Proteomic analysis and omics association analysis revealed a HS-responsive regulatory network in radish. Heat stress (HS) is a major destructive factor influencing radish production and supply in summer, for radish is a cool season vegetable crop being susceptible to high temperature. In this study, the proteome changes of radish taproots under 40 °C treatment at 0 h (Control), 12 h (Heat12) and 24 h (Heat24) were analyzed using iTRAQ (Isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantification) approach. In total, 2258 DAPS representing 1542 differentially accumulated uniprotein species which respond to HS were identified. A total of 604, 910 and 744 DAPS was detected in comparison of Control vs. Heat12, Control vs. Heat24, and Heat12 vs. Heat24, respectively. Gene ontology and pathway analysis showed that annexin, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, ATP synthase, heat shock protein (HSP) and other stress-related proteins were predominately enriched in signal transduction, stress and defense pathways, photosynthesis and energy metabolic pathways, working cooperatively to reduce stress-induced damage in radish. Based on iTRAQ combined with the transcriptomics analysis, a schematic model of a sequential HS-responsive regulatory network was proposed. The initial sensing of HS occurred at the plasma membrane, and then key components of stress signal transduction triggered heat-responsive genes in the plant protective metabolism to re-establish homeostasis and enhance thermotolerance. These results provide new insights into characteristics of HS-responsive DAPS and facilitate dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying heat tolerance in radish and other root crops.

  10. Bacillus methanolicus sp. nov., a New Species of Thermotolerant, Methanol-Utilizing, Endospore-Forming Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arfman, Nico; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kirchhof, Gudrun; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Schleifer, Karl-Heinz; Bulygina, Eugenia S.; Chumakov, Konstantin M.; Govorukhina, Natalya I.; Trotsenko, Yuri A.; White, Duncan; Sharp, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    The generic position of 14 strains of gram-positive bacteria able to use methanol as a growth substrate was determined. All are obligately aerobic, thermotolerant organisms that are able to grow at temperatures of 35 to 60°C. Nine of the strains produce oval spores at a subterminal-to-central

  11. Experimental Space Shuttle Orbiter Studies to Acquire Data for Code and Flight Heating Model Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhams, T. P.; Holden, M. S.; MacLean, M. G.; Campbell, Charles

    2010-01-01

    In an experimental study to obtain detailed heating data over the Space Shuttle Orbiter, CUBRC has completed an extensive matrix of experiments using three distinct models and two unique hypervelocity wind tunnel facilities. This detailed data will be employed to assess heating augmentation due to boundary layer transition on the Orbiter wing leading edge and wind side acreage with comparisons to computational methods and flight data obtained during the Orbiter Entry Boundary Layer Flight Experiment and HYTHIRM during STS-119 reentry. These comparisons will facilitate critical updates to be made to the engineering tools employed to make assessments about natural and tripped boundary layer transition during Orbiter reentry. To achieve the goals of this study data was obtained over a range of Mach numbers from 10 to 18, with flight scaled Reynolds numbers and model attitudes representing key points on the Orbiter reentry trajectory. The first of these studies were performed as an integral part of Return to Flight activities following the accident that occurred during the reentry of the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-107) in February of 2003. This accident was caused by debris, which originated from the foam covering the external tank bipod fitting ramps, striking and damaging critical wing leading edge heating tiles that reside in the Orbiter bow shock/wing interaction region. During investigation of the accident aeroheating team members discovered that only a limited amount of experimental wing leading edge data existed in this critical peak heating area and a need arose to acquire a detailed dataset of heating in this region. This new dataset was acquired in three phases consisting of a risk mitigation phase employing a 1.8% scale Orbiter model with special temperature sensitive paint covering the wing leading edge, a 0.9% scale Orbiter model with high resolution thin-film instrumentation in the span direction, and the primary 1.8% scale Orbiter model with detailed

  12. Thermotolerant Yeasts for Bioethanol Production Using Lignocellulosic Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Chand; Rao, L. Venkateswar

    glucose without a physical and chemical pre-treatment. The pre-treatment processes normally applied on the different substrates are acidic hydrolysis, steam explosion and wet oxidation. A problem for most pretreatment methods is the generation of compounds that are inhibitory towards the fermenting microorganisms, primarily phenols. Degradation products that could have inhibitory action in later fermentation steps are avoided during pre-treatment by wet oxidation. Followed by pre treatment, hydrolysed with enzymes known as cellulases and hemicellulases, which hydrolyse cellulose and hemicellulose respectively. The production of bioethanol requires two steps, fermentation and distillation. Practically all ethanol fermentation is still based on Saccharomyces cerevisiae . The fermentation using thermotolerant yeasts has more advantageous in that they have faster fermentation rates, avoid the cooling costs, and decrease the over all fermentation costs, so that ethanol can be made available at cheaper rates. In addition they can be used for efficient simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose by cellulases because the temperature optimum of cellulase enzymes (about 40 ° C to 45 ° C) is close to the fermentation temperature of thermotolerant yeasts. Hence selection and improvement of thermotolerant yeasts for bioconversion of lignocellulosic substrates is very useful.

  13. Exploring the heat-responsive chaperones and microsatellite markers associated with terminal heat stress tolerance in developing wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ranjeet R; Goswami, Suneha; Shamim, Mohammad; Dubey, Kavita; Singh, Khushboo; Singh, Shweta; Kala, Yugal K; Niraj, Ravi R K; Sakhrey, Akshay; Singh, Gyanendra P; Grover, Monendra; Singh, Bhupinder; Rai, Gyanendra K; Rai, Anil K; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Praveen, Shelly

    2017-11-01

    Global warming is a major threat for agriculture and food security, and in many cases the negative impacts are already apparent. Wheat is one of the most important staple food crops and is highly sensitive to the heat stress (HS) during reproductive and grain-filling stages. Here, whole transcriptome analysis of thermotolerant wheat cv. HD2985 was carried out at the post-anthesis stage under control (22 ± 3 °C) and HS-treated (42 °C, 2 h) conditions using Illumina Hiseq and Roche GS-FLX 454 platforms. We assembled ~24 million (control) and ~23 million (HS-treated) high-quality trimmed reads using different assemblers with optimal parameters. De novo assembly yielded 52,567 (control) and 59,658 (HS-treated) unigenes. We observed 785 transcripts to be upregulated and 431 transcripts to be downregulated under HS; 78 transcripts showed >10-fold upregulation such as HSPs, metabolic pathway-related genes, etc. Maximum number of upregulated genes was observed to be associated with processes such as HS-response, protein-folding, oxidation-reduction and photosynthesis. We identified 2008 and 2483 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers from control and HS-treated samples; 243 SSRs were observed to be overlying on stress-associated genes. Polymorphic study validated four SSRs to be heat-responsive in nature. Expression analysis of identified differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) showed very high fold increase in the expression of catalytic chaperones (HSP26, HSP17, and Rca) in contrasting wheat cvs. HD2985 and HD2329 under HS. We observed positive correlation between RNA-seq and qRT-PCR expression data. The present study culminated in greater understanding of the heat-response of tolerant genotype and has provided good candidate genes for the marker development and screening of wheat germplasm for thermotolerance.

  14. Decreased survival of prostate cancer cells in vitro by combined treatment of heat and an antioxidant inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama-Gonda, Nobuko; Igawa, Mikio; Shiina, Hiroaki; Urakami, Shinji; Terashima, Masaharu

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine a modulation of thermotolerance by treatment with combination of heat and the antioxidant inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) of the PC-3 prostate cancer cells. To determine thermotolerance, cells were heated once or twice. Two 1 h exposures at 43 degrees C, with a recovery period in between, revealed better survival/recovery of cells after the second exposure than after the first (fig. 1A + 1B). Additional experiments were performed, heating cells twice (fig. 1B + 1C). First, cells were heated at 43 degrees C for 1 h and, after various recovery times (intervals) at 37 degree C, subsequently reheated at 44 degrees C for 1 h. To ensure effective cell killing, efficiency of the combined treatments of 1 mM DDC and heating at 43 or 44 degrees C for 1 h was estimated by measuring cell survival, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and heat shock protein 70 (hsp 70) expression. To obtain a more effective method for subsequent heat exposure, cells were heated twice after a 24 h interval in the presence or absence of 1 mM DDC. ROS generation and SOD activity immediately increased correlating with duration of heating, but their levels gently decreased with time after discontinuation of heating. On the other hand, hsp 70 levels slowly increased, also correlating with duration of heating but continued to increase with time after discontinuation of heating for a certain period. DDC administration coupled with heating at 43 or 44 degrees C significantly decreased cell survival compared to heating alone (p DDC as compared to heat alone at 43 and 44 degrees C (p DDC could have potential benefits in the treatment of prostate cancer.

  15. Human risk from thermotolerant Campylobacter on broiler meat in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Nauta, Maarten; Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia

    2013-01-01

    2005 to 2008 in the human risk from Danish produced broiler meat, and a decrease from 2005 to 2010 in the risk from imported chilled meat. This risk reduction coincides with control measures implemented to reduce Campylobacter in Danish and imported chilled broiler meat. The human risk...... providing the most relevant outcome for food safety risk managers.......This paper describes a new approach by which changes over time in the relative risk of human campylobacteriosis from broiler meat are evaluated through quantitative microbiological risk assessment modelling. Danish surveillance data collected at retail from 2001 to 2010 on numbers of thermotolerant...

  16. Analysis of the expression of putative heat-stress related genes in relation to thermotolerance of cork oak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Barbara; Rodriguez, José Luis; Valledor, Luis; Almeida, Tânia; Santos, Conceição; Cañal, Maria Jesús; Pinto, Glória

    2014-03-15

    Cork oak (Quercus suber L.) is a research priority in the Mediterranean area and because of cork oaks' distribution these stands are experiencing daily stress. Based on projections of intensifying climate change and considering the key role of exploring the recovery abilities, cork oak seedlings were subjected to a cumulative temperature increase from 25°C to 55°C and subsequent recovery. CO2 assimilation rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, anthocyanins, proline and lipid peroxidation were used to evaluate plant performance, while the relative abundance of seven genes encoding for proteins of cork oak with a putative role in thermal/stress regulation (POX1, POX2, HSP10.4, HSP17a.22, CHS, MTL and RBC) was analyzed by qPCR (quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction). A temperature change to 35°C showed abundance alterations in the tested genes; at 45°C, the molecular changes were associated with an antioxidant response, possibly modulated by anthocyanins. At 55°C, HSP17a.22, MTL and proline accumulation were evident. After recovery, physiological balance was restored, whereas POX1, HSP10.4 and MTL abundances were suggested to be involved in increased thermotolerance. The data presented here are expected to pinpoint some pathways changes occurring during such stress and further recovery in this particular Mediterranean species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Screening of Pearl Millet F1 Hybrids for Heat Tolerance at Early Seedling Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten pearl millet genotypes selected on the basis of response to supra-optimal temperature tolerance were crossed in a half-diallel mating system. The 45 F1 hybrids produced were tested along with parents for heat tolerance and related traits at seedling stage. Field screening and laboratory screening techniques were simultaneously used for the evaluation of F1 hybrids and their parents. Heat tolerance was measured as seedling thermotolerance index (STI and seed to seedling thermotolerance index (SSTI under field conditions, but membrane thermostability (MTS in the laboratory. The hybrid H77/29-2 × CVJ-2-5-3-1-3 showed highest STI value followed by H77/833-2 × 96AC-93. The genotype H77/833-2 × 96AC-93 had the highest worth for SSTI. These three indices were highly correlated among themselves. STI values were invariably high, whereas SSTI has lower values, as it also covers the effect of under soil mortality (USM. It was seen that the heat tolerance indices STI and SSTI were not showing any perceptible pooled correlation with developmental traits except germination and emergence rate. Based on our results, it could be suggested that membrane thermostability (MTS may be used for screening large number of genotypes. Field based indices STI and SSTI may be used for evaluation of hybrids and varieties before they are released.

  18. Change in algal symbiont communities after bleaching, not prior heat exposure, increases heat tolerance of reef corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Rachel N; Cunning, Ross; Baker, Andrew C

    2015-01-01

    Mutualistic organisms can be particularly susceptible to climate change stress, as their survivorship is often limited by the most vulnerable partner. However, symbiotic plasticity can also help organisms in changing environments by expanding their realized niche space. Coral-algal (Symbiodinium spp.) symbiosis exemplifies this dichotomy: the partnership is highly susceptible to 'bleaching' (stress-induced symbiosis breakdown), but stress-tolerant symbionts can also sometimes mitigate bleaching. Here, we investigate the role of diverse and mutable symbiotic partnerships in increasing corals' ability to thrive in high temperature conditions. We conducted repeat bleaching and recovery experiments on the coral Montastraea cavernosa, and used quantitative PCR and chlorophyll fluorometry to assess the structure and function of Symbiodinium communities within coral hosts. During an initial heat exposure (32 °C for 10 days), corals hosting only stress-sensitive symbionts (Symbiodinium C3) bleached, but recovered (at either 24 °C or 29 °C) with predominantly (>90%) stress-tolerant symbionts (Symbiodinium D1a), which were not detected before bleaching (either due to absence or extreme low abundance). When a second heat stress (also 32 °C for 10 days) was applied 3 months later, corals that previously bleached and were now dominated by D1a Symbiodinium experienced less photodamage and symbiont loss compared to control corals that had not been previously bleached, and were therefore still dominated by Symbiodinium C3. Additional corals that were initially bleached without heat by a herbicide (DCMU, at 24 °C) also recovered predominantly with D1a symbionts, and similarly lost fewer symbionts during subsequent thermal stress. Increased thermotolerance was also not observed in C3-dominated corals that were acclimated for 3 months to warmer temperatures (29 °C) before heat stress. These findings indicate that increased thermotolerance post-bleaching resulted from

  19. Heat-shock responses in two leguminous plants: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, C; Cardemil, L

    2001-08-01

    Relative growth rates, basal and acclimated thermotolerance, membrane damage, fluorescence emission, and relative levels of free and conjugated ubiquitin and HSP70 were compared after 2 h of treatment at different temperatures between Prosopis chilensis and Glycine max (soybean), cv. McCall, to evaluate if the thermotolerance of these two plants was related to levels of accumulation of heat shock proteins. Seedlings of P. chilensis germinated at 25 degrees C and at 35 degrees C and grown at temperatures above germination temperature showed higher relative growth than soybean seedlings treated under the same conditions. The lethal temperature of both species was 50 degrees C after germination at 25 degrees C. However, they were able to grow at 50 degrees C after germination at 35 degrees C. Membrane damage determinations in leaves showed that P. chilensis has an LT(50) 6 degrees C higher than that of soybean. There were no differences in the quantum yield of photosynthesis (F(v)/F(m)), between both plants when the temperatures were raised. P. chilensis showed higher relative levels of free ubiquitin, conjugated ubiquitin and HSP70 than soybean seedlings when the temperatures were raised. Time-course studies of accumulation of these proteins performed at 40 degrees C showed that the relative accumulation rates of ubiquitin, conjugated ubiquitin and HSP70 were higher in P. chilensis than in soybean. In both plants, free ubiquitin decreased during the first 5 min and increased after 30 min of heat shock, conjugated ubiquitin increased after 30 min and HSP70 began to increase dramatically after 20 min of heat shock. From these data it is concluded that P. chilensis is more tolerant to acute heat stress than soybean.

  20. Durum wheat diversity for heat stress tolerance during inflorescence emergence is correlated to TdHSP101C expression in early developmental stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Bento

    Full Text Available The predicted world population increase along with climate changes threatens sustainable agricultural supply in the coming decades. It is therefore vital to understand crops diversity associated to abiotic stress response. Heat stress is considered one of the major constrains on crops productivity thus it is essential to develop new approaches for a precocious and rigorous evaluation of varietal diversity regarding heat tolerance. Plant cell membrane thermostability (CMS is a widely used method for wheat thermotolerance assessment although its limitations require complementary solutions. In this work we used CMS assay and explored TdHSP101C genes as an additional tool for durum wheat screening. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses of TdHSP101C genes were performed in varieties with contrasting CMS results and further correlated with heat stress tolerance during fertilization and seed development. Although the durum wheat varieties studied presented a very high homology on TdHSP101C genes (>99% the transcriptomic assessment allowed the discrimination between varieties with good CMS results and its correlation with differential impacts of heat treatment during inflorescence emergence and seed development on grain yield. The evidences here reported indicate that TdHSP101C transcription levels induced by heat stress in fully expanded leaves may be a promising complementary screening tool to discriminate between durum wheat varieties identified as thermotolerant through CMS.

  1. Transcriptomic analysis of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves during and after recovery from heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Tian; Wang, Jun-Fang; Cramer, Grant; Dai, Zhan-Wu; Duan, Wei; Xu, Hong-Guo; Wu, Ben-Hong; Fan, Pei-Ge; Wang, Li-Jun; Li, Shao-Hua

    2012-09-28

    Grapes are a major fruit crop around the world. Heat stress can significantly reduce grape yield and quality. Changes at the molecular level in response to heat stress and subsequent recovery are poorly understood. To elucidate the effect of heat stress and subsequent recovery on expression of genes by grape leaves representing the classic heat stress response and thermotolerance mechanisms, transcript abundance of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves was quantified using the Affymetrix Grape Genome oligonucleotide microarray (15,700 transcripts), followed by quantitative Real-Time PCR validation for some transcript profiles. We found that about 8% of the total probe sets were responsive to heat stress and/or to subsequent recovery in grape leaves. The heat stress and recovery responses were characterized by different transcriptional changes. The number of heat stress-regulated genes was almost twice the number of recovery-regulated genes. The responsive genes identified in this study belong to a large number of important traits and biological pathways, including cell rescue (i.e., antioxidant enzymes), protein fate (i.e., HSPs), primary and secondary metabolism, transcription factors, signal transduction, and development. We have identified some common genes and heat shock factors (HSFs) that were modulated differentially by heat stress and recovery. Most HSP genes were upregulated by heat stress but were downregulated by the recovery. On the other hand, some specific HSP genes or HSFs were uniquely responsive to heat stress or recovery. The effect of heat stress and recovery on grape appears to be associated with multiple processes and mechanisms including stress-related genes, transcription factors, and metabolism. Heat stress and recovery elicited common up- or downregulated genes as well as unique sets of responsive genes. Moreover, some genes were regulated in opposite directions by heat stress and recovery. The results indicated HSPs, especially small HSPs

  2. Transcriptomic analysis of grape (Vitis vinifera L. leaves during and after recovery from heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Guo-Tian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grapes are a major fruit crop around the world. Heat stress can significantly reduce grape yield and quality. Changes at the molecular level in response to heat stress and subsequent recovery are poorly understood. To elucidate the effect of heat stress and subsequent recovery on expression of genes by grape leaves representing the classic heat stress response and thermotolerance mechanisms, transcript abundance of grape (Vitis vinifera L. leaves was quantified using the Affymetrix Grape Genome oligonucleotide microarray (15,700 transcripts, followed by quantitative Real-Time PCR validation for some transcript profiles. Results We found that about 8% of the total probe sets were responsive to heat stress and/or to subsequent recovery in grape leaves. The heat stress and recovery responses were characterized by different transcriptional changes. The number of heat stress-regulated genes was almost twice the number of recovery-regulated genes. The responsive genes identified in this study belong to a large number of important traits and biological pathways, including cell rescue (i.e., antioxidant enzymes, protein fate (i.e., HSPs, primary and secondary metabolism, transcription factors, signal transduction, and development. We have identified some common genes and heat shock factors (HSFs that were modulated differentially by heat stress and recovery. Most HSP genes were upregulated by heat stress but were downregulated by the recovery. On the other hand, some specific HSP genes or HSFs were uniquely responsive to heat stress or recovery. Conclusion The effect of heat stress and recovery on grape appears to be associated with multiple processes and mechanisms including stress-related genes, transcription factors, and metabolism. Heat stress and recovery elicited common up- or downregulated genes as well as unique sets of responsive genes. Moreover, some genes were regulated in opposite directions by heat stress and recovery

  3. Decontamination of drinking water by direct heating in solar panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjendbo Jørgensen, A J; Nøhr, K; Sørensen, H; Boisen, F

    1998-09-01

    A device was developed for direct heating of water by solar radiation in a flow-through system of copper pipes. An adjustable thermostat valve prevents water below the chosen temperature from being withdrawn. The results show that it is possible to eliminate coliform and thermotolerant coliform bacteria from naturally contaminated river water by heating to temperatures of 65 degrees C or above. Artificial additions of Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli to contaminated river water were also inactivated after heating to 65 degrees C and above. The total viable count could be reduced by a factor of 1000. The heat-resistant bacteria isolated from the Mlalakuva River (Tanzania) were spore-forming bacteria which exhibited greater heat resistance than commonly used test bacteria originating from countries with colder climates. To provide a good safety margin it is recommended that an outlet water temperature of 75 degrees C be used. At that temperature the daily production was about 501 of decontaminated water per m2 of solar panel, an amount that could be doubled by using a heat exchanger to recycle the heat.

  4. [Cultural detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in food--potentials and limitations of diagnostic tools in the context of official food control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messelhäusser, Ute; Thärigen, Diana; Fella, Christiane; Schreiner, Hermann; Busch, Ulrich; Höller, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. rank among the most important foodborne pathogens in Germany. Therefore a necessity for rapid and routinely useable detection methods exists also in the area of food microbiology. A reliable, cultura qualitative, but also quantitative detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. pose a challenge, at least concerning special food matrices, especially because in the context of official food control the cultural detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. is needed. This was the reason, why different cultural detection methods, beside the standard procedure of ISO 10272:2006, in combination with molecular and immunological screening methods were tested at the Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority (LGL) during the last years for the use in routine diagnostic using different food matrices of animal and plant origin. The results of the comparative studies showed clearly that no enrichment broth tested gave completely satisfactory results for an only culture-based detection the combination with a screening method is therefore recommended for a rapid and reliable detection. But in this case the user should take into account that the sensitivity of such molecular and immunological methods is normally so high that in some cases, depending on the food matrix and processing step, the isolation of the pathogen would not be possible in samples, which were positive in the screening methods.

  5. Contributory roles of two l-lactate dehydrogenases for l-lactic acid production in thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lifan; Zhang, Caili; Lyu, Pengcheng; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Limin; Yu, Bo

    2016-11-25

    Thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans is considered to be a more promising producer for bio-chemicals, due to its capacity to withstand harsh conditions. Two L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) encoding genes (ldhL1 and ldhL2) and one D-LDH encoding gene (ldhD) were annotated from the B. coagulans DSM1 genome. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the expression of ldhL2 was undetectable while the ldhL1 transcription level was much higher than that of ldhD at all growth phases. Deletion of the ldhL2 gene revealed no difference in fermentation profile compared to the wild-type strain, while ldhL1 single deletion or ldhL1ldhL2 double deletion completely blocked L-lactic acid production. Complementation of ldhL1 in the above knockout strains restored fermentation profiles to those observed in the wild-type strain. This study demonstrates ldhL1 is crucial for L-lactic acid production and NADH balance in B. coagulans DSM1 and lays the fundamental for engineering the thermotolerant B. coagulans strain as a platform chemicals producer.

  6. Transcriptome analysis of the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus CCT 7735 under ethanol stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Raphael Hermano Santos; Villada, Juan C; Alvim, Mariana Caroline Tocantins; Vidigal, Pedro Marcus Pereira; Vieira, Nívea Moreira; Lamas-Maceiras, Mónica; Cerdán, María Esperanza; González-Siso, María-Isabel; Lahtvee, Petri-Jaan; da Silveira, Wendel Batista

    2017-09-01

    The thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus displays a potential to be used for ethanol production from both whey and lignocellulosic biomass at elevated temperatures, which is highly alluring to reduce the cost of the bioprocess. Nevertheless, contrary to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, K. marxianus cannot tolerate high ethanol concentrations. We report the transcriptional profile alterations in K. marxianus under ethanol stress in order to gain insights about mechanisms involved with ethanol response. Time-dependent changes have been characterized under the exposure of 6% ethanol and compared with the unstressed cells prior to the ethanol addition. Our results reveal that the metabolic flow through the central metabolic pathways is impaired under the applied ethanol stress. Consistent with these results, we also observe that genes involved with ribosome biogenesis are downregulated and gene-encoding heat shock proteins are upregulated. Remarkably, the expression of some gene-encoding enzymes related to unsaturated fatty acid and ergosterol biosynthesis decreases upon ethanol exposure, and free fatty acid and ergosterol measurements demonstrate that their content in K. marxianus does not change under this stress. These results are in contrast to the increase previously reported with S. cerevisiae subjected to ethanol stress and suggest that the restructuration of K. marxianus membrane composition differs in the two yeasts which gives important clues to understand the low ethanol tolerance of K. marxianus compared to S. cerevisiae.

  7. A new search for thermotolerant yeasts, its characterization and optimization using response surface methodology for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Richa; Behera, Shuvashish; Sharma, Nilesh K; Kumar, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    The progressive rise in energy crisis followed by green house gas (GHG) emissions is serving as the driving force for bioethanol production from renewable resources. Current bioethanol research focuses on lignocellulosic feedstocks as these are abundantly available, renewable, sustainable and exhibit no competition between the crops for food and fuel. However, the technologies in use have some drawbacks including incapability of pentose fermentation, reduced tolerance to products formed, costly processes, etc. Therefore, the present study was carried out with the objective of isolating hexose and pentose fermenting thermophilic/thermotolerant ethanologens with acceptable product yield. Two thermotolerant isolates, NIRE-K1 and NIRE-K3 were screened for fermenting both glucose and xylose and identified as Kluyveromyces marxianus NIRE-K1 and K. marxianus NIRE-K3. After optimization using Face-centered Central Composite Design (FCCD), the growth parameters like temperature and pH were found to be 45.17°C and 5.49, respectively for K. marxianus NIRE-K1 and 45.41°C and 5.24, respectively for K. marxianus NIRE-K3. Further, batch fermentations were carried out under optimized conditions, where K. marxianus NIRE-K3 was found to be superior over K. marxianus NIRE-K1. Ethanol yield (Y x∕s ), sugar to ethanol conversion rate (%), microbial biomass concentration (X) and volumetric product productivity (Q p ) obtained by K. marxianus NIRE-K3 were found to be 9.3, 9.55, 14.63, and 31.94% higher than that of K. marxianus NIRE-K1, respectively. This study revealed the promising potential of both the screened thermotolerant isolates for bioethanol production.

  8. A new search for thermotolerant yeasts, its characterization and optimization using response surface methodology for ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa eArora

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The progressive rise in energy crisis followed by green house gas (GHG emissions is serving as the driving force for bioethanol production from renewable resources. Current bioethanol research focuses on lignocellulosic feedstocks as these are abundantly available, renewable, sustainable and exhibit no competition between the crops for food and fuel. However, the technologies in use have some drawbacks including incapability of pentose fermentation, reduced tolerance to products formed, costly processes, etc. Therefore, the present study was carried out with the objective of isolating hexose and pentose fermenting thermophilic/ thermotolerant ethanologens with acceptable product yield. Two thermotolerant isolates, NIRE-K1 and NIRE-K3 were screened for fermenting both glucose and xylose and identified as Kluyveromyces marxianus NIRE-K1 and K. marxianus NIRE-K3. After optimization using FCCD (Face-centered Central Composite Design, the growth parameters like temperature and pH were found to be 45.17 oC and 5.49, respectively for K. marxianus NIRE-K1 and 45.41 oC and 5.24, respectively for K. marxianus NIRE-K3. Further, batch fermentations were carried out under optimized conditions, where K. marxianus NIRE-K3 was found to be superior over K. marxianus NIRE-K1. Ethanol yield (Yx/s, sugar to ethanol conversion rate (%, microbial biomass concentration (X and volumetric product productivity (Qp obtained by K. marxianus NIRE-K3 were found to be 9.3%, 9.55%, 14.63% and 31.94% higher than that of K. marxianus NIRE-K1, respectively. This study revealed the promising potential of both the screened thermotolerant isolates for bioethanol production.

  9. Genetic diversity of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. isolates from different stages of the poultry meat supply chain in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbrun, María V; Romero-Scharpen, Analía; Olivero, Carolina; Zimmermann, Jorge A; Rossler, Eugenia; Soto, Lorena P; Astesana, Diego M; Blajman, Jesica E; Berisvil, Ayelén; Frizzo, Laureano S; Signorini, Marcelo L

    The objective of this study was to investigate a clonal relationship among thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. isolates from different stages of the poultry meat supply chain in Argentina. A total of 128 thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. (89 C. jejuni and 39 C. coli) isolates from six poultry meat chains were examined. These isolates were from: a) hens from breeder flocks, b) chickens on the farm (at ages 1 wk and 5 wk), c) chicken carcasses in the slaughterhouse, and d) chicken carcasses in the retail market. Chickens sampled along each food chain were from the same batch. Campylobacter spp. isolates were analyzed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to compare different profiles according to the source. Clustering of C. jejuni isolates resulted in 17 profiles, with four predominant genotypes and many small profiles with just a few isolates or unique patterns, showing a very high degree of heterogeneity among the C. jejuni isolates. Some clusters included isolates from different stages within the same chain, which would indicate a spread of strains along the same poultry meat chain. Moreover, twenty-two strains of C. coli clustered in seven groups and the remaining 17 isolates exhibited unique profiles. Evidence for transmission of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. through the food chain and cross contamination in the slaughterhouses were obtained. This collective evidence should be considered as the scientific basis to implement risk management measures to protect the public health. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative proteomic analysis of the thermotolerant plant Portulaca oleracea acclimation to combined high temperature and humidity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunqiang; Chen, Jinhui; Liu, Qi; Ben, Cécile; Todd, Christopher D; Shi, Jisen; Yang, Yongping; Hu, Xiangyang

    2012-07-06

    Elevated temperature and humidity are major environmental factors limiting crop yield and distribution. An understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance to high temperature and humidity may facilitate the development of cultivars adaptable to warm or humid regions. Under conditions of 90% humidity and 35 °C, the thermotolerant plant Portulaca oleracea exhibits excellent photosynthetic capability and relatively little oxidative damage. To determine the proteomic response that occurs in leaves of P. oleracea following exposure to high temperature and high humidity, a proteomic approach was performed to identify protein changes. A total of 51 differentially expressed proteins were detected and characterized functionally and structurally; these identified proteins were involved in various functional categories, mainly including material and energy metabolism, the antioxidant defense responses, protein destination and storage, and transcriptional regulation. The subset of antioxidant defense-related proteins demonstrated marked increases in activity with exposure to heat and humidity, which led to lower accumulations of H(2)O(2) and O(2)(-) in P. oleracea compared with the thermosensitive plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The quickly accumulations of proline content and heat-shock proteins, and depleting abscisic acid (ABA) via increasing ABA-8'-hydroxylase were also found in P. oleracea under stress conditions, that resulted into greater stomata conductance and respiration rates. On the basis of these findings, we propose that P. oleracea employs multiple strategies to enhance its adaptation to high-temperature and high-humidity conditions.

  11. Changes in antioxidants are critical in determining cell responses to short- and long-term heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgobba, Alessandra; Paradiso, Annalisa; Dipierro, Silvio; De Gara, Laura; de Pinto, Maria Concetta

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress can have deleterious effects on plant growth by impairing several physiological processes. Plants have several defense mechanisms that enable them to cope with high temperatures. The synthesis and accumulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs), as well as the maintenance of an opportune redox balance play key roles in conferring thermotolerance to plants. In this study changes in redox parameters, the activity and/or expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes and the expression of two HSPs were studied in tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (TBY-2) cells subjected to moderate short-term heat stress (SHS) and long-term heat stress (LHS). The results indicate that TBY-2 cells subjected to SHS suddenly and transiently enhance antioxidant systems, thus maintaining redox homeostasis and avoiding oxidative damage. The simultaneous increase in HSPs overcomes the SHS and maintains the metabolic functionality of cells. In contrast the exposure of cells to LHS significantly reduces cell growth and increases cell death. In the first phase of LHS, cells enhance antioxidant systems to prevent the formation of an oxidizing environment. Under prolonged heat stress, the antioxidant systems, and particularly the enzymatic ones, are inactivated. As a consequence, an increase in H2 O2 , lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation occurs. This establishment of oxidative stress could be responsible for the increased cell death. The rescue of cell growth and cell viability, observed when TBY-2 cells were pretreated with galactone-γ-lactone, the last precursor of ascorbate, and glutathione before exposure to LHS, highlights the crucial role of antioxidants in the acquisition of basal thermotolerance. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  12. Biopretreatment of palm oil mill effluent by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Ukita

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil industry is one of the three major agro-industries in Southern Thailand and generates large quantities of effluent with high organic matter (BOD and COD values of 58,000 and 110,000 mg/l, respectively, total solids and suspended solids (70,000 and 40,000 mg/l, respectively, oil & grease (25,600 mg/l, and has a low pH (4.5. Conventional anaerobic ponding system is normally employed in palm oil mills to treat the effluent. To increase its efficiency, biopretreatment to remove the organic matter and oil & grease by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi was investigated. The palm oil mill effluent (POME was treated by the two thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi, Rhizopus sp. ST4 and Rhizopus sp. ST29, at 45ºC under aseptic and septic conditions. Rhizopus sp. ST4 gave the same oil & grease removal (84.2% under both conditions but COD removal under septic condition (62.2% was 8.8% higher than that under aseptic condition (53.4%. On the contrary, Rhizopus sp. ST 29 under aseptic condition showed 11% and 25.4% higher oil & grease removal (91.4% and COD removal (66.0% than those under septic condition. Comparison between the two isolates under aseptic condition revealed that Rhizopus sp. ST29 exhibited higher oil & grease removal (91.4% as well as COD removal (66.0% than those of Rhizopus sp. ST4 (84.2% and 53.4%, respectively. Under septic condition, Rhizopus sp. ST4 gave higher oil & grease removal (84.2% and COD removal (62.2% than did Rhizopus sp. ST 29 (80.5 and 40.6%, respectively.

  13. Overexpression of wheat ferritin gene TaFER-5B enhances tolerance to heat stress and other abiotic stresses associated with the ROS scavenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xinshan; Geng, Xiaoli; Wang, Fei; Liu, Zhenshan; Zhang, Liyuan; Zhao, Yue; Tian, Xuejun; Ni, Zhongfu; Yao, Yingyin; Xin, Mingming; Hu, Zhaorong; Sun, Qixin; Peng, Huiru

    2017-01-14

    The yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), an important crop, is adversely affected by heat stress in many regions of the world. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying thermotolerance are largely unknown. A novel ferritin gene, TaFER, was identified from our previous heat stress-responsive transcriptome analysis of a heat-tolerant wheat cultivar (TAM107). TaFER was mapped to chromosome 5B and named TaFER-5B. Expression pattern analysis revealed that TaFER-5B was induced by heat, polyethylene glycol (PEG), H 2 O 2 and Fe-ethylenediaminedi(o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA). To confirm the function of TaFER-5B in wheat, TaFER-5B was transformed into the wheat cultivar Jimai5265 (JM5265), and the transgenic plants exhibited enhanced thermotolerance. To examine whether the function of ferritin from mono- and dico-species is conserved, TaFER-5B was transformed into Arabidopsis, and overexpression of TaFER-5B functionally complemented the heat stress-sensitive phenotype of a ferritin-lacking mutant of Arabidopsis. Moreover, TaFER-5B is essential for protecting cells against heat stress associated with protecting cells against ROS. In addition, TaFER-5B overexpression also enhanced drought, oxidative and excess iron stress tolerance associated with the ROS scavenging. Finally, TaFER-5B transgenic Arabidopsis and wheat plants exhibited improved leaf iron content. Our results suggest that TaFER-5B plays an important role in enhancing tolerance to heat stress and other abiotic stresses associated with the ROS scavenging.

  14. Genetic and epigenetic control of plant heat responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junzhong eLiu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved sophisticated genetic and epigenetic regulatory systems to respond quickly to unfavorable environmental conditions such as heat, cold, drought, and pathogen infections. In particular, heat greatly affects plant growth and development, immunity and circadian rhythm, and poses a serious threat to the global food supply. According to temperatures exposing, heat can be usually classified as warm ambient temperature (about 22-27℃, high temperature (27-30℃ and extremely high temperature (37-42℃, also known as heat stress for the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The genetic mechanisms of plant responses to heat have been well studied, mainly focusing on elevated ambient temperature-mediated morphological acclimation and acceleration of flowering, modulation of plant immunity and circadian clock by high temperatures, and thermotolerance to heat stress. Recently, great progress has been achieved on epigenetic regulation of heat responses, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, histone variants, ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling, histone chaperones, small RNAs, long non-coding RNAs and other undefined epigenetic mechanisms. These epigenetic modifications regulate the expression of heat-responsive genes and function to prevent heat-related damage. This review focuses on recent progresses regarding the genetic and epigenetic control of heat responses in plants, and pays more attention to the role of the major epigenetic mechanisms in plant heat responses. Further research perspectives are also discussed.

  15. Characterization and radiation response of a heat-resistant variant of V79 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, S.D.; Kruuv, J.; Lepock, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A thermoresistant variant of the established cell line V79-S171-W1 was isolated after treatment with nitrosoguanidine and repeated heat treatments at 42.6 to 43 degrees C, and showed an enhanced ability to survive at 42.6, 43.5, and 44.5 degrees C. The rates of inactivation of the normal and heat-resistant lines differed by approximately a factor of 2 over this temperature range. This level of thermoresistance was stable for the first 80 doublings, but was lost by 120 doublings. This may have been due to a reversion to the normal V79 line since there was no continuous selection pressure and the thermoresistant variant, which was designated at HR7, had a longer average doubling time. Transient thermotolerance was induced in both the V79 and HR7 cells by a 10-min exposure to 44.5 degrees C. After 3 hr incubation at 37 degrees C, both cell lines had an identical sensitivity to further exposure to 44.5 degrees C. Thus the long-term thermoresistance of the HR7 cells may be due to a permanent induction of a low level of thermotolerance. The (ionizing) radiation survival curves and the ability to repair sublethal radiation damage were identical for the thermoresistant variant and the parent cell line

  16. Characterization of CaHsp70-1, a Pepper Heat-Shock Protein Gene in Response to Heat Stress and Some Regulation Exogenous Substances in Capsicum annuum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meng; Zhai, Yu-Fei; Lu, Jin-Ping; Chai, Lin; Chai, Wei-Guo; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Lu, Ming-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is sensitive to heat stress (HS). Heat shock proteins 70 (Hsp70s) play a crucial role in protecting plant cells against HS and control varies characters in different plants. However, CaHsp70-1 gene was not well characterized in pepper. In this study, CaHsp70-1 was cloned from the pepper thermotolerant line R9, which encoded a protein of 652 amino acids, with a molecular weight of 71.54 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.20. CaHsp70-1 belongs to the cytosolic Hsp70 subgroup, and best matched with tomato SlHsp70. CaHsp70-1 was highly induced in root, stem, leaf and flower in R9 with HS treatment (40 °C for 2 h). In both thermosensitive line B6 and thermotolerant line R9, CaHsp70-1 significantly increased after 0.5 h of HS (40 °C), and maintained in a higher level after 4 h HS. The expression of CaHsp70-1 induced by CaCl2, H2O2 and putrescine (Put) under HS were difference between B6 and R9 lines. The different expression patterns may be related to the differences in promoters of CaHsp70-1 from the two lines. These results suggest that CaHsp70-1 as a member of cytosolic Hsp70 subgroup, may be involved in HS defense response via a signal transduction pathway contained Ca2+, H2O2 and Put. PMID:25356507

  17. Genome-wide analysis identifies chickpea (Cicer arietinum) heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) responsive to heat stress at the pod development stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaranathan, Parameswaran; Jagannadham, Prasanth Tej Kumar; Satheesh, Viswanathan; Kohli, Deshika; Basavarajappa, Santosh Halasabala; Chellapilla, Bharadwaj; Kumar, Jitendra; Jain, Pradeep Kumar; Srinivasan, R

    2018-05-01

    The heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) play a prominent role in thermotolerance and eliciting the heat stress response in plants. Identification and expression analysis of Hsfs gene family members in chickpea would provide valuable information on heat stress responsive Hsfs. A genome-wide analysis of Hsfs gene family resulted in the identification of 22 Hsf genes in chickpea in both desi and kabuli genome. Phylogenetic analysis distinctly separated 12 A, 9 B, and 1 C class Hsfs, respectively. An analysis of cis-regulatory elements in the upstream region of the genes identified many stress responsive elements such as heat stress elements (HSE), abscisic acid responsive element (ABRE) etc. In silico expression analysis showed nine and three Hsfs were also expressed in drought and salinity stresses, respectively. Q-PCR expression analysis of Hsfs under heat stress at pod development and at 15 days old seedling stage showed that CarHsfA2, A6, and B2 were significantly upregulated in both the stages of crop growth and other four Hsfs (CarHsfA2, A6a, A6c, B2a) showed early transcriptional upregulation for heat stress at seedling stage of chickpea. These subclasses of Hsfs identified in this study can be further evaluated as candidate genes in the characterization of heat stress response in chickpea.

  18. BPM-CUL3 E3 ligase modulates thermotolerance by facilitating negative regulatory domain-mediated degradation of DREB2A in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Kyoko; Ohama, Naohiko; Kidokoro, Satoshi; Mizoi, Junya; Takahashi, Fuminori; Todaka, Daisuke; Mogami, Junro; Sato, Hikaru; Qin, Feng; Kim, June-Sik; Fukao, Yoichiro; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2017-10-03

    DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN 2A (DREB2A) acts as a key transcription factor in both drought and heat stress tolerance in Arabidopsis and induces the expression of many drought- and heat stress-inducible genes. Although DREB2A expression itself is induced by stress, the posttranslational regulation of DREB2A, including protein stabilization, is required for its transcriptional activity. The deletion of a 30-aa central region of DREB2A known as the negative regulatory domain (NRD) transforms DREB2A into a stable and constitutively active form referred to as DREB2A CA. However, the molecular basis of this stabilization and activation has remained unknown for a decade. Here we identified BTB/POZ AND MATH DOMAIN proteins (BPMs), substrate adaptors of the Cullin3 (CUL3)-based E3 ligase, as DREB2A-interacting proteins. We observed that DREB2A and BPMs interact in the nuclei, and that the NRD of DREB2A is sufficient for its interaction with BPMs. BPM -knockdown plants exhibited increased DREB2A accumulation and induction of DREB2A target genes under heat and drought stress conditions. Genetic analysis indicated that the depletion of BPM expression conferred enhanced thermotolerance via DREB2A stabilization. Thus, the BPM-CUL3 E3 ligase is likely the long-sought factor responsible for NRD-dependent DREB2A degradation. Through the negative regulation of DREB2A stability, BPMs modulate the heat stress response and prevent an adverse effect of excess DREB2A on plant growth. Furthermore, we found the BPM recognition motif in various transcription factors, implying a general contribution of BPM-mediated proteolysis to divergent cellular responses via an accelerated turnover of transcription factors.

  19. Validation of a PCR-based method for detection of food-borne thermotolerant Campylobacters in a multicenter collaborative trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Cook, N.; D'Agostino, M.

    2004-01-01

    A PCR-based method for rapid detection of food-borne thermotolerant campylobacters was evaluated through a collaborative trial with 12 laboratories testing spiked carcass rinse samples. The method showed an interlaboratory diagnostic sensitivity of 96.7% and a diagnostic specificity of 100% for c......% for chicken samples, while these values were 94.2 and 83.3%, respectively, for pig samples....

  20. Continuous D-lactic acid production by a novel thermotolerant Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis QU 41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Yukihiro; Kaneko, Wataru; Sun, Yanqi; Shibata, Keisuke; Inokuma, Kentaro; Zendo, Takeshi; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2011-03-01

    We isolated and characterized a D-lactic acid-producing lactic acid bacterium (D-LAB), identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis QU 41. When compared to Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens JCM 1166 (T) and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis JCM 1248 (T), which are also known as D-LAB, the QU 41 strain exhibited a high thermotolerance and produced D-lactic acid at temperatures of 50 °C and higher. In order to optimize the culture conditions of the QU 41 strain, we examined the effects of pH control, temperature, neutralizing reagent, and initial glucose concentration on D-lactic acid production in batch cultures. It was found that the optimal production of 20.1 g/l D-lactic acid was acquired with high optical purity (>99.9% of D-lactic acid) in a pH 6.0-controlled batch culture, by adding ammonium hydroxide as a neutralizing reagent, at 43 °C in MRS medium containing 20 g/l glucose. As a result of product inhibition and low cell density, continuous cultures were investigated using a microfiltration membrane module to recycle flow-through cells in order to improve D-lactic acid productivity. At a dilution rate of 0.87 h(-1), the high cell density continuous culture exhibited the highest D-lactic acid productivity of 18.0 g/l/h with a high yield (ca. 1.0 g/g consumed glucose) and a low residual glucose (<0.1 g/l) in comparison with systems published to date.

  1. The occurrence of heat-resistant species of .i.Trichophaea abundans./i. in different types of soil in Slovakia and Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimonovičová, A.; Nováková, Alena; Pangallo, D.; Hnátová, V.; Hubka, Vít

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 2 (2014), s. 168-172 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/0536 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/0156/11; Ministerstvo školstva, vedy výskumu a športu SR(SK) ITMS 26240120004 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : burned soil * gradually heated and saturated soil sample * thermotolerance Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.827, year: 2014

  2. MicroRNA160 Modulates Plant Development and Heat Shock Protein Gene Expression to Mediate Heat Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Shane Lin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is causing a negative impact on plant growth and adversely impacts on crop yield. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are critical in regulating the expression of genes involved in plant development as well as defense responses. The effects of miRNAs on heat-stressed Arabidopsis warrants further investigation. Heat stress increased the expression of miR160 and its precursors but considerably reduced that of its targets, ARF10, ARF16, and ARF17. To study the roles of miR160 during heat stress, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing miR160 precursor a (160OE and artificial miR160 (MIM160, which mimics an inhibitor of miR160, were created. T-DNA insertion mutants of miR160 targets were also used to examine their tolerances to heat stress. Results presented that overexpressing miR160 improved seed germination and seedling survival under heat stress. The lengths of hypocotyl elongation and rachis were also longer in 160OE than the wild-type (WT plants under heat stress. Interestingly, MIM160 plants showed worse adaption to heat. In addition, arf10, arf16, and arf17 mutants presented similar phenotypes to 160OE under heat stress to advance abilities of thermotolerance. Moreover, transcriptome and qRT-PCR analyses revealed that HSP17.6A, HSP17.6II, HSP21, and HSP70B expression levels were regulated by heat in 160OE, MIM160, arf10, arf16, and arf17 plants. Hence, miR160 altered the expression of the heat shock proteins and plant development to allow plants to survive heat stress.

  3. Screening of thermotolerant microorganisms and application for oil separation from palm oil mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aran H-Kittikun

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of palm oil mill wastewater (POMW were brown color, pH 3.8-4.3, temperature 48-55oC, total solids 68.2-82.1 g/l, suspended solids 26.2-65.6 g/l, oil and grease 19.1-25.1 g/l, COD 49.9-160.7g/l and BOD 32.5-75.3 g/l. After centrifugation (3,184 xg of 50 ml POMW for 10 min, the POMW was separated into 3 layers: top (oil, middle (supernatant and bottom layer (sediment. The sediment containeddry weight 1.19 g and oil and grease 1.07 g. In order to release oil and grease trapped in palm fiber debris in the POMW, cellulase- and/or xylanase-enzyme-producing and thermotolerant microorganisms wereisolated. The isolates SO1 and SO2 were isolated from soil near the first anaerobic pond of the palm oil mill. They were aerobic, Gram positive, rod shaped, thermotolerant microorganisms and produced cellulase 12.11 U/ml (3 days and 7.2 U/ml (4 days, and xylanase 50.98 U/ml (4 days and 20.42 U/ml (4 days, respectivelyin synthetic medium containing carboxymethycellulose as a carbon source. When these 2 isolates were added into the steriled POMW under shaking condition for 7 days, after centrifugation at 3,184 xg the isolate SO1gave the better % reduction of dry weight (64.66 % and of oil and grease in the bottom layer (85.32 % of the POMW.

  4. Protein-directed modulation of high-LET hyperthermic radiosensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, P.Y.

