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Sample records for acquired pneumonia impact

  1. The impact of blood glucose on community-acquired pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Vestergaard; Egelund, Gertrud Baunbæk; Andersen, Stine Bang

    2017-01-01

    Hyperglycaemia is common in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and is a predictor of severe outcomes. Data are scarce regarding whether this association is affected by diabetes mellitus (DM) and also regarding its importance for severe outcomes in hospital. We determined the impact...... of blood glucose on severe outcomes of CAP in hospital. We studied 1318 adult CAP patients hospitalised at three Danish hospitals. The association between blood glucose and DM status and severe clinical outcome (admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) and/or in-hospital mortality) was assessed...... by logistic regression. Models were adjusted for CURB-65 score and comorbidities. 12% of patients had DM. In patients without DM an increase in admission blood glucose was associated with risk for ICU admittance (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.13-1.39), but not significantly associated with in-hospital mortality (OR 1...

  2. Pneumonia - children - community acquired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchopneumonia - children; Community-acquired pneumonia - children; CAP - children ... Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in infants and children. Ways your child can get CAP include: Bacteria and viruses living in the nose, sinuses, or mouth may spread ...

  3. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  4. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get pneumonia while in the hospital if they: Abuse alcohol Have had chest surgery or other major ... Treatments may include: Antibiotics through your veins (IV) to treat the lung infection. The antibiotic you are given will fight the germs that ...

  5. The clinical impact of the detection of potential etiologic pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia.

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    Gelfer, Gita; Leggett, James; Myers, Jillian; Wang, Luan; Gilbert, David N

    2015-12-01

    The etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is determined in less than half of the patients based on cultures of sputum and blood plus testing urine for the antigens of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila. This study added nasal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) probes for S. pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and respiratory viruses. Serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels were measured. Pathogens were identified in 78% of the patients. For detection of viruses, patients were randomized to either a 5-virus laboratory-generated PCR bundle or the 17-virus FilmArray PCR platform. The FilmArray PCR platform detected more viruses than the laboratory-generated bundle and did so in less than 2 hours. There were fewer days of antibiotic therapy, P = 0.003, in CAP patients with viral infections and a low serum PCT levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of antibiotic therapy in severe community-acquired pneumonia: Data from the Infauci study.

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    Pereira, J M; Gonçalves-Pereira, J; Ribeiro, O; Baptista, J P; Froes, F; Paiva, J A

    2018-02-01

    Antibiotic therapy (AT) is the cornerstone of the management of severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the best treatment strategy is far from being established. To evaluate the impact of different aspects of AT on the outcome of critically ill patients with CAP, we performed a post hoc analysis of all CAP patients enrolled in a prospective, observational, multicentre study. Of the 502 patients included, 76% received combination therapy, mainly a β-lactam with a macrolide (80%). AT was inappropriate in 16% of all microbiologically documented CAP (n=177). Hospital and 6months mortality were 34% and 35%. In adjusted multivariate logistic regression analysis, combination AT with a macrolide was independently associated with a reduction in hospital (OR 0.17, 95%CI 0.06-0.51) and 6months (OR 0.21, 95%CI 0.07-0.57) mortality. Prolonged AT (>7days) was associated with a longer ICU (14 vs. 7days; p7days had no survival benefit and was associated with a longer LOS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of antibiotic de-escalation on clinical outcomes in community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia.

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    Viasus, Diego; Simonetti, Antonella F; Garcia-Vidal, Carolina; Niubó, Jordi; Dorca, Jordi; Carratalà, Jordi

    2017-02-01

    Although antibiotic de-escalation is regarded as a measure that reduces selection pressure, adverse drug effects and costs, evidence supporting this practice in community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia (CAPP) is lacking. We carried out a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of a cohort of hospitalized adults with CAPP. Pneumococcal aetiology was established in patients with one or more positive cultures for Streptococcus pneumoniae obtained from blood, sterile fluids or sputum, and/or a positive urinary antigen test. De-escalation therapy was considered when the initial antibiotic therapy was narrowed to penicillin, amoxicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanate within the first 72 h after admission. The primary outcomes were 30 day mortality and length of hospital stay (LOS). Adjustment for confounders was performed with multivariate and propensity score analyses. Of 1410 episodes of CAPP, antibiotic de-escalation within the first 72 h after admission was performed in 166 cases. After adjustment, antibiotic de-escalation was not associated with a higher risk of mortality (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.24-2.81), but it was found to be a protective factor for prolonged LOS (above the median) (OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.30-0.70). Similar results were found in patients classified into high-risk pneumonia severity index classes (IV-V), those with clinical instability and those with bacteraemia. No significant differences were documented in adverse drug reactions or readmission (Antibiotic de-escalation seems to be safe and effective in reducing the duration of LOS, and did not adversely affect outcomes of patients with CAPP, even those with bacteraemia and severe disease, and those who were clinically unstable. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Predictors of pneumococcal vaccination among older adults with pneumonia: findings from the Community Acquired Pneumonia Impact Study

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    Loeb Mark

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP almost triples for older adults aged 65 years or older. In Canada, CAP is a leading cause of hospital admissions and mortality. Although CAP is very prevalent, complications due to CAP may be reduced with the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of pneumococcal vaccination among community-dwelling older adults with clinically diagnosed CAP. Methods A telephone survey was used to collect detailed information from adults aged 60 years and older with clinically diagnosed CAP. This was a community wide study with participants being recruited from all radiology clinics in one Ontario community. Results The most important predictors of pneumococcal vaccination among older adults included: getting an influenza vaccine within the past year (OR 14.5, 95% CI 4.27 to 49.0; at least weekly contact with a friend (OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.71 to 9.24; having one or more co-morbidities/chronic conditions (OR 3.64, 95% CI 1.60 to 8.28; being 70 years of age or older (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.21 to 5.40; having health problems that limited physical activities (OR 5.37, 95% CI 1.49 to 19.3; having little or no bodily pain (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.25 to 6.73; and reporting having spiritual values or religious faith (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.03 to 11.67. Conclusions A wide range of factors, including demographic, co-morbidity, quality of life, social support and lifestyle were found to be associated with pneumococcal vaccination status among older adults with clinically diagnosed CAP. The findings from this study could inform future pneumococcal immunization strategies by identifying individuals who are least likely to receive the PPV.

  9. The impact of community-acquired pneumonia on the health-related quality-of-life in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangen, Marie-Josée J; Huijts, Susanne M; Bonten, Marc J M; de Wit, G Ardine

    2017-03-14

    The sustained health-related quality-of-life of patients surviving community-acquired pneumonia has not been accurately quantified. The aim of the current study was to quantify differences in health-related quality-of-life of community-dwelling elderly with and without community-acquired pneumonia during a 12-month follow-up period. In a matched cohort study design, nested in a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial on the efficacy of the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine in community-dwelling persons of ≥65 years, health-related quality-of-life was assessed in 562 subjects hospitalized with suspected community-acquired pneumonia (i.e. diseased cohort) and 1145 unaffected persons (i.e. non-diseased cohort) matched to pneumonia cases on age, sex, and health status (EQ-5D-3L-index). Health-related quality-of-life was determined 1-2 weeks after hospital discharge/inclusion and 1, 6 and 12 months thereafter, using Euroqol EQ-5D-3L and Short Form-36 Health survey questionnaires. One-year quality-adjusted life years (QALY) were estimated for both diseased and non-diseased cohorts. Separate analyses were performed for pneumonia cases with and without radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia. The one-year excess QALY loss attributed to community-acquired pneumonia was 0.13. Mortality in the post-discharge follow-up year was 8.4% in community-acquired pneumonia patients and 1.2% in non-diseased persons (p pneumonia patients, compared to non-diseased persons, but differences in health-related quality-of-life between radiologically confirmed and non-confirmed community-acquired pneumonia cases were not statistically significant. Community-acquired pneumonia was associated with a six-fold increased mortality and 16% lower quality-of-life in the post-discharge year among patients surviving hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia, compared to non-diseased persons. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00812084 .

  10. The impact of community-acquired pneumonia on the health-related quality-of-life in elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangen, Marie-Josée J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/217293964; Huijts, Susanne M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/33793083X; Bonten, Marc J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123144337; de Wit, G Ardine|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/167546589

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The sustained health-related quality-of-life of patients surviving community-acquired pneumonia has not been accurately quantified. The aim of the current study was to quantify differences in health-related quality-of-life of community-dwelling elderly with and without community-acquired

  11. Impact of procalcitonin-guided therapy for hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia on reducing antibiotic consumption and costs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akihiro; Ishida, Tadashi; Tokumasu, Hironobu; Washio, Yasuyoshi; Yamazaki, Akio; Ito, Yuhei; Tachibana, Hiromasa

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of procalcitonin-guided therapy in hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia patients to reduce antibiotic duration and costs without worsening prognosis. 352 hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia patients in an observational cohort study in which procalcitonin was measured three times serially, on admission (Day 1) and 2-3 days (Day 3) and 6-8 days (Day 7) after admission, between October 2010 and February 2016 were reviewed retrospectively. Antibiotics could be stopped if Day 7 procalcitonin was pneumonia by theoretical procalcitonin guidance for community-acquired pneumonia treatment. Using theoretical procalcitonin guidance, antibiotic duration could be reduced from 12.6 to 8.6 days (P pneumonia severity using A-DROP, CURB-65, and PSI between two groups. Procalcitonin-guided therapy may be useful in hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia patients to reduce antibiotic duration and costs without worsening the prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inadequate treatment of ventilator-associated and hospital-acquired pneumonia: Risk factors and impact on outcomes

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    Piskin Nihal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Initial antimicrobial therapy (AB is an important determinant of clinical outcome in patients with severe infections as pneumonia, however well-conducted studies regarding prognostic impact of inadequate initial AB in patients who are not undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV are lacking. In this study we aimed to identify the risk factors for inadequate initial AB and to determine its subsequent impact on outcomes in both ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP and hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP. Methods We retrospectively studied the accuracy of initial AB in patients with pneumonia in a university hospital in Turkey. A total of 218 patients with HAP and 130 patients with VAP were included. For each patient clinical, radiological and microbiological data were collected. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was used for risk factor analysis. Survival analysis was performed by using Kaplan-Meier method with Log-rank test. Results Sixty six percent of patients in VAP group and 41.3% of patients in HAP group received inadequate initial AB. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk factors for inadequate initial AB in HAP patients were; late-onset HAP (OR = 2.35 (95% CI, 1.05-5.22; p = 0.037 and APACHE II score at onset of HAP (OR = 1.06 (95% CI, 1.01-1.12; p = 0.018. In VAP patients; antibiotic usage in the previous three months (OR = 3.16 (95% CI, 1.27-7.81; p = 0.013 and admission to a surgical unit (OR = 2.9 (95% CI, 1.17-7.19; p = 0.022 were found to be independent risk factors for inadequate initial AB. No statistically significant difference in crude hospital mortality and 28-day mortality was observed between the treatment groups in both VAP and HAP. However we showed a significant increase in length of hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation and a prolonged clinical resolution in the inadequate AB group in both VAP and HAP. Conclusion Our data

  13. [Impact of a multidimensional intervention in elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia: IMIEPCAP clinical trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Olga Herminia; Gil, Eva; Comas, Maria Teresa; Saez, Maria Encarnación; Clotet, Sandra; Ramirez, Hector David; Mateo, Miriam; Ruiz, Domingo

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine whether a multidimensional intervention applied to elderly patients admitted to hospital due to pneumonia reduces re-admissions and emergency department visits in the year after the intervention. This is a single-centre non-pharmacological randomised clinical trial with a parallel design. Three hundred and fourteen patients will be included (157 in each arm). Eligible patients will be ≥65 years old and with a Barthel index ≥60 that are admitted to hospital due to pneumonia. Participants will be randomised to multidimensional intervention or to control group. Two months after hospital discharge the intervention group will receive a geriatric intervention, carried out by a nurse and a physician. It will include assessment of co-morbidities, nutritional, functional and cognitive status, and immunisation. The control group will receive conventional follow-up. The number of re-admissions, visits to the emergency department, functional status, survival, and institutionalisation will be evaluated one year after intervention. If the intervention shows an improvement in the studied outcomes, it would allow us to improve individual outcomes, and indirectly reduce healthcare costs using a relatively simple, standardised tool. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of antibiotic guideline compliance on duration of mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

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    Shorr, Andrew F; Bodi, Maria; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Sole-Violan, Jorge; Garnacho-Montero, Jose; Rello, Jordi

    2006-07-01

    Multiple guidelines exist to aid clinicians in choosing antibiotics to treat patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP). Our goal was to assess the impact of following these guidelines, such as those from the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA), on the duration of mechanical ventilation (MV). Analysis of a prospective registry. Multiple ICUs in Spain. ICU patients with SCAP requiring > or = 24 h of endotracheal intubation and surviving their ICU course. None. Demographics, comorbid diseases, severity of illness, and process of care variables were recorded. The duration of MV in patients receiving an antibiotic regimen consistent with IDSA guidelines was compared to patients with prescriptions not in accordance with IDSA recommendations. In the cohort (n = 199), Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most frequent pathogen, and unadjusted analysis showed that the duration of MV was longer in persons receiving IDSA-noncompliant regimens (11 days vs 10 days). In a multivariate hazard model, two variables were independently associated with greater durations of MV: development of acute renal failure (hazard ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 2.12), and prescription of an IDSA-noncompliant regimen (hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.93). Adjusted analysis indicated that patients receiving treatment that was not compliant with IDSA guidelines received MV an added 3 days. Failure to follow antibiotic recommendations for the treatment of SCAP may increase the need for continuing MV. Conversely, guideline compliance could represent a surrogate marker that captures other aspects of clinical care, rather than be the direct factor leading to better outcomes. Nonetheless, given the costs associated with MV, enhanced guideline compliance may represent a means for improving outcomes and enhancing resource utilization.

  15. The order of administration of macrolides and beta-lactams may impact the outcomes of hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia: results from the community-acquired pneumonia organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrani, Paula; Wiemken, Timothy L; Metersky, Mark L; Arnold, Forest W; Mattingly, William A; Feldman, Charles; Cavallazzi, Rodrigo; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Bordon, Jose; Ramirez, Julio A

    2018-01-01

    The beneficial effect of macrolides for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in combination with beta-lactams may be due to their anti-inflammatory activity. In patients with pneumococcal meningitis, the use of steroids improves outcomes only if they are administered before beta-lactams. The objective of this study was to compare outcomes in hospitalized patients with CAP when macrolides were administered before, simultaneously with, or after beta-lactams. Secondary data analysis of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization (CAPO) International Cohort Study database. Study groups were defined based on the sequence of administration of macrolides and beta-lactams. The study outcomes were time to clinical stability (TCS), length of stay (LOS) and in-hospital mortality. Accelerated failure time models were used to evaluate the adjusted impact of sequential antibiotic administration and time-to-event outcomes, while a logistic regression model was used to evaluate their adjusted impact on mortality. A total of 99 patients were included in the macrolide before group and 305 in the macrolide after group. Administration of a macrolide before a beta-lactam compared to after a beta-lactam reduced TCS (3 vs. 4 days, p = .011), LOS (6 vs. 7 days, p = .002) and mortality (3 vs. 7.2%, p = .228). The administration of macrolides before beta-lactams was associated with a statistically significant decrease in TCS and LOS and a non-statistically significant decrease in mortality. The beneficial effect of macrolides in hospitalized patient with CAP may occur only if administered before beta-lactams.

  16. Comparative study of community-acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila or Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopena, Nieves; Pedro-Botet, Maria Luisa; Sabrià, Miquel; García-Parés, Delia; Reynaga, Esteban; García-Nuñez, Marian

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare epidemiological data and clinical presentation of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila or Chlamydia pneumoniae. From May 1994 to February 1996, 157 patients with S. pneumoniae (n = 68), L. pneumophila (n = 48) and C. pneumoniae (n = 41) pneumonia with definitive diagnosis, were prospectively studied. The following comparisons showed differences at a level of at least p pneumoniae pneumonia had more frequently underlying diseases (HIV infection and neoplasm) and those with C. pneumoniae pneumonia were older and had a higher frequency of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), while L. pneumophila pneumonia prevailed in patients without comorbidity, but with alcohol intake. Presentation with cough and expectoration were significantly more frequent in patients with S. pneumoniae or C. pneumoniae pneumonia, while headache, diarrhoea and no response to betalactam antibiotics prevailed in L. pneumophila pneumonia. However, duration of symptoms > or = 7 d was more frequent in C. pneumoniae pneumonia. Patients with CAP caused by L. pneumophila presented hyponatraemia and an increase in CK more frequently, while AST elevation prevailed in L. pneumophila and C. pneumoniae pneumonia. In conclusion, some risk factors and clinical characteristics of patients with CAP may help to broaden empirical therapy against atypical pathogens until rapid diagnostic tests are available.

  17. Impact of an Educational Program to Reduce Healthcare Resources in Community-Acquired Pneumonia: The EDUCAP Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Jordi Adamuz

    Full Text Available Additional healthcare visits and rehospitalizations after discharge are frequent among patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP and have a major impact on healthcare costs. We aimed to determine whether the implementation of an individualized educational program for hospitalized patients with CAP would decrease subsequent healthcare visits and readmissions within 30 days of hospital discharge.A multicenter, randomized trial was conducted from January 1, 2011 to October 31, 2014 at three hospitals in Spain. We randomly allocated immunocompetent adults patients hospitalized for CAP to receive either an individualized educational program or conventional information before discharge. The educational program included recommendations regarding fluid intake, adherence to drug therapy and preventive vaccines, knowledge and management of the disease, progressive adaptive physical activity, and counseling for alcohol and smoking cessation. The primary trial endpoint was a composite of the frequency of additional healthcare visits and rehospitalizations within 30 days of hospital discharge. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed.We assigned 102 patients to receive the individualized educational program and 105 to receive conventional information. The frequency of the composite primary end point was 23.5% following the individualized program and 42.9% following the conventional information (difference, -19.4%; 95% confidence interval, -6.5% to -31.2%; P = 0.003.The implementation of an individualized educational program for hospitalized patients with CAP was effective in reducing subsequent healthcare visits and rehospitalizations within 30 days of discharge. Such a strategy may help optimize available healthcare resources and identify post-acute care needs in patients with CAP.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN39531840.

  18. Impact of rapid urine antigen tests to determine the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreo, Felipe; Domínguez, José; Ruiz, Juan; Blanco, Silvia; Arellano, Elisabet; Prat, Cristina; Morera, Josep; Ausina, Vicente

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate the rapid urine antigen tests, including a new rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) for the detection of the Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen and an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the detection of the Legionella antigen, in order to improve the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults. Prospective study. A tertiary hospital in Spain. We consecutively recruited 107 adults with CAP evaluated at our hospital. The analyses included blood and sputum cultures, pleural fluid culture (if present) and serologic studies. The detection of the Legionella pneumophila urinary antigen was performed by EIA, and the detection of S. pneumoniae antigen in urine samples was performed by counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) and a rapid ICT. Using conventional microbiologic tests we succeeded in performing the etiologic diagnosis of 39 out of the 107 cases (36.4%). The inclusion of rapid antigen detection techniques increased the percentage of diagnosis to 54.2%, which represents a total increase of 17.8% (P=0.034). The data obtained in this study indicate that rapid urine antigen tests are very useful to determine CAP etiology in adults and, consequently, to quickly identify a group of patients in whom narrow spectrum antibiotics may be used.

  19. Immunomodulation in community-acquired pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmelts, H.H.F.

    2013-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common disease with considerable morbidity and mortality, despite effective antibiotic treatment. In this thesis, we showed that the major causative microorganisms in CAP trigger distinct inflammatory response profiles in the host. While an inflammatory

  20. [Health impact and treatment costs of community-acquired pneumonia in children in the first level of public attention in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernztein, Ricardo; Drake, Ignacio

    2009-04-01

    Community acquired pneumonia in children remains an important cause of childhood deaths throughout the world that can be prevented by the use of antibiotics and access to medical care. Both were reduced in 2001 when Argentina suffered a severe social crisis. Among the responses to the crisis, the Remediar Program provided free essential medicines to the socially vulnerable population. Assess the health impact and costs of the provision of free medicines at the first level of public attention for childhood pneumonia. Three designs: 1. Ecological study with cross comparisons of diagnoses, prescriptions, beneficiaries by individual provinces of Remediar forms. children under 15 years old attended at 6 thousand health centres in Argentina, encompassing 24 Argentine provinces from March 2005 until February 2006. 2. Counterfactual approach. 3. Calculation of drug costs per unit of outcome. Over 15 million prescriptions were identified, 2,420 children under 1 year, 19,205 of 1 to 4 years and 15,977 from 5 to 14 years old with pneumonia. 90% of beneficiaries received antibiotics, most often amoxicillin. In children's under 5 years of age, Remediar coverage was 27.8%, with greater impact in the poorest provinces. The likely impact was 4,322 lives saved or 310,325 years of life lost avoided if mortality without antibiotics was 20%. Indigents who had children with pneumonia saved by medicines 14.3% of their income. Each life saved could have cost US $ 6.46 and each year of life lost averted US $ 0.09. This work highlights the impact of a low-cost health program for the treatment of vulnerable populations with childhood pneumonia in Argentina.

  1. C. pneumoniae community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in mimicking Mycoplasma pneumoniae meningoencephalitis complicated by asthma.

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    Cunha, Burke A; Pherez, Francisco M

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae is a common, non-zoonotic cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in ambulatory young adults. C. pneumoniae clinically presents as a mycoplasma-like illness frequently accompanied by laryngitis. C. pneumoniae CAP may also cause nursing home outbreaks in the elderly. Similar to Mycoplasma pneumoniae in immunocompetent hosts, C. pneumoniae CAP usually manifests as a mild/moderately severe CAP. In contrast with Legionnaire's disease, central nervous system involvement is usually not a feature of C. pneumoniae CAP. M. pneumoniae may rarely present with meningoencephalitis accompanied by high cold agglutinin titers. We present the case of a young man who presented with M. pneumoniae-like illness and was hospitalized for severe CAP that was accompanied by a pertussis-like cough and severe headache. Although his chest x-ray showed a right upper lobe infiltrate, a lumbar puncture was performed to rule out meningitis, but his cerebrospinal fluid profile was unremarkable. Titers for non-zoonotic atypical pneumonia pathogens were negative except for a highly elevated C. pneumoniae immunoglobulin-M titer (1:320). Testing for legionella and pertussis was negative. Q fever and adenoviral titers were also negative. Cold agglutinin titers were repeatedly negative. The patient was successfully treated with moxifloxacin but developed permanent asthma after C. pneumoniae CAP. This case is unusual in several aspects. First, C. pneumoniae usually presents as a mild to moderate CAP, but in this case it was severe. Second, hoarseness was absent, which would have suggested C. pneumoniae. Third, wheezing was an important clue to the diagnosis of C. pneumoniae, which is not a clinical finding with other causes of CAP. Fourth, permanent asthma may follow C. pneumoniae, as well as M. pneumoniae CAP. Fifth, severe headache mimicking M. pneumoniae meningoencephalitis may rarely accompany C. pneumoniae CAP.

  2. Decrease in mortality in severe community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia: impact of improving antibiotic strategies (2000-2013).

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    Gattarello, Simone; Borgatta, Bárbara; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Vallés, Jordi; Vidaur, Loreto; Zaragoza, Rafael; Torres, Antoni; Rello, Jordi

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare antibiotic prescribing practices and survival in the ICU for patients with pneumococcal severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP) between 2000 and 2013. This was a matched case-control study of two prospectively recorded cohorts in Europe. Eighty patients from the Community-Acquired Pneumonia en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (CAPUCI) II study (case group) were matched with 80 patients from CAPUCI I (control group) based on the following: shock at admission, need of mechanical ventilation, COPD, immunosuppression, and age. Demographic data were comparable in the two groups. Combined antibiotic therapy increased from 66.2% to 87.5% (P < .01), and the percentage of patients receiving the first dose of antibiotic within 3 h increased from 27.5% to 70.0% (P < .01). ICU mortality was significantly lower (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.98) in cases, both in the whole population and in the subgroups of patients with shock (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.50-0.89) or receiving mechanical ventilation (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.55-0.96). In the multivariate analysis, ICU mortality increased in patients requiring mechanical ventilation (OR, 5.23; 95% CI, 1.60-17.17) and decreased in patients receiving early antibiotic treatment (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.15-0.87) and combined therapy (OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.07-0.51). In pneumococcal SCAP, early antibiotic prescription and use of combination therapy increased. Both were associated with improved survival.

  3. Community-acquired pneumonia among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirall, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Bello, Salvador

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have left absolutely no doubt that tobacco increases susceptibility to bacterial lung infection, even in passive smokers. This relationship also shows a dose-response effect, since the risk reduces spectacularly 10 years after giving up smoking, returning to the level of non-smokers. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative microorganism responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most frequently associated with smoking, particularly in invasive pneumococcal disease and septic shock. It is not clear how it acts on the progress of pneumonia, but there is evidence to suggest that the prognosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is worse. In CAP caused by Legionella pneumophila, it has also been observed that smoking is the most important risk factor, with the risk rising 121% for each pack of cigarettes smoked a day. Tobacco use may also favor diseases that are also known risk factors for CAP, such as periodontal disease and upper respiratory viral infections. By way of prevention, while giving up smoking should always be proposed, the use of the pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended, regardless of the presence of other comorbidities. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. The Impact of Patient Profiles and Procedures on Hospitalization Costs through Length of Stay in Community-Acquired Pneumonia Patients Based on a Japanese Administrative Database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Uematsu

    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia is a common cause of patient hospitalization, and its burden on health care systems is increasing in aging societies. In this study, we aimed to investigate the factors that affect hospitalization costs in community-acquired pneumonia patients while considering the intermediate influence of patient length of stay.Using a multi-institutional administrative claims database, we analyzed 30,041 patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia who had been discharged between April 1, 2012 and September 30, 2013 from 289 acute care hospitals in Japan. Possible factors associated with hospitalization costs were investigated using structural equation modeling with length of stay as an intermediate variable. We calculated the direct, indirect (through length of stay, and total effects of the candidate factors on hospitalization costs in the model. Lastly, we calculated the ratio of indirect effects to direct effects for each factor.The structural equation model showed that higher disease severities (using A-DROP, Barthel Index, and Charlson Comorbidity Index scores, use of mechanical ventilation, and tube feeding were associated with higher hospitalization costs, regardless of the intermediate influence of length of stay. The severity factors were also associated with longer length of stay durations. The ratio of indirect effects to direct effects on total hospitalization costs showed that the former was greater than the latter in the factors, except in the use of mechanical ventilation.Our structural equation modeling analysis indicated that patient profiles and procedures impacted on hospitalization costs both directly and indirectly. Furthermore, the profiles were generally shown to have greater indirect effects (through length of stay on hospitalization costs than direct effects. These findings may be useful in supporting the more appropriate distribution of health care resources.

  5. Ceftobiprole medocaril in the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, Thomas W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Ceftobiprole medocaril is a fifth-generation cephalosporin approved in Europe as single-agent therapy for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), excluding ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). It is rapidly converted to the active metabolite ceftobiprole following intravenous administration.

  6. Role of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae in children with community-acquired pneumonia in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somer, Ayper; Salman, Nuran; Yalçin, Işik; Ağaçfidan, Ali

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the role of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in pediatric pneumonia, in Istanbul, Turkey, we conducted a prospective study covering all the children between 2 months and 15 years hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia. A total of 140 children (85 males, median age 2.5 years) with community-acquired pneumonia were enrolled. Acute and convalescent sera were tested for IgM and IgG antibodies to M. pneumoniae (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Serion ELISA classic) and for IgM and IgG antibodies to C. pneumoniae (microimmunofluorescence, Savyon, Israel). Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection was diagnosed in 38 patients (27%) and C. pneumoniae infection in 7 (5%). In 2 children M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae co infection was observed. The average age of the M. pneumoniae cases was 5.3 years and that of the C. pneumoniae was 1.5 years. The average age of pneumonia cases caused by other pathogens was 3.4 years (ppneumoniae and C. pneumoniae infection and in those without M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae infection. The results of this study suggest a remarkable role for M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae in childhood community-acquired pneumonia, and the knowledge of the true prevalence of these two types of infections discovered in the community might lead to modifications in the present empirical treatment of bacterial pneumonia.

  7. The Impact of Age and Comorbidities on the Mortality of Patients of Different Age Groups Admitted with Community-acquired Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Carlos M; Palma, Ileana; Niederman, Michael S; Membriani, Evangelina; Giovini, Vanina; Wiemken, Timothy L; Peyrani, Paula; Ramirez, Julio

    2016-09-01

    Comorbidities, age, severity of illness, and high risk pathogens are well-known outcome determinants in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). How these factors interact has not yet been clarified. We conducted this study to analyze the complex interaction of comorbidities, age, illness severity, and pathogens in relation to CAP. We performed a secondary analysis of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization database to evaluate the impact of age in different age groups (age 80 years and older. A total of 1,699 pathogens were defined in 1,545 cases; the etiology was the same for all age groups. In the overall population, mortality increased with age, but etiology was not associated with mortality. When we analyzed the patients with one comorbidity or less, we found that mortality was not different between patients younger than 65 old and those 65-79 years old, but it was higher for those aged 80 years and older. The presence of comorbidities is associated with poorer outcomes in CAP. However, when one comorbidity or less was present, we found that being age 80 years or older was a factor that increased mortality. From a clinical standpoint, this study suggests that being age 80 years or older, instead of age 65 years and older, should be considered a risk factor for poor outcome in CAP.

  8. Community-acquired pneumonia; Ambulant erworbene Pneumonien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poetter-Lang, S.; Herold, C.J. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Wien (Austria)

    2017-01-15

    The diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often not possible based only on the clinical symptoms and biochemical parameters. For every patient with the suspicion of CAP, a chest radiograph in two planes should be carried out. Additionally, a risk stratification for the decision between outpatient therapy or hospitalization is recommended. Based on the evaluation of the different radiological patterns as well as their extent and distribution, a rough allocation to so-called pathogen groups as well as a differentiation between viral and bacterial infections are possible; however, because different pathogens cause different patterns an accurate correlation is not feasible by relying purely on imaging. The radiological findings serve as proof or exclusion of pneumonia and can also be used to evaluate the extent of the disease (e.g. monolobular, multilobular, unilateral or bilateral). In cases of prolonged disease, suspicion of complications (e.g. pleural effusion or empyema, necrotizing pneumonia or abscess) or comorbid conditions (e.g. underlying pulmonary or mediastinal diseases) computed tomography is an important diagnostic tool in addition to chest radiography. Ultrasound is often used to diagnose pleural processes (e.g. parapneumonic effusion or pleural empyema). (orig.) [German] Anhand der klinischen Symptome und laborchemischen Befundkonstellation alleine ist es oft nicht moeglich, die Diagnose einer ambulant erworbenen Pneumonie (''community-acquired pneumonia'', CAP) zu stellen. Bei jedem Patienten mit Verdacht auf CAP sollte eine Roentgenthoraxaufnahme in 2 Ebenen angefertigt werden. Weiter muss eine Risikostratifizierung im Sinne der Entscheidung ambulante Therapie vs. Hospitalisierung erfolgen. Anhand der Analyse radiologischer Muster sowie deren Verteilung und Ausdehnung koennen eine grobe Zuordnung zu sogenannten Erregergruppen sowie eine Differenzierung zwischen viralen und bakteriellen Infektionen gelingen. Da

  9. Endemic mycoses: overlooked causes of community acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Chadi A; Knox, Kenneth S; Wheat, Lawrence J

    2012-06-01

    The endemic mycoses are important but often overlooked causes for community acquired pneumonia. Delays in recognition, diagnosis and proper treatment often lead to disastrous outcomes. This topic is not usually discussed in reviews and guidelines addressing the subject of community acquired pneumonia. In this review we discuss the three major endemic mycoses in North America that present as community acquired pneumonias; Coccidioidomycosis, Histoplasmosis and Blastomycosis. We discuss their epidemiology, clinical presentations, methods of diagnosis and current treatment strategies. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Hospital Acquired Pneumonia: Issues in Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel A Mandell

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In December 1992. a meeting was convened in Toronto to develop guidelines for the initial treatment of hospital acquired pneumonia. Issues considered related lo the patient. the possible drugs used for treatment, and the pathogen(s. From the perspective of the patient. the two major issues were the presence or absence of risk factors for specific microbial pathogens and the severity of illness upon clinical presentation, Criteria for defining severly ill patients were developed and are presented in this paper. Drug and pathogen related issues focused on selection of antimicrobial agents thal would provide coverage for the likely pathogens. Concern was also expressed regarding use of aminoglycosides as single-agent treatment of Gram-negative infections in the lung. and the issue of monotherapy versus combination therapy of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections was discussed. The use of various diagnostic tests was briefly reviewed. including the protected specimen brush and bronchoalveolar lavage. Treatment regimens are presented in tabular format.

  11. Mortality predictors in community-acquired pneumonia | Tanimowo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acquired pneumonia to themedicalwards of Ladoke Akintola University ofTeaching Hospital between Jan. 2003 andDec. 2005. The case notes of 65 patients admitted for community-acquired pneumoniawere studiedwith respect to their admission ...

  12. [Clinical features and antimicrobial resistance of community-acquired pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-Yun; Wang, Ying-Jian; Li, Ji-Mei

    2012-11-01

    To study the clinical features and antimicrobial resistance of community-acquired pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in infants. The clinical data of 65 infants with community-acquired pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae between 2007 and 2011 were retrospectively studied. Of the 65 infants, 37 cases (57%) were aged ≤3 months, 17 cases (26%) over 4 months, 7 cases (11%) over 7 months and 4 cases (6%) between 13 and 24 months. There were no significant differences in clinical manifestations and chest X-ray features between the infants with community-acquired pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae and those with other bacterial pneumonia. Forty strains (62%) of ESBLs-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae were detected. Klebsiella pneumoniae was 100% sensitive to imipenem, meropenem and amikacin but resistant to penicillins and cephalosporins. The resistance rates of ESBLs-producing strains to penicillins, cephalosporins, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin/sulbactam, compound sulfamethoxazole, gentamycin, ciprofloxacin and aztreonam were significantly higher than for non-ESBLs-producing strains. ESBLs-producing strains also showed multiple-drug resistance. Community-acquired pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae is common in infants aged ≤3 months. ESBLs-producing strains are prevalent in community-acquired pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae and demonstrate both high rates of drug resistance and multiple-drug resistance.

  13. Prognostic implications of aspiration pneumonia in patients with community acquired pneumonia: A systematic review with meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiya, Kosaku; Rubin, Bruce K.; Kadota, Jun-ichi; Mukae, Hiroshi; Akaba, Tomohiro; Moro, Hiroshi; Aoki, Nobumasa; Tsukada, Hiroki; Noguchi, Shingo; Shime, Nobuaki; Takahashi, Osamu; Kohno, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Aspiration pneumonia is thought to be associated with a poor outcome in patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, there has been no systematic review regarding the impact of aspiration pneumonia on the outcomes in patients with CAP. This review was conducted using the MOOSE guidelines: Patients: patients defined CAP. Exposure: aspiration pneumonia defined as pneumonia in patients who have aspiration risk. Comparison: confirmed pneumonia in patients who were not considered to be at high risk for oral aspiration. Outcomes: mortality, hospital readmission or recurrent pneumonia. Three investigators independently identified published cohort studies from PubMed, CENTRAL database, and EMBASE. Nineteen studies were included for this systematic review. Aspiration pneumonia increased in-hospital mortality (relative risk, 3.62; 95% CI, 2.65–4.96; P pneumonia was associated with decreased ICU mortality (relative risk, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.26–0.60; P pneumonia, and hospital readmission, the few reported studies suggest that aspiration pneumonia is also associated with these poor outcomes. In conclusion, aspiration pneumonia was associated with both higher in-hospital and 30-day mortality in patients with CAP outside ICU settings. PMID:27924871

  14. [Differential diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and community-acquired pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deĭkina, O N; Mishin, V Iu; Demikhova, O V

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to enhance the efficiency of differential diagnosis of pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis. A hundred and fifty-nine adult patients were examined. These included 78 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 81 with community-acquired p neumonia. The clinical features of infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 48) and mild community-acquired pneumonia (n = 51) were compared. The course of caseous pneumonia (n = 30) was compared with that of moderate and severe community-acquired pneumonia (n = 30). Significant differences in the manifestations of the intoxication and bronchopulmonary syndrome were not found in patients with community-acquired pneumonia and infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Physical studies showed that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, moist rale (54.9%) and crepitation (11.8%) were prevalent, but in those with infiltrative tuberculosis rale was absent in 60.4% of cases and the pattern of respiration was unchanged in 79.2%. Chest X-ray studies indicated that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, lower lobar inflammatory changes were predominant in 62.8% of cases whereas in those with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis the process was mainly bilateral (43.8%) with the presence of destructive changes (83.3%) and bronchogenic dissemination (66.7%). In patients with caseous pneumonia, the intoxication syndrome was more significant than in those with severe community-acquired pneumonia. Chest X-ray studies demonstrated that in patients with caseous pneumonia, specific changes were bilateral with the involvement of 2 lobes or more, with destruction and bronchogenic dissemination while in those with community-acquired pneumonia, the pulmonary processes were predominantly bilateral (76.6%) at the lower lobar site (36.7%).

  15. Biomarkers in Pediatric Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-02-19

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria, viruses, or a combination of these infectious agents. The severity of the clinical manifestations of CAP varies significantly. Consequently, both the differentiation of viral from bacterial CAP cases and the accurate assessment and prediction of disease severity are critical for effectively managing individuals with CAP. To solve questionable cases, several biomarkers indicating the etiology and severity of CAP have been studied. Unfortunately, only a few studies have examined the roles of these biomarkers in pediatric practice. The main aim of this paper is to detail current knowledge regarding the use of biomarkers to diagnose and treat CAP in children, analyzing the most recently published relevant studies. Despite several attempts, the etiologic diagnosis of pediatric CAP and the estimation of the potential outcome remain unsolved problems in most cases. Among traditional biomarkers, procalcitonin (PCT) appears to be the most effective for both selecting bacterial cases and evaluating the severity. However, a precise cut-off separating bacterial from viral and mild from severe cases has not been defined. The three-host protein assay based on C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), plasma interferon-γ protein-10 (IP-10), and micro-array-based whole genome expression arrays might offer more advantages in comparison with former biomarkers. However, further studies are needed before the routine use of those presently in development can be recommended.

  16. Hospital-acquired pneumonia in ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Marc; Bouadma, Lila; Bouhemad, Bélaïd; Brissaud, Olivier; Dauger, Stéphane; Gibot, Sébastien; Hraiech, Sami; Jung, Boris; Kipnis, Eric; Launey, Yoann; Luyt, Charles-Edouard; Margetis, Dimitri; Michel, Fabrice; Mokart, Djamel; Montravers, Philippe; Monsel, Antoine; Nseir, Saad; Pugin, Jérôme; Roquilly, Antoine; Velly, Lionel; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Bruyère, Rémi; Chanques, Gérald

    2018-02-01

    The French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine and the French Society of Intensive Care edited guidelines focused on hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) in intensive care unit (ICU). The goal of 16 French-speaking experts was to produce a framework enabling an easier decision-making process for intensivists. The guidelines were related to 3 specific areas related to HAP (prevention, diagnosis and treatment) in 4 identified patient populations (COPD, neutropenia, postoperative and pediatric). The literature analysis and the formulation of the guidelines were conducted according to the Grade of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology. An extensive literature research over the last 10 years was conducted based on publications indexed in PubMed™ and Cochrane™ databases. HAP should be prevented by a standardized multimodal approach and the use of selective digestive decontamination in units where multidrug-resistant bacteria prevalence was below 20%. Diagnosis relies on clinical assessment and microbiological findings. Monotherapy, in the absence of risk factors for multidrug-resistant bacteria, non-fermenting Gram negative bacilli and/or increased mortality (septic shock, organ failure), is strongly recommended. After microbiological documentation, it is recommended to reduce the spectrum and to prefer monotherapy for the antibiotic therapy of HAP, including for non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli. Copyright © 2017 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Outpatient management of community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froes, Filipe; Pereira, João Gonçalves; Póvoa, Pedro

    2018-01-25

    The first guidelines on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) were published in 1993, but since then many of the challenges regarding the outpatient management of CAP persist. These include the difficulty in establishing the initial clinical diagnosis, its risk stratification, which will dictate the place of treatment, the empirical choice of antibiotics, the relative scarcity of novel antibiotics and the importance of knowing local microbiological susceptibility patterns. New molecular biology methods have changed the etiologic perspective of CAP, especially the contribution of virus. Lung ultrasound and biomarkers might aid diagnosis and severity stratification in the outpatient setting. Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem that reinforces the importance of novel antibiotics. And finally, prevention and the use of anti-pneumococcal vaccine are instrumental in reducing the burden of disease. Most of CAP cases are managed in the community; however, most research comes from hospitalized severe patients. New and awaited advances might contribute to aid diagnosis, cause and assessment of patients with CAP in the community. This knowledge might prove decisive in the execution of stewardship programmes that maintain current antibiotics, safeguard future ones and reinforce prevention.

  18. community acquired pneumonia among children admitted

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-01

    Sep 1, 2012 ... treated without seeing a doctor, the WHO defines clinical pneumonia simply as an acute episode of cough or difficulty in breathing associated with an increased respiratory rate (1). In the low – income countries, over one quarter of children under five years have an episode of clinical pneumonia each year.

  19. Severe community-acquired pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae in young female patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milačić Nena

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumonia is common agent causing community acquired pneumonia in younger population. However, the course of illness is usually benign and is rarely associated with pulmonary complications. We report a 27 years old female patient with unilateral pneumonia followed by pleural effusion and adhesions on the same side. This potential source of infection should be considered in young patients where resolution of symptoms from pneumonia is delayed.

  20. Computed tomography in children with community-acquired pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas [Bristol Royal Hospital for Children and the University of Bristol, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Bristol (United Kingdom); University of Cape Town, Department of Radiology, Cape Town (South Africa); Goussard, Pierre [Tygerberg Hospital, Stellenbosch University, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Cape Town (South Africa); Sorantin, Erich [Medical University Graz, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria)

    2017-10-15

    Diagnostic imaging plays a significant role in both the diagnosis and treatment of complications of pneumonia in children and chest radiography is the imaging modality of choice. Computed tomography (CT) on the other hand, is not currently a first-line imaging tool for children with suspected uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia and is largely reserved for when complications of pneumonia are suspected or there is difficulty in differentiating pneumonia from other pathology. This review outlines the situations where CT needs to be considered in children with pneumonia, describes the imaging features of the parenchymal and pleural complications of pneumonia, discusses how CT may have a wider role in developing countries where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis are prevalent, makes note of the role of CT scanning for identifying missed foreign body aspiration and, lastly, addresses radiation concerns. (orig.)

  1. Diagnosis and Treatment of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Karymdzhanov

    2016-02-01

    The initial antibiotic therapy of community-acquired pneumonia is carried out empirically. In the treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia in children from 2 months to 5 years, the drug of choice is amoxicillin orally. Macrolides are the drugs of choice for children aged 5 to 16 years. In severe pneumonia, drugs of choice are amoxicillin clavulanate, 2nd–4th generation cephalosporins. In general, the duration of antibiotic therapy in the community-acquired pneumonia caused by typical bacteria is 7–10 days, by atypical bacteria — 10–14 days. In the real clinical practice, the errors associated with the choice of drug, route of administration, dosage, regimen of application, length of treatment are frequent during antibacterial therapy.

  2. [Community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füri, Julia; Oestmann, Andreas; Repond, Fernand

    2016-04-13

    We report the case of a 88 years old patient with cough and new onset confusion. Delirium was caused by a necrotizing Methicillin-sensible staphylococcus aureus pneumonia with bacteremia. Despite antibiotic therapy for several weeks and fall of inflammatory markers the patient died from consequences of delirium.

  3. Changing bacteriological profile and mortality trends in community acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Khadanga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are very few and conflicting Indian data regarding the bacteriological etiology of community acquired pneumonia (CAP. Adding to this agony, there is no credible data from the eastern part of India. This is a cross-sectional study and descriptive in nature over a period of 1-year. Of the 464 cases of the study population, we could isolate aerobic bacteria in 149 patients (32.1%. Streptococcus pneumoniae has been identified as the most common organism causing CAP (68/149. Gram-negative bacilli (GNB as a group exceeded marginally over S. pneumoniae (69/149. Among GNB, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common organism (31/69, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (29/69. Staphylococcus aureus was identified in (12/149 cases. Co-amoxyclav is still the most sensitive drug for S. pneumoniae. P. aeruginosa was most sensitive to imipenam followed by piperacillin-tazobactam.

  4. [Ceftaroline fosamil in community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbo, Esther; Zaragoza, Rafael

    2014-03-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infection in developed countries and causes a large number of hospital admissions and deaths. In recent years, the incidence of this disease has increased, caused by progressive population aging. Following the introduction of the conjugate vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae, there have been significant epidemiological changes that require close monitoring because of the possible emergence of new patterns of resistance. This article aims to review the role of ceftaroline fosamil, a new parenteral cephalosporin with antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens, in the treatment of pneumonia. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the efficacy of ceftaroline fosamil against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Additionally, ceftaroline has shown similar efficacy and safety to ceftriaxone in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia with severe prognosis (prognostic severity index III and IV) in two phase III clinical trials. Although a non-inferiority design was used for these clinical trials, some data suggest a superior efficacy of ceftaroline, with earlier clinical response and higher cure rate in infections caused by S. pneumoniae, making this drug particularly interesting for critically-ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Ceftaroline may also be considered for empirical and directed treatment of MRSA pneumonia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. [National consensus for management of community acquired pneumonia in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldías P, Fernando; Pérez C, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an acute respiratory infection that affects pulmonary parenchyma, and is caused by community acquired microorganisms. In Chile, pneumonia represents the main cause of death due to infectious diseases and is the third specific cause of mortality in adults. In 1999, an experts committee in representation of "Sociedad Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias", presented the first National Guidelines for the Treatment of Adult Community Acquired Pneumonia, mainly based in foreign experience and documents, and adapted it to our National Health System Organization. During the last decade, impressive epidemiological and technological changes have occurred, making the update of guidelines for treatment of NAC by several international scientific societies, necessary. These changes include: new respiratory pathogens that are being identified in CAP and affect adult patients (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila); the increasing senescent adult population that carries multiple co-morbidities; the emergence of antimicrobial resistance among respiratory pathogens associated to massive antibiotic prescription; the development by the pharmaceutical industry of new drugs that are effective for pneumonia treatment (macrolides, ketolides and respiratory fluorquinolones); and the development of new diagnostic techniques for detection of antigens, antibodies, and bacterial DNA by molecular biology, useful in respiratory infections. Based on these antecedents, an Advisory Committee of "Sociedad Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias" and "Sociedad Chilena de Infectología" has reviewed the national and international evidence about CAP management in adults in order to update clinical recommendations for our country.

  6. A prediction model for community-acquired Chlamydia pneumoniae pneumonia in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socan, M; Kosmelj, K; Marinic-Fiser, N; Vidmar, L

    2004-08-01

    The objective of the study was to identify factors that help to predict community-acquired Chlamydia pneumoniae pneumonia in hospitalized patients. Clinical data of 83 patients with serologically confirmed C. pneumoniae pneumonia were compared with the data obtained from 72 patients with bacterial pneumonia. The criteria of bacterial pneumonia included positive blood and/or sputum cultures and negative serology for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Coxiella burnetii. The data collected included demographics, chronic diseases, pre- and post-hospitalization course of pneumonia, clinical data on admission and laboratory findings. Descriptive statistical analysis, involving numerous variables, was followed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Two different situations, one including demographic data and information on the pre-hospitalization course of pneumonia, and another based on clinical information on admission and on laboratory results, were modeled using multivariate logistic regression. Several variables selected from these two models were incorporated into the third model, and the following four variables were found to have the highest predictive value of C. pneumoniae pneumonia: nursing home residence (odds ratio [OD] 3.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39-10.06), low c-reactive protein (CRP) levels (OD 5.99, 95% CI 1.82-19.67), nonproductive cough (OD 0.32, 95% CI 0.14-0.73), and a normal urinalysis (OD 0.38, 95% CI 0.17-0.83). Our findings seem to allow for a more reliable differentiation between C. pneumoniae pneumonia and other bacterial pneumonias, but further investigations will be needed to validate the proposed model.

  7. New horizons in hospital acquired pneumonia in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewan, Victoria; Hellyer, Thomas; Newton, Julia; Simpson, John

    2017-05-01

    Approximately 1.5% of hospital patients develop hospital acquired pneumonia. Aspiration is the major risk factor for pneumonia and is associated with reduced ability to mechanically clear respiratory pathogens into the stomach. Currently non-invasive methods of diagnosing hospital acquired pneumonia are less robust than invasive methods, and lead to over-diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis is key to surveillance, prevention and treatment of HAP, and also to improving outcomes; newer imaging modalities such as phase contrast X-ray imaging and nanoparticle enhanced magnetic resonance imaging may help. Potential preventative strategies such as systematic swallowing assessment in non-stroke patients, and interventions such as improving oral hygiene need further, robust randomised controlled trials. Antibiotics are likely to continue to be the mainstay of treatment, and new antibiotics such as ceftobiprole are likely to have a role in treating hospital acquired pneumonia. Given the spread of antimicrobial resistance, alternative treatment strategies including bacteriophages, peptides and antibodies are under investigation. Reducing the incidence of hospital acquired pneumonia could decrease length of hospital stay, reduce inappropriate antibiotic use, and both improve functional outcomes and mortality in our increasingly aged population. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. [Anti-inflammatory drugs and community-acquired pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirou, S; Voiriot, G

    2015-10-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used in ambulatory medicine for their analgesic and antipyretic properties and are often used as self-medication. Their use in community-acquired pneumonia is associated with an increased risk of loco-regional complications, especially pleural empyema. Appropriate therapeutic care and hospital admissions are often delayed because of initial improvement of symptoms with NSAIDs. Despite worrying observational data, a causal link remains to be established. Currently, there is no recommendation cautioning against the use of NSAIDs in the management of community-acquired pneumonia. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Chlamydia sp. in hospitalised children with community acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, R; Jain, A; Agarwal, J; Awasthi, S

    2007-03-01

    Our aim was to document the prevalence of chlamydial infection in children less than five years of age with Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP). Seventy three children, 1 month to 5 years of age, hospitalized with CAP were enrolled over a period of one year. Microimmunofluorescence (MIF) was done to detect IgM antibodies against Chlamydia sp. in sera of all patients; PCR was performed to detect C. pneumoniae DNA in nasopharyngeal aspirates. The prevalence of Chlamydia species infection in CAP in children pneumoniae antibodies and one case was positive for C. pneumoniae DNA. Chlamydia sp. have an important role in CAP in children < 5 years and for early diagnosis of infection, use of more than one method i.e. PCR and serology both is advisable.

  10. Immunomodulatory adjuvant therapy in severe community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Ben; Pennington, Shaun Harry; Gordon, Stephen B

    2014-10-01

    Severe pneumonia has a high mortality (38.2%) despite evidence-based therapy. Rising rates of antimicrobial resistance increase the urgency to develop new treatment strategies. Multiple adjuvant therapies for pneumonia have been investigated but none are currently licensed. Profound immune dysregulation occurs in patients with severe infection. An initial hyper-inflammatory response is followed by a secondary hypo-inflammatory response with 'immune-paralysis'. There is focus on the development of immunostimulatory agents to improve host ability to combat primary infection and reduce secondary infections. Successful treatments must be targeted to immune response; promising biomarkers exist but have not yet reached common bedside practice. We explore evidence for adjuvant therapies in community-acquired pneumonia. We highlight novel potential treatment strategies using a broad-based search strategy to include publications in pneumonia and severe sepsis. We explore reasons for the failure to develop effective adjuvant therapies and highlight the need for targeted therapy specific to immune activity.

  11. Antibiotic Treatment Strategies for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Douwe F.; Van Werkhoven, Cornelis H.; Van Elden, Leontine J R; Thijsen, Steven F T; Hoepelman, Andy I M; Kluytmans, Jan A J W; Boersma, Wim G.; Compaijen, Clara J.; Van Der Wall, Eva; Prins, Jan M.; Oosterheert, Jan J.; Bonten, Marc J M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The choice of empirical antibiotic treatment for patients with clinically suspected community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) who are admitted to non-intensive care unit (ICU) hospital wards is complicated by the limited availability of evidence. We compared strategies of empirical treatment

  12. Management and Prognosis of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, D.F.

    2016-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis, different aspects of both management and prognosis of adults admitted with CAP have been addressed in separate parts. In the first part, we evaluated empirical antibiotic therapy and statins as

  13. Hospital-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae infections in a paediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods. A retrospective case control chart review of children admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in Grey's Hospital between July 2003 and December 2010, who developed a hospital-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae infection, was undertaken to describe the trend in HAI in a newly commissioned PICU and ...

  14. Pattern of Community Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia in Kano, North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to determine the clinical pattern of bacterial community acquired pneumonia amongst patients admitted into medical wards in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano. The study was a descriptive prospective study incorporating consecutive adult patients aged fifteen years and above admitted ...

  15. Aetiology and outcome of severe community-acquired pneumonia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the aetiological agents and outcome of severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP) in children admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) at Kalafong Hospital, Pretoria. Patients and methods. An audit was done after a protocol was implemented to identify the aetiological agents in ...

  16. Etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in 1500 hospitalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumei, Hao; Xuefeng, Wang; Jianping, Liu; Kunling, Shen; Rong, Ma; Zhenze, Cui; Li, Deng; Huimin, Yan; Lining, Wang; Zhaolan, Liu; Xinmin, Li; Hua, Xu; Zhiyan, Jiang; Yanning, Li; Yan, Huang; Baoqing, Zhang; Xiaochun, Feng; Chunhui, He; Yonghong, Jiang; Xue, Zhao; Wei, Wei; Zi, Wang

    2018-03-01

    Childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common illness; however, comprehensive studies of hospitalizations for CAP among children in China based on prospective and multicenter data collection are limited. The aim of this investigation was to determine the respiratory pathogens responsible for CAP in hospitalized children. From January to December 2015, oropharyngeal swabs and blood serum were collected from hospitalized children with CAP symptoms ranging in age from 6 months to 14 years at 10 hospitals across China. We used immunofluorescence to detect antibodies for eight respiratory viruses and passive agglutination to detect specific IgM against Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae). Of 1500 children presenting with CAP, 691 (46.1%) tested positive for at least one pathogen (virus or M. pneumoniae). M. pneumoniae (32.4%) was detected most frequently, followed by respiratory syncytial virus (11.5%), adenovirus (5.0%), influenza A virus (4.1 %), influenza B virus (3.4%), parainfluenza virus types 2 and 3 type (3.1 %), parainfluenza virus type 1 (2.9%), and human metapneumovirus (0.3%). Co-infections were identified in 128 (18.5%) of the 691 cases. These data provide a better understanding of viral etiology and M. pneumoniae in CAP in children between 6 months and 14 years in China. More study of the etiologic investigations that would further aid the management of pneumonia is required. With effective immunization for RSV, ADV, and M. pneumoniae infections, more than one-half of the pneumonia cases in this study could have been prevented. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [Economic cost of Streptococcus pneumoniae community-acquired pneumonia, meningitis and bacteremia in an adult population that required hospitalization in Bogotá, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Claudia; Dennis, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in adults is related to pneumonia, meningitis and bacteremia. Its care costs in adults are not well documented in Colombia and it has a greater impact in people over 45 years old. The aims of this study were to analyze the associated costs of pneumonia, bacteremia and meningitis in invasive S. pneumoniae infection in Colombia among hospitalized adults and to estimate outpatient costs for community-acquired pneumonia. Additionally, we wanted to serve as a starting point for future economic evaluations. We performed a direct cost study associated with S. pneumoniae outpatient community-acquired pneumonia, bacteremia and meningitis costs confirmed by cultures. A cohort of hospitalized adults treated between January 2010 and June 2011 in three third level hospitals in Bogotá was analyzed. We evaluated 107 records and 60 bills charged to the payer. The data were classified according to care and treatment costs. We performed an estimate of direct costs for community-acquired pneumonia for outpatient cases through Delphi methodology using expert clinicians. The average direct costs associated with pneumococcal disease were US$ 6,283, US$ 3,886, and US$ 4,768 for pneumonia, meningitis and bacteremia, respectively (exchange rate 1 US$ = Col$ 1,938.34; average variation between 2010 and 2011). Pneumonia cases were 70% men and 30% women; the distribution for meningitis was the same for both genders (50%); and for bacteremia we had 67% men and 33% women. Outpatient cost of community-acquired pneumonia was estimated at US$ 82.2 ( Col $ 159,280 ) in adults. For special cases, direct cost increased to US$ 142 ( Col $ 274,427). The management of S. pneumoniae infection in people over 45 years old represents a high cost due to the use of drugs and hospitalization, which has a direct impact on health resources. Prevention and early treatment for pneumonia can reduce the cost and the burden of the disease.

  18. Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as hospitals is called hospital-acquired pneumonia . Causes Pneumonia is a common illness that affects millions of ... States. Germs called bacteria, viruses, and fungi may cause pneumonia. In adults, bacteria are the most common cause ...

  19. Prognostic factors of mortality in elderly with community acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đordjević Ivanka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Community acquired pneumonia in elderly has specific clinical aspect and higher mortality in relation to younger patients. According to specific pneumonia severity assessment on admission and its importance in proper prediction of clinical course and outcome, the aim of this study was defining prognostic factors of mortality. Methods. This study included 240 patients aged ≥ 65 years with community acquired pneumonia. On admission, demographic characteristics, underlying diseases, physical symptoms and findings, laboratory values, chest radiography and oxygen blood saturation (SaO2 were analyzed. Multivariate analysis was used to identify characteristic prognostic factors which showed a statistical significance in relation to mortality. Results. Altered mental status, respiratory frequency ≥ 23/min and the presence of bilateral pneumonic infiltrates were defined as the most important prognostic factors of mortality (p < 0.001. These factors displayed 57.89% sensitivity, 100% specificity and 93.33% accuracy. Conclusion. The presence of identified characteristic prognostic factors on admission pointed out an adverse clinical course and outcome of community acquired pneumonia in elderly. Age and sex were not significantly associated with mortality.

  20. [Topical problems of empiric therapy of community-acquired pneumonia in outpatient practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, I I; Chorbinskaya, S A; Baryshnikonva, G A; Nikiforova, N V; Pokutniy, N F; Zverkov, I V; Maslovskyi, L V; Kotenko, K V

    2016-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia is one of prevalent infectious respiratory diseases. Adequate treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, with consideration of the disease severity and microbial resistence, remains extremely topical. The article covers contemporary views of community-acquired pneumonia treatment standards. The authors described results of personal research aimed to study antibacterial treatment for community-acquired pneumonia on outpatient basis over 2004-2012, evaluated correspondence of the treatment to the national clinical recommendations.

  1. Etiology of childhood community acquired pneumonia and its implications for vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento-Carvalho Cristiana M.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among children throughout the world. Vaccines are available for some organisms, but they are underutilized and/or still in development. To evaluate the potential impact of vaccines, we review studies in which the etiology of childhood community-acquired pneumonia was recorded. In North America and Europe (9 studies, the etiology of pneumonia was established in 62% of studied children (range 43%-88% by use of noninvasive specific methods for microbiologic diagnosis. The most often identified agents were S. pneumoniae (22%, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV (20%, Haemophilus influenzae (7%, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (15%. In Africa and South America (8 studies, bacteria were recovered from 56% (range 32%-68% of severely ill children studied by lung aspirate. The most often isolated bacteria were Streptococcus pneumoniae (33% and Haemophilus influenzae (21%. A high percentage of H. influenzae strains were not serotype b. Throughout the world, children requiring hospitalization were most likely to have infection caused by pneumococcus H. influenzae or RSV. Out patients also had Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Countries in Africa and Asia recorded 2 to 10 times more children with pneumonia (7 to 40/100 annually than in the USA. Widespread use of pneumococcal and H. influenzae type b conjugate vaccines could reduce the frequency of childhood pneumonia by one-third. Further reduction will require development of non-type b H. influenzae, RSV and M. pneumoniae vaccines. This could result in a > 50% reduction of pneumonia in children. This goal should be sought and achieved as soon as possible.