    1991-01-01

    A pair of Chinese Hamster Ovary cell lines, the wild-type CHO-SC1, and its temperature-sensitive mutant (CHO-tsH1) was used to examine the importance of protein synthesis in the development of thermotolerance. The classical biphasic thermotolerant survival response to hyperthermia was observed in the SC1 cells after continuous heating at 41.5C to 42.5C, while tsH1 showed no thermotolerance. In separate experiments, each cell line was triggered and challenged at 45C. The heat doses were separated with graded incubaton periods at 35C or 40C for thermotolerance development. SC1 cells expressed thermoresistance, with the synthesis of heat shock proteins, under both incubation conditions. tsH1 cells expressed thermotolerance similar to that seen in the SC1 cells when incubated at 35C, but the survival response with the non-permissive 40C incubation was much reduced in the absence of protein synthesis. The combined effects of heavy-ion radiation and hyperthermia were examined using the same cell system. A mild heat dose of 41.5C was used in conjunction with Neon particle radiation of various high LET values. The cell killing effects were highly dependent on the sequence of application of heat and Neon radiation. Heat applied immediately after Neon irradiation was more cytotoxic to SC1 cells than when heat was applied prior to the irradiation. The ability of cells to synthesize new proteins plays a key role in this sequence-dependent thermal radiosensitization. In the absence of protein synthesis in the tsH1 cells, the high-LET thermal enhancement for cell-killing was unchanged regardless of the sequence. In the presence of protein synthetic activity in the SC1 cells, the thermal enhancement of radiation-induced cell killing was LET-dependent

  5. Evaluation of data from the literature on the transport and survival of Escherichia coli and thermotolerant coliforms in aquifers under saturated conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foppen, J W A; Schijven, J F

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli and thermotolerant coliforms are of major importance as indicators of fecal contamination of water. Due to its negative surface charge and relatively low die-off or inactivation rate coefficient, E. coli is able to travel long distances underground and is therefore also a useful

  6. Removal of Total Coliforms, Thermotolerant Coliforms, and Helminth Eggs in Swine Production Wastewater Treated in Anaerobic and Aerobic Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarias Sylvestre, Silvia Helena; Lux Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme; de Oliveira, Roberto Alves

    2014-01-01

    The present work evaluated the performance of two treatment systems in reducing indicators of biological contamination in swine production wastewater. System I consisted of two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, with 510 and 209 L in volume, being serially arranged. System II consisted of a UASB reactor, anaerobic filter, trickling filter, and decanter, being also organized in series, with volumes of 300, 190, 250, and 150 L, respectively. Hydraulic retention times (HRT) applied in the first UASB reactors were 40, 30, 20, and 11 h in systems I and II. The average removal efficiencies of total and thermotolerant coliforms in system I were 92.92% to 99.50% and 94.29% to 99.56%, respectively, and increased in system II to 99.45% to 99.91% and 99.52% to 99.93%, respectively. Average removal rates of helminth eggs in system I were 96.44% to 99.11%, reaching 100% as in system II. In reactor sludge, the counts of total and thermotolerant coliforms ranged between 105 and 109 MPN (100 mL)−1, while helminth eggs ranged from 0.86 to 9.27 eggs g−1 TS. PMID:24812560

  7. Production of fuel ethanol from molasses by thermotolerant yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    A thermotolerant strain of the yeast Kluyveromyces marxians, isolated from Kenana sugar factory in the Sudan, was used for the production of ethanol from molasses. Fermentations were carried out in a bioreactor with 10-litre working volume at three temperatures and three sugar concentrations in batch and at one temperature and three feeding rates in fed-batch processes. In the batch fermentations, the best results were obtained at 40 o C and 20% sugar, where a maximum of 9.2% (w/v) ethanol concentration was produced in 30 hours with a yield of 90% of the theoretical and a maximum ethanol specific productivity of 0.65 g per gramme yeast and hour. In the fed-batch process at 40 o C , the best results were obtained at 0.5 1/h feeding rate of a substrate with 400 g/1 sugar. Under such conditions, the yeast produced up to 9.34% (w/v) ethanol with 91.6% of the theoretical yield in 14 hours of fermentation and a maximum specific ethanol productivity of 0.9 g per gramme yeast and hour. (Author)

  8. Life span effects of Hypericum perforatum extracts on Caenorhabditis elegans under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıçgün, Hasan; Göksen, Gülden

    2012-10-01

    The beneficial effects of antioxidants in plants are mainly extrapolated from in vitro studies or short-term dietary supplementation studies. Due to cost and duration, relatively little is known about whether dietary antioxidants are beneficial in whole animals' life span or not. To address this question, under heat stress (35°C), Hypericum perforatum was extracted with petroleum ether and the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to three different extract concentrations (1mg/mL, 0.1mg/mL, 0.01mg/mL) of H. perforatum. We report that Hypericum perforatum extracts did not increase life span and slow aging related increase in C. elegans. Moreover, one fraction (1mg/mL) increased declines of C. elegans life span and thermotolerance. Given this mounting evidence for life span role of H. perforatum in the presence of heat stress in vivo, the question whether H. perforatum acts as a prooxidant or an antioxidant in vivo under heat stress arises.

  9. Arctigenin from Fructus Arctii is a novel suppressor of heat shock response in mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Keiichi; Yamagishi, Nobuyuki; Saito, Youhei; Takasaki, Midori; Konoshima, Takao; Hatayama, Takumi

    2006-01-01

    Because heat shock proteins (Hsps) are involved in protecting cells and in the pathophysiology of diseases such as inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders, the use of regulators of the expression of Hsps in mammalian cells seems to be useful as a potential therapeutic modality. To identify compounds that modulate the response to heat shock, we analyzed several natural products using a mammalian cell line containing an hsp promoter-regulated reporter gene. In this study, we found that an extract from Fructus Arctii markedly suppressed the expression of Hsp induced by heat shock. A component of the extract arctigenin, but not the component arctiin, suppressed the response at the level of the activation of heat shock transcription factor, the induction of mRNA, and the synthesis and accumulation of Hsp. Furthermore, arctigenin inhibited the acquisition of thermotolerance in mammalian cells, including cancer cells. Thus, arctigenin seemed to be a new suppressive regulator of heat shock response in mammalian cells, and may be useful for hyperthermia cancer therapy. PMID:16817321

  10. The response of previously irradiated mouse skin to heat alone or combined with irradiation: influence of thermotolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wondergem, J.; Haveman, J.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of previous x-irradiation on the response to hyperthermia (44 0 C), x-irradiation, and irradiation combined with hyperthermia (43 0 C or 44 0 C) was studied in mouse foot skin. Irradiation of mice feet 90 days before, with 20 Gy, increased the subsequent response to heat alone, or combined with irradiation, as well as to irradiation alone. It had little effect on the thermal enhancement ratios for both acute and late skin reactions. Memory of the previous irradiation treatment could be masked when the temperature of the subsequent heat treatment alone, or combined with irradiation, was 44 0 C. Priming heat treatment induced resistance to a subsequent heat treatment and to a subsequent combined irradiation-heat treatment in normal as well as previously irradiated skin. When late skin reaction was considered, a larger 'memory' of the previous irradiation treatment was always evident, compared to acute skin reaction: the 'remembered' dose in the late skin reaction was about twice the 'remembered' dose in the acute reaction. (U.K.)

  11. Forkhead Box M1 Is Regulated by Heat Shock Factor 1 and Promotes Glioma Cells Survival under Heat Shock Stress*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Bingbing; Gong, Aihua; Jing, Zhitao; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Kang, Shin-Hyuk; Sawaya, Raymond; Huang, Suyun

    2013-01-01

    The forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) is a key transcription factor regulating multiple aspects of cell biology. Prior studies have shown that FoxM1 is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors, including brain tumor, and plays a critical role in cancer development and progression. In this study we found that FoxM1 was up-regulated by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) under heat shock stress condition in multiple cell lines. Knockdown of HSF1 with HSF1 siRNA or inhibition of HSF1 with a HSF1 inhibitor abrogated heat shock-induced expression of FoxM1. Genetic deletion of HSF1 in mouse embryo fibroblast cells also abolished heat shock stress-induced FoxM1 expression. Moreover, we showed that HSF1 directly bound to FoxM1 promoter and increased FoxM1 promoter activity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that FoxM1 was required for the G2-M phase progression through regulating Cdc2, Cdc20, and Cdc25B under a mild heat shock stress but enhanced cell survival under lethal heat shock stress condition. Finally, in human glioblastoma specimens, FoxM1 overexpression correlated with elevated HSF1 expression. Our results indicate that FoxM1 is regulated by HSF1 and is critical for HSF1-mediated heat shock response. We demonstrated a novel mechanism of stress resistance controlled by HSF1 and a new HSF-FoxM1 connection that mediates cellular thermotolerance. PMID:23192351

  12. Polyamines and polyamine biosynthesis in cells exposed to hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerner, E.W.; Stickney, D.G.; Herman, T.S.; Fuller, D.J.

    1983-02-01

    The issue of how polyamines act to sensitize cultured cells to the lethal effects of hyperthermia was investigated using Chinese hamster cells which were induced to express thermotolerance. Intracellular levels of these naturally occurring polycations were manipulated in certain situations by treating whole cells with methylglyoxal bis-(guanylhydrazone), an inhibitor of the S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylases. Exogenous spermine as low as 100 ..mu..M in the culture media dramatically sensitized cells expressing thermotolerance to the lethal effects of subsequent 42/sup 0/C exposures. When thermotolerance was differentially induced in cultures exposed to 42.4/sup 0/C by varying the rate of heating from 37 to 42.4/sup 0/C, the most resistant cells and the highest levels of intracellular spermidine and spermine. This finding was explainable in part by the observation that the putrescine-dependent S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase activity was minimally affected in cells expressng the greatest degree of thermotolerance. When this enzyme activity was inhibited by drug, lowered intracellular polyamine levels did not correspond with subsequent survival responses to heat. Interestingly, cultures treated with methylglyoxal bis-(guanylhydrazone) 24 hr previous to heat exposure showed a reduced capacity to express rate of heating-induced thermotolerance. Together, these results demonstrate that the polyamines, especially spermidine and spermine, enhance hyperthermia-induced cell killing by some mechanism involving the plasma membrane. Further, our data suggest that methylglyoxal bis-(guanylhydrazone) can act to affect thermal responses by a mechanism(s) other than modification of intracellular polyamine levels.

  13. Sensing the Heat Stress by Mammalian Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cates Jordan

    2011-08-01

    consecutive shocks (i.e., no recovery time in between shocks depends on the order of the input shocks, that is the shocks do not commute; (ii the responses may be classified as mild or severe, depending on the temperature level and the duration of the heat shock and (iii the response is highly sensitive to small variations in temperature. Conclusions We propose a mathematical model that maps temperature into the transient activity using experimental data that describes the time course of the response to input thermal stress. The model is built on thermotolerance without recovery time, sharp sensitivity to small variations in temperature and the existence of mild and severe classes of stress responses. The theoretical predictions are tested against experimental data using a series of double-shock inputs. The theoretical structure is represented by a sequence of three cascade processes that transform the input stress into the transient activity. The structure of the cascade is nonlinear-linear-nonlinear (NLN. The first nonlinear system (N from the NLN structure represents the amplification of small changes in the environmental temperature; the linear system (L represents the thermotolerance without recovery time, whereas the last system (N represents the transition of the cell's response from a mild to a severe shock.

  14. Thermotolerance and Photosystem II Behaviour in Co-occuring Temperate Tree Species Exposed to Short-term Extreme Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, A.; Warren, J.; Cummings, C.; Han, J.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal stress can induce irreversible photodamage with longer consequences for plant metabolism. We focused on photosystem II (PSII) behaviour to understand how this complex responds in different co-occuring temperate trees exposed to short-term extreme heat waves. The study was designed for understanding complex heat tolerance mechanisms in trees. During manipulative heat-wave experiments, we monitored instantaneous PSII performance and tracked both transient and chronic PSII damages using chlorophyll a fluorescence characteristics. Fluorescence signals were used to simulate PSII bioenergetic processes. The light (Fv'/Fm') and dark-adapted (Fv/Fm) fluorescence traits including fast induction kinetics (OJIP), electron transport rate, PSII operating efficiency and quenching capacities were significantly affected by the heat treatments. Loss in PSII efficiency was more apparent in species like black cottonwood, yellow poplar, walnuts and conifers, whereas oaks maintained relatively better PSII functions. The post-heat recovery of Fv/Fm varied across the studied species showing differential carry over effects. PSII down-regulation was one of dominant factors for the loss in operational photosynthesis during extreme heat wave events. Both light and dark-adapted fluorescence characteristics showed loss in photo-regulatory functions and photodamage. Some resilient species showed rapid recovery from transient PSII damage, whereas fingerprints of chronic PSII damage were observed in susceptibles. Thresholds for Fv/Fm and non-photochemical quenching were identified for the studied species. PSII malfunctioning was largely associated with the observed photosynthetic down-regulation during heat wave treatments, however, its physiological recovery should be a key factor to determine species resilience to short-term extreme heat wave events.

  15. Thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains representing potentials for bioethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke by consolidated bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nan; Yuan, Bo; Sun, Juan; Wang, Shi-An; Li, Fu-Li

    2012-09-01

    Thermotolerant inulin-utilizing yeast strains are desirable for ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). To obtain such strains, 21 naturally occurring yeast strains isolated by using an enrichment method and 65 previously isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were investigated in inulin utilization, extracellular inulinase activity, and ethanol fermentation from inulin and Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour at 40 °C. The strains Kluyveromyces marxianus PT-1 (CGMCC AS2.4515) and S. cerevisiae JZ1C (CGMCC AS2.3878) presented the highest extracellular inulinase activity and ethanol yield in this study. The highest ethanol concentration in Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour fermentation (200 g L(-1)) at 40 °C achieved by K. marxianus PT-1 and S. cerevisiae JZ1C was 73.6 and 65.2 g L(-1), which corresponded to the theoretical ethanol yield of 90.0 and 79.7 %, respectively. In the range of 30 to 40 °C, temperature did not have a significant effect on ethanol production for both strains. This study displayed the distinctive superiority of K. marxianus PT-1 and S. cerevisiae JZ1C in the thermotolerance and utilization of inulin-type oligosaccharides reserved in Jerusalem artichoke tubers. It is proposed that both K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae have considerable potential in ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by a high temperature CBP.

  16. Thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains representing potentials for bioethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke by consolidated bioprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Nan [Agricultural Univ., Qingdao, SD (China). College of Animal Science and Technology; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, SD (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels; Yuan, Bo; Wang, Shi-An; Li, Fu-Li [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, SD (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels; Sun, Juan [Agricultural Univ., Qingdao, SD (China). College of Animal Science and Technology

    2012-09-15

    Thermotolerant inulin-utilizing yeast strains are desirable for ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). To obtain such strains, 21 naturally occurring yeast strains isolated by using an enrichment method and 65 previously isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were investigated in inulin utilization, extracellular inulinase activity, and ethanol fermentation from inulin and Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour at 40 C. The strains Kluyveromyces marxianus PT-1 (CGMCC AS2.4515) and S. cerevisiae JZ1C (CGMCC AS2.3878) presented the highest extracellular inulinase activity and ethanol yield in this study. The highest ethanol concentration in Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour fermentation (200 g L{sup -1}) at 40 C achieved by K. marxianus PT-1 and S. cerevisiae JZ1C was 73.6 and 65.2 g L{sup -1}, which corresponded to the theoretical ethanol yield of 90.0 and 79.7 %, respectively. In the range of 30 to 40 C, temperature did not have a significant effect on ethanol production for both strains. This study displayed the distinctive superiority of K. marxianus PT-1 and S. cerevisiae JZ1C in the thermotolerance and utilization of inulin-type oligosaccharides reserved in Jerusalem artichoke tubers. It is proposed that both K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae have considerable potential in ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by a high temperature CBP. (orig.)

  17. Modification of embryonic resistance to heat shock in cattle by melatonin and genetic variation in HSPA1L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, M Sofia; Rocha-Frigoni, Nathália A S; Mingoti, Gisele Zoccal; Roth, Zvi; Hansen, Peter J

    2016-11-01

    The objectives were to test whether (1) melatonin blocks inhibition of embryonic development caused by heat shock at the zygote stage, and (2) the frequency of a thermoprotective allele for HSPA1L is increased in blastocysts formed from heat-shocked zygotes as compared with blastocysts from control zygotes. It was hypothesized that melatonin prevents effects of heat shock on development by reducing accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and that embryos inheriting the thermoprotective allele of HSPA1L would be more likely to survive heat shock. Effects of 1 µM melatonin on ROS were determined in experiments 1 and 2. Zygotes were cultured at 38.5 or 40°C for 3 h in the presence of CellROX reagent (ThermoFisher Scientific, Waltham, MA). Culture was in a low [5% (vol/vol)] oxygen (experiment 1) or low or high [21% (vol/vol)] oxygen environment (experiment 2). Heat shock and high oxygen increased ROS; melatonin decreased ROS. Development was assessed in experiments 3 and 4. In experiment 3, zygotes were cultured in low oxygen ± 1 µM melatonin and exposed to 38.5 or 40°C for 12 h (experiment 1) beginning 8 h after fertilization. Melatonin did not protect the embryo from heat shock. Experiment 4 was performed similarly except that temperature treatments (38.5 or 40°C, 24 h) were performed in a low or high oxygen environment (2×2 × 2 factorial design with temperature, melatonin, and oxygen concentration as main effects), and blastocysts were genotyped for a deletion (D) mutation (C→D) in the promoter region of HSPA1L associated with thermotolerance. Heat shock decreased percent of zygotes developing to the blastocyst stage independent of melatonin or oxygen concentration. Frequency of genotypes for HSPA1L was affected by oxygen concentration and temperature, with an increase in the D allele for blastocysts that developed in high oxygen and following heat shock. It was concluded that (1) lack of effect of melatonin or oxygen concentration on embryonic

  18. Heat-induced regulation of antioxidant defense system and nutrient accumulation in hexaploid bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, M.A.; Ashraf, M.; Akram, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ten cultivars (five registered S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, and Lasani, and five candidate cultivars P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10, and G.A-20) of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were examined for high temperature stress tolerance. Plants were grown in soil filled pots in the Botanical Garden of the Department of Botany University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. Three different temperature regimes (30, 40 and 50 degree C) were applied at two different growth stages (tillering and boot) for three temperature durations 30, 60 and 90 min in a growth chamber. The leaf and root samples were collected after two weeks of temperature treatment and then analyzed for enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants as well as inorganic nutrients (N, P, K+, Ca2+). At the end, data obtained were statistically analyzed to distinguish heat tolerant from non-tolerant wheat cultivars. After appraisal of growth, antioxidant defense system and uptake of nutrients it was found that cvs. S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, Lasani and G.A-20 exhibited better thermo-tolerance capabilities than the other wheat cultivars (P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10). Among the thermo-tolerant wheat cultivars, G.A-20 and Lasani were superior in maintaining shoot fresh weights and shoot length, high antioxidant activities and better nutrient uptake at both tillering and boot stages. The response of all cultivars to heat stress applied at the tillering stage or boot stage was almost the same. (author)

  19. TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that regulates a suite of heat stress protection genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) including previously unknown Hsf targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Gang-Ping; Drenth, Janneke; McIntyre, C Lynne

    2015-02-01

    Heat stress is a significant environmental factor adversely affecting crop yield. Crop adaptation to high-temperature environments requires transcriptional reprogramming of a suite of genes involved in heat stress protection. This study investigated the role of TaHsfA6f, a member of the A6 subclass of heat shock transcription factors, in the regulation of heat stress protection genes in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), a poorly understood phenomenon in this crop species. Expression analysis showed that TaHsfA6f was expressed constitutively in green organs but was markedly up-regulated during heat stress. Overexpression of TaHsfA6f in transgenic wheat using a drought-inducible promoter resulted in up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and a number of other heat stress protection genes that included some previously unknown Hsf target genes such as Golgi anti-apoptotic protein (GAAP) and the large isoform of Rubisco activase. Transgenic wheat plants overexpressing TaHsfA6f showed improved thermotolerance. Transactivation assays showed that TaHsfA6f activated the expression of reporter genes driven by the promoters of several HSP genes (TaHSP16.8, TaHSP17, TaHSP17.3, and TaHSP90.1-A1) as well as TaGAAP and TaRof1 (a co-chaperone) under non-stress conditions. DNA binding analysis revealed the presence of high-affinity TaHsfA6f-binding heat shock element-like motifs in the promoters of these six genes. Promoter truncation and mutagenesis analyses identified TaHsfA6f-binding elements that were responsible for transactivation of TaHSP90.1-A1 and TaGAAP by TaHsfA6f. These data suggest that TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that directly regulates TaHSP, TaGAAP, and TaRof1 genes in wheat and its gene regulatory network has a positive impact on thermotolerance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. A Canonical DREB2-Type Transcription Factor in Lily Is Post-translationally Regulated and Mediates Heat Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on studies of monocot crops and eudicot model plants, the DREB2 class of AP2-type transcription factor has been shown to play crucial roles in various abiotic stresses, especially in the upstream of the heat stress response; however, research on DREB2s has not been reported in non-gramineous monocot plants. Here, we identified a novel DREB2 (LlDREB2B from lily (Lilium longiflorum, which was homologous to AtDREB2A of Arabidopsis, OsDREB2B of rice, and ZmDREB2A of maize. LlDREB2B was induced by heat, cold, salt, and mannitol stress, and its protein had transcriptional activity, was located in the nucleus, was able to bind to the dehydration-responsive element (DRE, and participated in the heat-responsive pathway of HsfA3. Overexpression of LlDREB2B in Arabidopsis activated expression of downstream genes and improved thermotolerance. LlDREB2B was not regulated by alternative splicing; functional transcripts accumulated under either normal or heat-stress conditions. A potential PEST sequence was predicted in LlDREB2B, but the stability of the LlDREB2B protein was not positively affected when the predicated PEST sequence was deleted. Further analysis revealed that the predicated PEST sequence lacked a SBC or SBC-like motif allowing interaction with BPMs and required for negative regulation. Nevertheless, LlDREB2B was still regulated at the post-translational level by interaction with AtDRIP1 and AtDRIP2 of Arabidopsis. In addition, LlDREB2B also interacted with AtRCD1 and LlRCD1 via a potential RIM motif located at amino acids 215–245. Taken together, our results show that LlDREB2B participated in the establishment of thermotolerance, and its regulation was different from that of the orthologs of gramineous and eudicot plants.

  1. A Canonical DREB2-Type Transcription Factor in Lily Is Post-translationally Regulated and Mediates Heat Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ze; Liang, Jiahui; Zhang, Shuai; Zhang, Bing; Zhao, Qingcui; Li, Guoqing; Yang, Xi; Wang, Chengpeng; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2018-01-01

    Based on studies of monocot crops and eudicot model plants, the DREB2 class of AP2-type transcription factor has been shown to play crucial roles in various abiotic stresses, especially in the upstream of the heat stress response; however, research on DREB2s has not been reported in non-gramineous monocot plants. Here, we identified a novel DREB2 (LlDREB2B) from lily ( Lilium longiflorum ), which was homologous to AtDREB2A of Arabidopsis, OsDREB2B of rice, and ZmDREB2A of maize. LlDREB2B was induced by heat, cold, salt, and mannitol stress, and its protein had transcriptional activity, was located in the nucleus, was able to bind to the dehydration-responsive element (DRE), and participated in the heat-responsive pathway of HsfA3. Overexpression of LlDREB2B in Arabidopsis activated expression of downstream genes and improved thermotolerance. LlDREB2B was not regulated by alternative splicing; functional transcripts accumulated under either normal or heat-stress conditions. A potential PEST sequence was predicted in LlDREB2B, but the stability of the LlDREB2B protein was not positively affected when the predicated PEST sequence was deleted. Further analysis revealed that the predicated PEST sequence lacked a SBC or SBC-like motif allowing interaction with BPMs and required for negative regulation. Nevertheless, LlDREB2B was still regulated at the post-translational level by interaction with AtDRIP1 and AtDRIP2 of Arabidopsis. In addition, LlDREB2B also interacted with AtRCD1 and LlRCD1 via a potential RIM motif located at amino acids 215-245. Taken together, our results show that LlDREB2B participated in the establishment of thermotolerance, and its regulation was different from that of the orthologs of gramineous and eudicot plants.

  2. Tuning Chocolate Flavor through Development of Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Starter Cultures with Increased Acetate Ester Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Struyf, Nore; Paulus, Tinneke; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Allegaert, Leen; Vrancken, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Microbial starter cultures have extensively been used to enhance the consistency and efficiency of industrial fermentations. Despite the advantages of such controlled fermentations, the fermentation involved in the production of chocolate is still a spontaneous process that relies on the natural microbiota at cocoa farms. However, recent studies indicate that certain thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures can be used as starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentation. In this study, we investigate the potential of specifically developed starter cultures to modulate chocolate aroma. Specifically, we developed several new S. cerevisiae hybrids that combine thermotolerance and efficient cocoa pulp fermentation with a high production of volatile flavor-active esters. In addition, we investigated the potential of two strains of two non-Saccharomyces species that produce very large amounts of fruity esters (Pichia kluyveri and Cyberlindnera fabianii) to modulate chocolate aroma. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the cocoa liquor revealed an increased concentration of various flavor-active esters and a decrease in spoilage-related off-flavors in batches inoculated with S. cerevisiae starter cultures and, to a lesser extent, in batches inoculated with P. kluyveri and Cyb. fabianii. Additionally, GC-MS analysis of chocolate samples revealed that while most short-chain esters evaporated during conching, longer and more-fat-soluble ethyl and acetate esters, such as ethyl octanoate, phenylethyl acetate, ethyl phenylacetate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl dodecanoate, remained almost unaffected. Sensory analysis by an expert panel confirmed significant differences in the aromas of chocolates produced with different starter cultures. Together, these results show that the selection of different yeast cultures opens novel avenues for modulating chocolate flavor. PMID:26590272

  3. Differential expression pattern of heat shock protein 70 gene in tissues and heat stress phenotypes in goats during peak heat stress period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, P K; Kaushik, R; Ramachandran, N

    2016-07-01

    It has been established that the synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is temperature-dependent. The Hsp70 response is considered as a cellular thermometer in response to heat stress and other stimuli. The variation in Hsp70 gene expression has been positively correlated with thermotolerance in Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, rodents and human. Goats have a wide range of ecological adaptability due to their anatomical and physiological characteristics; however, the productivity of the individual declines during thermal stress. The present study was carried out to analyze the expression of heat shock proteins in different tissues and to contrast heat stress phenotypes in response to chronic heat stress. The investigation has been carried out in Jamunapari, Barbari, Jakhrana and Sirohi goats. These breeds differ in size, coat colour and production performance. The heat stress assessment in goats was carried out at a temperature humidity index (THI) ranging from 85.36-89.80 over the period. Phenotyping for heat stress susceptibility was carried out by combining respiration rate (RR) and heart rate (HR). Based on the distribution of RR and HR over the breeds in the population, individual animals were recognized as heat stress-susceptible (HSS) and heat stress-tolerant (HST). Based on their physiological responses, the selected animals were slaughtered for tissue collection during peak heat stress periods. The tissue samples from different organs such as liver, spleen, heart, testis, brain and lungs were collected and stored at -70 °C for future use. Hsp70 concentrations were analyzed from tissue extract with ELISA. mRNA expression levels were evaluated using the SYBR green method. Kidney, liver and heart had 1.5-2.0-fold higher Hsp70 concentrations as compared to other organs in the tissue extracts. Similarly, the gene expression pattern of Hsp70 in different organs indicated that the liver, spleen, brain and kidney exhibited 5.94, 4.96, 5

  4. High-titer and productivity of l-(+)-lactic acid using exponential fed-batch fermentation with Bacillus coagulans arr4, a new thermotolerant bacterial strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Luciana Fontes; Beitel, Susan Michelz; Sass, Daiane Cristina; Neto, Paulo Marcelo Avila; Contiero, Jonas

    2018-04-01

    Bacillus coagulans arr4 is a thermotolerant microorganism with great biotechnological potential for l-(+)-lactic acid production from granulated sugar and yeast extract. The highest l-(+)-lactic acid production was obtained with Ca(OH) 2 . The maximum production of l-(+)-lactic acid (206.81 g/L) was observed in exponential feeding using granulated sugar solution (900 g/L) and yeast extract (1%) at 50 °C, pH 6.5, and initial granulated sugar concentration of 100 g/L at 39 h. 5.3 g/L h productivity and 97% yield were observed, and no sugar remained. Comparing the simple batch with exponential fed-batch fermentation, the l(+) lactic acid production was improved in 133.22% and dry cell weight was improved in 83.29%, using granulated sugar and yeast extract. This study presents the highest productivity of lactic acid ever observed in the literature, on the fermentation of thermotolerant Bacillus sp. as well as an innovative and high-efficiency purification technology, using low-cost substances as Celite and charcoal. The recovery of lactic acid was 86%, with 100% protein removal, and the fermentation medium (brown color) became a colorless solution.

  5. Comparison of radiosensitivity and thermosensitivity among three types of cultured mammalian cells and detection of heat-induced cell killing by eosin-staining method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwado, Kouzou

    1988-12-01

    Radiosensitivity, Thermosensitivity and their combined sensitivity on cell death were studied using mouse L5178Y, mouse FM3A and human Burkitt lymphoma. Eosin-staining method was tested for counting the heat-induced dead cells. The results obtained in the present study were as follows: (1) In irradiation with /sup 60/Co gamma-rays D/sub 0/ values of 1.3 Gy, 1.4 Gy and 1.7 Gy were obtained for Burkitt lymphoma, L5178Y and FM3A respectively. (2) By heating at 43degC, T/sub 0/ values of 4.1 min, 12.5 min and 32 min were obtained for L5178Y, FM3A and Burkitt lymphoma respectively. (3) Thermotolerance decay depended on cell doubling time, that is, the shorter the doubling time, the faster the decay. Furthermore, the cell line with the higher thermosensitivity showed a faster decay of thermotolerance for the three cell lines used in the present study. (4) The radiosensitizing effects were nearly the same in all three cell lines. (5) Using eosin-staining method, the cell survival curves after hyperthermia were ascertained and compared with those obtained by colony forming method. In L5178Y the survival curves obtained by the two methods were nearly the same. In FM3A only some correlation was found betweewn the cell survival curves obtained by the two methods but in Burkitt lymphoma no correlation was found. (author) 52 refs.

  6. Comparison of radiosensitivity and thermosensitivity among three types of cultured mammalian cells and detection of heat-induced cell killing by eosin-staining method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwado, Kouzou

    1988-01-01

    Radiosensitivity, Thermosensitivity and their combined sensitivity on cell death were studied using mouse L5178Y, mouse FM3A and human Burkitt lymphoma. Eosin-staining method was tested for counting the heat-induced dead cells. The results obtained in the present study were as follows: 1) In irradiation with 60 Co gamma-rays D 0 values of 1.3 Gy, 1.4 Gy and 1.7 Gy were obtained for Burkitt lymphoma, L5178Y and FM3A respectively. 2) By heating at 43degC, T 0 values of 4.1 min, 12.5 min and 32 min were obtained for L5178Y, FM3A and Burkitt lymphoma respectively. 3) Thermotolerance decay depended on cell doubling time, that is, the shorter the doubling time, the faster the decay. Furthermore, the cell line with the higher thermosensitivity showed a faster decay of thermotolerance for the three cell lines used in the present study. 4) The radiosensitizing effects were nearly the same in all three cell lines. 5) Using eosin-staining method, the cell survival curves after hyperthermia were ascertained and compared with those obtained by colony forming method. In L5178Y the survival curves obtained by the two methods were nearly the same. In FM3A only some correlation was found betweewn the cell survival curves obtained by the two methods but in Burkitt lymphoma no correlation was found. (author) 52 refs

  7. Functional analysis of the Hikeshi-like protein and its interaction with HSP70 in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Shinya; Ohama, Naohiko; Mizoi, Junya [Laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Shinozaki, Kazuo [RIKEN Plant Science Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan); Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko, E-mail: akys@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • HKL, a Hikeshi homologous gene is identified in Arabidopsis. • HKL interacts with two HSP70 isoforms and regulates the subcellular localization of HSC70-1. • The two HSP70 translocate into nucleus in response to heat stress. • Overexpression of HKL confers thermotolerance in transgenic plants. - Abstract: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) refold damaged proteins and are an essential component of the heat shock response. Previously, the 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) has been reported to translocate into the nucleus in a heat-dependent manner in many organisms. In humans, the heat-induced translocation of HSP70 requires the nuclear carrier protein Hikeshi. In the Arabidopsis genome, only one gene encodes a protein with high homology to Hikeshi, and we named this homolog Hikeshi-like (HKL) protein. In this study, we show that two Arabidopsis HSP70 isoforms accumulate in the nucleus in response to heat shock and that HKL interacts with these HSP70s. Our histochemical analysis revealed that HKL is predominantly expressed in meristematic tissues, suggesting the potential importance of HKL during cell division in Arabidopsis. In addition, we show that HKL regulates HSP70 localization, and HKL overexpression conferred thermotolerance to transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Our results suggest that HKL plays a positive role in the thermotolerance of Arabidopsis plants and cooperatively interacts with HSP70.

  8. Occurrence of Thermotolerant Campylobacter in Raw Poultry Meat, Environmental and Pigeon Stools Collected in Open-Air Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellio, Alberto; Traversa, Amaranta; Adriano, Daniela; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Colzani, Alberto; Gili, Stefano; Dondo, Alessandro; Gallina, Silvia; Grattarola, Carla; Maurella, Cristiana; Zoppi, Simona; Zuccon, Fabio; Decastelli, Lucia

    2014-08-28

    Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis for confirmed human cases in European Union during 2011. Poultry meat was very often implicated in Campylobacter infections in humans. In Italy commerce of raw poultry meat is common in open-air markets: these areas can be considered at high risk of bacterial contamination due to the high presence birds like pigeons. The aim of this study was to collect data about the contamination by thermotolerant Campylobacter of raw poultry meat commercialised in open-air markets, of work-surfaces in contact with poultry meat and of pigeon stools sampled in the market areas in Turin, Northern Italy. Between September 2011 and December 2012, 86 raw poultry meat samples, 86 environmental swabs and 108 animal samples were collected in 38 open-air markets. Analysis were carried out according to ISO10272-1:2006 standard. C.coli was detected in 2.3% (2/86) of raw poultry meat samples, whereas no swab (0/86) resulted positive. Of pigeon stool 28% (30/107) was positive for C.jejuni (83.3% C.jejuni subsp . jejuni and 16.7% C.jejuni subsp . doylei ). C.jejuni subsp. jejuni was isolated from 1 dead pigeon . Our results showed lower rates of contamination than those reported at retail in Europe. Although samples were collected in areas at high risk of contamination, raw poultry meat and work surfaces reported a low level of presence of thermotolerant Campylobacter . The high percentage of C.jejuni isolated from pigeon stools showed the importance of a continuous application of preventive measures by the food business operators and the surveillance activity by the Competent Authority.

  9. Yes-associated protein homolog, YAP-1, is involved in the thermotolerance and aging in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasa, Hiroaki [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Maimaiti, Sainawaer [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Department of Psychotherapy, The Fourth People' s Hospital of Urumqi, Urumqi 830000 (China); Kuroyanagi, Hidehito [Laboratory of Gene Expression, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Kawano, Shodai; Inami, Kazutoshi; Timalsina, Shikshya; Ikeda, Mitsunobu; Nakagawa, Kentaro [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Hata, Yutaka, E-mail: yuhammch@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan)

    2013-04-15

    The mammalian Hippo pathway comprises mammalian Ste20-like kinases (MST1/2) and large tumor suppressor kinases (LATS1/2). LATS1/2, which are activated by MST1/2, phosphorylate a transcriptional co-activator, yes-associated protein (YAP), and induce the recruitment of YAP by 14-3-3 to cytoplasm, so that the TEAD-dependent gene transcriptions are turned off. Although the core components of the Hippo pathway are well conserved in metazoans, it has been discussed that Caenorhabditis elegans lacks YAP ortholog, we found that F13E6.4 gene encodes a protein that shows sequence similarities to YAP in the N-terminal TEAD-binding domain and in the WW domain. We designated this gene as yap-1. YAP-1 is widely expressed in various cells such as epithelial cells, muscles, hypodermal cells, gonadal sheath cells, spermatheca, and hypodermal cells. YAP-1 is distributed in cytoplasm and nuclei. wts-1 (LATS ortholog) and ftt-2 (14-3-3 ortholog) knockdowns cause nuclear accumulation of YAP-1, supporting that the subcellular localization of YAP-1 is regulated in a similar way as that of YAP. Heat shock also causes the nuclear accumulation of YAP-1 but after heat shock, YAP-1 translocates to cytoplasm. Knockdowns of DAF-21 (HSP90 ortholog) and HSF-1block the nuclear export of YAP-1 during this recovery. YAP-1 overexpression is beneficial for thermotolerance, whereas YAP-1 hyperactivity induced by wts-1 and ftt-2 knockdowns is deleterious on thermal response and yap-1 deficiency promotes health aging. In short, YAP-1 partially shares basal characters with mammalian YAP and plays a role in thermal stress response and healthy aging. - Highlights: ► We named Caenorhabditis elegans F13E6.4 gene yap-1 as a putative YAP homolog. ► The localization of YAP-1 is regulated by WTS-1 and FTT-2. ► YAP-1 is involved in healthy aging and thermosensitivity.

  10. Aerobic biodegradation of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) by psychro- and thermo-tolerant cultures derived from granular activated carbon (GAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinauer, Kimberly M; Zhang, Yang; Yang, Xiaomin; Finneran, Kevin T

    2008-04-01

    Tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) is a metabolite of methyl tert-butyl ether and is itself possibly a fuel oxygenate. The goals of this study were to enrich and characterize TBA-degrading micro-organism(s) from a granular activated carbon (GAC) unit currently treating TBA. The results reported herein describe the first aerobic, TBA-degrading cultures derived from GAC. Strains KR1 and YZ1 were enriched from a GAC sample in a bicarbonate-buffered freshwater medium. TBA was degraded to 10% of the initial concentration (2-5 mM) within 5 days after initial inoculation and was continuously degraded within 1 day of each re-amendment. Resting cell suspensions mineralized 70 and 60% of the TBA within 24 h for KR1 and YZ1, respectively. Performance optimization with resting cells was conducted to investigate kinetics and the extent of TBA degradation as influenced by oxygen, pH and temperature. The most favorable temperature was 37 degrees C; however, TBA was degraded from 4 to 60 degrees C, indicating that the culture will sufficiently treat groundwater without heating. This is also the first report of psychrotolerant or thermotolerant TBA biodegradation. The pH range for TBA degradation ran from 5.0 to 9.0. Phylogenetic data using a partial 16S rRNA gene sequence (570 bases) suggest that the primary members of KR1 and YZ1 include uncharacterized organisms within the genera Hydrogenophaga, Caulobacter, and Pannonibacter.

  11. Adaptive Response of Listeria monocytogenes to Heat, Salinity and Low pH, after Habituation on Cherry Tomatoes and Lettuce Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poimenidou, Sofia V; Chatzithoma, Danai-Natalia; Nychas, George-John; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens found on fresh produce may encounter low temperatures, high acidity and limited nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of habituation of Listeria monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes or lettuce leaves on its subsequent response to inhibitory levels of acid, osmotic and heat stress. Habituation was performed by inoculating lettuce coupons, whole cherry tomatoes or tryptic soy broth (TSB) with a three-strains composite of L. monocytogenes, which were further incubated at 5°C for 24 hours or 5 days. Additionally, cells grown overnight in TSB supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract (TSBYE) at 30°C were used as control cells. Following habituation, L. monocytogenes cells were harvested and exposed to: (i) pH 3.5 adjusted with lactic acid, acetic acid or hydrochloric acid (HCl), and pH 1.5 (HCl) for 6 h; (ii) 20% NaCl and (iii) 60°C for 150 s. Results showed that tomato-habituated L. monocytogenes cells were more tolerant (P lettuce, and habituation on both foods resulted in more stress resistant cells than prior growth in TSB. On the contrary, the highest resistance to heat stress (P lettuce-habituated L. monocytogenes cells followed by TSB-grown cells at 5°C for 24 h, whereas tomato-habituated cells were highly sensitized. Prolonged starvation on fresh produce (5 days vs. 24 h) increased resistance to osmotic and acid stress, but reduced thermotolerance, regardless of the pre-exposure environment (i.e., tomatoes, lettuce or TSB). These results indicate that L. monocytogenes cells habituated on fresh produce at low temperatures might acquire resistance to subsequent antimicrobial treatments raising important food safety implications.

  12. Genome-wide analysis, expression profile of heat shock factor gene family (CaHsfs) and characterisation of CaHsfA2 in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meng; Lu, Jin-Ping; Zhai, Yu-Fei; Chai, Wei-Guo; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Lu, Ming-Hui

    2015-06-19

    Heat shock factors (Hsfs) play crucial roles in plant developmental and defence processes. The production and quality of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), an economically important vegetable crop, are severely reduced by adverse environmental stress conditions, such as heat, salt and osmotic stress. Although the pepper genome has been fully sequenced, the characterization of the Hsf gene family under abiotic stress conditions remains incomplete. A total of 25 CaHsf members were identified in the pepper genome by bioinformatics analysis and PCR assays. They were grouped into three classes, CaHsfA, B and C, based on highly conserved Hsf domains, were distributed over 11 of 12 chromosomes, with none found on chromosome 11, and all of them, except CaHsfA5, formed a protein-protein interaction network. According to the RNA-seq data of pepper cultivar CM334, most CaHsf members were expressed in at least one tissue among root, stem, leaf, pericarp and placenta. Quantitative real-time PCR assays showed that all of the CaHsfs responded to heat stress (40 °C for 2 h), except CaHsfC1 in thermotolerant line R9 leaves, and that the expression patterns were different from those in thermosensitive line B6. Many CaHsfs were also regulated by salt and osmotic stresses, as well as exogenous Ca(2+), putrescine, abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate. Additionally, CaHsfA2 was located in the nucleus and had transcriptional activity, consistent with the typical features of Hsfs. Time-course expression profiling of CaHsfA2 in response to heat stress revealed differences in its expression level and pattern between the pepper thermosensitive line B6 and thermotolerant line R9. Twenty-five Hsf genes were identified in the pepper genome and most of them responded to heat, salt, osmotic stress, and exogenous substances, which provided potential clues for further analyses of CaHsfs functions in various kinds of abiotic stresses and of corresponding signal transduction pathways in pepper.

  13. Understanding the mechanisms of ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in crossbred bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Rajib; Sajjanar, Basavaraj; Singh, Umesh; Alex, Rani; Raja, T V; Alyethodi, Rafeeque R; Kumar, Sushil; Sengar, Gyanendra; Sharma, Sheetal; Singh, Rani; Prakash, B

    2015-12-01

    Na+/K+-ATPase is an integral membrane protein composed of a large catalytic subunit (alpha), a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta), and gamma subunit. The beta subunit is essential for ion recognition as well as maintenance of the membrane integrity. Present study was aimed to analyze the expression pattern of ATPase beta subunit genes (ATPase B1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3) among the crossbred bulls under different ambient temperatures (20-44 °C). The present study was also aimed to look into the relationship of HSP70 with the ATPase beta family genes. Our results demonstrated that among beta family genes, transcript abundance of ATPase B1 and ATPase B2 is significantly (P ATPase Β1, ATPase B2, and ATPase B3 is highly correlated (P ATPase beta family genes for cellular thermotolerance in cattle.

  14. Overexpression of the genes PDC1 and ADH1 activates glycerol conversion to ethanol in the thermotolerant yeast Ogataea (Hansenula) polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kata, Iwona; Semkiv, Marta V; Ruchala, Justyna; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2016-08-01

    Conversion of byproduct from biodiesel production glycerol to high-value compounds is of great importance. Ethanol is considered a promising product of glycerol bioconversion. The methylotrophic thermotolerant yeast Ogataea (Hansenula) polymorpha is of great interest for this purpose as the glycerol byproduct contains methanol and heavy metals as contaminants, and this yeast utilizes methanol and is relatively resistant to heavy metals. Besides, O. polymorpha shows robust growth on glycerol and produces ethanol from various carbon sources. The thermotolerance of this yeast is an additional advantage, allowing increased fermentation temperature to 45-48 °C, leading to increased rate of the fermentation process and a fall in the cost of distillation. The wild-type strain of O. polymorpha produces insignificant amounts of ethanol from glycerol (0.8 g/l). Overexpression of PDC1 coding for pyruvate decarboxylase enhanced ethanol production up to 3.1 g/l, whereas simultaneous overexpression of PDC1 and ADH1 (coding for alcohol dehydrogenase) led to further increase in ethanol production from glycerol. Moreover, the increased temperature of fermentation up to 45 °C stimulated the production of ethanol from glycerol used as the only carbon source up to 5.0 g/l, which exceeds the data obtained by methylotrophic yeast strains reported so far. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. SSH analysis of endosperm transcripts and characterization of heat stress regulated expressed sequence tags in bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneha Goswami

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress is one of the major problems in agriculturally important cereal crops, especially wheat. Here, we have constructed a subtracted cDNA library from the endosperm of HS-treated (42°C for 2 h wheat cv. HD2985 by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH. We identified ~550 recombinant clones ranging from 200 to 500 bp with an average size of 300 bp. Sanger’s sequencing was performed with 205 positive clones to generate the differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Most of the ESTs were observed to be localized on the long arm of chromosome 2A and associated with heat stress tolerance and metabolic pathways. Identified ESTs were BLAST search using Ensemble, TriFLD and TIGR databases and the predicted CDS were translated and aligned with the protein sequences available in pfam and InterProScan 5 databases to predict the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs. We observed eight different types of post-translational modifications (PTMs in the DEPs corresponds to the cloned ESTs—147 sites with phosphorylation, 21 sites with sumoylation, 237 with palmitoylation, 96 sites with S-nitrosylation, 3066 calpain cleavage sites, and 103 tyrosine nitration sites, predicted to sense the heat stress and regulate the expression of stress genes. Twelve DEPs were observed to have transmembrane helixes (TMH in their structure, predicted to play the role of sensors of HS. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of randomly selected ESTs showed very high relative expression of HSP17 under HS; up-regulation was observed more in wheat cv. HD2985 (thermotolerant, as compared to HD2329 (thermosusceptible during grain-filling. The abundance of transcripts was further validated through northern blot analysis. The ESTs and their corresponding DEPs can be used as molecular marker for screening or targeted precision breeding program. PTMs identified in the DEPs can be used to elucidate the thermotolerance mechanism of wheat – a novel step towards the development of

  16. Intergenic sequence between Arabidopsis caseinolytic protease B-cytoplasmic/heat shock protein100 and choline kinase genes functions as a heat-inducible bidirectional promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ratnesh Chandra; Grover, Anil

    2014-11-01

    In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the At1g74310 locus encodes for caseinolytic protease B-cytoplasmic (ClpB-C)/heat shock protein100 protein (AtClpB-C), which is critical for the acquisition of thermotolerance, and At1g74320 encodes for choline kinase (AtCK2) that catalyzes the first reaction in the Kennedy pathway for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. Previous work has established that the knockout mutants of these genes display heat-sensitive phenotypes. While analyzing the AtClpB-C promoter and upstream genomic regions in this study, we noted that AtClpB-C and AtCK2 genes are head-to-head oriented on chromosome 1 of the Arabidopsis genome. Expression analysis showed that transcripts of these genes are rapidly induced in response to heat stress treatment. In stably transformed Arabidopsis plants harboring this intergenic sequence between head-to-head oriented green fluorescent protein and β-glucuronidase reporter genes, both transcripts and proteins of the two reporters were up-regulated upon heat stress. Four heat shock elements were noted in the intergenic region by in silico analysis. In the homozygous transfer DNA insertion mutant Salk_014505, 4,393-bp transfer DNA is inserted at position -517 upstream of ATG of the AtClpB-C gene. As a result, AtCk2 loses proximity to three of the four heat shock elements in the mutant line. Heat-inducible expression of the AtCK2 transcript was completely lost, whereas the expression of AtClpB-C was not affected in the mutant plants. Our results suggest that the 1,329-bp intergenic fragment functions as a heat-inducible bidirectional promoter and the region governing the heat inducibility is possibly shared between the two genes. We propose a model in which AtClpB-C shares its regulatory region with heat-induced choline kinase, which has a possible role in heat signaling. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Impact of urban contamination of the La Paz River basin on thermotolerant coliform density and occurrence of multiple antibiotic resistant enteric pathogens in river water, irrigated soil and fresh vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Violeta; Mamani, Nataniel; Iñiguez, Volga

    2016-01-01

    La Paz River in Andean highlands is heavily polluted with urban run-off and further contaminates agricultural lowlands and downstream waters at the Amazon watershed. Agricultural produce at this region is the main source of vegetables for the major Andean cities of La Paz and El Alto. We conducted a 1 year study, to evaluate microbial quality parameters and occurrence of multiple enteropathogenic bacteria (Enterohemorrhagic E. coli-EHEC, Enteroinvasive E. coli or Shigella-EIEC/Shigella, Enteroaggregative E. coli-EAEC, Enteropathogenic E. coli-EPEC Enterotoxigenic E. coli-ETEC and Salmonella) and its resistance to 11 antibiotics. Four sampling locations were selected: a fresh mountain water reservoir (un-impacted, site 1) and downstream sites receiving wastewater discharges (impacted, sites 2-4). River water (sites 1-4, N = 48), and soil and vegetable samples (site 3, N = 24) were collected during dry (April-September) and rainy seasons (October-March). Throughout the study, thermotolerant coliform density values at impacted sites greatly exceeded the guidelines for recreational and agricultural water uses. Seasonal differences were found for thermotolerant coliform density during dry season in water samples nearby a populated and hospital compound area. In contrast to the un-impacted site, where none of the tested enteropathogens were found, 100 % of surface water, 83 % of soil and 67 % of vegetable samples at impacted sites, were contaminated with at least one enteropathogen, being ETEC and Salmonella the most frequently found. ETEC isolates displayed different patterns of toxin genes among sites. The occurrence of enteropathogens was associated with the thermotolerant coliform density. At impacted sites, multiple enteropathogens were frequently found during rainy season. Among isolated enteropathogens, 50 % were resistant to at least two antibiotics, with resistance to ampicillin, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline commonly

  18. Cholesterol-producing transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans lives longer due to newly acquired enhanced stress resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun-Young; Shim, Yhong-Hee; Chitwood, David J.; Hwang, Soon Baek; Lee, Junho; Paik, Young-Ki

    2005-01-01

    Because Caenorhabditis elegans lacks several components of the de novo sterol biosynthetic pathway, it requires sterol as an essential nutrient. Supplemented cholesterol undergoes extensive enzymatic modification in C. elegans to form other sterols of unknown function. 7-Dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR) catalyzes the reduction of the Δ 7 double bond of sterols and is suspected to be defective in C. elegans, in which the major endogenous sterol is 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC). We microinjected a human DHCR expression vector into C. elegans, which was then incorporated into chromosome by γ-radiation. This transgenic C. elegans was named cholegans, i.e., cholesterol-producing C. elegans, because it was able to convert 7DHC into cholesterol. We investigated the effects of changes in sterol composition on longevity and stress resistance by examining brood size, mean life span, UV resistance, and thermotolerance. Cholegans contained 80% more cholesterol than the wild-type control. The brood size of cholegans was reduced by 40% compared to the wild-type control, although the growth rate was not significantly changed. The mean life span of cholegans was increased up to 131% in sterol-deficient medium as compared to wild-type. The biochemical basis for life span extension of cholegans appears to partly result from its acquired resistance against both UV irradiation and thermal stress

  19. Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus thermotolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Gouesbet , Gwenola; Jan , Gwenaël; Boyaval , Patrick

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus is a lactic acid bacterium widely used in the dairy food industry. Since the industrial processes are a succession of constraints, it is essential to understand the behaviour of L. bulgaricus when facing usual stresses. The influence of heat stress was investigated on the viability of L. bulgaricus cells grown in a chemically defined medium. The susceptibility of cells to heat-shock was obvious only above 55 $^{\\circ}$C. We inv...