  2. Тhe features of severe community acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramenko I.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on data from a prospective analysis for the year of observation, the article presents information about the features of severe community acquired pneumonia in patients who were hospitalized at the department of pulmonology (or therapy, as well as department of the intensive care from three teaching hospitals in Dnepropetrovsk, namely "Dnipropetrovsk City Hospital №6», "Dnipropetrovsk City Hospital №2», "Dnipropetrovsk City Hospital №16», which are the clinical ones of "Dnepropetrovsk Medical Academy of the Ministry of Health Ukraine". Dependence of the severity of the condition shown on duration of illness before admission, features of season character of disease. The effect of breathing exercises on the course of the disease. The results can be the basis for a more personal approach to the development of diagnostic and therapeutic programs for patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia.

  3. Current and future etiologic therapy of bacterial pneumonia. 1. Antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.Е. Abaturov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The progressive increase in the prevalence of respiratory infections caused by multiresistant pathogenic agents is a serious problem requiring strict indications and development of algorithms for prescribing antibacterial drugs for pneumonia treatment. Amoxicillin is a drug of choice for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia with a mild and uncomplicated course in children. The indications for prescribing macrolides are the patient’s allergy to β-lactam antibiotics or suspect mycoplasmal or chlamydial etiology of pneumonia. The choice of amoxicillin/clavulanate or cephalosporins for oral administration is proved by the laboratory data or a clinical suspicion of pneumonia caused by pathogens producing β-lactamases. The treatment strategy with the use of non-antibiotic agents for antibiotic-associated diseases therapy is being actively developed currently.

  4. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp. infection in community-acquired pneumonia, Germany, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumke, Roger; Schnee, Christiane; Pletz, Mathias W; Rupp, Jan; Jacobs, Enno; Sachse, Konrad; Rohde, Gernot

    2015-03-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp., which are associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), are difficult to propagate, and can cause clinically indistinguishable disease patterns. During 2011-2012, we used molecular methods to test adult patients in Germany with confirmed CAP for infection with these 2 pathogens. Overall, 12.3% (96/783) of samples were positive for M. pneumoniae and 3.9% (31/794) were positive for Chlamydia spp.; C. psittaci (2.1%) was detected more frequently than C. pneumoniae (1.4%). M. pneumoniae P1 type 1 predominated, and levels of macrolide resistance were low (3.1%). Quarterly rates of M. pneumoniae-positive samples ranged from 1.5% to 27.3%, showing a strong epidemic peak for these infections, but of Chlamydia spp. detection was consistent throughout the year. M. pneumoniae-positive patients were younger and more frequently female, had fewer co-occurring conditions, and experienced milder disease than did patients who tested negative. Clinicians should be aware of the epidemiology of these pathogens in CAP.

  5. Low prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in adults with community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellinghausen, Nele; Straube, Eberhard; Freidank, Heike; von Baum, Heike; Marre, Reinhard; Essig, Andreas

    2006-11-01

    The incidence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to Chlamydia pneumoniae was determined in a prospective study of 546 adult patients with CAP included in the German CAP Competence Network (CAPNETZ) project. Three different PCR protocols for detection of C. pneumoniae in respiratory specimens were compared by a multicenter, inter-laboratory comparison involving three laboratories. A case was defined as a patient with a respiratory sample positive by PCR in at least two laboratories. CAP was caused by C. pneumoniae in 5/546 cases (0.9%). Antibody testing by microimmunofluorescence was done in 376 of 546 patients. All patients were negative for IgM antibodies. In the five PCR-positive patients, neither specific IgG nor IgA antibodies were found. Patients with CAP caused by C. pneumoniae had a lower median age (36 years) than the general study population (62 years). C. pneumoniae is currently a rare cause of CAP in adult patients in Germany. Analysis of a single serum sample is not useful for diagnosis of acute C. pneumoniae infection in CAP.

  6. Pneumonia associated with health care versus community acquired pneumonia: different entities, distinct approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Guimarães

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP is now identified as a unique entity that differs from community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, and in many ways is similar to nosocomial pneumonia (NP.Patients with the diagnosis of CAP and HCAP admitted to our Pneumology Unit during one year were retrospectively analysed. The objective was to compare the characteristics and the approach of these two entities.197 patients were included, 144 with CAP and 53 with HCAP. Sex, age, comorbilities, Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI score, radiological involvement, bacteriology, treatment and outcomes were analysed in the 2 groups.Compared to CAP, HCAP was associated with more severe disease, a higher mortality rate and greater length of hospitalization. HCAP differed from CAP mainly in bacteriology and outcomes. Resumo: A Pneumonia associada a cuidados de saúde (PACS está identificada como uma entidade única que difere da pneumonia adquirida na comunidade (PAC e que, em muitos aspectos, se assemelha à pneumonia nosocomial (PN.Os autores apresentam um estudo retrospectivo, que inclui doentes internados no Serviço de Pneumologia do Centro Hospitalar de Coimbra com o diagnóstico de PAC e PACS, durante o período de um ano, cujo objectivo foi comparar as características e a abordagem destas duas entidades.Foram incluídos 197 pacientes, 144 com o diagnóstico de PAC e 53 de PACS. Nos dois grupos foram analisados sexo, idade, co-morbilidades, Índice de gravidade de PSI (Pneumonia Severity Index, envolvimento radiológico, bacteriologia, tratamento e evolução. Quando comparada com a PAC, a PACS esteve associada a maior severidade, maior taxa de mortalidade e internamentos mais longos; A PACS diferiu da PAC principalmente nos microorganismos causadores na sua evolução. Keywords: Community-acquired pneumonia, Healthcare-associated pneumonia, epidemiology, Palavras-chave: Pneumonia adquirida na comunidade, Pneumonia associada a cuidados de saúde, epidemiologia

  7. Serotypes and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Marta; Aliberti, Stefano; Azzari, Chara; Moriondo, Maria; Nieddu, Francesco; Blasi, Francesco; Mantero, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Pneumonia remain an important public health problem. The primary objective was to determine the proportion of community-acquired pneumonia that is attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection; secondary objectives were the description of community-acquired pneumonia attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae according to socio-demographic and clinical variables, the clinical evolution of community-acquired pneumonia and the description of the serotype distribution of vaccine-preventable disease and antibiotic resistance rate of pneumococcal infections. An observational, prospective study was conducted on consecutive patients coming from the community, who were hospitalized with pneumonia. Data on admission, at discharge and 30 days after discharge were collected. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the risk factors independently associated with pneumococcal pneumonia. Among the 193 patients enrolled in the study, the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia was identified in 60 patients (33%) and 35 (18%) of evaluable patients had community-acquired pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Of all clinical characteristics, if no previous antibiotic treatment was performed, there was a 13-fold higher risk of presenting community-acquired pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae (odds ratio, 12.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.42-117.9). Moreover, the most frequent isolated serotypes were 35F, 3 and 24 (29%, 23% and 16%, respectively). The most frequent serotypes in pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia are 35F, 3, 24, 6 and 7A, and thus almost 50% of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains could be covered by pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13 in adult patients with risk factors for pneumococcal infections.

  8. Community-acquired pneumonia in older patients: does age influence systemic cytokine levels in community-acquired pneumonia?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, Emer

    2009-03-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major cause of death in the elderly. The age-related increase in comorbid illnesses plays a part but the effect of aging on the immune response may be equally important. We aimed to evaluate patients with CAP for evidence of a muted response to infection in elderly patients admitted to hospital compared with a younger patient group.

  9. The impact of coagulation parameters on the outcomes of patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia requiring intensive care unit admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salluh, Jorge I F; Rabello, Ligia S C F; Rosolem, Maira M; Soares, Márcio; Bozza, Fernando A; Verdeal, Juan Carlos R; Mello, Gustavo W; Castro Faria Neto, Hugo C; Lapa E Silva, José Roberto; Bozza, Patrícia T

    2011-10-01

    Coagulation abnormalities are frequent in patients with severe infections. However, the predictive value of d-dimer and of the presence of associated coagulation derangements in severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains to be thoroughly evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of coagulation parameters in patients with severe CAP admitted to the intensive care unit. d-Dimer, antithrombin, International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis score, clinical variables, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and the CURB-65 score were measured in the first 24 hours. Results are shown as median (25%-75% interquartile range). The main outcome measure was hospital mortality. Ninety patients with severe CAP admitted to the intensive care unit were evaluated. Overall hospital mortality was 15.5%. d-Dimer levels in nonsurvivors were higher than those in survivors. In the univariate analysis, d-dimer, SOFA, and APACHE II scores were predictors of death. The discriminative ability of d-dimer (area under receiver operating curve = 0.75 [95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.83]; best cutoff for d-dimer was 1798 ng/mL) for in-hospital mortality was comparable with APACHE II and SOFA and better than C-reactive protein. Moreover, the addition of d-dimer to APACHE II or SOFA score increased the discriminative ability of both scores (area under the receiver operating curve = 0.82 [0.72-0.89] and 0.84 [0.75-0.91], respectively). d-Dimer levels are good predictors of outcome in severe CAP and may augment the predictive ability of scoring systems as APACHE II and SOFA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Liana Sousa [UNESP; Tanni, Suzana Erico; Godoy, Irma de [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    Pneumonia is an infectious disease with great morbidity and mortality worldwide. According to the current guidelines recommendations the authors reviewed the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). In this paper will be presented data about etiology, clinics and diagnostic tools. © Copyright Moreira Jr. Editora.

  11. Pneumonia estafilocócica adquirida na comunidade Community-acquired staphylococcal pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wellington Alves dos Santos

    2008-09-01

    . METHODS: A retrospective and descriptive study was conducted in patients admitted to our hospital between January of 1992 and December of 2003. All of he patients included had been diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus. All were older than 14 years of age, and none were intravenous drug users. RESULTS: Community-acquired pneumonia was identified in 332 cases, of which 24 (7.3% were identified as cases of staphylococcal pneumonia. Age ranged from 14 to 89 years. Fifteen patients were male, and nine were female. Twelve patients met the criteria for severe pneumonia. Chest X-rays showed unilateral consolidation in 14 cases, bilateral consolidation in 10, pleural effusion in 15, rapid radiological progression of pulmonary lesions in 14, cavitation in 6 and pneumothorax in 1. Most of the patients presented comorbidities, of which diabetes mellitus was the most common. Twelve patients presented complications such as empyema and septic shock. Four patients died, translating to a mortality rate of 16.6% in our sample. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical presentation of pneumonia caused by S. aureus is similar to that of pneumonia caused by other etiological agents. Radiological findings, epidemiological data and risk factors provide important clues to the diagnosis. These factors are important for clinical suspicion, since S. aureus is not typically addressed in empirical treatment.

  12. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp. Infection in Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Germany, 2011–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumke, Roger; Schnee, Christiane; Pletz, Mathias W.; Rupp, Jan; Jacobs, Enno; Sachse, Konrad; Group, CAPNETZ Study

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp., which are associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), are difficult to propagate, and can cause clinically indistinguishable disease patterns. During 2011–2012, we used molecular methods to test adult patients in Germany with confirmed CAP for infection with these 2 pathogens. Overall, 12.3% (96/783) of samples were positive for M. pneumoniae and 3.9% (31/794) were positive for Chlamydia spp.; C. psittaci (2.1%) was detected more frequently than C. pneumoniae (1.4%). M. pneumoniae P1 type 1 predominated, and levels of macrolide resistance were low (3.1%). Quarterly rates of M. pneumoniae–positive samples ranged from 1.5% to 27.3%, showing a strong epidemic peak for these infections, but of Chlamydia spp. detection was consistent throughout the year. M. pneumoniae–positive patients were younger and more frequently female, had fewer co-occurring conditions, and experienced milder disease than did patients who tested negative. Clinicians should be aware of the epidemiology of these pathogens in CAP. PMID:25693633

  13. Community-acquired pneumonia and positive urinary antigen tests: Factors associated with targeted antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothes, A; Léotard, S; Nicolle, I; Smets, A; Chirio, D; Rotomondo, C; Tiger, F; Del Giudice, P; Perrin, C; Néri, D; Foucault, C; Della Guardia, M; Hyvernat, H; Roger, P-M

    2016-10-01

    The use of rapid microbiological tests is supported by antimicrobial stewardship policies. Targeted antibiotic therapy (TAT) for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with positive urinary antigen test (UAT) has been associated with a favorable impact on outcome. We aimed to determine the factors associated with TAT prescription. We conducted a retrospective multicenter study including all patients presenting with CAP and positive UAT for Streptococcus pneumoniae or Legionella pneumophila from January 2010 to December 2013. Patients presenting with aspiration pneumonia, coinfection, and neutropenia were excluded. CAP severity was assessed using the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI). TAT was defined as the administration of amoxicillin for pneumococcal infection and either macrolides or fluoroquinolones (inactive against S. pneumoniae) for Legionella infection. A total of 861 patients were included, including 687 pneumococcal infections and 174 legionellosis from eight facilities and 37 medical departments. TAT was prescribed to 273 patients (32%). Four factors were found independently associated with a lower rate of TAT: a PSI score≥4 (OR 0.37), Hospital A (OR 0.41), hospitalization in the intensive care unit (OR 0.44), and cardiac comorbidities (OR 0.60). Four other factors were associated with a high rate of TAT: positive blood culture for S. pneumoniae (OR 2.32), Hospitals B (OR 2.34), E (OR 2.68), and H (OR 9.32). TAT in CAP with positive UAT was related to the hospitals as well as to patient characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. [Guidelines for management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopardo, Gustavo; Basombrío, Adriana; Clara, Liliana; Desse, Javier; De Vedia, Lautaro; Di Libero, Eugenia; Gañete, Marcelo; López Furst, María José; Mykietiuk, Analía; Nemirovsky, Corina; Osuna, Carolina; Pensotti, Claudia; Scapellato, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia in adults is a common cause of morbidity and mortality particularly in the elderly and in patients with comorbidities. Most episodes are of bacterial origin, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequently isolated pathogen. Epidemiological surveillance provides information about changes in microorganisms and their susceptibility. In recent years there has been an increase in cases caused by community-acquired meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Legionella sp. The chest radiograph is essential as a diagnostic tool. CURB-65 score and pulse oximetry allow stratifying patients into those who require outpatient care, general hospital room or admission to intensive care unit. Diagnostic studies and empirical antimicrobial therapy are also based on this stratification. The use of biomarkers such as procalcitonin or C-reactive protein is not part of the initial evaluation because its use has not been shown to modify the initial approach. We recommend treatment with amoxicillin for outpatients under 65 year old and without comorbidities, for patients 65 years or more or with comorbidities amoxicillin-clavulanic/sulbactam, for patients hospitalized in general ward ampicillin-sulbactam with or without the addition of clarithromycin, and for patients admitted to intensive care unit ampicillin-sulbactam plus clarithromycin. Suggested treatment duration is 5 to 7 days for outpatients and 7 to 10 for those who are hospitalized. During the influenza season addition of oseltamivir for hospitalized patients and for those with comorbidities is suggested.

  15. Undiagnosed Diabetes Mellitus in Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Vestergaard; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Egelund, Gertrud Baunbæk

    2017-01-01

    diabetes mellitus. Results: Fifteen percent of patients had known diabetes mellitus. Among patients without known diabetes mellitus, 5.0% had undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and 37.5% had prediabetes. Male sex (odds ratio [OR], 2.45 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.35-4.45]), body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 (OR, 2.......64 [95% CI, 1.48-4.72]), and hyperglycemia at admission (6-11 mM: OR, 2.93 [95% CI, 1.54-5.60] and ≥11 mM: OR, 44.76 [95% CI, 17.58-113.98]) were associated with undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. Patients with undiagnosed diabetes mellitus had a higher 180-day mortality rate compared to patients without......Background: Diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for community-acquired pneumonia, whereas the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and prediabetes in patients with community-acquired pneumonia is largely unknown. We aimed to determine the prevalence of prediabetes, undiagnosed...

  16. Role of Chlamydia pneumoniae in community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized Jordanian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aydie, Suzan N; Obeidat, Nathir M; Al-Younes, Hesham M

    2016-03-31

    This study investigated the role of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Jordanian adults. Eighty hospitalized CAP patients and 110 healthy adults were enrolled. Overall prevalences of C. pneumoniae IgG antibodies in sera and the rate of acute infection were estimated, using the microimmunofluorescence method (MIF), at titers of 1:16 and 1:512, respectively. Moreover, a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect C. pneumoniae DNA in nasopharyngeal and blood Buffy coat samples. Overall chlamydial IgG prevalence was higher in CAP cases than controls (70% versus 61.8%). Similarly, higher rate of acute infection was found in patients than in controls (16.3% versus 5.5%). By focusing on subjects testing positive at 1:16, acute infection was detectable in 23.2% of CAP cases, compared with 8.8% of seropositive controls. Chlamydial DNA was confirmed in 8.2% and 8.8% of nasopharyngeal specimens from controls and patients, respectively. Moreover, 10.9% and 7.5% of Buffy coats from controls and cases, respectively, were PCR-positive. When performances of both assays for detection of the pathogen were assessed, the sensitivities of MIF and PCR were low and comparable. However, MIF demonstrated higher specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value than PCR. MIF-based data indicate that C. pneumoniae could be a potential causal agent of CAP in Jordan. This study may serve as a basis to elucidate the exact role C. pneumoniae and other co-infecting pathogens in the etiology of respiratory tract disease.

  17. A european-wide study on the role of streptococcus pneumoniae in community-acquired pneumonia among adults: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pechlivanoglou, P.; Rozenbaum, M.; Van Der Werf, T.; Lo-Ten-Foe, J.; Postma, M.; Hak, E.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia is an important cause of hospitalization and death among adults, but figures on the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae largely vary. We aimed to identify the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae by systematically reviewing all available

  18. Bacteremic community-acquired pneumonia due to Klebsiella pneumoniae: clinical and microbiological characteristics in Taiwan, 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Tsung; Jeng, Yuan-Yu; Chen, Te-Li; Fung, Chang-Phone

    2010-10-25

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is the major cause of community-acquired pyogenic infections in Taiwan. This retrospective study evaluated the clinical and microbiological characteristics of bacteremic community-acquired pneumonia due to K. pneumoniae in Taiwanese adults. The clinical characteristics of bacteremic community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults due to K. pneumoniae were compared to those of adults with bacteremic CAP due to Streptococcus pneumoniae at a tertiary medical center in Taiwan from 2001-2008. Risk factors for mortality of bacteremic CAP due to K. pneumoniae were analyzed. All clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae were examined for capsular serotypes, hypermucoviscosity phenotype, aerobactin and rmpA gene. K. pneumoniae was the dominant cause of bacteremic CAP and was associated with a more fulminant course and a worse prognosis than bacteremic CAP due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Initial presentation with septic shock and respiratory failure were independent risk factors for both early and total mortality. Serotype K1 and K2 comprised around half of all isolates. There were no significant differences in the clinical characteristics of patients with bacteremic CAP due to K1/K2 and non-K1/K2 isolates. Hypermucoviscosity phenotype as well as the aerobactin and rmpA genes were highly prevalent in the K. pneumoniae isolates. K. pneumoniae continued to be the dominant cause of bacteremic CAP in Taiwanese adults during 2001-2008. Initial presentation with septic shock and respiratory failure were independent risk factors for both early and total mortality from K. pneumoniae bacteremic CAP. Serotypes K1/K2 comprised around half of all isolates, but did not predispose patients to a poor clinical outcome. Physicians should be aware of the poor prognosis of any patient with bacteremic K. pneumoniae CAP and monitor these patients more closely.

  19. [Nutritional status and mortality in community acquired pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pecci, María Soledad; Carlson, Damián; Montero-Tinnirello, Javier; Parodi, Roberto L; Montero, Antonio; Greca, Alcides A

    2010-01-01

    Pneumonias are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and their prognosis depends on many factors including nutritional status. This study analyzed the relationship between malnutrition and the risk of death in Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) patients. This is a prospective observational study. The Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) was used as a screening tool to appraise the nutritional status. Ninety-eight patients with CAP requiring hospitalization were included consecutively from October 2004 to September 2006. The clinical, bacteriological and laboratory features were recorded. Patient's nutritional condition was assessed using the SGA. The monitoring was performed until discharge, death or shunt. Persistent cough or fever, the presence of pleural effusion, malignancies or long hospitalization were associated with worse prognosis. Mortality increased in proportion to the degree of malnutrition. Thirty two CAP patients (32.65%) were classified as SGA-category A; 44 (44.90%) as SGA-B, and 22 (22.45%) as SGA-C. Pneumonia resulted in death in 3/32 SGA-A (9.37%), 8/44 SGA-B (18.18%) and 10/22 SGA-C patients. SGA-C patients showed significantly higher odds ratios for death in comparison to SGA-A patients (OR = 6.085, CI95%: 1.071-34.591; p = 0.042). Considering death as the outcome variable, SGA-A class had the highest negative predictive value (0.906), while SGA-C class showed the highest positive predictive value (0.455). These results link the nutritional status to the NAC evolution prognostic. SGA provides a simple estimation of the nutritional status and it is a good predictor of the risk of death in CAP patients.

  20. Comparison of Severity Scoring Systems in Community-Acquired Pneumonia

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    İbrahim Onur Alıcı

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the ability of CURB-65, pneumonia severity index and SMART-COP systems to predict 30-day mortality and the need for intensive respiratory and vasopressor support (IVRS. Methods: We included 84 cases with community acquired pneumonia (CAP and followed up for 30 days. The scores were calculated at admission and associated with the 30-day mortality and the need for intensive respiratory and vasopressor support. Results: The mean age of patients was 58.6±18.7 years. The 30-day mortality level for CAP was 7.1%. Fourteen of 84 patients (16.7% with CAP were followed in ICU. The area under curve (AUC values of the three systems (CURB-65, PSI, and SMART-COP for 30-day mortality were 0.89, 0.89 and 0.91, respectively, and for the need for IRVS was 0.88, 0.91 and 0.93, respectively. Conclusion: The three systems accurately detected the need for IRVS and the 30-day mortality, but none individually demonstrated any advantage over the others.

  1. Hospital Resource Utilisation by Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, S

    2017-09-01

    Little data is available on the resource utilisation of patients admitted with Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) in Ireland. A retrospective review of 50 randomly-selected patients admitted to Beaumont Hospital with CAP was undertaken. The mean length of stay of patients with CAP was 12 days (+\\/- 16 days). All patients were emergency admissions, all had a chest x-ray, a C-reactive protein blood test, and occupied a public bed at some point during admission. Common antimicrobial therapies were intravenous (IV) amoxicillin\\/clavulanic acid and oral clarithromycin; 60% received physiotherapy. The estimated mean cost of CAP per patient was €14,802.17. Costs arising from admission to hospital with CAP are substantial, but efforts can be undertaken to ensure that resources are used efficiently to improve patient care such as discharge planning and fewer in-hospital ward transfers

  2. Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children: A Multidisciplinary Consensus Review

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    Donald E Low

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is common among children and may have viral, bacterial or, occasionally, other causes. The etiology is complex, with age-related trends, and differs from that in adult CAP, necessitating different management guidelines. There is an absence of current guidelines for the management of pediatric CAP (PCAP that take into account changing etiologies, antimicrobial-resistance issues and the use of newly licensed antimicrobials. The present review does not provide specific guidelines, but it reviews the literature and presents currrent approaches to the treatment of PCAP. To compile the review, an expert panel was convened to provide a consensus. The review discusses the etiology, diagnosis and antimicrobial treatment of PCAP as well as indications for referral to a hospital emergency department. The goal of the review is to provide those involved with treatment of PCAP in the community setting with information that can be used to make effective treatment choices.

  3. Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Liana Sousa [UNESP; Do Vale, Simone Alves [UNESP; Godoy, Irma de [UNESP; Tanni, Suzana Erico [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    Pneumonia is an infectious disease with great morbidity and mortality worldwide. According to the current guidelines recommendations the authors reviewed the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP). In this paper will be also presented data about etiology, clinics and diagnostic tools. © Copyright Moreira Jr. Editora.

  4. Rapidly fatal community-acquired pneumonia due to Klebsiella pneumoniae complicated with acute myocarditis and accelerated idioventricular rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Tzu-Yi; Lin, Chou-Jui; Lee, Shih-Wei; Chuang, Chun-Pin; Jong, Yuh-Shiun; Chen, Wen-Jone; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2012-08-01

    We describe a previously healthy 52-year-old man with rapidly fatal community-acquired pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae. The patient developed acute renal dysfunction, accelerated idioventricular rhythm (acute myocarditis), lactic acidosis and septic shock. He died within 15 hours after admission despite intravenous levofloxacin (750 mg daily) and aggressive medical treatment. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. The role of Streptococcus pneumoniae in community-acquired pneumonia among adults in Europe : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozenbaum, M.H.; Pechlivanoglou, P.; Van Der Werf, T.S.; Lo-Ten-Foe, J.R.; Postma, M.J.; Hak, E.

    The primary objective of this meta-analysis was to estimate the prevalence of adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in Europe, adjusted for possible independent covariates. Two reviewers conducted a systematic literature search using PubMed on English-language

  6. Costs and health care resource utilization among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with newly acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Junji Lin,1 Yunfeng Li,2 Haijun Tian,2 Michael J Goodman,1 Susan Gabriel,2 Tara Nazareth,2 Stuart J Turner,2,3 Stephen Arcona,2 Kristijan H Kahler21Department of Pharmacotherapy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 3Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA Background: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are at increased risk for lung infections and other pathologies (eg, pneumonia; however, few studies have evaluated the impact of pneumonia on health care resource utilization and costs in this population. The purpose of this study was to estimate health care resource utilization and costs among COPD patients with newly acquired pneumonia compared to those without pneumonia. Methods: A retrospective claims analysis using Truven MarketScan® Commercial and Medicare databases was conducted. COPD patients with and without newly acquired pneumonia diagnosed between January 1, 2004 and September 30, 2011 were identified. Propensity score matching was used to create a 1:1 matched cohort. Patient demographics, comorbidities (measured by Charlson Comorbidity Index, and medication use were evaluated before and after matching. Health care resource utilization (ie, hospitalizations, emergency room [ER] and outpatient visits, and associated health care costs were assessed during the 12-month follow-up. Logistic regression was conducted to evaluate the risk of hospitalization and ER visits, and gamma regression models and two-part models compared health care costs between groups after matching. Results: In the baseline cohort (N=467,578, patients with newly acquired pneumonia were older (mean age: 70 versus [vs] 63 years and had higher Charlson Comorbidity Index scores (3.3 vs 2.6 than patients without pneumonia. After propensity score matching, the pneumonia cohort was nine times more likely

  7. ABIFLOX EFFICACY IN COMPLEX THERAPY OF PATIENTS WITH COMMUNITY ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Lyadova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study, during which the efficacy of levofloxacin in the treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia was evaluated. It was found that levofloxacin is a highly effective treatment for patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

  8. Guidelines for severe community-acquired pneumonia in the western world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegelin, AL; Bissumbhar, P; Joore, JCA; Lammers, JWJ; Hoepelman, IM

    Background: Recently, several guidelines (ATS 1993/LDSA 1998; ERS 1998; SWAB 1998) have been issued for the initial therapy of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. In patients who fulfil the criteria for severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP), it was advised to start with a macrolide

  9. Community-Acquired Cavitary Pseudomonas Pneumonia Linked to Use of a Home Humidifier

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    Eric Woods

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that rarely causes pneumonia in otherwise healthy patients. We describe a case of community-acquired P. aeruginosa pneumonia in a previously healthy individual who likely acquired the infection from a home humidifier.

  10. Health related quality of life in patients with community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luiz Flavio; Saba, Grèce; Ricard, Jean-Damien; Messika, Jonathan; Gaillat, Jacques; Bonnin, Pierre; Chidiac, Christian; Illes, Hajnal-Gabriela; Laurichesse, Henri; Detournay, Bruno; Petitpretz, Patrick; de Pouvourville, Gérard

    2018-02-02

    Community Acquired Pneumococcal Pneumonia is a lung infection that causes serious health problems and can lead to complications and death. The aim of this study was to observe and analyze health related quality of life after a hospital episode for patients with community acquired pneumococcal pneumonia in France. A total of 524 individuals were enrolled prospectively in the study and were followed for 12 months after hospital discharge. Presence of streptococcus pneumoniae was confirmed by microbiological sampling. Quality of life was reported at four different points of time with the EQ-5D-3 L health states using the French reference tariff. Complete data on all four periods was available for 269 patients. We used descriptive and econometric analysis to assess quality of life over time during follow-up, and to identify factors that impact the utility indexes and their evolution through time. We used Tobit panel data estimators to deal with the bounded nature of utility values. Average age of patients was 63 and 55% of patients were men. Negative predictors of quality of life were the severity of the initial event, history of pneumonia, smokers, age and being male. On average, quality of life improved in the first 6 months after discharge and stabilized beyond. At month 1, mean utility index was 0.53 (SD: 0.34) for men and 0.45 (SD: 0.34) for women, versus mean of 0.69 (SD: 0.33) and 0.70 (SD: 0.35) at Month 12. "Usual activities" was the dimension the most impacted by the disease episode. Utilities for men were significantly higher than for women, although male patients were more severe. Individuals over 85 years old did not improve quality of life during follow-up, and quality of life did not improve or deteriorated for 34% of patients. We found that length of hospital stay was negatively correlated with quality of life immediately after discharge. This study provides with evidence that quality of life after an episode of community acquired pneumococcal

  11. Community-acquired pneumonia in an intensive care unit

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    M. Raquel Marques

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is the leading cause of sepsis in adult critical care.We present a retrospective study of patients admitted to a polyvalent intensive care unit with CAP from 1st June 2004 – 31st December 2006.We analysed 76 patients with a mean age of 62.88 (18.75 years. Mean APACHE II score was 24.88 (9.75. Mean SAPS II was 51.18 (18.05, with a predicted mortality of 47.27%. Aetiology was identified in 42.1% of the patients. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most frequent aetiological agent, but the group of aetiological agents more frequently identified was Gram-negative enteric bacilli.Levofloxacine was the most frequently previously used antibio tic. The most frequently used antibiotherapy scheme was the association ceftriaxone – azithromicine. It was possible to evaluate suitability of treatment in 32 patients; 27 were on suitable antibiotherapy regimes. 66 patients (86.8% were on respirators, with a median length of 4 days. The median length of stay was 5.3 days. ICU mortality was 36.8% and hospital mortality 55.26%.SAPS II, CRP (C-reactive protein, potassium and initial unsuitable antibiotherapy were related to mortality. After multivariate analysis, only SAPS II maintained statistical significance.Use of antibiotics should be judicious, taking the most frequent agents and their susceptibility into consideration. Resumo: A pneumonia adquirida na comunidade (PAC é a principal causa de sépsis em cuidados intensivos de adultos. Com o objectivo de caracterizar o quadro clínico de PAC em cuidados intensivos, tratamento e avaliação de factores prognósticos, com especial relevância para a antibioterapia, realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo dos doentes admitidos numa UCI polivalente com PAC, de 1 de Junho de 2004 a 31 de Dezembro de 2006. Analisaram-se 76 doentes com uma idade média de 62,88 (18,75 anos. O APACHE II médio de 24,88 (9,75 e o SAPS 2 médio era de 51,18 (18,05, com mortalidade

  12. 75 FR 73107 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia and Ventilator-Associated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... Pneumonia and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia: Developing Drugs for Treatment; Availability AGENCY... Pneumonia and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia: Developing Drugs for Treatment.'' The purpose of... antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of hospital- acquired bacterial pneumonia (HABP) and ventilator-associated...

  13. [Community acquired pneumonia in children: Outpatient treatment and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Pérez, D; Andrés Martín, A; Tagarro García, A; Escribano Montaner, A; Figuerola Mulet, J; García García, J J; Moreno-Galdó, A; Rodrigo Gonzalo de Lliria, C; Ruiz Contreras, J; Saavedra Lozano, J

    2015-12-01

    There have been significant changes in community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children in the last decade. These changes relate to epidemiology and clinical presentation. Resistance to antibiotics is also a changing issue. These all have to be considered when treating CAP. In this document, two of the main Spanish pediatric societies involved in the treatment of CAP in children, propose a consensus concerning therapeutic approach. These societies are the Spanish Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases and the Spanish Society of Paediatric Chest Diseases. The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics (CAV-AEP) has also been involved in the prevention of CAP. An attempt is made to provide up-to-date guidelines to all paediatricians. The first part of the statement presents the approach to ambulatory, previously healthy children. We also review the prevention with currently available vaccines. In a next second part, special situations and complicated forms will be addressed. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Professions and Working Conditions Associated With Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirall, Jordi; Serra-Prat, Mateu; Bolíbar, Ignasi; Palomera, Elisabet; Roig, Jordi; Boixeda, Ramon; Bartolomé, Maria; de la Torre, Mari; Parra, Olga; Torres, Antoni

    2015-12-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is not considered a professional disease, and the effect of different occupations and working conditions on susceptibility to CAP is unknown. The aim of this study is to determine whether different jobs and certain working conditions are risk factors for CAP. Over a 1-year period, all radiologically confirmed cases of CAP (n=1,336) and age- and sex-matched controls (n=1,326) were enrolled in a population-based case-control study. A questionnaire on CAP risk factors, including work-related questions, was administered to all participants during an in-person interview. The bivariate analysis showed that office work is a protective factor against CAP, while building work, contact with dust and sudden changes of temperature in the workplace were risk factors for CAP. The occupational factor disappeared when the multivariate analysis was adjusted for working conditions. Contact with dust (previous month) and sudden changes of temperature (previous 3 months) were risk factors for CAP, irrespective of the number of years spent working in these conditions, suggesting reversibility. Some recent working conditions such as exposure to dust and sudden changes of temperature in the workplace are risk factors for CAP. Both factors are reversible and preventable. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Determinants for hospitalization in " low-risk" community acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Muktar H

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variable decision in managing community acquired pneumonia (CAP is the initial site of care; in-patient versus outpatient. These variations persist despite comprehensive practice guidelines. Patients with a Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI score lower than seventy have low risk for complications and outpatient antibiotic management is recommended in this group. These patients are generally below the age of fifty years, non-nursing home residents, HIV negative and have no major cardiac, hepatic, renal or malignant diseases. Methods A retrospective analysis of 296 low-risk CAP patients evaluated within a year one period at St. Agnes Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland was undertaken. All patients were assigned a PSI score. 208 (70% were evaluated and discharged from the emergency department (E.D. to complete outpatient antibiotic therapy, while 88 (30% were hospitalized. Patients were sub-stratified into classes I-V according to PSI. A comparison of demographic, clinical, social and financial parameters was made between the E.D. discharged and hospitalized groups. Results Statistically significant differences in favor of the hospitalized group were noted for female gender (CI: 1.46-5.89, p= 0.0018, African Americans (CI: 0.31-0.73, p= 0.004, insurance coverage (CI: 0.19-0.63, p= 0.0034, temperature (CI: 0.04-0.09, p= 0.0001 and pulse rate (CI: 0.03-0.14, p= 0.0001. No statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups for altered mental status, hypotension, tachypnea, laboratory/radiological parameters and social indicators (p>0.05. The average length of stay for in-patients was 3.5 days at about eight time's higher cost than outpatient management. There was no difference in mortality or treatment failures between the two groups. The documentation rate and justifications for hospitalizing low risk CAP patients by admitting physicians was less than optimal. Conclusions High fever, tachycardia, female gender

  16. PROGRESS - prospective observational study on hospitalized community acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnert, Peter; Creutz, Petra; Scholz, Markus; Schütte, Hartwig; Engel, Christoph; Hossain, Hamid; Chakraborty, Trinad; Bauer, Michael; Kiehntopf, Michael; Völker, Uwe; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Loeffler, Markus; Suttorp, Norbert

    2016-07-28

    Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a high incidence disease resulting in about 260,000 hospital admissions per year in Germany, more than myocardial infarction or stroke. Worldwide, CAP is the most frequent infectious disease with high lethality ranging from 1.2 % in those 20-29 years old to over 10 % in patients older than 70 years, even in industrial nations. CAP poses numerous medical challenges, which the PROGRESS (Pneumonia Research Network on Genetic Resistance and Susceptibility for the Evolution of Severe Sepsis) network aims to tackle: Operationalization of disease severity throughout the course of disease, outcome prediction for hospitalized patients and prediction of transitions from uncomplicated CAP to severe CAP, and finally, to CAP with sepsis and organ failure as a life-threatening condition. It is a major aim of PROGRESS to understand and predict patient heterogeneity regarding outcome in the hospital and to develop novel treatment concepts. PROGRESS was designed as a clinical, observational, multi-center study of patients with CAP requiring hospitalization. More than 1600 patients selected for low burden of co-morbidities have been enrolled, aiming at a total of 3000. Course of disease, along with therapy, was closely monitored by daily assessments and long-term follow-up. Daily blood samples allow in depth molecular-genetic characterization of patients. We established a well-organized workflow for sample logistics and a comprehensive data management system to collect and manage data from more than 50 study centers in Germany and Austria. Samples are stored in a central biobank and clinical data are stored in a central data base which also integrates all data from molecular assessments. With the PROGRESS study, we established a comprehensive data base of high quality clinical and molecular data allowing investigation of pressing research questions regarding CAP. In-depth molecular characterization will contribute to the discovery of disease

  17. CHLAMYDIA PNEUMONIAE – THE PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES IN HEALTHY POPULATION AND IN PATIENTS WITH COMMUNITY ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Keše

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. To determinate the prevalence rates of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections in Slovenia and to evaluate the importance of C. pneumoniae infections at patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP.Materials and methods. With the microimmunofluorescence test (micro-IF we evaluated the presence of C. pneumoniae specific antibodies in 1036 healthy subjects, in two periods of time, in 1991–93 and 1997–1998. We also tested the pair sera collected from 2118 patients with CAP between 1993–1999.Results. We demonstrated that C. pneumoniae infections are common in our population, as we detected IgG antibodies in 43.1% of healthy population. The prevalence rate of C. pneumoniae infections statistically significant increased in two periods of time. Acute C. pneumoniae infections were proved in 15.9% of all patients with CAP.Conclusions. C. pneumoniae is important respiratory pathogen also in our community. The infections are more common in older patients. Because C. pneumoniae like other Chlamydia species has tendency to cause chronic disease, it is reasonable to diagnose this bacterium in respiratory patients. It is also recommended to test convalescent sera at serologic laboratory diagnosis.

  18. Prevention of hospital-acquired pneumonia in non-ventilated adult patients: a narrative review

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    Leonor Pássaro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumonia is one of the leading hospital-acquired infections worldwide and has an important impact. Although preventive measures for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP are well known, less is known about appropriate measures for prevention of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP. Aim The purpose of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the current standards for preventing HAP in non-ventilated adult patients. Methods A search of the literature up to May 2015 was conducted using Medline for guidelines published by national professional societies or professional medical associations. In addition, a comprehensive search for the following preventive measures was performed: hand hygiene, oral care, bed position, mobilization, diagnosis and treatment of dysphagia, aspiration prevention, viral infections and stress bleeding prophylaxis. Findings Regarding international guidelines, several measures were recommended for VAP, whilst no specific recommendations for HAP prevention in non-ventilated patients are available. There is reasonable evidence available that oral care is associated with a reduction in HAP. Early mobilization interventions, swift diagnosis and treatment of dysphagia, and multimodal programmes for the prevention of nosocomial influenza cross-infection, have a positive impact on HAP reduction. The impact of bed position and stress bleeding prophylaxis remains uncertain. Systematic antibiotic prophylaxis for HAP prevention should be avoided. Conclusion Scant literature and little guidance is available for the prevention of HAP among non-ventilated adult patients. In addition, the criteria used for the diagnosis of HAP and the populations targeted in the studies selected are heterogeneous. Oral care was the most studied measure and was commonly associated with a decrease in HAP rate, although a broad range of interventions are proposed. No robust evidence is available for other measures. Further high

  19. Outcome of community-acquired pneumonia with cardiac complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Eman Shebl

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: Cardiac complications are common in the admitted patients with pneumonia and they are associated with increased pneumonia severity and increased cardiovascular risk, these complications adds to the risk of mortality, so optimal management of these events may reduce the burden of death associated with this infection.

  20. Variability in Antibiotic Prescribing for Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Lori K; Bryan, Matthew; Gerber, Jeffrey S; Zaoutis, Theoklis; Feemster, Kristen A

    2017-04-01

    Published guidelines recommend amoxicillin for most children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), yet macrolides and broad-spectrum antibiotics are more commonly prescribed. We aimed to determine the patient and clinician characteristics associated with the prescription of amoxicillin versus macrolide or broad-spectrum antibiotics for CAP. Retrospective cohort study in an outpatient pediatric primary care network from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2013. Patients prescribed amoxicillin, macrolides, or a broad-spectrum antibiotic (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalosporin, or fluoroquinolone) for CAP were included. Multivariable logistic regression models were implemented to identify predictors of antibiotic choice for CAP based on patient- and clinician-level characteristics, controlling for practice. Of 10 414 children, 4239 (40.7%) received amoxicillin, 4430 (42.5%) received macrolides and 1745 (16.8%) received broad-spectrum antibiotics. The factors associated with an increased odds of receipt of macrolides compared with amoxicillin included patient age ≥5 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 6.18; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.53-6.91), previous antibiotic receipt (aOR: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.56-2.04), and private insurance (aOR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.28-1.70). The predicted probability of a child being prescribed a macrolide ranged significantly between 0.22 and 0.83 across clinics. The nonclinical characteristics associated with an increased odds of receipt of broad-spectrum antibiotics compared with amoxicillin included suburban practice (aOR: 7.50; 95% CI: 4.16-13.55) and private insurance (aOR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.18-1.71). Antibiotic choice for CAP varied widely across practices. Factors unlikely related to the microbiologic etiology of CAP were significant drivers of antibiotic choice. Understanding drivers of off-guideline prescribing can inform targeted antimicrobial stewardship initiatives. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Reliability of Examination Findings in Suspected Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin, Todd A; Ambroggio, Lilliam; Brokamp, Cole; Rattan, Mantosh S; Crotty, Eric J; Kachelmeyer, Andrea; Ruddy, Richard M; Shah, Samir S

    2017-09-01

    The authors of national guidelines emphasize the use of history and examination findings to diagnose community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in outpatient children. Little is known about the interrater reliability of the physical examination in children with suspected CAP. This was a prospective cohort study of children with suspected CAP presenting to a pediatric emergency department from July 2013 to May 2016. Children aged 3 months to 18 years with lower respiratory signs or symptoms who received a chest radiograph were included. We excluded children hospitalized ≤14 days before the study visit and those with a chronic medical condition or aspiration. Two clinicians performed independent examinations and completed identical forms reporting examination findings. Interrater reliability for each finding was reported by using Fleiss' kappa (κ) for categorical variables and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for continuous variables. No examination finding had substantial agreement (κ/ICC > 0.8). Two findings (retractions, wheezing) had moderate to substantial agreement (κ/ICC = 0.6-0.8). Nine findings (abdominal pain, pleuritic pain, nasal flaring, skin color, overall impression, cool extremities, tachypnea, respiratory rate, and crackles/rales) had fair to moderate agreement (κ/ICC = 0.4-0.6). Eight findings (capillary refill time, cough, rhonchi, head bobbing, behavior, grunting, general appearance, and decreased breath sounds) had poor to fair reliability (κ/ICC = 0-0.4). Only 3 examination findings had acceptable agreement, with the lower 95% confidence limit >0.4: wheezing, retractions, and respiratory rate. In this study, we found fair to moderate reliability of many findings used to diagnose CAP. Only 3 findings had acceptable levels of reliability. These findings must be considered in the clinical management and research of pediatric CAP. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Acquired hemophilia A in a patient associated with community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiansong; Yu, Guohui; Ye, Yongqing

    2013-10-01

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare disease induced by autoantibodies to factor VIII (FVIII) and may be correlated with pregnancy, underlying malignancies, autoimmune diseases or drug administration. An 81-year-old man who presented with cough, expectoration, hemoptysis and multiple ecchymoses was diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia by computed tomography scan. Respiratory symptoms were ameliorated after the application of antibiotics. Despite repeated infusion of fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate, his prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) maintained in the 75-110-s range and ecchymoses were not ameliorated. Then, he was transferred to the department of hematology. Based on a prolonged APTT, decreased level of FVIII and presence of antibodies against FVIII, the patient was diagnosed with AHA. Then the patient was treated with activated prothrombin complex concentrates, prednisone and intravenous immunoglobulin, resulting in a complete remission of the bleeding, recovering the FVIII level and negativity for FVIII antibody titers. Here, we investigate this novel case retrospectively and review the relevant literature.

  3. Moxifloxacin pharmacokinetic profile and efficacy evaluation in empiric treatment of community-acquired pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öbrink-Hansen, Kristina; Hardlei, Tore Forsingdal; Brock, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    that caution must be taken when moxifloxacin is used as monotherapy to treat community-acquired pneumonia caused by L. pneumophila. In conclusion, this report reveals key information relevant to the empirical treatment of community-acquired pneumonia while highlighting the robust and flexible nature...... the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of moxifloxacin at 400 mg/day in 18 patients treated empirically for community-acquired pneumonia. We developed a population pharmacokinetic model to assess the potential efficacy of moxifloxacin and to simulate the maximal MICs for which recommended pharmacokinetic...... for each patient were evaluated against epidemiological cutoff MIC values for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Legionella pneumophila. PK-PD targets adopted were a Cmax/MIC of ≥12.2 for all pathogens, an fAUC0-24/MIC of >34 for S. pneumoniae, and an fAUC0-24/MIC of >75 for H...

  4. Animal models of hospital-acquired pneumonia: current practices and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielen, Kenny; 's Jongers, Bart; Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Jorens, Philippe G; Goossens, Herman; Kumar-Singh, Samir

    2017-03-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections are amongst the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Especially in hospital settings and more particularly in critically ill ventilated patients, nosocomial pneumonia is one of the most serious infectious complications frequently caused by opportunistic pathogens. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important causes of ventilator-associated pneumonia as well as the major cause of chronic pneumonia in cystic fibrosis patients. Animal models of pneumonia allow us to investigate distinct types of pneumonia at various disease stages, studies that are not possible in patients. Different animal models of pneumonia such as one-hit acute pneumonia models, ventilator-associated pneumonia models and biofilm pneumonia models associated with cystic fibrosis have been extensively studied and have considerably aided our understanding of disease pathogenesis and testing and developing new treatment strategies. The present review aims to guide investigators in choosing appropriate animal pneumonia models by describing and comparing the relevant characteristics of each model using P. aeruginosa as a model etiology for hospital-acquired pneumonia. Key to establishing and studying these animal models of infection are well-defined end-points that allow precise monitoring and characterization of disease development that could ultimately aid in translating these findings to patient populations in order to guide therapy. In this respect, and discussed here, is the development of humanized animal models of bacterial pneumonia that could offer unique advantages to study bacterial virulence factor expression and host cytokine production for translational purposes.

  5. Clinical characteristics and innate immunity in patients with community-acquired pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endeman, H.

    2009-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the most common infectious disease requiring hospitalisation in the Western world. In spite of improving antibiotic regiments, CAP still has significant mortality. In non-immune compromised patients, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequently isolated

  6. Significance of anaerobes and oral bacteria in community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Kei; Kawanami, Toshinori; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Noguchi, Shingo; Nagata, Shuya; Nishida, Chinatsu; Kido, Takashi; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Hatsumi; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Molecular biological modalities with better detection rates have been applied to identify the bacteria causing infectious diseases. Approximately 10-48% of bacterial pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia are not identified using conventional cultivation methods. This study evaluated the bacteriological causes of community-acquired pneumonia using a cultivation-independent clone library analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, and compared the results with those of conventional cultivation methods. Patients with community-acquired pneumonia were enrolled based on their clinical and radiological findings. Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were collected from pulmonary pathological lesions using bronchoscopy and evaluated by both a culture-independent molecular method and conventional cultivation methods. For the culture-independent molecular method, approximately 600 base pairs of 16S ribosomal RNA genes were amplified using polymerase chain reaction with universal primers, followed by the construction of clone libraries. The nucleotide sequences of 96 clones randomly chosen for each specimen were determined, and bacterial homology was searched. Conventional cultivation methods, including anaerobic cultures, were also performed using the same specimens. In addition to known common pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia [Streptococcus pneumoniae (18.8%), Haemophilus influenzae (18.8%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (17.2%)], molecular analysis of specimens from 64 patients with community-acquired pneumonia showed relatively higher rates of anaerobes (15.6%) and oral bacteria (15.6%) than previous reports. Our findings suggest that anaerobes and oral bacteria are more frequently detected in patients with community-acquired pneumonia than previously believed. It is possible that these bacteria may play more important roles in community-acquired pneumonia.

  7. Significance of anaerobes and oral bacteria in community-acquired pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Yamasaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular biological modalities with better detection rates have been applied to identify the bacteria causing infectious diseases. Approximately 10-48% of bacterial pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia are not identified using conventional cultivation methods. This study evaluated the bacteriological causes of community-acquired pneumonia using a cultivation-independent clone library analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, and compared the results with those of conventional cultivation methods. METHODS: Patients with community-acquired pneumonia were enrolled based on their clinical and radiological findings. Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were collected from pulmonary pathological lesions using bronchoscopy and evaluated by both a culture-independent molecular method and conventional cultivation methods. For the culture-independent molecular method, approximately 600 base pairs of 16S ribosomal RNA genes were amplified using polymerase chain reaction with universal primers, followed by the construction of clone libraries. The nucleotide sequences of 96 clones randomly chosen for each specimen were determined, and bacterial homology was searched. Conventional cultivation methods, including anaerobic cultures, were also performed using the same specimens. RESULTS: In addition to known common pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia [Streptococcus pneumoniae (18.8%, Haemophilus influenzae (18.8%, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (17.2%], molecular analysis of specimens from 64 patients with community-acquired pneumonia showed relatively higher rates of anaerobes (15.6% and oral bacteria (15.6% than previous reports. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that anaerobes and oral bacteria are more frequently detected in patients with community-acquired pneumonia than previously believed. It is possible that these bacteria may play more important roles in community-acquired pneumonia.

  8. Non-HIV Pneumocystis pneumonia: do conventional community-acquired pneumonia guidelines under estimate its severity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asai Nobuhiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-HIV Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP can occur in immunosuppressed patients having malignancy or on immunosuppressive agents. To classify severity, the A-DROP scale proposed by the Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS, the CURB-65 score of the British Respiratory Society (BTS and the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA are widely used in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP in Japan. To evaluate how correctly these conventional prognostic guidelines for CAP reflect the severity of non-HIV PCP, we retrospectively analyzed 21 patients with non-HIV PCP. Methods A total of 21 patients were diagnosed by conventional staining and polymerase chain reaction (PCR for respiratory samples with chest x-ray and computed tomography (CT findings. We compared the severity of 21 patients with PCP classified by A-DROP, CURB-65, and PSI. Also, patients’ characteristics, clinical pictures, laboratory results at first visit or admission and intervals from diagnosis to start of specific-PCP therapy were evaluated in both survivor and non-survivor groups. Results Based on A-DROP, 18 patients were classified as mild or moderate; respiratory failure developed in 15 of these 18 (83.3%, and 7/15 (46.7% died. Based on CURB-65, 19 patients were classified as mild or moderate; respiratory failure developed in 16/19 (84.2%, and 8 of the 16 (50% died. In contrast, PSI classified 14 as severe or extremely severe; all of the 14 (100% developed respiratory failure and 8/14 (57.1% died. There were no significant differences in laboratory results in these groups. The time between the initial visit and diagnosis, and the time between the initial visit and starting of specific-PCP therapy were statistically shorter in the survivor group than in the non-survivor group. Conclusions Conventional prognostic guidelines for CAP could underestimate the severity of non-HIV PCP, resulting in a therapeutic delay

  9. PNEUMOCOCCAL CAPSULAR ANTIGEN-DETECTION AND PNEUMOCOCCAL SEROLOGY IN PATIENTS WITH COMMUNITY ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOERSMA, WG; LOWENBERG, A; HOLLOWAY, Y; KUTTSCHRUTTER, H; SNIJDER, JAM; KOETER, GH

    1991-01-01

    Background Methods to determine the microbial cause of community acquired pneumonia include detection of pneumococcal antigen and measurement of pneumococcal capsular antibody response. Their usefulness compared with conventional microbiological techniques was investigated in patients with

  10. Antimicrobial treatment failures in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: causes and prognostic implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arancibia, F; Ewig, S; Martinez, J A; Ruiz, M; Bauer, T; Marcos, M A; Mensa, J; Torres, A

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the causes and prognostic implications of antimicrobial treatment failures in patients with nonresponding and progressive life-threatening, community-acquired pneumonia...

  11. The role of procalcitonin in adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia--a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Peter; Lindhardt, Bjarne Ørskov

    2012-01-01

    Promising results in relation to severity assessment and treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) have recently been presented from the study of procalcitonin (PCT) levels in these patients....

  12. Characteristics of Colon Microbiocenosis in Toddlers with Community-Acquired Pneumonia Associated with Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Smiyan

    2014-02-01

    Thus, impaired bowel microbiota in children with community-acquired pneumonia associated with iron deficiency anemia may be a reason to include probiotic preparation into the complex of pathogenetic therapy.

  13. A Molecular Biomarker to Diagnose Community-acquired Pneumonia on Intensive Care Unit Admission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scicluna, Brendon P; Klein Klouwenberg, Peter M C; van Vught, Lonneke A; Wiewel, Maryse A; Ong, David S Y; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Franitza, Marek; Toliat, Mohammad R; Nürnberg, Peter; Hoogendijk, Arie J; Horn, Janneke; Cremer, Olaf L; Schultz, Marcus J; Bonten, Marc J; van der Poll, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) accounts for a major proportion of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions for respiratory failure and sepsis. Diagnostic uncertainty complicates case management, which may delay appropriate cause-specific treatment. Objectives: To characterize the blood

  14. Risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in pre-school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Cameron C; Emery, Diane; Milne, Tania; Coster, Gregor; Forrest, Christopher B; Wall, Clare R; Scragg, Robert; Aickin, Richard; Crengle, Sue; Leversha, Alison; Tukuitonga, Colin; Robinson, Elizabeth M

    2012-05-01

    To identify risk factors for children developing and being hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia. Children pneumonia, children hospitalised with pneumonia (n= 289) plus children with pneumonia discharged from the Emergency Department (n= 139) were compared with a random community sample of children without pneumonia (n= 351). To assess risk of hospitalisation, children hospitalised with pneumonia were compared with the children discharged from the Emergency Department. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the risk of pneumonia and hospitalisation with pneumonia. After adjustment for season, age and ethnicity there was an increased risk of pneumonia associated with lower weight for height (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.10-1.51), spending less time outside (1.96, 1.11-3.47), previous chest infections (2.31, 1.55-3.43) and mould in the child's bedroom (1.93, 1.24-3.02). There was an increased risk of pneumonia hospitalisation associated with maternal history of pneumonia (4.03, 1.25-16.18), living in a more crowded household (2.87, 1.33-6.41) and one with cigarette smokers (1.99, 1.05-3.81), and mould in the child's bedroom (2.39, 1.25-4.72). Lower quality living environments increase the risk of pneumonia and hospitalisation with pneumonia in New Zealand. Poorer nutritional status may also increase the risk of pneumonia. Improving housing quality, decreased cigarette smoke exposure and early childhood nutrition may reduce pneumonia disease burden in New Zealand. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. The comparative development of elevated resistance to macrolides in community-acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayan J

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Josef Yayan Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Sleep Medicine, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar, Germany Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is an acute inflammation of the lungs, which is often caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. CAP is the leading cause of death by infectious disease in industrialized countries. Therefore, an immediate and effective antibiotic therapy is of great importance for the nonfatal outcome of the disease. The literature contains increasing data about the development of resistance to antibiotics that are used for the treatment of CAP caused by S. pneumoniae; this article also examines the possible development of resistance to antibiotics in S. pneumoniae in recent years.Methods: Within the study period of 2004–2014, all hospital charts from patients with CAP caused by S. pneumoniae were collected from the Department of Internal Medicine, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar, Germany. The tracheal secretions of S. pneumoniae in CAP patients were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage; bronchial aspirates were obtained through flexible bronchoscopy and directly from sputum, and blood cultures were examined microbiologically for microorganisms.Results: From a total of 100 patients with CAP caused by S. pneumoniae, 23 (53.49% [34.78% female], 95% confidence interval, 38.58–68.4 patients with a mean age of 59.78±15.77 years met the inclusion criteria of this investigation. These patients were compared to a total of 20 (46.51% [35% female], 95% confidence interval, 31.6–61.42 patients with a mean age of 58.9±13.36 years with CAP who were infested with S. pneumoniae. In the latter group, the streptococcal antigen was detected in pulmonary aspirations by bronchoscopy or in urine using polymerase chain reaction and a rapid pneumococcal test. Penicillin G and vancomycin had a high rate of sensitivity on the antibiogram for S. pneumoniae, which was

  16. Severe virus influenza A H1N1 related pneumonia and community-acquired pneumonia: differences in the evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardocci, Paula; Gullo, Caio Eduardo; Lobo, Suzana Margareth

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical, laboratory and evolution data of patients with severe influenza A H1N1 pneumonia and compare the data with that of patients with severe community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Methods Cohort and retrospective study. All patients admitted to the intensive care unit between May 2009 and December 2010 with a diagnosis of severe pneumonia caused by the influenza A H1N1 virus were included in the study. Thirty patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia admitted within the same period were used as a control group. Severe community-acquired pneumonia was defined as the presence of at least one major severity criteria (ventilator or vasopressor use) or two minor criteria. Results The data of 45 patients were evaluated. Of these patients, 15 were infected with H1N1. When compared to the group with community-acquired pneumonia, patients from the H1N1 group had significantly lower leukocyte counts on admission (6,728±4,070 versus 16,038±7,863; p<0.05) and lower C-reactive protein levels (Day 2: 15.1±8.1 versus 22.1±10.9 mg/dL; p<0.05). The PaO2/FiO2 ratio values were lower in the first week in patients with H1N1. Patients who did not survive the H1N1 severe pneumonia had significantly higher levels of C-reactive protein and higher serum creatinine levels compared with patients who survived. The mortality rate was significantly higher in the H1N1 group than in the control group (53% versus 20%; p=0.056, respectivelly). Conclusion Differences in the leukocyte count, C-reactive protein concentrations and oxygenation profiles may contribute to the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with severe influenza A H1N1 virus-related pneumonia and community-acquired pneumonia. PMID:23917977

  17. Community-acquired pneumonia management and outcomes in the era of health information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecham, Ian D; Vines, Caroline; Dean, Nathan C

    2017-11-01

    Pneumonia continues to be a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality. Implementation of health information technology (HIT) can lead to cost savings and improved care. In this review, we examine the literature on the use of HIT in the management of community-acquired pneumonia. We also discuss barriers to adoption of technology in managing pneumonia, the reliability and quality of electronic health data in pneumonia research, how technology has assisted pneumonia diagnosis and outcomes research. The goal of using HIT is to develop and deploy generalizable, real-time, computerized clinical decision support integrated into usual pneumonia care. A friendly user interface that does not disrupt efficiency and demonstrates improved clinical outcomes should result in widespread adoption. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  18. Point-of-care lung ultrasound in children with community acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Hayri Levent; Özkaya, Ahmet Kağan; Sarı Gökay, Sinem; Tolu Kendir, Özlem; Şenol, Hande

    2017-07-01

    To present lung ultrasound findings in children assessed with suspected pneumonia in the emergency department and to show the benefit of lung ultrasound in diagnosing pneumonia in comparison with chest X-rays. This observational prospective study was performed in the pediatric emergency department of a single center. Point of care lung ultrasound was performed on each child by an independent sonographer blinded to the patient's clinical and chest X-ray findings. Community acquired pneumonia was established as a final diagnosis by two clinicians based on the recommendations in the British Thoracic Society guideline. One hundred sixty children with a mean age of 3.3±4years and a median age of 1.4years (min-max 0.08-17.5years) were investigated. Final diagnosis in 149 children was community-acquired pneumonia. Lung ultrasound findings were compatible with pneumonia in 142 (95.3%) of these 149 children, while chest X-ray findings were compatible with pneumonia in 132 (88.5%). Pneumonia was confirmed with lung ultrasound in 15 of the 17 patients (11.4%) not evaluated as compatible with pneumonia at chest X-ray. While pneumonia could not be confirmed with lung ultrasound in seven (4.6%) patients, findings compatible with pneumonia were not determined at chest X-ray in two of these patients. When lung ultrasound and chest X-ray were compared as diagnostic tools, a significant difference was observed between them (p=0.041). This study shows that lung ultrasound is at least as useful as chest X-ray in diagnosing children with community-acquired pneumonia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Guidelines for the use of chest radiographs in community-acquired pneumonia in children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Lambert, Elena; Hilder, Lucy [University of Bristol, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Bristol Royal Hospital for Children, Bristol (United Kingdom); CRICBristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Halton, Jarred; Crumley, Iona; Kosack, Cara [Medecins Sans Frontieres, Diagnostic Network, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lyttle, Mark D. [Bristol Royal Hospital for Children, Emergency Department, Bristol (United Kingdom); University of the West of England, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-15

    National guidance from the United Kingdom and the United States on community-acquired pneumonia in children states that chest radiographs are not recommended routinely in uncomplicated cases. The main reason in the ambulatory setting is that there is no evidence of a substantial impact on clinical outcomes. However clinical practice and adherence to guidance is multifactorial and includes the clinical context (developed vs. developing world), the confidence of the attending physician, the changing incidence of complications (according to the success of immunisation programs), the availability of alternative imaging (and its relationship to perceived risks of radiation) and the reliability of the interpretation of imaging. In practice, chest radiographs are performed frequently for suspected pneumonia in children. Time pressures facing clinicians at the front line, difficulties in distinguishing which children require admission, restricted bed numbers for admissions, imaging-resource limitations, perceptions regarding risk from procedures, novel imaging modalities and the probability of other causes for the child's presentation all need to be factored into a guideline. Other drivers that often weigh in, depending on the setting, include cost-effectiveness and the fear of litigation. Not all guidelines designed for the developed world can therefore be applied to the developing world, and practice guidelines require regular review in the context of new information. In addition, radiologists must improve radiographic diagnosis of pneumonia, reach consensus on the interpretive terminology that clarifies their confidence regarding the presence of pneumonia and act to replace one imaging technique with another whenever there is proof of improved accuracy or reliability. (orig.)

  20. Are Pathogenic Leptospira Species Agents of Community-Acquired Pneumonia? Case Reports of Leptospirosis Presenting as Pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasem, M. Hussein; Farida, Helmia; Ahmed, Ahmed; Severin, Juliţte A.; Suryanto, Agus; Isbandrio, Bambang; Verbrugh, Henri A.; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.; van den Broek, Peterhans J.

    2016-01-01

    We report four Indonesian cases meeting the clinical and radiological criteria for community-acquired pneumonia and other findings suggestive of leptospirosis. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses of serum and urine samples and serology confirmed the diagnosis of leptospirosis in each. Results of qPCR

  1. Are pathogenic leptospira species agents of community-acquired pneumonia? case reports of leptospirosis presenting as pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Gasem; H. Farida (Helmia); A. Ahmed (Ahmed); J.A. Severin (Juliëtte); A. Suryanto (Agus); B. Isbandrio; H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); R.A. Hartskeerl (Rudy); P.J. Van Den Broek (Peterhans J.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe report four Indonesian cases meeting the clinical and radiological criteria for community-acquired pneumonia and other findings suggestive of leptospirosis. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses of serum and urine samples and serology confirmed the diagnosis of leptospirosis in each.

  2. Clinical presentations and outcome of severe community-acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Elshamly

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: SCAP occurs more frequently in those with comorbidities. The most frequent isolated causative organism of SCAP is S. pneumoniae, Influenza H1N1 and S. aureus. SCAP is associated with significant mortality, early recognition and prompt treatment may improve outcome.

  3. Hospital-acquired pneumonia in critically ill children: Incidence, risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mervat Gamal Eldin Mansour

    2012-02-21

    Feb 21, 2012 ... were non-labeled forward primers and biotin-labeled reverse primers with horseradish peroxidase-labeled probes. Primers for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydiapneumoniae, Legionella pneumophilia, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneu- moniae were selected according to Kumar et al.

  4. Hospital-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae infections in a paediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Klebsiella pneumoniae in neonatal intensive care units (ICUs) has increased recently with numerous reports of outbreaks in neonatal. ICUs throughout South Africa (SA).[2] Investigations into these outbreaks have identified an underlying context characterised by overcrowding, understaffing and a breakdown in infection ...

  5. Community-acquired pneumonia - a clinical approach to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    risk factors for pneumonia such as cardio-respiratory disease, immune compromise and smoking may be present, no obvious predisposing cause is apparent in the majority of cases of CAP. .... circumstances, such as the patient's wishes, home support system, and factors such as substance abuse or homelessness need to.

  6. An Update on the Management Of Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hsien Lee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonia is the leading cause of infection-related death and represents the fifth cause of mortality in the elderly. There are several reported risk factors for acquiring pneumonia at an older age, such as alcoholism, lung and heart diseases, nursing home residence, and swallowing disorders. Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP is reviewed, with an emphasis on multidrug-resistant (MDR bacterial pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter species, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The clinical characteristics of pneumonia in the elderly differ substantially compared with younger patients, and the severity of the disease is strongly associated with increased age and age-related comorbid disorders. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the pathogen most frequently responsible for pneumonia in the elderly with early HAP without risk factors for MDR; enteric Gram-negative rods should be considered in nursing home-associated pneumonia, as well as anaerobes in patients with aspiration pneumonia. Special attention should be given to preventive measures such as vaccination, oral care, and nutrition. The management of HAP should be instituted early with: appropriate use of antibiotics in adequate doses; avoidance of excessive use of antibiotics by de-escalation of initial antibiotic therapy, based on microbiologic cultures and the clinical response of the patient; and reduction of the duration of treatment to the minimum effective period.

  7. Defining characteristics and risk indicators for diagnosing nursing home-acquired pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia in nursing home residents, using the electronically-modified Delphi Method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollaar, V.; Maarel-Wierink, C. van der; Putten, G.J. van der; Sanden, W. van der; Swart, B.J. de; Baat, C. de

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In nursing home residents, it is not possible to distinguish pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia clinically. International literature reveals no consensus on which and how many characteristics and risk indicators must be present to diagnose (nursing home-acquired) pneumonia and aspiration

  8. Atypical pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walking pneumonia; Community-acquired pneumonia - atypical ... Bacteria that cause atypical pneumonia include: Mycoplasma pneumonia is caused by the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae . It often affects people younger than age 40. Pneumonia due ...

  9. [Site of care provision, etiology and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in Palma de Mallorca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos de Unamuno, C; Llorente San Martín, M A; Carandell Jäger, E; Gutiérrez García, M; Riera Jaume, M; Ramírez Rosales, A; Pareja Bezares, A; Corrales Nadal, A

    1998-03-07

    It is not common that community-acquired pneumonias studies include patients non treated in hospital. The objectives were: to determine the cases managed in the ambulatory setting; to describe the clinical features; to identify the aetiological agents, and to describe the treatment, comparing inpatients with outpatients. Observational prospective study. Population attended at three teaching primary care centers of Palma de Mallorca (60,450 habitants). Patients (> 14 years) were investigated when diagnosticated of community-acquired pneumoniae, from November 1992 to December 1994. Exclussions: HIV infection, patients living in a nursing home and tuberculosis. Data were collected in both Hospital and primary health care centers. Epidemiological, clinical, radiological and laboratory findings were recorded at the initial visit and 21 days after. 91 cases were investigated. 57% were managed at the primary care centers exclusively, 63.3% of the patients who went initially to the hospital were admitted in; but only 10.9% of those who went initially to the primary care centers (p < 0.005). 24 patients were hospitalized. 56 microbiological agents were identified in 48 patients (52.7%): Mycoplasma pneumoniae (10); Streptococcus pneumoniae (9); Influenza B (8); Chlamydia psittacci (7); Influenza A (7); Coxiella burnetii (5); Chlamydia pneumoniae (4); Legionella (3); Adenovirus (2); and Parainfluenza 3 (1). Mycoplasma was predominant in outpatients: 9 cases. S. pneumoniae in inpatients: 5 cases. Eritromycin was the most common treatment prescribed (76.9% of patients), alone or in combination with other antibiotics. Monotherapy was most common at primary care yield (96.7%) than at the hospital (45.2%) (p < 0.005). Most of the patients with community-acquired pneumonias are managed at primary health care centers. M. pneumoniae is the predominant microbiological agent in outpatients and S. pneumoniae in inpatients. Erithromycin is the most used antibiotic in both groups of

  10. Predictive value of copeptin as a severity marker of community-acquired pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Gamal Baheeg; Saed, Madeha Abdellah; Abdelhakeem, Abdelhakeem Abdelmohsen; Salah, Kalid; Saed, Abdelrahman Mamdouh

    2017-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children. Few studies have explored the predictive value of copeptin in pediatric pneumonia. Aim This study aimed to assess the role of copeptin as a marker of severity of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods This prospective case-control study was carried out at Minia University Children?s Hospital in Minia (Egypt) from January to December 2016. Eighty children aged from 2 months to 42 months were enrolled in this study and were cl...

  11. Community-acquired pneumonia: economics of inpatient medical care vis-à-vis clinical severity,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojislav Cupurdija

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the direct and indirect costs of diagnosing and treating community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, correlating those costs with CAP severity at diagnosis and identifying the major cost drivers. Methods: This was a prospective cost analysis study using bottom-up costing. Clinical severity and mortality risk were assessed with the pneumonia severity index (PSI and the mental Confusion-Urea-Respiratory rate-Blood pressure-age ≥ 65 years (CURB-65 scale, respectively. The sample comprised 95 inpatients hospitalized for newly diagnosed CAP. The analysis was run from a societal perspective with a time horizon of one year. Results: Expressed as mean ± standard deviation, in Euros, the direct and indirect medical costs per CAP patient were 696 ± 531 and 410 ± 283, respectively, the total per-patient cost therefore being 1,106 ± 657. The combined budget impact of our patient cohort, in Euros, was 105,087 (66,109 and 38,979 in direct and indirect costs, respectively. The major cost drivers, in descending order, were the opportunity cost (lost productivity; diagnosis and treatment of comorbidities; and administration of medications, oxygen, and blood derivatives. The CURB-65 and PSI scores both correlated with the indirect costs of CAP treatment. The PSI score correlated positively with the overall frequency of use of health care services. Neither score showed any clear relationship with the direct costs of CAP treatment. Conclusions: Clinical severity at admission appears to be unrelated to the costs of CAP treatment. This is mostly attributable to unwarranted hospital admission (or unnecessarily long hospital stays in cases of mild pneumonia, as well as to over-prescription of antibiotics. Authorities should strive to improve adherence to guidelines and promote cost-effective prescribing practices among physicians in southeastern Europe.

  12. Severe pneumococcal pneumonia: impact of new quinolones on prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meybeck Agnes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most guidelines have been proposing, for more than 15 years, a β-lactam combined with either a quinolone or a macrolide as empirical, first-line therapy of severe community acquired pneumonia (CAP requiring ICU admission. Our goal was to evaluate the outcome of patients with severe CAP, focusing on the impact of new rather than old fluoroquinolones combined with β-lactam in the empirical antimicrobial treatments. Methods Retrospective study of consecutive patients admitted in a 16-bed general intensive care unit (ICU, between January 1996 and January 2009, for severe (Pneumonia Severity Index > or = 4 community-acquired pneumonia due to non penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and treated with a β-lactam combined with a fluoroquinolone. Results We included 70 patients of whom 38 received a β-lactam combined with ofloxacin or ciprofloxacin and 32 combined with levofloxacin. Twenty six patients (37.1% died in the ICU. Three independent factors associated with decreased survival in ICU were identified: septic shock on ICU admission (AOR = 10.6; 95% CI 2.87-39.3; p = 0.0004, age > 70 yrs. (AOR = 4.88; 95% CI 1.41-16.9; p = 0.01 and initial treatment with a β-lactam combined with ofloxacin or ciprofloxacin (AOR = 4.1; 95% CI 1.13-15.13; p = 0.03. Conclusion Our results suggest that, when combined to a β-lactam, levofloxacin is associated with lower mortality than ofloxacin or ciprofloxacin in severe pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia.

  13. The Seropositivity Rate of Atypical Agents in Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhan Karakoc Gunes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the IgM antibody positivities of atypical pneumonia agents in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, and to compare the results with controls. The serum samples which were collected from 87 adult patients and 21 healthy controls have been investigated by a commercial ELISA (Pneumobact ELISA IgM, Vircell, Spain in which four different atypical pneumonia agents were fixed onto a slide. In the patients group, IgM positivity rates for the agents were as follows, respectively; 2.3% for Legionella pneumophila, 56.3% Chlamydia pneumoniae, 33.3% for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 9.2% for Coxiella burnetii. The rates of IgM positivities in the control group varied 7% for all of the agents except M. Pneumoniae and C. Pneumoniae and 2 of these controls were positive for L. Pneumophila IgM, one was positive for C. Burnetii IgM. According to the statistical evaluation, there were significant differences for IgM seropositivities to Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia Pneumoniae,between the patient and the control groups (p0.05. We showed that the seropositivity rate of atypical agents in patients with CAP was significantly higher when compared to healthy control group. This result suggests us, atypical agents might be responsible in CAP patients in a great amount. Furthermore, our study also suggests that clinical and radiological findings are not useful for discriminating atypical from typical pneumonia. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 279-284

  14. The Seropositivity Rate of Atypical Agents in Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia

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    Omer Deniz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the IgM antibody positivities of atypical pneumonia agents in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, and to compare the results with controls. The serum samples which were collected from 87 adult patients and 21 healthy controls have been investigated by a commercial ELISA (Pneumobact ELISA IgM, Vircell, Spain in which four different atypical pneumonia agents were fixed onto a slide. In the patients group, IgM positivity rates for the agents were as follows, respectively; 2.3% for Legionella pneumophila, 56.3% Chlamydia pneumoniae, 33.3% for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 9.2% for Coxiella burnetii. The rates of IgM positivities in the control group varied 7% for all of the agents except M. Pneumoniae and C. Pneumoniae and 2 of these controls were positive for L. Pneumophila IgM, one was positive for C. Burnetii IgM. According to the statistical evaluation, there were significant differences for IgM seropositivities to Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia Pneumoniae,between the patient and the control groups (p0.05. We showed that the seropositivity rate of atypical agents in patients with CAP was significantly higher when compared to healthy control group. This result suggests us, atypical agents might be responsible in CAP patients in a great amount. Furthermore, our study also suggests that clinical and radiological findings are not useful for discriminating atypical from typical pneumonia. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 279-284

  15. T cell responses in senior patients with community-acquired pneumonia related to disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Lu-Qin; Bi, Ying; Zhou, Shao-Wei; Chen, Zi-Dan; Wen, Jun; Shi, Jin; Mao, Ling; Wang, Ling

    2017-12-01

    Senior individuals older than 65 years of age are at a disproportionally higher risk of developing pneumonia. Impaired capacity to defend against airway infections may be one of the reasons. It is generally believed that weaker regulatory T cell responses may be beneficial to host defense against pathogens. In senior patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, we investigated the frequencies and functions of regulatory T cells. Interestingly, we found that compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls, senior pneumonia patients presented lower frequencies of Foxp3-expressing and Helios-expressing CD4+ T cells. The quantity of Foxp3 and Helios being expressed, measured by their mRNA transcription levels, was also lower in CD4+ T cells from pneumonia patients. Furthermore, following TCR and TGF-β stimulation, pneumonia patients presented impaired capacity to upregulate Foxp3 and Helios. Functional analyses revealed that CD4+ T cells from pneumonia patients secreted lower amounts of IL-10 and TGF-β, two cytokines critical to regulatory T cell-mediated suppression. Also, the expression of granzyme B and perforin, which were cytolytic molecules potentially utilized by regulatory T cells to mediate the elimination of antigen-presenting cells and effector T cells, were reduced in CD4+CD25+ T cells from senior pneumonia patients. In addition, the CD4+CD25+ T cells from senior pneumonia patients presented reduced capacity to suppress effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation. Moreover, the value of pneumonia severity index was inversely correlated with several parameters of regulatory T cell function. Together, our results demonstrated that senior pneumonia patients presented a counterintuitive impairment in regulatory T cell responses that was associated with worse prognosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Predictive value of copeptin as a severity marker of community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Gamal Baheeg; Saed, Madeha Abdellah; Abdelhakeem, Abdelhakeem Abdelmohsen; Salah, Kalid; Saed, Abdelrahman Mamdouh

    2017-07-01

    Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children. Few studies have explored the predictive value of copeptin in pediatric pneumonia. This study aimed to assess the role of copeptin as a marker of severity of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This prospective case-control study was carried out at Minia University Children's Hospital in Minia (Egypt) from January to December 2016. Eighty children aged from 2 months to 42 months were enrolled in this study and were classified into group 1 (40 children with clinical, laboratory and radiological evidence of pneumonia) and group 2 (40 apparently healthy control). Serum copeptin level was assayed for all enrolled children. Mean serum copeptin level was significantly higher in pneumonic patients (985.7±619) pg/ml compared to controls (519±308.2) pg/ml (pcopeptin was significantly elevated in survivors of pneumonia more than non-survivors (p=0.001). Also, copeptin was significantly higher in the group of non-survivors (1811.8±327.1) compared to 745.4±472.5 for survivors (p=0.01). There was a significant positive correlation between serum copeptin levels and the degree of respiratory distress (p=0.02). Copeptin seems a reliable and available predictor marker for assessing the severity and prognosis of pediatric community acquired pneumonia.

  17. Advances in the causes and management of community acquired pneumonia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderink, Richard G; Waterer, Grant

    2017-07-10

    Community acquired pneumonia remains a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Usually, the causal organism is not identified and treatment remains empiric. Recent computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies have challenged the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of pneumonia, and epidemiologic studies are changing our perspective of what causes community acquired pneumonia, especially the role of viral pathogens and the frequent finding of multiple pathogens. The past decade has seen increasing overuse of empiric coverage of meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and antibiotic resistant Gram negative pathogens owing to inappropriate application of guidelines for healthcare associated pneumonia. Optimal treatment remains a matter for debate, especially in very sick patients, including the role of combination antibiotic therapy and corticosteroids. Pneumonia care bundles are being defined to improve outcomes. Increased recognition of both acute and long term cardiac complications is shifting our concept of pneumonia from an acute lung disease to a multisystem problem with adverse chronic health consequences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Severe Community-acquired Pneumonia Due to Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yu Chen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is a common cause of sporadic community-acquired pneumonia, but culture-proven legionellosis is rarely diagnosed. There is no laboratory test for Legionnaires' disease that can detect all patients with the disease. Culture is the standard diagnostic method and should be initiated as soon as possible in suspected cases. We describe a rare case of community-acquired pneumonia caused by L. pneumophila serogroup 6. A 77-year-old man was admitted to a tertiary care hospital because of high fever, productive cough, and progressive dyspnea. Chest radiography showed bilateral pneumonia, which led to respiratory failure necessitating mechanical ventilatory support. Despite antibiotic therapy, his condition continued to deteriorate and acute renal failure also developed. Urine was negative for L. pneumophila. Culture of the sputum yielded L. pneumophila serogroup 6, although there was no elevation of the serum antibody titer. Pneumonia resolved gradually and he was extubated after treatment with levofloxacin followed by erythromycin. L. pneumophila other than serogroup 1 should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with suspected atypical community-acquired pneumonia.

  19. Community acquired pneumonia with shock, severe hypoxemia and leucopenia: Is the etiology methicillin resistant Staphylococci?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Kapoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A young, male presented to the emergency department with respiratory signs and symptoms along with shock and leucopenia. The suspected diagnosis of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA necrotizing pneumonia was confirmed later radiographically and microbiologically. This entity is common in childhood, but rarely reported in adults. This form of pneumonia affects young individuals without any comorbid illness. This is the first reported case of necrotizing pneumonia caused by community acquired-MRSA from Indian subcontinent. The probability to predict etiology of pneumonia from clinical signs is low; yet in the presence of shock, severe hypoxemia and leucopenia suspicion of MRSA should be kept high and hence that prompt initiation of appropriate antimicrobials may reduce mortality.

  20. Prolonged Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in an elderly patient with community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Takashi; Morozumi, Miyuki; Okada, Takafumi; Chiba, Naoko; Asami, Ryoko; Murayama, Somay Y; Ubukata, Kimiko

    2009-08-01

    An 81-year-old woman with no underlying systemic illness was hospitalized with fever, muscle weakness, and sputum without cough for 2 days. Chest imaging showed consolidation in the left lower lobe. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for six respiratory bacteria and 12 respiratory viruses performed on sputum obtained on admission showed Mycoplasma pneumoniae DNA, with no evidence of other pathogens. M. pneumoniae was confirmed to be the causative agent by serologic data. Variation of mycoplasma quantity in subsequent sputa was analyzed because of persistent sputum production despite treatment with minocycline. Mycoplasma DNA gradually decreased, becoming undetectable 1 week after the completion of 2 weeks of minocycline therapy. Two weeks after the completion of the minocycline therapy, mycoplasma DNA in sputum was strongly detectable again, and oral treatment with clarithromycin was initiated. No pathogen DNA was detected during 2 weeks of clarithromycin therapy or at 2 weeks after completion of this therapy. Although susceptibility tests on three isolates (on admission, 1 week after starting minocycline, and 2 weeks after minocycline cessation), showed no resistance to minocycline or clarithromycin, the infection was, nonetheless, prolonged. Some elderly subjects with mycoplasma pneumonia may show a longer course than that in young persons with pneumonia.

  1. Causes of non-adherence to therapeutic guidelines in severe community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattarello, Simone; Ramírez, Sergio; Almarales, José Rafael; Borgatta, Bárbara; Lagunes, Leonel; Encina, Belén; Rello, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    To assess the adherence to Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines and the causes of lack of adherence during empirical antibiotic prescription in severe pneumonia in Latin America. A clinical questionnaire was submitted to 36 physicians from Latin America; they were asked to indicate the empirical treatment in two fictitious cases of severe respiratory infection: community-acquired pneumonia and nosocomial pneumonia. In the case of community acquired pneumonia, 11 prescriptions of 36 (30.6%) were compliant with international guidelines. The causes for non-compliant treatment were monotherapy (16.0%), the unnecessary prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics (40.0%) and the use of non-recommended antibiotics (44.0%). In the case of nosocomial pneumonia, the rate of adherence to the Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines was 2.8% (1 patient of 36). The reasons for lack of compliance were monotherapy (14.3%) and a lack of dual antibiotic coverage against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (85.7%). If monotherapy with an antipseudomonal antibiotic was considered adequate, the antibiotic treatment would be adequate in 100% of the total prescriptions. The compliance rate with the Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines in the community-acquired pneumonia scenario was 30.6%; the most frequent cause of lack of compliance was the indication of monotherapy. In the case of nosocomial pneumonia, the compliance rate with the guidelines was 2.8%, and the most important cause of non-adherence was lack of combined antipseudomonal therapy. If the use of monotherapy with an antipseudomonal antibiotic was considered the correct option, the treatment would be adequate in 100% of the prescriptions.

  2. Clinical symptoms and signs for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children and adolescents with community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kay; Gill, Peter; Perera, Rafael; Thomson, Anne; Mant, David; Harnden, Anthony

    2012-10-17

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is a significant cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children and adolescents. Treatment with macrolide antibiotics is recommended. However, M. pneumoniae is difficult to diagnose based on clinical symptoms and signs. Diagnostic uncertainty can lead to inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, which may worsen clinical prognosis and increase antibiotic resistance. The objectives of this review are (i) to assess the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs in the clinical recognition of M. pneumoniae in children and adolescents with community-acquired pneumonia; and (ii) to assess the influence of potential sources of heterogeneity on the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs in the clinical recognition of M. pneumoniae. We searched MEDLINE (January 1950 to 26 June 2012) and EMBASE (January 1980 to 26 June 2012). We identified additional references by handsearching the reference lists of included articles and snowballing. We searched the reference lists of relevant systematic reviews identified by searching the Medion database, Database of Reviews of Effects 2012, Issue 6 (25 June 2012) and the Cochrane Register of Diagnostic Test Accuracy studies (2 July 2012). Experts in the field reviewed our list of included studies for any obvious omissions. We included peer-reviewed published studies which prospectively and consecutively recruited children with community-acquired pneumonia from any healthcare setting, confirmed the presence of M. pneumoniae using serology with or without other laboratory methods and reported data on clinical symptoms and signs in sufficient detail to construct 2 x 2 tables. One review author scanned titles to exclude obviously irrelevant articles. Two review authors independently scanned the remaining titles and abstracts, reviewed full-text versions of potentially relevant articles, assessed the quality of included articles and extracted data on study characteristics and the following clinical

  3. Atypical coverage in community-acquired pneumonia after outpatient beta-lactam monotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Werkhoven, Cornelis H.; van de Garde, Ewoudt M.W.; Oosterheert, Jan Jelrik; Postma, Douwe F.; Bonten, Marc J M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) after >48 h of outpatient beta-lactam monotherapy, coverage of atypical pathogens is recommended based on expert opinion. Methods In a post-hoc analysis of a large study of CAP treatment we included patients who received

  4. Elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia are not treated according to current guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt Damsgaard, Tove; Klausen, Henrik Hedegaard; Christiansen, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly patients, and the most important cause of death in the developed world. Optimised treatment and care will benefit patients as well as the health economy. This study investigated in-hospital compliance...

  5. PNEUMOCOCCAL ANTIGEN PERSISTENCE IN SPUTUM FROM PATIENTS WITH COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOERSMA, WG; LOWENBERG, A; HOLLOWAY, Y; KUTTSCHRUTTER, H; SNIJDER, JAM; KOETER, GH

    The purpose of this study was to establish the diagnostic value of pneumococcal capsular antigen by comparing this with the results of Gram stain and culture in representative and nonrepresentative sputa during follow-up in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Antigen was detected by a latex

  6. Aetiology and resistance patterns of community-acquired pneumonia in León, Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matute, A J; Brouwer, W P; Hak, E; Delgado, E; Alonso, E; Hoepelman, I M

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a prevalence study to gain greater insight into the aetiology, bacterial resistance and risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the region of León, Nicaragua. During the period from July 2002 to January 2005, all consecutive patients with signs and symptoms suggestive of

  7. Elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia are not treated according to current guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt Damsgaard, Tove; Klausen, Henrik Hedegaard; Christiansen, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly patients, and the most important cause of death in the developed world. Optimised treatment and care will benefit patients as well as the health economy. This study investigated in-hospital compliance...... with guidelines for treatment and care of patients with CAP....

  8. Revised SWAB guidelines for antimicrobial therapy of community-acquired pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, JA; Prins, JM; Bonten, MJ; Degener, J; Janknegt, RE; Hollander, JMR; Jonkers, RE; Wijnands, WJ; Verheij, TJ; Sachs, APE; Kullberg, BJ

    The Dutch Working Party on Antibiotic Policy (SWAB) develops evidence-based guidelines, aimed at optimalisation of antibiotic use and limitation of the spread of antimicrobial resistance. A revision of the SWAB guideline for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), published in 1998, was

  9. The etiology of viral respiratory infections in infants with community-acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bogdanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community-acquired pneumonia can be caused by both bacterial and viral pathogens. The differential diagnosis based only on clinical data is not always feasible. The use of C-reactive protein (CRP and procalcitonin might give some additional information for treatment decision-making.Aim: To evaluate the structure and rates of viral isolation in community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized infants and changes in CRP and procalcitonin levels.Materials and methods: Seventy five infants at the age of up to 11 months and 29 days, who were hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia confirmed by chest X-ray from March 2015 till February 2016, were included into the study. CRP and procalcitonin levels were measured. Detection of viruses in nasopharyngeal swabs was performed by a  real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: Nucleic acids of respiratory viruses were isolated in 72% (54/75 of infants. The most common were respiratory syncytial virus (in 70.4%, 38/54 and human rhinovirus (in 16.6%, 9/54. Median of white blood cell count in pneumonia associated with respiratory viruses was 10.95 (9; 14.1×109 /L, CRP level, 1.95 (0.5; 7 mg/L, procalcitonin level, 0.087 (0.067; 0.17 ng/mL.Conclusion: The study showed a high prevalence of respiratory viruses in community-acquired pneumonia in infants. There was no increase in CRP and procalcitonin levels in pneumonia associated with respiratory viruses.

  10. Clinical Predictors of Hospital-acquired Pneumonia Associated with Acute Ischemic

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    Alexis Suárez Quesada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: hospital-acquired pneumonia is a constant challenge given the current microbiological spectrum, antimicrobial resistance together with its high mortality, morbidity and hospital costs. Objective: to identify the clinical predictors of pneumonia associated with acute ischemic stroke. Methods: a prospective cohort study was conducted in 201 patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke consecutively admitted to the stroke unit of the General Carlos Manuel de Céspedes Teaching Hospital during the first seven days after the onset, from January 2012 through December 2013. The independent predictors of hospital-acquired pneumonia were obtained using multivariable logistic regression. Results: fifty six point seven percent were male. The mean age was 64.17 ± 14.33 years. Cases of hospital-acquired pneumonia associated with stroke accounted for 19, 9 %. Subjects who developed pneumonia were older (68.55 ± 13.51 vs. 63.08 ± 14.36 years, had a lower score in the Glasgow Coma Scale (8.00 ± 2.60 vs. 14.00 ± 2.82, and an increased number of leukocytes at admission (10.888 ± 3.487 vs. 9.233 ± 2.539 × 109/L. The following independent factors were identified: Glasgow Coma Scale ≤ 11 (OR: 26.099; 95 % CI 7.164-85.075, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR: 8.896; 95 % CI 1.203-65.779, dysphagia (OR: 7.652; 95 % CI 2.369- 24.720, history of heart failure (OR: 4.583; 95 % CI 1.240- 16.932 and dysarthria/severe motor aphasia (OR: 4.222; 95 % CI 1.374- 12.975. Conclusions: the resulting logistic regression model is valid for predicting post-stroke pneumonia based on data routinely acquired.

  11. [Ability of procalcitonin to predict bacteremia in patients with community acquired pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián-Jiménez, Agustín; Timón Zapata, Jesús; Laserna Mendieta, Emilio José; Parejo Miguez, Raquel; Flores Chacartegui, Manuel; Gallardo Schall, Pablo

    2014-04-07

    To analyze the usefulness and ability of procalcitonin (PCT) to predict the presence of bacteremia in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) or other bacteria. This is an observational, prospective and descriptive study involving patients who were diagnosed with CAP in our Emergency Department. Data collected included socio-demographic and comorbidity variables, Charlson index, stage in the Pneumonia Severity Index and criteria of severe NAC, microbiologic studies and biomarker determinations (PCT and C reactive protein). The follow-up was carried out during 30 days to calculate the predictive power and the diagnostic performance for bacteremia caused or not by S. pneumoniae. Four hundred and seventy-four patients were finally included in the study. Blood cultures were positive in 85 individuals (17.9%) and S. pneumoniae was identified as the responsible pathogen in 75 of them (88.4%) (in 5 cases together with another agent). The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve for PCT to predict bacteremia (caused by S. pneumoniae or not) was 0.988 (95% confidence interval 0.908-0.995; P98% and>10, respectively. The most frequently isolated serotypes of S. pneumoniae were 19A, 7F, 1 and 3. The highest mean levels of PCT were found in serotypes 7F, 19A, 3 and 1, which showed statistically significant differences with regard to the others serotypes considered (P=.008). Serotypes associated with the highest percentage of severe sepsis-septic shock, 30-days mortality and multi-lobe or bilateral affection were 3, 1 and 19A; 1, 3 and 19A; and 3, 19A and 6A, respectively. PCT had a remarkable diagnostic ability to discard or suspect bacteremia and to guide the etiology of CAP caused by S. pneumoniae. Serotypes 1, 3, 19A and 7F showed greater frequency, systemic inflammatory response and clinical severity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Utility of blood cultures in children admitted to hospital with community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tessa R; Evans, Hannah R; Murtas, Jennifer; Weisman, Aimee; Francis, J Lynn; Khan, Ahmed

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the utility of blood cultures in children admitted to hospital with community-acquired pneumonia. The primary outcome was the number of positive blood culture results, and secondary outcomes included the effect of positive blood culture results on management, and the identification of other clinical/biochemical variables that could predict blood culture results or the course of illness. A retrospective data analysis was carried out on all children admitted to Gosford Hospital during the 2-year period from July 2013 to June 2015. Included were patients under 16 years old who had a diagnosis-related group code of pneumonia. A review of blood culture results, chest X-ray, serology, C-reactive protein and white cell count and clinical outcomes were analysed. There were 215 paediatric admissions with a diagnosis of pneumonia during the 2-year study period. A blood culture was collected in 82.3% (177/215). Although seven had a positive blood culture, only two of these were finally reported as true positives and both were Streptococcus pneumoniae. Both patients were treated with a cephalosporin and demonstrated clinical improvement. No changes were made to their treatment based on the blood culture results. Blood cultures have a low yield and do not appear to be helpful when collected in all patients admitted to hospital with community-acquired pneumonia. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  13. Clinical evaluation of the role of ceftaroline in the management of community acquired bacterial pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maselli DJ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Diego J Maselli1, Juan F Fernandez1, Christine Y Whong2, Kelly Echevarria1,3, Anoop M Nambiar1,3, Antonio Anzueto1,3, Marcos I Restrepo1,3,41University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas, 2Memorial Hermann – Texas Medical Center, Houston, TX, 3South Texas Veterans Health Care System Audie l Murphy Division, San Antonio, TX, 4Veterans Evidence Research Dissemination and Implementation Center (VERDICT, San Antonio, TX, USAAbstract: Ceftaroline fosamil (ceftaroline was recently approved for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP and complicated skin infections. This newly developed cephalosporin possesses a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Most importantly, ceftaroline demonstrates potent in vitro antimicrobial activity against multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. In two Phase III, double-blinded, randomized, prospective trials (FOCUS 1 and FOCUS 2, ceftaroline was shown to be non-inferior to ceftriaxone for the treatment of CAP in hospitalized patients. Ceftaroline exhibits low resistance rates and a safety profile similar to that of other cephalosporins. In this review, we will evaluate the pharmacological characteristics, safety, antimicrobial properties, and efficacy of ceftaroline and its applications in the treatment of CAP.Keywords: s. pneumoniae, s. aureus, cephalosporins, pneumonia, ceftaroline, community acquired pneumonia

  14. [Increasing incidence of community-acquired pneumonia caused by atypical microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazón-Varela, M A; Alonso-Valle, H; Muñoz-Cacho, P; Gallo-Terán, J; Piris-García, X; Pérez-Mier, L A

    2017-09-01

    Knowing the most common microorganisms in our environment can help us to make proper empirical treatment decisions. The aim is to identify those microorganisms causing community-acquired pneumonia. An observational, descriptive and prospective study was conducted, including patients over 14 years with a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia during a 383 consecutive day period. A record was made of sociodemographic variables, personal history, prognostic severity scales, progress, and pathogenic agents. The aetiological diagnosis was made using blood cultures, detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila urinary antigens, sputum culture, influenza virus and Streptococcus pyogenes detection. Categorical variables are presented as absolute values and percentages, and continuous variables as their means and standard deviations. Of the 287 patients included in the study (42% women, mean age 66±22 years), 10.45% died and 70% required hospital admission. An aetiological diagnosis was achieved in 43 patients (14.98%), with 16 microorganisms found in 59 positive samples. The most frequently isolated pathogen was Streptococcus pneumonia (24/59, 41%), followed by gram-negative enteric bacilli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens and Enterobacter cloacae isolated in 20% of the samples (12/59), influenza virus (5/59, 9%), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (3/59, 5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2/59, 3%), Moraxella catarrhalis (2/59, 3%), Legionella pneumophila (2/59, 3%), and Haemophilus influenza (2/59, 3%). Polymicrobial infections accounted for 14% (8/59). A high percentage of atypical microorganisms causing community-acquired pneumonia were found. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Statin Use and Hospital Length of Stay Among Adults Hospitalized With Community-acquired Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havers, Fiona; Bramley, Anna M; Finelli, Lyn; Reed, Carrie; Self, Wesley H; Trabue, Christopher; Fakhran, Sherene; Balk, Robert; Courtney, D Mark; Girard, Timothy D; Anderson, Evan J; Grijalva, Carlos G; Edwards, Kathryn M; Wunderink, Richard G; Jain, Seema

    2016-06-15

    Prior retrospective studies suggest that statins may benefit patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. However, prospective studies of the impact of statins on CAP outcomes are needed. We determined whether statin use was associated with improved outcomes in adults hospitalized with CAP. Adults aged ≥18 years hospitalized with CAP were prospectively enrolled at 3 hospitals in Chicago, Illinois, and 2 hospitals in Nashville, Tennessee, from January 2010-June 2012. Adults receiving statins before and throughout hospitalization (statin users) were compared with those who did not receive statins (nonusers). Proportional subdistribution hazards models were used to examine the association between statin use and hospital length of stay (LOS). In-hospital mortality was a secondary outcome. We also compared groups matched on propensity score. Of 2016 adults enrolled, 483 (24%) were statin users; 1533 (76%) were nonusers. Statin users were significantly older, had more comorbidities, had more years of education, and were more likely to have health insurance than nonusers. Multivariable regression demonstrated that statin users and nonusers had similar LOS (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], .88-1.12), as did those in the propensity-matched groups (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, .88-1.21). No significant associations were found between statin use and LOS or in-hospital mortality, even when stratified by pneumonia severity. In a large prospective study of adults hospitalized with CAP, we found no evidence to suggest that statin use before and during hospitalization improved LOS or in-hospital mortality. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Community-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess: an emerging infection in Ireland and Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, R

    2013-02-05

    INTRODUCTION: Klebsiella pneumoniae has emerged as a predominant cause of community-acquired mono-microbial pyogenic liver abscess. This was first described in Taiwan and has been widely reported in Asia. This infectious entity has been described in Europe, with single case reports predominating. METHODS: We present three cases in one year from our institution in Ireland and review the European literature to date. RESULTS\\/CONCLUSION: Klebsiella pneumoniae invasive liver abscess syndrome is now emerging in Europe and notably is not restricted to individuals of Asian descent.

  17. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Adult Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Outcomes and Predictors of Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Kollengode; Tan, Chuen Seng; Rycus, Peter; MacLaren, Graeme

    2017-05-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a rescue therapy used to support severe cardiorespiratory failure. Data on outcomes from severe community-acquired pneumonia in adults receiving rescue extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are mainly confined to single-center experiences or specific pathogens. We examined data from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organisation registry to identify risk factors for poor outcomes in adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Retrospective data analysis. Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry database. We collected deidentified data on adult patients (> 18 yr) receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for community-acquired pneumonia between 2002 and 2012. Patients with incomplete data or brain death were excluded. The primary outcome measure was in-hospital mortality. Other measurements included demographic information, pre-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation mechanical ventilation and biochemical variables, inotrope requirements, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation mode, duration, and complications. Initial univariate analysis assessed potential associations between survival and various pre-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation factors. Variables with p values of less than 0.1 were considered for logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of mortality. None. One thousand fifty-five patients, who satisfied inclusion criteria, were included in the final analysis. There was an increase in the number of patients cannulated per annum over the 10-year period studied. Univariate analysis identified pre-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation variables associated with high mortality. Further multiple regression analysis identified certain pre-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation factors as predictors of mortality, including duration of mechanical ventilation prior to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, lower arterial pressure, fungal

  18. An audit of empiric antibiotic choice in the inpatient management of community-acquired pneumonia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Delaney, F

    2017-04-01

    Adherence to antimicrobial guidelines for empiric antibiotic prescribing in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been reported to be worryingly low. We conducted a review of empiric antibiotic prescribing for sixty consecutive adult patients admitted to the Mercy University Hospital with a diagnosis of CAP. When analysed against local antimicrobial guidelines, guideline concordant empiric antibiotics were given in only 48% of cases, lower than the average rate in comparable studies. Concordance was 100% in cases where the CURB-65 pneumonia severity assessment score, on which the guidelines are based, was documented in the medical notes. The use of excessively broad spectrum and inappropriate antibiotics is a notable problem. This study supports the theory that lack of knowledge regarding pneumonia severity assessment tools and unfamiliarity with therapeutic guidelines are key barriers to guideline adherence, which remains a significant problem despite increased focus on antimicrobial stewardship programs in Ireland

  19. Advances in the prevention, management, and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias W. Pletz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is the infectious disease with the highest number of deaths worldwide. Nevertheless, its importance is often underestimated. Large cohorts of patients with CAP have been established worldwide and improved our knowledge about CAP by far. Therefore, current guidelines are much more evidence-based than ever before. This article discusses recent major studies and concepts on CAP such as the role of biomarkers, appropriate risk stratification to identify patients in need of hospitalisation or intensive care, appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy (including the impact of macrolide combination therapy and antibiotic stewardship, and CAP prevention with novel influenza and pneumococcal vaccines.

  20. Fluorocycline TP-271 Is Potent against Complicated Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Corey; O’Brien, William; Hackel, Meredith; Minyard, Mary Beth; Waites, Ken B.; Dubois, Jacques; Murphy, Timothy M.; Slee, Andrew M.; Weiss, William J.; Sutcliffe, Joyce A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT TP-271 is a novel, fully synthetic fluorocycline antibiotic in clinical development for the treatment of respiratory infections caused by susceptible and multidrug-resistant pathogens. TP-271 was active in MIC assays against key community respiratory Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC90 = 0.03 µg/ml), methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA; MIC90 = 0.25 µg/ml), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA; MIC90 = 0.12 µg/ml), Streptococcus pyogenes (MIC90 = 0.03 µg/ml), Haemophilus influenzae (MIC90 = 0.12 µg/ml), and Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC90 ≤0.016 µg/ml). TP-271 showed activity (MIC90 = 0.12 µg/ml) against community-acquired MRSA expressing Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). MIC90 values against Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, and Chlamydia pneumoniae were 0.004, 1, and 4 µg/ml, respectively. TP-271 was efficacious in neutropenic and immunocompetent animal pneumonia models, generally showing, compared to the burden at the start of dosing, ~2 to 5 log10 CFU reductions against MRSA, S. pneumoniae, and H. influenzae infections when given intravenously (i.v.) and ~1 to 4 log10 CFU reductions when given orally (p.o.). TP-271 was potent against key community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) pathogens and was minimally affected, or unaffected, by tetracycline-specific resistance mechanisms and fluoroquinolone or macrolide drug resistance phenotypes. IMPORTANCE Rising resistance rates for macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and β-lactams in the most common pathogens associated with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) are of concern, especially for cases of moderate to severe infections in vulnerable populations such as the very young and the elderly. New antibiotics that are active against multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus are needed for use in the empirical treatment of the most severe forms of this disease. TP-271 is a promising

  1. Severe community-acquired pneumonia and positive urinary antigen test for S. pneumoniae: amoxicillin is associated with a favourable outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, V; Mothes, A; Smetz, A; Timontin, I; Guardia, M D; Billiemaz, A; Dellamonica, J; Vassallo, M; Néri, D; Chadapaud, S; Toyer, A-L; Del Guidice, P; Fribourg, A; Léotard, S; Nicolle, I; Roger, P-M

    2015-12-01

    Positive urinary antigen tests (UAT) for pneumococcal infection in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) may lead to targeted antibiotic therapy. We report an audit aimed at defining the link between mortality and targeted therapy. We conducted a retrospective multicentre audit of patients with severe CAP for whom a UAT was positive for S. pneumoniae. Patients admitted from January 2010 to December 2013 to 8 medical centres (from A to H) were included. Co-morbidities were defined by the specific treatment administered before hospital care, or if the diagnosis was newly established during the hospital stay. We used the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) to assess disease severity. Only patients with PSI > 90 were included. Antibiotic treatments and the PSI were extracted from patients' charts. Amoxicillin had to be prescribed as a targeted antibiotic treatment or at the time of antibiotic reassessment. A total of 389 patients were included. The mean (±STD) PSI score was 128 ± 29; 38.9% of the patients had a class 5 PSI score. Intensive care was required for 36.6% of the patients. Amoxicillin was initially prescribed in 47 cases (12.1%) and in 34 cases after reassessment (8.7%). In logistic regression analysis, we found three parameters associated with mortality: being hospitalised in institution D, class 5 PSI score, and metastatic cancer. In contrast, three antibiotic regimens were protective factors, including targeted therapy: OR = 0.09, p < 0.001. In the context of severe CAP with positive UAT for S. pneumoniae, targeted therapy was associated with a reduction in mortality.

  2. [Cross-cultural adaptation of the community-acquired pneumonia score questionnaire in patients with mild-to-moderate pneumonia in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Vargas, Mónica Alejandra; Cortés, Jorge Alberto; Sánchez, Ricardo

    2017-01-24

    One of the strategies for the rational use of antibiotics is the use of the score for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP Score). This instrument clinically evaluates patients with community-acquired pneumonia, thereby facilitating decision making regarding the early and safe withdrawal of antibiotics. To generate a translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Score questionnaire in Spanish. Authorization for cross-cultural adaptation of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Score questionnaire was obtained; the recommendations of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) were carried out through the following stages: forward translation, reconciliation, backward translation, harmonization, obtaining a provisional questionnaire, and applying the questionnaire in a pilot test. The pilot test was conducted at a second-level public hospital in Bogotá after the study was approved by the ethics and research institutional boards. The changes suggested by the forward translators were applied. There were no discrepancies between the backward and forward translations, consequently, no revisions were necessary. Five items had modifications based on suggestions made by eleven patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia during the pilot test. A Spanish version of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Score was crossculturally adapted and is now available.

  3. Nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage and antimicrobial resistance in underfive children with community acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cissy B. Kartasasmita

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung puncture is the best way to determine the etiology of pneumonia since it yields the highest rate of positive cultures. However, this procedure is difficult, especially for a study in the community. According to WHO, isolates to be tested for antimicrobial resistance in the community should be obtained from nasopharyngeal (NP swabs. Previous studies support the use of NP isolates to determine antimicrobial resistance patterns of isolates from children with pneumonia. The aim of our study was to know the bacterial patterns of the nasopharynx in underfive children with community acquired pneumonia and their antimicrobial resistance. The study was carried out in 4 Primary Health Clinics in Majalaya sub-district, Bandung, Indonesia. All underfives with cough or difficult breathing and classified as having non-severe pneumonia (WHO guidelines, were included in the study. Nasopharyngeal swabs (CDC/WHO Manual were obtained by the doctor, the swabs were placed in Amies transport medium and stored in a sterile jar before taken to the laboratory in the same day. All children were treated with co-trimoxazole. During the nine month study, 698 children with clinical signs of non-severe pneumonia were enrolled. About 25% of the nasopharyngeal specimens yielded bacterial isolates; the two most frequently found were S. pneumoniae and S. epidermidis. The antimicrobial resistance test to co-trimoxazole showed 48.2% S. pneumoniae strain had full resistance and 32.7% showed intermediate resistance to co-trimoxazole. This result is almost similar to other studies from Asian countries. It seems that H. influenzae is not a problem in the study area; however, further studies are needed.

  4. Androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer and the risk of hospitalisation for community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Blánaid M; Yin, Hui; Bladou, Franck; Ernst, Pierre; Azoulay, Laurent

    2017-07-01

    Androgens have been shown to influence both the immune system and lung tissue, raising the hypothesis that androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer may increase the risk of pneumonia. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether ADT is associated with an increased risk of hospitalisation for community-acquired pneumonia in patients with prostate cancer. This was a population-based cohort study using the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to the Hospital Episode Statistics repository. The cohort consisted of 20 310 men newly diagnosed with non-metastatic prostate cancer between 1 April 1998 and 31 March 2015. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for hospitalisation for community-acquired pneumonia associated with current and past use of ADT compared with non-use. During a mean follow-up of 4.3 years, there were 621 incident hospitalisations for community-acquired pneumonia (incidence rate: 7.2/1000 person-years). Current ADT use was associated with an 81% increased risk of hospitalisation for community-acquired pneumonia (12.1 vs 3.8 per 1000 person-years, respectively; HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.47 to 2.23). The association was observed within the first six months of use (HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.42) and remained elevated with increasing durations of use (≥25 months; HR 1.79, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.30). In contrast, past ADT use was not associated with an increased risk (HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.60). The use of ADT is associated with an increased risk of hospitalisation for community-acquired pneumonia in men with prostate cancer. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. The Clinical Significance of FilmArray Respiratory Panel in Diagnosing Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Huanzhu; Weng, Huilan; Lin, Meirui; He, Ping; Li, Yazhen; Xie, Qingdong; Ke, Changwen; Jiao, Xiaoyang

    2017-01-01

    Aim. FilmArray Respiratory Panel (FilmArray RP) test is an emerging diagnostic method in fast detecting multiple respiratory pathogens; the methodology and clinical significance of FilmArray RP in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) diagnosis were evaluated in this study. Methods. Specimens from 74 patients with CAP were analyzed and compared using FilmArray RP, traditional multiple PCR assay, bacterial (or fungal) culture, and serological detection. Results. FilmArray RP and multiplex PCR sho...

  6. Soluble RAGE as a severity marker in community acquired pneumonia associated sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Narvaez-Rivera Rodrigo M; Rendon Adrian; Salinas-Carmona Mario C; Rosas-Taraco Adrian G

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is considered the most important cause of death from infectious disease in developed countries. Severity assessment scores partially address the difficulties in identifying high-risk patients. A lack of specific and valid pathophysiologic severity markers affect early and effective sepsis therapy. HMGB-1, sRAGE and RAGE have been involved in sepsis and their potential as severity markers has been proposed. The aim of this study was to eva...

  7. Biomarkers in community-acquired pneumonia: A state-of-the-art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Seligman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP exhibits mortality rates, between 20% and 50% in severe cases. Biomarkers are useful tools for searching for antibiotic therapy modifications and for CAP diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up treatment. This non-systematic state-of-the-art review presents the biological and clinical features of biomarkers in CAP patients, including procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, copeptin, pro-ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide, adrenomedullin, cortisol and D-dimers.

  8. Serum levels of immunoglobulins and severity of community-acquired pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    de la Torre, Mari C; Tor?n, Pere; Serra-Prat, Mateu; Palomera, Elisabet; G?ell, Estel; Vendrell, Ester; Y?benes, Joan Carles; Torres, Antoni; Almirall, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Instruction There is evidence of a relationship between severity of infection and inflammatory response of the immune system. The objective is to assess serum levels of immunoglobulins and to establish its relationship with severity of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and clinical outcome. Methods This was an observational and cross-sectional study in which 3 groups of patients diagnosed with CAP were compared: patients treated in the outpatient setting (n=54), patients requiring in-patient...

  9. [To evaluate the auxiliary diagnostic value of Japanese respiratory society scoring system for the rapid diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in inpatients with community acquired pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xin; Jin, Xin; Niu, Wenkai; Cui, Qian; Liu, Huiying; Zheng, Jing; Heng, Zhizhi; Bai, Changqing

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the auxiliary diagnostic value of Japanese respiratory society (JRS) scoring system for the rapid diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MP) in inpatients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP). The clinical data of inpatients with CAP between January 2013 and Novermber 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The gold standard for identification of MP infection was determined by both positive culture and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Blood and sputum culture were used to detect other bacteria and fungi, and real time PCR to detect Chlamydia and Legionella pneumonia and the common respiratory viruses. Diagnostic test results consistency inspection was performed by Kappa test and continuous variable analysis was performed using t test. Data from 139 CAP inpatients were analyzed. An aetiological diagnosis was made for 61 patients (43.9%). Thirty-five cases (25.2%) were diagnosed as MP infection by the gold standard, while 72 cases (52.0%) by the JRS scoring system. The sensitivity of JRS scoring system for the diagnosis of MP infection was 85.7% (30/35), specificity 59.6% (62/104), positive predictive value 41.7% (30/72)and negative predictive value 92.5% (62/67). According to age, for the patients younger than 40 years old, the sensitivity of JRS routine scoring system for the diagnosis of MP infection was 24/24, specificity was 4/29, positive predictive value 24/49 and negative predictive value was 4/4. The JRS scoring system provides an auxiliary value for the identification of MP pneumonia. It has a high sensitivity and a strong negative predictive value. For patients younger than 40 yrs with low grades of JRS swring system. MP infection can be almost excluded from.

  10. Chest physiotherapy in paediatric patients hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukrafka, Janice Luisa; Fuchs, Sandra C; Fischer, Gilberto Bueno; Flores, José A; Fachel, Jandira M; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A

    2012-11-01

    Chest physiotherapy has been used to treat children hospitalised with pneumonia with no clear scientific evidence to support a beneficial effect. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of chest physiotherapy as an adjuvant treatment in children hospitalised with acute community-acquired pneumonia. Children (aged 1-12 years) with a clinical and confirmed radiological diagnosis of pneumonia sequentially admitted to a tertiary children hospital were eligible for this study. Participants were randomly selected to receive a standardised respiratory physiotherapy (positioning, thoracic vibration, thoracic compression, positive expiratory pressure, breathing exercises and forced exhalation with the glottis open or 'huffing') three times daily in the 'intervention group' or a non-mandatory request to breathe deeply, expectorate the sputum and maintain a lateral body position once a day in the 'control group'. The primary outcomes were reduction in respiratory rate and severity score (respiratory rate, recession, fever, oxygen saturation and chest x-ray) from baseline to discharge. Secondary outcome was duration of hospitalisation. In all, 72 patients were randomly allocated to the intervention (n=35) or control (n=37) groups. There were no differences at admission on severity of pneumonia between groups. Respiratory rate and severity score significant decreased between admission to discharge within each group; however, there were no differences when comparing groups. Also, there was no significant difference in duration of hospitalisation between the control and intervention groups (6 vs 8 days, p=0.11, respectively). This clinical trial suggests that, in children hospitalised with moderate community-acquired pneumonia, chest physiotherapy did not have clinical benefits in comparison to control group.

  11. Long-Term Cognitive Impairment after Hospitalization for Community-Acquired Pneumonia: a Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Timothy D; Self, Wesley H; Edwards, Kathryn M; Grijalva, Carlos G; Zhu, Yuwei; Williams, Derek J; Jain, Seema; Jackson, James C

    2018-01-26

    Recent studies suggest older patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia are at risk for new-onset cognitive impairment. The characteristics of long-term cognitive impairment after pneumonia, however, have not been elucidated. To characterize long-term cognitive impairment among adults of all ages hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia. Prospective cohort study. Adults without severe preexisting cognitive impairment who were hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. At enrollment, we estimated baseline cognitive function with the Short Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). At 2- and 12-month follow-up, we assessed cognition using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and tests of executive function, diagnosing cognitive impairment when results were ≥ 1.5 standard deviations below published age-adjusted means for the general population. We also identified subtypes of mild cognitive impairment using standard definitions. We assessed 58 (73%) of 80 patients who survived to 2-month follow-up and 57 (77%) of 74 who survived to 12-month follow-up. The median [range] age of survivors tested was 57 [19-97] years. Only 8 (12%) had evidence of mild cognitive impairment at baseline according to the Short IQCODE, but 21 (38%) at 2 months and 17 (30%) at 12 months had mild cognitive impairment per the RBANS. Moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment was common among adults ≥ 65 years [4/13 (31%) and 5/13 (38%) at 2 and 12 months, respectively] but also affected many of those impairment in multiple cognitive domains affected one-third of patients ≥ 65 years old and 20% of younger patients, and another third of survivors had mild cognitive impairment.

  12. Clinical and Radiological Characteristics of Tuberculous Pneumonia: Comparison with Typical Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Kim, You Eun; Cho, Yu Ji; Jeong, Yi Yeong; Park, Mi Jung; Jeon, Kyoung Nyeo; Kim, Ho Cheol; Lee, Jong Deog; Kim, Jang Rak; Hwang, Young Sil [College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    To evaluate the clinical and radiological characteristics of tuberculous pneumonia (TBPn). We compared the clinical presentation, pneumonia severity index (PSI), and radiological findings of 51 TBPn patients with those of typical pulmonary tuberculosis (PulTB) and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients. The mean age of patients with TBPn was higher than that of patients with CAP or PulTB (66.6 {+-} 15.8 vs. 53.1 {+-} 17.1, 54.9 {+-} 15.7) (p < 0.05). Diabetes mellitus was more common in patients with TB than in those with CAP (24.1% vs. 8.2%) (p < 0.05). The PSI scores for TBPn and CAP were similar (79.5 {+-} 31.1 vs. 71.8 {+-} 28.3, respectively) and were higher than that for PulTB (64 {+-} 26.8) (p < 0.05). The ratio of lower lobe involvement was higher in TBPn and CAP than in PulTB (49% and 75.5% vs. 22.4%, respectively). Cavity formation and centrilobular nodules were more common in TBPn than in CAP (13.7% vs. 6.1% and 74.5% vs. 22.4%, respectively) (p < 0.05). Although TBPn shows a similar clinical presentation to CAP, it is more common in elderly patients and more commonly involves lower lobe involvement with cavity formation and centrilobular nodules. Therefore, in cases in which there may be diagnostic uncertainty, appropriate diagnostic procedures following these findings are required to differentiate these diseases.

  13. The role of haloaerosolotherapy in immunorehabilitation of convalescents after community acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Lemko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Investigation of the peculiarities of different haloaerosoltherapy regimes influence (treatment with different intensity of haloaerosol load upon non-specific defense and cellular immunity at convalescents after community acquired pneumonia. Objectives: patients with community acquired pneumonia in the early convalescence period (after completing antibiotic therapy, who received treatment in conditions of artificial rock salt aerosol medium (haloaerosoltherapy. Material and Methods. 42 patients with non-severe community acquired pneumonia were examined in the early convalescence period before and after the course of haloaerosoltherapy, which was prescribed after antibacterial therapy. Immunological studies included: evaluation of phagocytic activity of neutrophils (PhAN - the percentage of phagocytic neutrophils, phagocytic number (PhN - average number of latex particles absorbed by a neutrophil; metabolism of neutrophils in the test with nitroblue tetrasolium (NBT-test spontaneous and induced, which allowed to assess the functional reserve of neutrophils (FR; calculation of cytochemical coefficient (CCC for lysosomal cationic proteins (LCP and for myeloperoxidase (MPO of neutrophils; number of T- and B-lymphocytes and their subpopulations (CD3+ -, CD4+ -, CD8+ -, CD22+ - lymphocytes, calculation the number of 0- lymphocytes and the ratio of CD4+ /CD8+ lymphocytes. Laboratory examinations were also conducted in 21 practically healthy individuals (control group. Two regimes of haloaerosoltherapy were used in recovery treatment of patients with community acquired pneumonia: treating complex №1 (TC-1 with standard haloaerosol load and with increased haloaerosol load (TC-2. Results. After completion the antibiotic therapy at patients with community acquired pneumonia the moderate inhibition of phagocytic activity of neutrophils (47,6±0,58% to 55,5±1,14% in control group remained and was accompanied with a decrease in neutrophil bactericidal

  14. Analysis of the effectiveness of physical rehabilitation according spirographic indicators in community-acquired pneumonia during convalescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalmykova Y.S.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to make a program of physical rehabilitation for convalescents after community-acquired pneumonia, promotes normalization of respiratory function. The objectives of the study was to evaluate the dynamics spirographic indicators during convalescence community-acquired pneumonia. Material: the study involved 28 women aged 19 to 24 years with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia after convalescent. Results: the positive influence of physiotherapy based dance aerobics; morning hygienic gymnastics; therapeutic massage and physical therapy on indicators of lung volumes, ventilation and bronchial patency according spirographic research. Conclusion: in community-acquired pneumonia during the convalescence period recommended physical rehabilitation, which includes curative gymnastics based on dance aerobics, morning hygienic gymnastics, massage therapy, physiotherapy. It improves the functionality of the cardiorespiratory system, nonspecific immunity and overall physical performance level.