  20. Circumvention of camptothecin-induced resistance during the adaptive cellular stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiligada, Ekaterini; Papamichael, Konstantinos; Vovou, Ioanna; Delitheos, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Camptothecin-11 (CPT-11) induces the adaptive stress response in yeast, conferring resistance via not fully characterized mechanisms. This study aimed at exploring, pharmacologically, the mechanisms underlying the CPT-11-induced resistance in yeast. Post-logarithmic yeast cultures were submitted to heat shock following preconditioning with suramin and with CPT-11, either alone or in combination with suramin, cycloheximide, sodium molybdate, okadaic acid, or verapamil. The stress response was evaluated by determining cell viability after heat shock. Preconditioning with CPT-11 or suramin conferred thermotolerance to yeast cells. Co-administration of CPT-11 with suramin, cycloheximide or okadaic acid reversed the CPT-11-induced thermotolerant phenotype, while sodium molybdate and verapamil had no effect on CPT-11-induced resistance. The antagonistic effect of the thermotolerance-inducers and the possible contribution of topoisomerase II activity and post-translational modifications mediated by the phosphatases PP1/2A in CPT-11-induced resistance may have important implications on the acquisition of resistance to stress in eukaryotic cells.

  1. Ethanol Production Kinetics by a Thermo-Tolerant Mutant of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae from Starch Industry Waste (Hydrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ali Shah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A thermo-tolerant and deoxyglucose-resistant mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was developed and employed to convert them to fuel ethanol in a 150 litre fermenter. Maximum ethanol production was achieved when fermentation of dextrozyme- treated hydrol was carried out for about 36 hours under optimized fermenting conditions. The maximum specific ethanol production rate (qP, and overall ethanol yield (YP/S were found to be 2.82 g L-1 h-1 and 0.49 g/g respectively. Determination of activation energy for cell growth (Ea= 20.8 kJ/mol and death (Ed = 19.1 kJ/mol and product formation and inactivation (EP=35.8 kJ/mol and Edp = 33.5 kJ/mol revealed the thermo-stability of the organism for up to 47°C.

  2. Ethanol production kinetics by a thermo-tolerant mutant of saccharomyces cerevisiae from starch industry waste (hydrol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, F.A.; Aziz, S.

    2010-01-01

    A thermo-tolerant and deoxyglucose-resistant mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was developed and employed to convert them to fuel ethanol in a 150 litre fermenter. Maximum ethanol production was achieved when fermentation of dextrozyme- treated hydrol was carried out for about 36 hours under optimized fermenting conditions. The maximum specific ethanol production rate (qP), and overall ethanol yield (YP/S) were found to be 2.82 g L/sup -1/ h/sup -1/ and 0.49 g/g respectively. Determination of activation energy for cell growth (Ea= 20.8 kJ/mol) and death (Ed = 19.1 kJ/mol) and product formation and inactivation (EP=35.8 kJ/mol and Edp = 33.5 kJ/mol) revealed the thermo-stability of the organism for up to 47 deg. C. (author)

  3. [Pattern of growth and metabolism of thermotolerant microorganisms on media containing carbohydrates and hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvasnikov, E I; Isakova, D M; Eliseeva, G S; Loiko, Z I

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to examine the growth and metabolism of thermotolerant yeast Candida tropicalis K-41 and bacteria Micrococcus freudenreichii that do not have a single temperature point but instead have an optimal temperature plateau at which the growth rate and biosynthetic activity remain unaltered or change insignificantly. Upon transition from the carbohydrate to the hydrocarbon pattern of nutrition these microorganisms show significant changes in metabolic processes: optimal concentration of biotin in the medium decreases significantly; the synthesis of riboflavin, nicotinic and pantothenic acids increases in yeast; the synthesis of nicotinic acid, biotin and vitamin B12 increases in bacteria. During microbial cultivation on hydrocarbons the content of cell lipids grows; yeast accumulate actively phospholipids and free fatty acids; bacteria build up intensively waxes and phospholipids. With the near-maximal growth rate the total synthesis of lipids decreases on carbohydrates and increases drastically on hydrocarbons, primarily at the expense of the above fractions.

  4. Comparison and Recovery of Escherichia coli and Thermotolerant Coliforms in Water with a Chromogenic Medium Incubated at 41 and 44.5°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jose L.; Soriano, Adela; Carbajo, Oscar; Amoros, Inmaculada; Garelick, Hemda

    1999-01-01

    This study compared the performance of a commercial chromogenic medium, CHROMagarECC (CECC), and CECC supplemented with sodium pyruvate (CECCP) with the membrane filtration lauryl sulfate-based medium (mLSA) for enumeration of Escherichia coli and non-E. coli thermotolerant coliforms (KEC). To establish that we could recover the maximum KEC and E. coli population, we compared two incubation temperature regimens, 41 and 44.5°C. Statistical analysis by the Fisher test of data did not demonstrate any statistically significant differences (P = 0.05) in the enumeration of E. coli for the different media (CECC and CECCP) and incubation temperatures. Variance analysis of data performed on KEC counts showed significant differences (P = 0.01) between KEC counts at 41 and 44.5°C on both CECC and CECCP. Analysis of variance demonstrated statistically significant differences (P = 0.05) in the enumeration of total thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) on CECC and CECCP compared with mLSA. Target colonies were confirmed to be E. coli at a rate of 91.5% and KEC of likely fecal origin at a rate of 77.4% when using CECCP incubated at 41°C. The results of this study showed that CECCP agar incubated at 41°C is efficient for the simultaneous enumeration of E. coli and KEC from river and marine waters. PMID:10427079

  5. Characterisation of thermotolerant, ethanol tolerant fermentative Saccharomyces cerevisiae for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiransree, N.; Sridhar, M.; Venkateswar Rao, L. [Department of Microbiology, Osmania University, Hyderabad (India)

    2000-03-01

    Of the four thermotolerant, osmotolerant, flocculating yeasts (VS{sub 1}, VS{sub 2}, VS{sub 3} and VS{sub 4}) isolated from the soil samples collected within the hot regions of Kothagudem Thermal Power Plant, located in Khammam Dt., Andhra Pradesh, India, VS{sub 1} and VS{sub 3} were observed as better performers. They were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. VS{sub 1} and VS{sub 3} were tested for their growth characteristics and fermentation abilities on various carbon sources including molasses at 30 C and 40 C respectively. More biomass and fermentation was observed in sucrose, fructose and glucose. Maximum amount of ethanol produced by VS{sub 3} containing 150 (g/l) of these substrates were 74, 73, and 72 (g/l) at 30 C and 64, 61 and 63 (g/l) at 40 C respectively. With molasses containing 14% sugar, the amount of ethanol produced by VS{sub 3} was 53.2 and 45 (g/l) at 30 C and 40 C respectively. VS{sub 3} strain showed 12% W/V ethanol tolerance. VS{sub 3} strain was also characterised for its ethanol producing ability using various starchy substrates in solid state and submerged fermentation. More ethanol was produced in submerged than solid state fermentation. (orig.)

  6. The removal of thermo-tolerant coliform bacteria by immobilized waste stabilization pond algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, H W; Marcon, A E; Melo, H N

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of laboratory- scale columns of immobilized micro-algae to disinfect effluents using thermo-tolerant coliforms (TTC) as a model system. Cells of a Chlorella species isolated from a waste stabilization pond complex in Northeast Brazil were immobilized in calcium alginate, packed into glass columns and incubated in contact with TTC suspensions for up to 24 hours. Five to six log removals of TTC were achieved in 6 hours and 11 log removals in 12 hours contact time. The results were similar under artificial light and shaded sunlight. However little or no TTC removal occurred in the light in columns of alginate beads without immobilized algae present or when the immobilized algae were incubated in the dark suggesting that the presence of both algae and light were necessary for TTC decay. There was a positive correlation between K(b) values for TTC and increasing pH in the effluent from the immobilized algal columns within the range pH 7.2 and 8.9. The potential of immobilized algal technology for wastewater disinfection may warrant further investigation.

  7. Estimating spatially distributed turbulent heat fluxes from high-resolution thermal imagery acquired with a UAV system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Claire; Thiem, Christina Elisabeth; Wizemann, Hans-Dieter; Bernhardt, Matthias; Schulz, Karsten

    2017-05-19

    In this study, high-resolution thermal imagery acquired with a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is used to map evapotranspiration (ET) at a grassland site in Luxembourg. The land surface temperature (LST) information from the thermal imagery is the key input to a one-source and two-source energy balance model. While the one-source model treats the surface as a single uniform layer, the two-source model partitions the surface temperature and fluxes into soil and vegetation components. It thus explicitly accounts for the different contributions of both components to surface temperature as well as turbulent flux exchange with the atmosphere. Contrary to the two-source model, the one-source model requires an empirical adjustment parameter in order to account for the effect of the two components. Turbulent heat flux estimates of both modelling approaches are compared to eddy covariance (EC) measurements using the high-resolution input imagery UAVs provide. In this comparison, the effect of different methods for energy balance closure of the EC data on the agreement between modelled and measured fluxes is also analysed. Additionally, the sensitivity of the one-source model to the derivation of the empirical adjustment parameter is tested. Due to the very dry and hot conditions during the experiment, pronounced thermal patterns developed over the grassland site. These patterns result in spatially variable turbulent heat fluxes. The model comparison indicates that both models are able to derive ET estimates that compare well with EC measurements under these conditions. However, the two-source model, with a more complex treatment of the energy and surface temperature partitioning between the soil and vegetation, outperformed the simpler one-source model in estimating sensible and latent heat fluxes. This is consistent with findings from prior studies. For the one-source model, a time-variant expression of the adjustment parameter (to account for the difference between

  8. Prevalence of Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in Chicken Meat in Croatia and Multilocus Sequence Typing of a Small Subset of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Humski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., 241 samples of fresh chicken meat, at retail in Croatia, were analysed according to a standard method, followed by biochemical test and molecular polymerase chain reaction/restriction enzyme analysis for exact species determination. Campylobacter spp. prevalence was 73.86 %. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were isolated from 53.53 and 15.35 % of the samples, respectively. In 4.98 % of isolates thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were not determined. The multi locus sequence typing method was used to evaluate genetic diversity of eight Campylobacter jejuni and four Campylobacter coli isolates. To our knowledge, these results of genotyping provided the first data on the presence of sequence types (STs and clonal complexes (CCs of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolates in Croatia. By applying the multilocus sequence typing, a new allele of tkt gene locus was discovered and marked tkt508. The C. jejuni ST 6182 and C. coli ST 6183 genotypes were described for the fi rst time, and all other identified genotypes were clustered in the previously described sequence types and clonal complexes. These findings provide useful information on the prevalence and epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in Croatia.

  9. Heat priming induces trans-generational tolerance to high temperature stress in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao eWang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat plants are very sensitive to high temperature stress during grain filling. Effects of heat priming applied to the first generation on tolerance of the successive generation to post-anthesis high temperature stress were investigated. Compared with the progeny of non-heat primed plants (NH, the progeny of heat-primed plants (PH possessed higher grain yield, leaf photosynthesis and activities of antioxidant enzymes and lower cell membrane damage under high temperature stress. In the transcriptome profile, 1430 probes showed obvious difference in expression between PH and NH. These genes were related to signal transduction, transcription, energy, defense, and protein destination and storage, respectively. The gene encoding the lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1 which was involved in histone demethylation related to epigenetic modification was up-regulated in the PH compared with NH. The proteome analysis indicated that the proteins involved in photosynthesis, energy production and protein destination and storage were up-regulated in the PH compared with NH. In short, thermos-tolerance was induced through heritable epigenetic alternation and signaling transduction, both processes further triggered prompt modifications of defense related responses in anti-oxidation, transcription, energy production, and protein destination and storage in the progeny of the primed plants under high temperature stress. It was concluded that trans-generation thermo-tolerance was induced by heat priming in the first generation, and this might be an effective measure to cope with severe high-temperature stresses during key growth stages in wheat production.

  10. Denaturation of membrane proteins and hyperthermic cell killing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgman, Paulus Wilhelmus Johannes Jozef

    1993-01-01

    Summarizing: heat induced denaturation of membrane proteins is probably related to hyperthermic cell killing. Induced resistance of heat sensitive proteins seems to be involved in the development of thermotolerance. Although many questions remain still to be answered, it appears that HSP72, when

  11. Cell biological effects of hyperthermia alone or combined with radiation or drugs : A short introduction to newcomers in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampinga, HH

    Hyperthermia results in protein unfolding that, if not properly chaperoned by Heat Shock Proteins (HSP), can lead to irreversible and toxic protein aggregates. Elevating HSP prior to heating makes cells thermotolerant. Hyperthermia also can enhance the sensitivity of cells to radiation and drugs.

  12. Effect of fractionated hyperthermia on hypoxic cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, O.S.

    1981-01-01

    The lethal response of asynchronous exponentially growing mouse lung (L1A2) cells heated to 42 0 C under hypoxic conditions was demonstrated in vitro. Acutely hypoxic cells (i.e. heated immediately after 30 min of N 2 +CO 2 gassing) and aerobic cells treated under the same extracellular pH were equally sensitive to a single hyperthermic treatment, and incubation under hypoxia for up to 24 hours prior to treatment did not influence cell survival. Similarly, under controlled pH conditions (pH within 7.0 to 7.4) recovery from hyperthermic damage demonstrated by two-dose hyperthermic fractionation (each of 1.5 hours at 42 0 C) was identical in hypoxic and aerobic cells, and the highest recovery was found at a 10-hour interval Preheating for 1.5 hours at 42 0 C induced thermal resistance. to a second treatment at 42 0 C (thermotolerance). At the 10-hour interval the degree of thermotolerance was not influenced by incubation under hypoxic conditions (thermotolerance ratio, TTR = 4.7 in both aerobic and hypoxic cells). The data indicate that hypoxic conditions do not influence the heat response in L1A2 cells to either a single or a two-dose fractionated hyperthermic treatment in which hypoxia or aerobic conditions were maintained in the interval between the heat treatments. (author)

  13. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells show increased resistance to hyperthermic stress after differentiation, associated with elevated levels of Hsp72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lesley; Smith, Danielle J; Anderson, Robin L; Nagley, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Terminally differentiated neurones in the central nervous system need to be protected from stress. We ask here whether differentiation of progenitor cells to neurones is accompanied by up-regulation of Hsp72, with acquisition of enhanced thermotolerance. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were propagated in an undifferentiated form and subsequently differentiated into neurone-like cells. Thermotolerance tests were carried out by exposure of cells to various temperatures, monitoring nuclear morphology as index of cell death. Abundance of Hsp72 was measured in cell lysates by western immunoblotting. The differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells was accompanied by increased expression of Hsp72. Further, in both cell states, exposure to mild hyperthermic stress (43°C for 30 min) increased Hsp72 expression. After differentiation, SH-SY5Y cells were more resistant to hyperthermic stress compared to their undifferentiated state, correlating with levels of Hsp72. Stable exogenous expression of Hsp72 in SH-SY5Y cells (transfected line 5YHSP72.1, containing mildly elevated levels of Hsp72), led to enhanced resistance to hyperthermic stress. Hsp72 was found to be inducible in undifferentiated 5YHSP72.1 cells; such heat-treated cells displayed enhanced thermotolerance. Treatment of cells with KNK437, a suppressor of Hsp72 induction, resulted in acute thermosensitisation of all cell types tested here. Hsp72 has a major role in the enhanced hyperthermic resistance acquired during neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells. These findings model the requirement in intact organisms for highly differentiated neurones to be specially protected against thermal stress.

  14. Ethanol fermentation by the thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus TISTR5925, of extracted sap from old oil palm trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Murata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Palm sap extracted from old oil palm trunks was previously found to contain sugar and nutrients (amino acids and vitamins. Some palm saps contain a low content of sugar due to differences in species or in plant physiology. Here we condensed palm sap with a low content of sugar using flat membrane filtration, then fermented the condensed palm sap at high temperature using the thermotolerant, high ethanol-producing yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus. Ethanol production under non-optimum conditions was evaluated. Furthermore, the energy required to concentrate the palm sap, and the amount of energy that could be generated from the ethanol, was calculated. The condensation of sugar in sap from palm trunk required for economically viable ethanol production was evaluated.

  15. NOVEL SOURCES OF FUNGAL CELLULASES OF THERMOPHILIC / THERMOTOLERANT FOR EFFICIENT DEINKING OF COMPOSITE PAPER WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Soni

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty thermophilic/thermotolerant fungal strains were isolated from compositing soils and screened for production of different enzymes (Endoglucanases, β-glucosidase, Fpase and xylanases to assess their deinking efficiency. Three isolates, Aspergillus sp. AMA, Aspergillus terreus AN1, and Myceliophthora fergusii T4I, identified on the basis of morphological and sequencing of amplified ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region, showed significant deinking of composite waste paper (70% magazine and 30% Xerox copier/ laser print paper waste as well as improved properties (brightness, tensile strength, tear index of recycled paper sheets. The chosen strains Aspergillus sp. AMA, Aspergillus terreus AN1 and Myceliophthora fergusii T4I, showed 53, 52.7, and 40.32% deinking with increase in brightness by 4.32, 3.56, and 3.01 % ISO, respectively. These cultures were found to produce multiple endoglucanases and were characterized to lack a cellulose binding module (CBD, which may be responsible for their better deinking efficiency.

  16. The use of a thermotolerant fermentative Kluyveromyces marxianus IMB3 yeast strain for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banat, I.M. [Univ. of the United Arab Emirates, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Biolology; Singh, D. [Haryana Agriculture Univ., Hisar (India). Dept. of Microbiology; Marchant, R. [Ulster Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Applied Biological and Chemical Sciences

    1996-12-31

    An investigation was carried out on the growth and ethanol production of a novel thermotolerant ethanol-producing Kluyveromyces marxianus IMB3 yeast strain. It grew aerobically on glucose, lactose, cellobiose, xylose and whey permeate and fermented all the above carbon sources to ethanol at 45 C. This strain was capable of growing under anaerobic chemostat fermentation conditions at 45 C and a dilution rate of 0.15 h{sup -1} and produced {<=}0.9 g/l biomass and 1.8% (v/v) ethanol. An increase in biomass (up to 10.0 g/l) and ethanol (up to 4.3% v/v at 45 C and 7.7% v/v at 40 C) were achieved by applying a continuous two-stage fermentation in sequence (one aerobic and one anerobic stage) or a two-stage anaerobic fermentation with cell recycling. Potential applications, involving alcohol production systems, for use in dairy and wood related industries, were discussed. (orig.)

  17. A collaborative study on a Nordic standard protocol for detection and enumeration of thermotolerant Campylobacter in food (NMKL 119, 3. Ed., 2007)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Bengtsson, Anja; Hansen, Tina Beck

    2007-01-01

    A Nordic standard protocol for detection and enumeration of thermotolerant Campylobacter in food has been elaborated (NMKL 119, 3. Ed., 2007). Performance and precision characteristics of this protocol were evaluated in a collaborative study with participation of 14 laboratories from seven European...... jejuni (SLV-542). Expected concentrations (95% C.I.) (cfu g(-1) or ml(-1)) of both strains in matrices were 0.6-1.4 and 23-60 for qualitative detection, and 0.6-1.4; 23-60; and 420-1200 for semi-quantitative detection. For quantitative determination, the expected concentrations of C. jejuni/C. coli were...

  18. Effect of prior hyperthermia on subsequent thermal enhancement of radiation damage in mouse intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marigold, J.C.L.; Hume, S.P.

    1982-01-01

    Hyperthermia given in conjunction with X-rays results in a greater level of radiation injury than following X-rays alone, giving a thermal enhancement ratio (TER). The effect of prior hyperthermia ('priming') on TER was studied in the small intestine of mouse by giving 42.0 deg C for 1 hour at various times before the combined heat and X-ray treatments. Radiation damage was assessed by measuring crypt survival 4 days after radiation. TER was reduced when 'priming' hyperthermia was given 24-48 hours before the combined treatments. The reduction in effectiveness of the second heat treatment corresponded to a reduction in hyperthermal temperature of approximately 0.5 deg C, a value similar to that previously reported for induced resistance to heat given alone ('thermotolerance') (Hume and Marigold 1980). However, the time courses for development and decay of the TER response were much longer than those for 'thermotolerance', suggesting that different mechanisms are involved in thermal damage following heat alone and thermal enhancement of radiation damage

  19. Behavior study on Na heat pipe in passive heat removal system of new concept molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chenglong; Tian Wenxi; Su Guanghui; Zhang Dalin; Wu Yingwei; Qiu Suizheng

    2013-01-01

    The high temperature Na heat pipe is an effective device for transporting heat, which is characterized by remarkable advantages in conductivity, isothermally and passively working. The application of Na heat pipe on passive heat removal system of new concept molten salt reactor (MSR) is significant. The transient performance of high temperature Na heat pipe was simulated by numerical method under the MSR accident. The model of the Na heat pipe was composed of three conjugate heat transfer zones, i.e. the vapor, wick and wall. Based on finite element method, the governing equations were solved by making use of FORTRAN to acquire the profiles of the temperature, velocity and pressure for the heat pipe transient operation. The results show that the high temperature Na heat pipe has a good performance on operating characteristics and high heat transfer efficiency from the frozen state. (authors)

  20. Evaluation of heat treatment schedules for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Scott W; Fraser, Ivich; Mastro, Victor C

    2009-12-01

    The thermotolerance of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was evaluated by subjecting larvae and prepupae to a number of time-temperature regimes. Three independent experiments were conducted during 2006 and 2007 by heating emerald ash borer infested firewood in laboratory ovens. Heat treatments were established based on the internal wood temperature. Treatments ranged from 45 to 65 degrees C for 30 and 60 min, and the ability of larvae to pupate and emerge as adults was used to evaluate the success of each treatment. A fourth experiment was conducted to examine heat treatments on exposed prepupae removed from logs and subjected to ambient temperatures of 50, 55, and 60 degrees C for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. Results from the firewood experiments were consistent in the first experiment. Emergence data showed emerald ash borer larvae were capable of surviving a temperatures-time combination up to 60 degrees C for 30 min in wood. The 65 degrees C for 30 min treatment was, however, effective in preventing emerald ash borer emergence on both dates. Conversely, in the second experiment using saturated steam heat, complete mortality was achieved at 50 and 55 degrees C for both 30 and 60 min. Results from the prepupae experiment showed emerald ash borer survivorship in temperature-time combinations up to 55 degrees C for 30 min, and at 50 degrees C for 60 min; 60 degrees C for 15 min and longer was effective in preventing pupation in exposed prepupae. Overall results suggest that emerald ash borer survival is variable depending on heating conditions, and an internal wood temperature of 60 degrees C for 60 min should be considered the minimum for safe treatment for firewood.

  1. Determination of thermotolerant coliforms present in coconut water produced and bottled in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandbergue Santos Pereira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coconut water is considered to be a natural isotonic drink and its marketing is gradually increasing. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of the coconut water produced and bottled in the Northeast of Brazil. Products form ten industries from different states in the Northeast of Brazil were analyzed. The most probable number (MPN method was used to quantify the coliforms. Samples showing positive for coliforms were seeded on ChromAgar Orient plates and the bacteria identified from isolated colonies using the automated system Vitek 2 (BioMérieux, according to the manufacturer's instructions for the preparation of the inoculum, incubation, reading and interpretation. The samples showed thermotolerant coliform counts between 6.0×102 and 2.6×104 MPN/100 mL. The presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Morganella morganii and Providencia alcalifaciens was observed. The implementation of preventive methods and monitoring of the water quality by the industries is required.

  2. Radiation and thermal characteristics of L5178Y-sensitive cells and usefulness of eosin staining method to detect heat-induced cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, Yasuji (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-08-01

    Radiosensitivity, thermosensitivity, drug sensitivity and their combined effects were investigated in mouse L5178Y-wild cells (LY-W) and L5178Y-sensitive cells (LY-S). The following results were obtained: LY-S were more radiosensitive than LY-W but were similar in their thermosensitivity. Thermotolerance induction was similar but the decay was faster in LY-W which had a shorter doubling time. The radiosensitizing effect of heating was similar in both cell lines. The thermal enhancement ratio was higher for a longer duration of heating at 42degC than for a shorter duration at 44degC, both of which exhibited a similar level of survival when applied alone. The eosin staining method was useful to detect heat-induced interphase death and thermal sensitizing effects of drugs. In LY-W, interphase death was the main mode of hyperthermic cell killing and was independent of the hyperthermic temperature, whereas in LY-S, the percentage of interphase death increased with the hyperthermic temperature. Procaine and bleomycin sensitized both cells to heat. Survival estimated by the eosin staining method shifted towards that obtained by colony forming method in heated LY-S after procaine. Sensitization to heat by procaine suggests that interphase death after hyperthermia is probably due to membrane damage. Comparison of the present work with previous ones, further suggests that with an increase in thermosensitivity, there is an increase in heat-induced interphase death. (author) 67 refs.

  3. Radiation and thermal characteristics of L5178Y-sensitive cells and usefulness of eosin staining method to detect heat-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, Yasuji

    1990-01-01

    Radiosensitivity, thermosensitivity, drug sensitivity and their combined effects were investigated in mouse L5178Y-wild cells (LY-W) and L5178Y-sensitive cells (LY-S). The following results were obtained: LY-S were more radiosensitive than LY-W but were similar in their thermosensitivity. Thermotolerance induction was similar but the decay was faster in LY-W which had a shorter doubling time. The radiosensitizing effect of heating was similar in both cell lines. The thermal enhancement ratio was higher for a longer duration of heating at 42degC than for a shorter duration at 44degC, both of which exhibited a similar level of survival when applied alone. The eosin staining method was useful to detect heat-induced interphase death and thermal sensitizing effects of drugs. In LY-W, interphase death was the main mode of hyperthermic cell killing and was independent of the hyperthermic temperature, whereas in LY-S, the percentage of interphase death increased with the hyperthermic temperature. Procaine and bleomycin sensitized both cells to heat. Survival estimated by the eosin staining method shifted towards that obtained by colony forming method in heated LY-S after procaine. Sensitization to heat by procaine suggests that interphase death after hyperthermia is probably due to membrane damage. Comparison of the present work with previous ones, further suggests that with an increase in thermosensitivity, there is an increase in heat-induced interphase death. (author) 67 refs

  4. Heat Transfer Search Algorithm for Non-convex Economic Dispatch Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Abhik; Das, Saborni; Basu, Mousumi

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents Heat Transfer Search (HTS) algorithm for the non-linear economic dispatch problem. HTS algorithm is based on the law of thermodynamics and heat transfer. The proficiency of the suggested technique has been disclosed on three dissimilar complicated economic dispatch problems with valve point effect; prohibited operating zone; and multiple fuels with valve point effect. Test results acquired from the suggested technique for the economic dispatch problem have been fitted to that acquired from other stated evolutionary techniques. It has been observed that the suggested HTS carry out superior solutions.

  5. Heat Transfer Basics and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Böckh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The book provides an easy way to understand the fundamentals of heat transfer. The reader will acquire the ability to design and analyze heat exchangers. Without extensive derivation of the fundamentals, the latest correlations for heat transfer coefficients and their application are discussed. The following topics are presented - Steady state and transient heat conduction - Free and forced convection - Finned surfaces - Condensation and boiling - Radiation - Heat exchanger design - Problem-solving After introducing the basic terminology, the reader is made familiar with the different mechanisms of heat transfer. Their practical application is demonstrated in examples, which are available in the Internet as MathCad files for further use. Tables of material properties and formulas for their use in programs are included in the appendix. This book will serve as a valuable resource for both students and engineers in the industry. The author’s experience indicates that students, after 40 lectures and exercises ...

  6. Heat exchanger leakage problem location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent compact heat exchangers are very often assembled from numerous parts joined together to separate heat transfer fluids and to form the required heat exchanger arrangement. Therefore, the leak tightness is very important property of the compact heat exchangers. Although, the compact heat exchangers have been produced for many years, there are still technological problems associated with manufacturing of the ideal connection between the individual parts, mainly encountered with special purpose heat exchangers, e.g. gas turbine recuperators. This paper describes a procedure used to identify the leakage location inside the prime surface gas turbine recuperator. For this purpose, an analytical model of the leaky gas turbine recuperator was created to assess its performance. The results obtained are compared with the experimental data which were acquired during the recuperator thermal performance analysis. The differences between these two data sets are used to indicate possible leakage areas.

  7. Performance variations of river water source heat pump system according to heat exchanger capacity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Ryong; Baik, Young Jin; Lee, Young Soo; Kim, Hee Hwan

    2003-01-01

    The utilization of unused energy is important because it can afford to offer a chance to increase energy efficiency of a heat pump system. One of the promising unused energy sources is river water. It can be used as a heat source in both heating and cooling effectively with its superior features as a secondary working fluids. In this study, the performance of a 5HP heat pump system using river water as a heat source is investigated by both experiment and simulation. According to system simulation results, performance improvement of condenser seems more effective than that of evaporator for better COPH. The serial connection is also preferred among several methods to improve plate type heat exchanger performance. The experimental results show that the hot water of 50∼60 .deg. C can be acquired from water heat source of 5∼9 .deg. C with COPH of 2.7∼3.5

  8. Differential gene expressions in testes of L2 strain Taiwan country chicken in response to acute heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

    2013-01-15

    Acute heat stress affects genes involved in spermatogenesis in mammals. However, there is apparently no elaborate research on the effects of acute heat stress on gene expression in avian testes. The purpose of this study was to investigate global gene expression in testes of the L2 strain of Taiwan country chicken after acute heat stress. Twelve roosters, 45 weeks old, were allocated into four groups, including control roosters kept at 25 °C, roosters subjected to 38 °C acute heat stress for 4 hours without recovery, with 2-hour recovery, and with 6-hour recovery, respectively. Testis samples were collected for RNA isolation and microarray analysis. Based on gene expression profiles, 169 genes were upregulated and 140 genes were downregulated after heat stress using a cutoff value of twofold or greater change. Based on gene ontology analysis, differentially expressed genes were mainly related to response to stress, transport, signal transduction, and metabolism. A functional network analysis displayed that heat shock protein genes and related chaperones were the major upregulated groups in chicken testes after acute heat stress. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of mRNA expressions of HSP70, HSP90AA1, BAG3, SERPINB2, HSP25, DNAJA4, CYP3A80, CIRBP, and TAGLN confirmed the results of the microarray analysis. Because the HSP genes (HSP25, HSP70, and HSP90AA1) and the antiapoptotic BAG3 gene were dramatically altered in heat-stressed chicken testes, we concluded that these genes were important factors in the avian testes under acute heat stress. Whether these genes could be candidate genes for thermotolerance in roosters requires further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Differences in microbiological profile between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and hospital-acquired infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Teresa; Ribeiro, Orquídea; Aragão, Irene; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Sarmento, António

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological profiles were analysed and compared for intra-abdominal, urinary, respiratory and bloodstream infections according to place of acquisition: community-acquired, with a separate analysis of healthcare-associated, and hospital-acquired. Prospective cohort study performed at a university tertiary care hospital over 1 year. Inclusion criteria were meeting the Centers for Disease Control definition of intra-abdominal, urinary, respiratory and bloodstream infections. A total of 1035 patients were included in the study. More than 25% of intra-abdominal infections were polymicrobial; multi-drug resistant gram-negatives were 38% in community-acquired, 50% in healthcare-associated and 57% in hospital-acquired. E. coli was the most prevalent among urinary infections: 69% in community-acquired, 56% in healthcare-associated and 26% in hospital-acquired; ESBL producers' pathogens were 10% in healthcare-associated and 3% in community-acquired and hospital-acquired. In respiratory infections Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most prevalent in community-acquired (54%) and MRSA in healthcare-associated (24%) and hospital-acquired (24%). A significant association was found between MRSA respiratory infection and hospitalization in the previous year (adjusted OR = 6.3), previous instrumentation (adjusted OR = 4.3) and previous antibiotic therapy (adjusted OR = 5.7); no cases were documented among patients without risk factors. Hospital mortality rate was 10% in community-acquired, 14% in healthcare-associated and 19% in hospital-acquired infection. This study shows that healthcare-associated has a different microbiologic profile than those from community or hospital acquired for the four main focus of infection. Knowledge of this fact is important because the existing guidelines for community-acquired are not entirely applicable for this group of patients.

  10. Soil microbial community structure across a thermal gradient following a geothermal heating event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Tracy B; Wraith, Jon M; Castenholz, Richard W; McDermott, Timothy R

    2002-12-01

    In this study microbial species diversity was assessed across a landscape in Yellowstone National Park, where an abrupt increase in soil temperature had occurred due to recent geothermal activity. Soil temperatures were measured, and samples were taken across a temperature gradient (35 to 65 degrees C at a 15-cm depth) that spanned geothermally disturbed and unimpacted soils; thermally perturbed soils were visually apparent by the occurrence of dead or dying lodgepole pine trees. Changes in soil microbial diversity across the temperature gradient were qualitatively assessed based on 16S rRNA sequence variation as detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) using both ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and rRNA as PCR templates and primers specific for the Bacteria or Archaea domain. The impact of the major heating disturbance was apparent in that DGGE profiles from heated soils appeared less complex than those from the unaffected soils. Phylogenetic analysis of a bacterial 16S rDNA PCR clone library from a recently heated soil showed that a majority of the clones belonged to the Acidobacterium (51%) and Planctomyces (18%) divisions. Agar plate counts of soil suspensions cultured on dilute yeast extract and R2A agar media incubated at 25 or 50 degrees C revealed that thermophile populations were two to three orders of magnitude greater in the recently heated soil. A soil microcosm laboratory experiment simulated the geothermal heating event. As determined by both RNA- and DNA-based PCR coupled with DGGE, changes in community structure (marked change in the DGGE profile) of soils incubated at 50 degrees C occurred within 1 week and appeared to stabilize after 3 weeks. The results of our molecular and culture data suggest that thermophiles or thermotolerant species are randomly distributed in this area within Yellowstone National Park and that localized thermal activity selects for them.

  11. Diammonium phosphate stimulates transcription of L-lactate dehydrogenase leading to increased L-lactate production in the thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lifan; Li, Yanfeng; Wang, Limin; Wang, Yanping; Yu, Bo

    2016-08-01

    Exploration of cost-effective fermentation substrates for efficient lactate production is an important economic objective. Although some organic nitrogen sources are also cheaper, inorganic nitrogen salts for lactate fermentation have additional advantages in facilitating downstream procedures and significantly improving the commercial competitiveness of lactate production. In this study, we first established an application of diammonium phosphate to replace yeast extract with a reduced 90 % nitrogen cost for a thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans strain. In vivo enzymatic and transcriptional analyses demonstrated that diammonium phosphate stimulates the gene expression of L-lactate dehydrogenase, thus providing higher specific enzyme activity in vivo and increasing L-lactic acid production. This new information provides a foundation for establishing a cost-effective process for polymer-grade L-lactic acid production in an industrial setting.

  12. Does Resistance to Buprofezin Improve Heat and Cold Tolerance of Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongteng; Zhang, Yueliang; Liu, Xiangdong; Guo, Huifang

    2017-08-01

    There is ample evidence that insecticide resistance causes fitness costs and benefits in pests, while the impact of insecticide resistance on thermotolerance of pests is mostly unclear. The Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén), is an important rice insect pest, which has developed resistance to buprofezin in China. Here, we investigated differences in heat tolerance and cold tolerance among L. striatellus lines with variable buprofezin resistance. The lethal time for 50% of the individuals to die (LT50) at 40 °C increased with an increase in buprofezin resistance level, whereas both the survival rate under -22 °C and the supercooling point of planthoppers did not differ significantly between resistant and susceptible strains. The metabolic enzyme carboxylesterase was found to have an association with buprofezin resistance. Our research showed that buprofezin resistance was positively related with heat tolerance in L. striatellus, but it had no effect on cold tolerance. Insecticide resistance in L. striatellus may therefore have broader implications for the ecology of L. striatellus, and the management of buprofezin resistance in this pest may be challenging. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Identification of a heat shock protein 90 gene involved in resistance to temperature stress in two wing-morphs of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wenting; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is one of the most destructive pests damaging rice in Asia and exhibits wing dimorphism, with brachypters possessing severely reduced wings and macropters bearing fully developed wings. Previous studies have shown that macropters are more heat resistant than brachypters. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying the differential thermotolerance abilities of these two morphs, a full-length Hsp gene, NlHsp90 was cloned from N. lugen. Our results showed that the relative expression levels of NlHsp90 in N. lugens females increased with the rise of temperature. Interestingly, NlHsp90 in macropters females could be induced at lower temperature (32°C) than that in brachypters (34°C), and the NlHsp90 mRNA levels in macropters were significantly higher than those in brachypters from 34 to 40°C. In addition, the maximum expression levels of NlHsp90 were achieved much earlier in macropters, and NlHsp90 mRNA levels in macropters were significantly higher than those in brachypters from 1 to 6h of recovery after temperature stress. Furthermore, knockdown of NlHsp90 by dsRNA injection reduced survival in both morphs with a greater reduction in the macropters relative to that of the brachyters. These results indicated that NlHsp90 plays an important role for thermotolerance in N. lugens, and there is difference on induction between two morphs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermotolerance and Heat-Shock Protein Gene Expression Patterns in Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Mediterranean in Relation to Developmental Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Qi, Lan-Da; Du, Yu-Zhou; Li, Yuan-Xi

    2017-10-01

    Temperature plays an important role in the growth, development, and geographic distribution of insects. There is convincing evidence that heat-shock proteins (HSPs) play important roles in helping organisms adapt to thermal stress. To better understand the physiological and ecological influence of thermal stress on the different development stages of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Mediterranean species (MED), nymphs and adults were shocked with temperatures of 35, 38, and 41℃ for 1 and 2 h, respectively, and the survival rate, fecundity, and developmental duration were investigated in the laboratory. The expression levels of the hsp40, hsp70, and hsp90 genes were assessed using real-time PCR. The results indicate that the survival rates of the nymphs and adults decreased with increased temperature. A 2-h heat shock at 41℃ induced a significant reduction in fecundity in adults and an increase in developmental duration in young nymphs. Hsp90 showed higher temperature responses to thermal stress than hsp40 or hsp70. The expression levels of the hsps in the adults were significantly down-regulated by a 2-h heat shock at 41℃ compared with that by a 1-h treatment. A significant decrease in the expression levels of the hsps also occurred in the adults when the temperature increased from 38 to 41℃ for the 2-h treatment, whereas no significant decrease occurred in the nymphs. Compared with previous studies, we provide some evidence indicating that MED has the potential to adapt to a wider temperature range than the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Transfection of Chinese hamster ovary DHFR/sup -/ cells with the gene coding for heat shock protein 70 from drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, J.J.; Carper, S.W.; Gerner, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary DHFR/sup -/ cells (CHO-DHFR/sup -/) were transfected with the plasmid pSV2-dhfr expressing the mouse gene coding for dhfr or with the same plasmid containing the gene coding for the Drosophila melanogaster heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), pSVd-hsp70. Three subcloned cell lines selected for expression of the dhfr gene were shown to contain either the vector sequence (G cells) or varying copies of pSVd-hsp70 (H cells). One line of H cells was shown to contain > 30 copies of the D. melanogaster hsp70 gene and to express the hsp70 RNA at significant levels. No difference between G and H cells was observed in the rate of growth, in the development of thermotolerance, or in the sensitivity of actin microfilament bundles to heat shock. However, H cells containing the transfected hsp70 gene had an altered morphology when compared to the G cells and the parental CHO-DHFR/sup -/ cells being more fibroblastic. The adhesion properties of the H cells was also decreased when compared to the G cells. These results show that insertion of the D. melanogaster gene into CHO cells does not effect growth rates or heat shock responses but may alter cell morphology and adhesion

  16. Changes in thermo-tolerance and survival under simulated gastrointestinal conditions of Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 and Salmonella Typhimurium PT4 in chicken breast meat after exposure to sequential stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Adma Nadja Ferreira de; Souza, Geany Targino de; Schaffner, Donald; Oliveira, Tereza C Moreira de; Maciel, Janeeyre Ferreira; Souza, Evandro Leite de; Magnani, Marciane

    2017-06-19

    This study assessed changes in thermo-tolerance and capability to survive to simulated gastrointestinal conditions of Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 and Salmonella Typhimurium PT4 inoculated in chicken breast meat following exposure to stresses (cold, acid and osmotic) commonly imposed during food processing. The effects of the stress imposed by exposure to oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil (OVEO) on thermo-tolerance were also assessed. After exposure to cold stress (5°C for 5h) in chicken breast meat the test strains were sequentially exposed to the different stressing substances (lactic acid, NaCl or OVEO) at sub-lethal amounts, which were defined considering previously determined minimum inhibitory concentrations, and finally to thermal treatment (55°C for 30min). Resistant cells from distinct sequential treatments were exposed to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The exposure to cold stress did not result in increased tolerance to acid stress (lactic acid: 5 and 2.5μL/g) for both strains. Cells of S. Typhimurium PT4 and S. Enteritidis PT4 previously exposed to acid stress showed higher (pthermo-tolerance in both strains. The cells that survived the sequential stress exposure (resistant) showed higher tolerance (pthermo-tolerance and enhance the survival under gastrointestinal conditions of S. Enteritidis PT4 and S. Typhimurium PT4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification and characterization of thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria strains isolated from coconut water vinegar in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumpuli, P A B N; Watanabe, Taisuke; Toyama, Hirohide

    2014-01-01

    From the pellicle formed on top of brewing coconut water vinegar in Sri Lanka, three Acetobacter strains (SL13E-2, SL13E-3, and SL13E-4) that grow at 42 °C and four Gluconobacter strains (SL13-5, SL13-6, SL13-7, and SL13-8) grow at 37 °C were identified as Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii, respectively. Acetic acid production by the isolated Acetobacter strains was examined. All three strains gave 4% acetic acid from 6% initial ethanol at 37 °C, and 2.5% acetic acid from 4% initial ethanol at 40 °C. Compared with the two other strains, SL13E-4 showed both slower growth and slower acetic acid production. As well as the thermotolerant SKU1108 strain, the activities of the alcohol dehydrogenase and the aldehyde dehydrogenase of SL13E-2 and SL13E-4 were more stable than those of the mesophilic strain. The isolated strains were used to produce coconut water vinegar at higher temperatures than typically used for vinegar production.

  18. L: (+)-Lactic acid production from non-food carbohydrates by thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Mark S; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2011-05-01

    Lactic acid is used as an additive in foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics, and is also an industrial chemical. Optically pure lactic acid is increasingly used as a renewable bio-based product to replace petroleum-based plastics. However, current production of lactic acid depends on carbohydrate feedstocks that have alternate uses as foods. The use of non-food feedstocks by current commercial biocatalysts is limited by inefficient pathways for pentose utilization. B. coagulans strain 36D1 is a thermotolerant bacterium that can grow and efficiently ferment pentoses using the pentose-phosphate pathway and all other sugar constituents of lignocellulosic biomass at 50°C and pH 5.0, conditions that also favor simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of cellulose. Using this bacterial biocatalyst, high levels (150-180 g l(-1)) of lactic acid were produced from xylose and glucose with minimal by-products in mineral salts medium. In a fed-batch SSF of crystalline cellulose with fungal enzymes and B. coagulans, lactic acid titer was 80 g l(-1) and the yield was close to 80%. These results demonstrate that B. coagulans can effectively ferment non-food carbohydrates from lignocellulose to L: (+)-lactic acid at sufficient concentrations for commercial application. The high temperature fermentation of pentoses and hexoses to lactic acid by B. coagulans has these additional advantages: reduction in cellulase loading in SSF of cellulose with a decrease in enzyme cost in the process and a reduction in contamination of large-scale fermentations.

  19. Heat pump using dual heat sources of air and water. Performance with heat sources arranged in parallel; Mizu kuki ryonetsugen heat pump no kenkyu. Netsugen heiretsu unten ni okeru seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S; Miura, N; Sato, S [Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Uchikawa, Y; Hamada, K [Kubota Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A heat pump system using water and air as heat sources was built and evaluated for its performance. In this system, evaporators may be operated singly or as connected in parallel or series, and, for each case, the quantity of heat acquired may be measured and system performance may be quantitatively evaluated. The findings follow. When the two heat sources are equal in temperature in the single-evaporator operation, the evaporation temperature is about 7{degree}C higher on the water side than on the air side, and the performance coefficient is about 0.7 higher. When the air heat source temperature is 25{degree}C in the parallel operation, like quantities of heat are obtained from both heat sources, and collection of heat from the water increases with a decrease in the air heat source temperature but, with an increase, collection from the air increases. When the air heat source temperature decreases, the evaporation temperature decreases in the single-evaporator working on the air and in the parallel operation but it levels off in the single-evaporator working on the water alone. When the water heat source temperature decreases, evaporation temperature drop is sharper in the single-evaporator working on the water than in the parallel operation, which suggests the transfer from the parallel operation to the single-evaporator working on the air. In the single-evaporator operation on the water heat source, the evaporation temperature linearly decreases with an increase in superheating. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  20. Protective effects of heat shock protein 70 on the acute lung injury of rats with heat stroke and its mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan GENG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the protective effect of heat shock protein (HSP 70 on the acute lung injury (ALI of rats with heat stroke. Methods Sixty four rats were randomly (by employing a random number table assigned into a sham-heated group (Sham group, heat stress group (HS group, and HS plus gluttamine treatment group (HS+GLN group and HS plus quercet in treatment group (HS+QU group, 16 each. All rats were housed in a artificial climate chamber, with the rats in the sham groups exposed to a temperature of 23℃ and humidity of 55%±5%, while the rats of HS, HS+GLN and HS+QU groups to an ambient temperature of 39℃ and humidity of 65%. During heat stress or sham heating, rectal temperature (Tr, systolic blood pressure (SBP and pulse rate (PR were monitored to observe the difference in heat stress response among the groups. The time point at which the SBP started to drop from the peak level was taken as the point of HS onset. At the onset of HS, heat exposure was terminated, then the rats were immediately removed from the chamber, and returned to room temperature. The rats were scarified 0h and 6h after HS onset respectively. After bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF was collected, the lungs of all animals were harvested for pathological examination of lung injury. The concentrations of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 in BALF and HSP70 in lung homogenate were measured by using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results Compared with HS and HS+QU groups, the rats in HS+GLN group required significantly greater heat load to induce HS (P<0.001, and had longer survival time span after HS onset. Compared with Sham group, the concentration of HSP70 in lung homogenate in HS group increased in a time-dependent manner (P<0.001. In comparison with HS group, the concentration of HSP70 in lung homogenate from HS+GLN group was significantly elevated at each time point (P<0.001, while the treatment with QU significantly inhibited the expression of HSP70 (P<0

  1. Nusselt correlation to predict heat transfer from an oscillated vertical annular fluid column through a porous domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Ersin; Sari, Ugurcan

    2017-04-01

    Experimental evaluation of the heat transfer in oscillating flow under the constant heat flux and constant amplitude fluid displacement conditions is presented for a vertical annular flow through a stainless steel wool porous media. The analysis is carried out for two different heat fluxes and for five different frequencies. The data is acquired from the measurements both in the initial transient period and in the pseudo-steady (cyclic) period by the system. The physical and mathematical behavior of the resulting Nusselt numbers are analyzed, according to data acquired from the experiments and in accordance with the results of the Buckingham Pi theorem. A cycle and space averaged Nusselt number correlation is suggested as a function of kinetic Reynolds number for oscillating flows. The suggested correlation is useful in predicting heat transfer from oscillating flows through highly porous and permeable solid media at low actuation frequencies and at low heat fluxes applied in the wall. The validity of the Nusselt numbers acquired by correlation is discussed using experimental Nusselt numbers for the selected kinetic Reynolds number interval. The present investigation has possible applications in moderate sized wicked heat pipes, solid matrix compact heat exchangers compromising of metallic foams, filtration equipment, and steam generators.

  2. Purification and Characterization of Organic Solvent and Detergent Tolerant Lipase from Thermotolerant Bacillus sp. RN2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiko Kajiwara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the organic solvent and detergent tolerant properties of recombinant lipase isolated from thermotolerant Bacillus sp. RN2 (Lip-SBRN2. The isolation of the lipase-coding gene was achieved by the use of inverse and direct PCR. The complete DNA sequencing of the gene revealed that the lip-SBRN2 gene contains 576 nucleotides which corresponded to 192 deduced amino acids. The purified enzyme was homogeneous with the estimated molecular mass of 19 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. The Lip-SBRN2 was stable in a pH range of 9–11 and temperature range of 45–60 °C. The enzyme was a non metallo-monomeric protein and was active against pNP-caprylate (C8 and pNP-laurate (C12 and coconut oil. The Lip-SBRN2 exhibited a high level of activity in the presence of 108% benzene, 102.4% diethylether and 112% SDS. It is anticipated that the organic solvent and detergent tolerant enzyme secreted by Bacillus sp. RN2 will be applicable as catalysts for reaction in the presence of organic solvents and detergents.

  3. Growth tradeoffs associated with thermotolerant symbionts in the coral Pocillopora damicornis are lost in warmer oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunning, R.; Gillette, P.; Capo, T.; Galvez, K.; Baker, A. C.

    2015-03-01

    The growth and survival of reef corals are influenced by their symbiotic algal partners ( Symbiodinium spp.), which may be flexible in space and time. Tradeoffs among partnerships exist such that corals with thermotolerant symbionts (e.g., clade D) resist bleaching but grow more slowly, making the long-term ecosystem-level impacts of different host-symbiont associations uncertain. However, much of this uncertainty is due to limited data regarding these tradeoffs and particularly how they are mediated by the environment. To address this knowledge gap, we measured growth and survival of Pocillopora damicornis with thermally sensitive (clade C) or tolerant (clade D) symbionts at three temperatures over 18-55 weeks. Warming reduced coral growth overall, but altered the tradeoffs associated with symbiont type. While clade D corals grew 35-40 % slower than clade C corals at cooler temperatures (26 °C), warming of 1.5-3 °C reduced and eliminated this growth disadvantage. These results suggest that although warmer oceans will negatively impact corals, clade D may enhance survival at no cost to growth relative to clade C. Understanding these genotype-environment interactions can help improve modeling efforts and conservation strategies for reefs under global climate change.

  4. Marine Heat Waves Hazard 3D Maps and the Risk for Low Motility Organisms in a Warming Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Galli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Frequency and severity of heat waves is expected to increase as a consequence of climate change with important impacts on human and ecosystems health. However, while many studies explored the projected occurrence of hot extremes on terrestrial systems, few studies dealt with marine systems, so that both the expected change in marine heat waves occurrence and the effects on marine organisms and ecosystems remain less understood and surprisingly poorly quantified. Here we: (i assess how much more frequent, severe, and depth-penetrating marine heat waves will be in the Mediterranean area in the next decades by post-processing the output of an ocean general circulation model; and (ii show that heat waves increase will impact on many species that live in shallow waters and have reduced motility, and related economic activities. This information is made available also as a dataset of temperature threshold exceedance indexes that can be used in combination with biological information to produce risk assessment maps for target species or biomes across the whole Mediterranean Sea. As case studies we compared projected heat waves occurrence with thermotolerance thresholds of low motility organisms. Results suggest a deepening of the survival horizon for red coral (Corallium rubrum, a commercially exploited benthic species already subjected to heat-related mass mortality events and coralligenous reefs as well as a reduction of suitable farming sites for the mussel Mythilus galloprovincialis. In recent years Mediterranean circalittoral ecosystems (coralligenous have been severely and repeatedly impacted by marine heat waves. Our results support that equally deleterious events are expected in the near future also for other ecologically important habitats (e.g., seagrass meadows and aquaculture activities (bivalvae, and point at the need for mitigation strategies.

  5. Higher Temperature at Lower Elevation Sites Fails to Promote Acclimation or Adaptation to Heat Stress During Pollen Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluvia Flores-Rentería

    2018-04-01

    even high pollen production may not result in successful fertilization due to low germination. Acquired thermotolerance might not limit these impacts, but pinyon could avoid heat stress by phenological adjustment of pollen development. Higher pollen viability at the core of the distribution could be explained by an optimal combination of biotic and abiotic environmental factors. The disconnect between measures of growth and pollen production suggests that vigor metrics may not accurately estimate reproduction.

  6. Development and fabrication of heat-sterilizable inhalation therapy equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, A. S.

    1974-01-01

    The development of a completely heat sterilizable intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) ventilator in an effort to reduce the number of hospital acquired infections is reported. After appropriate changes in materials and design were made, six prototype units were fabricated and were successfully field tested in local hospitals. Most components of the modified ventilators are compatible with existing machines. In all but a few instances, such as installation of bacteria-retentive filters and a modified venturi, the change over from non-heat-sterilizable to sterilizable units was accomplished by replacement of heat labile materials with heat stable materials.

  7. Thermophillic and thermotolerant fungi isolated from the thermal effluent of nuclear power generating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, J.W.; Gerhold, R.; Heath, M.

    1980-01-01

    Over a period of a year, samples of water, foam, microbial mat, soil and air were obtained from areas associated with the cooling canal of a nuclear power station. The seventeen sample sites included water in the cooling canal that was thermally enriched and soil and water adjacent to, up-stream, downstream and at a distance from the generator. Air samples were taken at the plant and at various disstances from the plant. Fifty-two species of thermotolerant and thermophilic fungi were isolated. Of these, eleven species are grouped as opportunistic Mucorales or opportunistic Aspergillus sp. One veterinary pathogen was also isolated (Dactylaria gallopara). The opportunistic/pathogenic fungi were found primarily in the intake bay, the discharge bay and the cooling canal. Smaller numbers were obtained at both upstream and downstream locations. Soil samples near the cooling canal reflected an enrichment of thermophilous organisms, the previously mentioned opportunistic Mucorales and Aspergillus spp. Their numbers were found to be greater than that usually encountered in a mesophilic environment. However, air and soil samples taken at various distances from the power station indicated no greater abundance of these thermophilous fungi than would be expected from a thermal enriched environment. Our results indicate that there was no significant dissemination of thermophilous fungi from the thermal enriched effluents to the adjacent environment. These findings are consistent with the results of other investigators. (orig.)

  8. Central nervous system promotes thermotolerance via FoxO/DAF-16 activation through octopamine and acetylcholine signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhashi, Tsubasa; Sakamoto, Kazuichi

    2016-03-25

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) responds to many kinds of stressors to maintain homeostasis. Although the ANS is believed to regulate stress tolerance, the exact mechanism underlying this is not well understood. To understand this, we focused on longevity genes, which have functions such as lifespan extension and promotion of stress tolerance. To understand the relationship between ANS and longevity genes, we analyzed stress tolerance of Caenorhabditis elegans treated with octopamine, which has an affinity to noradrenaline in insects, and acetylcholine. Octopamine and acetylcholine did not show resistance against H2O2, but the neurotransmitters promoted thermotolerance via DAF-16. However, chronic treatment with octopamine and acetylcholine did not extend the lifespan, although DAF-16 plays an important role in longevity. In conclusion, our results show that octopamine and acetylcholine activate DAF-16 in response to stress, but chronic induction of octopamine and acetylcholine is not beneficial for increasing longevity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparing cell viability and ethanol fermentation of the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on steam-exploded biomass treated with laccase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Antonio D; Ibarra, David; Ballesteros, Ignacio; González, Alberto; Ballesteros, Mercedes

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus CECT 10875 was compared to the industrial strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ethanol Red for lignocellulosic ethanol production. For it, whole slurry from steam-exploded wheat straw was used as raw material, and two process configurations, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PSSF), were evaluated. Compared to S. cerevisiae, which was able to produce ethanol in both process configurations, K. marxianus was inhibited, and neither growth nor ethanol production occurred during the processes. However, laccase treatment of the whole slurry removed specifically lignin phenols from the overall inhibitory compounds present in the slurry and triggered the fermentation by K. marxianus, attaining final ethanol concentrations and yields comparable to those obtained by S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Learning-by-Being-Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo Gaetano; Moreira, Solon; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    2016-01-01

    In horizontal acquisitions, the post-acquisition integration of the R&D function often damages the inventive labor force and results in lower innovative productivity of acquired inventors. In this paper we study post-acquisition integration in terms of R&D team reorganization-i.e., the creation...... of new teams with both inventors of the acquiring and acquired firms-and assess the impact of this integration action in the period that immediately follows the acquisition. Drawing on social identity and self-categorization theories, we argue that R&D team reorganization increases the acquired inventors...

  11. Tomographic Heating Holder for In Situ TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gontard, Lionel C.; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Fernández, Asunción

    2014-01-01

    distributions and changes in active surface area are quantified from tilt series of images acquired after subjecting the specimens to increasing temperatures. The porosity of the alumina support and the sintering mechanisms of the catalysts are shown to depend on distance from the heating filament....

  12. Physiological responses of horses to a treadmill simulated speed and endurance test in high heat and humidity before and after humid heat acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin, D J; Scott, C M; Schroter, R C; Harris, R C; Harris, P A; Roberts, C A; Mills, P C

    1999-01-01

    with a humid heat acclimation response. These changes were mostly similar to those reported to occur in man and other species and were consistent with thermal acclimation and an increased thermotolerance, leading to an improved exercise tolerance. It is concluded that a 15 day period of acclimation is beneficial for horses from cooler and or drier climates, that have to compete in hot humid conditions and that this may redress, to some extent, the decrement in exercise tolerance seen in nonacclimated horses and reduce the risk of heat related disorders, such as heat exhaustion.

  13. Novel SNPs in HSPB8 gene and their association with heat tolerance traits in Sahiwal indigenous cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Nishant; Gupta, Ishwar Dayal; Verma, Archana; Kumar, Rakesh; Das, Ramendra; Vineeth, M R

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are expressed in response to heat stress, and the polymorphism in HSP genes at single-nucleotide level has been reported to be associated with heat tolerance and production performance traits in cattle. HSPB8 gene has been mapped on Bos taurus autosome 17 (BTA-17) spanning nearly 13,252 bp and comprising three exons and two introns. The present study was conducted in Sahiwal cows (n = 108) reared in subtropical climate with the objectives to identify SNPs in all three exons and part of intron 1 of HSPB8 gene and to analyze their association with heat tolerance traits in Sahiwal cows. Respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) were recorded once during probable extreme hours in different seasons or Temperature-Humidity Index (THI), i.e., winter, spring, and summer. Heat tolerance coefficient (HTC) was also calculated to check the adaptability of the animals during the period of heat stress. The comparative sequence analysis revealed a total two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), i.e., g.507G>A in exon 1 and g.881T>C in intron 1 of HSPB8 gene. Out of these two identified SNPs, only one SNP, i.e., g.507G>A, was found to be significantly associated with heat tolerance indicator traits (RR, RT, and HTC) in Sahiwal cows. The perusal of results across different seasons showed the significant (P A SNP of HSPB8 gene. However, in case of another SNP, i.e., g.881T>C, located on intron 1, the RR, RT, and HTC were having non-significant association with the different genotypes, i.e., TT and TC. These findings may partly suggest that GA genotype of SNP g.507G>A of HSPB8 gene has a probable role in heat tolerance in Sahiwal cattle and can therefore be utilized as a marker in propagation of thermo-tolerance cattle in hot tropical and subtropical climate. Nevertheless, the involvement of other regulatory mechanisms cannot be overruled.

  14. Saclay Reactor: acquired knowledge by two years experience in heat transfer using compressed gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yvon, J.

    1955-01-01

    Describes the conception and functioning of a new reactor (EL-2) using compressed gas as primary coolant. The aim of the use of compressed gas as primary coolant is to reduce the quantity of heavy water used in the functioning of the reactor. Description of the reactor vessel (dimensions, materials, reflector and protection). Description of the cells and the circulation of the gas within the cells. A complete explanation of the control and regulating of the reaction by the ionization chamber is given. Heavy water is used as modulator: it describes the heavy water system and its recombination system. The fuel slugs are cooled by compressed gas: its system is described as well as the blower and the heat exchanger system. Water is supplied by a cooling tower which means the reactor power is dependant of the atmospheric conditions. Particular attention has been given to the tightness of the different systems used. The relation between neutron flow and the thermal output is discussed: the thermal output can be calculated by measuring the gas flow and its heating or by measuring the neutron flow within the reactor, both methods gives closed results. Reactivity study: determination of the different factors which induce a variation of reactivity. Heat transfer: discussion on the use of different heat transfer systems, determination of the required chemical and physical properties of the primary coolant as well as the discussion of the nuclear and thermal requirements for the choice of it. A comparison between the use of nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas shows an advantage in using nitrogen with the existing knowledge. Reflexion on the relevance of this work and the future perspectives of the use of compressed gas as primary coolant. (M.P.)

  15. Experimental and numerical contribution to heat transfer enhancement in compact plate heat exchangers - 15563

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitillo, F.; Cachon, L.; Millan, P.

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the CEA program to develop an industrial prototype of sodium-cooled fast reactor named (ASTRID), the present work aims at proposing an innovative compact heat exchanger technology, to provide solid technological basis for the utilization of a Brayton power conversion system. This allows avoiding the energetic sodium-water interaction that could potentially occur if a traditional Rankine cycle was used. The design of the gas-side (which determines the heat transfer resistance of the heat exchanger) of the sodium-gas heat exchanger has been the object of the present work. Compact technologies are necessary for the present application because of the low heat transfer capacity of the gas foreseen, i.e. nitrogen. The basic idea of this work is to design a channel were the fluid flow is as much as 3-dimensional as possible. In particular the proposed channel can be thought as the result of the superposition of 2 single PCHE wavy channels in phase opposition. The innovative channel geometry has to be studied numerically and experimentally to demonstrate its industrial interest and the final compact gain. To numerically provide a physically-consistent model, a new non-linear eddy viscosity named Anisotropic Shear Stress Transport (ASST) model has been developed and implemented into the available solver ANSYS FLUENT. It has been demonstrated that the ASST model can provide a valuable alternative to more complex models. Given the innovation of the proposed geometry, no test case has been found in the literature to be fully applicable to the present study. So, 3 experimental facilities have been used to acquire an extensive aerodynamic database. The Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and VHEGAS facilities have been built to investigate the innovative channel flow and heat transfer characteristics. The ASST model, used with a SGDH turbulent heat flux model, has been validate against the acquired thermal-hydraulic database

  16. Acquired neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozeron, Pierre; Trocello, Jean-Marc; Kubis, Nathalie

    2013-09-01

    Acquired neuropathies represent most of the neuropathies encountered in clinical practice. Hundreds of causes have been identified even though up to 41% of patients are still classified as idiopathic (Rajabally and Shah in J Neurol 258:1431-1436, 1). Routine evaluation relies on comprehensive medical history taking, clinical examination, nerve conduction studies and laboratory tests. Other investigations such as nerve biopsy or nerve or muscle imaging are performed in specific settings. This review focuses on recent advances in acquired neuropathies.

  17. A study of Ground Source Heat Pump based on a heat infiltrates coupling model established with FEFLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Hu, C.; Chen, G.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Geothermal heat is a viable source of energy and its environmental impact in terms of CO2 emissions is significantly lower than conventional fossil fuels. it is vital that engineers acquire a proper understanding about the Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP). In this study, the model of the borehole exchanger under conduction manners and heat infiltrates coupling manners was established with FEFLOW. The energy efficiency, heat transfer endurance and heat transfer in the unit depth were introduced to quantify the energy efficient and the endurance period. The performance of a the Borehole Exchanger (BHE) in soil with and without groundwater seepage was analyzed of heat transfer process between the soil and the working fluid. Basing on the model, the varied regularity of energy efficiency performance an heat transfer endurance with the conditions including the different configuration of the BHE, the soil properties, thermal load characteristic were discussed. Focus on the heat transfer process in multi-layer soil which one layer exist groundwater flow. And an investigation about thermal dispersivity was also analyzed its influence on heat transfer performance. The final result proves that the model of heat infiltrates coupling model established in this context is reasonable, which can be applied to engineering design.

  18. Mechanism of action of hydrogen peroxide in wheat thermotolerance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the increase in H2O2 accumulation, an increase in the number of isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase and catalase were observed with high activities under differential heat shock. A decrease in the proline accumulation was observed under differential heat shock. Exogenous application of H2O2 (10 mmole/L) leads ...

  19. Anther response to high-temperature stress during development and pollen thermotolerance heterosis as revealed by pollen tube growth and in vitro pollen vigor analysis in upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guicheng; Wang, Miaomiao; Zeng, Bin; Zhang, Jing; Jiang, Chenliang; Hu, Qirui; Geng, Guangtao; Tang, Canming

    2015-05-01

    Pollen tube growth in styles was strongly inhibited by temperature above 35 °C, and the yield of cotton decreased because of the adverse effect of high temperatures during square development. High-temperature stress during flowering influences the square development of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and cotton yield. Although it is well known that square development is sensitive to high temperature, high-temperature sensitive stages of square development and the effects of high temperature on pollen tube growth in the styles are unknown. The effect of high temperature on anther development corresponding to pollen vigor is unknown during anther development. The objectives of this study were to identify the stages of square development that are sensitive to high temperatures (37/30 and 40/34 °C), to determine whether the abnormal development of squares influenced by high temperature is responsible for the variation in the in vitro germination percent of pollen grains at anthesis, to identify the effect of high temperature on pollen germination in the styles, and to determine pollen thermotolerance heterosis. Our results show that the stages from the sporogenous cell to tetrad stage (square length styles was strongly inhibited by temperature above 35 °C, and the yield of cotton decreased because of the effect of high temperature during square development. The thermotolerance of hybrid F1 pollen showed heterosis, and pollen viability could be used as a criterion for screening for high-temperature tolerance cultivars. These results can be used in breeding to develop new cotton cultivars that can withstand high-temperature conditions, particularly in a future warmer climate.

  20. Preliminary Analysis on Heat Removal Capacity of Passive Air-Water Combined Cooling Heat Exchanger Using MARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung-Sin; Jeon, Seong-Su; Hong, Soon-Joon; Bae, Sung-Won; Kwon, Tae-Soon

    2015-01-01

    Current design requirement for working time of PAFS heat exchanger is about 8 hours. Thus, it is not satisfied with the required cooling capability for the long term SBO(Station Black-Out) situation that is required to over 72 hours cooling. Therefore PAFS is needed to change of design for 72 hours cooling. In order to acquirement of long terms cooling using PAFS, heat exchanger tube has to be submerged in water tank for long time. However, water in the tank is evaporated by transferred heat from heat exchanger tubes, so water level is gradually lowered as time goes on. The heat removal capacity of air cooling heat exchanger is core parameter that is used for decision of applicability on passive air-water combined cooling system using PAFS in long term cooling. In this study, the development of MARS input model and plant accident analysis are performed for the prediction of the heat removal capacity of air cooling heat exchanger. From analysis result, it is known that inflow air velocity is the decisive factor of the heat removal capacity and predicted air velocity is lower than required air velocity. But present heat transfer model and predicted air velocity have uncertainty. So, if changed design of PAFS that has over 4.6 kW heat removal capacity in each tube, this type heat exchanger can be applied to long term cooling of the nuclear power plant

  1. Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis Study of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus Thermotolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Gouesbet, Gwenola; Jan, Gwenael; Boyaval, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    The response of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus cells to heat stress was studied by use of a chemically defined medium. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis was used to correlate the kinetics of heat shock protein (HSP) induction with cell recovery from heat injury. We demonstrated that enhanced viability, observed after 10 min at 65°C, resulted from the overexpression of HSP and from mechanisms not linked to protein synthesis. In order to analyze the thermoadaptation m...

  2. Thermotolerance and Human Performance: Role of Heat Shock Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    rats, hamsters, guinea pigs , rabbits, sheep, pigs , and monkeys (Edwards et al 2003). However, the type and severity of the fetal defects were dependent...Baker H 1979. Reproduction and breeding . In The Laboratory Rat. ed Baker H, Lindsey J, Weisbroth S. Academic Press, New York, NY, 154–168. Bae S, Xiao

  3. Plasma heating in a variable magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kichigin, G. N., E-mail: king@iszf.irk.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-15

    The problem of particle acceleration in a periodically variable magnetic field that either takes a zero value or passes through zero is considered. It is shown that, each time the field [0]passes through zero, the particle energy increases abruptly. This process can be regarded as heating in the course of which plasma particles acquire significant energy within one field period. This mechanism of plasma heating takes place in the absence of collisions between plasma particles and is analogous to the mechanism of magnetic pumping in collisional plasma considered by Alfven.

  4. Bioconversion of Airborne Methylamine by Immobilized Recombinant Amine Oxidase from the Thermotolerant Yeast Hansenula polymorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasi Sigawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aliphatic amines, including methylamine, are air-pollutants, due to their intensive use in industry and the natural degradation of proteins, amino acids, and other nitrogen-containing compounds in biological samples. It is necessary to develop systems for removal of methylamine from the air, since airborne methylamine has a negative effect on human health. The primary amine oxidase (primary amine : oxygen oxidoreductase (deaminating or amine oxidase, AMO; EC 1.4.3.21, a copper-containing enzyme from the thermotolerant yeast Hansenula polymorpha which was overexpressed in baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was tested for its ability to oxidize airborne methylamine. A continuous fluidized bed bioreactor (CFBR was designed to enable bioconversion of airborne methylamine by AMO immobilized in calcium alginate (CA beads. The results demonstrated that the bioreactor with immobilized AMO eliminates nearly 97% of the airborne methylamine. However, the enzymatic activity of AMO causes formation of formaldehyde. A two-step bioconversion process was therefore proposed. In the first step, airborne methylamine was fed into a CFBR which contained immobilized AMO. In the second step, the gas flow was passed through another CFBR, with alcohol oxidase from the yeast H. polymorpha immobilized in CA, in order to decompose the formaldehyde formed in the first step. The proposed system provided almost total elimination of the airborne methylamine and the formaldehyde.

  5. Biosorption of heavy metal by thermotolerant polymerproducing bacterial cells and the bioflocculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saithong Kaewchai

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Three strains of thermotolerant polymer-producing bacteria; Bacillus subtilis WD 90, Bacillus subtilis SM 29, and Enterobacter agglomerans SM 38 as well as their biofloculants were used to investigate on the adsorption of heavy metal, nickel and cadmium. The effects of pH and concentrations of heavy metal were investigated. The optimum pH for nickel and cadmium adsorption by the dried cells of E. agglomerans SM 38 were found to be 7.0 (25.5% removal and 8.0 (32% removal, respectively. For B. subtilis WD 90 and B. subtilis SM 29, the optimum pH at 8.0 exhibited the nickel removal of 27% and 25%, respectively, and cadmium removal of 28% and 28.5%, respectively. The heavy metal adsorption by the dried cells and wet cells of E. agglomerans SM 38 were slightly increased with increasing initial concentrations of nickel and cadmium up to 60 and 30 ppm, respectively. The bioflocculant of B. subtilis WD 90 and B. subtilis SM 29 showed the highest nickel removal of 90.7% and 87.0% respectively, while the cadmium removal was 90.9 and 91.4%, respectively. The optimum pH for adsorption of both nickel and cadmium by the bioflocculant of E. agglomerans SM 38 was 7.0 with the removal of 92.8 and 84.2%, respectively. The optimum nickel concentration for adsorption by the bioflocculant of E. agglomerans SM 38 was 10 ppm, with the removal of 92.5%, and rather stable up to 60 ppm. The optimum cadmium concentration for adsorption by the bioflocculant of B. subtilis SM 29 was 60 ppm at pH 8.0 with the removal of 85.7%. Therefore, the bioflocculant of the three isolates gave higher heavy metal adsorption than the cells.

  6. Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Rectal Temperature during Heat Stress in Holstein Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, Serdal; Cole, John B.; Null, Daniel J.; Hansen, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Heat stress compromises production, fertility, and health of dairy cattle. One mitigation strategy is to select individuals that are genetically resistant to heat stress. Most of the negative effects of heat stress on animal performance are a consequence of either physiological adaptations to regulate body temperature or adverse consequences of failure to regulate body temperature. Thus, selection for regulation of body temperature during heat stress could increase thermotolerance. The objective was to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for rectal temperature (RT) during heat stress in lactating Holstein cows and identify SNPs associated with genes that have large effects on RT. Records on afternoon RT where the temperature-humidity index was ≥78.2 were obtained from 4,447 cows sired by 220 bulls, resulting in 1,440 useable genotypes from the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip with 39,759 SNP. For GWAS, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 adjacent SNP were averaged to identify consensus genomic regions associated with RT. The largest proportion of SNP variance (0.07 to 0.44%) was explained by markers flanking the region between 28,877,547 and 28,907,154 bp on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 24. That region is flanked by U1 (28,822,883 to 28,823,043) and NCAD (28,992,666 to 29,241,119). In addition, the SNP at 58,500,249 bp on BTA 16 explained 0.08% and 0.11% of the SNP variance for 2- and 3-SNP analyses, respectively. That contig includes SNORA19, RFWD2 and SCARNA3. Other SNPs associated with RT were located on BTA 16 (close to CEP170 and PLD5), BTA 5 (near SLCO1C1 and PDE3A), BTA 4 (near KBTBD2 and LSM5), and BTA 26 (located in GOT1, a gene implicated in protection from cellular stress). In conclusion, there are QTL for RT in heat-stressed dairy cattle. These SNPs could prove useful in genetic selection and for identification of genes involved in physiological responses to heat stress. PMID:23935954

  7. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Brouwer, Matthijs; Hasbun, Rodrigo; Koedel, Uwe; Whitney, Cynthia G.; Wijdicks, Eelco

    2016-01-01

    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges and subarachnoid space that can also involve the brain cortex and parenchyma. It can be acquired spontaneously in the community - community-acquired bacterial meningitis - or in the hospital as a complication of invasive procedures or head trauma

  8. Acquired Methemoglobinaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Al-Lawati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acquired methemoglobinaemia is a relatively rare condition and, therefore infrequently encountered in acute medical practice. Suspicion of the condition may be triggered when the measured PaO2 is ‘out of keeping’ with the oxygen saturations that are discovered with pulse oximetry. We describe two separate cases of acquired methemoglobinaemia secondary to the recreational use of alkyl nitrites (’poppers’. The patients presented at separate times to two different teaching hospitals in London, UK. The similarity of these cases has led the authors to conclude that a raised awareness of this potentially fatal condition, and its association with a widely-available recreational drug, is necessary to ensure a correct and timely diagnosis.

  9. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  10. Genome-wide analysis of the Hsp70 family genes in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and functional identification of CaHsp70-2 involvement in heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meng; Liu, Jin-Hong; Ma, Xiao; Zhai, Yu-Fei; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Lu, Ming-Hui

    2016-11-01

    Hsp70s function as molecular chaperones and are encoded by a multi-gene family whose members play a crucial role in plant response to stress conditions, and in plant growth and development. Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important vegetable crop whose genome has been sequenced. Nonetheless, no overall analysis of the Hsp70 gene family is reported in this crop plant to date. To assess the functionality of Capsicum annuum Hsp70 (CaHsp70) genes, pepper genome database was analyzed in this research. A total of 21 CaHsp70 genes were identified and their characteristics were also described. The promoter and transcript expression analysis revealed that CaHsp70s were involved in pepper growth and development, and heat stress response. Ectopic expression of a cytosolic gene, CaHsp70-2, regulated expression of stress-related genes and conferred increased thermotolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Taken together, our results provide the basis for further studied to dissect CaHsp70s' function in response to heat stress as well as other environmental stresses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of heat shock cognate protein 70 gene and its differential expression in response to thermal stress between two wing morphs of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Xia; Liu, Wenting; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated differences in thermotolerance between two wing morphs of Nilaparvata lugens, the most serious pest of rice across the Asia. To reveal the molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying the differential thermal resistance abilities between two wing morphs, a full-length of transcript encoding heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) was cloned, and its expression patterns across temperature gradients were analyzed. The results showed that the expression levels of NlHsc70 in macropters increased dramatically after heat shock from 32 to 38°C, while NlHsc70 transcripts in brachypters remained constant under different temperature stress conditions. In addition, NlHsc70 expression in the macropters was significantly higher than that in brachypters at 1 and 2h recovery from 40°C heat shock. There was no significant difference in NlHsc70 mRNA expression between brachypters and macropters under cold shock conditions. Therefore, NlHsc70 was indeed a constitutively expressed member of the Hsp70 family in brachypters of N. lugens, while it was heat-inducible in macropters. Furthermore, the survival rates of both morphs injected with NlHsc70 dsRNA were significantly decreased following heat shock at 40°C or cold shock at 0°C for 1h. These results suggested that the up-regulation of NlHsc70 is possibly related to the thermal resistance, and the more effective inducement expression of NlHsc70 in macropters promotes a greater thermal tolerance under temperature stress conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Economy and development of heating station enterprises managed by forest owners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuomi, S.

    1997-01-01

    Private heating enterprises are a new form of heat generation for municipalities in Finland. In this type the entrepreneur acquires the fuel and takes care of the operation and monitoring of the heating station. The recompense is paid on the basis of the heat amount produced to avoid problems related to i.e. the energy content and quality of the fuel. The price of heat is typically bound with that of light fuel oil. Agreements based on the price development of district heat and chips are also used. In 1996 there were 36 such heating enterprises in operation in Finland, their total efficiency being 11.5 MW. The aim of the project is to improve the feasibility of various forms of heating enterprises and to start new heating enterprises. The feasibility is studied both from the viewpoint of the entrepreneur and the municipality. The feasibility is improved by developing production chains of heating enterprises and the operability of the heating stations. Establishment of new heating enterprises is promoted by producing and disseminating information to possible entrepreneurs and municipalities. (orig.)

  13. Economy and development of heating station enterprises managed by forest owners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuomi, S.

    1998-01-01

    Private heating enterprises are a new form of heat generation for municipalities in Finland. In this type the entrepreneur acquires the fuel and takes care of the operation and monitoring of the heating station. The recompense is paid on the basis of the heat amount produced to avoid problems related to i.a. the energy content and quality of the fuel. The price of heat is typically bound with that of light fuel oil. Agreements based on the price development of district heat and chips are also used. In 1997 there were about 50 such heating enterprises in operation in Finland. The aim of the project is to improve the feasibility of various forms of heating enterprises and to start new heating enterprises. The feasibility is studied both from the viewpoint of the entrepreneur and the municipality. The feasibility is improved by developing production chains of heating enterprises and the operability of heating stations. Establishment of new heating enterprises is promoted by producing and disseminating information to possible entrepreneurs and municipalities. (orig.)

  14. Differential acclimation of enzymatic antioxidant metabolism and photosystem II photochemistry in tall fescue under drought and heat and the combined stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoyue eBi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Quality inferiority in cool-season turfgrass due to drought, heat and a combination of both stresses is predicted to be more prevalent in the future. Understanding the various response to heat and drought stress will assist in the selection and breeding of tolerant grass varieties. The objective of this study was to investigate the behavior of antioxidant metabolism and photosystem II (PSII photochemistry in two tall fescue genotypes (PI 234881 and PI 578718 with various thermotolerance capacities. Wide variations were found between heat-tolerant PI 578718 and heat-sensitive PI 234881 for leaf relative water content, malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage under drought, high-temperature or a combination of both stresses. The sensitivity of PI 234881 exposed to combined stresses was associated with lower superoxide dismutase activity and higher H2O2 accumulation than that in PI 578718. Various antioxidant enzymes displayed positive correlation with chlorophyll content, but negative with membrane injury index at most of the stages in both tall fescue genotypes. The JIP-test analysis in PI 578718 indicated a significant improvement in ABS/RC, TR0/RC, RE0/RC, RE0/ABS values as compared to the control regime, which indicated that PI 578718 had a high potential to protect the PSII system under drought and high temperature stress. And the PS II photochemistry in PI 234881 was damaged significantly compared with PI578718. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that heat and drought stresses deduced the gene expression of psbB and psbC, but induced the expression of psbA. These findings to some extent confirmed that the various adaptations of physiological traits may contribute to breeding in cold-season turfgrass in response to drought, high-temperature and a combination of both stresses.

  15. Characterization of a solar photovoltaic/loop-heat-pipe heat pump water heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xingxing; Zhao, Xudong; Xu, Jihuan; Yu, Xiaotong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Describing concept and operating principle of the PV/LHP heat pump water heating system. ► Developing a numerical model to evaluate the performance of the system. ► Experimental testing of the prototype system. ► Characterizing the system performance using parallel comparison between the modelling and experimental results. ► Investigating the impact of the operating conditions to the system’s performance. -- Abstract: This paper introduced the concept, potential application and benefits relating to a novel solar photovoltaic/loop-heat-pipe (PV/LHP) heat pump system for hot water generation. On this basis, the paper reported the process and results of characterizing the performance of such a system, which was undertaken through dedicated thermo-fluid and energy balance analyses, computer model development and operation, and experimental verification and modification. The fundamental heat transfer, fluid flow and photovoltaic governing equations were applied to characterize the energy conversion and transfer processes occurring in each part and whole system layout; while the energy balance approach was utilized to enable inter-connection and resolution of the grouped equations. As a result, a dedicated computer model was developed and used to calculate the operational parameters, optimise the geometrical configurations and sizes, and recommend the appropriate operational condition relating to the system. Further, an experimental rig was constructed and utilized to acquire the relevant measurement data that thus enabled the parallel comparison between the simulation and experiment. It is concluded that the testing and modelling results are in good agreement, indicating that the model has the reasonable accuracy in predicting the system’s performance. Under the given experimental conditions, the electrical, thermal and overall efficiency of the PV/LHP module were around 10%, 40% and 50% respectively; whilst the system’s overall performance

  16. Economy and development of heating station enterprises managed by forest owners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuomi, S.

    1998-01-01

    Private heating enterprises are a new form of heat generation for municipalities in Finland. In this type the entrepreneur acquires the fuel and takes care of the heating station. The recompense is paid on the basis of the heat amount produced to avoid problems related to i.a. the energy content and the quality of the fuel. The price of heat is typically bound to the price of the light fuel oil. Agreements based on the price development of district heat and chips are also used. In 1997 there were about 50 such enterprises in operation in Finland. The aim of the project is to improve the feasibility of various forms of heating enterprises and to start new heating enterprises. The feasibility is studied both from the viewpoint of the entrepreneur and the municipality. The feasibility is improved by developing production chains of heating enterprises and the operability of heating stations. Establishment of new heating enterprises is promoted by producing and disseminating information to prospective entrepreneurs and municipalities. (orig.) 2 figs., 2 tabs. Bioenergy Research programme

  17. Thermotolerant yeasts capable of producing bioethanol: isolation from natural fermented sources, identification and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Azam Talukder

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the demands of biofuels have increased, because of their significant role in reducing various pollutants created by fossil fuels. Here, we have collected 25 samples containing various thermotolerant microorganisms from the nine natural fermented sources of Bangladesh, such as Boiled potato (Bp, Decomposed foods (Df, Municipal liquid waste (Mlw, Municipal solid waste (Msw, Sugarcane juice (Sc, Pantavat (Pv, Sugar molasses (Sm, Tari (Tari and Watermelon juice (Wm for bioethanol production. Among them, 18 isolates are capable of producing bioethanol. Cultural, morphological, physiological, biochemical and genetic analyses were carried out under various physiological conditions. Ethanol fermentation was checked by different carbon sources, temperatures and pH. All of the isolates could grow well in the medium containing Dextrose and Arabinose and only two strains Pv-1 and Bp-2 could ferment Xylose as a sole carbon source. At 42 °C, the highest ethanol concentration 6.58% (v/v was obtained by a strain Wm-1 isolated from Watermelon juice. At 37 °C, maximal ethanol concentrations of 6.74% (v/v, 6.50% (v/v and 6.22% (v/v were obtained by the strains Bp-2, Wm-l and Pv-1, respectively. Among the various pH tested, the highest ethanol concentration 6.6% (v/v was obtained at pH 4.5 by a strain named Tari-2. Finally, yeast 26S rDNA sequencing information identified the strains Sc-2 as Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pv-2, Tari-2 and Df-1 as Pichia kudriavzevii, Mlw-l and Bp-2 as Candida tropicalis, Pv-1 as Pichia guilliermondii and Df-2 as Candida rugosa.

  18. Halopiger thermotolerans sp. nov., a thermo-tolerant haloarchaeon isolated from commercial salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minegishi, Hiroaki; Shimogaki, Ryuta; Enomoto, Shigeaki; Echigo, Akinobu; Kondo, Yusuke; Nagaoka, Shuhei; Shimane, Yasuhiro; Kamekura, Masahiro; Itoh, Takashi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken; Usami, Ron

    2016-12-01

    Three thermo-tolerant halophilic archaeal strains, SR-441T, SR-412 and SR-188, were isolated from commercial salt samples. Cells were non-motile pleomorphic rod-shaped, and stained Gram-negative. Colonies were pink-pigmented. The three strains were able to grow with 1.7-4.6 M NaCl (optimum, 2.5 M), at pH 6.5-9.0 (optimum, pH 8.0) and at 35-60 °C (optimum, 45 °C). The orthologous 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities amongst the three strains were 98.8-99.3 %, and the level of DNA-DNA relatedness was 71-74 and 72-75 % (reciprocally). The closest relative was Halopiger aswanensis JCM 11628T with 98.6 %-99.1 % similarity in the orthologous 16S rRNA gene sequences, followed by two more Halopiger species, Halopiger xanaduensis JCM 14033T (98.5 %-99.1 %) and Halopiger salifodinae JCM 9578T (95.5 %-95.6 %). DNA-DNA relatednesses between the three strains and H. aswanensis JCM 11628T and H. xanaduensis JCM 14033T were 61 and 54 %, respectively. The polar lipids of the three novel strains were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, and bis-sulfated diglycosyl archaeol-1. The most distinctive feature of the three strains was the ability to grow at 60 °C, while the maximum growth temperature of H. aswanensis is 55 °C. Based on phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses, the isolates are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Halopiger, for which the name Halopiger thermotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SR-441T (=JCM 19583T=KCTC 4248T) isolated from solar salt produced in Australia. SR-412 (=JCM 19582) and SR-188 (=JCM 19581) isolated from commercial salt samples are additional strains of the species.

  19. Direct ethanol production from cellulosic materials at high temperature using the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus displaying cellulolytic enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanase, Shuhei; Yamada, Ryosuke; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Fukuda, Hideki [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Organization of Advanced Science and Technology

    2010-09-15

    To exploit cellulosic materials for fuel ethanol production, a microorganism capable of high temperature and simultaneous saccharification-fermentation has been required. However, a major drawback is the optimum temperature for the saccharification and fermentation. Most ethanol-fermenting microbes have an optimum temperature for ethanol fermentation ranging between 28 C and 37 C, while the activity of cellulolytic enzymes is highest at around 50 C and significantly decreases with a decrease in temperature. Therefore, in the present study, a thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus, which has high growth and fermentation at elevated temperatures, was used as a producer of ethanol from cellulose. The strain was genetically engineered to display Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase and Aspergillus aculeatus {beta}-glucosidase on the cell surface, which successfully converts a cellulosic {beta}-glucan to ethanol directly at 48 C with a yield of 4.24 g/l from 10 g/l within 12 h. The yield (in grams of ethanol produced per gram of {beta}-glucan consumed) was 0.47 g/g, which corresponds to 92.2% of the theoretical yield. This indicates that high-temperature cellulose fermentation to ethanol can be efficiently accomplished using a recombinant K. marxianus strain displaying thermostable cellulolytic enzymes on the cell surface. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of in vitro gas production and nutrient digestibility of complete diets supplemented with different levels of thermotolerant yeast in Nellore rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Harikrishna

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the present study was to know the effect of dietary supplementation of varied levels of thermotolerant yeast to determine best levels for sheep diets by in vitro gas production. An in vivo study on Nellore rams was used for further evaluation of diets with three best levels of yeast (obtained from in vitro data to determine diet with optimum yeast level for growing lambs by assessing nutrient digestibility, plane of nutrition and nitrogen balance. Materials and methods: A complete diet was formulated and supplemented with five levels (0 g/kg (D ; 1 g/kg (D ; 2 g/kg 1 2 (D ; 3 g/kg (D ; 4 g/kg (D and 5 g/kg (D of thermotolerant yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, OBV-9 @ 5x108 cfu/g to 3 4 5 6 determine best levels for sheep diets by IVGP technique. An in vivo study was conducted on Nellore rams (39.75 0.24 kg body weight, aged 3 years in a 4 x 4 latin square design for further evaluation of diets with three best yeast levels based on in vitro data, to determine optimum yeast level for diets of growing lambs by assessing nutrient digestibility, plane of nutrition and nitrogen balance. The rams were housed individually in metabolic cages that allowed separation of urine and faeces to evaluate digestibility of nutrients and N balance. Animals were given 10 days adaptation period followed by 7-day collection period, feed intake and refusals were recorded. During the digestibility and N balance study, feed, refusals and faeces were analyzed for dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM and crude protein (CP as per AOAC, USA, while fibre fractions like neutral detergent fibre (aNDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF were analyzed. Data were analyzed as per the procedures suggested by Snedecor, G. W. and Cochran, W. G. (1994 and the difference between treatment means was tested for significance by Duncan's multiple-range and F Test. Results: Higher (P<0.01 IVGP volumes, in vitro organic matter degradability, metabolizable energy (ME and total

  1. An Arabidopsis chloroplast-targeted Hsp101 homologue, APG6, has an essential role in chloroplast development as well as heat-stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myouga, Fumiyoshi; Motohashi, Reiko; Kuromori, Takashi; Nagata, Noriko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2006-10-01

    Analysis of albino or pale-green (apg) mutants is important for identifying nuclear genes responsible for chloroplast development and pigment synthesis. We have identified 38 apg mutants by screening 11 000 Arabidopsis Ds-tagged lines. One mutant, apg6, contains a Ds insertion in a gene encoding APG6 (ClpB3), a homologue of the heat-shock protein Hsp101 (ClpB1). We isolated somatic revertants and identified two Ds-tagged and one T-DNA-tagged mutant alleles of apg6. All three alleles gave the same pale-green phenotype. These results suggest that APG6 is important for chloroplast development. The APG6 protein contains a transit peptide and is localized in chloroplasts. The plastids of apg6 pale-green cells were smaller than those of the wild type, and contained undeveloped thylakoid membranes. APG6 mRNA accumulated in response to heat shock in various organs, but not in response to other abiotic stresses. Under normal conditions, APG6 is constitutively expressed in the root tips, the organ boundary region, the reproductive tissues of mature plants where plastids exist as proplastids, and slightly in the stems and leaves. In addition, constitutive overexpression of APG6 in transgenic plants inhibited chloroplast development and resulted in a mild pale-green phenotype. The amounts of chloroplast proteins related to photosynthesis were markedly decreased in apg6 mutants. These results suggest that APG6 functions as a molecular chaperone involved in plastid differentiation mediating internal thylakoid membrane formation and conferring thermotolerance to chloroplasts during heat stress. The APG6 protein is not only involved in heat-stress response in chloroplasts, but is also essential for chloroplast development.

  2. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  3. Prediction of Experimental Surface Heat Flux of Thin Film Gauges using ANFIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Shrutidhara; Sahoo, Niranjan; Unal, Aynur

    2018-05-01

    Precise quantification of surface heat fluxes in highly transient environment is of paramount importance from the design point of view of several engineering equipment like thermal protection or cooling systems. Such environments are simulated in experimental facilities by exposing the surface with transient heat loads typically step/impulsive in nature. The surface heating rates are then determined from highly transient temperature history captured by efficient surface temperature sensors. The classical approach is to use thin film gauges (TFGs) in which temperature variations are acquired within milliseconds, thereby allowing calculation of surface heat flux, based on the theory of one-dimensional heat conduction on a semi-infinite body. With recent developments in the soft computing methods, the present study is an attempt for the application of intelligent system technique, called adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to recover surface heat fluxes from a given temperature history recorded by TFGs without having the need to solve lengthy analytical equations. Experiments have been carried out by applying known quantity of `impulse heat load' through laser beam on TFGs. The corresponding voltage signals have been acquired and surface heat fluxes are estimated through classical analytical approach. These signals are then used to `train' the ANFIS model, which later predicts output for `test' values. Results from both methods have been compared and these surface heat fluxes are used to predict the non-linear relationship between thermal and electrical properties of the gauges that are exceedingly pertinent to the design of efficient TFGs. Further, surface plots have been created to give an insight about dimensionality effect of the non-linear dependence of thermal/electrical parameters on each other. Later, it is observed that a properly optimized ANFIS model can predict the impulsive heat profiles with significant accuracy. This paper thus shows the

  4. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915 measured samples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08.

  5. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915measuredsamples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rateand heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08. PMID:26624613

  6. Future Services for District Heating Solutions in Residential Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannele Ahvenniemi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The underlying assumption of this study is that in order to retain the competitiveness while reaching for the EU targets regarding low-energy construction, district heating companies need to develop new business and service models. How district heating companies could broaden their perspective and switch to a more service-oriented way of thinking is a key interest of our research. The used methods in our study are house builder interviews and a questionnaire. With the help of these methods we discussed the potential interest in heating related services acquiring a comprehensive understanding of the customer needs. The results indicate the importance of certain criteria when choosing the heating system in households: easiness, comfort and affordability seem to dominate the house builders’ preferences. Also environmental awareness seems to be for many an important factor when making a decision about the heating of the house. Altogether, based on the results of this study, we suggest that the prospects of district heating could benefit from highlighting certain aspects and strengths in the future. District heating companies need to increase flexibility, readiness to adopt new services, to invest in new marketing strategies and improving the communication skills.

  7. Heat Loss Evaluation of the SMART-ITL Primary System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Sung Uk; Bae, Hwang; Kim, Dong Eok; Park, Keun Tae; Park, Hyun Sik; Yi, Sung Jae

    2013-01-01

    It is considered that the heat loss rate is one of the critical factors affecting the transient behavior of an integral effect test facility. This paper presents the experimental results of the heat loss rate for the primary system of a SMART-ITL (System-Integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor-Integral Test Loop) facility including the pressurizer (PZR). To evaluate the heat loss rate of the primary system, two different approaches were pursued, i. e., integral and differential approaches. The integral approach is a constant temperature method which controls the core and PZR powers at a desired temperature condition and the differential approach is a natural cooling-down measurement method that lasts for a long period of time. In the present work, the heat losses derived from integral and differential approaches were acquired for the primary system of the SMART-ITL. The results obtained by the two approaches were very similar. In addition, an empirical correlation with respect to the difference between the wall temperature and the ambient temperature was proposed to represent the heat loss characteristics of the SMART-ITL facility. The estimated heat losses could be used to estimate the heat loss during the tests and code simulations

  8. Thermotolerant coliform loadings to coastal areas of Santa Catarina (Brazil) evidence the effect of growing urbanisation and insufficient provision of sewerage infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbossa, Luis H P; Souza, Robson V; Campos, Carlos J A; Vanz, Argeu; Vianna, Luiz F N; Rupp, Guilherme S

    2017-01-01

    Thermotolerant coliform (TC) loadings were quantified for 49 catchments draining into the North and South Bays of Santa Catarina (SC, southeastern Brazil), an area known for its tourism and aquaculture. TC loadings were calculated based on flow measurements taken in 26 rivers. TC concentrations ere quantified based on surface water samples collected at 49 catchment outlets in 2012 and 2013. Median TC loads ranged from 3.7 × 10 3 to 6.8 × 10 8 MPN s -1 . TC loadings in the catchments increased in proportion to increases in resident human population, population density and percentage of urbanised area. Catchments with more than 60% of area covered by wastewater collection and treatment systems had higher TC loads per person than catchments with less than 25%. Based on the study catchments, these results indicate that current sewerage infrastructure is ineffective in reducing contamination of faecal origin to surface waters. These findings have important implications for the management of microbiological health hazards in bathing, recreational and shellfish aquaculture waters in the North and South Bays of Santa Catarina Island.

  9. Domestically Acquired Legionnaires’ Disease: Two Case Reports and a Review of the Pertinent Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Erdoğan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Legionella species may colonize in home water systems and cause Legionnaires’ disease (LD. We herein report two cases of sporadic LD associated with the solar energy-heated hot water systems of the patients’ houses. Case Report: A 60-year-old woman with chronic bronchitis and diabetes mellitus presented with a high fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Physical examination revealed rales, and her chest radiograph showed a homogeneous density in the left lung. The Legionella urinary antigen test was positive, and an indirect fluorescent antibody test revealed a serum antibody titer of 1/520 for L. pneumophila serogroup 1. In the second case, a 66-year-old man with diabetes mellitus was treated for pneumonia at another hospital. After the patient’s general condition worsened and he required mechanical ventilation, he was referred to our hospital. The Legionella urinary antigen test was positive. Neither of the patients had been hospitalized or travelled within the previous month. Both patients used hot water storage tanks heated by solar energy; both also used an electrical device in the bathroom to heat the water when solar energy alone was insufficient. The hot water samples from the residences of both patients were positive for L. pneumophila serogroup 1. Conclusion: These cases show that domestic hot water systems heated by solar energy must be considered a possible source of community-acquired LD.

  10. 48 CFR 1845.502-70 - Contractor-acquired property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contractor-acquired... Possession of Contractors 1845.502-70 Contractor-acquired property. All contractor-acquired property must be... contractor-acquired. (2) Submission of DD Form 1419, DOD Industrial Plant Requisition, or equivalent format...

  11. Identification of heat-responsive genes in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. by RNA-seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueli eWan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. is an important flower crop, having substantial commercial value as a cut-flower due to the long vase-life and wide array of flower colours and forms. Standard carnation varieties perform well under cool climates but are very susceptible to high temperatures which adversely affect the yield and the quality of the cut-flowers. Despite several studies of carnation contributing to the number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs, transcriptomic information of this species remains very limited, particularly regarding abiotic stress-related genes. Here, transcriptome analysis was performed to generate expression profiles of heat stress (HS-responsive genes in carnation. We sequenced a cDNA library constructed with mixed RNA from carnation leaves subjected to 42oC HS (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 h and 46oC HS (0.5, 1 and 2 h, and obtained 45,604,882 high quality paired-end reads. After de novo assembly and quantitative assessment, 99,255 contigs were generated with an average length of 1053bp. We then obtained functional annotations by aligning contigs with public protein databases including NR, SwissProt, KEGG and COG. Using the above carnation transcriptome as the reference, we compared the effects of high temperature treatments (42oC: duration 0.5, 2 or 12h delivered to aseptic carnation seedlings, relative to untreated controls, using the FPKM metric. Overall, 11,471 genes were identified which showed a significant response to one or more of the three HS treatment times. In addition, based on GO and metabolic pathway enrichment analyses, a series of candidate genes involved in thermo-tolerance responses were selected and characterized. This study represents the first expression profiling analysis of D. caryophyllus under heat stress treatments. Numerous genes were found to be induced in response to HS, the study of which may advance our understanding of heat response of carnation.