  15. Analysis of the effectiveness of physical rehabilitation according spirographic indicators in community-acquired pneumonia during convalescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Kalmykova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to make a program of physical rehabilitation for convalescents after community-acquired pneumonia, promotes normalization of respiratory function. The objectives of the study was to evaluate the dynamics spirographic indicators during convalescence community-acquired pneumonia. Material: the study involved 28 women aged 19 to 24 years with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia after convalescent. Results: the positive influence of physiotherapy based dance aerobics; morning hygienic gymnastics; therapeutic massage and physical therapy on indicators of lung volumes, ventilation and bronchial patency according spirographic research. Conclusion: in community-acquired pneumonia during the convalescence period recommended physical rehabilitation, which includes curative gymnastics based on dance aerobics, morning hygienic gymnastics, massage therapy, physiotherapy. It improves the functionality of the cardiorespiratory system, nonspecific immunity and overall physical performance level.

  16. Predictors of in-hospital mortality of older patients admitted for community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hon Ming; Tang, Wing Han; Woo, Jean

    2011-11-01

    there were a few studies on the case mortality of pneumonia in older people, of which results were conflicting. this study aimed to identify risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality in older patients admitted for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). a prospective cohort study. hospital sample. during the 1-year study period (from October 2009 to September 2010), 488 older patients aged 65 or above were recruited. demographic characteristics, medical illnesses (Charlson's comorbidity index (CCI)), premorbid functional status (Katz's index) and baseline blood tests were recorded. The outcome was in-hospital mortality. in this cohort of patients, the mean age was 81.0 years (±7.9) and 282 (57.8%) were male. Nursing home residents accounted for 23.8% (116/488) of study subjects. The median CCI was 2 (inter-quartile range (IQR): 1-3); 60 (12.3%) patients succumbed during hospital stay. Logistic regression showed that comorbidities, mid-arm circumference, serum albumin level and severity of pneumonia (Confusion, blood Urea nitrogen, Respiratory rate and low Blood pressure (CURB) score) were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality of pneumonia. in keeping with previous studies, CURB score and comorbidities were the most significant independent predictors of mortality of CAP in older patients. Our study concluded that nutritional status was also an important factor affecting their survival. This study failed to demonstrate functional status as a predictor of mortality due to limitation of Katz's index.

  17. [Pneumonia caused by granulomatous Pneumocystis carinii in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y; Morikawa, T; Takeuchi, K; Furuiye, H; Fukumura, M; Mikami, R; Kawamura, S; Kakuta, Y; Tashiro, Y

    1998-08-01

    A 54-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of fever and general fatigue. A chest roentgenogram on admission showed lobular opacities and ill-defined opacities in both lower lobes. The pneumonia was successfully treated with antibiotics. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome was diagnosed because ELISA and PCR tests for antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus were positive and the CD 4+ lymphocyte count was 39 per cubic millimeter. Examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed no Pneumocystis carinii. Trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole were given prophylactically, but were withdrawn because of a rash. The patient began to receive aerosolized pentamindine and was discharged. On the next day, he was readmitted to the hospital because of a high fever. A chest roentgenogram showed diffuse miliary opacities. Chest CT scan also showed diffuse small nodular opacities in both lungs. Examination of a transbronchial biopsy specimen revealed well-defined, noncaseating granulomas with pneumocystis organisms in their centers. Cultures for tuberculosis and fungi were all negative. We diagnosed granulomatous pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis carinii, which is an atypical manifestation of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. The patient died of sepsis and cardiac tamponade. Microscopically, the lung tissue was found to have foamy intra-alveolar exdates, which is a typical histological feature of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

  18. Necrotizing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Maharaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cavities are not typically associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. CAP due to P. aeruginosa is rare and even less commonly causes necrotizing pneumonia. We report a case of P. aeruginosa CAP that progressed to necrotizing pneumonia and was eventually fatal. Procalcitonin (PCT has been well investigated in guiding antibiotic therapy (especially CAP in adults. In this case, PCT at presentation and sequentially was negative. We discuss this caveat and present hypotheses as to the sensitivity and specificity of PCT and C-reactive protein (CRP in these patients. To better characterize P. aeruginosa CAP, we undertook a review of cases indexed in PubMed from 2001 to 2016 (n=9. The data reveal that risk factors for P. aeruginosa CAP include smoking, alcohol use, obstructive lung disease, sinusitis, and hot tub use. The route of infection for P. aeruginosa CAP remains unknown. One of the most interesting findings on reviewing cases was that P. aeruginosa CAP involves the right upper lobe in the vast majority. We suggest that when physicians in the community see patients with distinctly upper lobe necrotizing or cavitary pneumonia, they should consider P. aeruginosa in their differential diagnosis. Further studies are needed to clarify route of infection, role of PCT and CRP, and optimal therapy including drug and duration.

  19. Effectiveness of structured discharge process in reducing hospital readmission of adult patients with community acquired pneumonia: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Grace Rita R; Reyes, Flordelis C; Thompson, Fay V; Johnson, Pauline M; Shortridge-Baggett, Lillie M

    2012-01-01

    Hospital readmission soon after discharge is common and costly. To date, published studies of effectiveness of structured discharge process addressing reduction of hospital readmission have focused on patients with chronic conditions and complex needs, but not in adult patients with community acquired pneumonia. To examine and synthesise the best available evidence related to effectiveness of structured discharge process in reducing hospital readmission of adult patients with community acquired pneumonia. This review considered studies that included hospitalised adult patients diagnosed with community acquired pneumonia regardless of gender, ethnicity, severity, and co-morbidities.Structured discharge process related to early patient engagement, patient-caregiver dyad intervention, transitional care, coordinated care, and multidisciplinary team approach.The outcome measures included in this review were hospital readmission, emergency room visits, and unscheduled visits to healthcare provider.Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental studies were considered for inclusion. The search strategy aimed to find both published and unpublished studies in English language without date limits. A search of PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PsycINFO, Academic Search Premier, Health Source Nursing/Academic Edition and seven other databases was conducted. Studies were critically appraised by two independent reviewers using the Joanna Briggs Institute's standardised critical appraisal tool. Data were extracted using the standardised Joanna Briggs Institute's data extraction instruments. Statistical pooling in meta-analysis was not appropriate. Findings are presented in a narrative form. Three articles were included in the review, two RCTs and one pseudo-randomised controlled clinical trial. Structured discharge process did not have a positive impact in reducing hospital readmission at 30, 90, and

  20. The Relationship of Paranasal Sinus Opacification to Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia in the Neurologic Intensive Care Unit Patient.

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    Huyett, Phillip; Rowan, Nicholas R; Ferguson, Berrylin J; Lee, Stella; Wang, Eric W

    2017-01-01

    The association between intensive care unit (ICU) sinusitis and the development of lower airway infections remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between the development of radiographic sinus opacification and pneumonia in the neurologic ICU setting. A retrospective review of head computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of 612 patients admitted to the neurocritical care unit at a tertiary care center from April 2013 through April 2014 was performed. Paranasal sinus opacification was measured using Lund-Mackay scores (LMS). A diagnosis of pneumonia was determined by the ICU team from radiographic, laboratory, and pulmonary data. Exclusion criteria included a history of endonasal surgery, sinonasal malignancy, facial fractures, ICU admission less than 3 days, or inadequate imaging. Worsening sinus opacification occurred in 42.6% of patients and pneumonia in 18.5% of patients during ICU admission. Of the patients who developed pneumonia, 71.7% also developed worsening sinus opacification ( P patients who developed pneumonia was 4.24 compared to 1.99 in patients who did not develop pneumonia ( P patients who developed pneumonia (46.9% vs 19.4%, P patients with no pneumonia or sinusitis, pneumonia only, sinusitis only, and sinusitis with pneumonia were 7.6%, 15.6%, 18.3%, and 25.9%, respectively ( P relationship between worsening sinus opacification in the neurologic ICU patient to the development of hospital-acquired pneumonia and increased mortality.

  1. A rare case of lung carcinoma acquires multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia radiologically mimicking metastasis caused by nivolumab therapy-associated neutropenia.

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    Liu, Chao; Ding, Ling; Zhu, Ye-Han; Chen, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Nosocomial infections by Klebsiella pneumoniae, especially those due to multidrug-resistant strains, are being increasingly detected. In this report, we present the case of a 63-year-old man with lung squamous carcinoma who received nivolumab therapy due to failure of first-line chemotherapy. This report also demonstrates an association of nivolumab therapy and neutropenia, and supports the use of a combination of tigecycline and meropenem in managing hospitalization-acquired pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae. It also implicates that a further evaluation is required in lung cancer patients with a suspected metastatic or recurrent carcinoma, and an antibiotic therapy is valuable in ruling out a potential lung infection since a risk of hospitalization-acquired pneumonia may exist.

  2. Adherence to Therapeutic Guidelines for Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Australian Hospitals

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    N.R. Adler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in elderly patients, and is associated with a considerable economic burden on the healthcare system. The combination of high incidence and substantial financial costs necessitate accurate diagnosis and appropriate management of patients admitted with CAP. This article will discuss the rates of adherence to clinical guidelines, the use of severity scoring tools and the appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing for patients diagnosed with CAP. The authors maintain that awareness of national and hospital guidelines is imperative to complement the physicians’ clinical judgment with evidence-based recommendations. Increased use of pneumonia severity assessment tools and greater adherence to therapeutic guidelines will enhance concordant antimicrobial prescribing for patients with CAP. A robust and multifaceted educational intervention, in combination with antimicrobial stewardship programs, may enhance compliance of CAP guidelines in clinical practice in Australia.

  3. Chlamydia-like bacteria in respiratory samples of community-acquired pneumonia patients.

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    Haider, Susanne; Collingro, Astrid; Walochnik, Julia; Wagner, Michael; Horn, Matthias

    2008-04-01

    Chlamydia-like bacteria, obligate intracellular relatives of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydophila pneumoniae, are widely distributed in nature. Using a two-step nested and semi-nested PCR approach targeting the 16S rRNA gene, we found DNA of Chlamydia-like bacteria in respiratory samples from patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Of 387 cases tested, four (1.03%) tested positive if only sequences showing less than 99.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to known Chlamydiae were considered. These included for the first time Protochlamydia amoebophila, Waddlia chondrophila, and 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis'-related sequences. This study extends previous findings suggesting an association of Chlamydia-like bacteria with respiratory disease, but a causal link between these microorganisms and respiratory tract infections has yet to be established.

  4. A Multicenter Collaborative to Improve Care of Community Acquired Pneumonia in Hospitalized Children.

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    Parikh, Kavita; Biondi, Eric; Nazif, Joanne; Wasif, Faiza; Williams, Derek J; Nichols, Elizabeth; Ralston, Shawn

    2017-03-01

    The Value in Inpatient Pediatrics Network sponsored the Improving Care in Community Acquired Pneumonia collaborative with the goal of increasing evidence-based management of children hospitalized with community acquired pneumonia (CAP). Project aims included: increasing use of narrow-spectrum antibiotics, decreasing use of macrolides, and decreasing concurrent treatment of pneumonia and asthma. Data were collected through chart review across emergency department (ED), inpatient, and discharge settings. Sites reviewed up to 20 charts in each of 6 3-month cycles. Analysis of means with 3-σ control limits was the primary method of assessment for change. The expert panel developed project measures, goals, and interventions. A change package of evidence-based tools to promote judicious use of antibiotics and raise awareness of asthma and pneumonia codiagnosis was disseminated through webinars. Peer coaching and periodic benchmarking were used to motivate change. Fifty-three hospitals enrolled and 48 (91%) completed the 1-year project (July 2014-June 2015). A total of 3802 charts were reviewed for the project; 1842 during baseline cycles and 1960 during postintervention cycles. The median before and after use of narrow-spectrum antibiotics in the collaborative increased by 67% in the ED, 43% in the inpatient setting, and 25% at discharge. Median before and after use of macrolides decreased by 22% in the ED and 27% in the inpatient setting. A decrease in asthma and CAP codiagnosis was noted, but the change was not sustained. Low-cost strategies, including collaborative sharing, peer benchmarking, and coaching, increased judicious use of antibiotics in a diverse range of hospitals for pediatric CAP. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Is gentamicin safe and effective for severe community acquired pneumonia? an 8 year retrospective cohort study.

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    Brereton, Christopher J; Lennon, Daniel; Browning, Sarah; Dunn, Emily; Ferguson, John K; Davis, Joshua S

    2018-02-02

    Gram-negative bacilli are the causative organisms for a significant proportion of patients with severe community acquired pneumonia (CAP) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Clinical guidelines recommend broad spectrum antimicrobials for empiric treatment despite alarming global trends in antimicrobial resistance. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of gentamicin, an aminoglycoside with potent bactericidal activity, for empiric Gram-negative cover of severe CAP admitted to ICU. We performed a retrospective cohort study at a university teaching hospital where the severe CAP guideline recommends penicillin, azithromycin and gentamicin as empiric cover. Ceftriaxone plus azithromycin is used as an alternative. We included adults with radiologically-confirmed severe community-acquired pneumonia, comparing those who received gentamicin in the first 72 hours of admission with those who did not. Participants were identified using ICD-10 codes for bacterial pneumonia and data manually extracted from electronic medical records. 117 of 148 patients admitted with severe pneumonia were given at least one dose of gentamicin while the remaining 31 were not. The two groups were well matched in terms of demographics, comorbidities and disease severity. There was no significant difference in the incidence of acute kidney injury (59/117 [51%] versus 16/31 [52%] in the gentamicin and no gentamicin groups respectively), hospital mortality (20/117 [17%] versus 7/31 [23%]) and secondary outcomes including relapse and length of hospital stay. Gentamicin is safe and has similar outcomes to alternative Gram-negative antimicrobial regimens for empiric cover in severe CAP admitted to ICU. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Outcome of children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia treated with aqueous penicillin G

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    Raquel Simbalista

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the evolution and outcome of children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia receiving penicillin. METHODS: A search was carried out for all hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia cases in a 37-month period. Inclusion criteria comprised age >2 months, intravenous penicillin G use at 200,000 IU/kg/day for >48 h and chest x-ray results. Confounders leading to exclusion included underlying debilitating or chronic pulmonary illnesses, nosocomial pneumonia or transference to another hospital. Pneumonia was confirmed if a pulmonary infiltrate or pleural effusion was described by an independent radiologist blind to the clinical information. Data on admission and evolution were entered on a standardized form. RESULTS: Of 154 studied cases, 123 (80% and 40 (26% had pulmonary infiltrate or pleural effusion, respectively. Penicilli was substituted by other antibiotics in 28 (18% patients, in whom the sole significant decrease was in the frequency of tachypnea from the first to the second day of treatment (86% vs. 50%, p = 0.008. Among patients treated exclusively with penicillin G, fever (46% vs. 26%, p = 0.002, tachypnea (74% vs. 59%, p = 0.003, chest indrawing (29% vs. 13%, p<0.001 and nasal flaring (10% vs. 1.6%, p = 0.001 frequencies significantly decreased from admission to the first day of treatment. Patients treated with other antimicrobial agents stayed longer in the hospital than those treated solely with penicillin G (16±6 vs. 8±4 days, p<0.001, mean difference (95% confidence interval 8 (6-10. None of the studied patients died. CONCLUSION: Penicillin G successfully treated 82% (126/154 of the study group and improvement was marked on the first day of treatment.

  7. Microbiology and prognostic factors of hospital- and community-acquired aspiration pneumonia in respiratory intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chaojie; Cheng, Zhenshun; Zhang, Li; Yang, Jiong

    2013-10-01

    Incidence of aspiration pneumonia in hospital-acquired pneumonia and community-acquired pneumonia is high; however, many features of this disease remain imprecise. Our objective was to characterize the microbial etiology and their antibiotic resistance and to determine the prognostic factors in aspiration pneumonia among patients admitted to a respiratory intensive care unit (RICU). A prospective survey was conducted in 112 patients exhibiting hospital-or community-acquired aspiration pneumonia in the RICU of a provincial general hospital from 2010-2012. Bronchoalveolar lavage sampling was collected, and then followed by standard culture and drug-sensitive test. Risk factors were analyzed by multivariate logistic analysis. One hundred twenty-eight strains were isolated in 94 patients, gram-negative bacilli (57.8%) was the predominant cultured microorganism, followed by fungus (28.9%) and gram-positive cocci (13.3%). The 5 main isolated bacteria demonstrated high and multiantibiotic resistance. The crude overall mortality was 43.8%, 50%, and 40%, respectively, in hospital- and community-acquired aspiration pneumonia group. Multivariate logistic analysis identified age older than 65 years, use of inotropic support, and ineffective initial therapy as independent risk factors of poor outcome. The predominant pathogenic bacteria of aspiration pneumonia in patients admitted to an RICU were antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and effective initial supportive management secured better prognosis. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia hospitalization in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Mark; Neupane, Binod; Walter, Stephen D; Hanning, Rhona; Carusone, Soo Chan; Lewis, David; Krueger, Paul; Simor, Andrew E; Nicolle, Lindsay; Marrie, Thomas J

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the risk of hospitalization for pneumonia in older adults in relation to biophysical environmental factors. Population-based case control study with collection of personal interview data. Hamilton, Ontario, and Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Seven hundred seventeen people aged 65 and older hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) from September 2002 to April 2005 and 867 controls aged 65 and older randomly selected from the same communities as the cases. Odds ratios (ORs) for risk of pneumonia in relation to environmental and other variables. Exposure to secondhand smoke in the previous month (OR=1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04-2.90); poor nutritional score (OR=1.83, 95% CI=1.19-2.80); alcohol use per month (per gram; OR=1.69, 95% CI=1.08-2.61); history of regular exposure to gases, fumes, or chemicals at work (OR=3.69, 95% CI=2.37-5.75); history of regular exposure to fumes from solvents, paints, or gasoline at home (OR=3.31, 95% CI=1.59-6.87); and non-English language spoken at home (OR=5.31, 95% CI=2.60-10.87) were associated with a greater risk of pneumonia hospitalization in multivariable analysis. Age, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive lung disease, dysphagia, renal disease, functional status, use of immunosuppressive disease medications, and lifetime history of smoking of more than 100 cigarettes were other variables associated with hospitalization for pneumonia. In elderly people, present and past exposures in the physical environmental are associated with hospitalization for CAP.

  9. Etiology and anti-microbial sensitivity of organisms causing community acquired pneumonia: A single hospital study

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    Resmi U Menon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the common etiological pathogens causing community acquired pneumonia (CAP in our hospital and sensitivity patterns to the common antibiotics used. Materials and Methods: This study was undertaken in a 750 bedded multi-specialty referral hospital in Kerala catering to both urban and semi-urban populations. It is a prospective study of patients who attended the medical out-patient department and those admitted with a clinical diagnosis of CAP, during the year 2009. Data were collected based on detailed patient interview, clinical examination and laboratory investigations. The latter included sputum culture and sensitivity pattern. These were tabulated and percentage incidence of etiological pathogens calculated. The antimicrobial sensitivity pattern was also classified by percentage and expressed as bar diagram. Results: The study showed Streptococcus pneumoniae to be the most common etiological agent for CAP, in our hospital setting. The other organisms isolated in order of frequency were Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Alpha hemolytic streptococci, Escherichia coli, Beta hemolytic streptococci and atypical coli. S. pneumoniae was most sensitive to linezolid, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanate (augmentin, cloxacillin and ceftriaxone. Overall, the common pathogens causing CAP showed highest sensitivity to amikacin, followed by ofloxacin, gentamycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate (augmentin, ceftriaxone and linezolid. The least sensitivity rates were shown to amoxicillin and cefoperazone. Conclusion: In a hospital setting, empirical management for cases of CAP is not advisable. The present study has shown S. pneumoniae as the most likely pathogen and either linezolid or amikacin as the most likely effective antimicrobial in cases of CAP, in our setting.

  10. Imaging of community-acquired pneumonia: Roles of imaging examinations, imaging diagnosis of specific pathogens and discrimination from noninfectious diseases

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    Nambu, Atsushi; Ozawa, Katsura; Kobayashi, Noriko; Tago, Masao

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews roles of imaging examinations in the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), imaging diagnosis of specific CAP and discrimination between CAP and noninfectious diseases. Chest radiography is usually enough to confirm the diagnosis of CAP, whereas computed tomography is required to suggest specific pathogens and to discriminate from noninfectious diseases. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, tuberculosis, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia and some cases of viral pneumonia sometimes show specific imaging findings. Peribronchial nodules, especially tree-in-bud appearance, are fairly specific for infection. Evidences of organization, such as concavity of the opacities, traction bronchiectasis, visualization of air bronchograms over the entire length of the bronchi, or mild parenchymal distortion are suggestive of organizing pneumonia. We will introduce tips to effectively make use of imaging examinations in the management of CAP. PMID:25349662

  11. Differentiation of bacterial and non-bacterial community-acquired pneumonia by thin-section computed tomography

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    Ito, Isao [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kurashiki Central Hospital, 1-1-1 Miwa, Kurashiki 710-8602 (Japan); Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Shogoin-kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)], E-mail: isaoito@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Ishida, Tadashi [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kurashiki Central Hospital, 1-1-1 Miwa, Kurashiki 710-8602 (Japan)], E-mail: ishidat@kchnet.or.jp; Togashi, Kaori [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Shogoin-kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)], E-mail: ktogashi@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Niimi, Akio [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Shogoin-kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)], E-mail: niimi@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Koyama, Hiroshi [General Internal Medicine, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, 1-1 Fukakusa-Mukohatacho, Fushimi-ku, Kyoto 612-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: hkoyama-kyt@umin.ac.jp; Ishimori, Takayoshi [Department of Radiology, Kurashiki Central Hospital, 1-1-1 Miwa, Kurashiki 710-8602 (Japan)], E-mail: ti10794@kchnet.or.jp; Kobayashi, Hisataka [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Shogoin-kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Molecular Imaging Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 1B40, MSC1088, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892-1088 (United States)], E-mail: kobayash@mail.nih.gov; Mishima, Michiaki [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Shogoin-kawaharacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)], E-mail: mishima@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2009-12-15

    Background and objective: The management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) depends, in part, on the identification of the causative agents. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of thin-section computed tomography (CT) in differentiating bacterial and non-bacterial pneumonia. Patients and methods: Thin-section CT studies were prospectively examined in hospitalized CAP patients within 2 days of admission, followed by retrospective assessment by two pulmonary radiologists. Thin-section CT findings on the pneumonias caused by each pathogen were examined, and two types of pneumonias were compared. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were produced. Results: Among 183 CAP episodes (181 patients, 125 men and 56 women, mean age {+-} S.D.: 61.1 {+-} 19.7) examined by thin-section CT, the etiologies of 125 were confirmed (94 bacterial pneumonia and 31 non-bacterial pneumonia). Centrilobular nodules were specific for non-bacterial pneumonia and airspace nodules were specific for bacterial pneumonia (specificities of 89% and 94%, respectively) when located in the outer lung areas. When centrilobular nodules were the principal finding, they were specific but lacked sensitivity for non-bacterial pneumonia (specificity 98% and sensitivity 23%). To distinguish the two types of pneumonias, centrilobular nodules, airspace nodules and lobular shadows were found to be important by multivariate analyses. ROC curve analysis discriminated bacterial pneumonia from non-bacterial pneumonia among patients without underlying lung diseases, yielding an optimal point with sensitivity and specificity of 86% and 79%, respectively, but was less effective when all patients were analyzed together (70% and 84%, respectively). Conclusion: Thin-section CT examination was applied for the differentiation of bacterial and non-bacterial pneumonias. Though showing some potential, this examination at the present time would

  12. Guidelines for community-acquired pneumonia: are they reflected in practice?

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    Flanders, Scott A; Halm, Ethan A

    2004-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is common, costly, and clinically serious. Several national and international practice guidelines have been developed to promote more appropriate, cost-effective care for patients with CAP. This article compares and contrasts eight international practice guidelines for the management of CAP, describes the extent to which recommendations are reflected in practice, and proposes explanations for non-adherence to guidelines. We found consistency in recommendations across all the guidelines for the management of patients with CAP requiring intensive care. In this setting, all guidelines recommend chest radiography, sputum Gram stain and culture, blood cultures, testing for Legionella pneumophila, and timely administration of antibiotics active against both typical (i.e. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Hemophilus influenzae) and atypical organisms (i.e. Legionella spp., Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Chlamydia pneumoniae). Recommendations for the management of the average inpatient with pneumonia were more variable, with the greatest differences between the North American and European guidelines. The North American guidelines (in contrast to European ones), recommended empiric treatment of typical and atypical organisms in all inpatients. There were also differences in policies regarding the necessity of chest radiography, sputum studies, and serologic testing. Some guidelines explicitly embrace the use of prediction rules to inform the decision to hospitalize, while others do not. Some of these admission decision algorithms focus on identifying low risk patients, while others are most concerned with high risk patients. There was also considerable variation in the specificity and operationalization of clinical criteria for switching from parenteral to oral antibiotics or judging appropriateness for discharge. Many recommendations for key management decisions tended to lack explicit, objective, and actionable criteria that could be easily

  13. Rates and Risk Factors for Recurrent Pneumonia in Patients Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study With 5 Years of Follow-up

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    Dang, T. T.; Eurich, D. T.; Weir, D. L.; Marrie, T. J.; Majumdar, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The rates and risk factors for developing recurrent pneumonia following hospitalization with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are poorly understood. Methods. We examined a population-based cohort of patients with CAP who survived hospital admission and who were free of pneumonia for at least 3 months. We collected clinical, functional, and medication-related information and pneumonia severity index (PSI). Using linked databases we followed patients for 5 years and captured any clinical episode of pneumonia 90 days or more post-discharge. We used Cox proportional hazards models (adjusted for age, sex, PSI, functional status, medications) to determine rates and independent correlates of recurrent pneumonia. Results. The final cohort included 2709 inpatients; 43% were 75 years or older, 34% were not fully independent, and 56% had severe pneumonia. Over 5 years of follow–up, 245 (9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8%–10%) patients developed recurrent pneumonia, and 156 (64%) of these episodes required hospitalization. Rate of recurrence was 3.0/100 person–years and median time to recurrence was 317 days (interquartile range, 177–569); 32 (13%) patients had 2 or more recurrences. In multivariable analyses only age >75 years (adjusted P = .047) and less than fully independent functional status (12% recurrence rate with impaired functional status vs 7% for fully independent; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3–2.2; P pneumonia. Conclusions. One of 11 patients who survived CAP hospitalization had recurrent pneumonia over 5 years and those with impaired functional status were at particularly high risk. Recurrent pneumonia is common and more attention to preventive strategies at discharge and closer follow-up over the long-term seem warranted. PMID:24729503

  14. Community acquired pneumonia in the elderly: the Pneumonia in Italian Acute Care for Elderly units (PIACE study protocol by the Italian Society of Hospital and Community Geriatrics (SIGOT

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    Filippo Luca Fimognari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonia is a frequent cause of hospital admission in elderly patients. Diagnosis of pneumonia in elderly persons with comorbidity may be challenging, due to atypical presentation and complex clinical scenarios. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP arises out-of-hospital in subjects without previous contact with the healthcare system. Healthcare associated pneumonia (HCAP occurs in patients who have frequent contacts with the healthcare system and should be treated with empiric broad spectrum antibiotic therapy also covering multi-drug resistant (MDR pathogens. Recent findings, however, have questioned this approach, because the worse prognosis of HCAP compared to CAP may better reflect increased level of comorbidity and frailty (poor functional status, older age of HCAP patients, as well as poorer quality of hospital care provided to such patients, rather than pneumonia etiology by MDR pathogens. The Pneumonia in Italian Acute Care for Elderly units (PIACE Study, promoted by the Società Italiana di Geriatria Ospedale e Territorio (SIGOT, is an observational prospective cohort study of patients consecutively admitted because of pneumonia to hospital acute care units of Geriatrics throughout Italy. Detailed information regarding clinical presentation, diagnosis, etiology, comprehensive geriatric assessment, antibiotic therapy, possible complications and comorbidities was recorded to identify factors potentially predicting in-hospital mortality (primary endpoint, 3-month mortality, length of hospital stay, postdischarge rate of institutionalization and other secondary endpoints. This paper describes the rationale and method of PIACE Study and reviews the main evidence on pneumonia in the elderly.

  15. The place of endogenous antimicrobial peptides in the pathogenetic mechanisms of the development of community-acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae among infants

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    G.O. Lezhenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive survey was carried out in 30 children with community-acquired pneumonia aged 2 months to 3 years old, among them in 18 children the disease was caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, and in the remaining 12 patients — by Gram-negative flora. All children underwent the evaluation of the severity of the condition using the PRESS scale, according to which it was found that most patients had severe course of pneumococcal pneumonia. The analysis showed that the development of pneumococcal pneumonia in children occurred against the background of a decrease in the serum content of vitamin D metabolites and the activity of antimicrobial peptides, in contrast to pneumonia caused by Gram-negative pathogens. In the blood serum of children with pneumococcal pneumonia, there was detected a decrease in the content of β1-defensins by 2.6 times, LL-37 — by 3.7 times and human bactericidal permeability-increasing protein — by 2.8 times in comparison with the control group (p < 0.05. It has been proved that inadequate activation of antimicrobial peptides against the background of a deficiency of vitamin D metabolites in infants with pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the pathogenetic links leading to a severe course of the disease.

  16. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) serum levels in patients with community-acquired pneumonia

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    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Nordenbaek, Claudia; Tornoe, Ida

    2003-01-01

    blood samples from 61 patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia of suspected bacterial origin. On the day of admission to the hospital the serum SP-D concentration was significantly lower than that in healthy subjects. On day 5, the SP-D concentration had increased on average three times...... the concentration on admission and then slowly declined toward normal levels. CRP was measured simultaneously but no correlation was observed between concentrations of SP-D and CRP. The results show a wide range of serum SP-D concentration in healthy volunteers and indicate that significant changes occur during...

  17. THE OUTCOME OF ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY AMONG CHILDREN WITH SEVERE COMMUNITY ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA

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    M. R. Usman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV status on the evolution of community acquired pneumonia (CAP is still controversial. There are controversies regarding antibiotic treatment outcome of CAP in HIV infected children. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate possible differences in hospital outcomes, with compared the outcome of the treatment in severe CAP among HIV infected and HIV uninfected children which had an empiric antibiotic therapy. Methods: A case control study of 80 patients with severe CAP in Department of Child Health, Sanglah General Hospital, Bali-Indonesia. We evaluated clinical features for seeing the effectiveness of the antibiotic therapy according to Department of Child Health, Sanglah General Hospital’s clinical pathway for severe pneumonia between HIV infected and HIV uninfected patients. Results: 58% patients in failure treatment and 45% patients in favorable treatment were HIV infected. There were similar characteristics from both groups, except malnutrition condition was statistically significant contribute the outcome (OR 2.87 (95% CI 1.098 to 7.500, p= 0.031. There was no significantly statistic difference of the outcome in HIV infected as compared to HIV uninfected patients with severe CAP (OR 1.65 (95% CI 0.683 to 4.002, p= 0.263. Conclusion: HIV infection was not gave an effect on the outcome of severe CAP patients which had an antibiotic therapy based on Department of Child Health, Sanglah General Hospital’s clinical pathway for severe pneumonia.

  18. Predictors of Severe Sepsis among Patients Hospitalized for Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Antoni; Reyes, Soledad; Méndez, Raúl; Zalacaín, Rafael; Capelastegui, Alberto; Rajas, Olga; Borderías, Luis; Martin-Villasclaras, Juan; Bello, Salvador; Alfageme, Inmaculada; Rodríguez de Castro, Felipe; Rello, Jordi; Molinos, Luis; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe sepsis, may be present on hospital arrival in approximately one-third of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Objective To determine the host characteristics and micro-organisms associated with severe sepsis in patients hospitalized with CAP. Results We performed a prospective multicenter cohort study in 13 Spanish hospital, on 4070 hospitalized CAP patients, 1529 of whom (37.6%) presented with severe sepsis. Severe sepsis CAP was independently associated with older age (>65 years), alcohol abuse (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.07–1.61), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.50–2.04) and renal disease (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.21–2.03), whereas prior antibiotic treatment was a protective factor (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.52–0.73). Bacteremia (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.05–1.79), S pneumoniae (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.31–1.95) and mixed microbial etiology (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.10–2.49) were associated with severe sepsis CAP. Conclusions CAP patients with COPD, renal disease and alcohol abuse, as well as those with CAP due to S pneumonia or mixed micro-organisms are more likely to present to the hospital with severe sepsis. PMID:26727202

  19. Clinical predictors for Legionella in patients presenting with community-acquired pneumonia to the emergency department

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    Frei Reno

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Legionella species cause severe forms of pneumonia with high mortality and complication rates. Accurate clinical predictors to assess the likelihood of Legionella community-acquired pneumonia (CAP in patients presenting to the emergency department are lacking. Methods We retrospectively compared clinical and laboratory data of 82 consecutive patients with Legionella CAP with 368 consecutive patients with non-Legionella CAP included in two studies at the same institution. Results In multivariate logistic regression analysis we identified six parameters, namely high body temperature (OR 1.67, p Legionella CAP. Using optimal cut off values of these six parameters, we calculated a diagnostic score for Legionella CAP. The median score was significantly higher in Legionella CAP as compared to patients without Legionella (4 (IQR 3–4 vs 2 (IQR 1–2, p Legionella pneumonia. Conversely, of the 73 patients (16% with ≥4 points, 66% of patients had Legionella CAP. Conclusion Six clinical and laboratory parameters embedded in a simple diagnostic score accurately identified patients with Legionella CAP. If validated in future studies, this score might aid in the management of suspected Legionella CAP.

  20. Community acquired pneumonia in diabetic and non-diabetic hospitalized patients: presentation, causative pathogens and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saibal, M A A; Rahman, S H Z; Nishat, L; Sikder, N H; Begum, S A; Islam, M J; Uddin, K N

    2012-12-01

    Both community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and diabetes mellitus are common in Bangladesh. Though hospitalization of diabetic patients with CAP is increasing, data regarding their clinical presentation, microbial characteristics, antimicrobial susceptibility and outcome are lacking. This study was aimed at finding any difference in clinical presentation, bacterial causes, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolated bacteria and outcome in diabetic and non-diabetic hospitalized patients with CAP. In this study total 47 diabetic and 43 non-diabetic adult hospitalized patients with CAP were enrolled. Clinical presentation of CAP differed in diabetics and non-diabetics. Frequency of atypical presentation and CURB-65 score were significantly higher in diabetics. Pleural effusion with multilobar infiltration was also common feature for CAP in diabetic patients. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most frequent causative pathogen for CAP in diabetic patients, whereas Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most frequent causative agent for non-diabetic patients. Bacteria isolated from sputum sample of diabetic patients with CAP were resistant to almost all recommended antibiotics used for CAP but 100% of isolates were sensitive to Carbapenems. Pulmonary complications were relatively more in diabetics than in non-diabetics. Hospitalized diabetics with CAP required referral to intensive care unit more than that of non-diabetics. So, diabetic patients with CAP need extra attention.

  1. Features of severe community acquired pneumonia in hiv-infected patients

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    Bielosludtseva K.O.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Questions of management of patients with severe community acquired pneumonia (CAP in HIV-infected are particularly acute. Pneumonia etiology, identification and treatment on the background of immune deficiency, its clinical and diagnostic features and tactics are still not clearly described, this significantly increases mortality from CAP in general clinical practice. That is why the aim of the work was to determine clinical features, etiology, severity of systemic inflammation and cellular immunity status of severe pneumonia in HIV-infected individuals. For this, 62 patients with verified severe CAP were observed, after express testing the main group included 11 (17.7% persons with severe CAP and identified HIV-infection who underwent identification of respiratory pathogens, determination of serum levels of markers of systemic inflammation (procalcitonin (PCT and C-reactive protein (CRP, count of CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8 lymphocyte subpopulations. According to the results of causative agent identification in the study group pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis jirivecii (in 9 (81.8% of cases dominated, whereas in 2 other patients (18.2% Streptococcus pneumonia was identified. According to the results of objective examination it turned out that the peculiarities of severe CAP in HIV infected patients is non-manifestal atypical clinical set of symptoms with predominance of respiratory distress syndrome over general intoxication, due to Pneumocystis pathogenetic mechanisms of lung injury (BR in the study group was at 37,5±0,1 per 1 min. of oxygen saturation 79,2±3,0%, and with following minimal inflammatory processes (maximum level of PCT in patients with pneumocystis pneumonia corresponded 0.555 ng/ml. According to the study of cellular immunitit it was found that of study group patients had CD4 count 65% less than in the control group. It turned out that in cases of suspected severe CAP in HIV-infectsd patients sputum PCR method allows to quickly detect

  2. Azithromycin is not associated with QT prolongation in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Lee Hilary; Gabin, Ahmad; Fawaz, Abdallah; Freedberg, Nahum Adam; Schwartz, Naama; Elias, Mazen; Saliba, Walid

    2015-10-01

    Large data-based studies have reported excess cardiovascular mortality in high-risk patients treated with azithromycin, but whether or not azithromycin causes QT prolongation remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of azithromycin treatment on QT prolongation in a cohort of patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) METHODS: One-hundred twenty-two hospitalized patients with CAP were enrolled in the study. We compared the baseline QTc, with daily post antibiotic QTc. Other risk factors for QT prolongation such as medication or electrolyte abnormalities were recorded. Ninety (73.8%) patients were treated with azithromycin (usually in combination with ceftriaxone), and 32 (26.2%) patients with other antibiotics (ampicillin-clavulanate, chloramphenicol, doxcycline, or ceftriaxone); 72.1% (88) of the cohort experienced QT lengthening; 72.7% with QT lengthening had a normal baseline QTc. Azithromycin was not associated with the post-antibiotic QTc. Wide (pathological) post-antibiotic QTc was associated with the pneumonia score. Every 10-point increase in the pneumonia score raised the risk for a pathological post antibiotic QTc by 1.249 (95%CI: 1.050-1.486). Analysis of patients with non-pathological baseline QTc revealed that pathological post-antibiotic QTc was only associated with previous stroke and not with the type of antibiotic. Azithromycin treatment was not associated with QT prolongation in patients with severe CAP. Nonetheless, in a large majority of hospitalized CAP patients, QT prolongation and pathological QTc develop regardless of the antibiotic used, especially in patients with previous stroke or a higher pneumonia score. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Lung ultrasound in the diagnosis and monitoring of community acquired pneumonia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbankowska, Emilia; Krenke, Katarzyna; Drobczyński, Łukasz; Korczyński, Piotr; Urbankowski, Tomasz; Krawiec, Marta; Kraj, Grażyna; Brzewski, Michał; Kulus, Marek

    2015-09-01

    Lung ultrasound (LUS) is as an easily accessible, radiation-free imaging technique that might be used as a diagnostic tool in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness and accuracy of LUS in the diagnosis and monitoring of childhood CAP. One hundred six consecutive children aged between 1 and 213 (median 52.5) months referred to the hospital with suspicion of CAP were enrolled. All patients underwent LUS on the day of admission, followed by chest radiograph (CXR). Lung ultrasound was also performed in 25 children between 5th-7th and 31 children between 10th-14th day after admission. Radiographic signs of pneumonia were demonstrated in 76 children, while lung ultrasound revealed pulmonary abnormalities consistent with pneumonia in 71 children. LUS gave false negative results in 5 patients with parahilar pulmonary infiltrates demonstrated by CXR. Almost perfect overall agreement between LUS and CXR was found in terms of pneumonia diagnosis (Cohen kappa coefficient of 0.89). The diagnostic performance of LUS in demonstration of lung involvement was as follows: sensitivity of 93.4%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, negative predictive value of 85.7% and accuracy of 95.3%. Our study showed that LUS is a sensitive and highly specific diagnostic method in children with CAP. Therefore, LUS may be considered as the first imaging test in children with suspicion of CAP. A diagnostic algorithm of CAP which includes LUS should be validated in prospective studies. Lung ultrasound can also be used to follow-up resolution of pneumonic lesions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Linezolid has unique immunomodulatory effects in post-influenza community acquired MRSA pneumonia.

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    Urvashi Bhan

    Full Text Available Post influenza pneumonia is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity, with mortality rates approaching 60% when bacterial infections are secondary to multi-drug resistant (MDR pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus, in particular community acquired MRSA (cMRSA, has emerged as a leading cause of post influenza pneumonia.Linezolid (LZD prevents acute lung injury in murine model of post influenza bacterial pneumonia.Mice were infected with HINI strain of influenza and then challenged with cMRSA at day 7, treated with antibiotics (LZD or Vanco or vehicle 6 hours post bacterial challenge and lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL harvested at 24 hours for bacterial clearance, inflammatory cell influx, cytokine/chemokine analysis and assessment of lung injury.Mice treated with LZD or Vanco had lower bacterial burden in the lung and no systemic dissemination, as compared to the control (no antibiotic group at 24 hours post bacterial challenge. As compared to animals receiving Vanco, LZD group had significantly lower numbers of neutrophils in the BAL (9×10(3 vs. 2.3×10(4, p < 0.01, which was associated with reduced levels of chemotactic chemokines and inflammatory cytokines KC, MIP-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-1β in the BAL. Interestingly, LZD treatment also protected mice from lung injury, as assessed by albumin concentration in the BAL post treatment with H1N1 and cMRSA when compared to vanco treatment. Moreover, treatment with LZD was associated with significantly lower levels of PVL toxin in lungs.Linezolid has unique immunomodulatory effects on host inflammatory response and lung injury in a murine model of post-viral cMRSA pneumonia.

  5. Ceftaroline in the management of complicated skin and soft tissue infections and community acquired pneumonia

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    Mpenge MA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mbiye A Mpenge,1 Alasdair P MacGowan2 1Department of Medical Microbiology, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Trust, Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol, England; 2Department of Medical Microbiology, North Bristol NHS Trust, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, England Abstract: Ceftaroline is a new parenteral cephalosporin approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs including those due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. Ceftaroline has broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and exerts its bactericidal effects by binding to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs, resulting in inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It binds to PBP 2a of MRSA with high affinity and also binds to all six PBPs in Streptococcus pneumoniae. In in vitro studies, ceftaroline demonstrated potent activity against Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA and vancomycin-intermediate isolates, Streptococcus pneumoniae (including multidrug resistant isolates, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and many common gram-negative pathogens, excluding extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In Phase II and Phase III clinical trials, ceftaroline was noninferior to its comparator agents and demonstrated high clinical cure rates in the treatment of cSSTIs and CAP. It demonstrated favorable outcomes in patients treated for both regulatory-approved indications and unlicensed indications in a retrospective analysis. Ceftaroline is a safe and effective option for treatment in specific patient populations in which its efficacy and safety have been proven. This article reviews the challenges in the treatment of cSSTI and CAP, ceftaroline and its microbiology, pharmacology, efficacy, and safety data which support its use in

  6. Pneumonia adquirida na comunidade e derrame pleural parapneumônico relacionados a Mycoplasma pneumoniae em crianças e adolescentes Mycoplasma pneumoniae-related community-acquired pneumonia and parapneumonic pleural effusion in children and adolescents

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    Letícia Alves Vervloet

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e as características da pneumonia adquirida na comunidade (PAC e derrames pleurais parapneumônicos (DPP relacionados a Mycoplasma pneumoniae em um grupo de crianças e adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional retrospectivo com 121 pacientes hospitalizados com PAC e DPP em um hospital de referência terciária, entre 2000 e 2008, divididos em seis grupos (G1 a G6 segundo o agente etiológico: M. pneumoniae com ou sem coinfecção, em 44 pacientes; outros agentes que não M. pneumoniae, em 77; M. pneumoniae sem coinfecção, em 34; Streptococcus pneumoniae, em 36; Staphylococcus aureus, em 31; e coinfecção M. pneumoniae/S. pneumoniae, em 9, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: Na comparação entre os grupos, G1 apresentou frequências maiores em gênero feminino, tosse seca, uso prévio de beta-lactâmicos e na duração dos sintomas até a admissão, assim como menor uso de assistência ventilatória e de drenagem torácica que G2, enquanto G3 teve maiores frequências em uso prévio de beta-lactâmicos e tosse seca, maior duração dos sintomas antes da admissão e menor frequência de uso de drenos torácicos que G4 e G5, ao passo que G3 teve média de idade maior e menor frequência de náuseas/vômitos que G4, assim como menor uso de assistência ventilatória que G5. A coinfecção M. pneumoniae/S. pneumoniae aumentou a duração dos sintomas até a admissão. CONCLUSÕES: Nesta amostra, a prevalência de PAC e DPP por M. pneumoniae foi de 12,75%. Embora a doença apresentasse quadros mais leves que aquela por outros organismos, a evolução foi mais prolongada. Nossos dados sugerem a necessidade de uma maior diligência na investigação de M. pneumoniae em crianças e adolescentes com PAC e DPP em nosso meio.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and the characteristics of Mycoplasma pneumoniae-related community-acquired pneumonia (CAP and parapneumonic pleural effusion (PPE in children and adolescents

  7. Necrotizing community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia: an emerging problem in correctional facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Nita; Kochie, Mary; Harber, Philip

    2011-03-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) skin infections have been common in prisons for more than a decade. However, CA-MRSA as a cause of pneumonia has been reported infrequently. This infection can present with flu-like symptoms and rapidly progress, possibly leading to death in a matter of days. Two cases of MRSA community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) associated with influenza-like illness in correctional officers employed in two separate prisons within the California prison system are presented. Both individuals were previously healthy, but one died of this disease. MRSA is an uncommon, but now recognized, cause of CAP. These cases are notable for their unique presentation and occurrence in non-health care, occupational settings. Prompt diagnosis and intervention by occupational health nurses and physicians are critical to improving outcomes, especially in high-risk settings such as prisons. These worksites need an effective occupational health program to manage MRSA, with adequate training for both employees and inmates.

  8. STUDY OF COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED BACTERIAL PNEUMONIAS PRESENTING TO TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

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    Ramakrishna Rachakonda

    2017-11-01

    diagnosed as having gram-positive cocci and nearly 15% gram-negative bacilli. 5.12% had mixed organisms and 28% had normal Gram stain study. 3.20% patients had fungal elements in Gram stain study. 127 out of 156 patients were positive for bacterial pathogens by culture. Commonest organism isolated was Streptococcus pneumonia in 32.69% followed by Staph aureus in 18.59%, Klebsiella in 8.97%, Pseudomonas in 5.76%, Haemophilus influenza in 4.48%, mixed pathogens in 8.97% and Citrobacter in 1.92%. No organism was isolated by culture in 18.58%. Streptococcus pneumonia and Haemophilus influenzae organisms isolated in these patients were sensitive to routine drugs in all these patients. Nearly, 10% of Staphylococci, 7% of Klebsiella and 22% Pseudomonas organisms are found resistant to the routine drugs. Tazobactam-Piperacillin resistance was seen in both Klebsiella and Pseudomonas species and both were sensitive to meropenem. CONCLUSION Community acquired pneumonia occurs in the older age group among the adult population. Smoking has a significant correlation with development of pneumonia. Predominant number of patients are male. Bilateral and bronchopneumonia pattern is the commonest presentation. Comorbidities and initial white blood cell concentration enhance the duration of hospital stay and the values are statistically significant. Commonest organism isolated is Streptococcus pneumonia followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella, Haemophilus and Pseudomonas. Staphylococci, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas species showed resistance. Tazobactam + Piperacillin resistance is seen among Klebsiella and Pseudomonas species isolated in our centre.

  9. Pneumonia adquirida na comunidade numa unidade de cuidados intensivos Community-acquired pneumonia in an intensive care unit

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    M Raquel Marques

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A pneumonia adquirida na comunidade (PAC é a principal causa de sépsis em cuidados intensivos de adultos. Com o objectivo de caracterizar o quadro clínico de PAC em cuidados intensivos, tratamento e avaliação de factores prognósticos, com especial relevância para a antibioterapia, realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo dos doentes admitidos numa UCI polivalente com PAC, de 1 de Junho de 2004 a 31 de Dezembro de 2006. Analisaram-se 76 doentes com uma idade média de 62,88 (18,75 anos. O APACHE II médio de 24,88 (9,75 e o SAPS 2 médio era de 51,18 (18,05, com mortalidade prevista de 47,27%. O microrganismo responsável foi identificado em 42,1% dos casos. O agente etiológico mais comum foi o Streptococcus pneumoniae, mas o grupo de agentes etiológicos mais frequentemente identificados foi o dos bacilos entéricos gramnegativos. A antibioterapia prévia mais usada foi a levofloxacina. O esquema de antibioterapia mais usado na admissão foi a associação ceftriaxone com azitromicina. Em 32 doentes em que foi possível avaliar a adequação terapêutica, 27 estavam sob esquemas de antibioterapia adequados. Foram submetidos a ventilação mecânica 66 doentes (86,8%, com uma duração mediana de 4 dias. A demora mediana foi de 5,3 dias. A mortalidade na unidade foi de 36,8% e a hospitalar de 55,26%. O índice SAPS 2, o valor de PCR, o potássio sérico e a antibioterapia inicial não adequada relacionaram-se com maior mortalidade. Após análise multivariada, apenas o índice SAPS II manteve significado estatístico. O uso da antibioterapia deve ser criterioso, tendo em conta os principais agentes e a sua susceptibilidade.Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is the leading cause of sepsis in adult critical care. We present a retrospective study of patients admitted to a polyvalent intensive care unit with CAP from 1st June 2004 - 31st December 2006. We analysed 76 patients with a mean age of 62.88 (18.75 years. Mean APACHE II score was 24.88 (9

  10. Microbiologic Efficacy of Azithromycin and Susceptibilities to Azithromycin of Isolates of Chlamydia pneumoniae from Adults and Children with Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roblin, Patricia M.; Hammerschlag, Margaret R.

    1998-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae was eradicated from the nasopharynges of 26 of 33 (78.8%) evaluable children and adults with community-acquired pneumonia who were treated with azithromycin. We tested 55 isolates of C. pneumoniae obtained from 46 of these patients against azithromycin. The MIC at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited and the minimal chlamydiacidal concentration at which 90% of strains tested were killed of azithromycin for these isolates were both 0.5 μg/ml. Seven patients remained culture positive after treatment. The MICs of azithromycin for isolates from two patients increased fourfold after therapy. However, all the patients with persistent infection improved clinically. Further studies of treatment of C. pneumoniae infection, utilizing culture, are needed both to assess efficacy and to monitor for the possible development of antibiotic resistance. PMID:9449287

  11. Current Aspects of Antibiotic Therapy of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children of Early and Preschool Age (Review

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    S.A. Mokiya-Serbina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyzed current antibiotic resistance of S.pneumoniae. We showed local (region data on sensitivity of pneumococcus to aminopenicillins, macrolides and cephalosporines traditionally used in schemes of empirical antibiotic therapy of community-acquired pneumonia in children under 5 years. We laid basic principles of rational antibiotic therapy based on the analysis of current national and foreign guidelines on the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. Insignificant differences in the schemes of empirical antibiotic therapy are marked due to peculiarities of local resistance of S.pneumoniae in different countries. We discussed propriety of some positions of empirical antibiotic therapy in children of early and preschool age.

  12. Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children Caused by Pneumococci of MLSB- and M-Phenotype: Clinical Cases

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    Natalya A. Ilenkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The key to effective treatment of a bacterial infection is a rapid and proper selection of antimicrobial therapy. WHO and UNICEF developed the Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhoea (GAPPD aimed to elimination of the preventable causes of child death by 2025 by optimizing diagnosis and treatment. The main pneumonia agents are fastidious microorganisms that require special nutrient media and cultivation conditions that are absent in many laboratories. Due to low effectiveness of the etiological diagnosis, the choice of antibiotic therapy for pneumonia in the practice of a pediatrician is usually empirical. The article describes clinical cases of community-acquired pneumonia in children caused by strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae with a multiple antibiotic resistance. The above experience can be used by pediatricians in everyday practice.

  13. Computed tomography findings of community-acquired Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia pneumonia in an immunocompetent patient: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Yoon Ki; Kim, Jeung Sook; Park, Seong Yeon; Oh, Jin Young; Kwon, Jae Hyun [Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) is a rare, but globally emerging gram-negative multiple-drug-resistant organism usually found in a nosocomial setting in immunocompromised patients. To our best knowledge, computed tomography (CT) features of community-acquired S. maltophilia pneumonia have not been previously reported in an immunocompetent patient. Herein, we presented the CT findings of a previous healthy 56-year-old male with S. maltophilia pneumonia.

  14. Racial variations in processes of care for patients with community-acquired pneumonia

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    Whittle Jeff

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients hospitalized with community acquired pneumonia (CAP have a substantial risk of death, but there is evidence that adherence to certain processes of care, including antibiotic administration within 8 hours, can decrease this risk. Although national mortality data shows blacks have a substantially increased odds of death due to pneumonia as compared to whites previous studies of short-term mortality have found decreased mortality for blacks. Therefore we examined pneumonia-related processes of care and short-term mortality in a population of patients hospitalized with CAP. Methods We reviewed the records of all identified Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for pneumonia between 10/1/1998 and 9/30/1999 at one of 101 Pennsylvania hospitals, and randomly selected 60 patients at each hospital for inclusion. We reviewed the medical records to gather process measures of quality, pneumonia severity and demographics. We used Medicare administrative data to identify 30-day mortality. Because only a small proportion of the study population was black, we included all 240 black patients and randomly selected 720 white patients matched on age and gender. We performed a resampling of the white patients 10 times. Results Males were 43% of the cohort, and the median age was 76 years. After controlling for potential confounders, blacks were less likely to receive antibiotics within 8 hours (odds ratio with 95% confidence interval 0.6, 0.4–0.97, but were as likely as whites to have blood cultures obtained prior to receiving antibiotics (0.7, 0.3–1.5, to have oxygenation assessed within 24 hours of presentation (1.6, 0.9–3.0, and to receive guideline concordant antibiotics (OR 0.9, 0.6–1.7. Black patients had a trend towards decreased 30-day mortality (0.4, 0.2 to 1.0. Conclusion Although blacks were less likely to receive optimal care, our findings are consistent with other studies that suggest better risk-adjusted survival

  15. Outcomes in elderly Danish citizens admitted with community-acquired pneumonia. Regional differences, in a public healthcare system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard Klausen, Henrik; Petersen, J; Lindhardt, T

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate regional differences in and risk factors for admission, length of stay, mortality, and readmission for community-acquired pneumonia in elderly Danish patients. METHODS: National registry study on elderly Danish citizens with an acute admission in 2009 owing to community....... RESULTS: A total of 11,332 elderly citizens were admitted with community-acquired pneumonia. Mortality during admission and 30-days from discharge were 11.6% and 16.2%, respectively. Readmission rates within 30 days of discharge were 12.3%. There were significantly differences between hospitals in length...... for death and readmission within 30 days of discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Length of stay, rate of admission, mortality and readmission in elderly Danish patients with community-acquired pneumonia follows international findings. There are regional differences between hospitals. In depth investigation in regional...

  16. Improving antibiotic prescribing for adults with community acquired pneumonia: Does a computerised decision support system achieve more than academic detailing alone?--A time series analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buising, Kirsty L; Thursky, Karin A; Black, James F; MacGregor, Lachlan; Street, Alan C; Kennedy, Marcus P; Brown, Graham V

    2008-01-01

    ...) on clinicians' prescribing behaviour for patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP). The management of all patients presenting to the emergency department over three successive time periods was evaluated...

  17. Aetiology of hospital-acquired pneumonia and trends in antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enne, Virve I; Personne, Yoann; Grgic, Ljuban; Gant, Vanya; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2014-05-01

    Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) continue to present very significant diagnostic and management challenges. The development, introduction and use of a wider range of immunosuppressive therapies are leading to a broader spectrum of microorganisms causing HAP and VAP. The persistent clinical dilemma regarding their cause is that detection of a microorganism from a respiratory tract sample does not necessarily signify it is the causative agent of the pneumonia. The ever-increasing antibiotic resistance problem means that HAP and VAP are becoming progressively more difficult to treat. In this article, we review the cause, antimicrobial resistance, diagnosis and treatment of HAP and VAP and encapsulate recent developments and concepts in this rapidly moving field. Although the microbial causes of HAP and VAP remain at present similar to those identified in previous studies, there are marked geographical differences. Resistance rates among Gram-negative bacteria are continually increasing, and for any species, multiresistance is the norm rather than the exception. The development and introduction of rapid point-of-care diagnostics may improve understanding of the cause of HAP and VAP and has immense potential to influence the treatment and clinical outcomes in HAP/VAP, with patients likely to receive much faster, microorganism-specific treatment with obvious downstream improvements to clinical outcome and antimicrobial stewardship. We describe recent trends in aetiology of HAP and VAP and recent trends in antimicrobial resistance, including resistance mechanisms causing particular concern. The potential for novel molecular diagnostics to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of HAP/VAP is discussed.

  18. Association of adrenal function and disease severity in community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Cornelia; Blum, Claudine A; Trummler, Michael; Stolz, Daiana; Bingisser, Roland; Mueller, Christian; Tamm, Michael; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2014-01-01

    Rapid and accurate risk stratification in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an unmet clinical need. Cortisol to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) ratio was put forward as a prognostic marker in sepsis. We herein validated the prognostic value of the adrenal hormones DHEA, DHEA-Sulfate (DHEAS), cortisol/DHEA-, cortisol/DHEAS- and DHEA/DHEAS-ratios in patients with CAP. We assessed severity of illness using the pneumonia severity index (PSI) and measured adrenal hormone concentrations in 179 serum samples of prospectively recruited patients hospitalized with CAP. We calculated spearman rank correlation, logistic regression analysis and Kaplan Meier curves to study associations of adrenal hormones and outcomes. There was a significant correlation between PSI score and total cortisol (r = 0.24, p = 0.001), DHEAS (r = -0.23, p = 0.002), cortisol/DHEA (r = 0.23, p = 0.003), cortisol/DHEAS (r = 0.32, p = DHEA/DHEAS (r = 0.20, p = 0.009). In age and gender adjusted logistic regression analysis, cortisol (OR:2.8, 95% CI: 1.48-5.28) and DHEA (OR: 2.62,95% CI: 1.28-5.34), but not DHEAS and the different ratios were associated with all-cause mortality. The discriminatory accuracy of cortisol and DHEA in ROC analysis (area under the curve) was 0.74 and 0.61. In Kaplan Meier analysis, patients in the highest deciles of cortisol and DHEA (p = 0.005 and p = 0.015), and to a lesser extent of cortisol/DHEAS ratio (p = 0.081) had a higher risk of death. Cortisol, DHEAS and their ratios correlate with CAP severity, and cortisol and DHEA predict mortality. Adrenal function in severe pneumonia may be an important factor for CAP outcomes.

  19. Hospital-acquired pneumonia after lung resection surgery is associated with characteristic cytokine gene expression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, Mary

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Infection in humans has been linked with altered cytokine gene transcription. It is unclear whether this phenomenon is a consequence of an established disease process or precedes the infective process. The primary end point of this study was to determine whether hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) was associated with differential gene expression of interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and IL-23p19. The secondary end point was to identify whether alteration in gene expression preceded the clinical onset of infection. METHODS: Sixty consecutive patients undergoing elective thoracic surgery were recruited. HAP was diagnosed as per National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance guidelines. Messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels were analyzed preoperatively and 24 h and 5 days postoperatively. RESULTS: Forty-one patients had an uncomplicated recovery. Nineteen patients developed HAP. IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p35, IL-23p19, IL-27p28, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma mRNA and protein levels of IL-6, IL-23, and IFN-gamma in peripheral blood leukocytes were analyzed before surgery and 24 h and 5 days postsurgery. IL-23p19 mRNA levels were reduced in the pneumonia group (median, 4.19; 10th-90th centile range, 3.90-4.71) compared with the nonpneumonia group (4.50; 3.85-5.32) day 1 postsurgery (P=02). IFN-gamma mRNA levels were reduced in the pneumonia group (2.48; 1.20-3.20) compared with nonpneumonia group (2.81; 2.10-3.26) (P=03) day 5 postsurgery. Results are expressed as log to base 10 copy numbers of cytokine mRNA per 10 million beta-actin mRNA copy numbers. All values are given as median and 10th to 90th centile range. CONCLUSIONS: Cytokine gene expression is altered immediately following surgery in patients with postoperative HAP.

  20. Are there any differences in the community acquired pneumonias admitted to hospital over the past decade?

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    Cláudia Calado

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The past few years have seen a decline in community acquired pneumonia (CAP in children in the western world, although this has gone hand-in-hand with more serious cases needing hospital admission. Our study characterises cases of CAP admitted to hospital and compares this data with a 2001 study.We collected data on 63 admissions over a six-month period. The majority were aged 0–2 years old. Chest X-ray showed consolidation/atelectasy in 58 (92.1% and pleural effusion (PE in 17 (27.0%, of which 11 were empyema (17.4% of all admissions. The bacterial agent was isolated in five cases: Streptococcus pyogenes (two, pleural fluid, Streptococcus pneumoniae (two, blood culture and Haemophilus influenzae (one, blood culture. Sixty-one children (96.8% were prescribed antibiotherapy. The median length of hospital stay was five days. Patients with PE were older, had a longer course of fever, higher inflammatory parameters, longer hospital stay and longer course of iv antibiotics. Compared to the prior study we found greater severity of CAP, with higher prevalence of PE and empyema. Nevertheless there was a shorter course of fever during hospital stay and shorter hospital stay. We also noticed less antibiotic prescription prior to admission and greater prescription of ampicillin during hospital stay.In the literature, the higher severity of CAP has been partially attributed to the emergence of more aggressive serotypes of Stretococcus pneumoniae not included in the heptavalent vaccine. There is therefore a greater interest in new vaccines containing them. Complicated CAP should be referred to centres specialising in its diagnosis and management. Resumo: Nos últimos anos tem sido descrita, no mundo ocidental, uma redução da incidência da pneumonia aguda da comunidade (PAC nas crianças, parodoxalmente associada a maior gravidade dos casos internados. O presente estudo pretendeu caracterizar os casos de PAC internados e compará-los com

  1. The Clinical Significance of FilmArray Respiratory Panel in Diagnosing Community-Acquired Pneumonia

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    Huanzhu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. FilmArray Respiratory Panel (FilmArray RP test is an emerging diagnostic method in fast detecting multiple respiratory pathogens; the methodology and clinical significance of FilmArray RP in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP diagnosis were evaluated in this study. Methods. Specimens from 74 patients with CAP were analyzed and compared using FilmArray RP, traditional multiple PCR assay, bacterial (or fungal culture, and serological detection. Results. FilmArray RP and multiplex PCR showed 100% coincidence rate in detecting coronaviruses 229E, OC43, HKU1, and NL63, human metapneumovirus, influenza A and B, and parainfluenza viruses (PIV1, PIV2, and PIV4. There were 15 viral specimens tested as disagreement positive results. FilmArray RP had higher detection rate in detecting dual viral and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. The positive bacteria (or fungi were found in 25 specimens. Conclusions. This study demonstrated the capability of FilmArray RP for simultaneous detection of broad-spectrum respiratory pathogens and potential use in facilitating better patient care.

  2. The Clinical Significance of FilmArray Respiratory Panel in Diagnosing Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huanzhu; Weng, Huilan; Lin, Meirui; He, Ping; Li, Yazhen; Xie, Qingdong; Ke, Changwen; Jiao, Xiaoyang

    2017-01-01

    FilmArray Respiratory Panel (FilmArray RP) test is an emerging diagnostic method in fast detecting multiple respiratory pathogens; the methodology and clinical significance of FilmArray RP in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) diagnosis were evaluated in this study. Specimens from 74 patients with CAP were analyzed and compared using FilmArray RP, traditional multiple PCR assay, bacterial (or fungal) culture, and serological detection. FilmArray RP and multiplex PCR showed 100% coincidence rate in detecting coronaviruses 229E, OC43, HKU1, and NL63, human metapneumovirus, influenza A and B, and parainfluenza viruses (PIV1, PIV2, and PIV4). There were 15 viral specimens tested as disagreement positive results. FilmArray RP had higher detection rate in detecting dual viral and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. The positive bacteria (or fungi) were found in 25 specimens. This study demonstrated the capability of FilmArray RP for simultaneous detection of broad-spectrum respiratory pathogens and potential use in facilitating better patient care.

  3. [Community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly: clinical and nutritional aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme O, Raúl; Riquelme O, Mauricio; Rioseco Z, María Luisa; Gómez M, Valeria; Cárdenas, Gloria; Torres, Claudia

    2008-05-01

    Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the elderly has unique features and there is little information about the effects of nutrition status on its outcome. To assess the clinical manifestations and prognostic factors of CAP in immunocompetent elderly patients requiring hospitalization. Prospective study of all patients with CAP, admitted to Puerto Montt Hospital, Chile over one year. Epidemiológica! and clinical information and laboratory results were recorded. A nutritional assessment was also performed. Outcomes of elderly (>65 years) and young patients were compared. Two hundred patients aged 63+/- 19 years were studied. Of these, 109 were older than 65 years (78.4+/-8 years) and 91 were younger than 65 years (45.5+/-11 years). Multiple associated diseases, altered mental status, absence of fever, malnutrition and mortality were more common in the older group. Suspected aspiration pneumonia was more common in younger patients, probably related to alcoholism. Malnutrition was associated with longer hospital stay and mortality at any age. An univariate analysis showed that a low serum albumin (<3.4 g/dl) and a mid arm muscle circumference below the 25th percentile were associated with higher mortality. CAP in the elderly has specific features and malnutrition is associated with a worse prognosis in young and elderly patients.

  4. Predictors of Mortality for Nursing Home-Acquired Pneumonia: A Systematic Review

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    Naveen Dhawan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Current risk stratification tools, primarily used for CAP, are suboptimal in predicting nursing home acquired pneumonia (NHAP outcome and mortality. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate current evidence on the usefulness of proposed predictors of NHAP mortality. Methods. PubMed (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases were searched for articles published in English between January 1978 and January 2014. The literature search elicited a total of 666 references; 580 were excluded and 20 articles met the inclusion criteria for the final analysis. Results. More studies supported the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI as a superior predictor of NHAP severity. Fewer studies suggested CURB-65 and SOAR (especially for the need of ICU care as useful predictors for NHAP mortality. There is weak evidence for biomarkers like C-reactive protein and copeptin as prognostic tools. Conclusion. The evidence supports the use of PSI as the best available indicator while CURB-65 may be an alternative prognostic indicator for NHAP mortality. Overall, due to the paucity of information, biomarkers may not be as effective in this role. Larger prospective studies are needed to establish the most effective predictor(s or combination scheme to help clinicians in decision-making related to NHAP mortality.

  5. Intensive care unit-acquired pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa with and without multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Barat, Laia; Ferrer, Miquel; De Rosa, Francesca; Gabarrús, Albert; Esperatti, Mariano; Terraneo, Silvia; Rinaudo, Mariano; Li Bassi, Gianluigi; Torres, Antoni

    2017-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa often presents multi-drug resistance (MDR) in intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired pneumonia (ICUAP), possibly resulting in inappropriate empiric treatment and worse outcomes. We aimed to identify patients with ICUAP at risk for these pathogens in order to improve treatment selection and outcomes. We prospectively assessed 222 consecutive immunocompetent ICUAP patients confirmed microbiologically. We determined the characteristics, risk factors, systemic inflammatory response and outcomes of P. aeruginosa pneumonia (Pa-ICUAP), compared to other aetiologies. We also compared patients with MDR vs. non-MDR Pa-ICUAP. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most frequent aetiology (64, 29%); 22 (34%) cases had MDR. Independent predictors for Pa-ICUAP were prior airway colonization by P. aeruginosa, previous antibiotic treatment, solid cancer and shock; alcohol abuse and pleural effusion were independently associated to lower risk for Pa-ICUAP. Chronic liver disease independently predicted MDR among Pa-ICUAP. The inflammatory biomarkers were similar between all groups. Patients with Pa-ICUAP had lower unadjusted 90-day survival (p = 0.049). However, the 90-day survival adjusted for confounding factors using a propensity score did not differ between all groups. Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains the most frequent aetiology of ICUAP, with high prevalence of MDR. These risk factors should be taken into account to avoid inappropriate empiric antibiotics for Pa-ICUAP. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, regardless multidrug resistance, was not associated with different propensity-adjusted survival. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Penicillin treatment for patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Denmark: a retrospective cohort study.

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    Egelund, Gertrud Baunbæk; Jensen, Andreas Vestergaard; Andersen, Stine Bang; Petersen, Pelle Trier; Lindhardt, Bjarne Ørskov; von Plessen, Christian; Rohde, Gernot; Ravn, Pernille

    2017-04-20

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a severe infection, with high mortality. Antibiotic strategies for CAP differ across Europe. The objective of the study was to describe the epidemiology of CAP in Denmark and evaluate the prognosis of patients empirically treated with penicillin-G/V monotherapy. Retrospective cohort study including hospitalized patients with x-ray confirmed CAP. We calculated the population-based incidence, reviewed types of empiric antibiotics and duration of antibiotic treatment. We evaluated the association between mortality and treatment with empiric penicillin-G/V using logistic regression analysis. We included 1320 patients. The incidence of hospitalized CAP was 3.1/1000 inhabitants. Median age was 71 years (IQR; 58-81) and in-hospital mortality was 8%. Median duration of antibiotic treatment was 10 days (IQR; 8-12). In total 45% were treated with penicillin-G/V as empiric monotherapy and they did not have a higher mortality compared to patients treated with broader-spectrum antibiotics (OR 0.92, CI 95% 0.55-1.53). The duration of treatment exceeded recommendations in European guidelines. Empiric monotherapy with penicillin-G/V was commonly used and not associated with increased mortality in patients with mild to moderate pneumonia. Our results are in agreement with current conservative antibiotic strategy as outlined in the Danish guidelines.

  7. Relationship Between Body Mass Index and Outcomes Among Hospitalized Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramley, Anna M; Reed, Carrie; Finelli, Lyn; Self, Wesley H; Ampofo, Krow; Arnold, Sandra R; Williams, Derek J; Grijalva, Carlos G; Anderson, Evan J; Stockmann, Chris; Trabue, Christopher; Fakhran, Sherene; Balk, Robert; McCullers, Jonathan A; Pavia, Andrew T; Edwards, Kathryn M; Wunderink, Richard G; Jain, Seema

    2017-06-15

    The effect of body mass index (BMI) on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) severity is unclear. We investigated the relationship between BMI and CAP outcomes (hospital length of stay [LOS], intensive care unit [ICU] admission, and invasive mechanical ventilation) in hospitalized CAP patients from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) study, adjusting for age, demographics, underlying conditions, and smoking status (adults only). Compared with normal-weight children, odds of ICU admission were higher in children who were overweight (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.8) or obese (aOR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4-3.2), and odds of mechanical ventilation were higher in children with obesity (aOR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.6). When stratified by asthma (presence/absence), these findings remained significant only in children with asthma. Compared with normal-weight adults, odds of LOS >3 days were higher in adults who were underweight (aOR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.4), and odds of mechanical ventilation were lowest in adults who were overweight (aOR, 0.5; 95% CI, .3-.9). Children who were overweight or obese, particularly those with asthma, had higher odds of ICU admission or mechanical ventilation. In contrast, adults who were underweight had longer LOS. These results underscore the complex relationship between BMI and CAP outcomes.

  8. Usefulness of Plasma YKL-40 in Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia Severity in Patients

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    Hsiang-Ling Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Plasma YKL-40 level has been reported as playing a significant role in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. However, the correlation between plasma level of YKL-40 and the severity of CAP has not been reported. This study identifies the relationship between plasma level changes of the YKL-40 gene in adult patients hospitalized with CAP. The ELISA was used to measure the plasma YKL-40 level from 61 adult CAP patients before and after antibiotic treatment and from 60 healthy controls. The plasma YKL-40 levels were significantly increased in patients with CAP compared to normal controls. Moreover, the plasma concentration of YKL-40 correlated with the severity of CAP based on the pneumonia severity index (PSI score (r = 0.630, p < 0.001, the CURB-65 (confusion, uremia, respiratory rate, BP, age 65 years score (r = 0.640, p < 0.001, the Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II score (r = 0.539, p < 0.001 and length of hospital stay (r = 0.321, p = 0.011, respectively. In conclusion, plasma YKL-40 may play a role in the diagnosis and clinical assessment of CAP severity, which could potentially guide the development of treatment strategies.

  9. A model for predicting bacteremia in patients with community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Yasuyoshi; Ito, Akihiro; Kumagai, Shogo; Ishida, Tadashi; Yamazaki, Akio

    2018-01-30

    Pneumococcal pneumonia causes high morbidity and mortality among adults. This study aimed to identify risk factors for bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia, and to construct a prediction model for the development of bacteremia in patients with community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia. We retrospectively analyzed data from patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia between April 2007 and August 2015. Logistic regression models were applied to detect risk factors for pneumococcal bacteremia, and a receiver operating characteristic curve was used to devise a prediction model. Based on the results of sputum cultures, urine antigen tests, and/or blood cultures, 389 patients were diagnosed with pneumococcal pneumonia, 46 of whom had bacteremia. In the multivariate analysis, age  20 mg/dL were identified as independent risk factors for the development of pneumococcal bacteremia. The bacteremia prediction score based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis had a sensitivity of 0.74 and a specificity of 0.78 in patients with two risk factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.77 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.70-0.85). Age < 65 years, hypoalbuminemia, IRVS, and high C-reactive protein level on admission are independent risk factors for the development of bacteremia in patients with community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia. A prediction model based on these four risk factors could help to identify patients with community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia at high risk of developing bacteremia; this can be used to guide antibiotic choices. UMIN-CTR UMIN 000004353 . Registered 7 October 2010. Retrospectively registered.

  10. Regulation of naturally acquired mucosal immunity to Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy Malawian adults and children.

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    Sarah J Glennie

    Full Text Available Worldwide, invasive pneumococcal disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is most common in young children. In adults, disease rates decline following intermittent colonization and the acquisition of naturally acquired immunity. We characterized mucosal and systemic pneumococcal-specific T-cell responses in African children and adults who contend with intense rates of colonization, up to 100% and 60% respectively. We find most Malawian children have high pneumococcal-specific T-cell responses in tonsil tissue and peripheral blood. In addition, frequent commensalism generates CD25(hi (Tregs which modulate mucosal pneumococcal-specific T-cell responses in some children and ≥50% of adults. We propose that immune regulation may prolong pneumococcal colonization and predispose vulnerable individuals to disease.

  11. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G.; Efimova, Nataliya Y.; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.; Lishmanov, Yuri B.

    2016-08-01

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on a side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.

  12. Determining best outcomes from community-acquired pneumonia and how to achieve them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Jane; Bennett, Lesley

    2018-02-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common acute medical illness with a standard, effective treatment that was introduced before the evidenced-based medicine era. Mortality rates have improved in recent decades but improvements have been minimal when compared to other conditions such as acute coronary syndromes. The standardized approach to treatment makes CAP a target for comparative performance and outcome measures. While easy to collect, simplistic outcomes such as mortality, readmission and length of stay are difficult to interpret as they can be affected by subjective choices and health care resources. Proposed clinical- and patient-reported outcomes are discussed below and include measures such as the time to clinical stability (TTCS) and patient satisfaction, which can be compared between health institutions. Strategies to improve these outcomes include use of a risk stratification tool, local antimicrobial guidelines with antibiotic stewardship and care bundles to include early administration of antibiotics and early mobilization. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  13. Should International Classification of Diseases codes be used to survey hospital-acquired pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfensberger, Aline; Meier, Angela H; Kuster, Stefan P; Mehra, Tarun; Meier, Marie-Theres; Sax, Hugo

    2018-02-01

    As surveillance of hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP) is very resource intensive, alternatives for HAP-surveillance are urgently needed. We compared HAP-rates according to routine discharge diagnostic codes of the International Classification of Diseases, tenth Revision (ICD-10; ICD-HAP) and the validated surveillance definitions of the Hospitals in Europe Link for Infection Control through Surveillance (HELICS/IPSE; HELICS-HAP) by manual retrospective reevaluation of patient records. We found a positive predictive value and sensitivity of ICD-HAP for HELICS-HAP of 0.35 and 0.59, respectively. We therefore conclude that the currently available ICD-10-based routine discharge data does not allow reliable identification of patients with HAP. Copyright © 2018 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Community-Acquired Pneumonia and Empyema Caused by Citrobacter koseri in an Immunocompetent Patient

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    Miguel Angel Ariza-Prota

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrobacter species, belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae, are environmental organisms commonly found in soil, water, and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. Citrobacter koseri is known to be an uncommon but serious cause of both sporadic and epidemic septicemia and meningitis in neonates and young infants. Most cases reported have occurred in immunocompromised hosts. The infections caused by Citrobacter are difficult to treat with usual broad spectrum antibiotics owing to rapid generation of mutants and have been associated with high death rates in the past. We believe this is the first case described in the literature of a community-acquired pneumonia and empyema caused by Citrobacter koseri in an immunocompetent adult patient.

  15. Penicillin treatment for patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund, Gertrud Baunbæk; Jensen, Andreas Vestergaard; Andersen, Stine Bang

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a severe infection, with high mortality. Antibiotic strategies for CAP differ across Europe. The objective of the study was to describe the epidemiology of CAP in Denmark and evaluate the prognosis of patients empirically treated with penicillin...... penicillin-G/V using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: We included 1320 patients. The incidence of hospitalized CAP was 3.1/1000 inhabitants. Median age was 71 years (IQR; 58-81) and in-hospital mortality was 8%. Median duration of antibiotic treatment was 10 days (IQR; 8-12). In total 45% were treated...... with penicillin-G/V as empiric monotherapy and they did not have a higher mortality compared to patients treated with broader-spectrum antibiotics (OR 0.92, CI 95% 0.55-1.53). CONCLUSION: The duration of treatment exceeded recommendations in European guidelines. Empiric monotherapy with penicillin...

  16. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G., E-mail: kng@cardio-tomsk.ru [Research Institute of Cardiology, Kievskaya Street 111a, Tomsk, 634012 (Russian Federation); Efimova, Nataliya Y., E-mail: efimova@cardio-tomsk.ru; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.; Lishmanov, Yuri B. [Research Institute of Cardiology, Kievskaya Street 111a, Tomsk, 634012 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on a side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.

  17. Comorbidities as a driver of the excess costs of community-acquired pneumonia in U.S. commercially-insured working age adults

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    Polsky Daniel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adults with certain comorbid conditions have a higher risk of pneumonia than the overall population. If treatment of pneumonia is more costly in certain predictable situations, this would affect the value proposition of populations for pneumonia prevention. We estimate the economic impact of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP for adults with asthma, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and congestive heart failure (CHF in a large U.S. commercially-insured working age population. Methods Data sources consisted of 2003 through 2007 Thomson Reuters MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters and Thomson Reuters Health Productivity and Management (HPM databases. Pneumonia episodes and selected comorbidities were identified by ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. By propensity score matching, controls were identified for pneumonia patients. Excess direct medical costs and excess productivity cost were estimated by generalized linear models (GLM. Results We identified 402,831 patients with CAP between 2003 through 2007, with 25,560, 32,677, 16,343, and 5,062 episodes occurring in patients with asthma, diabetes, COPD and CHF, respectively. Mean excess costs (and standard error, SE of CAP were $14,429 (SE=44 overall. Mean excess costs by comorbidity subgroup were lowest for asthma ($13,307 (SE=123, followed by diabetes ($21,395 (SE=171 and COPD ($23,493 (SE=197; mean excess costs were highest for patients with CHF ($34,436 (SE=549. On average, indirect costs comprised 21% of total excess costs, ranging from 8% for CHF patients to 27% for COPD patients. Conclusions Compared to patients without asthma, diabetes, COPD, or CHF, the excess cost of CAP is nearly twice as high for patients with diabetes and COPD and nearly three times as high for patients with CHF. Indirect costs made up a significant but varying portion of excess CAP costs. Returns on prevention of pneumonia would therefore be higher in adults with these comorbidities.

  18. Microbial Etiology of Community-Acquired Pneumonia Among Infants and Children Admitted to the Pediatric Hospital, Ain Shams University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Seify, Magda Yehia; Fouda, Eman Mahmoud; Ibrahim, Hanan Mohamed; Fathy, Maha Muhammad; Husseiny Ahmed, Asmaa Al; Khater, Walaa Shawky; El Deen, Noha Nagi Mohammed Salah; Abouzeid, Heba Galal Mohamed; Hegazy, Nancy Riyad Ahmed; Elbanna, Heba Salah Sayed

    2016-09-29

    While recognizing the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia is necessary for formulating local antimicrobial guidelines, limited data is published about this etiology in Egyptian pediatric patients. To determine the frequency of bacterial and viral pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among immunocompetent Egyptian infants and preschool children. Ninety infants and preschool-age children admitted to our hospital with CAP were prospectively included in the study. Etiological agents were identified using conventional bacteriological identification methods and IgM antibodies detection against common atypical respiratory bacteria and viruses. An etiology was identified in 59 patients (65.5%). Bacterial pathogens were detected in 43 (47.8%) of the cases while viral pathogens were detected in 23 (25.5%). Coinfection with more than one etiologic agent was evident in seven patients (7.8%). The most common typical bacterial cause of pneumonia was Staphylococcus aureus ( n = 12, 13.3%), followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae ( n = 7, 7.8%, each). The commonest atypical bacterium was Mycoplasma pneumoniae ( n = 10, 11.1%), whereas the commonest viral etiology was influenza viruses ( n = 11, 12.2%). Although we could not determine the causative agent in some studied cases, this study provides preliminary data regarding the spectrum and frequency of microorganisms causing CAP in Egyptian infants and preschool children.

  19. [Study on epidemic characteristics and etiology of community acquired pneumonia in Guangzhou from 2009 to 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Xiao, Xin-cai; Lu, Jian-yun; Chen, Zong-qiu; Luo, Lei; Yang, Zhi-cong

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the epidemic characteristics and pathogenic spectrum of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Guangzhou from 2009 to 2012. 14 major comprehensive hospitals were selected from 11 districts as sentinel hospitals for CAP cases surveillance, including 18 982 223 in total during the 4 years. The characteristics of pathogenic spectrum of CAP were stratified and analyzed by year, age and season. 18 982 223 cases were included in the surveillance from year 2009 to 2012, in which 56 618 cases were CAP. The number of CAP cases increased from 8677 in year 2009 to 19 947 in year 2012 in Guangzhou; while the percentage of visits for CAP raised from 0.22% (8677/3 893 800) to 0.41% (19 947/4 839 766). The difference showed statistical significance (χ(2) = 2693.00, P 66 years old. The percentage of cases infected by a single pathogen was 88.11% (14 613/16 585), while co-infected cases accounted for 4.17% (691/16 585). Bacteria accounted for the largest proportion of 65.25% (10 821/16 585) as a single pathogen, followed by mycoplasma 13.54% (2245/16 585), virus 9.01% (1494/16 585) and chlamydia 0.32% (53/16 585). The proportion of virus infection was increasing from 4.74% to 11.64%. The difference showed statistical significance (χ(2) = 135.32, P causes for CAP cases in all age groups; however the percentage increased with the increasing of ages. The rate of bacterial infection was increased from 48.35% (2993/6191) among children aged ≤ 5 years old to 81.31% (3873/4763) among adults aged over 65 years (χ(2) = 1632.00, P pneumonia was rising in Guangzhou from 2009 to 2012. Bacteria was the dominant pathogen. Children and old people were the high-risk population of community acquired pneumonia; while co-infection was still at low level.

  20. Klebsiella pneumoniae related community-acquired acute lower respiratory infections in Cambodia: Clinical characteristics and treatment

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    Rammaert Blandine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many Asian countries, Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP is the second pathogen responsible for community-acquired pneumonia. Yet, very little is known about KP etiology in ALRI in Cambodia, a country that has one of the weakest medical infrastructures in the region. We present here the first clinico-radiological description of KP community-acquired ALRI in hospitalized Cambodian patients. Methods Through ALRI surveillance in two provincial hospitals, KP was isolated from sputum and blood cultures, and identified by API20E gallery from patients ≥ 5 years-old with fever and respiratory symptoms onset ≤14 days. Antibiotics susceptibility testing was provided systematically to clinicians when bacteria were isolated. We collected patients' clinical, radiological and microbiological data and their outcome 3 months after discharge. We also compared KP-related with other bacteria-related ALRI to determine risk factors for KP infection. Results From April 2007 to December 2009, 2315 ALRI patients ≥ 5 years-old were enrolled including 587 whose bacterial etiology could be assigned. Of these, 47 (8.0% had KP infection; their median age was 55 years and 68.1% were females. Reported prior medication was high (42.5%. Patients' chest radiographs showed pneumonia (61.3% including 39% that were necrotizing, preexisting parenchyma lesions (29.5% and pleural effusions alone (4.5% and normal parenchyma (4.5%. Five patients had severe conditions on admission and one patient died during hospitalization. Of the 39 patients that were hospital discharged, 14 died including 12 within 1 month after discharge. Only 13 patients (28% received an appropriate antibiotherapy. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL - producing strains were found in 8 (17.0% patients. Female gender (Odds ratio (OR 2.1; p = 0.04 and diabetes mellitus (OR 3.1; p = 0.03 were independent risk factors for KP-related ALRI. Conclusions KP ALRI in Cambodia has high fatality rate

  1. Diretrizes brasileiras para pneumonia adquirida na comunidade em adultos imunocompetentes - 2009 Brazilian guidelines for community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent adults - 2009

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    Ricardo de Amorim Corrêa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A pneumonia adquirida na comunidade mantém-se como a doença infecciosa aguda de maior impacto médico-social quanto à morbidade e a custos relacionados ao tratamento. Os grupos etários mais suscetíveis de complicações graves situam-se entre os extremos de idade, fato que tem justificado a adoção de medidas de prevenção dirigidas a esses estratos populacionais. Apesar do avanço no conhecimento no campo da etiologia e da fisiopatologia, assim como no aperfeiçoamento dos métodos propedêuticos e terapêuticos, inúmeros pontos merecem ainda investigação adicional. Isto se deve à diversidade clínica, social, demográfica e estrutural, que são tópicos que não podem ser previstos em sua totalidade. Dessa forma, a publicação de diretrizes visa agrupar de maneira sistematizada o conhecimento atualizado e propor sua aplicação racional na prática médica. Não se trata, portanto, de uma regra rígida a ser seguida, mas, antes, de uma ferramenta para ser utilizada de forma crítica, tendo em vista a variabilidade da resposta biológica e do ser humano, no seu contexto individual e social. Esta diretriz constitui o resultado de uma discussão ampla entre os membros do Conselho Científico e da Comissão de Infecções Respiratórias da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia. O grupo de trabalho propôs-se a apresentar tópicos considerados relevantes, visando a uma atualização da diretriz anterior. Evitou-se, tanto quanto possível, uma repetição dos conceitos considerados consensuais. O objetivo principal do documento é a apresentação organizada dos avanços proporcionados pela literatura recente e, desta forma, contribuir para a melhora da assistência ao paciente adulto imunocompetente portador de pneumonia adquirida na comunidade.Community-acquired pneumonia continues to be the acute infectious disease that has the greatest medical and social impact regarding morbidity and treatment costs. Children and the

  2. Radiological findings of community-acquired methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible staphylococcus aureus pediatric pneumonia in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, Guliz; Bergert, Lora; Len, Kyra; Melish, Marian [University of Hawaii, John A. Burns School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Honolulu, HI (United States); Kon, Kevin; DiMauro, Robert [Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children, Department of Radiology, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus (CA-SA) infections are common among pediatric patients in Hawaii. We wanted to characterize the radiological features of methicillin-susceptible (CA-MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (CA-MRSA) staphylococcal pneumonia in Hawaiian children. We retrospectively reviewed medical records and imaging studies of children with SA pneumonia identified from 1996 through 2007. Of 40 children, 26 (65%) had CA-MRSA pneumonia and 14 patients (35%) had CA-MSSA pneumonia. CA-MRSA patients were significantly younger than CA-MSSA patients (65% younger than 1 year vs. 36% older). In a majority (62%) of CA-MRSA patients, the consolidation was unilateral; in most of the CA-MSSA cases (79%), the consolidation was bilateral. Fifty percent of the patients with CA-MRSA and 21% of those with CA-MSSA had pneumatoceles (P = 0.1). CA-MRSA patients more commonly had pleural effusions (85% vs. 64% for CA-MSSA) and pleural thickening (50% vs. 36% for CA-MSSA). This case series describes the radiologic characteristics of CA-MRSA and CA-MSSA pneumonia in children in a highly endemic area. We found that CA-MRSA pneumonias are unilateral in a majority of pediatric pneumonia cases, are more common in children 1 year or younger, and have higher rates of complications in comparison to CA-MSSA patients. (orig.)

  3. Emergency Medicine Evaluation of Community-Acquired Pneumonia: History, Examination, Imaging and Laboratory Assessment, and Risk Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Brit; Long, Drew; Koyfman, Alex

    2017-11-01

    Pneumonia is a common infection, accounting for approximately one million hospitalizations in the United States annually. This potentially life-threatening disease is commonly diagnosed based on history, physical examination, and chest radiograph. To investigate emergency medicine evaluation of community-acquired pneumonia including history, physical examination, imaging, and the use of risk scores in patient assessment. Pneumonia is the number one cause of death from infectious disease. The condition is broken into several categories, the most common being community-acquired pneumonia. Diagnosis centers on history, physical examination, and chest radiograph. However, all are unreliable when used alone, and misdiagnosis occurs in up to one-third of patients. Chest radiograph has a sensitivity of 46-77%, and biomarkers including white blood cell count, procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein provide little benefit in diagnosis. Biomarkers may assist admitting teams, but require further study for use in the emergency department. Ultrasound has shown utility in correctly identifying pneumonia. Clinical gestalt demonstrates greater ability to diagnose pneumonia. Clinical scores including Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI); Confusion, blood Urea nitrogen, Respiratory rate, Blood pressure, age 65 score (CURB-65); and several others may be helpful for disposition, but should supplement, not replace, clinical judgment. Patient socioeconomic status must be considered in disposition decisions. The diagnosis of pneumonia requires clinical gestalt using a combination of history and physical examination. Chest radiograph may be negative, particularly in patients presenting early in disease course and elderly patients. Clinical scores can supplement clinical gestalt and assist in disposition when used appropriately. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of clinical and laboratory parameters in community-acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusbaumer Charly

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is the most frequent infection-related cause of death. The reference standard to diagnose CAP is a new infiltrate on chest radiograph in the presence of recently acquired respiratory signs and symptoms. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of clinical signs and symptoms and laboratory biomarkers for CAP. Methods 545 patients with suspected lower respiratory tract infection, admitted to the emergency department of a university hospital were included in a pre-planned post-hoc analysis of two controlled intervention trials. Baseline assessment included history, clinical examination, radiography and measurements of procalcitonin (PCT, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP and leukocyte count. Results Of the 545 patients, 373 had CAP, 132 other respiratory tract infections, and 40 other final diagnoses. The AUC of a clinical model including standard clinical signs and symptoms (i.e. fever, cough, sputum production, abnormal chest auscultation and dyspnea to diagnose CAP was 0.79 [95% CI, 0.75–0.83]. This AUC was significantly improved by including PCT and hsCRP (0.92 [0.89–0.94]; p Conclusion PCT, and to a lesser degree hsCRP, improve the accuracy of currently recommended approaches for the diagnosis of CAP, thereby complementing clinical signs and symptoms. PCT is useful in the severity assessment of CAP.

  5. Pediatric Community-Acquired Pneumonia in the United States: Changing Epidemiology, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenges, and Areas for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Sophie E; Williams, Derek J

    2018-03-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common serious infections in childhood. This review focuses on pediatric CAP in the United States and other industrialized nations, specifically highlighting the changing epidemiology of CAP, diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, and areas for further research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Individualized treatment strategies in community-acquired pneumonia : from initial inflammatory response to long-term prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruns, A.H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most important causes of hospital admissions and together with influenza the third leading cause of death worldwide. Moreover, treatment of CAP largely contributes to the global burden of antibiotic resistance. In present thesis, we explored options

  7. Nursing home-acquired pneumonia, dysphagia and associated diseases in nursing home residents: A retrospective, cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollaar, V.R.Y.; Putten, G.J. van der; Maarel-Wierink, C.D. van der; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Swart, B.J.M. de; Baat, C. de; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) is a common infection among nursing home residents. There is also a high prevalence of dysphagia in nursing home residents and they suffer more often from comorbidity and multimorbidity. This puts nursing home residents at higher risk of (mortality

  8. Efficacy of a respiratory physiotherapy intervention for intubated and mechanically ventilated adults with community acquired pneumonia: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lee, Lisa; Hill, Anne-Marie; Patman, Shane

    2017-06-01

    The objective of the review is to map evidence on the efficacy of a respiratory physiotherapy intervention for intubated and mechanically ventilated adults with community acquired pneumonia (CAP). Specifically, the review seeks to investigate if respiratory physiotherapy interventions can achieve the following for intubated and mechanically ventilated adults with CAP.

  9. Fatores de risco e medidas profiláticas nas pneumonias adquiridas na comunidade Risk factors and prophylaxis of community-acquired pneumonias

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    LUCY GOMES

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo revisa os efeitos do envelhecimento, tabagismo, DPOC, insuficiência cardíaca, colonização da orofaringe, aspiração (micro e macro, alcoolismo, cirrose hepática, deficiência nutricional, imunossupressão e fatores ambientais sobre o risco de adquirir pneumonia na comunidade e sua gravidade. Na segunda parte, é feita revisão sobre a ação profilática das vacinas antiinfluenza e antipneumococo, assim como a ação das drogas antivirais, na profilaxia e tratamento das pneumonias adquiridas na comunidade.This article reviews the effects of aging, tobacco-smoking, chronic bronchitis and emphysema, heart failure, oropharyngeal colonization, aspiration (micro and macro, alcoholism, hepatic cirrhosis, nutritional deficiency, immunosuppression, and environmental factors on the risk of community-acquired pneumonia and its severity. In the second part, the authors review the prophylactic action of anti-influenza and anti-pneumococcus vaccines as well as the role of prevention and treatment of antiviral agents in community-acquired pneumonia.

  10. The Community-Acquired Pneumonia immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA) : What is the future of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in elderly?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Werkhoven, Cornelis H.; Bonten, Marc Jm

    2015-01-01

    Pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia (PCAP) and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) are important causes of morbidity and mortality in elderly. In the Community-Acquired Pneumonia immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA), a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 84,496

  11. The scrutiny of identifying community-acquired pneumonia episodes quantified bias in absolute effect estimation in a population-based pneumococcal vaccination trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Werkhoven, Cornelis H.; Huijts, Susanne M.; Paling, Fleur P.; Bonten, Marc J M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the accurateness of detecting community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the Community-Acquired Pneumonia immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA), a community-based, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial in which the needed to treat (NNT) for prevention of vaccine-type

  12. Clinical cure and mortality outcomes with ceftobiprole medocaril versus ceftazidime plus linezolid in patients with early versus late-onset hospital-acquired pneumonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, Thomas; Welte, T.; Capellier, G.; Saulay, Mikal; Engelhardt, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Ceftobiprole, the active moiety of the prodrug ceftobiprole medocaril, is a novel cephalosporin for intravenous use, approved in certain European countries for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) excluding ventilator-associated

  13. Obesity paradox in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: Is inflammation the missing link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Nina; Hoess, Claus; Kutz, Alexander; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Thomann, Robert; Henzen, Christoph; Zimmerli, Werner; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Positive associations between body mass index (BMI) and clinical outcomes have been found and are called "the obesity survival paradox." However, whether obesity has protective effects or if this paradox is because of confounding remains unclear. Herein, we analyzed the effects of weight on long-term mortality in a large cohort of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and investigated whether the differential effects of obesity on inflammation pathways accounted for mortality differences. For this secondary analysis, we followed prospectively for 6 y 763 CAP patients who were previously included in a multicenter trial (the ProHOSP Trial). To assess associations of BMI with mortality and with several inflammatory biomarker levels, we calculated three regression models adjusted for severity: the pneumonia severity index (PSI); fully adjusted for PSI, age, sex, metabolic factors, cardiovascular diseases, and other comorbidities; and fully adjusted including biomarker levels. Within the 763 patients studied, all-cause 6-y mortality was significantly lower in obese patients (BMI >30 kg/m2) compared with normal-weight patients (BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2), with a severity-adjusted hazard ratio of 0.641 (95% confidence interval 0.462-0.889) and robust results in fully adjusted and fully adjusted plus biomarker models. No associations of increased BMI and C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, or white blood cell count were found, but BMI > 30 kg/m2 was associated with higher proadrenomedullin levels. Over a 6-y long-term follow-up, we found obesity to be associated with lower all-cause mortality in CAP patients, confirming the obesity paradox in this population. However, differences in inflammatory pathways did not explain these findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Challenges of Empirical Antibiotic Therapy for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Charlene M C

    2017-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, responsible for more than 14% of deaths in children younger than 5 years of age. Due to difficulties with pathogen identification and diagnostics of CAP in children, targeted antimicrobial therapy is not possible, hence the widespread use of empirical antibiotics, in particular penicillins, cephalosporin, and macrolides. This review aimed to address medical, societal, and political issues associated with the widespread use of empirical antibiotics for CAP in the United Kingdom, India, and Nigeria. A literature review was performed identifying the challenges pertaining to the use of widespread empirical antibiotics for CAP in children. A qualitative analysis of included studies identified relevant themes. Empirical guidance was based on guidelines from the World Health Organization, British Thoracic Society, and Infectious Diseases Society of America, used in both industrialized and resource-poor settings. In the United Kingdom there was poor adherence to antibiotics guidelines. There was developing antibiotic resistance to penicillins and macrolides in both developing and industrialized regions. There were difficulties accessing the care and treatment when needed in Nigeria. Prevention strategies with vaccination against Streptococcus pneumonia, Haemophilus influenza, and measles are particularly important in these regions. Effective and timely treatment is required for CAP and empirical antibiotics are evidence-based and appropriate in most settings. However, better diagnostics and education to target treatment may help to prevent antibiotic resistance. Ensuring the secure financing of clean food and water, sanitation, and public health infrastructure are also required to reduce the burden of disease in children in developing countries.

  15. Association of adrenal function and disease severity in community-acquired pneumonia.

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    Cornelia Mueller

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rapid and accurate risk stratification in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is an unmet clinical need. Cortisol to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA ratio was put forward as a prognostic marker in sepsis. We herein validated the prognostic value of the adrenal hormones DHEA, DHEA-Sulfate (DHEAS, cortisol/DHEA-, cortisol/DHEAS- and DHEA/DHEAS-ratios in patients with CAP. METHODS: We assessed severity of illness using the pneumonia severity index (PSI and measured adrenal hormone concentrations in 179 serum samples of prospectively recruited patients hospitalized with CAP. We calculated spearman rank correlation, logistic regression analysis and Kaplan Meier curves to study associations of adrenal hormones and outcomes. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between PSI score and total cortisol (r = 0.24, p = 0.001, DHEAS (r = -0.23, p = 0.002, cortisol/DHEA (r = 0.23, p = 0.003, cortisol/DHEAS (r = 0.32, p = <0.0001 and DHEA/DHEAS (r = 0.20, p = 0.009. In age and gender adjusted logistic regression analysis, cortisol (OR:2.8, 95% CI: 1.48-5.28 and DHEA (OR: 2.62,95% CI: 1.28-5.34, but not DHEAS and the different ratios were associated with all-cause mortality. The discriminatory accuracy of cortisol and DHEA in ROC analysis (area under the curve was 0.74 and 0.61. In Kaplan Meier analysis, patients in the highest deciles of cortisol and DHEA (p = 0.005 and p = 0.015, and to a lesser extent of cortisol/DHEAS ratio (p = 0.081 had a higher risk of death. CONCLUSION: Cortisol, DHEAS and their ratios correlate with CAP severity, and cortisol and DHEA predict mortality. Adrenal function in severe pneumonia may be an important factor for CAP outcomes.

  16. Community-acquired lobar pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in Japan: a case report with histological and immunohistochemical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takajo, Daiji; Iwaya, Keiichi; Katsurada, Yuka; Miyai, Kosuke; Takasu, Akira; Matsubara, Osamu; Sakamoto, Toshihisa; Tamai, Seiichi; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2014-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common pathogen in nosocomial and/or healthcare-associated pneumonia, but is rare in community-acquired pneumonia. A 50-year-old previously healthy woman was taken to the emergency department because of rapidly progressing dyspnea. Chest radiograph showed consolidation of the entire right upper lobe, a finding suggestive of lobar pneumonia. The patient died of respiratory failure with bronchial bleeding, on the same day of admission. Autopsy revealed that the alveoli throughout the upper right lobe were filled with dense inflammatory cells mainly consisting of macrophages and neutrophils. Immunoreactive bacilli by using an anti-P. aeruginosa antibody were localized within macrophages accumulated in the alveoli as well in the vessel walls. Lobar pneumonia composed of dense neutrophils and bacteria-laden macrophages with total lung congestion and edema may be characteristic for community-acquired P. aeruginosa pneumonia in a healthy adult. © 2014 The Authors. Pathology International © 2014 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Viruses and Gram-negative bacilli dominate the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in Indonesia, a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farida, Helmia; Gasem, M Hussein; Suryanto, Agus; Keuter, Monique; Zulkarnain, Nasirun; Satoto, Bambang; van der Eijk, Annemiek A; Djokomoeljanto, R; Wahyono, Hendro; Verbrugh, Henri A; Severin, Juliëtte A; van den Broek, Peterhans J

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge about the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is essential for adequate management. Presently, few studies about CAP are available from Southeast Asia. This study aimed to investigate the etiology, severity, and outcome of CAP in the most populous Southeast Asia country, Indonesia. From October 2007 to April 2009, adult patients admitted with CAP to two hospitals in Semarang, Indonesia, were included to detect the etiology of CAP using a full range of diagnostic methods. The severity of disease was classified according to the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI). The outcome was assessed as 30-day mortality. In total, 148 consecutive patients with CAP were included. Influenza virus (18%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (14%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (13%) were the most common agents identified. Other Gram-negative bacilli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Chlamydia pneumoniae each accounted for 5%. The bacteria presented wild type antibiotic susceptibility profiles. Forty-four percent of subjects were high-risk patients (PSI class IV-V). The mortality rate (30%) was significantly associated with disease severity score (Pcauses of CAP in this region, more so than S. pneumoniae. Most of the bacteria have wild type susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Patients with severe disease and those with unknown etiology have a higher mortality risk. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Exame do escarro no manejo clínico dos pacientes com pneumonia adquirida na comunidade Sputum examination in the clinical management of community-acquired pneumonia

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    Leonardo Gilberto Haas Signori

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo retrospectivo avaliou a freqüência do uso da bacteriologia do escarro no manejo clínico de pacientes com pneumonia adquirida na comunidade (PAC em um hospital geral, e se a utilização deste método modificou a mortalidade. MÉTODOS: Os prontuários de pacientes internados no Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição, em Porto Alegre (RS Brasil, para tratamento de PAC entre maio e novembro de 2004 foram revisados quanto aos seguintes aspectos: idade; sexo; gravidade da pneumonia (escore de Fine; presença de expectoração; bacteriologia do escarro; história de tratamento; resposta clínica; troca de tratamento; e mortalidade. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 274 pacientes com PAC, sendo 134 do sexo masculino. Dentre os 274 pacientes, 79 (28,8% apresentavam, de acordo com o escore de Fine, classe II; 45 (16,4%, classe III; 97 (35,4%, classe IV; e 53 (19,3%, classe V. Em 92 pacientes (33,6%, uma amostra de escarro foi colhida para exame bacteriológico. Obtivemos amostra válida em 37 casos (13,5% e diagnóstico etiológico em 26 (9,5%, o que resultou em modificação do tratamento em apenas 9 casos (3,3%. A mortalidade geral foi 18,6%. Idade acima de 65 anos, a gravidade da PAC e a ausência de escarro associaram-se à maior mortalidade. A bacteriologia do escarro não influenciou o desfecho clínico, nem a taxa de mortalidade. CONCLUSÃO: O exame do escarro foi uma ferramenta diagnóstica utilizada na minoria dos pacientes, e não trouxe benefício detectável no manejo clínico dos pacientes com PAC tratados em ambiente hospitalar.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of the use of sputum examination in the clinical management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP in a general hospital and to determine whether its use has an impact on mortality. METHODS: The medical records of CAP patients treated as inpatients between May and November of 2004 at the Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital, located in Porto Alegre, Brazil, were

  19. Drug-resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates among Spanish middle aged and older adults with community-acquired pneumonia

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    Raga-Luria Xavier

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumococcal diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Updated data on drug-resistance from different populations may be important to recognize changes in disease patterns. This study assessed current levels of penicilin resistance among Streptococcus Pneumoniae causing pneumonia in Spanish middle age and older adults. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested for 104 consecutive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered from patients 50 years or older with radiographically confirmed pneumonia in the region of Tarragona (Spain between 2002 and 2007. According to the minimum inhibitory concentration of tested antimicrobials (penicillin, erythromycin, cefotaxime and levofloxacin strains were classified as susceptible or resistant. Antimicrobial resistance was determined for early cases (2002–2004 and contemporary cases (2005–2007. Results Twenty-seven (25.9% were penicillin-resistant strains (19 strains with intermediate resistance and 8 strains with high resistance. Penicillin-resistance was higher in 2002–2004 than in 2005–2007 (39.5% vs 18.2%, p = 0.017. Of 27 penicillin-resistant strains, 10 (37% were resistant to erythromycin, 8 (29.6% to cefotaxime, 2 (7.4% to levofloxacin, and 4 (14.8% were identified as multidrug resistant. Case-fatality rate was higher among those patients who had an infection caused by any penicillin susceptible strain (16.9% than in those with infections due to penicillin-resistant strains. Conclusion Resistance to penicillin among Streptococcus pneumoniae remains high, but such resistance does not result in increased mortality in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia.

  20. Influence of Antibiotics on the Detection of Bacteria by Culture-Based and Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests in Patients Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Aaron M; Bramley, Anna M; Jain, Seema; Arnold, Sandra R; Ampofo, Krow; Self, Wesley H; Williams, Derek J; Anderson, Evan J; Grijalva, Carlos G; McCullers, Jonathan A; Pavia, Andrew T; Wunderink, Richard G; Edwards, Kathryn M; Winchell, Jonas M; Hicks, Lauri A

    2017-01-01

    Specimens collected after antibiotic exposure may reduce culture-based bacterial detections. The impact on culture-independent diagnostic tests is unclear. We assessed the effect of antibiotic exposure on both of these test results among patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Culture-based bacterial testing included blood cultures and high-quality sputum or endotracheal tube (ET) aspirates; culture-independent testing included urinary antigen testing (adults) for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae. The proportion of bacterial detections was compared between specimens collected before and after either any antibiotic exposure (prehospital and/or inpatient) or only prehospital antibiotics and increasing time after initiation of inpatient antibiotics. Of 4678 CAP patients, 4383 (94%) received antibiotics: 3712 (85%) only inpatient, 642 (15%) both inpatient and prehospital, and 29 (cultures (5.2% vs 2.6%; P cultures (50.0% vs 26.8%; P culture-based tests collected after antibiotics and in culture-independent tests that had longer intervals between antibiotic exposure and specimen collection. Bacterial yield could improve if specimens were collected promptly, preferably before antibiotics, providing data for improved antibiotic selection.

  1. Immunomodulatory effects of pidotimod in adults with community-acquired pneumonia undergoing standard antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabattoni, D; Clerici, M; Centanni, S; Mantero, M; Garziano, M; Blasi, F

    2017-06-01

    The morbidity and mortality of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are still elevated and two aspects seem to contribute to a worse outcome: an uncontrolled inflammatory reaction and an inadequate immune response. Adjuvants, including corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins, have been proposed to counterbalance these effects but their efficacy is only partial. We examined the immunomodulatory activity of Pidotimod (PDT), a synthetic dipeptide molecule in adult patients hospitalized for CAP. Sixteen patients with a diagnosis of CAP and a PSI score III or IV and/or a CURB-65 0-2 were randomized to receive either levofloxacin 500 mg b.i.d. alone or levofloxacin plus PDT (800mg, 2 daily doses). Blood samples were drawn at baseline (T0), before initiation of therapy, as well as 3 (T3), and 5 (T5) days after initiation of therapy. Immunologic and clinical parameters were analyzed at each time point. Supplementation of antibiotic therapy with PDT resulted in an upregulation of antimicrobial and of immunomodulatory proteins as well as in an increased percentage of Toll like receptor (TLR)2- and TLR4, and of CD80- and CD86-expressing immune cells. Notably, Pidotimod supplementation was also associated with a robust reduction of TNFα-producing immune cells. No significant differences were observed in clinical parameters. These results confirm that supplementation of antibiotic therapy with Pidotimod in patients with CAP results in a potentially beneficial modulation of innate immunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical Pathway and Monthly Feedback Improve Adherence to Antibiotic Guideline Recommendations for Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

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    Maher Almatar

    Full Text Available Compliance with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP guidelines remains poor despite a substantial body of evidence indicating that guideline-concordant care improves patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare the relative effectiveness of a general educational and a targeted emergency department intervention on improving physicians' concordance with CAP guidelines.Two distinct interventions were implemented over specific time periods. The first intervention was educational, focusing on the development of local CAP guidelines and their dissemination through hospital-wide educational programmes. The second intervention was a targeted one for the emergency department, where a clinical pathway for the initial management of CAP patients was introduced, followed by monthly feedback to the emergency department (ED physicians about concordance rates with the guidelines. Data on the concordance rate to CAP guidelines was collected from a retrospective chart review.A total of 398 eligible patient records were reviewed to measure concordance to CAP guidelines over the study period. Concordance rates during the baseline and educational intervention periods were similar (28.1% vs. 31.2%; p > 0.05. Significantly more patients were treated in accordance with the CAP guidelines after the ED focused intervention when compared to the baseline (61.5% vs. 28.1%; p < 0.05 or educational period (61.5% vs. 31.2%; p < 0.05.A targeted intervention with a CAP clinical pathway and monthly feedback was a successful strategy to increase adherence to empirical antibiotic recommendations in CAP guidelines.

  3. Community-acquired pneumonia in patients with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos, L; Clemente, M G; Miranda, B; Alvarez, C; del Busto, B; Cocina, B R; Alvarez, F; Gorostidi, J; Orejas, C

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the possible differences, especially those regarding mortality, between patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the risk factors related to mortality in the COPD group. 710 patients with CAP were included in a prospective multicenter observational study. 244 of the patients had COPD confirmed by spirometry. COPD was associated with mortality in patients with CAP (OR=2.62 CI: 1.08-6.39). Patients with COPD and CAP had a significantly higher 30-day mortality rate as compared to patients without COPD. Multivariate analysis showed that PaO(2) or =45 mmHg (OR=4.6; CI: 2.3-15.1); respiratory rate > or =30/min (OR=12.25; CI: 3.45-35.57), pleural effusion (OR=8.6; 95% CI: 2.01-24.7), septic shock (OR=12.6; 95% CI: 3.4-45.66) and renal failure (OR=13.4; 95% CI: 3.2-37.8) were significantly related to mortality. Purulent sputum and fever were considered as protective factors. COPD was an independent risk factor for mortality in patients with CAP. Hypoxemia and hypercapnia are associated with mortality in patients with CAP with and without COPD. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and PaCO(2) value could be useful prognostic factors and should be incorporated in risk stratification in patients with CAP.

  4. Presepsin as a novel diagnostic biomarker for differentiating active pulmonary tuberculosis from bacterial community acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhi-Jiang; Yu, Han; Zhang, Jing; Li, Chun-Sheng

    2018-03-01

    The expression of presepsin in active pulmonary tuberculosis (APTB) is unknown. We observed the expression of presepsin in APTB, and to evaluate the value for discriminating between APTB and bacterial community acquired pneumonia (BCAP). Consecutive APTB patients who were accurately diagnosed by sputum culture and BCAP patients were enrolled from August 2013 to July 2015. Clinical data were collected, and plasma presepsin concentrations were tested. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed for diagnostic analysis. In all, 133 healthy individuals, 103 APTB and 202 BCAP patients were enrolled. Presepsin concentrations in APTB group (218.0 [146.0, 368.0] pg/ml) were higher than those in the healthy control group (128.0 [101.5, 176.5] pg/ml, P<0.001), and lower than the concentrations measured in the BCAP group (532.0 [364.0, 852.3] pg/ml, P<0.001). Simple APTB and miliary tuberculosis patients showed no significant differences in presepsin concentrations. Compared with both Gram-positive and negative bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis caused a limited increase of presepsin. With the cut-off value set at 401pg/ml, presepsin demonstrated high positive predictive value, allowing initial discriminating between APTB and BCAP. Presepsin combined with CURB-65 score could significantly improve the discrimination ability. Presepsin concentrations in APTB patients were slightly increased, and may be helpful for initial discrimination between APTB and BCAP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pharmacokinetic drug evaluation of avibactam + ceftazidime for the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia.

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    Falcone, Marco; Viale, Pierluigi; Tiseo, Giusy; Pai, Manjunath

    2018-01-31

    Ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI) is a combination of a third-generation cephalosporin and a non-β-lactam, β-lactamase inhibitor, recently approved for urinary tract infections and complicated abdominal infections. Moreover, it represents a treatment option for patients with hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP), especially when caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Areas covered: The review focuses on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of CAZ-AVI in HAP and on preclinical and clinical studies evaluating PK/pharmacodynamics (PD) in this field. Expert opinion: In vitro and in vivo data about PK/PD of CAZ-AVI confirm that penetration of CAZ-AVI in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) represents approximately 30% of the plasma concentrations. Clinical studies documented that CAZ-AVI 2000 mg/500 mg every 8 h is the optimal dose regimen to achieve the PK/PD target attainment in patients with HAP. Thus, CAZ-AVI could represent an option both to treat HAP caused by Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) displaying resistance to most of the antibiotics and to reduce the use of carbapenems, limiting the onset of resistance profiles among GNB. Additional information about specific patients populations, such as critically-ill subjects or pediatric patients, are needed for a more individualized use of CAZ-AVI.

  6. Using data-driven rules to predict mortality in severe community acquired pneumonia.

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    Chuang Wu

    Full Text Available Prediction of patient-centered outcomes in hospitals is useful for performance benchmarking, resource allocation, and guidance regarding active treatment and withdrawal of care. Yet, their use by clinicians is limited by the complexity of available tools and amount of data required. We propose to use Disjunctive Normal Forms as a novel approach to predict hospital and 90-day mortality from instance-based patient data, comprising demographic, genetic, and physiologic information in a large cohort of patients admitted with severe community acquired pneumonia. We develop two algorithms to efficiently learn Disjunctive Normal Forms, which yield easy-to-interpret rules that explicitly map data to the outcome of interest. Disjunctive Normal Forms achieve higher prediction performance quality compared to a set of state-of-the-art machine learning models, and unveils insights unavailable with standard methods. Disjunctive Normal Forms constitute an intuitive set of prediction rules that could be easily implemented to predict outcomes and guide criteria-based clinical decision making and clinical trial execution, and thus of greater practical usefulness than currently available prediction tools. The Java implementation of the tool JavaDNF will be publicly available.

  7. Rapid diagnostic testing for community-acquired pneumonia: can innovative technology for clinical microbiology be exploited?

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    Yu, Victor L; Stout, Janet E

    2009-12-01

    Two nonsynchronous events have affected the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP): spiraling empiricism for CAP and the "golden era" of clinical microbiology. The development of broad-spectrum antibiotics has led to widespread empiric use without ascertaining the etiology of the infecting microbe. Unfortunately, this approach clashes with the second event, which is the advent of molecular-based microbiology that can identify the causative pathogen rapidly at the point of care. The urinary antigen is a most effective rapid test that has allowed targeted therapy for Legionnaire disease at the point of care. The high specificity (> 90%) allows the clinician to administer appropriate anti-Legionella therapy based on a single rapid test; however, its low sensitivity (76%) means that a notable number of cases of Legionnaire disease will go undiagnosed if other tests, especially culture, are not performed. Further, culture for Legionella is not readily available. If a culture is not performed, epidemiologic identification of the source of the bacterium cannot be ascertained by molecular fingerprinting of the patient and the putative source strain. We recommend resurrection of the basic principles of infectious disease, which are to identify the microbial etiology of the infection and to use narrow, targeted antimicrobial therapy. To reduce antimicrobial overuse with subsequent antimicrobial resistance, these basic principles must be applied in concert with traditional and newer tests in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

  8. Vitamin D Level and Risk of Community-Acquired Pneumonia and Sepsis

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    Anna J. Jovanovich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has reported reduced serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD levels is associated with acute infectious illness. The relationship between vitamin D status, measured prior to acute infectious illness, with risk of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP and sepsis has not been examined. Community-living individuals hospitalized with CAP or sepsis were age-, sex-, race-, and season-matched with controls. ICD-9 codes identified CAP and sepsis; chest radiograph confirmed CAP. Serum 25(OHD levels were measured up to 15 months prior to hospitalization. Regression models adjusted for diabetes, renal disease, and peripheral vascular disease evaluated the association of 25(OHD levels with CAP or sepsis risk. A total of 132 CAP patients and controls were 60 ± 17 years, 71% female, and 86% Caucasian. The 25(OHD levels <37 nmol/L (adjusted odds ratio (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.08–6.08 were strongly associated with increased odds of CAP hospitalization. A total of 422 sepsis patients and controls were 65 ± 14 years, 59% female, and 91% Caucasian. The 25(OHD levels <37 nmol/L (adjusted OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.11–2.77 were associated with increased odds of sepsis hospitalization. Vitamin D status was inversely associated with risk of CAP and sepsis hospitalization in a community-living adult population. Further clinical trials are needed to evaluate whether vitamin D supplementation can reduce risk of infections, including CAP and sepsis.

  9. Gene expression profiling of mononuclear cells from patients with sepsis secondary to community-acquired pneumonia

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    Patricia Severino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms governing the inflammatory response during sepsis involve crosstalk between diverse signaling pathways, but current knowledge provides an incomplete picture of the syndrome. Microarray-based expression profiling is a powerful approach for the investigation of complex clinical conditions such as sepsis. In this study, we investigated whole-genome expression profiles in mononuclear cells from septic patients admitted in intensive care units with community-acquired pneumonia. Blood samples were collected at the time of sepsis diagnosis and seven days later since we aimed to evaluate the role of biological processes or genes possibly involved in patient recovery. Here we provide a detailed description of the study design, including clinical information, experimental methods and procedures regarding data analysis. Metadata corresponding to microarray results deposited in the database Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO under the accession number GSE48080 are also described in this report. Our dataset allows the identification of genes possibly associated with host defense to infection as well as gene expression patterns associated with patient outcome.

  10. The potential of molecular diagnostics and serum procalcitonin levels to change the antibiotic management of community-acquired pneumonia.

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    Gilbert, David; Gelfer, Gita; Wang, Lian; Myers, Jillian; Bajema, Kristina; Johnston, Michael; Leggett, James

    2016-09-01

    Two diagnostic bundles were compared in 127 evaluable patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Diagnostic modalities in all patients included cultures of sputum (if obtainable) and blood, urine for detection of the antigens of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila, and nasal swabs for PCR probes for S. pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. At least one procalcitonin level was measured in all patients. For virus detection, patients were randomized to either a 5-virus, lab-generated PCR panel or the broader and faster FilmArray PCR panel. Overall, an etiologic diagnosis was established in 71% of the patients. A respiratory virus was detected in 39%. The potential for improved antibiotic stewardship was evident in 25 patients with only detectable respiratory virus and normal levels of PCT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Prophylaxis of Community-Acquired Pneumonia Outbreaks with Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine. Prospects Analysis for Russian Military Community].