  12. Decolorization of a recalcitrant organic compound (Melanoidin by a novel thermotolerant yeast, Candida tropicalis RG-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwari Soni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane distilleries use molasses for ethanol production and generate large volume of effluent containing high biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD along with melanoidin pigment. Melanoidin is a recalcitrant compound that causes several toxic effects on living system, therefore, may be treated before disposal. The aim of this study was to isolate a potential thermotolerant melanoidin decolorizing yeast from natural resources, and optimized different physico-chemical and nutritional parameters. Results Total 24 yeasts were isolated from the soil samples of near by distillery site, in which isolate Y-9 showed maximum decolorization and identified as Candida tropicalis by Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC Chandigarh, India. The decolorization yield was expressed as the decrease in the absorbance at 475 nm against initial absorbance at the same wavelength. Uninoculated medium served as control. Yeast showed maximum decolorization (75% at 45°C using 0.2%, glucose; 0.2%, peptone; 0.05%, MgSO4; 0.01%, KH2PO4; pH-5.5 within 24 h of incubation under static condition. Decolorizing ability of yeast was also confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. Conclusion The yeast strain efficiently decolorized melanoidin pigment of distillery effluent at higher temperature than the other earlier reported strains of yeast, therefore, this strain could also be used at industrial level for melanoidin decolorization as it tolerated a wide range of temperature and pH with very small amount of carbon and nitrogen sources.

  13. Multiple heat priming enhances thermo-tolerance to a later high temperature stress via improving subcellular antioxidant activities in wheat seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai

    2014-01-01

    Seedlings of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were firstly twice heat-primed at 32/24 °C, and subsequently subjected to a more severe high temperature stress at 35/27 °C. The later high temperature stress significantly decreased plant biomass and leaf total soluble sugars concentration. However......, plants experienced priming (PH) up-regulated the Rubisco activase B encoding gene RcaB, which was in accordance with the higher photosynthesis rate in relation to the non-primed plants (NH) under the later high temperature stress. In relation to NH, the major chlorophyll a/b-binding protein gene Cab...... was down-regulated in PH plants, implying a reduction of the light absorption to protect the photosystem II from excitation energy under high temperature stress. At the same time, under the later high temperature stress PH plants showed significantly higher actual photochemical efficiency, indicating...

  14. Acquiring taste in home economics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbak Larsen, Christian

    Objective: To explore how home economics was taught in Denmark before the recent Danish school reform, which also revised the objectives and content of home economics, naming it Food Knowledge (Madkundskab) Methods: Participant observation was done in home economic lessons in two case schools...... appreciated by the group of boys, and others again learned to stick with their idiosyncrasies when pressured by the teacher. Conclusions: Children were acquiring taste in the home economic lessons, but not only the kind of tastes that the teacher had planned for. This leads to reflections on the very complex...... process of taste acquiring and to a call for further research into taste acquiring in complex real life contexts as home economics lessons....

  15. Acquired bleeding disorders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B one marrow aplasia ... Laboratory approach to a suspected acquired bleeding disorder. (LER = leuko- .... lymphocytic leukaemia, and lymphoma). ... cells), a bone marrow aspirate and trephine biopsy (BMAT) is not ..... transplantation.

  16. Improvement of Xylose Fermentation Ability under Heat and Acid Co-Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using Genome Shuffling Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Inokuma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Xylose-assimilating yeasts with tolerance to both fermentation inhibitors (such as weak organic acids and high temperature are required for cost-effective simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF of lignocellulosic materials. Here, we demonstrate the construction of a novel xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with improved fermentation ability under heat and acid co-stress using the drug resistance marker-aided genome shuffling technique. The mutagenized genome pools derived from xylose-utilizing diploid yeasts with thermotolerance or acid tolerance were shuffled by sporulation and mating. The shuffled strains were then subjected to screening under co-stress conditions of heat and acids, and the hybrid strain Hyb-8 was isolated. The hybrid strain displayed enhanced xylose fermentation ability in comparison to both parental strains under co-stress conditions of heat and acids. Hyb-8 consumed 33.1 ± 0.6 g/L xylose and produced 11.1 ± 0.4 g/L ethanol after 72 h of fermentation at 38°C with 20 mM acetic acid and 15 mM formic acid. We also performed transcriptomic analysis of the hybrid strain and its parental strains to screen for key genes for multiple stress tolerances. We found that 13 genes, including 5 associated with cellular transition metal ion homeostasis, were significantly upregulated in Hyb-8 compared to levels in both parental strains under co-stress conditions. The hybrid strain Hyb-8 has strong potential for cost-effective SSCF of lignocellulosic materials. Moreover, the transcriptome data gathered in this study will be useful for understanding the mechanisms of multiple tolerance to high temperature and acids in yeast and facilitate the development of robust yeast strains for SSCF.

  17. Somatically acquired structural genetic differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magaard Koldby, Kristina; Nygaard, Marianne; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    Structural genetic variants like copy number variants (CNVs) comprise a large part of human genetic variation and may be inherited as well as somatically acquired. Recent studies have reported the presence of somatically acquired structural variants in the human genome and it has been suggested t...... with age.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 20 April 2016; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2016.34....

  18. Production of a solvent, detergent, and thermotolerant lipase by a newly isolated Acinetobacter sp. in submerged and solid-state fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoramnia, Anahita; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Beh, Boon Kee; Lai, Oi Ming

    2011-01-01

    The lipase production ability of a newly isolated Acinetobacter sp. in submerged (SmF) and solid-state (SSF) fermentations was evaluated. The results demonstrated this strain as one of the rare bacterium, which is able to grow and produce lipase in SSF even more than SmF. Coconut oil cake as a cheap agroindustrial residue was employed as the solid substrate. The lipase production was optimized in both media using artificial neural network. Multilayer normal and full feed forward backpropagation networks were selected to build predictive models to optimize the culture parameters for lipase production in SmF and SSF systems, respectively. The produced models for both systems showed high predictive accuracy where the obtained conditions were close together. The produced enzyme was characterized as a thermotolerant lipase, although the organism was mesophile. The optimum temperature for the enzyme activity was 45°C where 63% of its activity remained at 70°C after 2 h. This lipase remained active after 24 h in a broad range of pH (6-11). The lipase demonstrated strong solvent and detergent tolerance potentials. Therefore, this inexpensive lipase production for such a potent and industrially valuable lipase is promising and of considerable commercial interest for biotechnological applications.

  19. Effect of hypothermia on cell kinetics and response to hyperthermia and x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Rijn, J.; van den Berg, J.; Kipp, J.B.A.; Schamhart, D.H.J.; van Wijk, R.

    1985-01-01

    Hyperthermia is a potent radio enhancer. Studies using hypothermia in combination with irradiation have given confusing results due to lack of uniformity in experimental design. This report shows that hypothermia might have potential significance in the treatment of malignant cells with both thermo- and radiotherapy. Reuber H35 hepatoma cells, clone KRC-7 were used to study the effect of hypothermia on cell kinetics and subsequent response to hyperthermia and/or X rays. Cells were incubated at 8.5 0 C or between 25 and 37 0 C for 24 hr prior to hyperthermia or irradiation. Hypothermia caused sensitization to both hyperthermia and X rays. In contrast to the effect of hypothermia on either hyperthermia or X rays alone, thermal radiosensitization was decreased in hypothermically pretreated cells (24 hr at 25 0 C) compared to control cells (37 0 C). The expression of thermotolerance and the rate of development at 37 0 C after an initial heating at 42.5 0 C were not influenced after preincubation at 25 0 C for 24 hr. The expression of thermotolerance for heat or heat plus X rays during incubation at 41 0 C occurred in a significantly smaller number of cells after 24 hr preincubation at 25 0 C. The enhanced thermo- and radiosensitivity in hypothermically treated cells disappeared in approximately 6 hr after return to 37 0 C

  20. An electron-beam-heating model for the Gamble II rod pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, David; Schumer, Joseph; Hinshelwood, David; Weber, Bruce; Stephanakis, Stavros; Swanekamp, Stephen; Young, Frank

    2002-01-01

    The rod-pinch diode concentrates electron deposition onto the tip of a high-atomic-number, mm-dia. anode rod to create an ultra-bright x-ray source for multi-MV radiography. Here, a technique is presented whereby line-spread functions acquired on-axis and at 90 deg. to the rod are used to determine the electron-deposition distribution. Results show that the smaller measured on-axis spot size for heated rods on Gamble II is due to pinching closer to the tapered tip. For a diode power of 6x1010 W, peak electron heating of 1x1014 W/cm 3 is calculated. MHD calculations of the e-beam-heated rod response agree with Schlieren measurements of plasma expansion

  1. Acquired ventricular septal defect due to infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi E Durden

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired intracardiac left-to-right shunts are rare occurrences. Chest trauma and myocardial infection are well-known causes of acquired ventricular septal defect (VSD. There have been several case reports describing left ventricle to right atrium shunt after infective endocarditis (IE. We present here a patient found to have an acquired VSD secondary to IE of the aortic and tricuspid valves in the setting of a known bicuspid aortic valve. This is the first case reported of acquired VSD in a pediatric patient in the setting of IE along with literature review of acquired left-to-right shunts.

  2. Field-acclimated Gossypium hirsutum cultivars exhibit genotypic and seasonal differences in photosystem II thermostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, John L; Oosterhuis, Derrick M; Collins, Guy D; Pilon, Cristiane; Fitzsimons, Toby R

    2013-03-15

    Previous investigations have demonstrated that photosystem II (PSII) thermostability acclimates to prior exposure to heat and drought, but contrasting results have been reported for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). We hypothesized that PSII thermotolerance in G. hirsutum would acclimate to environmental conditions during the growing season and that there would be differences in PSII thermotolerance between commercially-available U.S. cultivars. To this end, three cotton cultivars were grown under dryland conditions in Tifton Georgia, and two under irrigated conditions in Marianna Arkansas. At Tifton, measurements included PSII thermotolerance (T15, the temperature causing a 15% decline in maximum quantum yield), leaf temperatures, air temperatures, midday (1200 to 1400h) leaf water potentials (ΨMD), leaf-air vapor pressure deficit (VPD), actual quantum yield (ΦPSII) and electron transport rate through PSII (ETR) on three sample dates. At Marianna, T15 was measured on two sample dates. Optimal air and leaf temperatures were observed on all sample dates in Tifton, but PSII thermotolerance increased with water deficit conditions (ΨMD=-3.1MPa), and ETR was either unaffected or increased under water-stress. Additionally, T15 for PHY 499 was ∼5°C higher than for the other cultivars examined (DP 0912 and DP 1050). The Marianna site experienced more extreme high temperature conditions (20-30 days Tmax≥35°C), and showed an increase in T15 with higher average Tmax. When average T15 values for each location and sample date were plotted versus average daily Tmax, strong, positive relationships (r(2) from .954 to .714) were observed between Tmax and T15. For all locations T15 was substantially higher than actual field temperature conditions. We conclude that PSII thermostability in G. hirsutum acclimates to pre-existing environmental conditions; PSII is extremely tolerant to high temperature and water-deficit stress; and differences in PSII thermotolerance exist between

  3. Early life thermal stress: Impact on future thermotolerance, stress response, behavior, and intestinal morphology in piglets exposed to a heat stress challenge during simulated transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Study objectives were to evaluate the impact of early life thermal stress (ELTS) on thermoregulation, stress, and intestinal health of piglets subjected to a future heat stress (HS) challenge during simulated transport. Approximately 7 d after farrowing, 12 first parity gilts and their litters were ...

  4. Dietary supplementation of curcumin augments heat stress tolerance through upregulation of nrf-2-mediated antioxidative enzymes and hsps in Puntius sophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanty, Arabinda; Mohanty, Sasmita; Mohanty, Bimal P

    2017-08-01

    Heat stress is one of the major environmental concerns in global warming regime and rising temperature has resulted in mass mortalities of animals including fishes. Therefore, strategies for high temperature stress tolerance and ameliorating the effects of heat stress are being looked for. In an earlier study, we reported that Nrf-2 (nuclear factor E2-related factor 2) mediated upregulation of antioxidative enzymes and heat shock proteins (Hsps) provide survivability to fish under heat stress. In this study, we have evaluated the ameliorative potential of dietary curcumin, a potential Nrf-2 inducer in heat stressed cyprinid Puntius sophore. Fishes were fed with diet supplemented with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% curcumin at the rate 2% of body weight daily in three separate groups (n = 40 in each group) for 60 days. Fishes fed with basal diet (without curcumin) served as the control (n = 40). Critical thermal maxima (CTmax) was determined for all the groups (n = 10, in duplicates) after the feeding trial. Significant increase in the CTmax was observed in the group fed with 1.5% curcumin- supplemented fishes whereas it remained similar in groups fed with 0.5%, and 1% curcumin-supplemented diet, as compared to control. To understand the molecular mechanism of elevated thermotolerance in the 1.5% curcumin supplemented group, fishes were given a sub-lethal heat shock treatment (36 °C) for 6 h and expression analysis of nrf-2, keap-1, sod, catalase, gpx, and hsp27, hsp60, hsp70, hsp90, and hsp110 was carried out using RT-PCR. In the gill, expression of nrf-2, sod, catalase, gpx, and hsp60, hsp70, hsp90, and hsp110 was found to be elevated in the 1.5% curcumin-fed heat-shocked group compared to control and the basal diet-fed, heat-shocked fishes. Similarly, in the liver, upregulation in expression of nrf-2, sod, catalase, and hsp70 and hsp110 was observed in 1.5% curcumin supplemented and heat shocked group. Thus, this study showed that supplementation of curcumin

  5. Acquired Inventors’ Productivity after Horizontal Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo G.; Moreira, Solon; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    Effective integration of the R&D functions of the acquired and acquiring firms is essential for knowledge recombination after acquisition. However, prior research suggests that the post-acquisition integration process often damages the inventive labor force. We argue that an examination of the mu...

  6. Convective heat transfer and infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, Giovanni M; Astarita, Tommaso; Cardone, Gennaro

    2002-10-01

    Infrared (IR) thermography, because of its two-dimensional and non-intrusive nature, can be exploited in industrial applications as well as in research. This paper deals with measurement of convective heat transfer coefficients (h) in three complex fluid flow configurations that concern the main aspects of both internal and external cooling of turbine engine components: (1) flow in ribbed, or smooth, channels connected by a 180 degrees sharp turn, (2) a jet in cross-flow, and (3) a jet impinging on a wall. The aim of this study was to acquire detailed measurements of h distribution in complex flow configurations related to both internal and external cooling of turbine components. The heated thin foil technique, which involves the detection of surface temperature by means of an IR scanning radiometer, was exploited to measure h. Particle image velocimetry was also used in one of the configurations to precisely determine the velocity field.

  7. Heat Acclimation-Mediated Cross-Tolerance: Origins in within-Life Epigenetics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Horowitz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary outcome of heat acclimation is increased thermotolerance, which stems from enhancement of innate cytoprotective pathways. These pathways produce “ON CALL” molecules that can combat stressors to which the body has never been exposed, via cross-tolerance mechanisms (heat acclimation-mediated cross-tolerance—HACT. The foundation of HACT lies in the sharing of generic stress signaling, combined with tissue/organ- specific protective responses. HACT becomes apparent when acclimatory homeostasis is achieved, lasts for several weeks, and has a memory. HACT differs from other forms of temporal protective mechanisms activated by exposure to lower “doses” of the stressor, which induce adaptation to higher “doses” of the same/different stressor; e.g., preconditioning, hormesis. These terms have been adopted by biochemists, toxicologists, and physiologists to describe the rapid cellular strategies ensuring homeostasis. HACT employs two major protective avenues: constitutive injury attenuation and abrupt post-insult release of help signals enhanced by acclimation. To date, the injury-attenuating features seen in all organs studied include fast-responding, enlarged cytoprotective reserves with HSPs, anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic molecules, and HIF-1α nuclear and mitochondrial target gene products. Using cardiac ischemia and brain hypoxia models as a guide to the broader framework of phenotypic plasticity, HACT is enabled by a metabolic shift induced by HIF-1α and there are less injuries caused by Ca+2 overload, via channel or complex-protein remodeling, or decreased channel abundance. Epigenetic markers such as post-translational histone modification and altered levels of chromatin modifiers during acclimation and its decline suggest that dynamic epigenetic mechanisms controlling gene expression induce HACT and acclimation memory, to enable the rapid return of the protected phenotype. In this review the link between in vivo

  8. Agent-based modelling of heating system adoption in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopha, Bertha Maya; Kloeckner, Christian A.; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2010-07-01

    Full text: This paper introduces agent-based modelling as a methodological approach to understand the effect of decision making mechanism on the adoption of heating systems in Norway. The model is used as an experimental/learning tool to design possible interventions, not for prediction. The intended users of the model are therefore policy designers. Primary heating system adoptions of electric heating, heat pump and wood pellet heating were selected. Random topology was chosen to represent social network among households. Agents were households with certain location, number of peers, current adopted heating system, employed decision strategy, and degree of social influence in decision making. The overall framework of decision-making integrated theories from different disciplines; customer behavior theory, behavioral economics, theory of planned behavior, and diffusion of innovation, in order to capture possible decision making processes in households. A mail survey of 270 Norwegian households conducted in 2008 was designed specifically for acquiring data for the simulation. The model represents real geographic area of households and simulates the overall fraction of adopted heating system under study. The model was calibrated with historical data from Statistics Norway (SSB). Interventions with respects to total cost, norms, indoor air quality, reliability, supply security, required work, could be explored using the model. For instance, the model demonstrates that a considerable total cost (investment and operating cost) increase of electric heating and heat pump, rather than a reduction of wood pellet heating's total cost, are required to initiate and speed up wood pellet adoption. (Author)

  9. Acquired intrathoracic kidney in thoracic kyphosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Sadayuki; Kawashima, Akira; Ohuchida, Toshiyuki; Russell, W.J.

    1986-12-01

    Two cases of acquired intrathoracic kidney associated with thoracic kyphosis are reported, with emphasis on the radiographic manifestations. A search of the scientific literature disclosed that the acquired type of this abnormality is rare. The importance of recognizing this entity from a differential diagnostic standpoint is underscored. (author)

  10. A heat source probe for measuring thermal conductivity in waste rock dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackford, M.G.; Harries, J.R.

    1985-10-01

    The development and use of a heat source probe to measure the thermal conductivity of the material in a waste rock dump is described. The probe releases heat at a constant rate into the surrounding material and the resulting temperature rise is inversely related to the thermal conductivity. The probe was designed for use in holes in the dump which are lined with 50 mm i.d. polyethylene liners. The poor thermal contact between the probe and the liner and the unknown conductivity of the backfill material around the liner necessitated long heating and cooling times (>10 hours) to ensure that the thermal conductivity of the dump material was being measured. Temperature data acquired in the field were analysed by comparing them with temperatures calculated using a two-dimensional cylindrical model of the probe and surrounding material, and the heat transfer code HEATRAN

  11. And the Winner is – Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Joachim; Rønde, Thomas; Wagner, Marcus

    value in case of success—that is, a more radical innovation. In the second stage, successful entrants bid to be acquired by the incumbent. We assume that entrants cannot survive on their own, so being acquired amounts to a ‘prize’ in a contest. We identify an equilibrium in which the incumbent chooses...

  12. Growth and ethanol fermentation ability on hexose and pentose sugars and glucose effect under various conditions in thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrussamee, Nadchanok; Lertwattanasakul, Noppon; Hirata, Katsushi; Suprayogi; Limtong, Savitree; Kosaka, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Mamoru

    2011-05-01

    Ethanol fermentation ability of the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, which is able to utilize various sugars including glucose, mannose, galactose, xylose, and arabinose, was examined under shaking and static conditions at high temperatures. The yeast was found to produce ethanol from all of these sugars except for arabinose under a shaking condition but only from hexose sugars under a static condition. Growth and sugar utilization rate under a static condition were slower than those under a shaking condition, but maximum ethanol yield was slightly higher. Even at 40°C, a level of ethanol production similar to that at 30°C was observed except for galactose under a static condition. Glucose repression on utilization of other sugars was observed, and it was more evident at elevated temperatures. Consistent results were obtained by the addition of 2-deoxyglucose. The glucose effect was further examined at a transcription level, and it was found that KmGAL1 for galactokinase and KmXYL1 for xylose reductase for galactose and xylose/arabinose utilization, respectively, were repressed by glucose at low and high temperatures, but KmHXK2 for hexokinase was not repressed. We discuss the possible mechanism of glucose repression and the potential for utilization of K. marxianus in high-temperature fermentation with mixed sugars containing glucose.

  13. Growth and ethanol fermentation ability on hexose and pentose sugars and glucose effect under various conditions in thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrussamee, Nadchanok; Hirata, Katsushi; Suprayogi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Lertwattanasakul, Noppon; Kosaka, Tomoyuki [Yamaguchi Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture; Limtong, Savitree [Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Faculty of Science; Yamada, Mamoru [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Yamaguchi Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    2011-05-15

    Ethanol fermentation ability of the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, which is able to utilize various sugars including glucose, mannose, galactose, xylose, and arabinose, was examined under shaking and static conditions at high temperatures. The yeast was found to produce ethanol from all of these sugars except for arabinose under a shaking condition but only from hexose sugars under a static condition. Growth and sugar utilization rate under a static condition were slower than those under a shaking condition, but maximum ethanol yield was slightly higher. Even at 40 C, a level of ethanol production similar to that at 30 C was observed except for galactose under a static condition. Glucose repression on utilization of other sugars was observed, and it was more evident at elevated temperatures. Consistent results were obtained by the addition of 2-deoxyglucose. The glucose effect was further examined at a transcription level, and it was found that KmGAL1 for galactokinase and KmXYL1 for xylose reductase for galactose and xylose/arabinose utilization, respectively, were repressed by glucose at low and high temperatures, but KmHXK2 for hexokinase was not repressed. We discuss the possible mechanism of glucose repression and the potential for utilization of K. marxianus in high-temperature fermentation with mixed sugars containing glucose. (orig.)

  14. Calcium/calmodulin kinase1 and its relation to thermotolerance and HSP90 in Sporothrix schenckii: an RNAi and yeast two-hybrid study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Mendez Ricardo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sporothrix schenckii is a pathogenic dimorphic fungus of worldwide distribution. It grows in the saprophytic form with hyaline, regularly septated hyphae and pyriform conidia at 25°C and as the yeast or parasitic form at 35°C. Previously, we characterized a calcium/calmodulin kinase in this fungus. Inhibitors of this kinase were observed to inhibit the yeast cell cycle in S. schenckii. Results The presence of RNA interference (RNAi mechanism in this fungus was confirmed by the identification of a Dicer-1 homologue in S. schenckii DNA. RNAi technology was used to corroborate the role of calcium/calmodulin kinase I in S. schenckii dimorphism. Yeast cells were transformed with the pSilent-Dual2G (pSD2G plasmid w/wo inserts of the coding region of the calcium/calmodulin kinase I (sscmk1 gene. Transformants were selected at 35°C using resistance to geneticin. Following transfer to liquid medium at 35°C, RNAi transformants developed as abnormal mycelium clumps and not as yeast cells as would be expected. The level of sscmk1 gene expression in RNAi transformants at 35°C was less than that of cells transformed with the empty pSD2G at this same temperature. Yeast two-hybrid analysis of proteins that interact with SSCMK1 identified a homologue of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 as interacting with this kinase. Growth of the fungus similar to that of the RNAi transformants was observed in medium with geldanamycin (GdA, 10 μM, an inhibitor of HSP90. Conclusions Using the RNAi technology we silenced the expression of sscmk1 gene in this fungus. RNAi transformants were unable to grow as yeast cells at 35°C showing decreased tolerance to this temperature. The interaction of SSCMK1 with HSP90, observed using the yeast two-hybrid assay suggests that this kinase is involved in thermotolerance through its interaction with HSP90. SSCMK1 interacted with the C terminal domain of HSP90 where effector proteins and co-chaperones interact. These

  15. Economy and development of heating station enterprises managed by forest owners; Metsaenomistajien laempoeyrittaemisen talous ja kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomi, S [Work Efficiency Inst., Rajamaeki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Private heating enterprises are a new form of heat generation for municipalities in Finland. In this type the entrepreneur acquires the fuel and takes care of the operation and monitoring of the heating station. The recompense is paid on the basis of the heat amount produced to avoid problems related to i.e. the energy content and quality of the fuel. The price of heat is typically bound with that of light fuel oil. Agreements based on the price development of district heat and chips are also used. In 1996 there were 36 such heating enterprises in operation in Finland, their total efficiency being 11.5 MW. The aim of the project is to improve the feasibility of various forms of heating enterprises and to start new heating enterprises. The feasibility is studied both from the viewpoint of the entrepreneur and the municipality. The feasibility is improved by developing production chains of heating enterprises and the operability of the heating stations. Establishment of new heating enterprises is promoted by producing and disseminating information to possible entrepreneurs and municipalities. (orig.)

  16. 7 CFR 1779.90 - Disposition of acquired property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Disposition of acquired property. (a) General. When the lender acquires title to the collateral and the final... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of acquired property. 1779.90 Section... develop a plan to fully protect the collateral, and the lender must dispose of the collateral without...

  17. Mortality predictors in community-acquired pneumonia | Tanimowo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acquired pneumonia to themedicalwards of Ladoke Akintola University ofTeaching Hospital between Jan. 2003 andDec. 2005. The case notes of 65 patients admitted for community-acquired pneumoniawere studiedwith respect to their admission ...

  18. Energy efficiency of electrical infrared heating elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.J.; Farrelly, R.; O’Shaughnessy, S.M.; Robinson, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterization of the radiant energy efficiency of infrared heating elements. • Performed for a commercially available ceramic heater element for two cases. • Total radiant power and net radiant efficiency is computed. • Radiant efficiencies are strongly dependant on the input power to the element. • In-plane efficiencies depend on the distance from the heater. - Abstract: A measurement system has been designed to characterize the radiant energy efficiency of infrared heating elements. The system also allows for measurement of the radiant heat flux distribution emitted from radiant heater assemblies. To facilitate these, a 6-axis robotic arm is fitted with a Schmidt–Boelter radiant heat flux gauge. A LabVIEW interface operates the robot and positions the sensor in the desired location and subsequently acquires the desired radiant heat flux measurement. To illustrate the functionality of the measurement system and methodology, radiant heat flux distributions and efficiency calculations are performed for a commercially available ceramic heater element for two cases. In the first, a spherical surface is traced around the entire heater assembly and the total radiant power and net radiant efficiency is computed. In the second, 50 cm × 50 cm vertical planes are traced parallel to the front face of the heater assembly at distances between 10 cm and 50 cm and the in-plane power and efficiencies are computed. The results indicate that the radiant efficiencies are strongly dependant on the input power to the element and, for the in-plane efficiencies, depend on the distance from the heater.

  19. The profile of antibiotics resistance and integrons of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing thermotolerant coliforms isolated from the Yangtze River basin in Chongqing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hao; Shu Weiqun; Chang Xiaosong; Chen Jian; Guo Yebin; Tan Yao

    2010-01-01

    The spreading of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing thermotolerant coliforms (TC) in the water environment is a threat to human health but little is known about ESBL-producing TCs in the Yangtze River. We received 319 ESBL-producing stains obtained from the Chongqing basin and we investigated antibiotic susceptibility, bla gene types and the presence of integrons and gene cassettes. 16.8% of TC isolates were ESBL-producing bacteria and bla TEM+CTx-M was the predominant ESBL type. 65.2% of isolates contained class 1 integrons, but only 3 carried intI 2. Gene cassettes were amplified and sequenced. aadA, drfA, cmlA, sat1, aar3 and two ORF cassettes were found. In conclusion, Yangtze River is heavily polluted by ESBL-producing TC bacteria and the combined bla gene type could enhance antibiotic resistance. Class 1 integrons were widespread in ESBL-producing isolates and play an important role in multi-drug resistance. Characterization of gene cassettes could reveal the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. - Yangtze River is heavily polluted by ESBL-producing TC bacteria and Class 1 integrons play an important role in multi-drug resistance.

  20. The profile of antibiotics resistance and integrons of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing thermotolerant coliforms isolated from the Yangtze River basin in Chongqing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hao [Department of Environmental Hygiene, School of Military Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, 30 Gaotanyan Street, Chongqing 400038 (China); Shu Weiqun, E-mail: west2003@sohu.co [Department of Environmental Hygiene, School of Military Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, 30 Gaotanyan Street, Chongqing 400038 (China); Chang Xiaosong; Chen Jian; Guo Yebin; Tan Yao [Department of Environmental Hygiene, School of Military Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, 30 Gaotanyan Street, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2010-07-15

    The spreading of extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamases (ESBL)-producing thermotolerant coliforms (TC) in the water environment is a threat to human health but little is known about ESBL-producing TCs in the Yangtze River. We received 319 ESBL-producing stains obtained from the Chongqing basin and we investigated antibiotic susceptibility, bla gene types and the presence of integrons and gene cassettes. 16.8% of TC isolates were ESBL-producing bacteria and bla{sub TEM+CTx-M} was the predominant ESBL type. 65.2% of isolates contained class 1 integrons, but only 3 carried intI 2. Gene cassettes were amplified and sequenced. aadA, drfA, cmlA, sat1, aar3 and two ORF cassettes were found. In conclusion, Yangtze River is heavily polluted by ESBL-producing TC bacteria and the combined bla gene type could enhance antibiotic resistance. Class 1 integrons were widespread in ESBL-producing isolates and play an important role in multi-drug resistance. Characterization of gene cassettes could reveal the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. - Yangtze River is heavily polluted by ESBL-producing TC bacteria and Class 1 integrons play an important role in multi-drug resistance.

  1. A heat exchanger provided with plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaix, J.E.; Fajeau, Maurice; Chlique, Bernard.

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a heat exchanger of the plate type, in which two fluids exchange calories through parallel metal plates, delimiting spaces separated from each other in which two fluids respectively flow without direct contact between them. The invention particularly applies in the case where one of the two fluids is water under pressure or else a circulating liquid metal, specially sodium, used in the system of a pressurised water or fast neutron reactor, the second fluid being water to be vaporised in the exchanger by the calories supplied by the first fluid. The arrangement is designed to give minimum bulk, particularly enabling the exchanger to be housed in the area between the core of a nuclear reactor and a casing or outer vessel, or else in an external sealed containment, with a view to recovering with the best efficiency the heat acquired by a coolant flowing through the core [fr

  2. Preschoolers Acquire General Knowledge by Sharing in Pretense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar…

  3. Real-time cell analysis and heat shock protein gene expression in the TcA Tribolium castaneum cell line in response to environmental stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Reina, Andrés; Rodríguez-García, María Juliana; Ramis, Guillermo; Galián, José

    2017-06-01

    The rust red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is a pest of stored grain and one of the most studied insect model species. Some of the previous studies involved heat response studies in terms of survival and heat shock protein expression, which are regulated to protect other proteins against environmental stress conditions. In the present study, we characterize the impedance profile with the xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analyzer and study the effect of increased temperature in cell growth and viability in the cell line BCIRL-TcA-CLG1 (TcA) of T. castaneum. This novel system measures cells behavior in real time and is applied for the first time to insect cells. Additionally, cells are exposed to heat shock, increased salinity, acidic pH and UV-A light with the aim of measuring the expression levels of Hsp27, Hsp68a, and Hsp83 genes. Results show a high thermotolerance of TcA in terms of cell growth and viability. This result is likely related to gene expression results in which a significant up-regulation of all studied Hsp genes is observed after 1 h of exposure to 40 °C and UV light. All 3 genes show similar expression patterns, but Hsp27 seems to be the most affected. The results of this study validate the RTCA method and reveal the utility of insect cell lines, real-time analysis and gene expression studies to better understand the physiological response of insect cells, with potential applications in different fields of biology such as conservation biology and pest management. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Pseudomonas sp. BUP6 produces a thermotolerant alkaline lipase with trans-esterification efficiency in producing biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priji, Prakasan; Sajith, Sreedharan; Faisal, Panichikkal Abdul; Benjamin, Sailas

    2017-12-01

    The present study describes the characteristics of a thermotolerant and alkaline lipase secreted by Pseudomonas sp. BUP6, a novel rumen bacterium isolated from Malabari goat, and its trans -esterification efficiency in producing biodiesel from used cooking oil (UCO). The extracellular lipase was purified to homogeneity (35.8 times purified with 14.8% yield) employing (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 salt precipitation and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. The apparent molecular weight of this lipase on SDS-PAGE was 35 kDa, the identity of which was further confirmed by MALDI-TOF/MS. The purified lipase was found stable at a pH range of 7-9 with the maximum activity (707 U/ml) at pH 8.2; and was active at the temperature ranging from 35 to 50 °C with the optimum at 45 °C (891 U/ml). Triton X-100 and EDTA had no effect on the activity of lipase; whereas SDS, Tween-80 and β-mercaptoethanol inhibited its activity significantly. Moreover, Ca 2+ (1.0 mM) enhanced the activity of lipase (1428 U/ml) by 206% vis-à-vis initial activity; while Zn 2+ , Fe 2+ and Cu 2+ decreased the activity significantly. Using para -nitrophenyl palmitate as substrate, the K m (11.6 mM) and V max [668.9 μmol/(min/mg)] of the purified lipase were also determined. Crude lipase was used for analyzing its trans -esterification efficiency with used cooking oil and methanol which resulted in the worthy yield of fatty acid methyl esters, FAME (45%) at 37 °C, indicating its prospects in biodiesel industry. Thus, the lipase secreted by the rumen bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. BUP6, offers great potentials to be used in various industries including the production of biodiesel by trans -esterification.

  5. Theoretical simulation of the dual-heat-flux method in deep body temperature measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming; Chen, Wenxi

    2010-01-01

    Deep body temperature reveals individual physiological states, and is important in patient monitoring and chronobiological studies. An innovative dual-heat-flux method has been shown experimentally to be competitive with the conventional zero-heat-flow method in its performance, in terms of measurement accuracy and step response to changes in the deep temperature. We have utilized a finite element method to model and simulate the dynamic process of a dual-heat-flux probe in deep body temperature measurements to validate the fundamental principles of the dual-heat-flux method theoretically, and to acquire a detailed quantitative description of the thermal profile of the dual-heat-flux probe. The simulation results show that the estimated deep body temperature is influenced by the ambient temperature (linearly, at a maximum rate of 0.03 °C/°C) and the blood perfusion rate. The corresponding depth of the estimated temperature in the skin and subcutaneous tissue layer is consistent when using the dual-heat-flux probe. Insights in improving the performance of the dual-heat-flux method were discussed for further studies of dual-heat-flux probes, taking into account structural and geometric considerations.

  6. Undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in community-acquired pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Vestergaard; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Egelund, Gertrud Baunbæk

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for community-acquired pneumonia, whereas the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and prediabetes in patients with community-acquired pneumonia is largely unknown. We aimed to determine the prevalence of prediabetes, undiagnosed......-acquired pneumonia included in the German Community-Acquired Pneumonia Competence Network (CAPNETZ) study between 2007 and 2014. The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and prediabetes was estimated based on hemoglobin A1c measurements. Logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for undiagnosed...... diabetes mellitus. Results: Fifteen percent of patients had known diabetes mellitus. Among patients without known diabetes mellitus, 5.0% had undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and 37.5% had prediabetes. Male sex (odds ratio [OR], 2.45 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.35-4.45]), body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 (OR, 2...

  7. Corpus callosum demyelination associated with acquired stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Barbara McElwee; Guitar, Barry; Solomon, Andrew

    2018-04-21

    Compared with developmental stuttering, adult onset acquired stuttering is rare. However, several case reports describe acquired stuttering and an association with callosal pathology. Interestingly, these cases share a neuroanatomical localisation also demonstrated in developmental stuttering. We present a case of adult onset acquired stuttering associated with inflammatory demyelination within the corpus callosum. This patient's disfluency improved after the initiation of immunomodulatory therapy. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Genotyping of clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba genus in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Carolina; Reyes-Batlle, María; Ysea, María Alejandra Vethencourt; Pérez, Mónica V Galindo; de Rondón, Carmen Guzmán; Paduani, Anaibeth J Nessi; Pérez, Angelyseb Dorta; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; de Galindo, María Virginia Pérez; de Suárez, Eva Pérez; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-12-01

    Free-living amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus are opportunistic pathogens distributed worldwide. Strains included in this genus are causative agents of a fatal encephalitis and a sight-threating keratitis in humans and other animals. In this study, 550 clinical samples which were collected between 1984 and 2014 from different patients with suspected infections due to Acanthamoeba were initially screened for the presence of this amoebic genus at the Laboratorio de Amibiasis-Escuela de Bioanálisis at the Universidad Central de Venezuela. Samples were cultured in 2% Non-Nutrient agar plates seeded with a layer of heat killed Escherichia coli. From the 550 clinical samples included in this study, 18 of them were positive for Acanthamoeba genus after culture identification. Moreover, positive samples were confirmed after amplification of the Diagnostic Fragment 3 (DF3) of the Acanthamoeba18S rDNA genus and sequencing was carried out in order to genotype the isolated strains of Acanthamoeba. Furthermore, the pathogenic potential of the strains was checked by performing thermotolerance and osmotolerance assays. Sequencing of the DF3 region resulted in the identification of genotype T4 in all the isolated strains. Moreover, most isolates were thermotolerant or both thermotolerant and osmotolerant and thus were classified as potentially pathogenic strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization at the genotype level of Acanthamoeba strains in Venezuela.

  9. Aetiological considerations of acquired aplastic anaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, S.; Sarwar, I.; Mehmood, T.; Naz, F.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anaemia is one of the important causes of pancytopenia. This study was conducted to observe the mode of presentation of acquired aplastic anaemia and to find out its possible etiological factors. Methods: It is a hospital based descriptive study of 100 patients of acquired aplastic anaemia. Results: Out of 100 patients 60 were male and 40 female. Majority (44%) of the patients were between 12 - 20 years of age. Patient presented with variable symptoms majority (40%) with fever. Most of the patients had haemoglobin levels between 4 - 6 gm/dl. (53%). Seventy percent of the cases had no obvious cause, while in 30% some known causative factors were found. Chloramphenicol was found to be the most common causative drug. Mortality was 35%. Thirty patients were partially treated and 15 were lost to follow up. Twenty patients showed improvement with treatment. Conclusions: Acquired aplastic anaemia is common among males and more prevalent in younger age group. It is idiopathic in 70% cases while 30% had some cause. It has very high mortality. Doctors need to keep in mind this fatal condition in patients presenting with anaemia and should properly investigate before prescribing antibiotics and haematinics. (author)

  10. Network analysis of oyster transcriptome revealed a cascade of cellular responses during recovery after heat shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Zhang

    Full Text Available Oysters, as a major group of marine bivalves, can tolerate a wide range of natural and anthropogenic stressors including heat stress. Recent studies have shown that oysters pretreated with heat shock can result in induced heat tolerance. A systematic study of cellular recovery from heat shock may provide insights into the mechanism of acquired thermal tolerance. In this study, we performed the first network analysis of oyster transcriptome by reanalyzing microarray data from a previous study. Network analysis revealed a cascade of cellular responses during oyster recovery after heat shock and identified responsive gene modules and key genes. Our study demonstrates the power of network analysis in a non-model organism with poor gene annotations, which can lead to new discoveries that go beyond the focus on individual genes.

  11. Acquired resistance to 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG, tanespimycin) in glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Nathalie; Sharp, Swee Y; Pacey, Simon; Jones, Chris; Walton, Michael; Vassal, Gilles; Eccles, Suzanne; Pearson, Andrew; Workman, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitors, such as 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG, tanespimycin), which is currently in phase II/phase III clinical trials, are promising new anticancer agents. Here, we explored acquired resistance to HSP90 inhibitors in glioblastoma (GB), a primary brain tumor with poor prognosis. GB cells were exposed continuously to increased 17-AAG concentrations. Four 17-AAG-resistant GB cell lines were generated. High-resistance levels with resistance indices (RI = resistant line IC(50)/parental line IC(50)) of 20 to 137 were obtained rapidly (2-8 weeks). After cessation of 17-AAG exposure, RI decreased and then stabilized. Cross-resistance was found with other ansamycin benzoquinones but not with the structurally unrelated HSP90 inhibitors, radicicol, the purine BIIB021, and the resorcinylic pyrazole/isoxazole amide compounds VER-49009, VER-50589, and NVP-AUY922. An inverse correlation between NAD(P)H/quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) expression/activity and 17-AAG IC(50) was observed in the resistant lines. The NQO1 inhibitor ES936 abrogated the differential effects of 17-AAG sensitivity between the parental and resistant lines. NQO1 mRNA levels and NQO1 DNA polymorphism analysis indicated different underlying mechanisms: reduced expression and selection of the inactive NQO1*2 polymorphism. Decreased NQO1 expression was also observed in a melanoma line with acquired resistance to 17-AAG. No resistance was generated with VER-50589 and NVP-AUY922. In conclusion, low NQO1 activity is a likely mechanism of acquired resistance to 17-AAG in GB, melanoma, and, possibly, other tumor types. Such resistance can be overcome with novel HSP90 inhibitors.

  12. Experimental and numerical contribution to heat transfer enhancement in compact plate heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitillo, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of CEA R and D program to develop an industrial prototype of Sodium cooled Fast Reactor, the present thesis aimed to propose an innovative compact heat exchanger technology. In order to increase the global compactness the basic idea of this work is to design a channel were the fluid flow is as much three-dimensional as possible. In particular the channel can be thought as the result of the superposition of two undulated channels in phase opposition. To numerically provide a physically-consistent model, a new non-linear eddy viscosity named Anisotropic Shear Stress Transport (ASST) model has been developed and implemented into the available solver ANSYS FLUENT. To validate the numerical model, two experimental sections have been used to acquire an extensive aerodynamic database, whereas, to validate the thermal modeling approach, the VHEGAS facility has been built. Once having validated the ASST model, correlations for friction factor and Nusselt number for various geometries could be obtained. Finally, it has been shown that the innovative channel is the most compact one among the most important existing industrial compact heat exchanger technologies. (author) [fr

  13. Heat shock and prolonged heat stress attenuate neurotoxin and sporulation gene expression in group I Clostridium botulinum strain ATCC 3502.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Katja; Mascher, Gerald; Somervuo, Panu; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2017-01-01

    Foodborne pathogenic bacteria are exposed to a number of environmental stresses during food processing, storage, and preparation, and in the human body. In order to improve the safety of food, the understanding of molecular stress response mechanisms foodborne pathogens employ is essential. Many response mechanisms that are activated during heat shock may cross-protect bacteria against other environmental stresses. To better understand the molecular mechanisms Clostridium botulinum, the causative agent of botulism, utilizes during acute heat stress and during adaptation to stressfully high temperature, the C. botulinum Group I strain ATCC 3502 was grown in continuous culture at 39°C and exposed to heat shock at 45°C, followed by prolonged heat stress at 45°C to allow adaptation of the culture to the high temperature. Growth in continuous culture was performed to exclude secondary growth phase effects or other environmental impacts on bacterial gene transcription. Changes in global gene expression profiles were studied using DNA microarray hybridization. During acute heat stress, Class I and III heat shock genes as well as members of the SOS regulon were activated. The neurotoxin gene botA and genes encoding the neurotoxin-associated proteins were suppressed throughout the study. Prolonged heat stress led to suppression of the sporulation machinery whereas genes related to chemotaxis and motility were activated. Induced expression of a large proportion of prophage genes was detected, suggesting an important role of acquired genes in the stress resistance of C. botulinum. Finally, changes in the expression of a large number of genes related to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism indicated remodeling of the cellular metabolism.

  14. Heat transfer analysis for magnetohydrodynamics axisymmetric flow between stretching disks in the presence of viscous dissipation and Joule heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of heat transfer analysis on steady MHD axi-symmetric flow between two infinite stretching disks in the presence of viscous dissipation and Joule heating is basic objective of this paper. Attention has been focused to acquire the similarity solutions of the equations governing the flow and thermal fields. The transformed boundary value problem is solved analytically using homotopy analysis method. The series solutions are developed and the convergence of these solutions is explicitly discussed. The analytical expressions for fluid velocity, pressure and temperature are constructed and analyzed for various set of parameter values. The numerical values for skin friction coefficient and the Nusselt number are presented in tabular form. Particular attention is given to the variations of Prandtl and Eckert numbers. We examined that the dimensionless temperature field is enhanced when we increase the values of Eckert number and Prandtl number.

  15. Wheat multiple synthetic derivatives: a new source for heat stress tolerance adaptive traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbashir, Awad Ahmed Elawad; Gorafi, Yasir Serag Alnor; Tahir, Izzat Sidahmed Ali; Kim, June-Sik; Tsujimoto, Hisashi

    2017-01-01

    Heat stress is detrimental to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) productivity. In this study, we aimed to select heat-tolerant plants from a multiple synthetic derivatives (MSD) population and evaluate their agronomic and physiological traits. We selected six tolerant plants from the population with the background of the cultivar ‘Norin 61’ (N61) and established six MNH (MSD population of N61 selected as heat stress-tolerant) lines. We grew these lines with N61 in the field and growth chamber. In the field, we used optimum and late sowings to ensure plant exposure to heat. In the growth chamber, in addition to N61, we used the heat-tolerant cultivars ‘Gelenson’ and ‘Bacanora’. We confirmed that MNH2 and MNH5 lines acquired heat tolerance. These lines had higher photosynthesis and stomata conductance and exhibited no reduction in grain yield and biomass under heat stress compared to N61. We noticed that N61 had relatively good adaptability to heat stress. Our results indicate that the MSD population includes the diversity of Aegilops tauschii and is a promising resource to uncover useful quantitative traits derived from this wild species. Selected lines could be useful for heat stress tolerance breeding. PMID:28744178

  16. Myelofibrosis and acquired hemophilia A: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Marie; Comio, Emilie; Gay, Valerie; Baroudi, Noureddine; Meyer, Pascal; Chuniaud-Louche, Christine; Hacini, Maya; Pica, Gian Matteo

    2016-05-07

    Myelofibrosis and acquired hemophilia A is a rare association. To the best of our knowledge only one case of myelofibrosis and acquired hemophilia A has been previously described. A 66-year-old Caucasian man diagnosed with myelofibrosis evolving in acute myeloid leukemia was referred to us for postoperative bleeding. Hemostatic studies showed prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, decreased factor VIII coagulation, and a high factor VIII inhibitor titer; these findings led to a diagnosis of acquired hemophilia A for which he was treated with methylprednisolone and recombinant activated factor VII on admission. Due to a lack of response he was subsequently treated with rituximab combined with activated prothrombin complex concentrates. Furthermore, he received azacytidine to treat the underlying hematological malignancies. Immunosuppressive rituximab therapy resolved acquired hemophilia A with marked efficacy. Rapid and accurate diagnosis, effective hemostatic therapy, and timely treatment for underlying disease are important in the management of acquired hemophilia A secondary to hematological malignancy.

  17. 14 CFR 1274.402 - Contractor acquired property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contractor acquired property. 1274.402 Section 1274.402 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Property § 1274.402 Contractor acquired property. As provided in § 1274.923...

  18. EFFECT OF THE TYPE OF HEAT SOURCES ON CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Rabczak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A lot of attention is nowadays devoted to the problem of generally defined ecology. It is absolutely essential in case of systems and sources generating heat due to their direct influence on the environment through emitting post-process products to the atmosphere which are, most frequently a result of combustion. Therefore, constant searchers are made to optimize the operation of heat sources and to acquire energy from sources for which the general balance of carbon dioxide emission is zero or close to zero. This work compares the emissions of equivalent CO2 from selected systems with the following heat sources: coal, gas furnace, heat pump, and refers results of the analysis to aspects connected with regulations concerning environmental protection. The systems generating thermal energy in the gas furnaces, coal, biomass, as well as the compression heat pumps with the lower heat source as ambient air or ground were taken under consideration, as well as centralized systems for the production of heat based on the combustion of coal, gas, oil, and biomass. the Emission of carbon dioxide for the installation of cogeneration and absorption heat pump were also calculated. Similarly obtained amount of extra emission necessary for the proper operation maintenance of heating devices via the supplied electricity from external source, the mostly fuel-fired power plants for fuels as previously mentioned. The results of the calculations were presented in tables and graphs.

  19. Isolated acquired factor VII deficiency: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliez, Sylvie M N; Devreese, Katrien M J

    2016-04-01

    Isolated acquired factor VII (FVII) deficiency is a rare haemorrhagic disorder. We report what is currently known about the pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of acquired FVII deficiency. We performed a literature search and included all articles published between 1980 and August 2015. Acquired FVII deficiency has been reported in 42 patients. There are well-established clinical diseases associated with acquired FVII deficiency, most notably infections, malignancy and haematological stem cell transplantation. The exact pathogenesis of the diseases is still unknown, but different pathophysiological hypotheses have been suggested. The clinical manifestation of acquired FVII deficiency varies greatly in severity; asymptomatic course as well as severe life-threatening bleeding diathesis and fatal bleedings have been described.

  20. How are Concepts of Infinity Acquired?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trzęsicki Kazimierz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Concepts of infinity have been subjects of dispute since antiquity. The main problems of this paper are: is the mind able to acquire a concept of infinity? and: how are concepts of infinity acquired? The aim of this paper is neither to say what the meanings of the word “infinity” are nor what infinity is and whether it exists. However, those questions will be mentioned, but only in necessary extent.