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    Guchev, I A; Klochkov, O I; Sinopalnikov, A I

    2016-01-01

    Pneumococcal pneumonia and other diseases caused by pneumococci still remain the main factors of high morbidity and mortality rates throughout the world. Pneumococci as the leading pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), acute otitis media and sinusitis also cause a number of other serious systemic disorders including invasive infections with high mortality in spite of the antimicrobial resistance status and adequate antimicrobials choice. Pneumococcal infections are responsible for 5-35% or more of community-acquired pneumonias. The burden of pneumonia (up to 100-200 per thousand) is recorded among military recruits in training centers. Since the specific environment of the soldiers could be carrected, their health protection requires medical surveillance. For these reasons, polysaccharide and more immunogenic conjugated pneumococcal vaccines were developed. There is now an urgent need to understand whether such vaccines are effective in military conscripts. Controversy about the effectiveness and value of the polysaccharide (PPV-23) vaccine as a CAP morbidity restriction measure still persists. There were implemented plenty of metaanalyses of pneumococcal vaccines in adults. Some of them showed that the vaccine was effective against bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia in 'low risk' healthy adults and elders. There have been a number of poor quality observational studies in Russia where 'all pneumonia cases' were considered as an endpoint. It remains controversial whether these observational studies provide adequate evidence to justify the use of the polysaccharide vaccine in the groups of healthy young men for whom it is being advocated. In our analysis we found weak evidence supporting pneumococcal vaccination with PPV-23 for this group. Nevertheless, favorable tendency was found to immunize. It is the reason for a trail to find pharmacoepidemiological support for vaccination by novel conjugated vaccines with better immunogenicity.

  12. [Serologic diagnosis of severe non-bacterial pneumonia and acquired in the community].

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    Ramos, J M; Gómez, P

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the profitability of the serology, especially against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Chlamydia sp., in the community pneumonia with hospital admission. Descriptive and retrospective study. One hundred fifty-five pair of sera of 129 patients adults and 26 patients with less of 15 years with pneumonia were analysed. Antibody against respiratory virus, Coxiella burnetii, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, Chlamydia sp. and S. pneumoniae were investigated. The serology diagnosis was obtained in 58 patients (37.4%) (42 [32.6%] adults and 16 [61.5%] children; p = 0.006). The pneumonia most frequently detected was caused by M. pneumoniae (21 cases; 13.5%), followed by Chlamydia spp. (13, 8.4%), S. pneumoniae (8, 5.2%) and mixed infection in other 7 cases. Detection of antibodies against pneumococcus and Chlamydia sp. improved as a whole in 8.4% (from 29% to 37.4%), a 10.9% (from 22.5 to 32.6%) in adults and none case in children. Moreover, a major proportion of mixed infection and by syncytial respiratory virus in children (19.5 and 11.5%, respectively) versus adults (1.6 and 0%, respectively; p < 0.1) was observed. With the detection of antibodies against Chlamydia spp. by indirect immunofluorescence and capsular polysaccharide pneumococcal by enzyme-immunoanalysis increased the etiologic diagnosis of the community pneumonia.

  13. Influence of socioeconomic status on community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in elderly patients requiring hospitalization: a multicenter observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Conchita; Oviedo, Manuel; Ruiz, Laura; Sintes, Xavier; Vera, Isabel; Nebot, Manel; Bayas, Jose-María; Carratalà, Jordi; Varona, Wenceslao; Sousa, Dolores; Celorrio, Jose-Miguel; Salleras, Luis; Domínguez, Angela

    2010-07-15

    The associations between socioeconomic status and community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in adults have been studied although studies did not always document a relationship.The aim of this multicenter observational study was to determine the association between socioeconomic status and community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in the elderly, in the context of a public health system providing universal free care to the whole population. A total of 651 patients aged > or =65 years hospitalized due to community-acquired pneumonia through the emergency departments of five Spanish public hospitals were recruited and followed up between May 2005 and January 2007. The primary outcomes studied were: length of stay, intensive care unit admission, overall mortality and readmission. Socioeconomic status was measured using both individual and community data: occupation [categorized in six social groups (I, II, III, IVa, IVb and V)], educational level (level or > or = secondary level) and disposable family income of the municipality or district of residence [>12,500 euro (high municipality family income) and income)]. The six social groups were further categorized as upper/middle social class (groups I-IVb) and lower class (group V).Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. OR and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. All statistical tests were two tailed and statistical significance was established as p high municipality family income and 63.6% were upper/middle social class (I-IVb). Only 15.7% of patients had a secondary education. The adjusted analysis showed no association between pneumonia outcomes and social class, educational level or municipality family income. However, length of stay increased significantly in patients in whom the factors, living alone and being a smoker or ex-smoker coincided (p educational level or municipality family income and the variables of pneumonia outcomes. The lack of differences between social classes supports the provision

  14. Oral Antibiotics for Community acquired Pneumonia with Chest indrawing in Children Aged Below Five Years: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodha, Rakesh; Randev, Shivani; Kabra, Sushil K

    2016-06-08

    To determine the efficacy of oral antibiotics in under-five children with pneumonia and chest indrawing. We included controlled clinical trials (randomized or quasi randomized) that compared the efficacy of oral antibiotics versus parenteral antibiotics for treatment of community acquired pneumonia with chest indrawing (severe pneumonia as defined by the World Health Organizations guidelines) in children below 60 months of age. Data were extracted and managed using RevMan software. Main outcome variables were: treatment failure rate, relapse rate, death rate, need for hospitalization, and severe adverse effects. We identified four randomized controlled trials involving 4400 children who were diagnosed to have severe pneumonia but were feeding well and not hypoxic. Baseline characteristics of children in the two treatment arms (oral and parenteral antibiotics) were similar. In two studies, oral antibiotics were administered on an ambulatory basis, while in two, oral antibiotics were used in hospitalized children. Failure rate in children receiving oral antibiotics was 13% (288/2208) while that in children receiving parenteral antibiotics was 13.8% (302/2183) (OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.78, 1.11). Failure rates were not affected by the type of oral antibiotic, or presence of wheeze. Relapse rates, hospitalization or serious adverse events were similar in the two groups. Children with tachypnea with chest indrawing without signs and symptoms of very severe pneumonia may be treated with oral antibiotics.

  15. CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from community-acquired urinary tract infections in Valledupar, Colombia

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    Pedro Martinez

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Describe the presence of CTX-M-1 phylogenetic subgroup extended-spectrum i-lactamases (ESBL, associated with TEM and SHV genes, and the gene encoding cephalosporinase, CMY-2 in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from community-acquired urinary tract infections. METHODS: 102 E. coli and 21 K. pneumoniae were collected from patients with culture-proven urinary tract infection (UTI, during February and March, 2011. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by disk diffusion according to the standards of the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute. Screening for cephalosporins-resistant E. coli and K. pneumoniae was performed by PCR assay for blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M-1,-2,-8,-9, blaPER-2 and blaCMY-2 genes. Statistical analysis was performed by chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: ESBL production was detected in 12 (11.7% E. coli and four (19% K. pneumoniae isolates. TEM ESBLs were detected in seven E. coli and three K. pneumoniae isolates. SHV ESBLs were found in four K. pneumoniae isolates. CTX-M-1 phylogenetic subgroup was positive in seven E. coli and three K. pneumoniae isolates. CMY-2 β-lactamase gene was detected in nine E. coli and one K. pneumoniae isolates. A significant association of ESBL expression in E. coli was observed with resistance to tobramycin (p < 0.001, tetracycline (p = 0.043, and ciprofloxacin (p < 0.001. In K. pneumoniae isolates, significant association was found with resistance to tobramycin and ciprofloxacin (p = 0.006, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (p = 0.043. Multivariate analyses did not show association between ESBL production in E. coli and K. pneumoniae, and resistance to non-β-lactams drugs. CONCLUSIONS: CTX-M ESBL in uropathogens isolated from the community is cause for concern due to the enormous potential for multidrug resistance from strains that produce these enzymes, which could lead to failure of empirically-administered therapies

  16. INFECTION WITH HHV-6 OF MILITARY MEN AFFECTED BY COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA

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    Brusnik SV

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human herpesvirus, 6 type (HHV-6 was isolated at the end of the 20th century from the blood leukocytes of patients with lymphoproliferative diseases. Serological studies conducted in different countries, indicate ubiquitylation of the HHV-6 and the existence of two antigenic variants - HHV-6A and HHV-6B. Their high tropism is determined in vitro to lymphocytic, nervous and dendritic cells of the CNS. Virus replicates in many cell, primary and passaged cultures of different origins. The reproduction cycle of HHV-6 continues on average 4-5 days forming syncytiums and intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions. Significant destruction and lysis almost 90 % of infected cells is reported after 5-10 day of monitoring. The utility of experimentation investigating the role of HHV-6 in the development of acute and chronic diseases in respiratory tract is caused by the fact that many patients, particularly those with chronic diseases, have complaints to chronic fatigue, decreased performance and low-grade temperature more than 3-6 months. Several studies demonstrate the presence of HHV-6 in saliva, salivary and bronchiolar glands, in swabs from pharyngonasal cavity and gorge. Tropism of HHV-6 to oropharyngeal epithelium with the possibility of finding the virus in the saliva and swabs from pharyngonasal cavity and gorge was found at the end of 20th century. This fact gave the basis for work determining the level of infection by this pathogen in patients with infectious and inflammatory pathology of the respiratory tract. Materials and methods. Serological studies were conducted with 38 soldiers affected by community-acquired pneumonia. Most of the surveyed patients were ranged in age from 20 to 45 years old, middle age (32,5±1,5 years. Patients were in stationary treatment in the Kharkov military hospital. The criteria for inclusion in the study on the infection of HHV-6 were soldiers affected by community-acquired pneumonia with atypical course of

  17. Epidemiology of community-acquired pneumonia in children of Latin America and the Caribbean: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Angela; Bardach, Ariel; Ciapponi, Agustín; Garcia-Marti, Sebastian; Aruj, Patricia; Glujovsky, Demian; Calcagno, Juan Ignacio; Mazzoni, Agustina; Colindres, Romulo Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review evaluated the incidence, etiology, and use of resources in bacterial, non-tuberculosis community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in immune-competent children aged <5 years. Systematic searches (1980-2008) were performed using MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, LILACS, generic, and academic Internet searches. Regional health ministries, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), regional proceedings, doctoral theses, and the reference lists of included studies were also searched, and experts were consulted. Arcsine transformations and the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model were used for proportion meta-analyses. The search yielded 1220 references; 60 were included in the meta-analysis, giving a total 23 854 CAP episodes with an incidence of 919/100 000 child-years in children aged <5 years. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most frequently isolated agent (11.08%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.63-15.08), and pneumococcal serotype 14 was most prevalent (33.00%; 95% CI 25.95-40.45). Other common agents were Haemophilus influenzae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Health economics data on CAP in the region were scarce. About one-fourth of CAP patients required hospitalization (median length of stay 11 days, range 5-13.5 days). The burden of CAP was substantial, with S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. pneumoniae being the most common pathogens identified. High quality primary studies on disease incidence, use of health resources, and standardized data collection on disease burden and circulating strains are essential to provide baseline data for the future evaluation of vaccine impact. © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk of heart failure after community acquired pneumonia: prospective controlled study with 10 years of follow-up.

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    Eurich, Dean T; Marrie, Thomas J; Minhas-Sandhu, Jasjeet K; Majumdar, Sumit R

    2017-02-13

    Objective To determine the attributable risk of community acquired pneumonia on incidence of heart failure throughout the age range of affected patients and severity of the infection.Design Cohort study.Setting Six hospitals and seven emergency departments in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 2000-02.Participants 4988 adults with community acquired pneumonia and no history of heart failure were prospectively recruited and matched on age, sex, and setting of treatment (inpatient or outpatient) with up to five adults without pneumonia (controls) or prevalent heart failure (n=23 060).Main outcome measures Risk of hospital admission for incident heart failure or a combined endpoint of heart failure or death up to 2012, evaluated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses.Results The average age of participants was 55 years, 2649 (53.1%) were men, and 63.4% were managed as outpatients. Over a median of 9.9 years (interquartile range 5.9-10.6), 11.9% (n=592) of patients with pneumonia had incident heart failure compared with 7.4% (n=1712) of controls (adjusted hazard ratio 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.44 to 1.81). Patients with pneumonia aged 65 or less had the lowest absolute increase (but greatest relative risk) of heart failure compared with controls (4.8% v 2.2%; adjusted hazard ratio 1.98, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 2.53), whereas patients with pneumonia aged more than 65 years had the highest absolute increase (but lowest relative risk) of heart failure (24.8% v 18.9%; adjusted hazard ratio 1.55, 1.36 to 1.77). Results were consistent in the short term (90 days) and intermediate term (one year) and whether patients were treated in hospital or as outpatients.Conclusion Our results show that community acquired pneumonia substantially increases the risk of heart failure across the age and severity range of cases. This should be considered when formulating post-discharge care plans and preventive strategies, and assessing downstream episodes of

  19. Community-acquired pneumonia in children. A changing spectrum of disease

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    Le Roux, David M. [Red Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); New Somerset Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Cape Town (South Africa); Zar, Heather J. [Red Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2017-10-15

    Pneumonia remains the leading cause of death in children outside the neonatal period, despite advances in prevention and management. Over the last 20 years, there has been a substantial decrease in the incidence of childhood pneumonia and pneumonia-associated mortality. New conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae have contributed to decreases in radiologic, clinical and complicated pneumonia cases and have reduced hospitalization and mortality. The importance of co-infections with multiple pathogens and the predominance of viral-associated disease are emerging. Better access to effective preventative and management strategies is needed in low- and middle-income countries, while new strategies are needed to address the residual burden of disease once these have been implemented. (orig.)

  20. Soluble RAGE as a severity marker in community acquired pneumonia associated sepsis.

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    Narvaez-Rivera, Rodrigo M; Rendon, Adrian; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Rosas-Taraco, Adrian G

    2012-01-20

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is considered the most important cause of death from infectious disease in developed countries. Severity assessment scores partially address the difficulties in identifying high-risk patients. A lack of specific and valid pathophysiologic severity markers affect early and effective sepsis therapy. HMGB-1, sRAGE and RAGE have been involved in sepsis and their potential as severity markers has been proposed. The aim of this study was to evaluate HMGB-1, RAGE and sRAGE levels in patients with CAP-associated sepsis and determine their possible association with clinical outcome. We evaluated 33 patients with CAP-associated sepsis admitted to the emergency room and followed in the medical wards. Severity assessment scores (CURB-65, PSI, APACHE II, SOFA) and serologic markers (HMGB-1, RAGE, sRAGE) were evaluated on admission. Thirty patients with a diagnosis of CAP-associated sepsis were enrolled in the study within 24 hours after admission. Fourteen (46.6%) had pandemic (H1N1) influenza A virus, 2 (6.6%) had seasonal influenza A and 14 other diagnoses. Of the patients in the study group, 16 (53.3%) had a fatal outcome. ARDS was observed in 17 (56.6%) and a total of 22 patients had severe sepsis on admission (73%). The SOFA score showed the greatest difference between surviving and non-surviving groups (P = .003) with similar results in ARDS patients (P = .005). sRAGE levels tended to be higher in non-surviving (P = .058) and ARDS patients (P = .058). Logistic regression modeling demonstrated that SOFA (P = .013) and sRAGE (P = .05) were the only variables that modified the probability of a fatal outcome. The association of elevated sRAGE with a fatal outcome suggests that it may have an independent causal effect in CAP. SOFA scores were the only clinical factor with the ability to identify surviving and ARDS patients.

  1. Serum levels of immunoglobulins and severity of community-acquired pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Mari C; Torán, Pere; Serra-Prat, Mateu; Palomera, Elisabet; Güell, Estel; Vendrell, Ester; Yébenes, Joan Carles; Torres, Antoni; Almirall, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Instruction There is evidence of a relationship between severity of infection and inflammatory response of the immune system. The objective is to assess serum levels of immunoglobulins and to establish its relationship with severity of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and clinical outcome. Methods This was an observational and cross-sectional study in which 3 groups of patients diagnosed with CAP were compared: patients treated in the outpatient setting (n=54), patients requiring in-patient care (hospital ward) (n=173), and patients requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) (n=191). Results Serum total IgG (and IgG subclasses IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4), IgA and IgM were measured at the first clinical visit. Normal cutpoints were defined as the lowest value obtained in controls (≤680, ≤323, ≤154, ≤10, ≤5, ≤30 and ≤50 mg/dL for total IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgM and IgA, respectively). Serum immunoglobulin levels decreased in relation to severity of CAP. Low serum levels of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 showed a relationship with ICU admission. Low serum level of total IgG was independently associated with ICU admission (OR=2.45, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.2, p=0.002), adjusted by the CURB-65 severity score and comorbidities (chronic respiratory and heart diseases). Low levels of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 were significantly associated with 30-day mortality. Conclusions Patients with severe CAP admitted to the ICU showed lower levels of immunoglobulins than non-ICU patients and this increased mortality. PMID:27933180

  2. Ceftaroline fosamil for community-acquired pneumonia and skin and skin structure infections: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hajj, Maguy Saffouh; Turgeon, Ricky D; Wilby, Kyle John

    2017-02-01

    Background Ceftaroline is a parentally administered cephalosporin that has an in vitro expanded spectrum of activity compared with other cephalosporins yet data is conflicting regarding its place in therapy. Aim of the Review To compare the efficacy and safety of ceftaroline against standard antibiotic regimens for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs). Method The databases of MEDLINE, EBSCO, and Embase were searched up to June 2016. Manual review of references was completed and experts in the field were contacted for unpublished data. Randomized controlled trials of ceftaroline in CAP or cSSSI populations were included. Outcomes included clinical cure, mortality, adverse events, serious adverse events, and discontinuation due to adverse events. Meta-analysis was used to pool results for these outcomes. We performed subgroup analyses for gram positive infections in CAP and infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in cSSSIs. Risk of bias was assessed for all studies. Results Six trials (three for each indication) were included, each of which had an unclear or high risk of bias in at least one domain. For CAP, ceftaroline was significantly more efficacious in achieving clinical cure than ceftriaxone [risk ratio (RR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.19; I2 = 47%]. For cSSSIs, there was no significant difference in clinical cure between ceftaroline and vancomycin plus aztreonam (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.97-1.05; I2 = 0%). No differences were found for overall mortality, serious adverse events, discontinuation due to adverse events, and overall adverse events. Conclusion Ceftaroline is a viable therapeutic alternative for patients with CAP and cSSSIs, yet identified risks of bias and poor external validity preclude it from being recommended as a first-line agent.

  3. Predictors of Bacteraemia in Patients with Suspected Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

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    Cornelis H van Werkhoven

    Full Text Available The diagnostic yield of blood cultures is limited in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. Yet, positive blood culture results provide important information for antibiotic treatment and for monitoring epidemiologic trends. We investigated the potential of clinical predictors to improve the cost-benefit ratio of obtaining blood cultures.Data from two prospective cohort studies of adults with suspected CAP, admitted to non-ICU wards, were combined. Two models were created, one using readily available parameters and one additionally including laboratory parameters.3,786 patients were included (2,626 (69% with X-ray confirmed CAP. Blood cultures were obtained from 2,977 (79% patients (and from 2,107 (80% with X-ray confirmed CAP. 266 (8.9% of the patients with a blood culture had bacteraemia. Clinical predictors of bacteraemia were absence of pre-admission antibiotic treatment, pleuritic pain, gastro-intestinal symptoms, tachycardia, tachypnea, hypotension and absence of hypoxia. After including laboratory results in the model, younger age, C-reactive protein, leukocytosis or leukopenia, low thrombocyte count, low sodium level, elevated urea and elevated arterial pH were added, while gastro-intestinal symptoms and hypotension were no longer significant. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.66 (95% confidence interval 0.63-0.70 for the first model and 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.73-0.79 for the second model.In conclusion, in patients hospitalized with CAP, bacteraemia was moderately predictable using clinical parameters only. We recommend against the use of a risk prediction model for the decision to obtain blood cultures.

  4. [Respiratory day hospital care for immunocompetent adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Rosa T; Torres, María Elena P; Gallardo, Daniel M; Arias, Marisol C; Saldías, Fernando P

    2015-04-01

    Day hospitals can reduce health care costs without increasing the risks of patients with lower respiratory tract infection. To report the experience of a respiratory day hospital care delivered to adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in a public hospital. During the fall and winter of 2011 and 2012, adult patients with CAP of intermediate risk categories were assessed in the emergency room, their severity was stratified according to confusion, respiratory rate, blood pressure, 65 years of age or older (CRB-65) score and the Chilean CAP Clinical Guidelines, and were admitted to the respiratory day hospital. One hundred seventeen patients aged 67 ± 16 years, (62% females) with CAP were attended in the respiratory day hospital. Ninety percent had comorbidities, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 58%, heart disease in 32%, diabetes in 16% and asthma in 13%. Their most important risk factors were age over 65 years in 60%, comorbidities in 88%, failure of antibiotic treatment in 17%, loss of autonomy in 21%, vital sign abnormalities in 60%, mental confusion in 5%, multilobar CAP in 23%, pleural effusion in 15%, hypoxemia in 41% and a serum urea nitrogen over 30 mg/dL in 16%. Patients stayed an average of seven days in the day hospital with oxygen, hydration, chest physiotherapy and third-generation cephalosporins (89%) associated with quinolones (52%) or macrolides (4%). Thirteen patients required noninvasive ventilation, eight patients were hospitalized because of clinical deterioration and three died in hospital. Day hospital care reduced hospital admission rates of patients with lower respiratory tract infections.

  5. Individualization of antibacterial therapy in severe community acquired pneumonia considering systemic inflammation and immune status

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    Pertseva Т.О.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Individualization of antibiotic therapy (ABT of patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is a key issue in the world. Today the role of various biomarkers in ABT individualization in patients with CAP, including markers of systemic inflammation and cellular immunity is vividly discussed. But their variability at different etiological factors of CAP according to the immunological reactivity of patients was not studied at all. That’s why the aim of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of marker of systemic inflammation procalcitonin (PCT and marker of cellular immunity CD4+ in patients with severe CAP, considering etiological factor and their role in individualization of antibiotic preparation (ABP choice in these patients. A study group consisted of patients with severe CAP without HIV and identified respiratory pathogen. Comparison group consisted of HIV-positive persons, who accounted nearly 17% of all the patients. According to the results of this work it was revealed that in all patients CAP was accompanied with marked inflammatory response (which is confirmed by 250 times higher than normal serum PCT (level and severe immunodeficiency state, even in HIV absence. The markers changed depending on CAP etiology. In CAP caused by Gr(- pathogens PCT levels was 500 times higher than normal, and the number of CD4+ was less than normal in all patients. Conclusions: 1 reduced number of CD4, less than 200 ml-1 in patients with severe CAP, accompanied by a sharp increase in serum PCT level is a marker of Gr(- respiratory pathogen; 2 the imbalance between clinical symptoms and normal serum PCT level against a sharp decline in CD4+number is an indication to search for HIV and administration of the antipneumocystic therapy.

  6. Signs and symptoms indicative of community-acquired pneumonia in infants under six months

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    Maria de Fátima Bazhuni Pombo March

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the clinical signs and symptoms predicting bacterial and viral pneumonia, in accordance with the Brazilian National Control Program for Acute Respiratory (ARI. METHODS: Observational prospective study. Seventy-six children from birth to six months of age who had pneumonia were studied in the emergency room. The patients were subdivided into two groups, based on radiological findings (gold-standard: 47 had bacterial pneumonia, and 29 had viral pneumonia. The frequencies, sensitivities, and specificities of the signs and symptoms were evaluated. RESULTS: The sensibilities and sensitivities of general findings in bacterial pneumonia were, respectively: fever 53.2%/40.0%; hypoactivity 68.4%/55.6% and prostration detected by the doctor 72.7%/55.0%. The same findings in viral pneumonias showed, respectively: 37.9%/40.0%, 66.7%/55.6% and 66.7%/55.6%. The sensibilities and sensitivities of respiratory findings in bacterial pneumonia were, respectively: coughing 66.0/38.1%, Respiratory rate = 50 ripm 76.6%/38.1%, altered respiratory auscultation 91.3%/10.5%, and chest indrawing 46.7%/80.0%. The same findings in viral pneumonias were, respectively: 69.0%/38.1%, 86.2%/38.1%, 85.7%/10.5% and 44.8%/80.0%. CONCLUSION: Analysis of signs and symptoms in each group did not distinguish bacterial from viral pneumonia. Our findings reinforce the adequacy of the ARI program in Brazil, which gives an early diagnosis of pneumonia, independent of its etiology.

  7. Predictors of inhospital mortality and re-hospitalization in older adults with community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective cohort study

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    Marrie Tom

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of potentially modifiable predictors of in-hospital mortality and re-admission to the hospital following discharge may help to improve management of community-acquired pneumonia in older adults. We aimed to assess the associations of potentially modifiable factors with mortality and re-hospitalization in older adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted from July 2003 to April 2005 in two Canadian cities. Patients aged 65 years or older hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia were followed up for up to 30 days from initial hospitalization for mortality and these patients who were discharged alive within 30 days of initial hospitalization were followed up to 90 days of initial hospitalization for re-hospitalization. Separate logistic regression analyses were performed identify the predictors of mortality and re-hospitalization. Results Of 717 enrolled patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia, 49 (6.8% died within 30 days of hospital admission. Among these patients, 526 were discharged alive within 30 days of hospitalization of whom 58 (11.2% were re-hospitalized within 90 days of initial hospitalization. History of hip fracture (odds ratio (OR = 4.00, 95% confidence interval (CI = (1.46, 10.96, P = .007, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR = 2.31, 95% CI = (1.18, 4.50, P = .014, cerebrovascular disease (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = (1.03, 4.31, P = .040 were associated with mortality. Male sex (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = (1.13, 4.85, P = .022 was associated with re-hospitalization while vitamin E supplementation was protective (OR = 0.37 (0.16, 0.90, P = .028. Lower socioeconomic status, prior influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations, appropriate antibiotic prescription upon admission, and lower nutrition risk were not significantly associated with mortality or re-hospitalization. Conclusion Chronic comorbidities appear to be the most

  8. Mannose-binding lectin and l-ficolin polymorphisms in patients with community-acquired pneumonia caused by intracellular pathogens.

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    van Kempen, Gijs; Meijvis, Sabine; Endeman, Henrik; Vlaminckx, Bart; Meek, Bob; de Jong, Ben; Rijkers, Ger; Bos, Willem Jan

    2017-05-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading infectious disease requiring hospitalization in the western world. Genetic variability affecting the host response to infection may play a role in susceptibility and outcome in patients with CAP. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and l-ficolin (l-FCN) are two important activators of the complement system and they can enhance phagocytosis by opsonization. In a prospective cohort of 505 Dutch patients with CAP and 227 control participants we studied whether polymorphisms in the MBL (MBL2) and FCN (FCN2) genes influenced susceptibility and outcome. No difference in frequency of these genotypes was found between patients with CAP in general and controls. However, the +6424G>T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in FCN2 was more common in patients with a Coxiella burnetii pneumonia (P = 0·014). Moreover, the haplotypes coding for the highest MBL serum levels (YA/YA and YA/XA) predisposed to atypical pneumonia (C. burnetii, Legionella or Chlamydia species or Mycoplasma pneumoniae) compared with controls (P = 0·016). Furthermore, patients with these haplotypes were more often bacteraemic (P = 0·019). It can therefore be concluded that MBL2 and FCN2 polymorphisms are not major risk factors for CAP in general, but that the +6424G>T SNP in the FCN2 gene predisposes to C. burnetii pneumonia. In addition, patients with genotypes corresponding with high serum MBL levels are at risk for atypical pneumonia, possibly caused by enhanced phagocytosis, thereby promoting cell entry of these intracellular bacteria. © 2016 The Authors. Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. New Sepsis Definition (Sepsis-3) and Community-acquired Pneumonia Mortality. A Validation and Clinical Decision-Making Study.

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    Ranzani, Otavio T; Prina, Elena; Menéndez, Rosario; Ceccato, Adrian; Cilloniz, Catia; Méndez, Raul; Gabarrus, Albert; Barbeta, Enric; Bassi, Gianluigi Li; Ferrer, Miquel; Torres, Antoni

    2017-11-15

    The Sepsis-3 Task Force updated the clinical criteria for sepsis, excluding the need for systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria. The clinical implications of the proposed flowchart including the quick Sequential (Sepsis-related) Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) and SOFA scores are unknown. To perform a clinical decision-making analysis of Sepsis-3 in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. This was a cohort study including adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia from two Spanish university hospitals. SIRS, qSOFA, the Confusion, Respiratory Rate and Blood Pressure (CRB) score, modified SOFA (mSOFA), the Confusion, Urea, Respiratory Rate, Blood Pressure and Age (CURB-65) score, and Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) were calculated with data from the emergency department. We used decision-curve analysis to evaluate the clinical usefulness of each score and the primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Of 6,874 patients, 442 (6.4%) died in-hospital. SIRS presented the worst discrimination, followed by qSOFA, CRB, mSOFA, CURB-65, and PSI. Overall, overestimation of in-hospital mortality and miscalibration was more evident for qSOFA and mSOFA. SIRS had lower net benefit than qSOFA and CRB, significantly increasing the risk of over-treatment and being comparable with the "treat-all" strategy. PSI had higher net benefit than mSOFA and CURB-65 for mortality, whereas mSOFA seemed more applicable when considering mortality/intensive care unit admission. Sepsis-3 flowchart resulted in better identification of patients at high risk of mortality. qSOFA and CRB outperformed SIRS and presented better clinical usefulness as prompt tools for patients with community-acquired pneumonia in the emergency department. Among the tools for a comprehensive patient assessment, PSI had the best decision-aid tool profile.

  10. Comparison between pathogen directed antibiotic treatment and empirical broad spectrum antibiotic treatment in patients with community acquired pneumonia: a prospective randomised study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Eerden, M. M.; Vlaspolder, F.; de Graaff, C. S.; Groot, T.; Bronsveld, W.; Jansen, H. M.; Boersma, W. G.

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is much controversy about the ideal approach to the management of community acquired pneumonia ( CAP). Recommendations differ from a pathogen directed approach to an empirical strategy with broad spectrum antibiotics. Methods: In a prospective randomised open study performed

  11. Pattern of community acquired pneumonia in pregnant ladies in Ain Shams University hospitals

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    Aya M. Abdel Dayem

    2012-10-01

    Conclusion: Morbidity and mortality in pregnant patients with pneumonia continue to present a significant challenge. Early recognition of the diseases process and prompt treatment are required to ascertain an optimal outcome. The treatments in the gravid patients generally follow standard guide lines for the treatment of pneumonia in adults. Concern for fetal outcome should not delay treatment as improvement in maternal oxygenation and status is the best way to ensure fetal protection.

  12. Prevalence of Acquired Carbapenemase Genes in Klebsiella Pneumoniae by Multiplex PCR in Isfahan

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    Farzin Khorvash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae has been considered as a serious global threat. This study was done to investigate carbapenemase producing genomes among K. pneumoniae isolates in Isfahan, Central Iran. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study from 2011 to 2012, 29 carbapenem resistant (according to disc diffusion method carbapenemase producing (according to modified Hodge test K. pneumoniae strains were collected from Intensive Care Unit (ICUs of Al-Zahra referral Hospital. In the strains with the lack of sensitivity to one or several carbapenems, beta-lactams, or beta-lactamases, there has been performed modified Hodge test to investigate carbapenmase and then only strains producing carbapenmases were selected for molecular methods. Results: In this study, there have been 29 cases of K. pneumoniae isolated from hospitalized patients in the (ICU. Three cases (10.3% contained blaVIM, 1 case (3.4% contained blaIMP, and 1 case (3.4% contained blaOXA. The genes blaNDM and blaKPC were not detected. Then, 16 cases (55.2% from positive cases of K. pneumoniae were related to the chip, 4 cases (13.8% to catheter, 6 cases (20.7% to urine, and 3 cases (10.3% to wound. Conclusion: It is necessary to monitor the epidemiologic changes of these carbapenemase genes in K. pneumoniae in our Hospital. More attention should be paid to nosocomial infection control measures. Other carbapenemase producing genes should be investigated.

  13. Spotlight on solithromycin in the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia: design, development, and potential place in therapy

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    Donald BJ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bryan J Donald,1,2 Salim Surani,3–5 Harmeet S Deol,1,6 Uche J Mbadugha,1 George Udeani1,7 1Department of Pharmacy, Corpus Christi Medical Center, Corpus Christi, TX, 2Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA, 3Department of Pulmonology/Critical Care, Corpus Christi Medical Center, Corpus Christi, TX, 4Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, College Station, TX, 5Department of Medicine, College of Osteopathic Medicine, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Denton, TX, 6Department of Pharmacy Services, Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT, 7Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Kingsville, TX, USA Abstract: Community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP is a leading cause of death worldwide. However, antibacterial agents used to treat common pathogens in CABP are marked by adverse drug events and increasing antimicrobial resistance. Solithromycin is a new ketolide antibiotic, based on the macrolide antibiotic structure, being studied for use in CABP. It has efficacy in vitro against the common causative pathogens in CABP including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and atypical pathogens. In Phase II and Phase III clinical trials, it has been demonstrated efficacious as a single agent for treatment of CABP with an apparently milder adverse event profile than alternative agents. Keywords: solithromycin, macrolide antibiotics, community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, CABP

  14. Community-acquired meningitis caused by a CG86 hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae strain: first case report in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melot, Bénédicte; Brisse, Sylvain; Breurec, Sébastien; Passet, Virginie; Malpote, Edith; Lamaury, Isabelle; Thiery, Guillaume; Hoen, Bruno

    2016-12-07

    Community-acquired bacterial meningitis due to Klebsiella pneumoniae has mainly been described in Southeast Asia and has a poor prognosis. Severe invasive infections caused by K. pneumoniae, including meningitis, are often due to hypervirulent strains (hvKP), which are characterized by capsular serotypes K1 and K2, a gene responsible for hypermucoviscosity, and the cluster for synthesis of the siderophore aerobactin. A 55 year old man with a history of essential hypertension, benign prostate hyperplasia, hyperlipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea, and chronic alcoholism was admitted for meningitis due to Klebsiella pneumoniae with a wild-type susceptibility profile. Its genomic features were consistent with a capsular K2 strain belonging to clonal group 86 (CG86) displaying the large virulence of Klebsiella plasmid (pLVPK) with heavy metal resistance gene clusters, aerobactin, rmpA. This is the first case of community-acquired meningitis caused by a hypervirulent strain of hvKP ever reported in the Caribbean.

  15. Frequency, associated factors and outcome of multi-drug-resistant intensive care unit-acquired pneumonia among patients colonized with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

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    Razazi, Keyvan; Mekontso Dessap, Armand; Carteaux, Guillaume; Jansen, Chloé; Decousser, Jean-Winoc; de Prost, Nicolas; Brun-Buisson, Christian

    2017-12-01

    We assessed prevalence, associated factors and prognosis of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae pneumonia acquired in intensive care unit (ESBL-PE pneumonia) among carriers. Variables associated with nosocomial pneumonia caused by carbapenem-resistant bacteria (CRB) were also assessed. A 6-year prospective study (May 2009-March 2015) in the medical ICU of an 850-bed university-affiliated hospital was conducted. Of the 6303 patients admitted, 843 (13.4%) had ESBL-PE carriage detected. Among carriers, 111 (13%) patients developed ICU-acquired pneumonia of whom 48 (43%) had ESBL-PE pneumonia (6% of carriers). By multivariable analysis, SAPS II at admission >43 [OR 2.81 (1.16-6.79)] and colonization with Enterobacter sp. or K. pneumoniae species [OR 10.96 (2.93-41.0)] were independent predictive factors for ESBL-PE pneumonia in colonized patients, whereas receipt of >2 days of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid during the ICU stay [OR 0.24 (0.08-0.71)] was protective. Patients with ESBL-PE pneumonia had a higher SOFA score (p = 0.037) and more frequent septic shock at pneumonia onset (p = 0.047). However, ESBL-PE pneumonia was not an independent predictor of mortality. Twenty-five patients had pneumonia caused by CRB. Chronic renal insufficiency, administration of third-generation cephalosporin within the past 3 months, acute respiratory distress syndrome before pneumonia and prior therapy with a carbapenem or fluoroquinolones were associated with CRB pneumonia in this selected population. Although few ESBL-PE carriers developed ESBL-PE pneumonia overall, a high proportion of pneumonia were caused by ESBL-PE in carriers developing ICUAP. ESBL-PE pneumonia was not an independent predictor of mortality. As pneumonia caused by CRB is increasing, knowledge of factors associated with ESBL-PE or CRB pneumonia may help empiric therapy of pneumonia among ESBL-PE carriers.

  16. Soluble RAGE as a severity marker in community acquired pneumonia associated sepsis

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    Narvaez-Rivera Rodrigo M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is considered the most important cause of death from infectious disease in developed countries. Severity assessment scores partially address the difficulties in identifying high-risk patients. A lack of specific and valid pathophysiologic severity markers affect early and effective sepsis therapy. HMGB-1, sRAGE and RAGE have been involved in sepsis and their potential as severity markers has been proposed. The aim of this study was to evaluate HMGB-1, RAGE and sRAGE levels in patients with CAP-associated sepsis and determine their possible association with clinical outcome. Method We evaluated 33 patients with CAP-associated sepsis admitted to the emergency room and followed in the medical wards. Severity assessment scores (CURB-65, PSI, APACHE II, SOFA and serologic markers (HMGB-1, RAGE, sRAGE were evaluated on admission. Results Thirty patients with a diagnosis of CAP-associated sepsis were enrolled in the study within 24 hours after admission. Fourteen (46.6% had pandemic (H1N1 influenza A virus, 2 (6.6% had seasonal influenza A and 14 other diagnoses. Of the patients in the study group, 16 (53.3% had a fatal outcome. ARDS was observed in 17 (56.6% and a total of 22 patients had severe sepsis on admission (73%. The SOFA score showed the greatest difference between surviving and non-surviving groups (P = .003 with similar results in ARDS patients (P = .005. sRAGE levels tended to be higher in non-surviving (P = .058 and ARDS patients (P = .058. Logistic regression modeling demonstrated that SOFA (P = .013 and sRAGE (P = .05 were the only variables that modified the probability of a fatal outcome. Conclusion The association of elevated sRAGE with a fatal outcome suggests that it may have an independent causal effect in CAP. SOFA scores were the only clinical factor with the ability to identify surviving and ARDS patients.

  17. Viral infection is not uncommon in adult patients with severe hospital-acquired pneumonia.

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    Hyo-Lim Hong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Viral pathogens have not generally been regarded as important causes of severe hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP, except in patients with hematologic malignancy or transplant recipients. We investigated the role and distribution of viruses in adult with severe HAP who required intensive care. METHODS: From March 2010 to February 2012, adult patients with severe HAP required admission to the intensive care unit (ICU, 28-bed medical ICU in a tertiary care hospital, were prospectively enrolled. Respiratory viruses were detected using multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and/or shell vial culture. RESULTS: A total of 262 patients were enrolled and 107 patients (40.8% underwent bronchoscopic BAL for etiologic diagnosis. One hundred and fifty-six patients (59.5% had bacterial infections and 59 patients (22.5% had viral infections. Viruses were detected in BAL fluid specimens of 37 patients (62.7%, 37/59. The most commonly identified viruses were respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus (both 27.1%, 16/59, followed by rhinovirus (25.4%, 15/59, and influenza virus (16.9%, 10/59. Twenty-one patients (8.0%, 21/262 had bacterial-viral coinfections and Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly coexisting bacteria (n = 10. Viral infection in non-immunocompromised patients was not uncommon (11.1%, 16/143, although it was not as frequent as that in immunocompromised patients (36.4%, 43/119. Non-immunocompromised patients were significantly older than immunocompromised patients and had significantly higher rates of underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculous destroyed lung and chronic kidney disease. The 28 day mortalities of patients with bacterial infections, viral infections and bacterial-viral coinfections were not significantly different (29.5%, 35.6% and 19.0%, respectively; p = 0.321. CONCLUSIONS: Viral pathogens are not uncommon in adult patients with severe HAP who required ICU admission

  18. [Analysis of the efficiency of antimicrobial treatment for community-acquired pneumonia in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, O V; Ruina, O V; Kononova, S V; Konyshkina, T M

    To analyze actual drug consumption based on the defined daily dose (DDD analysis) and to analyze the utilization of drugs based on their proportion of the total defined daily doses (DU90% analysis) for the antimicrobial therapy of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in clinical practice at a hospital in Russia. The investigation materials were the data of 117 case histories of male (51.3%) and female (48.7%) patients hospitalized with CAP at Nizhny Novgorod City Clinical Hospital Five in 2015. The investigation enrolled all the patients admitted to the hospital over the analyzed period. DDD analysis and DU90% analysis were used as study methods. DDD analysis and DU90% analysis of antimicrobial therapy for CAP were carried out at the hospital in clinical practice during a year. The annual number of defined daily doses (NDDD) for antimicrobial drugs, the number of defined daily doses per 100 bed-days (NDDD/100 bed-days), and a drug load (g) per 1000 CAP patients per day and per CAP patient per year were determined. The largest NDDD/year for CAP treatment with ceftriaxone was 376 g, or 43.43 NDDD/100 bed-days, which is much higher than that with other antimicrobial agents. The daily drug load of ceftriaxone per 1,000 CAP patients was 8.8 g, which exceeds that of moxifloxacin by 18.7 times, azithromycin and levofloxacin by 5 times, and ampicillin/sulbactam by 2.3 times. The daily drug load of ceftriaxone per CAP patient was 3.2 g, which exceeds that of of ampicillin/sulbactam by 2.3 times, levofloxacin and azithromycin by 5 times, and moxifloxacin by 19 times. It may be recommended that the proportion of cephalosporins as drugs that promote the rise of resistance in microbes and their production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases should be further limited, the proportion of penicillins be extended, and the administered ampicillin/sulbactam be added, for example, by amoxicillin/clavulanate. Penicillins contribute to the rise of resistance to a lesser degree, and the use

  19. Community-acquired necrotizing pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST30-SCCmecIVc-spat019-PVL positive in San Antonio de Areco, Argentina

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    Silvina Fernández

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is the first cause of skin and soft tissue infections, but can also produce severe diseases such as bacteremia, osteomyelitis and necrotizing pneumonia. Some S. aureus lineages have been described in cases of necrotizing pneumonia worldwide, usually in young, previously healthy patients. In this work, we describe a fatal case of necrotizing pneumonia due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus clone ST30-SCCmecIVc-spat019-PVL positive in an immunocompetent adult patient.

  20. IL-6 and TNF-α serum levels are associated with early death in community-acquired pneumonia patients

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    M.R. Bacci

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is amongst the leading causes of death worldwide. As inflammatory markers, cytokines can predict outcomes, if interpreted together with clinical data and scoring systems such as CURB-65, CRB, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of inflammatory biomarkers on the early mortality of hospitalized CAP patients. Twenty-seven CAP patients needing hospitalization were enrolled for the study and samples of interleukin-1 (IL-1 and interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, C-reactive protein (CRP, and homocystein were collected at the time of admission (day 1 as well as on the seventh day of the treatment. There was a significant reduction in the levels of IL-6 between the first and the second collections. Median IL-6 values decreased from 24 pg/mL (day 1 to 8 pg/mL (day 7 (P=0.016. The median levels of TNF-α were higher in patients: i with acute kidney injury (AKI (P=0.045, ii requiring mechanical ventilation (P=0.040, iii with short hospital stays (P=0.009, iv admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU (P=0.040, v who died early (P=0.003, and vi with worse CRB scores (P=0.013. In summary, IL-6 and TNF-α levels were associated with early mortality of CAP patients. Longer admission levels demonstrated greater likelihood of early death and overall mortality, necessity of mechanical ventilation, and AKI.

  1. IL-6 and TNF-α serum levels are associated with early death in community-acquired pneumonia patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacci, M.R.; Leme, R.C.P.; Zing, N.P.C. [Departamento de Cliníca Médica, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Murad, N. [Departamento de Cardiologia, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Adami, F.; Hinnig, P.F. [Departamento de Cliníca Médica, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Feder, D. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Chagas, A.C.P. [Departamento de Cardiologia, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, F.L.A. [Departamento de Cliníca Médica, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-24

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is amongst the leading causes of death worldwide. As inflammatory markers, cytokines can predict outcomes, if interpreted together with clinical data and scoring systems such as CURB-65, CRB, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II). The aim of this study was to determine the impact of inflammatory biomarkers on the early mortality of hospitalized CAP patients. Twenty-seven CAP patients needing hospitalization were enrolled for the study and samples of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), and homocystein were collected at the time of admission (day 1) as well as on the seventh day of the treatment. There was a significant reduction in the levels of IL-6 between the first and the second collections. Median IL-6 values decreased from 24 pg/mL (day 1) to 8 pg/mL (day 7) (P=0.016). The median levels of TNF-α were higher in patients: i) with acute kidney injury (AKI) (P=0.045), ii) requiring mechanical ventilation (P=0.040), iii) with short hospital stays (P=0.009), iv) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (P=0.040), v) who died early (P=0.003), and vi) with worse CRB scores (P=0.013). In summary, IL-6 and TNF-α levels were associated with early mortality of CAP patients. Longer admission levels demonstrated greater likelihood of early death and overall mortality, necessity of mechanical ventilation, and AKI.

  2. An Update on Aerosolized Antibiotics for Treating Hospital-Acquired and Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, G Christopher; Swanson, Joseph M

    2017-12-01

    A significant percentage of patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) have poor outcomes with intravenous antibiotics. It is not clear if adding aerosolized antibiotics improves treatment. This review is an update on using aerosolized antibiotics for treating HAP/VAP in adults. PubMed search using the terms "aerosolized antibiotics pneumonia," "nebulized antibiotics pneumonia," and "inhaled antibiotics pneumonia." Reference lists from identified articles were also searched. Clinical studies of aerosolized antibiotics for treating HAP/VAP in adults from July 2010 to March 2017. This article updates a previous review on this topic written in mid-2010. The size and quality of studies have improved dramatically in the recent time period compared to previous studies. However, there still are not large randomized controlled trials available. Colistin and aminoglycosides were the most commonly studied agents, and the most common pathogens were Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. The clinical efficacy of adding aerosolized antibiotics was mixed. Approximately half of the studies showed better outcomes, and none showed worse outcomes. Aerosolized antibiotics appear to be relatively safe, though pulmonary adverse events can occur. Attention to proper administration technique in mechanically ventilated patients is required, including the use of vibrating plate nebulizers. Adding aerosolized antibiotics to intravenous antibiotics may improve the outcomes of adult patients with HAP/VAP in some settings. It seems reasonable to add aerosolized antibiotics in patients with multidrug-resistant organisms or who appear to be failing therapy. Clinicians should pay attention to potential adverse events and proper administration technique.

  3. Influence of socioeconomic status on community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in elderly patients requiring hospitalization: a multicenter observational study

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    Carratalà Jordi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The associations between socioeconomic status and community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in adults have been studied although studies did not always document a relationship. The aim of this multicenter observational study was to determine the association between socioeconomic status and community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in the elderly, in the context of a public health system providing universal free care to the whole population. Methods A total of 651 patients aged ≥65 years hospitalized due to community-acquired pneumonia through the emergency departments of five Spanish public hospitals were recruited and followed up between May 2005 and January 2007. The primary outcomes studied were: length of stay, intensive care unit admission, overall mortality and readmission. Socioeconomic status was measured using both individual and community data: occupation [categorized in six social groups (I, II, III, IVa, IVb and V], educational level (≤ primary level or ≥ secondary level and disposable family income of the municipality or district of residence [>12,500 € (high municipality family income and ≤12,500 € (low municipality family income]. The six social groups were further categorized as upper/middle social class (groups I-IVb and lower class (group V. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. OR and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. All statistical tests were two tailed and statistical significance was established as p Results 17.7% of patients lived in a municipality or district with a high municipality family income and 63.6% were upper/middle social class (I-IVb. Only 15.7% of patients had a secondary education. The adjusted analysis showed no association between pneumonia outcomes and social class, educational level or municipality family income. However, length of stay increased significantly in patients in whom the factors, living alone and being a smoker or ex-smoker coincided (p

  4. Comparative effectiveness of ceftriaxone in combination with a macrolide compared with ceftriaxone alone for pediatric patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyenaar, Joanna K; Shieh, Meng-Shiou; Lagu, Tara; Pekow, Penelope S; Lindenauer, Peter K

    2014-04-01

    Guidelines for management of community-acquired pneumonia recommend empiric therapy with a macrolide and beta-lactam when infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a significant consideration. Evidence to support this recommendation is limited. We sought to determine the effectiveness of ceftriaxone alone compared with ceftriaxone combined with a macrolide with respect to length of stay and total hospital costs. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children 1-17 years with pneumonia, using Poisson regression and propensity score analyses to assess associations between antibiotic and length of stay. Multivariable linear regression and propensity score analyses were used to assess log-treatment costs, adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics and initial tests and therapies. A total of 4701 children received combination therapy and 8892 received ceftriaxone alone. Among children 1-4 years of age, adjusted models revealed no significant difference in length of stay, with significantly higher costs in the combination therapy group [cost ratio: 1.08 (95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.11)]. Among children 5-17 years of age, children receiving combination therapy had a shorter length of stay [relative risk: 0.95 (95% confidence interval: 0.92-0.98)], with no significant difference in costs [cost ratio: 1.01 (95% confidence interval: 0.98-1.04)]. Combination therapy did not appear to benefit preschool children but was associated with higher costs. Among school-aged children, combination therapy was associated with a shorter length of stay without a significant impact on cost. Development of sensitive point-of-care diagnostic tests to identify children with M. pneumoniae infection may allow for more focused prescription of macrolides and enable comparative effectiveness studies of targeted provision of combination therapy.

  5. Impact of Preceding Flu-Like Illness on the Serotype Distribution of Pneumococcal Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Joon Young Song; Nahm, Moon H.; Hee Jin Cheong; Woo Joo Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background Even though the pathogenicity and invasiveness of pneumococcus largely depend on capsular types, the impact of serotypes on post-viral pneumococcal pneumonia is unknown. Methods and Findings This study was performed to evaluate the impact of capsular serotypes on the development of pneumococcal pneumonia after preceding respiratory viral infections. Patients with a diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia were identified. Pneumonia patients were divided into two groups (post-viral pneum...

  6. Emergence and Dissemination of ST131 Escherichia coli Isolates Among Patients with Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia in Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Min Kyeong; Kang, Cheol-In; Kim, So Hyun; Thamlikitkul, Visanu; So, Thomas Man-Kit; Ha, Young Eun; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the molecular epidemiology and microbiological characteristics of 51 Escherichia coli isolates causing hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) in eight Asian areas. Sequence type 131 (ST131) was the most prevalent among E. coli isolates causing HAP, especially in South Korea, Thailand, and the Philippines. The current study showed that CTX-M-15-producing E. coli ST131 has emerged in and disseminated among patients with HAP in Asia. Our data suggest that this pandemic clone poses an important public health threat even in nosocomial infections.

  7. Clinical presentation and diagnostic workup for community-acquired pneumonia: the Gulf Corporation Council CAP Working Group consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memish, Z A; Arabi, Y M; Ahmed, Q A; Al Jahdali, H; Shibl, A M; Niederman, M S

    2007-10-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is diagnosed on the basis of a suggestive history and compatible physical findings and new infiltrates on a chest radiograph. No criteria or combination of criteria based on history and physical examination have been found to be gold standard. With the rise in elderly Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) residents, CAP is likely to present with non-classical manifestations such as somnolence, new anorexia, and confusion and carries a worse outcome than CAP in their younger counterparts. Tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unresolving CAP in the GCC region. Diagnostic work up depends on severity of CAP, clinical course and underlying risk factors.

  8. Independent radiographic prognostic factors in patients with hospital-treated community-acquired pneumonia; Unabhaengige radiologische Prognosefaktoren fuer den letalen Ausgang stationaer behandlungsbeduerftiger ambulant erworbener Pneumonien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, K.; Textor, J.; Schild, H. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik; Ewig, S.; Luederitz, B. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Medizinische Poliklinik; Krollmann, G. 1

    1999-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the independent prognostic impact of the chest radiograph for mortality from community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization. Methods: Chest radiographs of 67 patients with hospital-treated community-acquired pneumonia were analyzed with regard to the prognostic implications of radiographic patterns, extent and density of infiltrates, and its evolution during treatment. Results: Non-survivors had a significantly higher extent of infiltrates (p=0.008), density of infiltrates (p=0.05), and radiographic spread during follow-up within 48-72 hours (p=0.0001). In multivariate analysis, persistent or progressive infiltrates were associated with a 47fold increase, and persistent or progressive density of infiltrates with an 18fold increase in risk of mortality. The presence of both parameters could correctly predict 96% of survivors and 90% of non-survivors. Conclusions: The chest radiograph is an independent predictor of the severity of pneumonia. Both persistent or progressive infiltrates and persistent or progressive density of infiltrates are independently associated with mortality from community-acquired pneumonia. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Evaluierung der Thoraxuebersichtsaufnahme als unabhaengiger prognostischer Marker fuer den letalen Ausgang der ambulant erworbenen Pneumonie. Material und Methoden: Die Roentgenaufnahmen von 67 Patienten mit stationaer behandlungbeduerftiger ambulant erworbener Pneumonie wurden hinsichtlich der prognostischen Bedeutung von Infiltratmuster, Infiltratgroesse, Infiltratdichte sowie deren Veraenderungen im Krankheitsverlauf in uni- und multivariater Analyse untersucht. Ergebnisse: Fuer die Gruppe der Verstorbenen ergaben sich signifikant hoehere Mittelwerte bei der Infiltratgroesse (p=0,008), der Infiltratdichte (p=0,05) sowie der prozentualen Infiltrat-Groessenzunahme (p=0,0001) im Verlaufsroentgenbild (48-72 Stunden nach Erstaufnahme). In multivariater Analyse waren gleichbleibende oder zunehmende

  9. Pattern of community and hospital acquired pneumonia in Egyptian military hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Mohammad Khalil

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed that Gram positive organisms were the most prevalent in CAP especially Streptococcus pneumonia followed by Staphylococcus aureus, while Klebsiella was the most prevalent Gram negative organism. On the other hand our study showed that Gram negative organisms were the most prevalent in HAP especially Klebsiella followed by Pseudomonas aerginosa, while Staphylococcus haemolyticus was the most prevalent Gram positive organism.

  10. pneumoniae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    similar design has recently been published.9 This study reports the causes, risk factors and prognostic indicators in a population from the Kenya coast with similar characteristics to that in southern Malawi and allows us to predict the likely significance of pneumococcal disease in pneumonia patients in Blantyre.

  11. High incidence of community-acquired pneumonia among rapidly aging population in Japan: a prospective hospital-based surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Masahiro; Nakama, Takahiro; Ishida, Masayuki; Morimoto, Hitomi; Nagasaki, Yuka; Shiramizu, Rina; Hamashige, Naohisa; Chikamori, Masayuki; Yoshida, Laymyint; Ariyoshi, Koya; Suzuki, Motoi; Morimoto, Konosuke

    2014-01-01

    The age-group-specific incidence and etiological patterns of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) have not been fully established in Japan. A 2-year prospective surveillance was conducted in Kochi city, Western Japan. All CAP patients aged ≥15 years who visited a community-based hospital were enrolled in the study. Clinical samples were examined by conventional bacterial culture and urinary antigen tests, and 6 bacterial pathogens and 16 respiratory viruses were identified from sputum samples by multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays. The age-group-specific incidence of CAP was estimated using a population-based data set of the total number of outpatients in the whole city. Ninety of the 131 enrolled patients, 68.7% were positive for respiratory pathogens. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the leading bacterial pathogen identified (28.2%). Respiratory viruses were identified in 36 patients (27.5%), and human entero-rhinovirus was the most common (13.3%) among them. The estimated overall incidence of adult CAP in Kochi was 9.6 per 1,000 person-years (PY); the estimated age group-specific incidence was 3.4, 10.7, and 42.9 per 1,000 PY for those aged 15-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years, respectively. The high incidence of CAP in these rural city of Japan, probably reflects the substantial aged population. S. pneumoniae and respiratory viruses play important roles in CAP in all age groups.

  12. Community-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa-pneumonia in a previously healthy man occupationally exposed to metalworking fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Peixoto Ferraz de Campos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is well known and frequently found in hospitals and nursing care facilities, many cases are also reported outside these boundaries. In general, this pathogen infects debilitated patients either by comorbidities or by any form of immunodeficiency. In cases of respiratory infection, tobacco abuse seems to play an important role as a risk factor. In previously healthy patients, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP with P. aeruginosa as the etiological agent is extremely rare, and unlike the cases involving immunocompromised or hospitalized patients, the outcome is severe, and is fatal in up to 61.1% of cases. Aerosolized contaminated water or solutions are closely linked to the development of respiratory tract infection. In this setting, metalworking fluids used in factories may be implicated in CAP involving previously healthy people. The authors report the case of a middle-aged man who worked in a metalworking factory and presented a right upper lobar pneumonia with a rapid fatal outcome. P. aeruginosa was cultured from blood and tracheal aspirates. The autopsy findings confirmed a hemorrhagic necrotizing pneumonia with bacteria-invading vasculitis and thrombosis. A culture of the metalworking fluid of the factory was also positive for P. aeruginosa. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that both strains (blood culture and metalworking fluid were genetically indistinguishable. The authors highlight the occupational risk for the development of this P. aeruginosa-infection in healthy people.

  13. The Impact of Hospital-Acquired Conditions on Medicare..

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in The Impact of Hospital-Acquired Conditions on Medicare Program Payments, published in Volume 4, Issue 4 of the Medicare and...