  1. Acquired hypofibrinogenemia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besser MW

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Martin W Besser,1 Stephen G MacDonald2 1Department of Haematology, 2Department of Specialist Haemostasis, The Pathology Partnership, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Acquired hypofibrinogenemia is most frequently caused by hemodilution and consumption of clotting factors. The aggressive replacement of fibrinogen has become one of the core principles of modern management of massive hemorrhage. The best method for determining the patient’s fibrinogen level remains controversial, and particularly in acquired dysfibrinogenemia, could have major therapeutic implications depending on which quantification method is chosen. This review introduces the available laboratory and point-of-care methods and discusses the relative advantages and limitations. It also discusses current strategies for the correction of hypofibrinogenemia. Keywords: Clauss fibrinogen assay, fibrinogen antigen, viscoelastic testing, ­gravimetric fibrinogen assay, PT-derived fibrinogen, functional fibrinogen, direct oral anticoagulant, dysfibrinogenemia, afibrinogenemia

  2. Induction heating in in-line strip production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, P.; Santinelli, M.

    1995-05-01

    ISP (In-line Strip Production), a continuous process for steel strip production, has recently been set in an italian innovative plant, where ecological impact and power requirements are lighter than usual. This report describes the studies performed by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment), while a prototype reheating facility was arranged by Acciaieria ISP in Cremona (Italy). The authors, after a study of the prototype electromagnetic field, calculate the heating rate, with the thermal network method. Then they detect, with a 1-D-FEM, the heat diffusion through the strip cross section. Afterward, since the heat distribution depends on the eddy current density one, which is given by the magnetic field distribution, the authors, with a 3-D-FEM, carry out a coupled, electromagnetic and thermal, analysis in time domain. The strip temperature map is established by the balance between skin depth heating and surface cooling: a thermal analysis, performed with a moving 2-D-FEM, take into account the effects of the different heating and cooling situations, originated by the strip moving at a speed of 6m/min through four consecutive reheating facilities. The temperatures of a strip sample heated by the prototype have been monitored, acquired by a computer and related with the simulation results. The little difference between experiment and simulation assessed the qualitative and quantitative validity of this analysis, that has come out to be a tool, useful to evaluate the effects of possible improvements to the ISP process

  3. Residential bioenergy heating: A study of consumer perceptions of improved woodstoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyrud, Anders Q.; Roos, Anders; Sande, Jon Bingen

    2008-01-01

    Consumers' choices play a key role for the development of biomass heating in the residential sector. The city of Oslo has granted subsidies to households who change to new, improved low-emission woodstoves. The purpose of this study is to expand the knowledge about users' experiences and attitudes to residential biomass heating. An adapted model of the Theory of Planned Behavior was used to model households' inclination to continue using their woodstoves for heating. More than 800 questionnaires were collected from households that recently had invested in an improved woodstove. The respondents were satisfied with the new woodstoves. The respondents also considered themselves competent to use and maintain the stove and few had problems acquiring fuelwood. Further analyses showed that the intention to continue to use the new woodstove depends on economic benefits, heating performance, perceived time and effort to operate the stove, environmental effects of heating as well as perceived subjective norm. The results imply that when marketing a modern technology for bioenergy heating, both public authorities and producers should consider issues related to the users' perception of subjective norm, such as perceived status of using bioenergy or environmental concerns, when designing campaigns to promote the use of woodstoves

  4. Pneumonia - children - community acquired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchopneumonia - children; Community-acquired pneumonia - children; CAP - children ... Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in infants and children. Ways your child can get CAP include: Bacteria and viruses living in the nose, sinuses, or mouth may spread ...

  5. Using the heat of the Rickenbach railway tunnel; Waermenutzung aus dem Rickentunnel. Mehrzweckhalle Kaltbrunn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotting, R.

    2000-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a project that uses the geothermal energy extracted from the drainage water of the over eight kilometre long Rickenbach railway tunnel in eastern Switzerland. This tunnel was one of five evaluated as part of the 'Energy 2000' programme. The report describes how the heat is used to provide space heating for a multi-purpose communal hall, a kindergarten and - in a later phase - for a local housing development and a schoolhouse. The calculation of heating energy requirements and the energetic potential of the drainage water are described, as is the heat pump installation and the water pre-treatment plant. Also, the refrigerant used in the system's heat pump is discussed and the data collection and processing systems are described. Figures are given on the temperature, flow and energy data acquired as well as on the drainage water's pH-value and the heat pump's characteristics and efficiency. The economics of the installation are examined and operational aspects are commented on.

  6. Connectionist neuropsychology: uncovering ultimate causes of acquired dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollams, Anna M

    2014-01-01

    Acquired dyslexia offers a unique window on to the nature of the cognitive and neural architecture supporting skilled reading. This paper provides an integrative overview of recent empirical and computational work on acquired dyslexia within the context of the primary systems framework as implemented in connectionist neuropsychological models. This view proposes that damage to general visual, phonological or semantic processing abilities are the root causes of different forms of acquired dyslexia. Recent case-series behavioural evidence concerning pure alexia, phonological dyslexia and surface dyslexia that supports this perspective is presented. Lesion simulations of these findings within connectionist models of reading demonstrate the viability of this approach. The commitment of such models to learnt representations allows them to capture key aspects of performance in each type of acquired dyslexia, particularly the associated non-reading deficits, the role of relearning and the influence of individual differences in the premorbid state of the reading system. Identification of these factors not only advances our understanding of acquired dyslexia and the mechanisms of normal reading but they are also relevant to the complex interactions underpinning developmental reading disorders.

  7. Analysis of heat and mass transfers in two-phase flow by coupling optical diagnostic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, P.; Porcheron, E. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Saclay (France)

    2008-08-15

    During the course of a hypothetical accident in a nuclear power plant, spraying might be actuated to reduce static pressure in the containment. To acquire a better understanding of the heat and mass transfers between a spray and the surrounding confined gas, non-intrusive optical measurements have to be carried out simultaneously on both phases. The coupling of global rainbow refractometry with out-of-focus imaging and spontaneous Raman scattering spectroscopy allows us to calculate the local Spalding parameter B{sub M}, which is useful in describing heat transfer associated with two-phase flow. (orig.)

  8. Analysis of heat and mass transfers in two-phase flow by coupling optical diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaitre, P.; Porcheron, E.

    2008-01-01

    During the course of a hypothetical accident in a nuclear power plant, spraying might be actuated to reduce static pressure in the containment. To acquire a better understanding of the heat and mass transfers between a spray and the surrounding confined gas, non-intrusive optical measurements have to be carried out simultaneously on both phases. The coupling of global rainbow refractometry with out-of-focus imaging and spontaneous Raman scattering spectroscopy allows us to calculate the local Spalding parameter B M , which is useful in describing heat transfer associated with two-phase flow. (orig.)

  9. Achievements and suggestions of heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings in northern heating regions of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Ding; Zhe Tian; Yong Wu; Neng Zhu

    2011-01-01

    In order to promote energy efficiency and emission reduction, the importance of improving building energy efficiency received sufficient attention from Chinese Government. The heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings of 0.15 billion m 2 in northern heating regions of China was initiated in 2007 and completed successfully at the end of 2010. This article introduced the background and outline of the retrofit project during the period of 11th five-year plan. Numerous achievements that received by retrofit such as environmental protection effect, improvement of indoor environment, improvement of heating system, investment guidance effect, promotion of relevant industries and increasing chances of employment were concluded. Valuable experience that acquired from the retrofit project during the period of 11th five-year plan was also summarized in this article. By analyzing the main problems emerged in the past, pertinent suggestions were put forward to promote a larger scale and more efficient retrofit project in the period of 12th five-year plan. - Highlights: →Successful implementation of a retrofit project in China is introduced. → Significance of the project contributing to emission reduction is analyzed. →Achievements are summarized and future suggestions are put forward.

  10. Cellular thermotolerance is independent of HSF 1 expression in zebu and crossbred non-lactating cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jaspreet Kaur; Arora, J. S.; Sunil Kumar, B. V.; Mukhopadhyay, C. S.; Kaur, Simarjeet; Kashyap, Neeraj

    2017-09-01

    Heat stress is an important domain of research in livestock due to its negative impact on production and disease resistance. The augmentation of stress in the body stimulates the antioxidative activity comprising various enzymes (viz., catalase, superoxide dismutase), metabolites (reduced glutathione, etc.), vitamins, minerals, etc. to combat the situation. The major key players involved in regulation of heat shock response in eukaryotes are the transcription factors, called as heat shock factors (HSF). They activate the heat shock protein (HSP) genes by binding to their promoters. Lymphocytes are considered to be the best model to evaluate the immunity in any living body as it contains plethora of white blood cells (WBCs).In this study, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from non-lactating Sahiwal vis-à-vis crossbred (Holstein Friesian × Sahiwal) cattle with 75% or more exotic inheritance were subjected to heat shock at 39, 41, and 43 °C in three different incubators, in vitro. The cell count and viability test of pre and post heat stress of concerned PBMCs indicated that the crossbreeds are more prone to heat stress as compared to Sahiwal. The reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) expression data revealed an increment in HSF1 expression at 41 °C which subsequently declined (non-significantly) at 43 °C in both breeds post 1 h heat shock. However, the association between the HSF 1 expression and antioxidative activity through correlation analysis was found to be non-significant ( P < 0.05), though enzymatic activity appeared to behave in a similar fashion in both breeds at 5% level of significance ( P < 0.05). This rule out the role of HSF1 expression level on the activity of enzymes involved in oxidative stress in vitro in zebu and crossbred cattle.

  11. 19 CFR 148.33 - Articles acquired abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles acquired abroad. 148.33 Section 148.33... Articles acquired abroad. (a) Exemption. Each returning resident is entitled to bring in free of duty and..., Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202), articles for his personal or household use...

  12. 26 CFR 1.9002-6 - Acquiring corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acquiring corporation. 1.9002-6 Section 1.9002... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-6 Acquiring corporation. Section 5(d) of the... corporation by another corporation in a distribution or transfer described in section 381(a) of the Code the...

  13. Acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pramod

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired hypertirichosis lanuginose developed rapidly in a patient with no detectable malignancy. Soft, fine, downy hair growth was noticed on the face, ears, limbs and trunk. Bilaterally symmetrical vitiliginous macules were present on the ear and preauricular region. This case is reported because of its rarity, absence of any detectable malignancy and development of vitiligo, which to our knowledge has not been reported earlier.

  14. Heat pipe heat exchangers in heat recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stulc, P; Vasiliev, L L; Kiseljev, V G; Matvejev, Ju N

    1985-01-01

    The results of combined research and development activities of the National Research Institute for Machine Design, Prague, C.S.S.R. and the Institute for Heat and Mass Transfer, Minsk, U.S.S.R. concerning intensification heat pipes used in heat pipe heat exchangers are presented. This sort of research has been occasioned by increased interest in heat power economy trying to utilise waste heat produced by various technological processes. The developed heat pipes are deployed in construction of air-air, gas-air or gas-gas heat recovery exchangers in the field of air-engineering and air-conditioning. (author).

  15. Hyperthyroidism caused by acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J-J; Zhou, J-J; Yuan, X-L; Li, C-Y; Sheng, H; Su, B; Sheng, C-J; Qu, S; Li, H

    2014-01-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an immune deficiency disease. The etiology of hyperthyroidism, which can also be immune-related, is usually divided into six classical categories, including hypophyseal, hypothalamic, thyroid, neoplastic, autoimmune and inflammatory hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is a rare complication of highly active antimicrobial therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Hyperthyroidism caused directly by AIDS has not been previously reported. A 29-year-old man who complained of dyspnea and asthenia for 1 month, recurrent fever for more than 20 days, and breathlessness for 1 week was admitted to our hospital. The thyroid function test showed that the level of free thyroxine (FT4) was higher than normal and that the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was below normal. He was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. Additional investigations revealed a low serum albumin level and chest infection, along with diffuse lung fibrosis. Within 1 month, he experienced significant weight loss, no hand tremors, intolerance of heat, and perspiration proneness. We recommended an HIV examination; subsequently, AIDS was diagnosed based on the laboratory parameters. This is the first reported case of hyperthyroidism caused by AIDS. AIDS may cause hyperthyroidism by immunization regulation with complex, atypical, and easily ignored symptoms. Although hyperthyroidism is rare in patients with AIDS, clinicians should be aware of this potential interaction and should carefully monitor thyroid function in HIV-positive patients.

  16. Integrated physiological mechanisms of exercise performance, adaptation, and maladaptation to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Michael N; Leon, Lisa R; Montain, Scott J; Sonna, Larry A

    2011-10-01

    This article emphasizes significant recent advances regarding heat stress and its impact on exercise performance, adaptations, fluid electrolyte imbalances, and pathophysiology. During exercise-heat stress, the physiological burden of supporting high skin blood flow and high sweating rates can impose considerable cardiovascular strain and initiate a cascade of pathophysiological events leading to heat stroke. We examine the association between heat stress, particularly high skin temperature, on diminishing cardiovascular/aerobic reserves as well as increasing relative intensity and perceptual cues that degrade aerobic exercise performance. We discuss novel systemic (heat acclimation) and cellular (acquired thermal tolerance) adaptations that improve performance in hot and temperate environments and protect organs from heat stroke as well as other dissimilar stresses. We delineate how heat stroke evolves from gut underperfusion/ischemia causing endotoxin release or the release of mitochondrial DNA fragments in response to cell necrosis, to mediate a systemic inflammatory syndrome inducing coagulopathies, immune dysfunction, cytokine modulation, and multiorgan damage and failure. We discuss how an inflammatory response that induces simultaneous fever and/or prior exposure to a pathogen (e.g., viral infection) that deactivates molecular protective mechanisms interacts synergistically with the hyperthermia of exercise to perhaps explain heat stroke cases reported in low-risk populations performing routine activities. Importantly, we question the "traditional" notion that high core temperature is the critical mediator of exercise performance degradation and heat stroke. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Kiss, Csaba [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-03-22

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  18. Microencapsulation of alginate-immobilized bagasse with Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL 442: enhancement of survivability and thermotolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaharuddin, Shahrulzaman; Muhamad, Ida Idayu

    2015-03-30

    The aim of this research was to enhance the survivability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL 442 against heat exposure via a combination of immobilization and microencapsulation processes using sugarcane bagasse (SB) and sodium alginate (NaA), respectively. The microcapsules were synthesized using different alginate concentration of 1, 2 and 3% and NaA:SB ratio of 1:0, 1:1 and 1:1.5. This beneficial step of probiotic immobilization before microencapsulation significantly enhanced microencapsulation efficiency and cell survivability after heat exposure of 90°C for 30s. Interestingly, the microcapsule of SB-immobilized probiotic could obtain protection from heat using microencapsulation of NaA concentration as low as 1%. SEM images illustrated the incorporation of immobilized L. rhamnosus within alginate matrices and its changes after heat exposure. FTIR spectra confirmed the change in functional bonding in the presence of sugarcane bagasse, probiotic and alginate. The results demonstrated a great potential in the synthesis of heat resistant microcapsules for probiotic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. How a retrotransposon exploits the plant's heat stress response for its activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V Cavrak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrotransposons are major components of plant and animal genomes. They amplify by reverse transcription and reintegration into the host genome but their activity is usually epigenetically silenced. In plants, genomic copies of retrotransposons are typically associated with repressive chromatin modifications installed and maintained by RNA-directed DNA methylation. To escape this tight control, retrotransposons employ various strategies to avoid epigenetic silencing. Here we describe the mechanism developed by ONSEN, an LTR-copia type retrotransposon in Arabidopsis thaliana. ONSEN has acquired a heat-responsive element recognized by plant-derived heat stress defense factors, resulting in transcription and production of full length extrachromosomal DNA under elevated temperatures. Further, the ONSEN promoter is free of CG and CHG sites, and the reduction of DNA methylation at the CHH sites is not sufficient to activate the element. Since dividing cells have a more pronounced heat response, the extrachromosomal ONSEN DNA, capable of reintegrating into the genome, accumulates preferentially in the meristematic tissue of the shoot. The recruitment of a major plant heat shock transcription factor in periods of heat stress exploits the plant's heat stress response to achieve the transposon's activation, making it impossible for the host to respond appropriately to stress without losing control over the invader.

  20. Heat exchange between a microparticle and plasma. Contribution of charge transfer processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uglov, A.A.; Gnedovets, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    Heat- and mass-transfer in interaction of a microparticle with a dense plasma have been considered analytically. At that, calculation methods developed as applied to probe diagnostics of slightly ionized plasma are also used in the case of relatively high degrees of ionization, at which heat flows of plasma charged particles Qe and Qi become comparable with molecular ones. High efficiency of energy transfer during electron and ion collisions with a microparticle is due to the following: 1) effective cross section of ion collision with a microparticle, which acquires in a quasineutral plasma the potential phisub(f) < 0, surpasses the geometric one; the maximum contribution of electron and ion constituent is achieved when the cross section ion collisions with a microparticle is linearly connected with its potential, 2) with a charged microparticle electrons from distribution function ''tail'' collide, their energy exceeds potential barrier near the surface and, consequently, the mean heat energy; 3) besides the energy of a microparticle thermal movement during electron recombination and ion neutralization on its surface the heat Qsub(e) and Qsub(i), which considerably exceed the heat of molecular adsorption and mean heat energy of plasma particles at kT approximately 1 eV, are transmitted to the microparticle

  1. Harmonic oscillator in heat bath: Exact simulation of time-lapse-recorded data and exact analytical benchmark statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelykke, Simon F; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The stochastic dynamics of the damped harmonic oscillator in a heat bath is simulated with an algorithm that is exact for time steps of arbitrary size. Exact analytical results are given for correlation functions and power spectra in the form they acquire when computed from experimental time...

  2. Experimental and computational investigations of heat and mass transfer of intensifier grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzar, Leonid; Oleksyuk, Dmitry; Semchenkov, Yuriy

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses experimental and numerical investigations on intensification of thermal and mass exchange which were performed by National Research Centre ''Kurchatov Institute'' over the past years. Recently, many designs of heat mass transfer intensifier grids have been proposed. NRC ''Kurchatov Institute'' has accomplished a large scope of experimental investigations to study efficiency of intensifier grids of various types. The outcomes of experimental investigations can be used in verification of computational models and codes. On the basis of experimental data, we derived correlations to calculate coolant mixing and critical heat flux mixing in rod bundles equipped with intensifier grids. The acquired correlations were integrated in subchannel code SC-INT.

  3. Evaluation of thermotolerant capacity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from commercial sausages and the effects of their addition on the quality of cooked sausages Avaliação da capacidade termotolerante de bacterias lácticas isoladas de salsichas comerciais e os efeitos de sua adição na qualidade de salsichas cozidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Pérez-Chabela

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The thermotolerant capacity of several lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from cooked commercial sausages was determined. Four strains were positively identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus curvatus, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Pediococcus acidilacti, after surviving thermal treatment (70 °C during 60 minutes. Thermotolerant strains were inoculated in sausage batters before cooking in order to determine their effect on color, texture, acceptance and inhibition of Enterobacteria during 12 days at 8 °C. No significant effect of the inoculated strains was detected on color parameters. Textural profile parameters, cohesiveness and resilience, were not affected by the inoculation of thermotolerant lactic acid bacteria, but L. curvatus sausages resulted softer than the rest of the treatments. Samples inoculated with L. curvatus also obtained the lowest scores for the sensory attributes evaluated, with the remaining treatments causing no unfavorable effects on sausage acceptance. There was a reduction in enterobacterial counts after 12 days of cold storage in inoculated samples. The performance of inoculated lactic acid bacteria strains can be explained in a similar way as that of starter cultures in dry-fermented sausages, where the growth in nests impairs other pathogenic microorganisms present in the rest of the sausage, since environmental conditions and the early inoculation of these thermotolerant strains favor them to become the dominant flora.A capacidade termotolerante de diversas cepas de bactérias lácticas isoladas de salsichas comerciais cozidas foi determinada. Quatro cepas foram identificadas positivamente como Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus curvatus, Pediococcus pentosaceus e Pediococcus acidilacti, depois de sobreviver satisfatoriamente ao tratamento térmico (70 °C durante 60 minutos. As cepas termotolerantes foram inoculadas nas salsichas antes do cozimento, a fim de saber o seu efeito sobre a cor, a

  4. Culture conditions affecting the survival response of Chinese hamster ovary cells treated by hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highfield, D.P.; Holahan, E.V.; Dewey, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Using lethally irradiated feeder cells to control cell population densities, researchers investigated the survival of Chinese hamster ovary cells heated between 42.2 and 45.5 degrees C. Test cells were plated into T25 flasks with or without feeder cells, incubated 2 hours at 37 degrees C, and then given various heat treatments. Under all heating conditions, survival increased in those flasks containing feeder cells. Increased survival (by as much as a factor of 100 for cells heated at 42.4 degrees C for 6-10 hr) was most apparent when cells were heated to thermotolerance. By adjustment of test and feeder cell numbers, survival increased as density increased; however, maximum survival followed a transition period that occurred between the plating of 1 X 10(4) and 6 X 10(4) cells. Experimental artifacts due to improper control of cell density was demonstrated

  5. An efficient thermotolerant and halophilic biosurfactant-producing bacterium isolated from Dagang oil field for MEOR application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Langping; Richnow, Hans; Yao, Jun; Jain, Anil

    2014-05-01

    Dagang Oil field (Petro China Company Limited) is one of the most productive oil fields in China. In this study, 34 biosurfactant-producing strains were isolated and cultured from petroleum reservoir of Dagang oil field, using haemolytic assay and the qualitative oil-displacement test. On the basis of 16S rDNA analysis, the isolates were closely related to the species in genus Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Bacillus. One of the isolates identified as Bacillus subtilis BS2 were selected for further study. This bacterium was able to produce a type of biosurfactant with excessive foam-forming properties at 37ºC as well as at higher temperature of 55ºC. The biosurfactant produced by the strain BS2 could reduce the surface tension of the culture broth from 70.87 mN/m to 28.97 mN/m after 8 days of incubation at 37ºC and to 36.15 mN/m after 20 days of incubation at 55ºC, respectively. The biosurfactant showed stability at high temperature (up to 120ºC), a wide range of pH (2 to 12) and salt concentrations (up to 12%) offering potential for biotechnology. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of extracted biosurfactant tentatively characterized the produced biosurfactant as glycolipid derivative. Elemental analysis of the biosurfactant by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) reveals that the biosurfactant was anionic in nature. 15 days of biodegradation of crude oil suggested a preferential usage of n-alkane upon microbial metabolism of BS2 as a carbon substrate and consequently also for the synthesis of biosurfactants. Core flood studies for oil release indicated 9.6% of additional oil recovery over water flooding at 37ºC and 7.2% of additional oil recovery at 55 ºC. Strain BS2 was characterized as an efficient biosurfactant-producing, thermotolerant and halophillic bacterium and has the potential for application for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) through water flooding in China's oil fields even in situ as adapted to reservoir chemistry and

  6. Painful tonic heat stimulation induces GABA accumulation in the prefrontal cortex in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, Ron; Danielsen, Else R; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known on pain-induced neurotransmitter release in the human cerebral cortex. We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) during tonic painful heat stimulation to test the hypothesis of increases in both glutamate and GABA, two neurotransmitters with a key role...... that GABA is released in the human cerebral cortex during painful stimulation. The results are in line with animal findings on the role of GABA in pain processing and with studies in humans showing analgesic efficacy of GABA-related drugs in clinical pain conditions....... in pain processing. Using a 3T MR scanner, we acquired spectra from the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) in 13 healthy right-handed subjects at rest and during painful heat stimulation. The painful stimulus consisted of a suprathreshold painful tonic heat pulse, which was delivered to the right...

  7. Experimental and numerical examination of eddy (Foucault) currents in rotating micro-coils: Generation of heat and its impact on sample temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Pedro M.; Jacquinot, Jacques-François; Sakellariou, Dimitris

    2009-09-01

    The application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to systems of limited quantity has stimulated the use of micro-coils (diameter Foucault (eddy) currents, which generate heat. We report the first data acquired with a 4 mm MACS system and spinning up to 10 kHz. The need to spin faster necessitates improved methods to control heating. We propose an approximate solution to calculate the power losses (heat) from the eddy currents for a solenoidal coil, in order to provide insight into the functional dependencies of Foucault currents. Experimental tests of the dependencies reveal conditions which result in reduced sample heating and negligible temperature distributions over the sample volume.

  8. Experimental and numerical examination of eddy (Foucault) currents in rotating micro-coils: Generation of heat and its impact on sample temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Pedro M; Jacquinot, Jacques-François; Sakellariou, Dimitris

    2009-09-01

    The application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to systems of limited quantity has stimulated the use of micro-coils (diameter Foucault (eddy) currents, which generate heat. We report the first data acquired with a 4mm MACS system and spinning up to 10kHz. The need to spin faster necessitates improved methods to control heating. We propose an approximate solution to calculate the power losses (heat) from the eddy currents for a solenoidal coil, in order to provide insight into the functional dependencies of Foucault currents. Experimental tests of the dependencies reveal conditions which result in reduced sample heating and negligible temperature distributions over the sample volume.

  9. Qualification of expansion and welding procedures of tube-to-tubesheet joints for heat exchangers in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, G.D.M.; Couto, J.G.V.; Castro, L.A.S. de

    1986-01-01

    Leaking tube to tubesheet joints are among the most frequent defects detected in the operation of tubular heat exchangers. This kind of problem requires a special treatment, in the case of heat exchangers intalled in nuclear power plants, aiming at a minimum of leakages and further repair outages. The criteria used for the pre-qualification of tube-to-tubesheet joints, is described, and the experiences acquired during the tests and fabrication of several components supplied by national manufacturers, are presented. (Author) [pt

  10. Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In October 2014, CMS began reducing Medicare payments for subsection (d) hospitals that rank in the worst performing quartile with respect to hospital-acquired...

  11. Heat pipe heat storage performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, A; Pasquetti, R [Univ. de Provence, Marseille (FR). Inst. Universitaire des Systemes; Grakovich, L P; Vasiliev, L L [A.V. Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Inst. of the BSSR, Academy of Sciences, Minsk (BY)

    1989-01-01

    Heat storage offers essential thermal energy saving for heating. A ground heat store equipped with heat pipes connecting it with a heat source and to the user is considered in this paper. It has been shown that such a heat exchanging system along with a batch energy source meets, to a considerable extent, house heating requirements. (author).

  12. [Cytokine changes in community-acquired pneumonia in elderly and intervention of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shanghe; Gong, Guolang; Zheng, Haiwen; Hu, Guohua; Xia, Tao

    2010-06-01

    To make a study of the cytokine changes in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the elderly and the intervention of traditional Chinese medicine that can clear away the lung-heat and dissipate blood stasis (Qingfeihuayu soup). The 82 cases with CAP in the elderly were divided at random into two treatment group and control group. Based on heteropathy, the treatment group was given Qingfeihuayu soup two times a day. The control group was given Rocephin 2 g once daily for 7 days. The clinical effect and the changes in TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 were observed before and after the treatment. A healthy group was also set up. Before treatment, IL-6 and TNF-alpha in both groups were higher than the healthy group (P soup has obviously have regulating and clinical effect.

  13. Acquired ichthyosis with hoffman's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathyanarayana B

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A middle aged man presented with features of acquired ichthyosis with Hoffman's syndrome. Laboratory tests support hypothyodism. Myoedema and hypertrophy of muscles were present. Patient was previously treated for Pellagra.

  14. Bayesian fuzzy logic-based estimation of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) power deposition in MHD control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davoudi, Mehdi, E-mail: mehdi.davoudi@polimi.it [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Buein Zahra Technical University, Buein Zahra, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davoudi, Mohsen, E-mail: davoudi@eng.ikiu.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, 34148-96818 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • A couple of algorithms to diagnose if Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) power is deposited properly on the expected deposition minor radius are proposed. • The algorithms are based on Bayesian theory and Fuzzy logic. • The algorithms are tested on the off-line experimental data acquired from Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU), Frascati, Italy. • Uncertainties and evidences derived from the combination of online information formed by the measured diagnostic data and the prior information are also estimated. - Abstract: In the thermonuclear fusion systems, the new plasma control systems use some measured on-line information acquired from different sensors and prior information obtained by predictive plasma models in order to stabilize magnetic hydro dynamics (MHD) activity in a tokamak. Suppression of plasma instabilities is a key issue to improve the confinement time of controlled thermonuclear fusion with tokamaks. This paper proposes a couple of algorithms based on Bayesian theory and Fuzzy logic to diagnose if Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) power is deposited properly on the expected deposition minor radius (r{sub DEP}). Both algorithms also estimate uncertainties and evidences derived from the combination of the online information formed by the measured diagnostic data and the prior information. The algorithms have been employed on a set of off-line ECE channels data which have been acquired from the experimental shot number 21364 at Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU), Frascati, Italy.

  15. The Influence of Heating Mains on Yeast Communities in Urban Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepeeva, A. N.; Glushakova, A. M.; Kachalkin, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The number and species diversity of yeasts in urban soils (urbanozems) affected by heating mains and in epiphytic yeast complexes of grasses growing above them were studied. The number of yeasts in the soil reached 103-104 CFU/g; on the plants, 107 CFU/g. Significant (by an order of magnitude) increase in the total number of soil yeasts in the zone of heating mains in comparison with the surrounding soil was found in winter period. Overall, 25 species of yeasts were isolated in our study. Yeast community of studied urbanozems was dominated by the Candida sake, an eurybiont of the temperate zone and other natural ecotopes with relatively low temperatures, but its share was minimal in the zone of heating mains. In general, the structure of soil and epiphytic yeast complexes in the zones of heating mains differed from that in the surrounding area by higher species diversity and a lower share of pigmented species among the epiphytic yeasts. The study demonstrated that the number and species structure of soil yeast communities in urban soils change significantly under the influence of the temperature factor and acquire a mosaic distribution pattern.

  16. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL: one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE. Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis.

  17. Occurrence and enumeration of Campylobacter spp. during the processing of Chilean broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa, Guillermo; Troncoso, Miriam; López, Cristián; Rivas, Patricia; Toro, Magaly

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Thermotolerant Campylobacter is among the more prevalent bacterial pathogens that cause foodborne diseases. This study aimed at evaluating the occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter contamination in chicken carcasses and processing plant stations (chilling water, scalding water, defeathering machinery, evisceration machine, and transport crates) in two of the Chilean main slaughterhouses. In addition, the isolation rates of thermotolerant Campylobacter during eviscerat...

  18. 7 CFR 3575.90 - Disposition of acquired property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... property. (a) General. When the lender acquires title to the collateral and the final loss claim is not... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of acquired property. 3575.90 Section... protect the collateral, and the lender must dispose of the collateral without delay. (b) Re-title...

  19. Visible and Near-IR Reflectance Spectra of Smectite Acquired Under Dry Conditions for Interpretation of Martian Surface Mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard V.; Achilles, Cherie N; Archer, Paul D.; Graff, Trevor G.; Agresti, David G.; Ming, Douglas W; Golden, Dadi C.; Mertzman, Stanley A.

    2011-01-01

    Visible and near-IR (VNIR) spectra from the MEx OMEGA and the MRO CRISM hyper-spectral imaging instruments have spectral features associated with the H2O molecule and M OH functional groups (M = Mg, Fe, Al, and Si). Mineralogical assignments of martian spectral features are made on the basis of laboratory VNIR spectra, which were often acquired under ambient (humid) conditions. Smectites like nontronite, saponite, and montmorillionite have interlayer H2O that is exchangeable with their environment, and we have acquired smectite reflectance spectra under dry environmental conditions for interpretation of martian surface mineralogy. We also obtained chemical, Moessbauer (MB), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric (TG) data to understand variations in spectral properties. VNIR spectra were recorded in humid lab air at 25-35C, in a dynamic dry N2 atmosphere (50-150 ppmv H2O) after exposing the smectite samples (5 nontronites, 3 montmorillionites, and 1 saponite) to that atmosphere for up to approximately l000 hr each at 25-35C, approximately 105C, and approximately 215C, and after re-exposure to humid lab air. Heating at 105C and 215C for approximately 1000 hr is taken as a surrogate for geologic time scales at lower temperatures. Upon exposure to dry N2, the position and intensity of spectral features associated with M-OH were relatively insensitive to the dry environment, and the spectral features associated with H2O (e.g., approximately 1.90 micrometers) decreased in intensity and are sometimes not detectable by the end of the 215C heating step. The position and intensity of H2O spectral features recovered upon re-exposure to lab air. XRD data show interlayer collapse for the nontronites and Namontmorillionites, with the interlayer remaining collapsed for the latter after re-exposure to lab air. The interlayer did not collapse for the saponite and Ca-montmorillionite. TG data show that the concentration of H2O derived from structural OH was invariant

  20. Heat pipes and heat pipe exchangers for heat recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, L L; Grakovich, L P; Kiselev, V G; Kurustalev, D K; Matveev, Yu

    1984-01-01

    Heat pipes and heat pipe exchangers are of great importance in power engineering as a means of recovering waste heat of industrial enterprises, solar energy, geothermal waters and deep soil. Heat pipes are highly effective heat transfer units for transferring thermal energy over large distance (tens of meters) with low temperature drops. Their heat transfer characteristics and reliable working for more than 10-15 yr permit the design of new systems with higher heat engineering parameters.

  1. New portable monitor enhances the ability to evaluate heat exchanger performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Toole, W.; Lacy, J.R.; Karlovich, D.N.

    1992-01-01

    Corrosion and fouling problems in nuclear power plant service water systems have led to industry-wide concern. These problems can affect the ability of these important heat exchangers to remove design heat loads. In addition, a limited amount of permanently installed on-line instrumentation is available to monitor key heat transfer parameters. A new, computerized monitoring system has been developed that acquires and manipulates process data. This enables power plant personnel to evaluate the on-line performance of important cooling system heat exchangers. The equipment provides the capability to continuously monitor, graph, and record cooling and process heat transfer parameters. The computer hardware is in a portable cabinet on wheels, which can be easily rolled from exchanger to exchanger for monitoring. This new monitoring system is being used at Consolidated Edison Company of New York Inc.'s Indian Point 2 Nuclear Station. They are currently expanding their performance testing on service water system heat exchangers and other auxiliary components to include those units that have limited on-line instrumentation. The ability to use clamp on flow and temperature sensing devices is necessary for trending exchanger performance. With on-line testing capabilities it is possible to: evaluate the cleanliness of plant heat transfer surfaces; make judgments about biofouling or antiscalant programs; and determine when equipment needs to be shut down for inspection or cleaning This paper describes this state-of-the-art equipment in detail and its application at the Indian Point 2 Nuclear Station. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  2. Acquired factor VII deficiency associated with acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoun, Soumaya; Lamchahab, Mouna; Oukkache, Bouchra; Qachouh, Maryam; Benchekroun, Said; Quessar, Asmaa

    2015-04-01

    Isolated acquired factor VII deficiency is a rare coagulopathy. It has been reported in 31 patients with malignancy, sepsis, postoperatively, aplastic anemia, and during bone marrow transplantation. We discuss, through a new case of acquired factor VII deficiency, the characteristics of this disease when it is associated with acute myeloid leukemia. Acquired factor VII deficiency in hematological diseases can be caused by intensive chemotherapy, infections, or hepatic dysfunction. The best treatment in developing countries remains corticosteroids associated with plasma exchange, frozen plasma, and antibiotics.

  3. Heat pipes in modern heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, Leonard L.

    2005-01-01

    Heat pipes are very flexible systems with regard to effective thermal control. They can easily be implemented as heat exchangers inside sorption and vapour-compression heat pumps, refrigerators and other types of heat transfer devices. Their heat transfer coefficient in the evaporator and condenser zones is 10 3 -10 5 W/m 2 K, heat pipe thermal resistance is 0.01-0.03 K/W, therefore leading to smaller area and mass of heat exchangers. Miniature and micro heat pipes are welcomed for electronic components cooling and space two-phase thermal control systems. Loop heat pipes, pulsating heat pipes and sorption heat pipes are the novelty for modern heat exchangers. Heat pipe air preheaters are used in thermal power plants to preheat the secondary-primary air required for combustion of fuel in the boiler using the energy available in exhaust gases. Heat pipe solar collectors are promising for domestic use. This paper reviews mainly heat pipe developments in the Former Soviet Union Countries. Some new results obtained in USA and Europe are also included

  4. Sensitivity Analysis of Depletion Parameters for Heat Load Evaluation of PWR Spent Fuel Storage Pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Young; Lee, Un Chul

    2011-01-01

    As necessity of safety re-evaluation for spent fuel storage facility has emphasized after the Fukushima accident, accuracy improvement of heat load evaluation has become more important to acquire reliable thermal-hydraulic evaluation results. As groundwork, parametric and sensitivity analyses of various storage conditions for Kori Unit 4 spent fuel storage pool and spent fuel depletion parameters such as axial burnup effect, operation history, and specific heat are conducted using ORIGEN2 code. According to heat load evaluation and parametric sensitivity analyses, decay heat of last discharged fuel comprises maximum 80.42% of total heat load of storage facility and there is a negative correlation between effect of depletion parameters and cooling period. It is determined that specific heat is most influential parameter and operation history is secondly influential parameter. And decay heat of just discharged fuel is varied from 0.34 to 1.66 times of average value and decay heat of 1 year cooled fuel is varied from 0.55 to 1.37 times of average value in accordance with change of specific power. Namely depletion parameters can cause large variation in decay heat calculation of short-term cooled fuel. Therefore application of real operation data instead of user selection value is needed to improve evaluation accuracy. It is expected that these results could be used to improve accuracy of heat load assessment and evaluate uncertainty of calculated heat load.

  5. Immunomodulation in community-acquired pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmelts, H.H.F.

    2013-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common disease with considerable morbidity and mortality, despite effective antibiotic treatment. In this thesis, we showed that the major causative microorganisms in CAP trigger distinct inflammatory response profiles in the host. While an inflammatory

  6. Impacts of Mergers and Acquisitions on Acquirer Banks’ Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan Ali Shah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of mergers and acquisitions (M & A on the operating performance of the acquirer banks in Pakistan. For this purpose, a sample of 18 transactions, involving acquirer banks, listed on the Karachi Stock Exchange, is used. The Financial Ratio Analysis (FRA is used to determine the effects of M & A. The significance of change in the operating performances is tested through a paired sample t-test. The results indicate deterioration in the performances of the acquirer banks in the post-merger period.

  7. Methods for acquiring data in power ramping experiments with WWER fuel rods at high burnup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobrov, S N; Grachev, A F; Ovchinnikov, V A; Poliakov, I S; Matveev, N P [Research Inst. of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation); Novikov, V V [Institute of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-08-01

    A programme on in-pile test which involve fuel burnup up to 60 MWd/kg and up to 12 fuel rods in the experimental rig is considered. Testing methods with reference to the MIR-M1 reactor are reported. Power ramping regime can be realized either by an increase of the total reactor capacity or by displacement of the nearest to the experimental cell control rods or by combination of these two ways. A total thermal capacity of the fuel rod cluster is determined by means of the thermal balance technique. The thermal capacity of each separate fuel rod can be estimated from the distribution of their relative activity within the accuracy range 5-10%. The important condition for this procedure is to keep the initial distribution of the fuel rod heating during power ramping. Means of instrumentation are described. They are standard detectors of loop facilities and transducers installed both in the irradiation rigs and fuel rods. Different ways of processing data on the fuel rod loss of integrity are reported. When the time of fuel rod loss of tightness is placed in correspondence with its capacity, processing can be made either on the maximum fuel rod heat load or on that at crack location. The information acquired in the experiments on the burnup values, heat rating distribution, kinetics of fission product gas emission, fuel rod elongation, fuel rod diameter changes, crack availability and fission products migration is used for the development and verification of calculation codes. (author). 1 ref., 4 figs, 1 tab.

  8. Pulmonary infiltrates during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjeldsøe-Nielsen, Hans; Gjeraa, Kirsten; Berthelsen, Birgitte G

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to describe the frequency of pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray (CXR) during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia at a single centre in Denmark.......The primary aim of this study was to describe the frequency of pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray (CXR) during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia at a single centre in Denmark....

  9. Heat pumps: heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pielke, R

    1976-01-01

    The author firstly explains in a general manner the functioning of the heat pump. Following a brief look at the future heat demand and the possibilities of covering it, the various methods of obtaining energy (making use of solar energy, ground heat, and others) and the practical applications (office heating, swimming pool heating etc.) are explained. The author still sees considerable difficulties in using the heat pump at present on a large scale. Firstly there is not enough maintenance personnel available, secondly the electricity supply undertakings cannot provide the necessary electricity on a wide basis without considerable investments. Other possibilities to save energy or to use waste energy are at present easier and more economical to realize. Recuperative and regenerative systems are described.

  10. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Kasprian, Gregor; Witzani, Linde; Helmer, Hanns; Dietrich, Wolfgang; Eppel, Wolfgang; Langer, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images

  11. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  12. New waste heat district heating system with combined heat and power based on absorption heat exchange cycle in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Fangtian; Fu Lin; Zhang Shigang; Sun Jian

    2012-01-01

    A new waste heat district heating system with combined heat and power based on absorption heat exchange cycle (DHAC) was developed to increase the heating capacity of combined heat and power (CHP) through waste heat recovery, and enhance heat transmission capacity of the existing primary side district heating network through decreasing return water temperature by new type absorption heat exchanger (AHE). The DHAC system and a conventional district heating system based on CHP (CDH) were analyzed in terms of both thermodynamics and economics. Compared to CDH, the DHAC increased heating capacity by 31% and increased heat transmission capacity of the existing primary side district heating network by 75%. The results showed that the exergetic efficiency of DHAC was 10.41% higher and the product exergy monetary cost was 36.6¥/GJ less than a CHD. DHAC is an effective way to increase thermal utilization factor of CHP, and to reduce district heating cost. - Highlights: ► Absorption heat pumps are used to recover waste heat in CHP. ► Absorption heat exchanger can reduce exergy loss in the heat transfer process. ► New waste heat heating system (DHAC) can increase heating capacity of CHP by 31%. ► DHAC can enhance heat transmission capacity of the primary pipe network by 75%. ► DHAC system has the higher exergetic efficiency and the better economic benefit.

  13. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh [Houston, TX; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  14. Multinational Exploration of Acquired R&D Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens

    2004-01-01

    R&D. This paper establishes the connection between amultinational corporation that follows a capability-motivated acquisition strategy and theR&D role new subsidiaries should play in order for the acquired resources to be utilizedcorporation-wide. Statistical findings reveal the need to follow......This paper presents the results of a survey of 54 Danish multinational corporations that haveacquired activities abroad. The role of the acquired R&D units was the focus of the survey,particularly with respect to the schism between basic and applied R&D, and the schismbetween autonomous and network...

  15. Heat pipe heat exchanger for heat recovery in air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El-Baky, Mostafa A.; Mohamed, Mousa M. [Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minufiya University, Shebin El-Kom (Egypt)

    2007-03-15

    The heat pipe heat exchangers are used in heat recovery applications to cool the incoming fresh air in air conditioning applications. Two streams of fresh and return air have been connected with heat pipe heat exchanger to investigate the thermal performance and effectiveness of heat recovery system. Ratios of mass flow rate between return and fresh air of 1, 1.5 and 2.3 have been adapted to validate the heat transfer and the temperature change of fresh air. Fresh air inlet temperature of 32-40{sup o}C has been controlled, while the inlet return air temperature is kept constant at about 26{sup o}C. The results showed that the temperature changes of fresh and return air are increased with the increase of inlet temperature of fresh air. The effectiveness and heat transfer for both evaporator and condenser sections are also increased to about 48%, when the inlet fresh air temperature is increased to 40{sup o}C. The effect of mass flow rate ratio on effectiveness is positive for evaporator side and negative for condenser side. The enthalpy ratio between the heat recovery and conventional air mixing is increased to about 85% with increasing fresh air inlet temperature. The optimum effectiveness of heat pipe heat exchanger is estimated and compared with the present experimental data. The results showed that the effectiveness is close to the optimum effectiveness at fresh air inlet temperature near the fluid operating temperature of heat pipes. (author)

  16. A case of acquired port wine stain: an association with repeated sunburn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seremet, Sila; Benar, Elif B; Afsar, Fatma Sule; Calli, Aylin; Ulusarac, Ozlem

    2016-10-01

    Unlike congenital port wine stain (PWS), an acquired PWS is a rare vascular lesion that develops later in life. Although solar damage is associated with acquired PWS, there is no reported case of acquired PWS after sunburn in the literature. We report a case of a 54-year-old man diagnosed with acquired PWS possibly caused by repeated sunburn. We recommended laser treatment to our patient; however, the patient did not chose to receive any treatment. Our case demonstrates a possible rare occurrence of an acquired PWS after sunburn with larger lesions and more diffuse distribution. For this reason, our case differs from other acquired PWS cases. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  17. NADPH-thioredoxin reductase C mediates the response to oxidative stress and thermotolerance in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARÍA SÁNCHEZ-RIEGO

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available NTRC (NADPH-thioredoxin reductase C is a bimodular enzyme composed of an NADPH-thioredoxin reductase and a thioredoxin domain extension in the same protein. In plants, NTRC has been described to be involved in the protection of the chloroplast against oxidative stress damage through reduction of the 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (2-Cys Prx as well as through other functions related to redox enzyme regulation. In cyanobacteria, the Anabaena NTRC has been characterized in vitro, however nothing was known about its in vivo function. In order to study that, we have generated the first knockout mutant strain (∆ntrC, apart from the previously described in Arabidopsis. Detailed characterization of this strain reveals a differential sensitivity to oxidative stress treatments with respect to the wild-type Anabaena strain, including a higher level of ROS (reactive oxygen species in normal growth conditions. In the mutant strain, different oxidative stress treatments such as hydrogen peroxide, methyl-viologen or high light irradiance provoke an increase in the expression of genes related to ROS detoxification, including AnNTRC and peroxiredoxin genes, with a concomitant increase in the amount of AnNTRC and 2-Cys Prx. Moreover, the role of AnNTRC in the antioxidant response is confirmed by the observation of a pronounced overoxidation of the 2-Cys Prx and a time-delay recovery of the reduced form of this protein upon oxidative stress treatments. Our results suggest the participation of this enzyme in the peroxide detoxification in Anabaena. In addition, we describe the role of Anabaena NTRC in thermotolerance, by the appearance of high molecular mass AnNTRC complexes, showing that the mutant strain is more sensitive to high temperature treatments.

  18. Local pool boiling heat transfer on a 3 Degree inclined tube surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms of pool boiling heat transfer have been studied for a long time. Recently, it has been widely investigated in nuclear power plants for the purpose of acquiring inherent safety functions in case of no power supply. To design more efficient heat exchangers, effects of several parameters on heat transfer must be studied in detail. One of the major issues is variation in local heat transfer coefficients on a tube. Lance and Myers reported that the type of boiling liquid can change the trend of local heat transfer coefficients along the tube periphery. Lance and Myers said that as the liquid is methanol the maximum local heat transfer coefficient was observed at the tube bottom while the maximum was at the tube sides as the boiling liquid was n hexane. Corn well and Einarsson reported that the maximum local heat transfer coefficient was observed at the tube bottom, as the boiling liquid was R113. Corn well and Houston explained the reason of the difference in local heat transfer coefficients along the tube circumference with introducing effects of sliding bubbles on heat transfer. According to Gu pta et al., the maximum and the minimum local heat transfer coefficients were observed at the bottom and top regions of the tube circumference, respectively, using a tube bundle and water. Kang also reported the similar results using a single horizontal tube and water. However, the maximum heat transfer coefficient was observed at the angle of 45 deg. Sateesh et al. investigated variations in local heat transfer coefficients along a tube periphery as the inclination angle was changed. Summarizing the published results, some parts are still remaining to be investigated in detail. Although pool boiling analysis on a nearly horizontal tube is necessary for the design of the advanced power reactor plus, no previous results are published yet. Therefore, the present study is aimed to study variations in local pool boiling heat transfer coefficients for a 3 degree inclined

  19. Acquired versus Non-Acquired Subsidiaries - Which Entry Mode do Parent Firms Prefer

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Kalkbrenner

    2010-01-01

    Despite the economic importance of international foreign direct investment (FDI) flows, investment decisions of multinational firms are not well understood. A multinational firm can establish a subsidiary in a foreign country through greenfield investment or through acquiring an existing firm in the target country. The goal of this paper is to shed some light on the determinants of foreign market entry modes. In particular to analyze the systematic variation in the mode choice of FDI, namely ...

  20. Enhanced production of raw starch degrading enzyme using agro-industrial waste mixtures by thermotolerant Rhizopus microsporus for raw cassava chip saccharification in ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakarnpaiboon, Srisakul; Srisuk, Nantana; Piyachomkwan, Kuakoon; Sakai, Kenji; Kitpreechavanich, Vichien

    2017-09-14

    In the present study, solid-state fermentation for the production of raw starch degrading enzyme was investigated by thermotolerant Rhizopus microsporus TISTR 3531 using a combination of agro-industrial wastes as substrates. The obtained crude enzyme was applied for hydrolysis of raw cassava starch and chips at low temperature and subjected to nonsterile ethanol production using raw cassava chips. The agro-industrial waste ratio was optimized using a simplex axial mixture design. The results showed that the substrate mixture consisting of rice bran:corncob:cassava bagasse at 8 g:10 g:2 g yielded the highest enzyme production of 201.6 U/g dry solid. The optimized condition for solid-state fermentation was found as 65% initial moisture content, 35°C, initial pH of 6.0, and 5 × 10 6 spores/mL inoculum, which gave the highest enzyme activity of 389.5 U/g dry solid. The enzyme showed high efficiency on saccharification of raw cassava starch and chips with synergistic activities of commercial α-amylase at 50°C, which promotes low-temperature bioethanol production. A high ethanol concentration of 102.2 g/L with 78% fermentation efficiency was achieved from modified simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using cofermentation of the enzymatic hydrolysate of 300 g raw cassava chips/L with cane molasses.

  1. The challenge of retaining customers acquired with free trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, H.; Foubert, B.; van Heerde, H.J.

    Many service firms acquire customers by offering free-trial promotions. A crucial challenge is to retain customers acquired with these free trials. To address this challenge, firms need to understand how free-trial customers differ from regular customers in terms of their decision making to retain

  2. Recurrent and acquired tracheoesophageal fistulae (TEF)-Minimally invasive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Zafar; Khan, Muhammad Arif Mateen; Qamar, Javaria

    2017-10-01

    Recurrent and acquired fistulae are a serious complication of congenital esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) repair and foreign body ingestion (FBI) (e.g., button battery). We report our experience with a minimally invasive approach to recurrent and acquired TEF. Medical records of patients referred for management of recurrent and acquired TEF between 2003 and 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients underwent endoscopic procedures (de-epithelization of fistulous tract and fibrin tissue adhesive-Tisseel R ) under general anesthesia. Nine children (7 male, 2 female) with age range 3months to 3years (mean 1.5year) were managed. TEF closed spontaneously in four patients, whereas in 5 patients the TEF closed after combined endoscopic procedure. Three patients required repeat endoscopic procedures. Follow-up ranged between 7months to 10years (mean 4.2years). Active observation and repeat combined endoscopic procedures are safe alternatives to open surgical repair of acquired and recurrent TEF. Level IV study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Common acquired kidney diseases in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5. Common acquired kidney diseases in children. Examination of the urine is probably the most important investigation ... result from the same streptococcal infection. .... musculoskeletal system. ... Prediction of histopathology from clinical.

  4. Future heat supply of our cities. Heating by waste heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brachetti, H E [Stadtwerke Hannover A.G. (Germany, F.R.); Technische Univ. Hannover (Germany, F.R.))

    1976-08-01

    The energy-price crisis resulted in structural changes of the complete energy supply and reactivated the question of energy management with respect to the optimum solution of meeting the energy requirements for space heating. Condensation power plants are increasingly replaced by thermal stations, the waste heat of which is used as so-called district heat. Thermal power stations must be situated close to urban areas. The problem of emission of harmful materials can partly be overcome by high-level emission. The main subject of the article, however, is the problem of conducting and distributing the heat. The building costs of heat pipeline systems and the requirements to be met by heat pipelines such as strength, heat insulation and protection against humidity and ground water are investigated.

  5. 33 CFR 211.2 - Authority to acquire real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority to acquire real estate..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Real Estate; General § 211.2 Authority to acquire real estate. (a) Congressional authority...

  6. Enhancing Medicares Hospital Acquired Conditions Policy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The current Medicare policy of non-payment to hospitals for Hospital Acquired Conditions (HAC) seeks to avoid payment for preventable complications identified within...

  7. [Acquired angioedema – clinical characteristic of the patients diagnosed in 2012-2016 with acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobiecki, Marcin; Czarnobilska, Ewa; Obtułowicz, Krystyna

    Acquired angioedema is a rare disease caused by a deficiency of C1 esterase inhibitor with recurrent swelling symptoms. It may occur in the course of lymphoproliferative disorders or autoimmune diseases. Symptoms resemble hereditary angioedema, and the only differentiating features is negative family history, late onset of symptoms and accompanying lymphoproliferative disorder. The aim of the study was to analyze the cases of acquired angioedema. The retrospective analysis of 341 patients from the registry of patients with C1 inhibitor deficiency. Results: We identified 4 patients among 119 with HAE (3.57%) diagnosed in this same period of time 2012-2016 who fulfilled the criteria of acquired edema. In two cases the primary reason of angioedema was lymphoproliferive disease, in two monoclonal gammapathy of unknown reason. We analyzed also the results of laboratory tests C4, C1 inhibitor, C1q. In all cases the face was dominated localization. After the treatment of primary lymphoproliferive disease, in two cases, we observed total remission of angioedema. Only one patient with gammapathy require treatment with C1 inhibitor during the attacks. In these case we observed both plasma deriver, and recombinant C1 inhibitor were effective.

  8. Hydride heat pump with heat regenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative hydride heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system. A series of at least four canisters containing a lower temperature performing hydride and a series of at least four canisters containing a higher temperature performing hydride is provided. Each canister contains a heat conductive passageway through which a heat transfer fluid is circulated so that sensible heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  9. An experimental investigation on air-side performances of finned tube heat exchangers for indirect air-cooling tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Xueping

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A tremendous quantity of water can be saved if the air cooling system is used, comparing with the ordinary water-cooling technology. In this study, two kinds of finned tube heat exchangers in an indirect air-cooling tower are experimentally studied, which are a plain finned oval-tube heat exchanger and a wavy-finned flat-tube heat exchanger in a cross flow of air. Four different air inlet angles (90°, 60 °, 45°, and 30° are tested separately to obtain the heat transfer and resistance performance. Then the air-side experimental correlations of the Nusselt number and friction factor are acquired. The comprehensive heat transfer performances for two finned tube heat exchangers under four air inlet angles are compared. For the plain finned oval-tube heat exchanger, the vertical angle (90° has the worst performance while 45° and 30° has the best performance at small ReDc and at large ReDc, respectively. For the wavy-finned flat-tube heat exchanger, the worst performance occurred at 60°, while the best performance occurred at 45° and 90° at small ReDc and at large ReDc, respectively. From the comparative results, it can be found that the air inlet angle has completely different effects on the comprehensive heat transfer performance for the heat exchangers with different structures.

  10. Experimental data and calculation studies of critical heat fluxes at local disturbances of geometry of WWER fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzar, L.L.; Oleksyuk, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    The results of experiments executed in RRC 'Kurchatov Institute on the thermal-physical critical facility SVD are presented herein. The experiments modeled the drawing of two fuel rods to each other till touching WWER-1000 reactor in FA. The experimental model is a 7-rod bundle with the heated length of 1 m. The primary goal of experiments was to acquire the quantitative factors of the reduction in the critical heat fluxes as contrasted to the basic model (without disturbances of FA geometry) at the expense of local disturbance of a rod bundle geometry. As it follows from the experiment, the effect of decrease of the critical heat rate depends on combination of regime parameters and it makes 15% in the most unfavorable case (Authors)

  11. Neural basis of acquired amusia and its recovery after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Sihvonen, A.J.; Ripollés, P.; Leo, V.; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Soinila, S.; Särkämö, T.

    2016-01-01

    Although acquired amusia is a relatively common disorder after stroke, its precise neuroanatomical basis is still unknown. To evaluate which brain regions form the neural substrate for acquired amusia and its recovery, we performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) and morphometry (VBM) study with 77 human stroke subjects. Structural MRIs were acquired at acute and 6 month poststroke stages. Amusia and aphasia were behaviorally assessed at acute and 3 month poststroke stages using t...

  12. Industrial waste heat for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitner, K.L.; Brooks, P.P.

    1982-01-01

    Presents 2 bounding evaluations of industrial waste heat availability. Surveys waste heat from 29 major industry groups at the 2-digit level in Standard Industrial Codes (SIC). Explains that waste heat availability in each industry was related to regional product sales, in order to estimate regional waste heat availability. Evaluates 4 selected industries at the 4-digit SIC level. Finds that industrial waste heat represents a significant energy resource in several urban areas, including Chicago and Los Angeles, where it could supply all of these areas residential heating and cooling load. Points out that there is a strong need to evaluate the available waste heat for more industries at the 4-digit level. Urges further studies to identify other useful industrial waste heat sources as well as potential waste heat users

  13. Mapping of potential heat sources for heat pumps for district heating in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Rasmus; Persson, Urban

    2016-01-01

    The ambitious policy in Denmark on having a 100% renewable energy supply in 2050 requires radical changes to the energy systems to avoid an extensive and unsustainable use of biomass resources. Currently, wind power is being expanded and the increasing supply of electricity is slowly pushing the CHP (combined heat and power) plants out of operation, reducing the energy efficiency of the DH (district heating) supply. Here, large heat pumps for district heating is a frequently mentioned solution as a flexible demand for electricity and an energy efficient heat producer. The idea is to make heat pump use a low temperature waste or ambient heat source, but it has so far been very unclear which heat sources are actually available for this purpose. In this study eight categories of heat sources are analysed for the case of Denmark and included in a detailed spatial analysis where the identified heat sources are put in relation to the district heating areas and the corresponding demands. The analysis shows that potential heat sources are present near almost all district heating areas and that sea water most likely will have to play a substantial role as a heat source in future energy systems in Denmark. - Highlights: • The availability of heat sources for heat pumps in Denmark are mapped and quantified. • A novel methodology for assessment of low temperature industrial excess heat is presented. • There are heat sources available for 99% of district heating networks in Denmark. • The concentration of heat sources is generally bigger around bigger cities than smaller. • Ambient temperature heat sources will be more needed in district heating of big cities.

  14. Borrowing and Loan Words: The Lemmatizing of Newly Acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    or foreign acquisition. English, for instance, is spoken in many countries on all five continents and is, therefore, able to acquire vocabulary from many lan- guages worldwide. This is coupled with the readiness and the ability of the language to acquire new terminology through borrowing, instead of following the puristic ...

  15. Significance of acquired diverticular disease of the vermiform appendix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenbach, Klaus; Hjorth, Sofie Vetli; Engel, Ulla

    2012-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of acquired diverticulum of the appendix (DA), including incipient forms and its possible significance as a marker of local/regional neoplasms.......To assess the prevalence of acquired diverticulum of the appendix (DA), including incipient forms and its possible significance as a marker of local/regional neoplasms....

  16. The Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA Responses to Hot Downhill Running Are Reduced Following a Prior Bout of Hot Downhill Running, and Occur Concurrently within Leukocytes and the Vastus Lateralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Tuttle

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The leukocyte heat shock response (HSR is used to determine individual's thermotolerance. The HSR and thermotolerance are enhanced following interventions such as preconditioning and/or acclimation/acclimatization. However, it is unclear whether the leukocyte HSR is an appropriate surrogate for the HSR in other tissues implicated within the pathophysiology of exertional heat illnesses (e.g., skeletal muscle, and whether an acute preconditioning strategy (e.g., downhill running can improve subsequent thermotolerance. Physically active, non-heat acclimated participants were split into two groups to investigate the benefits of hot downhill running as preconditioning strategy. A hot preconditioning group (HPC; n = 6 completed two trials (HPC1HOTDOWN and HPC2HOTDOWN of 30 min running at lactate threshold (LT on −10% gradient in 30°C and 50% relative humidity (RH separated by 7 d. A temperate preconditioning group (TPC; n = 5 completed 30 min running at LT on a −1% gradient in 20°C and 50% (TPC1TEMPFLAT and 7 d later completed 30 min running at LT on −10% gradient in 30°C and 50% RH (TPC2HOTDOWN. Venous blood samples and muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis; VL were obtained before, immediately after, 3, 24, and 48 h after each trial. Leukocyte and VL Hsp72, Hsp90α, and Grp78 mRNA relative expression was determined via RT-QPCR. Attenuated leukocyte and VL Hsp72 (2.8 to 1.8 fold and 5.9 to 2.4 fold; p < 0.05 and Hsp90α mRNA (2.9 to 2.4 fold and 5.2 to 2.4 fold; p < 0.05 responses accompanied reductions (p < 0.05 in physiological strain [exercising rectal temperature (−0.3°C and perceived muscle soreness (~ −14%] during HPC2HOTDOWN compared to HPC1HOTDOWN (i.e., a preconditioning effect. Both VL and leukocyte Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA increased (p < 0.05 simultaneously following downhill runs and demonstrated a strong relationship (p < 0.01 of similar magnitudes with one another. Hot downhill running is an effective preconditioning strategy

  17. Significance of anaerobes and oral bacteria in community-acquired pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Yamasaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular biological modalities with better detection rates have been applied to identify the bacteria causing infectious diseases. Approximately 10-48% of bacterial pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia are not identified using conventional cultivation methods. This study evaluated the bacteriological causes of community-acquired pneumonia using a cultivation-independent clone library analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, and compared the results with those of conventional cultivation methods. METHODS: Patients with community-acquired pneumonia were enrolled based on their clinical and radiological findings. Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were collected from pulmonary pathological lesions using bronchoscopy and evaluated by both a culture-independent molecular method and conventional cultivation methods. For the culture-independent molecular method, approximately 600 base pairs of 16S ribosomal RNA genes were amplified using polymerase chain reaction with universal primers, followed by the construction of clone libraries. The nucleotide sequences of 96 clones randomly chosen for each specimen were determined, and bacterial homology was searched. Conventional cultivation methods, including anaerobic cultures, were also performed using the same specimens. RESULTS: In addition to known common pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia [Streptococcus pneumoniae (18.8%, Haemophilus influenzae (18.8%, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (17.2%], molecular analysis of specimens from 64 patients with community-acquired pneumonia showed relatively higher rates of anaerobes (15.6% and oral bacteria (15.6% than previous reports. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that anaerobes and oral bacteria are more frequently detected in patients with community-acquired pneumonia than previously believed. It is possible that these bacteria may play more important roles in community-acquired pneumonia.

  18. Association between Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex phylogenetic lineage and acquired drug resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney M Yuen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Development of resistance to antituberculosis drugs during treatment (i.e., acquired resistance can lead to emergence of resistant strains and consequent poor clinical outcomes. However, it is unknown whether Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex species and lineage affects the likelihood of acquired resistance. METHODS: We analyzed data from the U.S. National Tuberculosis Surveillance System and National Tuberculosis Genotyping Service for tuberculosis cases during 2004-2011 with assigned species and lineage and both initial and final drug susceptibility test results. We determined univariate associations between species and lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria and acquired resistance to isoniazid, rifamycins, fluoroquinolones, and second-line injectables. We used Poisson regression with backward elimination to generate multivariable models for acquired resistance to isoniazid and rifamycins. RESULTS: M. bovis was independently associated with acquired resistance to isoniazid (adjusted prevalence ratio = 8.46, 95% CI 2.96-24.14 adjusting for HIV status, and with acquired resistance to rifamycins (adjusted prevalence ratio = 4.53, 95% CI 1.29-15.90 adjusting for homelessness, HIV status, initial resistance to isoniazid, site of disease, and administration of therapy. East Asian lineage was associated with acquired resistance to fluoroquinolones (prevalence ratio = 6.10, 95% CI 1.56-23.83. CONCLUSIONS: We found an association between mycobacterial species and lineage and acquired drug resistance using U.S. surveillance data. Prospective clinical studies are needed to determine the clinical significance of these findings, including whether rapid genotyping of isolates at the outset of treatment may benefit patient management.

  19. 45 CFR 7.4 - Option to acquire foreign rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Option to acquire foreign rights. 7.4 Section 7.4... Option to acquire foreign rights. In any case where it is determined that all domestic rights should be...-wide regulations issued thereunder, that the Government shall reserve an option to require the...

  20. 34 CFR 7.4 - Option to acquire foreign rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Option to acquire foreign rights. 7.4 Section 7.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EMPLOYEE INVENTIONS § 7.4 Option to acquire... issued thereunder, that the Government shall reserve an option to require the assignment of such rights...

  1. Thermal hydraulic phenomenology for the heating process in a natural circulation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Walmir M.; Macedo, Luiz A.; Mesquita, Roberto N.; Masotti, Paulo Henrique F.; Libardi, Rosani Maria P.; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Andrade, Delvonei A.; Umbehaun, Pedro Ernesto; Conti, Thadeu N.; Silva Filho, Mauro F.S.; Melo, Gabriel R.

    2009-01-01

    This work describes thermal hydraulic phenomenology observed for the heating process in a natural circulation facility. Glass made circuit allows observations of the thermal hydraulic processes over several regions. Natural convection, natural circulation, nucleated sub-cooled, saturated boiling and some flow patterns such as, bubbly, slug and churn flow are observed and described. Facility heated and cooled parts are responsible for the natural circulation when in operation. An expansion tank accommodates the fluid density variations due to the temperature changes and void fraction. Instrumentation consists of thermocouples distributed along the circuit. Two differential pressure transducers are used for pressure and level measurements. Instrumentation signals and images are simultaneously acquired to help with phenomenon description. A CCD digital camera at a 250μs shutter speed is used for the images acquisition. Phenomenology described is based on a test under 1.1 x 10 5 W/m 2 of heat flux which corresponds to an electrical heater power of 7000 W and 0.0236 kg/s (85 l/h) of cooling flow rate. (author)

  2. Intracellular pH and 42.00 C heat response of CHO cells cultured at pH 6.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.A.; Fox, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    The authors previously reported that cells under chronic low pH (6.6) conditions have altered thermotolerance. They further characterized both the doubling time (t/sub d/) and the internal pH (pH/sub 1/) of CHO cells continuously cultured at pH 6.6 for times greater than one year. The following differences were noted: 1) A t/sub d/ of 16 hr compared to a t/sub d/ of 12 hr for cells at normal pH (7.3) and a t/sub d/ of 25 hr for the acute low pH cells (pH = 6.6; incubation time = 4 hr). 2) A pH/sub i/ 0.1-0.15 pH units > normal cells and 0.3 pH units > acute low pH cells. 3) Survival at 42.0 0 C which differed from both normal and acute low pH cells. The chronic culture was still quite sensitive to 42.0 0 C treatments during the first 5 hr, but developed tolerance at a higher level than cells under acute low pH conditions. The pH/sub i/ of the chronic culture responded to 42.0 0 C heating in a manner similar to that for acute low pH cells. Whether this culture represents a normal response to long term low pH exposure, or was the response of a mutant population is at the present unknown

  3. Comparative dermatology: acquired digital fibrokeratoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha Filho, Roberto Rheingantz da

    2008-01-01

    Demonstra-se quadro característico de fibroqueratoma digital adquirido em trabalhadora rural de 42 anos de idade, que se compara a corno de rinoceronte.It is presented a case of a 42 year-old white female farmer with the classical feature of acquired digital fibrokeratoma, which is compared to rhinoceros horn.

  4. Electrical service and controls for Joule heating of a defense waste experimental glass melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, C.J.; Haideri, A.Q.

    1983-01-01

    Vitrification of radioactive liquid waste in a glass matrix is a leading candidate for long-term storage of high-level waste. This paper describes the electrical service and control system for an experimental electrically heated, nonradioactive glass melter installed at Savannah River Laboratory. Data accumulated, and design/operating experience acquired in operating this melter, are being used to design a modified melter to be installed in a processing area for use with radioactive materials

  5. Individual and Public-Program Adaptation: Coping with Heat Waves in Five Cities in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Alhassan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat Alert and Response Systems (HARS are currently undergoing testing and implementation in Canada. These programs seek to reduce the adverse health effects of heat waves on human health by issuing weather forecasts and warnings, informing individuals about possible protections from excessive heat, and providing such protections to vulnerable subpopulations and individuals at risk. For these programs to be designed effectively, it is important to know how individuals perceive the heat, what their experience with heat-related illness is, how they protect themselves from excessive heat, and how they acquire information about such protections. In September 2010, we conducted a survey of households in 5 cities in Canada to study these issues. At the time of the survey, these cities had not implemented heat outreach and response systems. The study results indicate that individuals’ recollections of recent heat wave events were generally accurate. About 21% of the sample reported feeling unwell during the most recent heat spell, but these illnesses were generally minor. Only in 25 cases out of 243, these illnesses were confirmed or diagnosed by a health care professional. The rate at which our respondents reported heat-related illnesses was higher among those with cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, was higher among younger respondents and bore no relationship with the availability of air conditioning at home. Most of the respondents indicated that they would not dismiss themselves as “not at risk” and that they would cope with excessive heat by staying in air conditioned environments and keeping well hydrated. Despite the absence of heat outreach and education programs in their city, our respondents at least a rough idea of how to take care of themselves. The presence of air conditioning and knowledge of cooling centers is location-specific, which provides opportunities for targeting HARS interventions.

  6. Individual and public-program adaptation: coping with heat waves in five cities in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberini, Anna; Gans, Will; Alhassan, Mustapha

    2011-12-01

    Heat Alert and Response Systems (HARS) are currently undergoing testing and implementation in Canada. These programs seek to reduce the adverse health effects of heat waves on human health by issuing weather forecasts and warnings, informing individuals about possible protections from excessive heat, and providing such protections to vulnerable subpopulations and individuals at risk. For these programs to be designed effectively, it is important to know how individuals perceive the heat, what their experience with heat-related illness is, how they protect themselves from excessive heat, and how they acquire information about such protections. In September 2010, we conducted a survey of households in 5 cities in Canada to study these issues. At the time of the survey, these cities had not implemented heat outreach and response systems. The study results indicate that individuals' recollections of recent heat wave events were generally accurate. About 21% of the sample reported feeling unwell during the most recent heat spell, but these illnesses were generally minor. Only in 25 cases out of 243, these illnesses were confirmed or diagnosed by a health care professional. The rate at which our respondents reported heat-related illnesses was higher among those with cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, was higher among younger respondents and bore no relationship with the availability of air conditioning at home. Most of the respondents indicated that they would not dismiss themselves as "not at risk" and that they would cope with excessive heat by staying in air conditioned environments and keeping well hydrated. Despite the absence of heat outreach and education programs in their city, our respondents at least a rough idea of how to take care of themselves. The presence of air conditioning and knowledge of cooling centers is location-specific, which provides opportunities for targeting HARS interventions.

  7. Utility of bromide and heat tracers for aquifer characterization affected by highly transient flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zachara, John M.; Tonkin, Matthew

    2012-08-01

    A tracer test using both bromide and heat tracers conducted at the Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Hanford 300 Area (300A), Washington, provided an instrument for evaluating the utility of bromide and heat tracers for aquifer characterization. The bromide tracer data were critical to improving the calibration of the flow model complicated by the highly dynamic nature of the flow field. However, most bromide concentrations were obtained from fully screened observation wells, lacking depth-specific resolution for vertical characterization. On the other hand, depth-specific temperature data were relatively simple and inexpensive to acquire. However, temperature-driven fluid density effects influenced heat plume movement. Moreover, the temperature data contained "noise" caused by heating during fluid injection and sampling events. Using the hydraulic conductivity distribution obtained from the calibration of the bromide transport model, the temperature depth profiles and arrival times of temperature peaks simulated by the heat transport model were in reasonable agreement with observations. This suggested that heat can be used as a cost-effective proxy for solute tracers for calibration of the hydraulic conductivity distribution, especially in the vertical direction. However, a heat tracer test must be carefully designed and executed to minimize fluid density effects and sources of noise in temperature data. A sensitivity analysis also revealed that heat transport was most sensitive to hydraulic conductivity and porosity, less sensitive to thermal distribution factor, and least sensitive to thermal dispersion and heat conduction. This indicated that the hydraulic conductivity remains the primary calibration parameter for heat transport.

  8. Time-temperature relationships for hyperthermal radiosensitisation in mouse intestine: influence of thermotolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hume, S.P.; Marigold, J.C.L.

    1985-01-01

    Thermal enhancement of radiation injury to the crypt compartment of mouse small intestinal mucosa has been measured as a function of heating time for temperatures in the range 41.0-44.0 0 C. All the hyperthermal treatments used were themselves subthreshold for gross tissue injury. With this limitation, thermoradiosensitisation increased linearly with duration of hyperthermia for temperatures in the range 42.3-44.0 0 C. Using temperatures below 42.0 0 C, there was a saturation in effect for treatments longer than approximately 40-90 min. For temperatures above the transition, a 1 0 C change was equivalent to a factor of 2.6 in heating time; below the transition, a 1 0 C change was equivalent to a factor of 5.4. Time-temperature relationships for thermoradiosensitisation in other rodent tissues are reviewed and compared with the general relationships for direct thermal injury, previously derived from experimental studies. The results are discussed with relevance to the interpretation of in vivo thermal enhancement of radiation injury. (Auth.)

  9. Review: heat pipe heat exchangers at IROST

    OpenAIRE

    E. Azad

    2012-01-01

    The use of the heat pipe as a component in a heat recovery device has gained worldwide acceptance. Heat pipes are passive, highly reliable and offer high heat transfer rates. This study summarizes the investigation of different types of heat pipe heat recovery systems (HPHRSs). The studies are classified on the basis of the type of the HPHRS. This research is based on 30 years of experience on heat pipe and heat recovery systems that are presented in this study. Copyright , Oxford University ...

  10. REVIEW OF A CASE OF CHILD WITH ACQUIRED APHASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana FILIPOVA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Achieved children speech disabilities are manifested at certain level of development of speech from the age of 3 to 12 years. The speech disabilities with children from the age of one to three years have developmental and acquired characteristics. It is well-known when and why the disabilities occurr at acquired aphasia or disphasia.The child with acquired aphasia or disphasia has early brain impairements and a relative improvement happens with adequate treatment and prompt rehabilitation treatment. It is more obvious with children than with adults.This fast and complete rehabilitation happens due to the plastic character of child’s brain and the possibilities for intro-hemisphere and inter-hemisphere reorganization of speech functions in childhood.

  11. Experimental and numerical investigation of a louvered fin and elliptical tube compact heat exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooranachandran Karthik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an experimental investigation is carried out to analyze the heat transfer characteristics of a louvered fin and elliptical tube compact heat exchanger used as a radiator in an internal combustion engine. Experiments are conducted by positioning the radiator in an open-loop wind tunnel. A total of 24 sets of air, water flow rate combinations are tested, and the temperature drops of air and water were acquired. A numerical analysis has been carried out using Fluent software (a general purpose computational fluid dynamics simulation tool for three chosen data from the experiments. The numerical air-side temperature drop is compared with those of the experimental values. A good agreement between the experimental and numerical results validates the present computational methodology.

  12. Prognostic value of severity indicators of nursing-home-acquired pneumonia versus community-acquired pneumonia in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugajin M

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Motoi Ugajin, Kenichi Yamaki, Natsuko Hirasawa, Takanori Kobayashi, Takeo Yagi Department of Respiratory Medicine, Ichinomiya-Nishi Hospital, Ichinomiya City, Japan Background: The credibility of prognostic indicators in nursing-home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP is not clear. We previously reported a simple prognostic indicator in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP: blood urea nitrogen to serum albumin (B/A ratio. This retrospective study investigated the prognostic value of severity indicators in NHAP versus CAP in elderly patients. Methods: Patients aged ≥65 years and hospitalized because of NHAP or CAP within the previous 3 years were enrolled. Demographics, coexisting illnesses, laboratory and microbiological findings, and severity scores (confusion, urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and age ≥65 [CURB-65] scale; age, dehydration, respiratory failure, orientation disturbance, and pressure [A-DROP] scale; and pneumonia severity index [PSI] were retrieved from medical records. The primary outcome was mortality within 28 days of admission. Results: In total, 138 NHAP and 307 CAP patients were enrolled. Mortality was higher in NHAP (18.1% than in CAP (4.6% (P<0.001. Patients with NHAP were older and had lower functional status and a higher rate of do-not-resuscitate orders, heart failure, and cerebrovascular diseases. The NHAP patients more frequently had typical bacterial pathogens. Using the receiver-operating characteristics curve for predicting mortality, the area under the curve in NHAP was 0.70 for the A-DROP scale, 0.69 for the CURB-65 scale, 0.67 for the PSI class, and 0.65 for the B/A ratio. The area under the curve in CAP was 0.73 for the A-DROP scale, 0.76 for the CURB-65 scale, 0.81 for the PSI class, and 0.83 for the B/A ratio. Conclusion: Patient mortality was greater in NHAP than in CAP. Patient characteristics, coexisting illnesses, and detected pathogens differed greatly between NHAP and CAP. The existing severity indicators

  13. Targeting the maximum heat recovery for systems with heat losses and heat gains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Alwi, Sharifah Rafidah; Lee, Carmen Kar Mun; Lee, Kim Yau; Abd Manan, Zainuddin; Fraser, Duncan M.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Illustration of heat gains and losses from process streams. - Highlights: • Maximising energy savings through heat losses or gains. • Identifying location where insulation can be avoided. • Heuristics to maximise heat losses or gains. • Targeting heat losses or gains using the extended STEP technique and HEAT diagram. - Abstract: Process Integration using the Pinch Analysis technique has been widely used as a tool for the optimal design of heat exchanger networks (HENs). The Composite Curves and the Stream Temperature versus Enthalpy Plot (STEP) are among the graphical tools used to target the maximum heat recovery for a HEN. However, these tools assume that heat losses and heat gains are negligible. This work presents an approach that considers heat losses and heat gains during the establishment of the minimum utility targets. The STEP method, which is plotted based on the individual, as opposed to the composite streams, has been extended to consider the effect of heat losses and heat gains during stream matching. Several rules to guide the proper location of pipe insulation, and the appropriate procedure for stream shifting have been introduced in order to minimise the heat losses and maximise the heat gains. Application of the method on two case studies shows that considering heat losses and heat gains yield more realistic utility targets and help reduce both the insulation capital cost and utility cost of a HEN

  14. Heating networks and domestic central heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamler, W; Wasilewski, W

    1976-08-01

    This is a comprehensive survey of the 26 contributions from 8 European countries submitted to the 3rd International District Heating Conference in Warsaw held on the subject 'Heating Networks and Domestic Central Heating Systems'. The contributions are grouped according to 8 groups of subjects: (1) heat carriers and their parameters; (2) system of heating networks; (3) calculation and optimization of heating networks; (4) construction of heating networks; (5) operation control and automation; (6) operational problems; (7) corrosion problems; and (8) methods of heat accounting.

  15. Heat transfer and critical heat flux in a asymmetrically heated tube helicoidal flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscary, J.

    1995-10-01

    The design of plasma facing components is crucial for plasma performance in next fusion reactors. These elements will be submitted to very high heat flux. They will be actively water-cooled by swirl tubes in the subcooled boiling regime. High heat flux experiments were conducted in order to analyse the heat transfer and to evaluate the critical heat flux. Water-cooled mock-ups were one-side heated by an electron beam gun for different thermal-hydraulic conditions. The critical heat flux was detected by an original method based on the isotherm modification on the heated surface. The wall heat transfer law including forced convection and subcooled boiling regimes was established. Numerical calculations of the material heat transfer conduction allowed the non-homogeneous distribution of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux to be evaluated. The critical heat flux value was defined as the wall maximum heat flux. A critical heat flux model based on the liquid sublayer dryout under a vapor blanket was established. A good agreement with test results was found. (author). 198 refs., 126 figs., 21 tabs

  16. Acquired epidermolysis bullosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricel Sucar Batista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa is a group of diseases or skin disorders genetically transmitted and it is characterized by the appearance of bullae, ulcers and skin wounds. It usually appears at birth or in the first months of life. This is a case of a 72-year-old female patient who comes to the dermatology department with skin lesions of 6 months of evolution. A skin biopsy was performed, taking a sample for direct and indirect immunofluorescence. Acquired epidermolysis bullosa of unknown etiology was diagnosed. Treatment was started with low-dose colchicine to increase it later, according to the patient’s tolerance and disease progression.

  17. Experimental animal studies on effects of hyperthermia on the central nervous system: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haveman, J; Hulshof, M C.C.M. [Department of Radiotherapy, Academisch Medisch Centrum, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sminia, P [Department of Radiation Oncology, Section Radiobiology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wondergem, J [Department of Occupational Health and Risk Assessment, Leids Universitair Medisch Centrum, Leiden (Netherlands); Zee van der, J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hyperthermia Unit, Erasmus MC - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-07-01

    grey matter as data on the rat lumbosacral cord and cauda equina show that this part of the spinal cord is slightly less sensitive to heat than the cervical and thoracolumbar spinal cord. This difference can be explained by the smaller volume of grey matter in the lumbosacral region. Experimental data demonstrate that heat injury to a small volume of the white matter of the cord does not inevitably result in functional impairment and can be repaired in about one month. Still of course the choice whether or not to exceed the critical heat dose, obtained from laboratory studies, in clinical practice is very much dependent on the clinical situation such as anatomical site or volume of the tissue involved and of course prior therapy. Data on the combined effects of X-ray irradiation and hyperthermia on rodent spinal cord clearly show that the radiation response can be enhanced with a factor of 1.1 to 1.3. In all studies on thermal enhancement, a heat dose was administered in a well tolerated range. The latent period for expression of late irradiation effects was slightly shortened in most of the studies. Histopathological changes after irradiation in combination with hyperthermia were not different from those after irradiation only. As long as there are no clinical data on effects of combined heat and X-rays on spinal cord or on brain, it seems justified to state that the results obtained in experimental animals on thermal enhancement indicate that when hyperthermia is applied in the clinic with a short interval before or after radiotherapy vigilance is required. This is evidently the case in clinical practice where treatment of sites is involved near the spinal cord; this may lead to unexpected sensitization of the cord. To our knowledge there are no clear experimental data indicating an increase in adverse effects specific to the CNS after localized or whole body hyperthermia as a result of combined treatment with chemotherapy. Thermotolerance in CNS is evidently

  18. Experimental animal studies on effects of hyperthermia on the central nervous system: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haveman, J.; Hulshof, M.C.C.M.; Sminia, P.; Wondergem, J.; Zee van der, J.

    2005-01-01

    on the rat lumbosacral cord and cauda equina show that this part of the spinal cord is slightly less sensitive to heat than the cervical and thoracolumbar spinal cord. This difference can be explained by the smaller volume of grey matter in the lumbosacral region. Experimental data demonstrate that heat injury to a small volume of the white matter of the cord does not inevitably result in functional impairment and can be repaired in about one month. Still of course the choice whether or not to exceed the critical heat dose, obtained from laboratory studies, in clinical practice is very much dependent on the clinical situation such as anatomical site or volume of the tissue involved and of course prior therapy. Data on the combined effects of X-ray irradiation and hyperthermia on rodent spinal cord clearly show that the radiation response can be enhanced with a factor of 1.1 to 1.3. In all studies on thermal enhancement, a heat dose was administered in a well tolerated range. The latent period for expression of late irradiation effects was slightly shortened in most of the studies. Histopathological changes after irradiation in combination with hyperthermia were not different from those after irradiation only. As long as there are no clinical data on effects of combined heat and X-rays on spinal cord or on brain, it seems justified to state that the results obtained in experimental animals on thermal enhancement indicate that when hyperthermia is applied in the clinic with a short interval before or after radiotherapy vigilance is required. This is evidently the case in clinical practice where treatment of sites is involved near the spinal cord; this may lead to unexpected sensitization of the cord. To our knowledge there are no clear experimental data indicating an increase in adverse effects specific to the CNS after localized or whole body hyperthermia as a result of combined treatment with chemotherapy. Thermotolerance in CNS is evidently associated with

  19. Separating heat stress from moisture stress: analyzing yield response to high temperature in irrigated maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Elizabeth K.; Melkonian, Jeff; Riha, Susan J.; Shaw, Stephen B.

    2016-09-01

    Several recent studies have indicated that high air temperatures are limiting maize (Zea mays L.) yields in the US Corn Belt and project significant yield losses with expected increases in growing season temperatures. Further work has suggested that high air temperatures are indicative of high evaporative demand, and that decreases in maize yields which correlate to high temperatures and vapor pressure deficits (VPD) likely reflect underlying soil moisture limitations. It remains unclear whether direct high temperature impacts on yields, independent of moisture stress, can be observed under current temperature regimes. Given that projected high temperature and moisture may not co-vary the same way as they have historically, quantitative analyzes of direct temperature impacts are critical for accurate yield projections and targeted mitigation strategies under shifting temperature regimes. To evaluate yield response to above optimum temperatures independent of soil moisture stress, we analyzed climate impacts on irrigated maize yields obtained from the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA) corn yield contests for Nebraska, Kansas and Missouri. In irrigated maize, we found no evidence of a direct negative impact on yield by daytime air temperature, calculated canopy temperature, or VPD when analyzed seasonally. Solar radiation was the primary yield-limiting climate variable. Our analyses suggested that elevated night temperature impacted yield by increasing rates of phenological development. High temperatures during grain-fill significantly interacted with yields, but this effect was often beneficial and included evidence of acquired thermo-tolerance. Furthermore, genetics and management—information uniquely available in the NCGA contest data—explained more yield variability than climate, and significantly modified crop response to climate. Thermo-acclimation, improved genetics and changes to management practices have the potential to partially or completely

  20. Industrial excess heat for district heating in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bühler, Fabian; Petrović, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth; Elmegaard, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Method for utilisation potential of industrial excess heat for district heating. •Industrial excess heat from thermal processes is quantified at single production units. •Linking of industrial excess heat sources and district heating demands done in GIS. •Excess heat recovery using direct heat transfer and heat pumps. •5.1% of the Danish district heating demand could be supplied by industrial excess heat. -- Abstract: Excess heat is available from various sources and its utilisation could reduce the primary energy use. The accessibility of this heat is however dependent amongst others on the source and sink temperature, amount and potential users in its vicinity. In this work a new method is developed which analyses excess heat sources from the industrial sector and how they could be used for district heating. This method first allocates excess heat to single production units by introducing and validating a new approach. Spatial analysis of the heat sources and consumers are then performed to evaluate the potential for using them for district heating. In this way the theoretical potential of using the excess heat for covering the heating demand of buildings is determined. Through the use of industry specific temperature profiles the heat usable directly or via heat pumps is further found. A sensitivity analysis investigates the impact of future energy efficiency measures in the industry, buildings and the district heating grid on the national potential. The results show that for the case study of Denmark, 1.36 TWh of district heat could be provided annually with industrial excess heat from thermal processes which equals 5.1% of the current demand. More than half of this heat was found to be usable directly, without the need for a heat pump.

  1. Innate-Type and Acquired-Type Allergy Regulated by IL-33

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Yoshimoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose two types of allergic response: IgE-dependent and IgE-independent, and designate these as 'acquired-type allergy' and 'innate-type allergy', respectively. IL-33 stimulates both innate (basophils, mast cells, or group 2 innate lymphoid cells and acquired (Th2 cells allergy-related cells to induce and/or augment Th2 cytokine production, which leads to eosinophilic inflammation in vivo. Thus, IL-33 is an essential regulator for both 'innate-type allergy' and 'acquired-type allergy', and might be an attractive therapeutic target for allergic diseases.

  2. Pennzoil to acquire part of Chevron's production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Pennzoil Co., Houston, will exchange 48% of its $2.2 billion investment in Chevron Corp. for a chunk of chevron's U.S. producing leases. The trade is to involve a tax free exchange of 15.75 million chevron Corp. shares held by Pennzoil for all the stock of Chevron PBC Inc., a Chevron unit owning Gulf of Mexico, Gulf Coast, Permian basin, and other U.S. oil and gas producing leases. Sixty percent of the acquired reserves are in the Gulf of Mexico and Gulf Coast where Pennzoil's operations are concentrated, and 60% of the acquired reserves consist of natural gas, mirroring Pennzoil's reserve ratios

  3. Acquired Credit Unions: Drivers of Takeover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raymond Sant

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study acquired credit unions and analyze their financial performance up to six years prior to merger, on a quarterly basis. The primary focus is on balance sheet (asset liability management and profitability variables (return on assets. We find that acquired credit unions during the period 2008 (third quarter to 2014 (first quarter experienced negative return on assets for several quarters prior to their takeover. This was the result of a declining loan portfolio and increasing charge offs. In spite of decreasing lending activity, such credit unions continued to increase their deposits, i.e., adding to their cost base. Due to declining loans, their net interest margin as a proportion of deposits was also in decline. We argue that this is an indicator of poor management ability. Furthermore, our analysis finds that operating expenses were increasing over time, something that has been documented in previous literature also for smaller credit unions and is attributable to lack of economies of scale. The average asset size of the acquired credit unions in our sample is about $22 million just before acquisition. We attribute our findings to poor business strategy followed by such credit unions. We also conclude that signs of trouble are evident up to two years before merger on average and regulatory policy may have to become more proactive to manage the consolidation challenge faced by the credit union industry in general.

  4. Acquiring Customers via Word-of-Mouth Referrals : A Virtuous Strategy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Constant; Lemmens, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    Managers are increasingly using word-of-mouth (WOM) acquisition strategies, such as seeded WOM or referral programs, to acquire new customers. These strategies have proven successful in recruiting customers with higher margin and lower churn probability compared to customers acquired otherwise.

  5. Characterization of Rubisco activase from thermally contrasting genotypes of Acer rubrum (Aceraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, David J; Bauerle, William L; Swire-Clark, Ginger A; Moore, Brandon D; Baird, Wm Vance

    2007-06-01

    The lability of Rubisco activase function is thought to have a major role in the decline of leaf photosynthesis under moderate heat (RCA1 and RCA2 proteins increased modestly in FL plants under warmer temperature, while only RCA2 protein increased in MN plants. Rubisco large subunit (RbsL) protein abundance was relatively unaffected in either genotype by temperature. These results support the idea that Rubisco activase, particularly the ratio of Rubisco activase to Rubisco, may play a role in the photosynthetic heat acclimation in A. rubrum and may have adaptive significance. This mechanism alone is not likely to entirely explain the thermotolerance in the FL genotype, and future research on adaptive mechanisms to high temperatures should consider activase function in a multipathway framework.

  6. [Community-acquired Acinetobacter pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, E; Wüst, J; Speich, R; Flury, G; Krause, M

    1993-08-21

    We report the history of a 38-year-old male native of Sri Lanka admitted to the emergency ward because of chest pain and shortness of breath. On physical and radiographic examination a bilateral predominantly right-sided pneumonia was found. The patient was admitted to the medical ICU and an antibiotic regimen with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and erythromycin was initiated. Shortly afterwards septic shock developed. The patient was intubated and received high doses of catecholamines. He died 30 hours after admission to the hospital. Cultures from sputum, tracheal aspirate and blood grew Acinetobacter baumanni. Acinetobacter is an ubiquitous gram-negative rod with coccobacillary appearance in clinical specimens, that may appear gram-positive due to poor discoloration on Gram-stain. It is a well known causative agent of nosocomial infections, particularly in intensive care units. Community-acquired pneumonias, however, are quite rare. Sporadic cases have been reported from the US, Papua-New Guinea and Australia. Interestingly, these pneumonias are fulminant and have a high mortality. Chronic obstructive lung disease, diabetes, and tobacco and alcohol consumption appear to be predisposing factors. Due to the rapid course and poor prognosis, prompt diagnosis and adequate antibiotic treatment are indicated. Antibiotics use for community-acquired pneumonias, such as amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or macrolides, are not sufficient. Appropriate antibiotics for the initial treatment of suspected Acinetobacter infections include imipenem and carboxy- and ureidopenicillins combined with an aminoglycoside.

  7. Influence of Animal Heating on PET Imaging Quantification and Kinetics: Biodistribution of 18F-Tetrafluoroborate and 18F-FDG in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Christian; Podein, Matthias; Braun, Friederike; Weber, Wolfgang A; Choquet, Philippe; Constantinesco, André; Mix, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Different environmental conditions under anesthesia may lead to unstable homeostatic conditions in rodents and therefore may alter kinetics. In this study, the impact of different heating conditions on PET imaging quantification was evaluated. Methods: Two groups of 6 adult female BALB/c nude mice with subcutaneously implanted tumors underwent microPET imaging after injection of 18 F-labeled tetrafluoroborate or 18 F-FDG. Dynamic scans were acquired under optimal and suboptimal heating conditions. Time-activity curves were analyzed to calculate uptake and washout time constants. Results: With 18 F-labeled tetrafluoroborate, optimal animal heating led to a stable heart rate during acquisition (515 ± 35 [mean ± SD] beats/min), whereas suboptimal heating led to a lower heart rate and a higher SD (470 ± 84 beats/min). Both uptake and washout time constants were faster ( P heating. Conclusion: Although the difference in heart rates was slight, optimal heating yielded significantly faster uptake and washout kinetics than suboptimal heating in all organs for both tracers. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  8. Diagnosis and Treatment of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Karymdzhanov

    2016-02-01

    The initial antibiotic therapy of community-acquired pneumonia is carried out empirically. In the treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia in children from 2 months to 5 years, the drug of choice is amoxicillin orally. Macrolides are the drugs of choice for children aged 5 to 16 years. In severe pneumonia, drugs of choice are amoxicillin clavulanate, 2nd–4th generation cephalosporins. In general, the duration of antibiotic therapy in the community-acquired pneumonia caused by typical bacteria is 7–10 days, by atypical bacteria — 10–14 days. In the real clinical practice, the errors associated with the choice of drug, route of administration, dosage, regimen of application, length of treatment are frequent during antibacterial therapy.

  9. Flow analysis of an innovative compact heat exchanger channel geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitillo, F.; Cachon, L.; Reulet, F.; Millan, P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An innovative compact heat transfer technology is proposed. • Experimental measurements are shown to validate the CFD model. • CFD simulations show various flow mechanisms. • Flow analysis is performed to study physical phenomena enhancing heat transfer. - Abstract: In the framework of CEA R&D program to develop an industrial prototype of sodium-cooled fast reactor named ASTRID, the present work aims to propose an innovative compact heat exchanger technology to provide solid technological basis for the utilization of a Brayton gas-power conversion system, in order to avoid the energetic sodium–water interaction if a traditional Rankine cycle was used. The aim of the present work is to propose an innovative compact heat exchanger channel geometry to potentially enhance heat transfer in such components. Hence, before studying the innovative channel performance, a solid experimental and numerical database is necessary to perform a preliminary thermal–hydraulic analysis. To do that, two experimental test sections are used: a Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) test section and a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) test section. The acquired experimental database is used to validate the Anisotropic Shear Stress Transport (ASST) turbulence model. Results show a good agreement between LDV, PIV and ASST data for the pure aerodynamic flow. Once validated the numerical model, the innovative channel flow analysis is performed. Principal and secondary flow has been analyzed, showing a high swirling flow in the bend region and demonstrating that mixing actually occurs in the mixing zone. This work has to be considered as a step forward the preposition of a reliable high-performance component for application to ASTRID reactor as well as to any other industrial power plant dealing needing compact heat exchangers.

  10. Monitoring of urban heat island over Shenzhen, China using remotely sensed measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weimin; Hong, Liang; Yang, Lijun; He, Lihuan; Dong, Guihua

    2016-05-01

    In the past three decades, the Shenzhen city, which is located in south of China, has experienced a rapid urbanization process characterized by sharp decrease in farmland and increases in urban area. This rapid urbanization is one of the main causes of many environmental and ecological problems including urban heat island (UHI). Therefore, the monitoring of rapid urbanization regions and the environment is of critical importance for their sustainable development. In this study, Landsat-8 OLI and TIR images, which were acquired on 2013, are used to monitor urban heat island. After radiometric calibration and atmospheric correction with a simplified method for the atmospheric correction (SMAC) are applied to OLI image, an index-based build-up index (IBI), which is based on the soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), the modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI) and the normalized difference built-up index (NDBI), is employed to extract the build-up land features with a given thresholds. A single-channel algorithm is used to retrieve land surface temperature while the land surface emissivity is derived from a normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI) thresholds method. Surface urban heat island index (SUHII) and urban heat island ratio index (URI) are computed for ten districts of Shenzhen based on build-up land distribution and land surface temperature data. A correlation analysis is conducted between heat island index (including SUHII and URI) and socio-economic statistics (including total population and population density) also are included in this analysis. The results show that, a weak relationship between urban heat island and socio-economic statistics are found.

  11. Idiopathic Acquired Hemophilia A with Undetectable Factor VIII Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas B. Abt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We present the case of a 73-year-old female, with no family or personal history of a bleeding disorder, who had a classic presentation for acquired hemophilia A. Factor VIII activity was low but detectable and a factor VIII inhibitor was undetectable. Methods. The patient’s plasma was comprehensively studied to determine the cause of the acquired coagulopathy. Using the Nijmegen modification of the Bethesda assay, no factor VIII autoantibody was measureable despite varying the incubation time from 1 to 3 hours. Results. The aPTT was prolonged at 46.8 seconds, which did not correct in the 4 : 1 mix but did with 1 : 1 mix. Using a one stage factor VIII activity assay, the FVIII activity was 16% and chromogenic FVIII activity was also 16%. The patient was treated with recombinant FVII and transfusion, significantly reducing bleeding. Long-term therapy was initiated with cyclophosphamide and prednisone with normalization of FVIII activity. Conclusions. Physicians can be presented with the challenging clinical picture of an acquired factor VIII inhibitor without a detectable inhibitor by the Bethesda assay. Standard therapy for an acquired hemophilia A should be considered.

  12. Combustion Gases And Heat Release Analysis During Flame And Flameless Combustion Of Wood Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth Jozef

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the growing prices of fossil fuels, alternative fuels produced of biomass come to the fore. They are made of waste materials derived from the processing of wood and wood materials. The main objective of this study was to analyse the fire-technical characteristics of wood pellets. The study analysed three dust samples acquired from wood pellets made of various types of wood biomass. Wood pellet dust is produced when manipulating with pellets. During this process a potentially hazardous situations may occur. Biomass is chemically composed mostly of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. During straining of the biomass by heat flux, combustion initiation occurs. Also, there was a change in the composition of material throughout combustion gases production, and the amount of heat generated by a flame or flameless combustion. Measurement of fire characteristics was conducted according to ISO 5660-1 standard using a cone calorimeter. Two samples of wood pellet dust were tested under the heat flux of 35 kW.m−2 and 50 kW.m−2. The process of combustion, the time to ignition, the carbon monoxide concentration and the amount of released heat were observed.