  14. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of severe community-acquired pneumonia in children after introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima EJF

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo JF Lima,1,2 Maria JG Mello,1,2 Maria FPM Albuquerque,3 Maria IL Lopes,4 George HC Serra,2 Maria AZ Abreu-Lima,2 Jailson B Correia1 1Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira - IMIP Recife; 2Faculdade, Pernambucana de Saúde - FPS Recife; 3Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, FIOCRUZ; 4Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco - UFPE, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil Background: Pneumonia is an important cause of morbimortality in Brazil, despite the extensive vaccination coverage and the socioeconomic improvement in the past years. Objective: To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of severe community-acquired pneumonia in children after the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10. Methods: A prospective study included children <5 years old hospitalized for pneumonia between October 2010 and September 2013 in a tertiary hospital. Newborns and children with comorbidities were excluded. Pneumonia classification followed the clinical and radiological criteria established by World Health Organization (WHO. Clinical history, nutritional status, immunizations, diagnosis, disease course, and prognosis were analyzed. Results: Among 452 children, almost 70% were <2 years, with no sex differences, and 10% had weight-for-age z score below than -2.0. Family income was up to one minimum wage in half the households, and 40% of mothers had completed high school. The suitability of both influenza and PCV10 vaccine schedules was ~50%. The first medical care happened later than 72 hours after the onset of symptoms in 42% of cases. Pneumonia was classified as severe or very severe in 83.9% of patients and for 23% as complicated. Global mortality was 1.5%. Hypoxia, diagnosed in 51.5% of children, looked like a better prognosis predictor than the WHO classification. Conclusion: New strategies for health care are necessary, such as the incorporation of peripheral saturometry as the

  15. [Diagnostic and prognostic power of biomarkers to improve the management of community acquired pneumonia in the emergency department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián-Jiménez, Agustín; Timón Zapata, Jesús; Laserna Mendieta, Emilio José; Sicilia-Bravo, Isabel; Palomo-de Los Reyes, María José; Cabezas-Martínez, Angeles; Laín-Terés, Natividad; Estebaran-Martín, Josefa; Lozano-Ancín, Agustín; Cuena-Boy, Rafael

    2014-04-01

    To analyse the usefulness and performance of several biomarkers [C-reactive protein (CRP), mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM), procalcitonin (PCT)] and lactate in predicting short- and medium-term mortality compared with the prognostic severity scales (PSS) usually employed for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in assessing the aetiological suspicion of infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae and bacteraemia. Observational, prospective and analytical study was conducted on patients who were diagnosed with CAP in our emergency department (ED). The data collected included socio-demographic and comorbidity variables, Charlson index, priority level according to the Spanish Triage System (STS), stage in the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) and in the CURB-65 (confusion, urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure and age ≥65years), criteria of severe CAP, microbiological studies, and biomarkers determinations. The patients were followed-up for 180days to calculate the prognostic power and the diagnostic performance for bacteraemia and aetiology. A total of 127patients were finally enrolled in the study. The 30-day mortality was 10.3% (13), and 22.6% (28) at 180 days. Blood cultures were positive in 29 patients (23%) and S.pneumoniae was identified as the responsible pathogen in 28 cases (22.2%). The area under the ROC curve (AUC-ROC) for lactate and MR-proADM to predict 30-day mortality was 0.898 (95%CI: 0.824-0.973; P0.85ng/ml, the NPV and the LR+ were 96.6% and 5.89%, respectively, to predict a S.pneumoniae infection. MR-proADM and lactate showed a similar or even better performance for 30-day intra-hospital mortality than PSI, CURB-65, STS and CAP severity criteria in patients diagnosed with CAP (P>.05). Furthermore, the MR-proADM capacity to predict 180-day mortality was higher than PSS and the rest of biomarkers (P>.05), and its AUC-ROC increased if it was used in combination with PSI, CURB65 and STS. The determination of PCT has a remarkable diagnostic

  16. [Urinary pneumococcal or Legionella antigen detection tests and low-spectrum antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, P-M; Risso, K; Hyvernat, H; Landraud, L; Vassallo, M; Dellamonica, J; de Salvador, F; Cua, E; Bernardin, G

    2010-06-01

    We performed urinary antigen tests for pneumococcus and Legionella for patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), to prescribe a documented antibiotic therapy. We report the efficiency of low-spectrum antibiotic treatment, illustrating the inappropriateness of bacteriological respiratory sampling. Patients with CAP were enrolled from three different units; the pneumonia severity index was used to assess the disease. Respiratory samples were also listed. Low-spectrum antibiotic therapy was amoxicillin for pneumococcal infection, and macrolides or non-anti-pneumococcal fluoroquinolone for legionellosis. Six hundred and seventy-five CAP were diagnosed during the study period,, 150 with positive urinary antigen tests (23%), among which 108 pneumococcal infections (73%), 40 legionellosis (26%), and two mixed infections. The pneumonia severity index was 106+/-38. Amoxicillin was prescribed in 108 cases, fluoroquinolone in 24 cases, macrolide in 18 cases. The outcome was favourable for 138 patients (92%). Eighty three respiratory samples allowed identification of a bacterium for 58 patients (39%), among which 24 strains were not in the antibiotic spectrum: Haemophilus influenzae and Pseudmomonas aeruginosa in six cases, Staphylococcus aureus in five cases, Klebsiella pneumoniae in two cases, and another Gram negative bacillus in five cases. These strains were resistant in vitro to the prescribed treatment in 19/24 cases (79%). One out of 12 patients who died had a respiratory sample positive for Enterobacter spp strain resistant to the ongoing antibiotic treatment. The low-spectrum antibiotic therapy based on urinary antigen tests is efficient, and demonstrates respiratory tract colonisation with bacteriological strains usually considered as pathogenic.

  17. The impact of benzodiazepines on occurrence of pneumonia and mortality from pneumonia: a nested case-control and survival analysis in a population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiora, Eneanya; Hubbard, Richard; Sanders, Robert D; Myles, Puja R

    2013-02-01

    Benzodiazepines have been associated with an increased incidence of infections, and mortality from sepsis, in the critically ill. Here, we determined the effect of community use of benzodiazepines on the occurrence of, and mortality following, pneumonia. A nested case-control study using 29 697 controls and 4964 cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) from The Health Improvement Network, a UK primary care patient database (2001-2002), investigated the association between benzodiazepines and pneumonia occurrence using conditional logistic regression. Cox regression was then used to determine the impact of benzodiazepines on mortality in the 4964 cases of CAP. Results are presented as adjusted OR, adjusted HR and 95% CI. Exposure to benzodiazepines was associated with an increased risk of pneumonia (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.42 to 1.67). Individually diazepam, lorazepam and temazepam, but not chlordiazepoxide, were associated with an increased incidence of CAP. As a class, benzodiazepines were associated with increased 30-day (HR 1.22 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.39)) and long-term mortality (HR 1.32 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.47)) in patients with a prior diagnosis of CAP. Individually diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam and temazepam affected long-term mortality in these patients. Benzodiazepines were associated with an increased risk of, and mortality from, CAP. These hypothesis generating data suggest further research is required into the immune safety profile of benzodiazepines.

  18. Failure of CRP decline within three days of hospitalization is associated with poor prognosis of Community-acquired Pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Bang; Baunbæk Egelund, Gertrud Louise; Jensen, Andreas Vestergaard

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-known acute phase protein used to monitor the patient's response during treatment in infectious diseases. Mortality from Community-acquired Pneumonia (CAP) remains high, particularly in hospitalized patients. Better risk prediction during hospitaliza......BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-known acute phase protein used to monitor the patient's response during treatment in infectious diseases. Mortality from Community-acquired Pneumonia (CAP) remains high, particularly in hospitalized patients. Better risk prediction during....... Predictive associations of CRP3 (absolute levels and relative decline) and 30 days mortality were analysed using receiver operating characteristics and logistic regression. RESULTS: Eight hundred and fourteen patients were included and 90 (11%) died within 30 days. The area under the curve for CRP3 level...... and decline for predicting 30 days mortality were 0.64 (0.57-0.70) and 0.71 (0.65-0.76). Risk of death was increased in patients with CRP3 level >75 mg/l (OR 2.44; 95%CI 1.36-4.37) and in patients with a CRP3 decline

  19. The incidence rate and economic burden of community-acquired pneumonia in a working-age population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broulette, Jonah; Yu, Holly; Pyenson, Bruce; Iwasaki, Kosuke; Sato, Reiko

    2013-09-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is frequently associated with the very young and the elderly but is a largely underrecognized burden among working-age adults. Although the burden of CAP among the elderly has been established, there are limited data on the economic burden of CAP in the employed population. To assess the economic impact of CAP in US working-age adults from an employer perspective by estimating the incidence rate and costs of healthcare, sick time, and short-term disability for this patient population. This retrospective cohort study is based on data from 2 Truven Health Analytics databases. The study population consisted of commercially insured active employees aged 18 to 64 years, early retirees aged Descriptive statistics were used to compare healthcare (ie, medical and pharmacy) costs, sick time, and short-term disability costs between the cohorts with and without CAP. Linear regression was used to estimate the average annual incremental healthcare cost in employed patients with inpatient or outpatient CAP versus individuals without CAP. Study eligibility was met by 12,502,017 employed individuals, including 123,920 with CAP and 12,378,097 without CAP; the overall incidence rate of CAP was 10.6 per 1000 person-years. Among individuals with and without CAP, the costs of healthcare, sick time, and short-term disability increased with advancing age and with higher risk status. The mean annual healthcare costs were $20,961 for patients with CAP and $3783 for individuals without CAP. Overall, the mean costs of sick time and short-term disability were $1129 and $1016, respectively, in active employees with CAP, and $853 and $322, respectively, in their counterparts without CAP. Compared with individuals without CAP, the average annual incremental healthcare cost ranged from $39,889 to $113,837 for inpatient management of patients with CAP and from $4170 to $31,524 for outpatient management of patients with CAP, depending on the risk level. CAP is a

  20. THE METABOLIC ACTIVITY OF THE MICROFLORA OF THE OROPHARYNX IN CHILDREN WITH BRONCHITIS AND COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Medvedeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given a steady increase in the number of children with recurrent  respiratory tract infections, to develop methods of their rehabilitation, it is necessary to evaluate  factors of nonspecific resistance. Aim: To study metabolic activity of oropharyngeal microflora in children  with recurrent bronchitis and community-acquired pneumonia, based on determination of spectrum  of shortchain fatty acids (SCFA. Materials and methods: This prospective  study included  60 children with recurrent  respiratory  tract  infections  aged  from 3 to 7 years, hospitalized  for inpatient  treatment of bronchitis  (n = 30 and pneumonia (n = 30. The oropharyngeal microflora was assessed by classical bacteriological  method (in mucosal smears; SCFA levels in non-stimulated saliva were measured by gas liquid chromatography. Results: There was no significant difference  in qualitative  and  quantitative composition  of the oropharyngeal microflora between children  with  bronchitis  and  pneumonia. However, assessment of metabolic  functions showed some significant differences. Children with   bronchitis  showed  signs of microflora hyperactivation  with total  SCFA production up  to  118.4% (mean from that of the reference range, with predominant activation of aerobic bacteria (anaerobic index 66.8%. In children with pneumonia, microflora was suppressed (68.13% of the normal range, the difference with the bronchitis group being significant, p < 0.05, with predominance of strictly anaerobic  bacteria (anaerobic index 110.35% from the normal range, p < 0.05. Children with recurrent respiratory tract infections had the following common characteristics: prevalence  of bacterial proteolysis (70% of patients and butyric acid deficiency (63% from the normal level in bronchitis and 33%, in pneumonia, p > 0.05. Conclusion: The data obtained could be used to make a decision on the necessity of antibacterial therapy.

  1. Comparative Outcome Analysis of Penicillin-Based Versus Fluoroquinolone-Based Antibiotic Therapy for Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi-Chuan; Lin, Chia-Hui; Lin, Kuan-Yin; Chuang, Yu-Chung; Sheng, Wang-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common but potentially life-threatening condition, but limited information exists on the effectiveness of fluoroquinolones compared to β-lactams in outpatient settings. We aimed to compare the effectiveness and outcomes of penicillins versus respiratory fluoroquinolones for CAP at outpatient clinics. This was a claim-based retrospective cohort study. Patients aged 20 years or older with at least 1 new pneumonia treatment episode were included, and the index penicillin or respiratory fluoroquinolone therapies for a pneumonia episode were at least 5 days in duration. The 2 groups were matched by propensity scores. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare the rates of hospitalizations/emergence service visits and 30-day mortality. A logistic model was used to compare the likelihood of treatment failure between the 2 groups. After propensity score matching, 2622 matched pairs were included in the final model. The likelihood of treatment failure of fluoroquinolone-based therapy was lower than that of penicillin-based therapy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.88; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 0.77–0.99), but no differences were found in hospitalization/emergence service (ES) visits (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; 95% CI, 0.92–1.74) and 30-day mortality (adjusted HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.30–1.62) between the 2 groups. The likelihood of treatment failure of fluoroquinolone-based therapy was lower than that of penicillin-based therapy for CAP on an outpatient clinic basis. However, this effect may be marginal. Further investigation into the comparative effectiveness of these 2 treatment options is warranted. PMID:26871827

  2. Identification of pathogens by comprehensive real-time PCR versus conventional methods in community-acquired pneumonia in Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Yutaka; Shimizu, Kenichiro; Morozumi, Miyuki; Chiba, Naoko; Ubukata, Kimiko; Uruga, Hironori; Hanada, Shigeo; Wakui, Hiroshi; Ito, Saburo; Takasaka, Naoki; Minagawa, Shunsuke; Kojima, Jun; Numata, Takanori; Hara, Hiromichi; Kawaishi, Makoto; Saito, Keisuke; Araya, Jun; Kaneko, Yumi; Nakayama, Katsutoshi; Kishi, Kazuma; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has high morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, the pathogen detection rate using conventional culture methods is relatively low. We compared comprehensive real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) analysis of nasopharyngeal swab specimens (NPS) and sputum samples against conventional methods for ability to detect causative pathogens of CAP. We prospectively enrolled adult CAP patients, including those with prior antibiotic use, from December 2012 to May 2014. For each patient, causative pathogens were investigated conventionally and by real-time PCR that can identify 6 bacterial and 11 viral pathogens. Patients numbered 92 (mean age, 63 years; 59 male), including 30 (33%) with prior antibiotic use. Considering all patients, identification of causative pathogens by real-time PCR was significantly more frequent than by conventional methods in all patients (72% vs. 57%, p = 0.018). In patients with prior antibiotic use, identification rates also differed significantly (PCR, 77%; conventional, 50%; p = 0.027). Mixed infections were more frequent according to real-time PCR than conventional methods (26% vs. 4%, p real-time PCR, Streptococcus pneumoniae was most frequently identified (38%) as a causative pathogen, followed by Haemophilus influenzae (37%) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (5%). PCR also identified viral pathogens (21%), with sensitivity enhanced by simultaneous examination of both NPS and sputum samples rather than only NPS samples. Real-time PCR of NPS and sputum samples could better identify bacterial and viral pathogens in CAP than conventional methods, both overall and in patients with prior antibiotic treatment.

  3. Neumonia adquirida en la comunidad en dos poblaciones hospitalarias Community-acquired pneumonia in patients from two different hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J. Caberlotto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron en forma prospectiva pacientes con diagnóstico de neumonía adquirida en la comunidad que acudieron a la consulta en un hospital general y en un centro especializado en medicina respiratoria ubicados en la provincia de Buenos Aires, y que requirieron internación. Se evaluaron la distribución por sexo y edad, las comorbilidades asociadas, los agentes etiológicos, su incidencia y la mortalidad. Se incluyeron 52 pacientes (marzo 1998-febrero 1999 del Hospital General de Agudos Manuel Belgrano (HMB y 23 pacientes (junio 2000-mayo 2001 del Hospital del Tórax Dr. Antonio A. Cetrángolo (HCET. Se excluyeron pacientes con tuberculosis o micosis pulmonar, neoplasia de pulmón y diagnóstico serológico para HIV. Se completó una historia clínica y se realizaron estudios microbiológicos para gérmenes comunes, virus respiratorios y micobacterias. Para el estudio de los agentes productores de neumonías atípicas (Chlamydia spp, Coxiella burnetii, Mycoplasma pneumoniae y Legionella spp. y como complemento del estudio virológico, se utilizaron pruebas serológicas. No se observaron diferencias por sexo y edad en los dos grupos. En el HMB las comorbilidades más frecuentes fueron EPOC, diabetes e insuficiencia cardíaca, en tanto que en el HCET fueron EPOC, asma y fibrosis pulmonar. Se obtuvo un diagnóstico microbiológico en el 48% y 65.2% de los pacientes para ambos grupos. Los agentes hallados más frecuentemente fueron Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, influenza A y Legionella spp, este último germen con una incidencia del 12% en pacientes que evolucionaron favorablemente y que en su mayoría pertenecían al HMB. La mortalidad fue similar para ambos grupos (13.3%. En el HMB estuvo relacionada con la existencia de comorbilidades en 7 de 8 casos y en el HCET con el agravamiento de la insuficiencia respiratoria crónica.Patients hospitalized with community acquired pneumonia were studied prospectively in two hospitals

  4. Community-acquired pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in critically-ill patients: systematic review

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    Nuria Carballo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Despite methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA having often been associated with nosocomial pneumonia, the condition of some MRSA CAP patients is severe enough to warrant their being admitted to ICU. Objective: The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature on antibiotic treatment of MRSA CAP in critically-ill patients. Material and methods: An online search was conducted for locating articles on MRSA CAP in critically ill patients. Relevant publications were identified in PUBMED, the BestPractice database, UpToDate database and the Cochrane Library for articles published in English within the December 2001 - April 2016 time frame. Results: A total of 70 articles were found to have been published, 13 (18.8% having been included and 57 (81.4% excluded. Cohort studies were predominant, having totaled 16 in number (20.7% as compared to one sole cross-sectional study (3.5%. Conclusions: The experience in the treatment of MRSA CAP in patients requiring admission to ICU is quite limited. Vancomycin or linezolid seem to be the treatments of choice for MRSA CAP, although there not be any specific recommendation in this regard. It may be useful to use alternative routes, such as administration via aerosolized antibiotics, continuous infusion or in association with other antibiotics.

  5. Plasma Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Level as a Predictor of the Severity of Community-Acquired Pneumonia

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    Kok-Khun Yong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1 increases in the serum of immunocompetent patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. However, the correlation between the circulating level of MCP-1 and severity of CAP remains unclear. This study investigated differential changes in the plasma MCP-1 levels of patients with CAP before and after an antibiotic treatment and further analyzes the association between the CAP severity and MCP-1 levels. We measured the plasma MCP-1 levels of 137 patients with CAP and 74 healthy controls by using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Upon initial hospitalization, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II; confusion, urea level, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and age of >64 years (CURB-65; and pneumonia severity index (PSI scores were determined for assessing the CAP severity in these patients. The antibiotic treatment reduced the number of white blood cells (WBCs and neutrophils as well as the level of C-reactive protein (CRP and MCP-1. The plasma MCP-1 level, but not the CRP level or WBC count, correlated with the CAP severity according to the PSI (r = 0.509, p < 0.001, CURB-65 (r = 0.468, p < 0.001, and APACHE II (r = 0.360, p < 0.001 scores. We concluded that MCP-1 levels act in the development of CAP and are involved in the severity of CAP.

  6. [Vaccination against community acquired pneumonia in adult patients. A position paper by Neumoexpertos en Prevención].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, E; Rivero, I; Vargas, D A; Mascarós, E; Díaz-Maroto, J L; Linares, M; Valdepérez, J; Gil, A; Molina, J; Jimeno, I; Ocaña, D; Martinón-Torres, F

    2016-10-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in adults. The annual incidence of CAP in adults in Spain ranges from 3 to 14 cases per 1,000 inhabitants. Current clinical guidelines primarily focus on the therapeutic approach to CAP rather than its prevention. The aim of this study is to develop and propose a practical guide for CAP prevention through vaccination in Spain according to available vaccines and evidence. A literature review and expert opinion. Pneumococcal and influenza vaccines are the main preventive tools available against CAP. Age, chronic diseases, and immunosuppression are risk factors for pneumonia, so these populations should be a priority for vaccination. In addition, influenza and pneumococcal vaccination is considered advisable in healthy adults under 60 years of age, and anyone with risk condition for CAP, irrespective of age. The influenza vaccine will be administered seasonally, while pneumococcal vaccination can be administered at any time of the year. Vaccination against pneumococcus and influenza in adults can help to reduce the burden of CAP and its associated complications. The available evidence supports the priority indications set out in this guide, and it would be advisable to try to achieve a wide circulation and practical implementation of these recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical response to ertapenem in severe community-acquired pneumonia: a retrospective series in an elderly population.

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    Murcia, J M; González-Comeche, J; Marín, A; Barberán, J; Granizo, J J; Aguilar, L; González-Moreno, J; González-Pina, B; López-Dupla, M; Irurzun, J

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate in routine hospital practice the clinical response to ertapenem in comparison with other parenteral antibiotics in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), clinical records from patients with severe CAP treated with ertapenem from July 2002 to June 2006 in seven Spanish hospitals were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were classified according to the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI). Each ertapenem-treated patient was matched with two patients in the same hospital treated with other antibiotics, according to age (difference 76 years). Comorbidities were present in 193 patients (95.5%). No differences were found in median hospital stay (7 days for ertapenem vs. 10 days for comparators, p 0.066). A slightly higher clinical response rate was obtained for ertapenem vs. comparators (88.7% vs. 77.1%; p 0.0465; OR 2.25; 95% CI 0.99-5.12), with significant differences in clinical response in patients coming from nursing homes (95.8% ertapenem vs. 63.8% comparators; p 0.0034) but not in non-institutionalized patients (85.4% ertapenem vs. 84.5% comparators; p 0.929). The higher clinical response to ertapenem vs. comparators in severe CAP was due to its significantly higher efficacy in healthcare-associated CAP in patients coming from nursing homes.

  8. Prevalence and clinical features of respiratory syncytial virus in children hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia in northern Brazil

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    Lamarão Letícia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood pneumonia and bronchiolitis is a leading cause of illness and death in young children worldwide with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV as the main viral cause. RSV has been associated with annual respiratory disease outbreaks and bacterial co-infection has also been reported. This study is the first RSV epidemiological study in young children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP in Belém city, Pará (Northern Brazil. Methods With the objective of determining the prevalence of RSV infection and evaluating the patients’ clinical and epidemiological features, we conducted a prospective study across eight hospitals from November 2006 to October 2007. In this study, 1,050 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples were obtained from hospitalized children up to the age of three years with CAP, and tested for RSV antigen by direct immunofluorescence assay and by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR for RSV Group identification. Results RSV infection was detected in 243 (23.1% children. The mean age of the RSV-positive group was lower than the RSV-negative group (12.1 months vs 15.5 months, pppppp Conclusion The present study highlights the relevance of RSV infection in hospitalized cases of CAP in our region; our findings warrant the conduct of further investigations which can help design strategies for controlling the disease.

  9. The Queensland experience of participation in a national drug use evaluation project, Community-Acquired Pneumonia Towards Improving Outcomes Nationally (CAPTION).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulver, Lisa K; Tett, Susan E; Coombes, Judith

    2009-08-03

    Multicentre drug use evaluations are described in the literature infrequently and usually publish only the results. The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience of Queensland hospitals participating in the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Towards Improving Outcomes Nationally (CAPTION) project, specifically evaluating the implementation of this project, detailing benefits and drawbacks of involvement in a national drug use evaluation program. Emergency departments from nine hospitals in Queensland, Australia, participated in CAPTION, a national quality improvement project, conducted in 37 Australian hospitals. CAPTION was aimed at optimising prescribing in the management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia according to the recommendations of the Australian Therapeutic Guidelines: Antibiotic 12th edition. The project involved data collection, and evaluation, feedback of results and a suite of targeted educational interventions including audit and feedback, group presentations and academic detailing.A baseline audit and two drug use evaluation cycles were conducted during the 2-year project. The implementation of the project was evaluated using feedback forms after each phase of the project (audit or intervention). At completion a group meeting with the hospital coordinators identified positive and negative elements of the project. Evaluation by hospitals of their participation in CAPTION demonstrated both benefits and drawbacks. The benefits were grouped into the impact on the hospital dynamic such as; improved interdisciplinary working relationships (e.g. between pharmacist and doctor), recognition of the educational/academic role of the pharmacist, creation of ED Pharmacist positions and enhanced involvement with the National Prescribing Service, and personal benefits. Personal benefits included academic detailing training for participants, improved communication skills and opportunities to present at conferences. The principal drawback of participation was the

  10. Influence of HIV infection on the clinical presentation and outcome of adults with acute community-acquired pneumonia in Yaounde, Cameroon: a retrospective hospital-based study

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    Yone Eric Walter

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of HIV infection on the evolution of acute community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate possible differences in the clinical presentation and in-hospital outcomes of patients with CAP with and without HIV infection in a specialised service in Yaounde. Methods Medical files of 106 patients (51 men aged 15 years and above, admitted to the Pneumology service of the Yaounde Jamot Hospital between January 2008 and May 2012, were retrospectively studied. Results Sixty-two (58.5% patients were HIV infected. The median age of all patients was 40 years (interquartile range: 31.75-53 and there was no difference in the clinical and radiological profile of patients with and without HIV infection. The median leukocyte count (interquartile range was 14,600/mm3 (10,900-20,600 and 10,450/mm3 (6,400-16,850 respectively in HIV negative and HIV positive patients (p = 0.002. Median haemoglobin level (interquartile range was 10.8 g/dl (8.9-12 in HIV negative and 9.7 g/dl (8–11.6 in HIV positive patients (p = 0.025. In-hospital treatment failure on third day (39.5% vs. 25.5.1%, p = 0.137 and mortality rates (9% vs. 14.5%, p = 0.401 were similar between HIV negative and HIV positive patients. Conclusion Clinical and radiological features as well as response to treatment and in hospital fatal outcomes are similar in adult patients hospitalised with acute community-acquired pneumonia in Yaounde. In contrast, HIV infected patients tend to be more anaemic and have lower white cell counts than HIV negative patients. Larger prospective studies are needed to consolidate these findings.

  11. Immunomodulatory activity of pidotimod administered with standard antibiotic therapy in children hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Garziano, Micaela; Rainone, Veronica; Trabattoni, Daria; Biasin, Mara; Senatore, Laura; Marchisio, Paola; Rossi, Marta; Principi, Nicola; Clerici, Mario

    2015-09-03

    Several attempts to improve immune function in young children have been made and encouraging results have been collected with pidotimod (PDT), a synthetic dipeptide molecule that seems to have immunomodulatory activity on both innate and adaptive responses. Until now, the effects of PDT on the immune system have only been studied in vivo after long-term administration to evaluate whether its immunomodulatory activity might prevent the development of infections. This study was planned to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of PDT administered together with standard antibiotic therapy in children hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). A total of 20 children hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) were randomized at a 1:1 ratio to receive either standard antibiotics plus pidotimod (PDT) or standard antibiotics alone to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of PDT. Blood samples for the evaluation of immunological parameters were drawn at the time of recruitment (T0) (i.e., before therapy administration), at T3 and T5 (i.e., 3 and 5 days after the initiation of therapy) as well as at T21 (i.e., 7 days after the therapy ended). Following pneumococcal polysaccharide stimulation, the percentage of dendritic cells (DCs) expressing activation and costimulatory molecules was significantly higher in children receiving PDT plus antibiotics than in the controls. A significant increase in tumor necrosis factor-α and/or interleukin-12 secretion and expression of toll like receptor 2 was observed in PDT-treated children compared with controls; this was followed by an increased release of proinflammatory cytokines by monocytes. In the PDT-treated group, mRNA expression of antimicrobial peptides and genes involved in the inflammatory response were also augmented in comparison with the controls. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that PDT administered together with standard antibiotics is associated with a favorable persistent

  12. Adherence with national guidelines in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia: results from the CAPO study in Venezuela.

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    Levy, Gur; Perez, Mario; Rodríguez, Benito; Hernández Voth, Ana; Perez, Jorge; Gnoni, Martin; Kelley, Robert; Wiemken, Timothy; Ramirez, Julio

    2015-04-01

    The Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization (CAPO) is an international observational study in 130 hospitals, with a total of 31 countries, to assess the current management of hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). 2 Using the centralized database of CAPO was decided to conduct this study with the aim of evaluate the level of adherence with national guidelines in Venezuela, to define in which areas an intervention may be necessary to improve the quality of care of hospitalized patients with CAP. In this observational retrospective study quality indicators were used to evaluate the management of hospitalized patients with CAP in 8 Venezuelan's centers. The care of the patients was evaluated in the areas of: hospitalization, oxygen therapy, empiric antibiotic therapy, switch therapy, etiological studies, blood cultures indication, and prevention. The compliance was rated as good (>90%), intermediate (60% to 90%), or low (total of 454 patients with CAP were enrolled. The empiric treatment administered within 8 hours of the patient arrival to the hospital was good (96%), but the rest of the indicators showed a low level of adherence (<60%). We can say that there are many areas in the management of CAP in Venezuela that are not performed according to the national guidelines of SOVETHORAX.1 In any quality improvement process the first step is to evaluate the difference between what is recommended and what is done in clinical practice. While this study meets this first step, the challenge for the future is to implement the processes necessary to improve the management of CAP in Venezuela. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Amoxicillin plus temocillin as an alternative empiric therapy for the treatment of severe hospital-acquired pneumonia: results from a retrospective audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habayeb, H; Sajin, B; Patel, K; Grundy, C; Al-Dujaili, A; Van de Velde, S

    2015-08-01

    A formulary decision was made at a large provider of acute hospital services in Surrey to replace piperacillin/tazobactam with amoxicillin+temocillin for the empiric treatment of severe hospital-acquired pneumonia. This decision was made because the use of broad-spectrum-β-lactam antibiotics is a known risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and for the selection of resistance. After the antibiotic formulary was changed, a retrospective audit was conducted to assess the effect of this change. Data from patients hospitalised between January 2011 and July 2012 for severe hospital-acquired pneumonia and treated empirically with piperacillin/tazobactam or amoxicillin+temocillin were reviewed retrospectively. Clinical characteristics of patients, data related to the episode of pneumonia, clinical success and incidence of significant diarrhoea and CDI were analysed. One hundred ninety-two episodes of severe hospital-acquired pneumonia in 188 patients were identified from hospital records. Ninety-eight patients received piperacillin/tazobactam and 94 amoxicillin+temocillin. At baseline, the two treatment groups were comparable, except that more patients with renal insufficiency were treated with piperacillin/tazobactam. Clinical success was comparable (80 versus 82 %; P = 0.86), but differences were observed between piperacillin/tazobactam and amoxicillin+temocillin for the rates of significant diarrhoea (34 versus 4 %, respectively; P amoxicillin+temocillin is a viable alternative to piperacillin/tazobactam for the treatment of severe hospital-acquired pneumonia. This combination appears to be associated with fewer gastrointestinal adverse events. Further studies are needed to evaluate the place of amoxicillin+temocillin as empiric treatment of severe hospital-acquired pneumonia.

  14. Clinical characteristics of Q fever and etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in a tropical region of southern Taiwan: a prospective observational study.

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    Chung-Hsu Lai

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of Q fever are poorly identified in the tropics. Fever with pneumonia or hepatitis are the dominant presentations of acute Q fever, which exhibits geographic variability. In southern Taiwan, which is located in a tropical region, the role of Q fever in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP has never been investigated.During the study period, May 2012 to April 2013, 166 cases of adult CAP and 15 cases of acute Q fever were prospectively investigated. Cultures of clinical specimens, urine antigen tests for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila, and paired serologic assessments for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Q fever (Coxiella burnetii were used for identifying pathogens associated with CAP. From April 2004 to April 2013 (the pre-study period, 122 cases of acute Q fever were also included retrospectively for analysis. The geographic distribution of Q fever and CAP cases was similar. Q fever cases were identified in warmer seasons and younger ages than CAP. Based on multivariate analysis, male gender, chills, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzymes were independent characteristics associated with Q fever. In patients with Q fever, 95% and 13.5% of cases presented with hepatitis and pneumonia, respectively. Twelve (7.2% cases of CAP were seropositive for C. burnetii antibodies, but none of them had acute Q fever. Among CAP cases, 22.9% had a CURB-65 score ≧2, and 45.8% had identifiable pathogens. Haemophilus parainfluenzae (14.5%, S. pneumoniae (6.6%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.8%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.0% were the most common pathogens identified by cultures or urine antigen tests. Moreover, M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, and co-infection with 2 pathogens accounted for 9.0%, 7.8%, and 1.8%, respectively.In southern Taiwan, Q fever is an endemic disease with hepatitis as the major presentation and is not a common etiology of CAP.

  15. Community‐acquired bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia in children: diagnosis and serotyping by real‐time polymerase chain reaction using blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resti, Massimo; Moriondo, Maria; Cortimiglia, Martina; Indolfi, Giuseppe; Canessa, Clementina; Becciolini, Laura; Bartolini, Elisa; de Benedictis, Fernando Maria; de Martino, Maurizio; Azzari, Chiara

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to use real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on blood samples to diagnose and serotype pneumococcal infection in a large cohort of Italian children hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia. We conducted an observational study from April 2007 through June 2009 of children aged 0-16 years with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia admitted to 83 pediatric hospitals in Italy. Seven hundred fifty-three children were studied. RT-PCR found pneumococcal infection in 80 (10.6%) of 753 patients. In 292 patients, culture and RT-PCR were simultaneously performed. Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified in 47 of 292 patients; 45 (15.4%) tested positive by RT-PCR and 11 (3.8%) tested positive by culture. RT-PCR was significantly more sensitive than culture in revealing bacteremic pneumonia (odds ratio, 30.6; 95% confidence interval, 5.8-97.5; P<.001). Complicated pneumonia was found in 162 (21.5%) of 753 children; 152 (93.8%) of these 162 had parapneumonic effusion, and 51 (33.6%) had empyema. Children with complicated pneumonia were significantly older. Pneumococcal bacteremia was found by RT-PCR to occur significantly more frequently in children with complications (38 [23.5%] of 162) than in children with uncomplicated pneumonia (44 [7.4%] of 591; odds ratio, 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.30-6.30; P<.001). RT-PCR allowed serotyping from blood in 92.5% of patients. More than two-thirds of the pneumonia cases were due to nonpneumococcal conjugate vaccine 7 serotypes. Serotype 1 was the most frequent serotype (26 [32.5%] of 80) and was significantly associated with complications (50.0% in patients with complicated pneumonia vs 18.2% in patients with uncomplicated pneumonia; odds ratio, 4.5, 95% confidence interval, 1.48-14.03; P=.005) and older age. Serotype 19A was second in frequency (15.0%) and was significantly associated with younger age. RT-PCR allows diagnosis and serotyping of pneumococcal bacteremic community-acquired

  16. Step-Down Antibiotic Therapy of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children with Burdened Allergologic History and Concomitant Allergic Pathology: Focus on Cefpodoxime Proxetil

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    Yu.V. Marushko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of cefpodoxime proxetil in children with community-acquired pneumonia is effective. In patients with burdened history of allergic events and concomitant allergic pathology, use of cefpodoxime proxetil does not cause allergic reactions or worsening of comorbid allergic disease and does not affect the level of total serum immunoglobulin E, indicating safety of the drug usage in such children.

  17. Cause-specific long-term mortality rates in patients recovered from community-acquired pneumonia as compared with the general Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruns, A. H. W.; Oosterheert, J. J.; Cucciolillo, M. C.; el Moussaoui, R.; Groenwold, R. H. H.; Prins, J. M.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.

    2011-01-01

    Insights into long-term mortality, especially into the cause of death after initial recovery from an episode of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), may help in determining optimal preventive measures in such patients. Prospective observational cohort studies were conducted to compare cause-specific

  18. How good is the evidence for the recommended empirical antimicrobial treatment of patients hospitalized because of community-acquired pneumonia? : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterheert, J J; Bonten, M J M; Hak, E; Schneider, M M E; Hoepelman, I M

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For years, monotherapy with a beta-lactam antibiotic (penicillin, amoxicillin or second-generation cephalosporin) was recommended as empirical therapy for patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). A combination of a beta-lactam and a macrolide antibiotic was only recommended for

  19. Long-term symptom recovery and health-related quality of life in patients with mild-to-moderate-severe community-acquired pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Moussaoui, Rachida; Opmeer, Brent C.; de Borgie, Corianne A. J. M.; Nieuwkerk, Pythia; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Speelman, Peter; Prins, Jan M.

    2006-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: The long-term outcomes of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in terms of symptom resolution and health-related quality of life (HRQL) is unknown. Our objective was to determine the rate of symptom resolution using validated patient-based outcome measures, and to

  20. The value of signs and symptoms in differentiating between bacterial, viral and mixed aetiology in patients with community-acquired pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijskens, Elisabeth G. W.; Koopmans, Marion; Palmen, Fernand M. H.; van Erkel, Adriana J. M.; Mulder, Paul G. H.; Rossen, John W. A.

    Current diagnostics for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) include testing for a wide range of pathogens, which is costly and not always informative. We compared clinical and laboratory parameters of patients with CAP caused by different groups of pathogens to evaluate the potential for targeted

  1. Prospective evaluation of clinical lung ultrasonography in the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia in a pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Frédéric; Gorostiza, Iñigo; González, Andrés; Landa, María; Ruiz, Lucía; Grau, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the applicability and utility of point-of-care lung ultrasonography (POCLUS) for the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in a pediatric emergency department. A prospective observational study on children with suspected CAP was carried out in a pediatric emergency department from August to December 2014. The evaluation of the chest radiography (CR) by two independent radiologists was considered as a reference standard. POCLUS was performed by pediatricians who were blinded to CR results. Following the WHO criteria, typical CAP was defined as an alveolar consolidation or infiltrate in CR and a visualization of lung consolidation with sonographic air bronchograms in POCLUS. The diagnostic accuracy of POCLUS (sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values) was established using CR as a gold standard. We enrolled 200 children with a median age of 29.5 months (interquartile range, 18.5-52.5); 58.1% were males and 42.0% had focal decreased breath sounds and/or crackles. The prevalence of typical CAP according to the radiologist's evaluation was 42.5% (end-point consolidation and/or pleural effusion 56.5%, alveolar infiltrate 43.5%). The sensitivity and specificity of POCLUS were 87.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 78.0-93.4] and 94.8% (95% CI 89.0-98.1), respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 92.5% (95% CI 84.4-97.2) and 90.8% (95% CI 84.2-95.3), respectively. POCLUS performed by an emergency pediatrician with a limited experience in ultrasonography enables the diagnosis of pneumonia with high accuracy. POCLUS could become a feasible and promising alternative to CR in the diagnosis of suspected CAP, leading to a relevant decrease in children's exposure to ionizing radiations. Further studies specifically carried out in the pediatric outpatient setting are needed.

  2. Community-acquired pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in critically-ill patients: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Nuria; De Antonio-Cuscó, Marta; Echeverría-Esnal, Daniel; Luque, Sonia; Salas, Esther; Grau, Santiago

    2017-03-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Despite methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) having often been associated with nosocomial pneumonia, the condition of some MRSA CAP patients is severe enough to warrant their being admitted to ICU. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature on antibiotic treatment of MRSA CAP in critically-ill patients. An online search was conducted for locating articles on MRSA CAP in critically ill patients. Relevant publications were identified in PUBMED, the BestPractice database, UpToDate database and the Cochrane Library for articles published in English within the December 2001 - April 2016 time frame. A total of 70 articles were found to have been published, 13 (18.8%) having been included and 57 (81.4%) excluded. Cohort studies were predominant, having totaled 16 in number (20.7%) as compared to one sole cross-sectional study (3.5%). The experience in the treatment of MRSA CAP in patients requiring admission to ICU is quite limited. Vancomycin or linezolid seem to be the treatments of choice for MRSA CAP, although there not be any specific recommendation in this regard. It may be useful to use alternative routes, such as administration via aerosolized antibiotics, continuous infusion or in association with other antibiotics. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. After-hours respiratory physiotherapy for intubated and mechanically ventilated patients with community-acquired pneumonia: An Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lee, Lisa; Hill, Anne-Marie; Patman, Shane

    2017-11-15

    Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common reason for admission to an intensive care unit for intubation and mechanical ventilation, and results in high morbidity and mortality. The primary aim of the study was to investigate availability and provision of respiratory physiotherapy, outside of normal business hours, for intubated and mechanically ventilated adults with CAP in Australian hospitals. A cross-sectional, mixed methods online survey was conducted. Participants were senior intensive care unit physiotherapists from 88 public and private hospitals. Main outcome measures included presence and nature of an after-hours physiotherapy service and factors perceived to influence the need for after-hours respiratory physiotherapy intervention, when the service was available, for intubated adult patients with CAP. Data were also collected regarding respiratory intervention provided after-hours by other ICU professionals. Response rate was 72% (n=75). An after-hours physiotherapy service was provided by n=31 (46%) hospitals and onsite after-hours physiotherapy presence was limited (22%), with a combination of onsite and on-call service reported by 19%. Treatment response (83%) was the most frequent factor for referring patients with CAP for after-hours physiotherapy intervention by the treating day-time physiotherapist. Nurses performing respiratory intervention (77%) was significantly associated with no available after-hours physiotherapy service (p=0.04). Physiotherapy after-hours service in Australia is limited, therefore it is common for intubated patients with CAP not to receive any respiratory physiotherapy intervention outside of normal business hours. In the absence of an after-hours physiotherapist, nurses were most likely to perform after-hours respiratory intervention to intubated patients with CAP. Further research is required to determine whether the frequency of respiratory physiotherapy intervention, including after-hours provision of treatment

  4. Respiratory viruses detected in Mexican children younger than 5 years old with community-acquired pneumonia: a national multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Chew, Rosa María; García-León, Miguel L; Noyola, Daniel E; Perez Gonzalez, Luis F; Gaitan Meza, Jesús; Vilaseñor-Sierra, Alberto; Martinez-Aguilar, Gerardo; Rivera-Nuñez, Victor Hugo; Newton-Sánchez, Oscar A; Firo-Reyes, Verónica; Del Río-Almendarez, Carlos N; González-Rodríguez, Alejandra Pamela; Ortiz-García, Enrique R; Navarrete-Navarro, Susana; Soria-Rodríguez, Carmen; Carrasco-Castillo, Adoniram; Sánchez-Medina, Eneida; López-Martínez, Irma; Hernández-Andrade, Teresa; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia M; Santos-Preciado, José I

    2017-09-01

    Acute respiratory infections are the leading cause of mortality in children worldwide, especially in developing countries. Pneumonia accounts for 16% of all deaths of children under 5 years of age and was the cause of death of 935000 children in 2015. Despite its frequency and severity, information regarding its etiology is limited. The aim of this study was to identify respiratory viruses associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children younger than 5 years old. One thousand four hundred and four children younger than 5 years of age with a clinical and/or radiological diagnosis of CAP in 11 hospitals in Mexico were included. Nasal washes were collected, placed in viral medium, and frozen at -70°C until processing. The first 832 samples were processed using the multiplex Bio-Plex/Luminex system and the remaining 572 samples using the Anyplex multiplex RT-PCR. Clinical data regarding diagnosis, clinical signs and symptoms, radiographic pattern, and risk factors were obtained and recorded. Of the samples tested, 81.6% were positive for viruses. Respiratory syncytial virus (types A and B) was found in 23.7%, human enterovirus/rhinovirus in 16.6%, metapneumovirus in 5.7%, parainfluenza virus (types 1-4) in 5.5%, influenza virus (types A and B) in 3.6%, adenovirus in 2.2%, coronavirus (NL63, OC43, 229E, and HKU1) in 2.2%, and bocavirus in 0.4%. Co-infection with two or more viruses was present in 22.1%; 18.4% of the samples were negative. Using biomass for cooking, daycare attendance, absence of breastfeeding, and co-infections were found to be statistically significant risk factors for the presence of severe pneumonia. Respiratory syncytial virus (types A and B), human enterovirus/rhinovirus, and metapneumovirus were the respiratory viruses identified most frequently in children younger than 5 years old with CAP. Co-infection was present in an important proportion of the children. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights

  5. Clinical effectiveness of exogenous L-arginine in patients with coronary heart disease after community-acquired pneumonia

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    T. O. Kulynych

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease and community acquired pneumonia associated with a higher risk for morbidity and mortality. The optimization of treatment of comorbid pathology by medicines which modify endothelium functional state is important. Aim: to study effect of exogenous L-arginine on clinical course of disease, markers of systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. Materials and methods. 60 patients with CHD and CAP (the median 72.50 years, range 66.00; 75.00 were included into the study. Patients were randomized in 2 groups: first – 30 patients with basic therapy combined with L-arginine; and second – 30 patients with basic therapy. hs-CRP, neopterin, РАРР-А, NT-proBNP were measured by ELISA-TEST before treatment and 1 month after. Clinical course was assessed during 1 year of follow-up. Results. In the first group the hospitalization rate due to CHD and heart failure decompensation was significantly rare. Biomarkers changes in the 1st group were significant: hs-CRP was significantly decreased by 57.14 % (in the 2nd group – by 28.57 %; neopterin – by 36.57 % (in the 2nd group – by 20.91 %; РАРР-А – by 35.71 % (in the 2nd group – by 4.76 %. There was revealed a significant decreasing of NT-proBNP levels in patients receiving L-arginine by comparing with basic therapy: with the I stage of heart failure (HF – by 50.97 % vs 21.82 %, with the II-A stage of HF – by 43.82 % vs 5.61 % (p < 0.05. After 1 month of therapy patients from the 1st group had significantly lower rates of neopterin – by 16.46 %, and NT-proBNP – by 40.92 % in the subgroup of patients with II-A stage of HF (p < 0.05 compared with patients who received only the basic therapy. Conclusions. Combination of exogenous L-arginine and basic therapy in patients with CHD and CAP was associated with benign clinical course and positive changes of endothelium functional

  6. Community-acquired pneumonia and survival of critically ill acute exacerbation of COPD patients in respiratory intensive care units

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    Lu ZW

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Zhiwei Lu,* Yusheng Cheng,* Xiongwen Tu, Liang Chen, Hu Chen, Jian Yang, Jinyan Wang, Liqin Zhang Department of Respiratory Medicine, Yijishan Hospital of Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: The aim of this study was to appraise the effect of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP on inhospital mortality in critically ill acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD patients admitted to a respiratory intensive care unit.Patients and methods: A retrospective observational study was performed. Consecutive critically ill AECOPD patients receiving treatment in a respiratory intensive care unit were reviewed from September 1, 2012, to August 31, 2015. Categorical variables were analyzed using chi-square tests, and continuous variables were analyzed by Mann–Whitney U-test. Kaplan–Meier analysis was used to assess the association of CAP with survival of critically ill AECOPD patients for univariate analysis. Cox’s proportional hazards regression model was performed to identify risk factors for multivariate analysis.Results: A total of 80 consecutive eligible individuals were reviewed. These included 38 patients with CAP and 42 patients without CAP. Patients with CAP had a higher inhospital rate of mortality than patients without CAP (42% vs 33.3%, P<0.05. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that patients with CAP had a worse survival rate than patients without CAP (P<0.05. Clinical characteristics, including Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II score, C-reactive protein, and CAP, were found to be closely associated with survival of AECOPD individuals. Further multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed that CAP and APACHE II were independent risk factors for inhospital mortality in critically ill AECOPD patients (CAP: hazard ratio, 5.29; 95% CI, 1.50–18.47, P<0.01 and APACHE II: hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.06–1.37, P<0.01.Conclusion: CAP may be

  7. Central Hemodynamics and Extravascular Lung Water Index in Varying Degrees of Community-Acquired Pneumonia

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    S. N. Avdeykin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the specific features of central hemodynamics (CH, extravascular lung water index (EVLWI, and pulmonary oxygenizing function in patients with different outcomes of treatment for severe communityacquired pneumonia (CAP.Subjects and methods. The retrospective study enrolled 57 patients with CAP. According to its outcome, there were 2 groups: 1 44 patients (33 men and 11 women, whose disease ended in recovery; 2 13 patients (8 men and 5 women, whose CAP resulted in a fatal out come. The groups did not differ in age (48.1±2.3 and 55.3±4.1 years and overall disease severity according to the APACHE II (21.5±0.8 and 25.2±2.1 scores and SOFA (8.7±0.2 and 9.7±1.0 scores scales (p<0.05. CAP was more severe in Group 2: 3.5±0.1 and 4.4±0.27 CURB65 scores (p>0.05. All the patients received identical antibiotic therapy. They underwent transpulmonary thermodilution according to the standard procedure. The indicators were daily recorded. The data were statistically processed. A corre lation analysis was made calculating the correlation coefficients (r. The significance of differences was estimated by the Student's ttest or Mann-Whitney test.Results. On day 1 of followup, the patients in both groups were prone to arterial hypotension, had tachycardia, lower or nearnormal central venous pressure (CVP. Group 1 versus Group 2 had higher cardiac index (CI (2.9±0.2 and 2.1±0.1 l/min/m2 and global ejection fraction (GEF (22.5±1 and 15.8±1.7% (p<0.05 and lower CVP (4.1±0.2 and 5.6±0.4 mm Hg (p<0.05. On day 3, Group 2 versus Group 1 had higher CVP (p<0.05 and lower CI, GEF, and some other cardiac pump function indicators. Admission EVLWI was virtually equally elevated in both groups. In Group 1, the indicator decreased later on and approached the normal values at 67 days of treatment. In Group 2, EVLWI remained high and did not virtually decrease. The indicator was ascertained to be inversely correlated with GEF on treatment days 1

  8. PROGNOSTIC IMPACT OF COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED AND HOSPITAL-ACQUIRED HYPONATREMIA IN PATIENTS WITH DECOMPENSATED HEART FAILURE

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    D. Yu. Shchekochikhin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare prognostic impact of community-acquired and hospital-acquired hyponatremia in hospitalized patients with decompensated heart failure Material and methods. Data of 120 patients with decompensated heart failure were analyzed. Hyponatremia was defined as serum sodium concentration of 135 mmol/l or less. Several outcomes were analyzed: mortality, transfer to intensive care unit (ICU, resistance to loop diuretics and worsening renal function.Results. 13.0% of patients had community-acquired hyponatremia, 9.6% - hospital-acquired hyponatremia. Community-acquired hyponatremia was associated with increased mortality [odds ratio (OR=7.8], admission to ICU (OR=19.1 and resistance to loop diuretics (OR=4.8. Hospital-acquired hyponatremia was associated with worsening renal function (OR=12.4.Conclusion. Both, community-acquired and hospital hyponatremia have negative impact in hospitalized patients with decompensated heart failure.

  9. Computed tomography of the lungs in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. An early indicator of interstitial pneumonia

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    Hartelius, H.; Gaub, J.; Jensen, L.I.; Jensen, J.; Faber, V.

    Computed tomography of the chest was performed on 42 occasions as part of the diagnostic work-up in 26 homosexual men with, or suspected of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In 17 cases both the chest radiographs and the lung scans were abnormal, and bronchoscopy and/or lung biopsy established an etiologic diagnosis in the majority of these cases. In 9 cases CT of the lungs revealed unequivocal interstitial infiltration in the presence of a normal chest radiography, and subsequently and etiologic agent was demonstrated in all these cases. In 9 cases, patients with symptoms indicative of pulmonary infection had both a normal chest radiograph and a normal lung scan, and in none of these cases did the clinical course or additional diagnostic procedures indicate the presence of current opportunistic lung infection. CT of the lungs seems to identify accurately those patients with severe HIV-related diseases in whom invasive diagnostic procedures such as bronchoalveolar lavage and/or lung biopsy should be done.

  10. Summary of Canadian Guidelines for the Initial Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia: An Evidence-Based Update by the Canadian Infectious Diseases Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society

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    Lionel A Mandell

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is a serious illness with a significant impact on individual patients and society as a whole. Over the past several years, there have been significant advances in our knowledge and understanding of the etiology of the disease, and an appreciation of problems such as mixed infections and increasing antimicrobial resistance. The development of additional fluoroquinolone agents with enhanced activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae has been important as well. It was decided that the time had come to update and modify the previous CAP guidelines, which were published in 1993. The current guidelines represent a joint effort by the Canadian Infectious Disease Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society, and they address the etiology, diagnosis and initial management of CAP. The diagnostic section is based on the site of care, and the treatment section is organized according to whether one is dealing with outpatients, inpatients or nursing home patients.

  11. Summary of Canadian Guidelines for the Initial Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia: An Evidence-Based Update by the Canadian Infectious Disease Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society

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    Lionel A Mandell

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is a serious illness with a significant impact on individual patients and society as a whole. Over the past several years, there have been significant advances in the knowledge and understanding of the etiology of the disease, and an appreciation of problems such as mixed infections and increasing antimicrobial resistance. The development of additional fluoroquinolone agents with enhanced activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae has been important as well. It was decided that the time had come to update and modify the previous CAP guidelines, which were published in 1993. The current guidelines represent a joint effort by the Canadian Infectious Diseases Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society, and they address the etiology, diagnosis and initial management of CAP. The diagnostic section is based on the site of care, and the treatment section is organized according to whether one is dealing with outpatients, inpatients or nursing home patients.

  12. Impact of serological methodology on assessment of the link between Chlamydia pneumoniae and vascular diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maraha, B.; Heijer, M. den; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.; Peeters, M.

    2004-01-01

    We assessed the impact of five serologic tests on the link between Chlamydia pneumoniae and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). The results of the tests were inconsistent. Agreement among the five tests was generally poor. Detection of the link between C. pneumoniae and AAA depends on the serologic

  13. Adjunctive Systemic Corticosteroids for Hospitalized Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 2015 Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Nobuyuki; Otsuka, Tatsuya; Haranaga, Shusaku; Namkoong, Ho; Miki, Makoto; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Higa, Futoshi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Masahiro; Kohno, Shigeru; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2015-09-16

    Previous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses evaluated the efficacy and safety of adjunctive corticosteroids for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the results from them had large discrepancies. The eligibility criteria for the current meta-analysis were original RCTs written in English as a full article that evaluated adjunctive systemic corticosteroids adding on antibiotic therapy targeting typical and/or atypical pathogen for treating hospitalized human CAP cases. Four investigators independently searched for eligible articles through PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Random model was used. The heterogeneity among original studies and subgroups was evaluated with the I(2) statistics. Of 54 articles that met the preliminary criteria, we found 10 eligible RCTs comprising 1780 cases. Our analyses revealed following pooled values by corticosteroids. OR for all-cause death: 0.80 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.53-1.21) from all studies; 0.41 (95% CI 0.19-0.90) from severe-case subgroup; 0.21 (95% CI 0.0-0.74) from intensive care unit (ICU) subgroup. Length of ICU stay: -1.30 days (95% CI (-3.04)-0.44). Length of hospital stay: -0.98 days (95% CI (-1.26)-(-0.71)). Length to clinical stability: -1.16 days (95% CI (-1.73)-(-0.58)). Serious complications do not seem to largely increase by steroids. In conclusion, adjunctive systemic corticosteroids for hospitalized patients with CAP seems preferred strategies.

  14. Elevated Plasma Stromal-Cell-Derived Factor-1 Protein Levels Correlate with Severity in Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia

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    Ping-Kun Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to investigate differential changes in plasma levels of stromal-cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 before and after antibiotic treatment in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP and observe the association between the severity of CAP and the plasma SDF-1 level. Methods. We gathered blood specimens from 61 adult CAP patients before and after antibiotic treatment and from 60 healthy controls to measure the plasma concentrations of SDF-1 by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. The plasma SDF-1 concentration was elevated significantly in patients with CAP before receiving treatment compared with the controls and decreased significantly after the patients received treatment. Leukocyte (WBC and neutrophil counts and C-reactive protein (CRP levels decreased significantly after antibiotic treatment. Moreover, differences in the plasma concentration of SDF-1 were significantly correlated with PSI, CURB-65, and APACHE II scores (r=0.389, P=0.002, and n=61; r=0.449, P<0.001, and n=61; and r=0.363, P=0.004, and n=61, resp.. Conclusions. An elevated plasma SDF-1 concentration can be used as a biological marker for the early diagnosis of CAP and for the early detection of its severity.

  15. Development of quality indicators to evaluate antibiotic treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farida, Helmia; Rondags, Angelique; Gasem, M Hussein; Leong, Katharina; Adityana, A; van den Broek, Peterhans J; Keuter, Monique; Natsch, Stephanie

    2015-04-01

    To develop an instrument for evaluating the quality of antibiotic management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) applicable in a middle-income developing country. A previous study and Indonesian guidelines were reviewed to derive potential quality of care indicators (QIs). An expert panel performed a two-round Delphi consensus procedure on the QI's relevance to patient recovery, reduction of antimicrobial resistance and cost containment. Applicability in practice, including reliability, feasibility and opportunity for improvement, was determined in a data set of 128 patients hospitalised with CAP in Semarang, Indonesia. Fifteen QIs were selected by the consensus procedure. Five QIs did not pass feasibility criteria, because of inappropriate documentation, inefficient laboratory services or patient factors. Three QIs provided minor opportunity for improvement. Two QIs contradicted each other; one of these was considered not valid and excluded. A final set of six QIs was defined for use in the Indonesian setting. Using the Delphi method, we defined a list of QIs for assessing the quality of care, in particular antibiotic treatment, for CAP in Indonesia. For further improvement, a modified Delphi method that includes discussion, a sound medical documentation system, improvement of microbiology laboratory services, and multi-center applicability tests are needed to develop a valid and applicable QI list for the Indonesian setting. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Usefulness and prognostic value of biomarkers in patients with community-acquired pneumonia in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián-Jiménez, Agustín; González Del Castillo, Juan; Candel, Francisco Javier

    2017-06-07

    Between all patients treated in the Emergency Department (ED), 1.35% are diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). CAP is the main cause of death due to infectious disease (10-14%) and the most frequent reason of sepsis-septic shock in the ED. In the last decade, the search for objective tools to help establishing an early diagnosis, bacterial aetiology, severity, suspicion of bacteremia and the prognosis of mortality has increased. Biomarkers have shown their usefulness in this matter. Procalcitonin (obtains the highest accuracy for CAP diagnosis, bacterial aetiology and the presence of bacteremia), lactate (biomarker of hypoxia and tissue hypoperfusion) and proadrenomedullin (which has the greatest accuracy to predict mortality which in combination with the prognostic severity scales obtains even better results). The aim of this review is to highlight recently published scientific evidence and to compare the utility and prognostic accuracy of the biomarkers in CAP patients treated in the ED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Chlamydia psittaci (psittacosis) as a cause of community-acquired pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Hogerwerf, L; DE Gier, B; Baan, B; VAN DER Hoek, W

    2017-11-01

    Psittacosis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by the transmission of the bacterium Chlamydia psittaci from birds to humans. Infections in humans mainly present as community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, most cases of CAP are treated without diagnostic testing, and the importance of C. psittaci infection as a cause of CAP is therefore unclear. In this meta-analysis of published CAP-aetiological studies, we estimate the proportion of CAP caused by C. psittaci infection. The databases MEDLINE and Embase were systematically searched for relevant studies published from 1986 onwards. Only studies that consisted of 100 patients or more were included. In total, 57 studies were selected for the meta-analysis. C. psittaci was the causative pathogen in 1·03% (95% CI 0·79-1·30) of all CAP cases from the included studies combined, with a range between studies from 0 to 6·7%. For burden of disease estimates, it is a reasonable assumption that 1% of incident cases of CAP are caused by psittacosis.

  18. Preventing mismanagement of community-acquired pneumonia at an urban public hospital: implications for institution-specific practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, D N; Furumoto-Dawson, A; Itokazu, G S; Chinikamwala, M; Levasseur, S; Weinstein, R A

    1998-03-01

    To assess institutional performance of key diagnostic and therapeutic interventions and to identify areas amenable to improvement in the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). A chart-based retrospective study. Cook County Hospital, a large, urban, public teaching hospital. Adult inpatients with a hospital discharge diagnosis of CAP. None. Fifty hospital admissions were reviewed. Only 25 patients (50%) had two specimens obtained for blood culture, and sputum was sent for Gram's stain and culture for only 11 patients (22%). Approximately one third of the patients had portable anterior-posterior instead of standard posterior-anterior and lateral chest radiographs performed. Physicians in the emergency department (ED) tended to be less likely to note the presence of multilobar infiltrates or pleural effusions than the attending radiologists. The antibiotic regimens employed in the ED and on the inpatient wards were widely variable. The mean time from hospital entry until administration of the first dose of antibiotics was 5.5 h for the 18 patients for whom treatment was initiated in the ED vs 16.1 h for the 27 patients admitted through the ED for whom therapy was deferred until ward admission (p < 0.001, Student's t test). Institutional variations in the performance of basic diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for patients with CAP may be substantial. The local performance of these key processes of care should be assessed to help direct the formulation of institutional practice guidelines for the management of CAP.

  19. Problems and solutions on issues of medical care quality in community-acquired pneumonia in hospitals of Saratov region

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    Lotsmanov Yu.F.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative assessment of diagnostics and treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP was carried out in ten therapeutic departments of urban and district hospitals of Saratov region, using quality indicators (Qls. Each case of CAP was assessed in expert health care quality (HCQ card according to the diagnostic and treatment quality federal standards and the basic Ql. The application of Ql in CAP patients allowed revealing the following: low CAP agent isolation rate; late hospitalization of CAP patients; low frequency of sputum bacteriological and bacterioscopic investigations prior to antibiotic therapy; insufficient frequency of step-by-step introduction of antibiotics. Recommendations on CAP patients dispenserization were not properly prescribed; recommendations on vaccination were absent. The basic measures of HCQ improvement are as follows: organizing for each CAP patient therapeutic and diagnostic quality control according to Ql; quick administrative decisions; using of HCQ expertise during the first 2-3 days of treatment to correct diagnosis and treatment; optimizing hospital diagnostic resources (laboratory and instrumental and rational pharmacotherapy

  20. Physiotherapy does not prevent, or hasten recovery from, ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patman, Shane; Jenkins, Sue; Stiller, Kathy

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the effect of respiratory physiotherapy on the prevention and treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) for adults in an intensive care unit (ICU) with an acquired brain injury (ABI). Two-part, prospective, randomised controlled trial. A total of 144 subjects with ABI admitted with a Glasgow Coma Scale 24 h; 33 subjects were subsequently diagnosed with VAP. Respiratory physiotherapy comprised six treatments (positioning, manual hyperinflation and suctioning) in each 24-h period whilst on MV. The Control Group received standard medical/nursing care but no respiratory physiotherapy. There were no significant differences between groups for incidence of VAP, duration of MV, length of ICU stay or clinical variables such as requirement for re-ventilation. In adults with ABI, regular respiratory physiotherapy in addition to routine medical/nursing care does not appear to prevent VAP, reduce length of MV or ICU stay. Due to small numbers, it is not possible to draw any conclusions as to whether or not respiratory physiotherapy hastens recovery from VAP.