  13. Heat Transfer Characteristics of SiC-coated Heat Pipe for Passive Decay Heat Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, In Guk; Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol

    2014-01-01

    The main concern with the Fukushima accident was the failure of active and passive core cooling systems. The main function of existing passive decay heat removal systems is feeding additional coolant to the reactor core. Thus, an established emergency core cooling system (ECCS) cannot operate properly because of impossible depressurization under the station blackout (SBO) condition. Therefore, a new concept for passive decay heat removal system is required. In this study, an innovative hybrid control rod concept is considered for passive in-core decay heat removal that differs from the existing direct vessel injection core cooling system and passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS). The heat transfer between the evaporator and condenser sections occurs by phase change of the working fluid and capillary action induced by wick structures installed on the inner wall of the heat pipe. In this study, a hybrid control rod is developed to take the roles of both neutron absorption and heat removal by combining the functions of a heat pipe and control rod. Previous studies on enhancing the heat removal capacity of heat pipes used nanofluids, self-rewetting fluids, various wick structures and condensers. Many studies have examined the thermal performances of heat pipes using various nanofluids. They concluded that the enhanced thermal performance of the heat pipe using nanofluids is due to nanoparticle deposition on the wick structures. Thus, the wick structure of heat pipes has been modified by nanoparticle deposition to enhance the heat removal capacity. However, previous studies used relatively small heat pipes and narrow ranges of heat loads. The environment of a nuclear reactor is very specific, and the decay heat produced by fission products after shutdown is relatively large. Thus, this study tested a large-scale heat pipe over a wide range of power. The concept of a hybrid heat pipe for an advanced in-core decay heat removal system was introduced for complete

  14. Heat Transfer Characteristics of SiC-coated Heat Pipe for Passive Decay Heat Removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, In Guk; Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The main concern with the Fukushima accident was the failure of active and passive core cooling systems. The main function of existing passive decay heat removal systems is feeding additional coolant to the reactor core. Thus, an established emergency core cooling system (ECCS) cannot operate properly because of impossible depressurization under the station blackout (SBO) condition. Therefore, a new concept for passive decay heat removal system is required. In this study, an innovative hybrid control rod concept is considered for passive in-core decay heat removal that differs from the existing direct vessel injection core cooling system and passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS). The heat transfer between the evaporator and condenser sections occurs by phase change of the working fluid and capillary action induced by wick structures installed on the inner wall of the heat pipe. In this study, a hybrid control rod is developed to take the roles of both neutron absorption and heat removal by combining the functions of a heat pipe and control rod. Previous studies on enhancing the heat removal capacity of heat pipes used nanofluids, self-rewetting fluids, various wick structures and condensers. Many studies have examined the thermal performances of heat pipes using various nanofluids. They concluded that the enhanced thermal performance of the heat pipe using nanofluids is due to nanoparticle deposition on the wick structures. Thus, the wick structure of heat pipes has been modified by nanoparticle deposition to enhance the heat removal capacity. However, previous studies used relatively small heat pipes and narrow ranges of heat loads. The environment of a nuclear reactor is very specific, and the decay heat produced by fission products after shutdown is relatively large. Thus, this study tested a large-scale heat pipe over a wide range of power. The concept of a hybrid heat pipe for an advanced in-core decay heat removal system was introduced for complete

  15. Optimal usage of low temperature heat sources to supply district heating by heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieper, Henrik; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study on the optimal usage of different low temperature heat sources to supply district heating by heat pumps. The study is based on data for the Copenhagen region. The heat sources were prioritized based on the coefficient of performance calculated for each hour...... and the covered demand of each heat source as well as required peak unit capacity. The results showed that heat pumps using different heat sources yield better performance than a heat pump based on a single one. The performance was influenced by the composition of the different heat sources. It was found that 78......% groundwater, 22% seawater and 0% air resulted in highest COP of 3.33 for the given heat demand. Furthermore, the implementation of rule based short term storage made peak units redundant. The variation in base load capacity showed that heat pumps utilizing the analyzed heat sources could perform very...

  16. Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1996-01-01

    Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated...... by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, and due to storage. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, due to storage and due to lower heat losses through the ground. In theory, by running the system flow backwards through the sand storage, active heating...... can be achieved.The objective of the report is to present results from measured system evaluation andcalculations and to give guidelines for the design of such solar heating systems with building integrated sand storage. The report is aimed to non-technicians. In another report R-006 the main results...

  17. Patients' Hand Washing and Reducing Hospital-Acquired Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverstick, Stacy; Goodrich, Cara; Freeman, Regi; James, Shandra; Kullar, Rajkiran; Ahrens, Melissa

    2017-06-01

    Hand hygiene is important to prevent hospital-acquired infections. Patients' hand hygiene is just as important as hospital workers' hand hygiene. Hospital-acquired infection rates remain a concern across health centers. To improve patients' hand hygiene through the promotion and use of hand washing with soap and water, hand sanitizer, or both and improve patients' education to reduce hospital-acquired infections. In August 2013, patients in a cardiothoracic postsurgical step-down unit were provided with individual bottles of hand sanitizer. Nurses and nursing technicians provided hand hygiene education to each patient. Patients completed a 6-question survey before the intervention, at hospital discharge and 1, 2, and 3 months after the intervention. Hospital-acquired infection data were tracked monthly by infection prevention staff. Significant correlations were found between hand hygiene and rates of infection with vancomycin-resistant enterococci ( P = .003) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ( P = .01) after the intervention. After the implementation of hand hygiene interventions, rates of both infections declined significantly and patients reported more staff offering opportunities for and encouraging hand hygiene. This quality improvement project demonstrates that increased hand hygiene compliance by patients can influence infection rates in an adult cardiothoracic step-down unit. The decreased infection rates and increased compliance with hand hygiene among the patients may be attributed to the implementation of patient education and the increased accessibility and use of hand sanitizer. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  18. Clinical role of Cefixime in community-acquired infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreshaj, Sh; Doda-Ejupi, T; Tolaj, I Q; Mustafa, A; Kabashi, S; Shala, N; Geca, Nj; Aliu, A; Daka, A; Basha, N

    2011-01-01

    Cefixime is an oral third generation cephalosporin, frequently used in respiratory tract infections (RTI) in the pediatric population. However, in some publications cefixime has demonstrated poor efficacy against staphylococci and streptococci. of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cefixime in the treatment of community-acquired infections in a country where parenteral third generation cephalosporins have been used for a long time. The present study was designed to assess the clinical efficacy, bacteriological eradication rates and tolerability of cefixime in children with community-acquired upper RTI (URTI), lower RTI (LRTI) and uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI). The study was prospective, open, and included 89 patients, from 6 months to 28 years, of both sexes, with the diagnosis of community-acquired URTI, LRTI and UTI. The treatment with cefixime was successful in 30/30 (100%) patients suffering from acute otitis media (AOM), in 10/12 (83.3%) with acute sinusitis, in 12/12 patients (100%) with pneumonia, in 31/35 (88.57) with uncomplicated UTI. The antibiotic was well tolerated. In 10 days treatment we recorded one case (1.3%) with acute gastroenteritis and two cases (2.6%) of maculopapular rash. Side-effects were transient and disappeared after finishing therapy in all three of the cases. Community-acquired infections, such as AOM, LRTI and UTI, caused by susceptible pathogens, can be treated with cefixime, as a good choice for a successful clinical response.

  19. Split heat pipe heat recovery system

    OpenAIRE

    E. Azad

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a theoretical analysis of a split heat pipe heat recovery system. The analysis is based on an Effectiveness-NTU approach to deduce its heat transfer characteristics. In this study the variation of overall effectiveness of heat recovery with the number of transfer units are presented. Copyright , Manchester University Press.

  20. Heat Control via Torque Control in Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, Richard; Colligan, Kevin; Knapp, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In a proposed advance in friction stir welding, the torque exerted on the workpiece by the friction stir pin would be measured and controlled in an effort to measure and control the total heat input to the workpiece. The total heat input to the workpiece is an important parameter of any welding process (fusion or friction stir welding). In fusion welding, measurement and control of heat input is a difficult problem. However, in friction stir welding, the basic principle of operation affords the potential of a straightforward solution: Neglecting thermal losses through the pin and the spindle that supports it, the rate of heat input to the workpiece is the product of the torque and the speed of rotation of the friction stir weld pin and, hence, of the spindle. Therefore, if one acquires and suitably processes data on torque and rotation and controls the torque, the rotation, or both, one should be able to control the heat input into the workpiece. In conventional practice in friction stir welding, one uses feedback control of the spindle motor to maintain a constant speed of rotation. According to the proposal, one would not maintain a constant speed of rotation: Instead, one would use feedback control to maintain a constant torque and would measure the speed of rotation while allowing it to vary. The torque exerted on the workpiece would be estimated as the product of (1) the torque-multiplication ratio of the spindle belt and/or gear drive, (2) the force measured by a load cell mechanically coupled to the spindle motor, and (3) the moment arm of the load cell. Hence, the output of the load cell would be used as a feedback signal for controlling the torque (see figure).

  1. Bio-heat transfer model of electroconvulsive therapy: Effect of biological properties on induced temperature variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marilia M; Wen, Paul; Ahfock, Tony

    2016-08-01

    A realistic human head model consisting of six tissue layers was modelled to investigate the behavior of temperature profile and magnitude when applying electroconvulsive therapy stimulation and different biological properties. The thermo-electrical model was constructed with the use of bio-heat transfer equation and Laplace equation. Three different electrode montages were analyzed as well as the influence of blood perfusion, metabolic heat and electric and thermal conductivity in the scalp. Also, the effect of including the fat layer was investigated. The results showed that temperature increase is inversely proportional to electrical and thermal conductivity increase. Furthermore, the inclusion of blood perfusion slightly drops the peak temperature. Finally, the inclusion of fat is highly recommended in order to acquire more realistic results from the thermo-electrical models.

  2. Community-Acquired Acute Kidney Injury: A Nationwide Survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafang; Wang, Jinwei; Su, Tao; Qu, Zhen; Zhao, Minghui; Yang, Li

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to describe the burden of community-acquired acute kidney injury (AKI) in China based on a nationwide survey about AKI. Cross-sectional and retrospective study. A national sample of 2,223,230 hospitalized adult patients from 44 academic/local hospitals in Mainland China was used. AKI was defined according to the 2012 KDIGO AKI creatinine criteria or an increase or decrease in serum creatinine level of 50% during the hospital stay. Community-acquired AKI was identified when a patient had AKI that could be defined at hospital admission. The rate, cause, recognition, and treatment of community-acquired AKI were stratified according to hospital type, latitude, and economic development of the regions in which the patients were admitted. All-cause in-hospital mortality and recovery of kidney function at hospital discharge. 4,136 patients with community-acquired AKI were identified during the 2 single-month snapshots (January 2013 and July 2013). Of these, 2,020 (48.8%) had cases related to decreased kidney perfusion; 1,111 (26.9%), to intrinsic kidney disease; and 499 (12.1%), to urinary tract obstruction. In the north versus the south, more patients were exposed to nephrotoxins or had urinary tract obstructions. 536 (13.0%) patients with community-acquired AKI had indications for renal replacement therapy (RRT), but only 347 (64.7%) of them received RRT. Rates of timely diagnosis and appropriate use of RRT were higher in regions with higher per capita gross domestic product. All-cause in-hospital mortality was 7.3% (295 of 4,068). Delayed AKI recognition and being located in northern China were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality, and referral to nephrology providers was an independent protective factor. Possible misclassification of AKI and community-acquired AKI due to nonstandard definitions and missing data for serum creatinine. The features of community-acquired AKI varied substantially in different regions of China and were closely

  3. Heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A simple heat cascading regenerative sorption heat pump process with rejected or waste heat from a higher temperature chemisorption circuit (HTCC) powering a lower temperature physisorption circuit (LTPC) which provides a 30% total improvement over simple regenerative physisorption compression heat pumps when ammonia is both the chemisorbate and physisorbate, and a total improvement of 50% or more for LTPC having two pressure stages. The HTCC contains ammonia and a chemisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of canisters, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, and a heater, operatively connected together. The LTPC contains ammonia and a physisorbent therefor contained in a plurality of compressors, a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. A closed heat transfer circuit (CHTC) is provided which contains a flowing heat transfer liquid (FHTL) in thermal communication with each canister and each compressor for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTPC. Heat is regenerated within the LTPC by transferring heat from one compressor to another. In one embodiment the regeneration is performed by another CHTC containing another FHTL in thermal communication with each compressor. In another embodiment the HTCC powers a lower temperature ammonia water absorption circuit (LTAWAC) which contains a generator-absorber system containing the absorbent, and a condenser-evaporator-radiator system, operatively connected together. The absorbent is water or an absorbent aqueous solution. A CHTC is provided which contains a FHTL in thermal communication with the generator for cascading heat from the HTCC to the LTAWAC. Heat is regenerated within the LTAWAC by transferring heat from the generator to the absorber. The chemical composition of the chemisorbent is different than the chemical composition of the physisorbent, and the absorbent. The chemical composition of the FHTL is different than the chemisorbent, the physisorbent, the absorbent, and ammonia.

  4. AMIODARONE INDUCES THE SYNTHESIS OF HSPS IN SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE AND ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyatrikas D.V.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many biotic and abiotic stresses cause an increase of cytosolic Ca2+ level in cells. Calcium is one of the most important second messengers, regulating many various activities in the cell and was known to affect expression of stress activated genes. Mild heat shock induces the expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps which protect cell from drastic heat shock exposure. There are some literature data permitting to suggest that transient elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ level in plant cells is important for activation of Hsps expression. On the other hand mitochondria are known to regulate the intracellular calcium and reactive oxygen species signaling. It has been shown recently that mild heat shock induces hyperpolarization of inner mitochondrial membrane in plant and yeast cells and this event is critically important for activation of Hsps expression. To reveal the relationship between mitochondrial activity, intracellular calcium homeostasis and Hsps expression an antiarrhythmic drug amiodarone (AMD have been used. AMD is known to cause transient increase of cytosolic Ca2+ level in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Obtained results have showed that AMD treatment induced the synthesis of Hsp104p in S. cerevisiae cells and Hsp101p in A. thaliana cell culture. Induction of Hsp104p synthesis leads to enhanced yeast capability to survive lethal heat shock exposure. Development of S. cerevisiae thermotolerance depended significantly on the presence of Hsp104p. Elevation of Hsp104p level in the result of AMD treatment was shown to be governed by activity of Msn2p and Msn4p transcription factors. Deletion of the MSN2 and MSN4 genes abrogated the AMD ability to induce Hsp104p synthesis. Mild heat shock and AMD treatment induced the hyperpolarization of the inner mitochondrial membrane in yeast and Arabidopsis cells which accompanied by HSP synthesis and development of thermotolerance. It was suggested that increase of cytosolic Ca2+ level after AMD treatment

  5. Operant conditioning of enhanced pain sensitivity by heat-pain titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Susanne; Kleinböhl, Dieter; Klossika, Iris; Hölzl, Rupert

    2008-11-15

    Operant conditioning mechanisms have been demonstrated to be important in the development of chronic pain. Most experimental studies have investigated the operant modulation of verbal pain reports with extrinsic reinforcement, such as verbal reinforcement. Whether this reflects actual changes in the subjective experience of the nociceptive stimulus remained unclear. This study replicates and extends our previous demonstration that enhanced pain sensitivity to prolonged heat-pain stimulation could be learned in healthy participants through intrinsic reinforcement (contingent changes in nociceptive input) independent of verbal pain reports. In addition, we examine whether different magnitudes of reinforcement differentially enhance pain sensitivity using an operant heat-pain titration paradigm. It is based on the previously developed non-verbal behavioral discrimination task for the assessment of sensitization, which uses discriminative down- or up-regulation of stimulus temperatures in response to changes in subjective intensity. In operant heat-pain titration, this discriminative behavior and not verbal pain report was contingently reinforced or punished by acute decreases or increases in heat-pain intensity. The magnitude of reinforcement was varied between three groups: low (N1=13), medium (N2=11) and high reinforcement (N3=12). Continuous reinforcement was applied to acquire and train the operant behavior, followed by partial reinforcement to analyze the underlying learning mechanisms. Results demonstrated that sensitization to prolonged heat-pain stimulation was enhanced by operant learning within 1h. The extent of sensitization was directly dependent on the received magnitude of reinforcement. Thus, operant learning mechanisms based on intrinsic reinforcement may provide an explanation for the gradual development of sustained hypersensitivity during pain that is becoming chronic.

  6. Modeling of heat transfer into a heat pipe for a localized heat input zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A general model is presented for heat transfer into a heat pipe using a localized heat input. Conduction in the wall of the heat pipe and boiling in the interior structure are treated simultaneously. The model is derived from circumferential heat transfer in a cylindrical heat pipe evaporator and for radial heat transfer in a circular disk with boiling from the interior surface. A comparison is made with data for a localized heat input zone. Agreement between the theory and the model is good. This model can be used for design purposes if a boiling correlation is available. The model can be extended to provide improved predictions of heat pipe performance

  7. Industrial excess heat for district heating in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2017-01-01

    analyses excess heat sources from the industrial sector and how they could be used for district heating. This method first allocates excess heat to single production units by introducing and validating a new approach. Spatial analysis of the heat sources and consumers are then performed to evaluate...... the potential for using them for district heating. In this way the theoretical potential of using the excess heat for covering the heating demand of buildings is determined. Through the use of industry specific temperature profiles the heat usable directly or via heat pumps is further found. A sensitivity...... analysis investigates the impact of future energy efficiency measures in the industry, buildings and the district heating grid on the national potential. The results show that for the case study of Denmark, 1.36 TWh of district heat could be provided annually with industrial excess heat from thermal...

  8. Foodborne listeriosis acquired in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Benjamin J; McCoy, Morgan H; Iwamoto, Martha; Griffin, Patricia M

    2014-08-15

    Listeriosis is characterized by bacteremia or meningitis. We searched for listeriosis case series and outbreak investigations published in English by 2013, and assessed the strength of evidence for foodborne acquisition among patients who ate hospital food. We identified 30 reports from 13 countries. Among the case series, the median proportion of cases considered to be hospital-acquired was 25% (range, 9%-67%). The median number of outbreak-related illnesses considered to be hospital-acquired was 4.0 (range, 2-16). All patients were immunosuppressed in 18 of 24 (75%) reports with available data. Eight outbreak reports with strong evidence for foodborne acquisition in a hospital implicated sandwiches (3 reports), butter, precut celery, Camembert cheese, sausage, and tuna salad (1 report each). Foodborne acquisition of listeriosis among hospitalized patients is well documented internationally. The number of listeriosis cases could be reduced substantially by establishing hospital policies for safe food preparation for immunocompromised patients and by not serving them higher-risk foods. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Design of serially connected district heating heat pumps utilising a geothermal heat source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    The design of two heat pumps (HP), connected in series, was investigated for operation in the district heating (DH) network of the Greater Copenhagen area, Denmark. The installation was dimensioned to supply 7.2 MW of heat at a temperature of 85 °C. The heat pumps utilise a geothermal heat source...

  10. Automated surveillance system for hospital-acquired urinary tract infections in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Condell, Orla; Gubbels, Sophie; Nielsen, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Danish Hospital-Acquired Infections Database (HAIBA) is an automated surveillance system using hospital administrative, microbiological, and antibiotic medication data. AIM: To define and evaluate the case definition for hospital-acquired urinary tract infection (HA-UTI) and to de......BACKGROUND: The Danish Hospital-Acquired Infections Database (HAIBA) is an automated surveillance system using hospital administrative, microbiological, and antibiotic medication data. AIM: To define and evaluate the case definition for hospital-acquired urinary tract infection (HA-UTI......) and to describe surveillance data from 2010 to 2014. METHODS: The HA-UTI algorithm defined a laboratory-diagnosed UTI as a urine culture positive for no more than two micro-organisms with at least one at ≥10(4)cfu/mL, and a probable UTI as a negative urine culture and a relevant diagnosis code or antibiotic...... treatment. UTI was considered hospital-acquired if a urine sample was collected ≥48h after admission and UTI was calculated per 10,000 risk-days. For validation, prevalence was calculated for each day and compared to point prevalence survey (PPS) data. FINDINGS: HAIBA...

  11. How Did Light Acquire a Velocity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauginie, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We discuss how light acquired a velocity through history, from the ancient Greeks to the early modern era. Combining abstract debates, models of light, practical needs, planned research and chance, this history illustrates several key points that should be brought out in science education.

  12. Utilising heat from nuclear waste for space heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deacon, D.

    1982-01-01

    A heating unit utilising the decay heat from irradiated material comprises a storage envelope for the material associated with a heat exchange system, means for producing a flow of air over the heat exchange system to extract heat from the material, an exhaust duct capable of discharging the heated air to the atmosphere, and means for selectively diverting at least some of the heated air to effect the required heating. With the flow of air over the heat exchange system taking place by a natural thermosyphon process the arrangement is self regulating and inherently reliable. (author)

  13. Use of a laser-induced fluorescence thermal imaging system for film cooling heat transfer measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyu, M.K. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes a novel approach based on fluorescence imaging of thermographic phosphor that enables the simultaneous determination of both local film effectiveness and local heat transfer on a film-cooled surface. The film cooling model demonstrated consists of a single row of three discrete holes on a flat plate. The transient temperature measurement relies on the temperature-sensitive fluorescent properties of europium-doped lanthanum oxysulfide (La{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:EU{sup 3+}) thermographic phosphor. A series of full-field surface temperatures, mainstream temperatures, and coolant film temperatures were acquired during the heating of a test surface. These temperatures are used to calculate the heat transfer coefficients and the film effectiveness simultaneously. Because of the superior spatial resolution capability for the heat transfer data reduced from these temperature frames, the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging system, the present study observes the detailed heat transfer characteristics over a film-protected surface. The trend of the results agrees with those obtained using other conventional thermal methods, as well as the liquid crystal imaging technique. One major advantage of this technique is the capability to record a large number of temperature frames over a given testing period. This offers multiple-sample consistency.

  14. Local interfacial structure of subcooled boiling flow in a heated annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Kim, Seong-O; Yun, Byong-Jo; Park, Goon-Cherl; Hibiki, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Local measurements of flow parameters were performed for vertical upward subcooled boiling flows in an internally heated annulus. The annulus channel consisted of an inner heater rod with a diameter of 19.0 mm and an outer round tube with an inner diameter of 37.5 mm, and the hydraulic equivalent diameter was 18.5 mm. The double-sensor conductivity probe method was used for measuring the local void fraction, interfacial area concentration, bubble Sauter mean diameter and gas velocity, whereas the miniature Pitot tube was used for measuring the local liquid velocity. A total of 32 data sets were acquired consisting of various combinations of heat flux, 88.1-350.9 kW/m 2 , mass flux, 469.7-1061.4kg(m 2 s) and inlet liquid temperature, 83.8-100.5degC. Six existing drift-flux models, six exiting correlations of the interfacial area concentration and bubble layer thickness model were evaluated using the data obtained in the experiment. (author)

  15. Heat pumps in district heating networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian

    constraints limit the power plants. Efficient heat pumps can be used to decouple the constraints of electricity and heat production, while maintaining the high energy efficiency needed to match the politically agreed carbon emission goals. The requirements in terms of COP, location, capacity and economy...... and strategic planning in the energy sector. The paper presents a case study of optimal implementation of heat pumps in the present energy system of the Copenhagen area. By introduction of the correct capacity of heat pumps, a 1,6 % reduction in fuel consumption for electricity and heat production can...

  16. Experimental device for the residential heating with heat pipe and electric heat storage blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, L L; Boldak, I M; Domorod, L S; Rabetsky, M I; Schirokov, E I [AN Belorusskoj SSR, Minsk (Belarus). Inst. Teplo- i Massoobmena

    1992-01-01

    Residential heating using electric heat storage blocks nowadays is an actual problem from the point of view of heat recovery and nature protection. In the Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute a new residential electrical heater capable of heating chambers by controlling air temperature and heat output using heat pipes and an electric heat storage block was developed. This heater (BETA) is fed from the source of energy and during 7 h of night time accumulates energy sufficiently to heat 10 m{sup 3} during 24 h. Heating device BETA has a ceramic thermal storage block, electric heaters and a heat pipe with evaporator inside the ceramic block and constant temperature (65{sup o}C) finned condenser outside it. The condenser temperature could be controlled easily. BETA is compact, has high thermal response, accurate air temperature control and safe operation. Such types of residential heaters are necessary for heating residential and office building in the Mogilev and Gomel regions in Byelorussia which suffered after the Chernobyl catastrophe. (Author).

  17. Potentialities of radioisotope aniocardiography in diagnosis of acquired heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malov, G.A.; Mikaelyan, R.S.; Dumpe, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    On the base of the examination of 40 patients with acquired heart diseases and 5 people without heart diseases for control determined are the most charactreristic signs of the acquired heart disease of visual observation on RPP transit (albumin of human serum labelled by sup(99m)Tc) through the heart cavities and magistral vessels. It is shown that there is a close connection between central and intracardial hemodynamics which permjts to judge on the cardiac output on the base of mean circulation time (MCT). Radioisotopic angiocardiography permits to find redistribution of lung blood flow in patients with acquired heart diseases, which can serve as indirect index of long hypertension

  18. Effects of hyperthermia and ionizing radiation in normal and ataxia telangiectasia human fibroblast lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchel, R.E.J.; Chan, A.; Smith, B.P.; Child, S.D.; Paterson, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of 45 0 C hyperthermia and γ radiation have been studied in three normal human fibroblast lines (GM38, GM730, WI38) and compared to the effects in two lines derived from patients with the hereditary disease ataxia telangiectasia (AR3BI, AT5BI). All lines, both normal and γ-sensitive AT, showed a similar resistance to killing by heat alone, suggesting that the defect responsible for the increased radiation sensitivity in AT lines does not confer increased heat sensitivity. Shouldered survival curves were obtained in each case indicating the ability to accumulate sublethal heat damage. All normal and AT cell lines exhibited increased resistance to the lethal effects of heat in response to a thermal stress, indicating that the defect that causes radiosensitivity in AT cell lines does not prevent the induction of thermotolerance. It was hypothesized that in normal cells, this heat treatment inactivates the process which is already defective in AT lines, and that this process may be required for the proper rejoining of double-strand breaks produced during the repair of other radiation-induced lesions

  19. Data for rapid ethanol production at elevated temperatures by engineered thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus via the NADP(H-preferring xylose reductase–xylitol dehydrogenase pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A thermo-tolerant NADP(H-preferring xylose pathway was constructed in Kluyveromyces marxianus for ethanol production with xylose at elevated temperatures (Zhang et al., 2015 [25]. Ethanol production yield and efficiency was enhanced by pathway engineering in the engineered strains. The constructed strain, YZJ088, has the ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose for ethanol and xylitol production, which is a critical step toward enabling economic biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass. This study contains the fermentation results of strains using the metabolic pathway engineering procedure. The ethanol-producing abilities of various yeast strains under various conditions were compared, and strain YZJ088 showed the highest production and fastest productivity at elevated temperatures. The YZJ088 xylose fermentation results indicate that it fermented well with xylose at either low or high inoculum size. When fermented with an initial cell concentration of OD600=15 at 37 °C, YZJ088 consumed 200 g/L xylose and produced 60.07 g/L ethanol; when the initial cell concentration was OD600=1 at 37 °C, YZJ088 consumed 98.96 g/L xylose and produced 33.55 g/L ethanol with a productivity of 0.47 g/L/h. When fermented with 100 g/L xylose at 42 °C, YZJ088 produced 30.99 g/L ethanol with a productivity of 0.65 g/L/h, which was higher than that produced at 37 °C.

  20. 26 CFR 1.1014-2 - Property acquired from a decedent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Basis Rules of General Application § 1.1014-2 Property acquired from a..., devise, or inheritance, or by the decedent's estate from the decedent, whether the property was acquired... inheritance from a decedent dying after August 26, 1937, and if such property consists of stock or securities...

  1. Acquired Aplastic Anemia in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Helge D.; Olson, Timothy S.; Bessler, Monica

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS This article provides a practice-based and concise review of the etiology, diagnosis, and management of acquired aplastic anemia in children. Bone marrow transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy, and supportive care are discussed in detail. The aim is to provide the clinician with a better understanding of the disease and to offer guidelines for the management of children with this uncommon yet serious disorder. PMID:24237973

  2. Solar heat storages in district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellehauge, K. (Ellehauge og Kildemoes, AArhus (DK)); Engberg Pedersen, T. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2007-07-15

    This report gives information on the work carried out and the results obtained in Denmark on storages for large solar heating plants in district heating networks. Especially in Denmark the share of district heating has increased to a large percentage. In 1981 around 33% of all dwellings in DK were connected to a district heating network, while the percentage in 2006 was about 60% (in total 1.5 mio. dwellings). In the report storage types for short term storage and long term storages are described. Short term storages are done as steel tanks and is well established technology widely used in district heating networks. Long term storages are experimental and used in connection with solar heating. A number of solar heating plants have been established with either short term or long term storages showing economy competitive with normal energy sources. Since, in the majority of the Danish district heating networks the heat is produced in co-generation plants, i.e. plants producing both electricity and heat for the network, special attention has been put on the use of solar energy in combination with co-generation. Part of this report describes that in the liberalized electricity market central solar heating plants can also be advantageous in combination with co-generation plants. (au)

  3. Rehabilitation of discourse impairments after acquired brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigiane Gindri

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Language impairments in patients with acquired brain injury can have a negative impact on social life as well as on other cognitive domains. Discourse impairments are among the most commonly reported communication deficits among patients with acquired brain damage. Despite advances in the development of diagnostic tools for detecting such impairments, few studies have investigated interventions to rehabilitate patients presenting with these conditions. Objective: The aim of this study was to present a systematic review of the methods used in the rehabilitation of discourse following acquired brain injury. Methods: The PubMed database was searched for articles using the following keywords: "rehabilitation", "neurological injury", "communication" and "discursive abilities". Results: A total of 162 abstracts were found, but only seven of these met criteria for inclusion in the review. Four studies involved samples of individuals with aphasia whereas three studies recruited samples of individuals with traumatic brain injury. Conclusion: All but one article found that patient performance improved following participation in a discourse rehabilitation program.

  4. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heat loss/heat gain. 3280.506... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat loss/heat gain. The manufactured home heat loss/heat gain shall be determined by methods outlined in...

  5. Automation of heating system with heat pump

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdin, Gašper

    2016-01-01

    Because of high prices of energy, we are upgrading our heating systems with newer, more fuel efficient heating devices. Each new device has its own control system, which operates independently from other devices in a heating system. With a relatively low investment costs in automation, we can group devices in one central control system and increase the energy efficiency of a heating system. In this project, we show how to connect an oil furnace, a sanitary heat pump, solar panels and a heat p...

  6. The acquired hyperostosis syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dihlmann, W.; Hering, L.; Bargon, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    Sterno-costo-clavicular hyperostosis (SCCH) is the most common manifestation of a syndrome, consisting of increased bone metabolism, mostly new bone formation and heterotopic ossification of fibrous tissue, which we have characterised as the acquired hyperostosis syndrome. In part I we discuss the terminology, radiological appearances, scintigraphy, clinical and laboratory findings, bacteriology, histology, nosology, complications, treatment and differential diagnosis of SCCH. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is regarded as a phaenotype of SCCH, depending on the age. CRMO occurs in children, adolescents and young adults, SCCH predominantly in middleaged and elderly adults. (orig.) [de

  7. Regenerative heat sources for heating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huenges, Ernst; Sperber, Evelyn; Eggers, Jan-Bleicke; Noll, Florian; Kallert, Anna Maria; Reuss, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The ambitious goal, the German Federal Government has set itself, to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases by 80% to 95% by the year 2050. As there are currently more than half of German energy consumption for the production of heat is required, big contributions to climate protection can be expected from this area if more renewable heat sources are used. Renewable heat sources such as bioenergy, solar thermal and geothermal energy in particular can be provided as compared to fossil fuels with significantly lower specific CO 2 emissions. Objectives in the heating market and scenarios for the transformation of the heat sector have been elaborated in the BMU Lead Study 2011. The main pillar of this scenario is the reduction of final energy consumption for heat by the energy-efficient renovation of existing buildings and further increasing demands on the energetic quality of new buildings. To cover the remaining energy demand, a focus is on the expansion of heating networks based on renewable energies. [de

  8. Acquired dysfibrinogenemia secondary to multiple myeloma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotlín, R.; Sobotková, A.; Riedel, Tomáš; Salaj, P.; Suttnar, J.; Reicheltová, Z.; Májek, P.; Khaznadar, T.; Dyr, J. E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 2 (2008), s. 75-81 ISSN 0001-5792 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200670701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : acquired dysfibrinogenemia * amorphous clot * fibrinogen Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.191, year: 2008

  9. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Andrea Farias de Melo; Mota Junior, Americo, E-mail: andreafariasm@gmail.com [Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira de Pernambuco (IMIP), Recife, PE (Brazil); Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaete [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2016-07-15

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common - increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations. (author)

  10. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Andrea Farias de Melo; Mota Junior, Americo; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaete; Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common - increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations. (author)

  11. Heat pipes for ground heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, L L

    1988-01-01

    Different versions of heat pipe ground heating and cooling devices are considered. Solar energy, biomass, ground stored energy, recovered heat of industrial enterprises and ambient cold air are used as energy and cold sources. Heat pipe utilization of air in winter makes it possible to design accumulators of cold and ensures deep freezing of ground in order to increase its mechanical strength when building roadways through the swamps and ponds in Siberia. Long-term underground heat storage systems are considered, in which the solar and biomass energy is accumulated and then transferred to heat dwellings and greenhouses, as well as to remove snow from roadways with the help of heat pipes and solar collectors.

  12. Effect of heated length on the Critical Heat Flux of subcooled flow boiling. 2. Effective heated length under axially nonuniform heating condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Yoshida, Takuya; Nariai, Hideki; Inasaka, Fujio

    1998-01-01

    Effect of heated length on the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) of subcooled flow boiling with water was experimentally investigated by using direct current heated tube made of stainless steel a part of whose wall thickness was axially cut for realizing nonuniform heat flux condition. The higher enhancement of the CHF was derived for shorter tube length. The effective heated length was determined for the tube under axially nonuniform heat flux condition. When the lower heat flux part below the Net Vapor Generation (NVG) heat flux exists at the middle of tube length, then the effective heated length becomes the tube length downstream the lower heat flux parts. However, when the lower heat flux part is above the NVG, then the effective heated length is full tube length. (author)

  13. Heat Roadmap Europe: Identifying strategic heat synergy regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, U.; Möller, B.; Werner, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a methodology to assess annual excess heat volumes from fuel combustion activities in energy and industry sector facilities based on carbon dioxide emission data. The aim is to determine regional balances of excess heat relative heat demands for all third level administrative regions in the European Union (EU) and to identify strategic regions suitable for large-scale implementation of district heating. The approach is motivated since the efficiency of current supply structures to meet building heat demands, mainly characterised by direct use of primary energy sources, is low and improvable. District heating is conceived as an urban supply side energy efficiency measure employable to enhance energy system efficiency by increased excess heat recoveries; hereby reducing primary energy demands by fuel substitution. However, the importance of heat has long been underestimated in EU decarbonisation strategies and local heat synergies have often been overlooked in energy models used for such scenarios. Study results indicate that 46% of all excess heat in EU27, corresponding to 31% of total building heat demands, is located within identified strategic regions. Still, a realisation of these rich opportunities will require higher recognition of the heat sector in future EU energy policy. - Highlights: • EU27 energy and industry sector heat recycling resources are mapped and quantified. • Target regions for large-scale implementation of district heating are identified. • 46% of total EU27 excess heat volume is seized in 63 strategic heat synergy regions. • Large urban zones have lead roles to play in transition to sustainability in Europe. • Higher recognition of heat sector is needed in future EU energy policy for realisation

  14. Surveillance for hospital-acquired infections on surgical wards in a Dutch university hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp-Hopmans, Titia E. M.; Blok, Hetty E. M.; Troelstra, Annet; Gigengack-Baars, Ada C. M.; Weersink, Annemarie J. L.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Verhoef, Jan; Mascini, Ellen M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine incidence rates of hospital-acquired infections and to develop preventive measures to reduce the risk of hospital-acquired infections. METHODS: Prospective surveillance for hospital-acquired infections was performed during a 5-year period in the wards housing general and

  15. Heat transfer and critical heat flux in a spiral flow in an asymmetrical heated tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscary, J.; Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance

    1997-03-01

    The design of plasma facing components is crucial for plasma performance in next fusion reactors. These elements will be submitted to very high heat flux. They will be actively water-cooled by swirl tubes in the subcooled boiling regime. High heat flux experiments were conducted in order to analyse the heat transfer and to evaluate the critical heat flux. Water-cooled mock-ups were one-side heated by an electron beam gun for different thermal-hydraulic conditions. The critical heat flux was detected by an original method based on the isotherm modification on the heated surface. The wall heat transfer law including forced convection and subcooled boiling regimes was established. Numerical calculations of the material heat transfer conduction allowed the non-homogeneous distribution of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux to be evaluated. The critical heat flux value was defined as the wall maximum heat flux. A critical heat flux model based on the liquid sublayer dryout under a vapor blanket was established. A good agreement with test results was found. (author)

  16. Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials in Solar-Thermal Conversion Systems: Understanding Geometry-Dependent Heating Efficiency and System Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhaoliang; Chang, Zhuo; Xu, Guang-Kui; McBride, Fiona; Ho, Alexandra; Zhuola, Zhuola; Michailidis, Marios; Li, Wei; Raval, Rasmita; Akhtar, Riaz; Shchukin, Dmitry

    2017-01-24

    The performance of solar-thermal conversion systems can be improved by incorporation of nanocarbon-stabilized microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCMs). The geometry of MPCMs in the microcapsules plays an important role for improving their heating efficiency and reliability. Yet few efforts have been made to critically examine the formation mechanism of different geometries and their effect on MPCMs-shell interaction. Herein, through changing the cooling rate of original emulsions, we acquire MPCMs within the nanocarbon microcapsules with a hollow structure of MPCMs (h-MPCMs) or solid PCM core particles (s-MPCMs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy reveals that the capsule shell of the h-MPCMs is enriched with nanocarbons and has a greater MPCMs-shell interaction compared to s-MPCMs. This results in the h-MPCMs being more stable and having greater heat diffusivity within and above the phase transition range than the s-MPCMs do. The geometry-dependent heating efficiency and system stability may have important and general implications for the fundamental understanding of microencapsulation and wider breadth of heating generating systems.

  17. Engineering of xylose reductase and overexpression of xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulokinase improves xylose alcoholic fermentation in the thermotolerant yeast Hansenula polymorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronovsky Andriy Y

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The thermotolerant methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha is capable of alcoholic fermentation of xylose at elevated temperatures (45 – 48°C. Such property of this yeast defines it as a good candidate for the development of an efficient process for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. However, to be economically viable, the main characteristics of xylose fermentation of H. polymorpha have to be improved. Results Site-specific mutagenesis of H. polymorpha XYL1 gene encoding xylose reductase was carried out to decrease affinity of this enzyme toward NADPH. The modified version of XYL1 gene under control of the strong constitutive HpGAP promoter was overexpressed on a Δxyl1 background. This resulted in significant increase in the KM for NADPH in the mutated xylose reductase (K341 → R N343 → D, while KM for NADH remained nearly unchanged. The recombinant H. polymorpha strain overexpressing the mutated enzyme together with native xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulokinase on Δxyl1 background was constructed. Xylose consumption, ethanol and xylitol production by the constructed strain were determined for high-temperature xylose fermentation at 48°C. A significant increase in ethanol productivity (up to 7.3 times was shown in this recombinant strain as compared with the wild type strain. Moreover, the xylitol production by the recombinant strain was reduced considerably to 0.9 mg × (L × h-1 as compared to 4.2 mg × (L × h-1 for the wild type strain. Conclusion Recombinant strains of H. polymorpha engineered for improved xylose utilization are described in the present work. These strains show a significant increase in ethanol productivity with simultaneous reduction in the production of xylitol during high-temperature xylose fermentation.

  18. Tuberculosis and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome in South Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, M.V.; Genro, C.H.; Santos Silveira, R. de C. dos

    1989-01-01

    Tuberculosis and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome in South Brazil. The authors studied the incidence of tuberculosis in South Brazilian patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome from January 1985 to June 1988. During this period, tuberculosis occurred in 10.3% of acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients. The socioeconomic conditions and the incidence of disease in the population were not confirmed as a potential risk for tuberculosis infection. Chest radiographs revealed pulmonary infiltrates in six patients, hilar and/or mediastinal adenopathy in three, and pleural effusion in two. The two remaining patients had pulmonary consolidation associated with other features. None of these patients presented pulmonary cavitation or radiographic findings of typical reactivation of pulmonary tuberculosis. (author) [pt

  19. Processes Adopted to Integrate Intangible Resources in Global Acquisitions among Container Lines: Perceptions of Acquirer and Acquired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indika Sigera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of strategic co-operations among container lines varies from loose-knitted slot charters, liner conferences, shipping alliances, joint services and consortia, through to mergers and acquisitions (M&As. However, these forms of strategic co-operations have not always been able to achieve the intended synergetic growth resulting from the integration of resources. The Resource Based View (RBV suggests that integrating intangible resources, which are valuable, rare, inimitable and non-substitutable (VRIN, can make a significant contribution to the performance of post strategic co-operations. This research paper investigates the contribution of intangible resources to the post acquisition success six global acquisitions among container lines. The nine senior managers attached to global container lines were the main participants of this study. Five of them represented acquired container lines, four represented acquirer container lines. The paper explains their personnel experience on the processes adopts to integrate intangible resources in acquisitions. Keywords: Merger and Acquisitions, Intangible Resources, Container Lines, Task Integration, Human Integration

  20. Musicality: instinct or acquired skill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Gary F

    2012-10-01

    Is the human tendency toward musicality better thought of as the product of a specific, evolved instinct or an acquired skill? Developmental and evolutionary arguments are considered, along with issues of domain-specificity. The article also considers the question of why humans might be consistently and intensely drawn to music if musicality is not in fact the product of a specifically evolved instinct. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Value-based purchasing and hospital acquired conditions: are we seeing improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Aaron; Zhao, Mei; Haley, D Rob

    2014-12-01

    To determine if the Value-Based Purchasing Performance Scoring system correlates with hospital acquired condition quality indicators. This study utilizes the following secondary data sources: the American Hospital Association (AHA) annual survey and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) Value-Based Purchasing and Hospital Acquired Conditions databases. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression was used to examine the effect of CMS total performance score on counts of hospital acquired conditions. Hospital structure variables including size, ownership, teaching status, payer mix, case mix, and location were utilized as control variables. The secondary data sources were merged into a single database using Stata 10. Total performance scores, which are used to determine if hospitals should receive incentive money, do not correlate well with quality outcome in the form of hospital acquired conditions. Value-based purchasing does not appear to correlate with improved quality and patient safety as indicated by Hospital Acquired Condition (HAC) scores. This leads us to believe that either the total performance score does not measure what it should, or the quality outcome measurements do not reflect the quality of the total performance scores measure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A rare case of acquired lymphangioma circumscriptum of the penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adikari, S; Philippidou, M; Samuel, M

    2017-02-01

    Acquired lymphangioma circumscriptum is a rare occurrence on the penis. We report a case of a 47-year-old man who presented with a single lesion of acquired lymphangioma circumscriptum on the penis resembling genital warts. We report the case to increase awareness of this rare condition which may mimic sexually transmitted infections such as genital warts.

  3. Rocky Mountain spotted fever acquired in Florida, 1973-83.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, J J; Janowski, H T

    1985-01-01

    From 1973 to 1983, 49 Florida residents were reported with confirmed Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), 25 of whom were considered to have had Florida-acquired disease. Although there was no history of tick exposure for six of these 25 persons, all had contact with dogs or outdoor activities during the incubation period. The tick vectors of RMSF are widely distributed throughout Florida. We conclude that RMSF, although rare in Florida, can be acquired in the state. PMID:4061716

  4. Urban district heating using nuclear heat - a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresovski, T.; Oliker, I.

    1979-01-01

    The use of heat from nuclear power plants is of great interest in connection with projected future expansions of large urban district heating systems. Oil price escalation and air pollution from increased burning of fossil fuels are substantial incentivers for the adoption of nuclear heat and power plants. The cost of the hot water piping system from the nuclear plant to the city is a major factor in determining the feasibility of using nuclear heat. To achieve reasonable costs, the heat load should be at least 1500 MW(th), transport temperatures 125-200 0 C and distances preferably 50 km or less. Heat may be extracted from the turbines of conventional power reactors. Alternatively, some special-purpose smaller reactors are under development which are specially suited to production of heat with little or no power coproduct. Many countries are conducting studies of future expansions of district heating systems to use nuclear heat. Several countries are developing technology suitable for this application. Actual experience with the use of nuclear heat for district heating is currently being gained only in the USSR, however. While district heating appears to be a desirable technology at a time of increasing fossil-fuel costs, the use of nuclear heat will require siting of nuclear plants within transmission radius of cities. The institutional barries toward use of nuclear heating will have to be overcome before the energy conservation potential of this approach can be realized on a significant scale. (author)

  5. Reactor waste heat utilization and district heating reactors. Nuclear district heating in Sweden - Regional reject heat utilization schemes and small heat-only reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannerz, K.; Larsson, Y.; Margen, P.

    1977-01-01

    A brief review is given of the current status of district heating in Sweden. In future, district heating schemes will become increasingly interesting as a means of utilizing heat from nuclear reactors. Present recommendations in Sweden are that large reactors should not be located closer than about 20 km from large population centres. Reject heat from such reactors is cheap at source. To minimize the cost of long distance hot water transmission large heat rates must be transmitted. Only areas with large populations can meet this requirement. The three areas of main interest are Malmoe/Lund/Helsingborg housing close to 0.5 million; Greater Stockholm housing 1 to 1.5 million and Greater Gothenburg housing about 0.5 million people. There is an active proposal that the Malmoe/Lund/Helsingborg region would be served by a third nuclear unit at Barsebaeck, located about 20 km from Malmoe/Lund and supplying 950 MW of base load heat. Preliminary proposals for Stockholm involve a 2000 MW heat supply; proposals for Gothenburg are more tentative. The paper describes progress on these proposals and their technology. It also outlines technology under development to increase the economic range of large scale heat transport and to make distribution economic even for low heat-density family housing estates. Regions apart from the few major urban areas mentioned above require the adoption of a different approach. To this end the development of a small, simple low-temperature reactor for heat-only production suitable for urban location has been started in Sweden in close contact with Finland. Some results of the work in progress are presented, with emphasis on the safety requirements. An outline is given in the paper as to how problems of regional heat planning and institutional and legislative issues are being approached

  6. Heat pipes as perspective base elements of heat recovery in heat supply and ventilating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matveev Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermotechnical characteristics of heat pipes are considered as high-efficient heat-transfer devices, which can provide energy-saving technologies for heat supply and ventilating systems and for different branches of industry. Thermotechnical and working (”performance capability” characteristics of heat pipes are investigated. By ”performance capability” of heat pipes and heat-transfer devices on heat pipes we mean the system state, where it can perform set functions and keep parameter values (thermal power, conductivity, thermal resistance, heat-transfer coefficient, temperature level and differential, etc. within the regulations of standardized specifications. The article presents theoretical and experimental methods of «gaslock» length determination on noncondensable gases during long-lasting tests of ammonia heat pipes made of aluminum shape АS – КRА 7.5 – R1 (alloy АD – 31. The paper gives results of research of thermotechnical characteristics of heat pipes in horizontal and vertical states (separate and as a set part while using different systems of thermal insulation. The obtained results of thermotechnical and resource tests show the advantages of ammonia heat pipes as basic elements for heat exchanger design in heating and ventilation systems.

  7. Influence on Heat Transfer Coefficient of Heat Exchanger by Velocity and Heat Transfer Temperature Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Fang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aimed to insufficient heat transfer of heat exchanger, research the influence on the heat transfer coefficient impacted by velocity and heat transfer temperature difference of tube heat exchanger. According to the different heat transfer temperature difference and gas velocity,the experimental data were divided into group. Using the control variable method,the above two factors were analyzed separately. K一△T and k一:fitting curve were clone to obtain empirical function. The entire heat exchanger is as the study object,using numerical simulation methods,porous media,k一£model,second order upwind mode,and pressure一velocity coupling with SIMPLE algorithm,the entire heat exchanger temperature field and the heat transfer coefficient distribution were given. Finally the trend of the heat transfer coefficient effected by the above two factors was gotten.

  8. Heat-treatment and heat-to-heat variations in the fracture toughness of Alloy 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.J.

    1981-07-01

    The effect of heat-treatment and heat-to-heat variations on the J Ic fracture toughness response of Alloy 718 was examined at room and elevated temperatures using the multiple-specimen R-curve technique. Six heats of alloy 718 were tested in the conventional and modified heat-treated conditions. The fracture toughness response for the modified superalloy was found to be superior to that exhibited by the conventional material. Heat-to-heat variations in the J Ic response of Alloy 718 were observed in both heat-treated conditions; the modified treatment exhibited much larger variability. The J Ic and corresponding K Ic fracture toughness values were analyzed statistically to establish minimum expected toughness, values for use in design and safety analyses. 26 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs

  9. Residential CO{sub 2} heat pump system for combined space heating and hot water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stene, Joern

    2004-02-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}, R-744) has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional working fluids in a number of applications due to its favourable environmental and thermophysical properties. Previous work on residential CO{sub 2} heat pumps has been dealing with systems for either space heating or hot water heating, and it was therefore considered interesting to carry out a theoretical and experimental study of residential CO{sub 2} heat pump systems for combined space heating and hot water heating - o-called integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump systems. The scope of this thesis is limited to brine-to-water and water-to-water heat pumps connected to low-temperature hydronic sp