  1. Short-course versus long-course intravenous therapy with the same antibiotic for severe community-acquired pneumonia in children aged two months to 59 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassi, Zohra S; Imdad, Aamer; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-06-16

    Pneumonia remains the single leading cause of childhood mortality, causing an estimated 1.3 million childhood deaths each year in children under the age of five years. The greater burden of disease occurs in low-income countries, where medical resources and hospital-based management are poor. The World Health Organization (WHO) current evidence summaries recommend intravenous antibiotics for five days as first-line treatment for severe pneumonia. Although there is controversy around the specificity of clinical features in the diagnosis of pneumonia, the criteria for the diagnosis of severe pneumonia are better defined and widely used to triage children for referral and second-line therapy.Approximately 120 million new cases of pneumonia occur globally each year in children under five years of age, of which 14 million progress to severe episodes. Hospitalisation for severe pneumonia in children places a significant burden on both patients and their families, including substantial expense, loss of routine and decrease in quality of life. By reducing the duration of treatment in the hospital, this burden could potentially be lessened and possibly lead to better treatment compliance. To evaluate the efficacy of short-course (two to three days) versus long-course (five days) intravenous therapy with the same antibiotic for severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children aged two months to 59 months. We searched CENTRAL (2015, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1966 to January week 4, 2015) and EMBASE (1974 to February 2015). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy of short-course (two to three days) versus long-course (five days) intravenous antibiotic therapy for severe pneumonia in children aged two months to 59 months. We excluded children with any other debilitating disease, including those infected with HIV and we excluded children with signs and symptoms of very severe pneumonia (i.e. unable to drink or breast feed, vomiting, lethargic, unconscious

  2. Risk factors for in-hospital mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes complicated by community-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung-Huei; Tsai, Jir-Shiong; Chen, I-Wen; Hsu, Brend Ray-Sea; Huang, Miau-Ju; Huang, Yu-Yao

    2015-10-01

    Patients with diabetes are at a high risk of infection-related morbidity and mortality. Klebsiella pneumoniae bacilli are prevalent among diabetic patients, especially in Asian populations. The present study aimed to identify risk factors for in-hospital mortality among diabetic patients complicated by community-acquired K. pneumoniae bacteremia. We evaluated the clinical characteristics of 341 Taiwanese type 2 diabetic patients who were treated for community-acquired K. pneumoniae bacteremia. We then analyzed outcome predictors, and in particular comorbidities and the site of infection. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 14.1%. Comorbid cancer was the leading factor, accounting for 32.1% of all cases of mortality. Pulmonary infection, primary bacteremia, afebrile or shock presentation and low serum albumin level were risk factors for in-hospital mortality. Regardless of comorbidities, pulmonary infection [odds ratio (OR) 10.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.02-57.09] and albumin level (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.03-0.76) were the main risk predictors. The receiver operating characteristic curve indicated that a serum albumin level lower than 2.4 g/dL (71.1% sensitivity and 77.4% specificity) suggested a poor prognosis in the diabetic patients with K. pneumoniae bacteremia. In patients with pulmonary infection, the capsular serotypes of K. pneumoniae were not related to poor outcomes, and an initial presentation of blunted fever or shock were independent factors for mortality. Cancer, pulmonary infection, and low serum albumin levels were independent indicators of in-hospital mortality in the diabetic patients complicated by K. pneumoniae bacteremia. The sites of infection and host characteristics should always elicit medical attention when treating these patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The Queensland experience of participation in a national drug use evaluation project, Community-acquired pneumonia – towards improving outcomes nationally (CAPTION

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    Tett Susan E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multicentre drug use evaluations are described in the literature infrequently and usually publish only the results. The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience of Queensland hospitals participating in the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Towards Improving Outcomes Nationally (CAPTION project, specifically evaluating the implementation of this project, detailing benefits and drawbacks of involvement in a national drug use evaluation program. Methods Emergency departments from nine hospitals in Queensland, Australia, participated in CAPTION, a national quality improvement project, conducted in 37 Australian hospitals. CAPTION was aimed at optimising prescribing in the management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia according to the recommendations of the Australian Therapeutic Guidelines: Antibiotic 12th edition. The project involved data collection, and evaluation, feedback of results and a suite of targeted educational interventions including audit and feedback, group presentations and academic detailing. A baseline audit and two drug use evaluation cycles were conducted during the 2-year project. The implementation of the project was evaluated using feedback forms after each phase of the project (audit or intervention. At completion a group meeting with the hospital coordinators identified positive and negative elements of the project. Results Evaluation by hospitals of their participation in CAPTION demonstrated both benefits and drawbacks. The benefits were grouped into the impact on the hospital dynamic such as; improved interdisciplinary working relationships (e.g. between pharmacist and doctor, recognition of the educational/academic role of the pharmacist, creation of ED Pharmacist positions and enhanced involvement with the National Prescribing Service, and personal benefits. Personal benefits included academic detailing training for participants, improved communication skills and opportunities to present at

  4. Efficacy of clinical guideline implementation to improve the appropriateness of chest physiotherapy prescription among inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guessous, Idris; Cornuz, Jacques; Stoianov, Rebecca; Burnand, Bernard; Fitting, Jean-William; Yersin, Bertrand; Lamy, Olivier

    2008-09-01

    Although there is no strong evidence of benefit, chest physiotherapy (CP) seems to be commonly used in simple pneumonia. CP requires equipment and frequently involves the assistance of a respiratory therapist, engendering a significant medical workload and cost. To measure and compare the efficacy of two modalities of chest physiotherapy (CP) guideline implementation on the appropriateness of CP prescription among patients hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We measured the CP prescription rate and duration in all consecutive CAP inpatients admitted in a division of general internal medicine at an urban teaching community hospital during three consecutive one-year time periods: (1) before any guideline implementation; (2) after a passive implementation by medical grand rounds and guideline diffusion through mailing; (3) after adding a one-page reminder in the CAP patient's medical chart highlighting our recommendations. Death and recurrent hospitalisation rates within one year after hospitalisation were recorded to assess whether CP prescription reduction, if any, impaired patient outcomes. During the three successive phases, 127, 157, and 147 patients with similar characteristics were included. Among all CAP inpatients, the CP prescription rate decreased from 68% (86/127) to 51% (80/157), and to 48% (71/147), respectively (P for trend <0.01 for trend). A significant reduction in CP duration was observed after the active guideline implementation (12.0, 11.0, 7.0days, respectively) and persisted after adjustment for length of stay. Reductions in CP prescription rate and duration were also observed among CAP patients with COPD CP prescription rate: 97% (30/31), 67% (24/36), 75% (35/47), respectively (P<0.01 for trend). The mean cost of CP per patient was reduced by 56%, from $709 to $481, and to $309, respectively. Neither the in-hospital deaths, the one-year overall recurrent hospitalisation nor the one-year CAP-specific recurrent hospitalisation

  5. Improving antibiotic prescribing for adults with community acquired pneumonia: Does a computerised decision support system achieve more than academic detailing alone? – a time series analysis

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    Black James F

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ideal method to encourage uptake of clinical guidelines in hospitals is not known. Several strategies have been suggested. This study evaluates the impact of academic detailing and a computerised decision support system (CDSS on clinicians' prescribing behaviour for patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP. Methods The management of all patients presenting to the emergency department over three successive time periods was evaluated; the baseline, academic detailing and CDSS periods. The rate of empiric antibiotic prescribing that was concordant with recommendations was studied over time comparing pre and post periods and using an interrupted time series analysis. Results The odds ratio for concordant therapy in the academic detailing period, after adjustment for age, illness severity and suspicion of aspiration, compared with the baseline period was OR = 2.79 [1.88, 4.14], p Conclusion Deployment of a computerised decision support system was associated with an early improvement in antibiotic prescribing practices which was greater than the changes seen with academic detailing. The sustainability of this intervention requires further evaluation.

  6. Efficacy and safety of telithromycin 800 mg once daily for 7 days in community-acquired pneumonia: an open-label, multicenter study

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    Dunbar Lala M

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Telithromycin (a new ketolide has shown good in vitro activity against the key causative pathogens of CAP, including S pneumoniae resistant to penicillin and/or macrolides. Methods The efficacy and safety of telithromycin 800 mg orally once daily for 7 days in the treatment of CAP were assessed in an open-label, multicenter study of 442 adults. Results Of 149 microbiologically evaluable patients, 57 (9 bacteremic had Streptococcus pneumoniae. Of the 57 S pneumoniae pathogens isolated in these patients, 9 (2 bacteremic were penicillin- or erythromycin-resistant; all 57 were susceptible to telithromycin and were eradicated. Other pathogens and their eradication rates were: Haemophilus influenzae (96%, Moraxella catarrhalis (100%, Staphylococcus aureus (80%, and Legionella spp. (100%. The overall bacteriologic eradication rate was 91.9%. Of the 357 clinically evaluable patients, clinical cure was achieved in 332 (93%. In the 430 patients evaluable for safety, the most common drug-related adverse events were diarrhea (8.1% and nausea (5.8%. Conclusion Telithromycin 800 mg once daily for 7 days is an effective and well-tolerated oral monotherapy and offers a new treatment option for CAP patients, including those with resistant S pneumoniae.

  7. A Prospective Study of Inpatients to Determine Microbial Etiology and Therapeutic Outcome of Antibiotics for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Pakistan

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    Sahar Rehman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is among the common diseases that causes illness and death world-wide. Limited data is available for the treatment of patients with CAP and/or medical outcome of CAP patients in Pakistan. This cross-sectional and prospective study was done to determine etiology of CAP patients and to evaluate the therapeutic effects of antibiotics commonly used in treating CAP patients in two different inner-city hospitals, Pakistan. Methods: The study was conducted on 200 hospitalized patients presenting clinical and radiographic evidences of CAP. The patients were assessed for the causative pathogen and their prescriptions were analyzed for the management and treatment of CAP and associated symptoms of pneumonia. Finally the medical outcomes were evaluated. Results: On establishing the microbial etiology of pneumonia among different CAP causing pathogens, K. pneumoniae was found to be the most identified causative agent (30% followed by S. pneumoniae (23%. Majority of the patients received cephalosporin antibiotics (80% followed by aminoglycosides (65% and penicillins (50% either as monotherapy or combination treatment. Therapeutic success was observed to occur in majority of the patients. The recovery of CAP patients occurred probably because they received antibiotics which are recommended by WHO and American Thoracic Society. Another reason for successful therapeutic outcome was found to be the significant patient compliance for treatment. Conclusion: There is a great need for such types of investigational studies to be conducted in developing countries which may guide the empirical therapy and help in defining proper treatment guidelines.

  8. Estado nutricional y mortalidad en neumonía de la comunidad Nutritional status and mortality in community acquired pneumonia

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    María Soledad Rodríguez-Pecci

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Las neumonías constituyen una causa mayor de morbimortalidad, y entre los factores de riesgo se incluye el estado nutricional. En el presente estudio se analizó la relación entre malnutrición y mortalidad en Neumonía Aguda de la Comunidad (NAC y se utilizó la Escala de Evaluación Global Subjetiva (EGS como método de valoración del estado nutricional de los pacientes con NAC. En este estudio prospectivo observacional se incluyeron en forma consecutiva 98 pacientes con NAC que requirieron hospitalización, de octubre de 2004 a septiembre de 2006. Se registraron características clínicas, bacteriológicas y de laboratorio y se evaluó nutricionalmente a cada paciente utilizando la EGS. El seguimiento se realizó hasta el alta médica, derivación o muerte. La persistencia de tos o fiebre, la presencia de derrame pleural, neoplasias o larga hospitalización se asociaron a peor pronóstico. La mortalidad aumentó proporcionalmente con el grado de desnutrición. Treinta y dos pacientes (32.65% fueron clasificados como categoría EGS-A; 44 (44.90% como EGS-B, y 22 (22.45% como EGS-C. Fallecieron 3 de 32 EGS-A (9.37%, 8 de 44 EGS-B (18.18% y 10 de 22 EGS-C. El riesgo de muerte fue significativamente mayor en el grupo EGS-C que en el EGS-A; OR = 6.085 (CI95% 1.071- 34.591 p = 0.042. Considerando la muerte como variable de egreso, la categoría EGS-A mostró el mayor valor predictivo negativo (0.906, y EGS-C el mayor valor predictivo positivo (0.455. La EGS realizada al ingreso fue un instrumento útil para identificar el estado nutricional y un buen pronosticador de riesgo de muerte en NAC.Pneumonias are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and their prognosis depends on many factors including nutritional status. This study analyzed the relationship between malnutrition and the risk of death in Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP patients. This is a prospective observational study. The Subjective Global Assessment (SGA was used as a screening

  9. Chlamydia Pneumoniae Pneumonia: An Evolving Clinical Spectrum

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    David Megran

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae is a recently recognized respiratory tract pathogen. It accounts for 6 to 10% of all cases of community acquired pneumonia requiring admission to hospital. Two patients hospitalized with C pneumoniae pneumonia are presented to illustrate its range of severity and the extrapulmonary manifestations.

  10. Pneumonia adquirida na comunidade em pacientes tratados ambulatorialmente: aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e radiológicos das pneumonias atípicas e não atípicas Community-acquired pneumonia in outpatients: epidemiological, clinical and radiographic features between atypical and non-atypical pneumonia

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    ROSALI TEIXEIRA ROCHA

    2000-02-01

    apresentação clínica e a radiológica são similares nos dois grupos.Aim: To evaluated the etiologic percentage of the atypical pneumoniae in outpatients and to identify the epidemiologic, clinical and radiographic features that permit to distinguish between atypical and non-atypical pneumonia. Methods: All patients underwent clinical and radiographic evaluation. Serum and sputum samples were obtained to serological tests including Legionella sp, Chlamydia sp, M. pneumoniae, Influenza A and Influenza B virus, and Gram stain, respectively. These procedures were performed on the first and 21 days after inclusion. Three independent observers reviewed chest X-rays. Results: During 22 months, 129 patients were evaluated. The final population under study comprised 69 patients (46 men ¾ 23 women with a mean age of 37 years. The etiologic diagnosis was defined in 34 (50% of the patients. Etiologic agents included Chlamydia sp, 11 (16% isolated cases; M. pneumoniae 7 (10% cases. Influenza A was the third more frequent agent in 4 (6% patients, and Legionella sp in 4 (6%. Mixed infections were observed with association of Chlamydia sp and M. pneumoniae in 5 (7.3% cases, Chlamydia sp and Influenza B one (1.5% case, and another of M. pneumoniae and Influenza A. The atypical pneumonia and non-atypical pneumonia groups were compared to respiratory symptoms and signs. There were no differences between them. The three independent observers' radiographic evaluation showed disagreement among them as to the type of pneumonia. Radiographic diagnoses of individual observers were compared to the clinical diagnoses, and no significant association was obtained for any observer. Conclusion: Pneumonia caused by "atypical" agents occurs in 50% of the outpatients with community acquired pneumonia. It is not possible to distinguish atypical pneumonia from non-atypical pneumonia. The clinical and radiographic presentations are similar in both groups.

  11. Impact of preceding flu-like illness on the serotype distribution of pneumococcal pneumonia.

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    Joon Young Song

    Full Text Available Even though the pathogenicity and invasiveness of pneumococcus largely depend on capsular types, the impact of serotypes on post-viral pneumococcal pneumonia is unknown.This study was performed to evaluate the impact of capsular serotypes on the development of pneumococcal pneumonia after preceding respiratory viral infections. Patients with a diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia were identified. Pneumonia patients were divided into two groups (post-viral pneumococcal pneumonia versus primary pneumococcal pneumonia, and then their pneumococcal serotypes were compared. Nine hundred and nineteen patients with pneumococcal pneumonia were identified during the study period, including 327 (35.6% cases with post-viral pneumococcal pneumonia and 592 (64.4% cases with primary pneumococcal pneumonia. Overall, serotypes 3 and 19A were the most prevalent, followed by serotypes 19F, 6A, and 11A/11E. Although relatively uncommon (33 cases, 3.6%, infrequently colonizing invasive serotypes (4, 5, 7F/7A, 8, 9V/9A, 12F, and 18C were significantly associated with preceding respiratory viral infections (69.7%, P<0.01. Multivariate analysis revealed several statistically significant risk factors for post-viral pneumococcal pneumonia: immunodeficiency (OR 1.66; 95% CI, 1.10-2.53, chronic lung diseases (OR 1.43; 95% CI, 1.09-1.93 and ICI serotypes (OR 4.66; 95% CI, 2.07-10.47.Infrequently colonizing invasive serotypes would be more likely to cause pneumococcal pneumonia after preceding respiratory viral illness, particularly in patients with immunodeficiency or chronic lung diseases.

  12. Point-of-care multiplex PCR promises short turnaround times for microbial testing in hospital-acquired pneumonia--an observational pilot study in critical ill patients.

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    Kunze, Nils; Moerer, Onnen; Steinmetz, Nicolas; Schulze, Marco H.; Quintel, Michael; Perl, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The early beginning of an adequate antibiotic therapy is crucial in hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), but depends on the results of conventional microbiological diagnostics (cMD). It was the aim of this study to evaluate the performance and turnaround times of a new point-of-care multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) system for rapid identification of pathogens and antibiotic resistance markers. We assessed the applicability of the system under real-life conditions in critic...

  13. In-hospital mortality risk factors in community acquired pneumonia: evaluation of immunocompetent adult patients without comorbidities

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    Miguel Hernan Vicco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: several scores were developed in order to improve the determination of community acquired pneumonia (CAP severity and its management, mainly CURB-65 and SACP score. However, none of them were evaluated for risk assessment of in-hospital mortality, particularly in individuals who were non-immunosuppressed and/or without any comorbidity. In this regard, the present study was carried out. Methods: we performed a cross-sectional study in 272 immunocompetent patients without comorbidities and with a diagnosis of CAP. Performance of CURB- 65 and SCAP scores in predicting in-hospital mortality was evaluated. Also, variables related to death were assessed. Furthermore, in order to design a model of in-hospital mortality prediction, sampled individuals were randomly divided in two groups. The association of the variables with mortality was weighed and, by multiple binary regression, a model was constructed in one of the subgroups. Then, it was validated in the other subgroup. Results: both scores yielded a fair strength of agreement, and CURB-65 showed a better performance in predicting in-hospital mortality. In our casuistry, age, white blood cell counts, serum urea and diastolic blood pressure were related to death. The model constructed with these variables showed a good performance in predicting in-hospital mortality; moreover, only one patient with fatal outcome was not correctly classified in the group where the model was constructed and in the group where it was validated. Conclusion: our findings suggest that a simple model that uses only 4 variables, which are easily accessible and interpretable, can identify seriously ill patients with CAP

  14. Vitamin D status and community-acquired pneumonia: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Sadeq A Quraishi

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] level and history of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP.We identified 16,975 individuals (≥17 years from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III with documented 25(OHD levels. To investigate the association of 25(OHD with history of CAP in these participants, we developed a multivariable logistic regression model, adjusting for demographic factors (age, sex, race, poverty-to-income ratio, and geographic location, clinical data (body mass index, smoking status, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, stroke, chronic kidney disease, neutropenia, and alcohol consumption, and season. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOWESS was used to depict the relationship between increasing 25(OHD levels and the cumulative frequency of CAP in the study cohort.The median [interquartile range (IQR] serum 25(OHD level was 24 (IQR 18-32 ng/mL. 2.1% [95% confidence interval (CI: 1.9-2.3] of participants reported experiencing a CAP within one year of their participation in the national survey. After adjusting for demographic factors, clinical data, and season, 25(OHD levels <30 ng/mL were associated with 56% higher odds of CAP [odds ratio 1.56; 95% confidence interval: 1.17-2.07] compared to levels ≥30 ng/mL. LOWESS analysis revealed a near linear relationship between vitamin D status and the cumulative frequency of CAP up to 25(OHD levels around 30 ng/mL.Among 16,975 participants in NHANES III, 25(OHD levels were inversely associated with history of CAP. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to determine the effect of optimizing vitamin D status on the risk of CAP.

  15. Epidemiological features of Hospital-acquired Pneumonia in an Internal Medicine Service from Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen Hospital in Lima, Peru

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    César León-Chahua

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To determine the epidemiological features in patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP in an Internal Medicine Service. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective and descriptive study was carried out in Internal Medicine Service Nº5 from Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen National Hospital in 2015. Medical records of patients older than 15 years old were reviewed with the discharged diagnosis of HAP who meet the selection criteria. RESULTS: Twenty six medical records were evaluated. The incidence rate of HAP was 2.37% and the mortality rate was 73.03%. The average age was 58.69 ± 12.49 years old. Patients older than 80 years old meant 42.31% of all of them. HAP was more frequent in male patients (65.38%. The average hospital stay was 62.53 days and 12 patients (46.15% had more than sixty days of hospitalization. Among the intrinsic associated factors, the cerebrovascular disease was the most frequent illness, followed by the neoplastic disease with 23.07%. The most frequent extrinsic associated factors were the use of nasogastric tube and the stress ulcers prophylaxis with 84.61% each other, the endotracheal intubation with 53.84% and the mechanical ventilation with 50%. The isolated microorganisms were Acinetobacter baumannii (15.38%, Pseudomona aeruginosa (11.53% and Staphilococcus aureus (3.84%. CONCLUSIONS: A high mortality rate was found in patients with HAP. Advanced age, comorbidities like cerebrovascular and neoplastic disease and the use of nasogastric tube and gastric secretor inhibitors were factors mostly found in HAP.

  16. Epidemiological features of Hospital-acquired Pneumonia in an Internal Medicine Service from Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen Hospital in Lima, Peru

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    César León-Chahua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To determine the epidemiological features in patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP in an Internal Medicine Service. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective and descriptive study was carried out in Internal Medicine Service Nº5 from Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen National Hospital in 2015. Medical records of patients older than 15 years old were reviewed with the discharged diagnosis of HAP who meet the selection criteria. RESULTS: Twenty six medical records were evaluated. The incidence rate of HAP was 2.37% and the mortality rate was 73.03%. The average age was 58.69 ± 12.49 years old. Patients older than 80 years old meant 42.31% of all of them. HAP was more frequent in male patients (65.38%. The average hospital stay was 62.53 days and 12 patients (46.15% had more than sixty days of hospitalization. Among the intrinsic associated factors, the cerebrovascular disease was the most frequent illness, followed by the neoplastic disease with 23.07%. The most frequent extrinsic associated factors were the use of nasogastric tube and the stress ulcers prophylaxis with 84.61% each other, the endotracheal intubation with 53.84% and the mechanical ventilation with 50%. The isolated microorganisms were Acinetobacter baumannii (15.38%, Pseudomona aeruginosa (11.53% and Staphilococcus aureus (3.84%. CONCLUSIONS: A high mortality rate was found in patients with HAP. Advanced age, comorbidities like cerebrovascular and neoplastic disease and the use of nasogastric tube and gastric secretor inhibitors were factors mostly found in HAP.

  17. Relationship between the use of inhaled steroids for chronic respiratory diseases and early outcomes in community-acquired pneumonia.

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    Jordi Almirall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of inhaled steroids in patients with chronic respiratory diseases is a matter of debate due to the potential effect on the development and prognosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. We assessed whether treatment with inhaled steroids in patients with chronic bronchitis, COPD or asthma and CAP may affect early outcome of the acute pneumonic episode. METHODS: Over 1-year period, all population-based cases of CAP in patients with chronic bronchitis, COPD or asthma were registered. Use of inhaled steroids were registered and patients were followed up to 30 days after diagnosis to assess severity of CAP and clinical course (hospital admission, ICU admission and mortality. RESULTS: Of 473 patients who fulfilled the selection criteria, inhaled steroids were regularly used by 109 (23%. In the overall sample, inhaled steroids were associated with a higher risk of hospitalization (OR=1.96, p = 0.002 in the bivariate analysis, but this effect disappeared after adjusting by other severity-related factors (adjusted OR=1.08, p=0.787. This effect on hospitalization also disappeared when considering only patients with asthma (OR=1.38, p=0.542, with COPD alone (OR=4.68, p=0.194, but a protective effect was observed in CB patients (OR=0.15, p=0.027. Inhaled steroids showed no association with ICU admission, days to clinical recovery and mortality in the overall sample and in any disease subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with inhaled steroids is not a prognostic factor in COPD and asthmatic patients with CAP, but could prevent hospitalization for CAP in patients with clinical criteria of chronic bronchitis.

  18. Appropriateness of Antibiotic Prescribing for Veterans with Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Sinusitis, or Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis

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    Tobia, Colleen Cook; Aspinall, Sherrie L.; Good, Chester B.; Fine, Michael J.; Hanlon, Joseph T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies evaluating antibiotic appropriateness in bacterial respiratory tract infections have focused only antibiotic choice and ignored other important aspects of prescribing such as dosing, drug-drug interactions, and duration of therapy. Objective The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and factors associated with inappropriate antibiotic prescribing in outpatients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), sinusitis, or acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB). Methods This is a retrospective case series of the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in 153 outpatients with CAP, sinusitis, or AECB who were evaluated in a Veterans Affairs Emergency Department over a one year period. Data on patient characteristics, diagnosis, comorbidities, concurrent medications, and antibiotic prescribed were collected. Using the reliable and valid Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI), a trained clinical pharmacist assessed antimicrobial appropriateness. The MAI rates the appropriateness of a medication along ten criteria: indication, effectiveness, dosage, directions, practicality, drug-drug interactions, drug-disease interactions, unnecessary duplication, duration, and expensiveness. Results Overall 65% of patients had one or more antibiotic prescribing problems as assessed by the MAI. The most frequently rated problems were with expensiveness (39%), impracticality (21%), and incorrect dosage (10%). Penicillins, quinolones, and macrolides were the most inappropriately prescribed antibiotic classes. A history of alcohol abuse was associated with a lower likelihood of inappropriate prescribing (Adjusted Odds Ratio [Adj. OR] 0.32; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.10-0.98), while patients who were married were more likely to receive inappropriately prescribed antibiotics (Adj. OR 2.64; 95%CI 1.25-5.59). Conclusions Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing is common in patients with bacterial respiratory tract infections and often

  19. Proton pump inhibitors and the risk of hospitalisation for community-acquired pneumonia: replicated cohort studies with meta-analysis

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    Filion, Kristian B; Chateau, Dan; Targownik, Laura E; Gershon, Andrea; Durand, Madeleine; Tamim, Hala; Teare, Gary F; Ravani, Pietro; Ernst, Pierre; Dormuth, Colin R

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous observational studies suggest that the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may increase the risk of hospitalisation for community-acquired pneumonia (HCAP). However, the potential presence of confounding and protopathic biases limits the conclusions that can be drawn from these studies. Our objective was, therefore, to examine the risk of HCAP with PPIs prescribed prophylactically in new users of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Design We formed eight restricted cohorts of new users of NSAIDs, aged ≥40 years, using a common protocol in eight databases (Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, US MarketScan and the UK's General Practice Research Database (GPRD)). This specific patient population was studied to minimise bias due to unmeasured confounders. High-dimensional propensity scores were used to estimate site-specific adjusted ORs (aORs) for HCAP at 6 months in PPI patients compared with unexposed patients. Fixed-effects meta-analytic models were used to estimate overall effects across databases. Results Of the 4 238 504 new users of NSAIDs, 2.3% also started a PPI. The cumulative 6-month incidence of HCAP was 0.17% among patients prescribed PPIs and 0.12% in unexposed patients. After adjustment, PPIs were not associated with an increased risk of HCAP (aOR=1.05; 95% CI 0.89 to 1.25). Histamine-2 receptor antagonists yielded similar results (aOR=0.95, 95% CI  0.75 to 1.21). Conclusions Our study does not support the proposition of a pharmacological effect of gastric acid suppressors on the risk of HCAP. PMID:23856153

  20. Respiratory Review of 2012: Pneumonia

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    Yoon, Young-Soon

    2012-01-01

    Pneumonia is the cause of significant morbidity and mortality, despite advances in diagnosis and antibacterial treatment. Pneumonia is often misdiagnosed and mistreated up until recently. Recent classification of pneumonia consists of community-acquired pneumonia, health care-associated pneumonia, hospital-acquired pneumonia, and ventilator-associated pneumonia. The etiology, risk factors, and treatment are different among them. This article briefly introduces new concepts and ideas in biomar...

  1. Impact of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Hospitalized With Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Lakhmir S; Amdur, Richard L; Faselis, Charles; Li, Ping; Kimmel, Paul L; Palant, Carlos E

    2017-04-01

    Pneumonia is a common cause of hospitalization and can be complicated by the development of acute kidney injury. Acute kidney injury is associated with major adverse kidney events (death, dialysis, and durable loss of renal function [chronic kidney disease]). Because pneumonia and acute kidney injury are in part mediated by inflammation, we hypothesized that when acute kidney injury complicates pneumonia, major adverse kidney events outcomes would be exacerbated. We sought to assess the frequency of major adverse kidney events after a hospitalization for either pneumonia, acute kidney injury, or the combination of both. We conducted a retrospective database analysis of the national Veterans Affairs database for patients with a admission diagnosis of International Classification of Diseases-9 code 584.xx (acute kidney injury) or 486.xx (pneumonia) between October 1, 1999, and December 31, 2005. Three groups of patients were created, based on the diagnosis of the index admission and serum creatinine values: 1) acute kidney injury, 2) pneumonia, and 3) pneumonia with acute kidney injury. Patients with mean baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m were excluded. The primary endpoint was major adverse kidney events defined as the composite of death, chronic dialysis, or a permanent loss of renal function after the primary discharge. The observations of 54,894 subjects were analyzed. Mean age was 68.7 ± 12.3 years. The percentage of female was 2.4, 73.3% were Caucasian, and 19.7% were African-American. Differences across the three diagnostic groups were significant for death, 25% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate from baseline, major adverse kidney events following admission, and major adverse kidney events during admission (all p pneumonia + acute kidney injury group (51% died and 62% reached major adverse kidney events). In both unadjusted and adjusted time to event analyses, patients with pneumonia + acute kidney injury

  2. "I really should've gone to the doctor": older adults and family caregivers describe their experiences with community-acquired pneumonia

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    Lohfeld Lynne

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Responding to acute illness symptoms can often be challenging for older adults. The primary objective of this study was to describe how community-dwelling older adults and their family members responded to symptoms of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. Methods A qualitative study that used face-to-face semi-structured interviews to collect data from a purposeful sample of seniors aged 60+ and their family members living in a mid-sized Canadian city. Data analysis began with descriptive and interpretive coding, then advanced as the research team repeatedly compared emerging thematic categories to the raw data. Searches for disconfirming evidence and member checking through focus groups provided additional data and helped ensure rigour. Results Community-acquired pneumonia symptoms varied greatly among older adults, making decisions to seek care difficult for them and their family members. Both groups took varying amounts of time as they attempted to sort out what was wrong and then determine how best to respond. Even after they concluded something was wrong, older adults with confirmed pneumonia continued to wait for days, to over a week, before seeking medical care. Participants provided diverse reasons for this delay, including fear, social obligations (work, family, leisure, and accessibility barriers (time, place, systemic. Several older adults and family members regretted their delays in seeking help. Conclusion Treatment-seeking delay is a variable, multi-phased decision-making process that incorporates symptom assessment plus psychosocial and situational factors. Public health and health care professionals need to educate older adults about the potential causes and consequences of unnecessary waits. Such efforts may reduce the severity of community-acquired pneumonia upon presentation at clinics and hospitals, and that, in turn, could potentially improve health outcomes.

  3. Guideline-adherent initial intravenous antibiotic therapy for hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated pneumonia is clinically superior, saves lives and is cheaper than non guideline adherent therapy

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    Wilke MH

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP often occurring as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is the most frequent hospital infection in intensive care units (ICU. Early adequate antimicrobial therapy is an essential determinant of clinical outcome. Organisations like the German PEG or ATS/IDSA provide guidelines for the initial calculated treatment in the absence of pathogen identification. We conducted a retrospective chart review for patients with HAP/VAP and assessed whether the initial intravenous antibiotic therapy (IIAT was adequate according to the PEG guidelines Materials and methods We collected data from 5 tertiary care hospitals. Electronic data filtering identified 895 patients with potential HAP/VAP. After chart review we finally identified 221 patients meeting the definition of HAP/VAP. Primary study endpoints were clinical improvement, survival and length of stay. Secondary endpoints included duration of mechanical ventilation, total costs, costs incurred on the intensive care unit (ICU, costs incurred on general wards and drug costs. Results We found that 107 patients received adequate initial intravenous antibiotic therapy (IIAT vs. 114 with inadequate IIAT according to the PEG guidelines. Baseline characteristics of both groups revealed no significant differences and good comparability. Clinical improvement was 64% over all patients and 82% (85/104 in the subpopulation with adequate IIAT while only 47% (48/103 inadequately treated patients improved (p Drug costs for the hospital stay were also lower (EUR 4,069 vs. EUR 4,833 yet not significant. The most frequent types of inadequate therapy were monotherapy instead of combination therapy, wrong type of penicillin and wrong type of cephalosporin. Discussion These findings are consistent with those from other studies analyzing the impact of guideline adherence on survival rates, clinical success, LOS and costs. However, inadequately treated patients had a higher

  4. Inter-observer variation in the interpretation of chest radiographs for pneumonia in community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections

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    Hopstaken, R.M. E-mail: rogier.hopstaken@hag.unimaas.nl; Witbraad, T.; Engelshoven, J.M.A. van; Dinant, G.J

    2004-08-01

    AIM: To assess inter-observer variation in the interpretation of chest radiographs of individuals with pneumonia versus those without pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chest radiographs of out-patients with a lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) were assessed for the presence of infiltrates by radiologists from three local hospitals and were reassessed by one university hospital radiologist. Various measures of inter-observer agreement were calculated. RESULTS: The observed proportional agreement was 218 in 243 patients (89.7%). Kappa was 0.53 (moderate agreement) with a 95% confidence interval of 0.37 to 0.69. The observed positive agreement (59%) was much lower than for negative agreement (94%). Kappa was considerably lower, if chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was present ({kappa}=0.20) or Streptococcus pneumoniae ({kappa}=-0.29) was the infective agent. CONCLUSION: The overall inter-observer agreement adjusted for chance was moderate. Inter-observer agreement in cases with pneumonia was much worse than the agreement in negative (i.e. non-pneumonia) cases. A general practitioner's selection of patients with a higher chance of having pneumonia for chest radiography would thus not improve the observer agreement.

  5. Improving Conduct and Feasibility of Clinical Trials to Evaluate Antibacterial Drugs to Treat Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia: Recommendations of the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative Antibacterial Drug Development Project Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knirsch, Charles; Alemayehu, Demissie; Botgros, Radu; Comic-Savic, Sabrina; Friedland, David; Holland, Thomas L; Merchant, Kunal; Noel, Gary J; Pelfrene, Eric; Reith, Christina; Santiago, Jonas; Tiernan, Rosemary; Tenearts, Pamela; Goldsack, Jennifer C; Fowler, Vance G

    2016-08-15

    The etiology of hospital-acquired or ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP) is often multidrug-resistant infections. The evaluation of new antibacterial drugs for efficacy in this population is important, as many antibacterial drugs have demonstrated limitations when studied in this population. HABP/VABP trials are expensive and challenging to conduct due to protocol complexity and low patient enrollment, among other factors. The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI) seeks to advance antibacterial drug development by streamlining HABP/VABP clinical trials to improve efficiency and feasibility while maintaining ethical rigor, patient safety, information value, and scientific validity. In 2013, CTTI engaged a multidisciplinary group of experts to discuss challenges impeding the conduct of HABP/VABP trials. Separate workstreams identified challenges associated with HABP/VABP protocol complexity. The Project Team developed potential solutions to streamline HABP/VABP trials using a Quality by Design approach. CTTI recommendations focus on 4 key areas to improve HABP/VABP trials: informed consent processes/practices, protocol design, choice of an institutional review board (IRB), and trial outcomes. Informed consent processes should include legally authorized representatives. Protocol design decisions should focus on eligibility criteria, prestudy antibacterial therapy considerations, use of new diagnostics, and sample size. CTTI recommends that sponsors use a central IRB and discuss trial endpoints with regulators, including defining a clinical failure and evaluating the impact of concomitant antibacterial drugs. Streamlining HABP/VABP trials by addressing key protocol elements can improve trial startup and patient recruitment/retention, reduce trial complexity and costs, and ensure patient safety while advancing antibacterial drug development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of

  6. [Comparison of clinical presentation of mixed pneumonia with Chlamydia pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae and S. pneumoniae pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, Hiroshi; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Mimura, Kimihiro; Mouri, Keiji; Yoshida, Kouichiro; Kobashi, Yoshihiro; Niki, Yoshihito; Matsushima, Toshiharu

    2004-02-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a significant cause of both lower and upper acute respiratory illnesses, including community-acquired pneumonia. Furthermore, C. pneumoniae has been reported to frequently cause pneumonia in association with other respiratory pathogens, mainly Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, we investigated the clinical presentation of mixed pneumonia with Chlamydia pneumoniae and S. pneumoniae and compared it with S. pneumoniae pneumonia. A total of 13 cases of mixed pneumonia and 58 cases of S. pneumoniae pneumonia identified at Kawasaki Medical School and related hospitals between April 1996 and March 2001 were analyzed. The diagnosis of C. pneumoniae infection was based on isolation and serologic testing of antibodies by the microimmunofluorescence test. The clinical presentation of mixed pneumonia and S. pneumoniae pneumonia was almost identical and no statistical differences were observed between the two groups. This is the same as what was observed before except eleven out of the 13 of the mixed pneumonia patients responded to treatment with only beta-lactam antibiotics. Our results indicated that C. pneumoniae may not be the primary cause of community-acquired pneumonia but it might descript the normal clearance mechanisms, enabling other pathogens to invade.

  7. Association between augmented renal clearance and clinical failure of antibiotic treatment in brain-injured patients with ventilator-acquired pneumonia: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrie, Cédric; Bentejac, Merry; Cottenceau, Vincent; Masson, Françoise; Petit, Laurent; Cochard, Jean-François; Sztark, François

    2018-02-01

    This preliminary study aimed to determine whether augmented renal clearance (ARC) impacts negatively on the clinical outcome in traumatic brain-injured patients (TBI) treated for a first episode of ventilator-acquired pneumonia (VAP). During a 5-year period, all TBI patients who had developed VAP were retrospectively reviewed to assess variables associated with clinical failure in multivariate analysis. Clinical failure was defined as an impaired clinical response with a need for escalating antibiotics during treatment and/or within 15 days after the end-of-treatment. Recurrence was considered if at least one of the initial causative bacterial strains was growing at a significant concentration from a second sample. Augmented renal clearance (ARC) was defined by an enhanced creatinine clearance exceeding 130mL/min/1.73m2 calculated from a urinary sample during the first three days of antimicrobial therapy. During the study period, 223 TBI patients with VAP were included and 59 (26%) presented a clinical failure. Factors statistically associated with clinical failure were GSC≤7 (OR=2.2 [1.1-4.4], P=0.03), early VAP (OR=3.9 [1.9-7.8], P=0.0001), bacteraemia (OR=11 [2.2-54], P=0.003) and antimicrobial therapy≤7 days (OR=3.7 [1.8-7.4], P=0.0003). ARC was statistically associated with recurrent infections with an OR of 4.4 [1.2-16], P=0.03. ARC was associated with recurrent infection after a first episode of VAP in TBI patients. The optimal administration and dosing of the antimicrobial agents in this context remain to be determined. Copyright © 2017 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Etiologies and Resistance Profiles of Bacterial Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Cambodian and Neighboring Countries’ Health Care Settings: A Systematic Review (1995 to 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyet, Sophie; Vlieghe, Erika; Kumar, Varun; Newell, Steven; Moore, Catrin E.; Bousfield, Rachel; Leang, Heng C.; Chuop, Sokheng; Thong, Phe; Rammaert, Blandine; Hem, Sopheak; van Griensven, Johan; Rachmat, Agus; Fassier, Thomas; Lim, Kruy; Tarantola, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Etiological data for Cambodia is scarce. We aimed to describe the main etiological agents causing CAP, and their resistance patterns in Cambodia and the greater Mekong region. Methods A review of bacterial etiologies of CAP and antimicrobial resistance in Cambodia and neighboring countries was conducted via: (1) a systematic review of published literature in all NCBI databases using Pubmed, Google scholar, EMBASE, the World Health Organization and the Cambodian Ministry of Health libraries; (2) a review of unpublished data from Cambodia provided by national and international stakeholders working at different tiers of the healthcare system. Results Twenty three articles and five data sources reported etiologies for 5919 CAP patients diagnosed between May 1995 and December 2012, including 1421 (24.0%), 3571 (60.3%) and 927 (15.7%) from Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam, respectively. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae were the most common pathogens ranking among the five most prevalent in 12 and 10 studies, respectively. Gram-negative bacteria such as Burkholderia pseudomallei and Klebsiella pneumoniae were also frequently diagnosed, particularly in bacteremic CAP in Thai adults and Cambodian children. In Thailand and Vietnam, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae were frequently identified in settings using indirect laboratory testing. Conclusions Based on this analysis, CAP data in Cambodia seems to present etiological and resistance profiles comparable to those of neighboring countries. Findings have been shared with the national authorities upon the revision of the national therapeutic guidelines and were disseminated using a specially created website. PMID:24626053

  9. Etiologies and resistance profiles of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia in Cambodian and neighboring countries' health care settings: a systematic review (1995 to 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyet, Sophie; Vlieghe, Erika; Kumar, Varun; Newell, Steven; Moore, Catrin E; Bousfield, Rachel; Leang, Heng C; Chuop, Sokheng; Thong, Phe; Rammaert, Blandine; Hem, Sopheak; van Griensven, Johan; Rachmat, Agus; Fassier, Thomas; Lim, Kruy; Tarantola, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Etiological data for Cambodia is scarce. We aimed to describe the main etiological agents causing CAP, and their resistance patterns in Cambodia and the greater Mekong region. A review of bacterial etiologies of CAP and antimicrobial resistance in Cambodia and neighboring countries was conducted via: (1) a systematic review of published literature in all NCBI databases using Pubmed, Google scholar, EMBASE, the World Health Organization and the Cambodian Ministry of Health libraries; (2) a review of unpublished data from Cambodia provided by national and international stakeholders working at different tiers of the healthcare system. Twenty three articles and five data sources reported etiologies for 5919 CAP patients diagnosed between May 1995 and December 2012, including 1421 (24.0%), 3571 (60.3%) and 927 (15.7%) from Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam, respectively. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae were the most common pathogens ranking among the five most prevalent in 12 and 10 studies, respectively. Gram-negative bacteria such as Burkholderia pseudomallei and Klebsiella pneumoniae were also frequently diagnosed, particularly in bacteremic CAP in Thai adults and Cambodian children. In Thailand and Vietnam, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae were frequently identified in settings using indirect laboratory testing. Based on this analysis, CAP data in Cambodia seems to present etiological and resistance profiles comparable to those of neighboring countries. Findings have been shared with the national authorities upon the revision of the national therapeutic guidelines and were disseminated using a specially created website.

  10. Etiologies and resistance profiles of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia in Cambodian and neighboring countries' health care settings: a systematic review (1995 to 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Goyet

    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Etiological data for Cambodia is scarce. We aimed to describe the main etiological agents causing CAP, and their resistance patterns in Cambodia and the greater Mekong region.A review of bacterial etiologies of CAP and antimicrobial resistance in Cambodia and neighboring countries was conducted via: (1 a systematic review of published literature in all NCBI databases using Pubmed, Google scholar, EMBASE, the World Health Organization and the Cambodian Ministry of Health libraries; (2 a review of unpublished data from Cambodia provided by national and international stakeholders working at different tiers of the healthcare system.Twenty three articles and five data sources reported etiologies for 5919 CAP patients diagnosed between May 1995 and December 2012, including 1421 (24.0%, 3571 (60.3% and 927 (15.7% from Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam, respectively. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae were the most common pathogens ranking among the five most prevalent in 12 and 10 studies, respectively. Gram-negative bacteria such as Burkholderia pseudomallei and Klebsiella pneumoniae were also frequently diagnosed, particularly in bacteremic CAP in Thai adults and Cambodian children. In Thailand and Vietnam, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae were frequently identified in settings using indirect laboratory testing.Based on this analysis, CAP data in Cambodia seems to present etiological and resistance profiles comparable to those of neighboring countries. Findings have been shared with the national authorities upon the revision of the national therapeutic guidelines and were disseminated using a specially created website.

  11. The impact of HIV infection on childhood pneumonia: comparison ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infected children. While the pattern of HIV-related pneumonia in African adults is well documented and is recognised as quite different from that which occurs among HIV-infected adults in high-income regions, less is known of the situation in ...

  12. Family impact of acquired brain injury in children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, Arend J; Lambregts, Suzanne A M; Berger, Monique A M; van Markus, Frederike; Wolterbeek, Ron; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P M

    2015-06-01

    To assess the parental view on the impact of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) and nontraumatic brain injury (NTBI) on the family and its determinants. Follow-up study including parents of children with a hospital-based diagnosis of acquired brain injury (ABI) aged 4-20 years at onset of ABI. Parents completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Family Impact Module (PedsQL FIM), which measures Parent Health-Related Quality of Life, Family Functioning, Communication, and Worry. Additional assessments included the Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure (PSOM), the Child & Family Follow-up Survey (CFFS), PedsQL General Core and Multiple Fatigue Scales, and sociodemographic and disease characteristics. Parents of 108 patients, median age 13 years (range 5-22), completed the questionnaires 24-30 months after diagnosis. There were 81 patients with TBI of whom 11 (14%) with moderate/severe TBI and 27 patients with NTBI of whom 5 (19%) with moderate/severe NTBI. The median PedsQL FIM Total Scale was 80.4 (SD 16.1). The PedsQL FIM Total Scale and 4 out of 5 Subscale Scores were statistically significantly better in the TBI group than in the NTBI group and in patients with severe NTBI than with mild/moderate NTBI. Moreover, in the total group, there were significant univariate associations between the FIM Total Scale and/or one or more Subscale Scores and age, preinjury patient health problems, and the PSOM, CFFS, PedsQL General Core, and Multiple Fatigue Scales. In the multivariable analysis, the FIM Total Scale was significantly associated with type and severity of injury and preinjury patient health problems. Two years after onset, the parent-reported that impact of ABI on the family as measured by the PedsQL FIM was considerable especially in patients with moderate/severe NTBI.

  13. [Pneumonia awareness year, 2004: scientific impact through publications in Archivos de Bronconeumología].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajas Naranjo, Olga; Aspa Marco, Javier

    2006-10-01

    Pneumonia is a common and potentially serious infectious disease. Morbidity and mortality rates continue to be high in spite of major advances and steady progress in diagnosis and treatment. The economic impact of the disease is also great. It is therefore necessary to enlist the public, primary care and emergency physicians, and public policy administrators to join forces to treat and prevent pneumonia for the common good. The annual incidence of pneumonia in the population over the age of 14 years is 1.6 to 2.6 episodes/1000 inhabitants. The mortality rate is 14.1 per 100,000 inhabitants, and the associated costs are 115 million euros annually. The RESPIRA Foundation and the Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) declared 2004 to be pneumonia awareness year with the aim of coordinating efforts to raise awareness, distribute information, and foster debate.

  14. Impact of aspirin on the transcriptome ofStreptococcus pneumoniaeD39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad; Shafeeq, Sulman

    2017-06-01

    Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is a medicine used to treat pain, fever, and inflammation. Here, we for the very first time reported the genome-wide transcriptional profiling of aspirin-regulated genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae in the presence of 5 mM aspirin in chemically-defined medium (CDM) using microarray analysis. Our results showed that expression of several genes was differentially expressed in the presence of aspirin. These genes were further grouped into COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups) functional categories based on the putative functions of the corresponding proteins. Most of affected genes belong to COG category E (Amino acid transport and metabolism), G (Carbohydrate transport and metabolism), J (Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis), and I (Lipid transport and metabolism). Transcriptional profiling data of aspirin-regulated genes was deposited to Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession number GSE94514.

  15. Viruses and Gram-negative bacilli dominate the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in Indonesia, a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmia Farida

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Viruses and Gram-negative bacilli are dominant causes of CAP in this region, more so than S. pneumoniae. Most of the bacteria have wild type susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Patients with severe disease and those with unknown etiology have a higher mortality risk.

  16. Impact of Procalcitonin Guidance with an Educational Program on Management of Adults Hospitalized with Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Thomas L; DiSilvio, Briana E; Hammer, Crystal; Beg, Moeezullah; Vishwanathan, Swati; Speredelozzi, Daniel; Moffa, Matthew A; Hu, Kurt; Abdulmassih, Rasha; Makadia, Jina T; Sandhu, Rikinder; Naddour, Mouhib; Chan-Tompkins, Noreen H; Trienski, Tamara L; Watson, Courtney; Obringer, Terrence J; Kuzyck, Jim; Bremmer, Derek N

    2018-02-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia and healthcare-associated pneumonia are often treated with prolonged antibiotic therapy. Procalcitonin (PCT) has effectively and safely reduced antibiotic use for pneumonia in controlled studies. However, limited data exist regarding PCT guidance in real-world settings for management of pneumonia. A retrospective, preintervention/postintervention study was conducted to compare management for patients admitted with pneumonia before and after implementation of PCT guidance at 2 teaching hospitals in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The preintervention period was March 1, 2014 through October 31, 2014, and the postintervention period was March, 1 2015 through October 31, 2015. A total of 152 and 232 patients were included in the preintervention and postintervention cohorts, respectively. When compared with the preintervention group, mean duration of therapy decreased (9.9 vs 6.0 days; P 0.25 µg/L (4.6 vs 8.0 days; P < .001), as well as reduced hospital length of stay (3.2 vs 3.9 days; P = .02). In this real-world study, PCT guidance led to shorter durations of total antibiotic therapy and abridged inpatient length of stay without affecting hospital readmissions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk of hospitalization for community acquired pneumonia with renin-angiotensin blockade in elderly patients: a population-based study.

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    Sachin Shah

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize the 90-day risk of hospitalization with pneumonia among patients treated with different anti-hypertensive drug classes. DESIGN: Population based cohort study using five linked databases. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals over the age of 65 who filled a new outpatient prescription for one of four anti-hypertensive medications: ACE inhibitors (n = 86 775, ARBs (n = 33,953, calcium channel blockers (CCB, n = 34,240, beta blockers (BB, n = 35,331 and thiazide diuretics (n = 64 186. PRIMARY OUTCOME: Hospitalization with pneumonia within 90 days of a qualifying prescription. We adjusted for ten a priori selected covariates, including age, sex, diabetes and number of visits to a family doctor. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics of the groups were relatively well matched, except for age, sex, diabetes and frequency of family doctor visits. 128 of the 86 775 patients (0.15% initiated on an ACE inhibitor and 43 of the 33953 patients (0.13% of patients initiated on an ARB were hospitalized with pneumonia in the subsequent 90 days. 135 of 64 186 patients (0.21% initiated on a thiazide, 112 of 35 331 patients (.32% initiated on a BB, and 89 of 34 240 (0.26% patients initiated on a CCB achieved the primary outcome. Compared to calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors (adjusted OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.81 and ARBs (adjusted OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.76 were associated with a lower risk of pneumonia. No benefit was seen with thiazides (adjusted OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.14 or beta blockers (adjusted OR 1.21, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.60. CONCLUSION: Initiating medications that block the renin angiotensin system, compared to other anti-hypertensive medications, is associated with a small absolute reduction in the 90 day risk of hospitalization with pneumonia.

  18. Observed costs and health care use of children in a prospective cohort study on community-acquired pneumonia in Geneva, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, K; Alcoba, G; Lacroix, L; Manzano, S; Galetto-Lacour, A; Gervaix, A

    2014-01-01

    Despite various efforts to estimate cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, only scarce information on the cost burden of paediatric community acquired pneumonia (CAP) exists. The objective of this study was to prospectively calculate direct and indirect costs associated with treatment of CAP from a society perspective in children between 2 months and 16 years of age seeking care at a tertiary hospital in Geneva, Switzerland between December 2008 and May 2010. This cost of illness study population comprised children aged from 2 months to 16 years of age seeking care for CAP at the University Children's Hospital Geneva from January 2008 through May 2010 (a subset of patients taken from a larger multicentre prospective cohort). Hospital-associated costs for episodes of pneumonia were computed according to the REKOLE® system. Non-hospital costs were estimated by parental interviews at baseline and follow-up on day 14. The overall cost for one episode of CAP was 11'258 CHF; 23'872 CHF for inpatient treatment and 1009 CHF for outpatient treatment. Severe pneumonia cases per World Health Organisation (WHO) definition used significantly more hospital resources than non-severe cases: 21'842 CHF versus 3'479 CHF (p <0.0001). Childhood CAP results in a significant medical cost burden that may have been underestimated in previous cost-effectiveness analyses of pneumococcal vaccine strategies.

  19. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and toilet bronchoscopy as a bridge to pneumonectomy in severe community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchabhai, Tanmay S; Khabbaza, Joseph E; Raja, Siva; Mehta, Atul C; Hatipoğlu, Umur

    2015-01-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) pneumonia is associated with very high mortality. Though surgical evacuation of necrotic tissue is desirable in patients unresponsive to antimicrobial therapy, most patients are acutely ill precluding surgical intervention. We utilized a combination of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) with frequent toilet bronchoscopies to salvage an unaffected right lung from spillage of necrotic pus from left lung cavitary CA-MRSA pneumonia in a 22-year-old patient. Our patient while on ECMO and after decannulation was positioned with the right lung up at all times with 1-2 toilet bronchoscopies every day for almost 30 days. This time was utilized for ventilator weaning and optimizing the nutritional status prior to extrapleural left pneumonectomy. Prevention of soilage of the unaffected right lung and mitigating volutrauma with ECMO support combined with the subsequent surgical evacuation of necrotic left lung tissue led to a favorable outcome in this case. This strategy could be of value in similar presentations of unilateral suppurative pneumonia, where the progressive disease occurs despite optimal medical therapy.

  20. Prevalence and correlates of treatment failure among Kenyan children hospitalised with severe community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective study of the clinical effectiveness of WHO pneumonia case management guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agweyu, Ambrose; Kibore, Minnie; Digolo, Lina; Kosgei, Caroline; Maina, Virginia; Mugane, Samson; Muma, Sarah; Wachira, John; Waiyego, Mary; Maleche-Obimbo, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    To determine the extent and pattern of treatment failure (TF) among children hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia at a large tertiary hospital in Kenya. We followed up children aged 2-59 months with WHO-defined severe pneumonia (SP) and very severe pneumonia (VSP) for up to 5 days for TF using two definitions: (i) documentation of pre-defined clinical signs resulting in change of treatment (ii) primary clinician's decision to change treatment with or without documentation of the same pre-defined clinical signs. We enrolled 385 children. The risk of TF varied between 1.8% (95% CI 0.4-5.1) and 12.4% (95% CI 7.9-18.4) for SP and 21.4% (95% CI 15.9-27) and 39.3% (95% CI 32.5-46.4) for VSP depending on the definition applied. Higher rates were associated with early changes in therapy by clinician in the absence of an obvious clinical rationale. Non-adherence to treatment guidelines was observed for 70/169 (41.4%) and 67/201 (33.3%) of children with SP and VSP, respectively. Among children with SP, adherence to treatment guidelines was associated with the presence of wheeze on initial assessment (P = 0.02), while clinician non-adherence to guideline-recommended treatments for VSP tended to occur in children with altered consciousness (P < 0.001). Using propensity score matching to account for imbalance in the distribution of baseline clinical characteristics among children with VSP revealed no difference in TF between those treated with the guideline-recommended regimen vs. more costly broad-spectrum alternatives [risk difference 0.37 (95% CI -0.84 to 0.51)]. Before revising current pneumonia case management guidelines, standardised definitions of TF and appropriate studies of treatment effectiveness of alternative regimens are required. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Etiology of severe community-acquired pneumonia during the 2013 Hajj-part of the MERS-CoV surveillance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memish, Ziad A; Almasri, Malak; Turkestani, Abdulhafeez; Al-Shangiti, Ali M; Yezli, Saber

    2014-08-01

    Pneumonia is the leading cause of hospital admission during the annual Islamic pilgrimage (Hajj). The etiology of severe pneumonia is complex and includes the newly emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Since 2012, the Saudi Ministry of Health (MoH) has required screening for MERS-CoV for all cases of severe pneumonia requiring hospitalization. We aimed to screen Hajj pilgrims admitted to healthcare facilities in 2013 with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) for MERS-CoV and to determine other etiologies. Sputum samples were collected from all pilgrims admitted to 15 healthcare facilities in the cities of Makkah and Medina, Saudi Arabia, who were diagnosed with severe CAP on admission, presenting with bilateral pneumonia. The medical records were reviewed to collect information on age, gender, nationality, and patient outcome. Samples were screened for MERS-CoV by PCR, and a respiratory multiplex array was used to detect up to 22 other viral and bacterial respiratory pathogens. Thirty-eight patients met the inclusion criteria; they were predominantly elderly (mean age 58.6 years, range 25-83 years) and male (68.4%), and all were from developing countries. Fourteen of the 38 patients died (36.8%). MERS-CoV was not detected in any of the samples. Other respiratory pathogens were detected in 26 (68.4%) samples. Of these, bacterial pathogens were detected in 84.6% (22/26) and viruses in 80.7% (21/26). Twenty-one (80.7%) samples were positive for more than one respiratory pathogen and 17 (65.3%) were positive for both bacteria and viruses. The most common respiratory virus was human rhinovirus, detected in 57.7% of the positive samples, followed by influenza A virus (23.1%) and human coronaviruses (19.2%). Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae were the predominant bacteria, detected in 57.7% and 53.8%, respectively, of the positive samples, followed by Moraxella catarrhalis (36.4%). MERS-CoV was not the cause of severe CAP

  2. [The influence of low-intensity laser irradiation of blood on the lactoferrin level in the patients presenting with community-acquired pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabueva, A A; Burduli, N M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the influence of low-intensity laser irradiation of blood on the levels of lactoferrin in the patients presenting with community-acquired pneumonia. All the patients were divided into two groups. Those comprising the control group received only medicamental therapy. The standard treatment of the patients in the second group was supplemented by intravenous laser irradiation of blood (IVLIB-405 technique). Each irradiation session performed in a continuous mode lasted 5-7 minutes, with the total treatment course consisting of 7 daily procedures. Lactoferrin was determined before and after the treatment by the enzyme immunoassay with the use of "Lactoferrin Strip" kits ("Vektor-Best- Yug" JSC, Russia). Analysis of the results of the study revealed a significant decrease in the blood lactoferrin level down to the normal range in the patients treated with the use of laser therapy. The application of intravenous laser irradiation of blood for the combined treatment of the patients with community-acquired pneumonia was accompanied by normalization of the blood lactoferrin level and the improvement of the clinical course of the disease.

  3. Treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia with oral amoxicillin in under-five children in developing country: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Ranjan Das

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the evidence regarding efficacy of oral amoxicillin compared to standard treatment for WHO-defined severe community acquired pneumonia in under-five children in developing country. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of data from published Randomized trials (RCTs. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (1970- July 2012 via PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 7, July 2012, and EMBASE (1988- June 2012. METHODS: Eligible trials compared oral amoxicillin administered in ambulatory setting versus standard treatment for WHO-defined severe community acquired pneumonia in children under-five. Primary outcomes were proportion of children developing treatment failure at 48 hr, and day 6. GRADE criteria was used to rate the quality of evidence. RESULTS: Out of 281 full text articles assessed for eligibility, 5 trials including 12364 children were included in the meta-analysis. Oral amoxicillin administered either in hospital or community setting is effective in treatment of severe pneumonia and is not inferior to the standard treatment. None of the clinical predictors of treatment failure by 48 hr (very severe disease, fever and lower chest indrawing, and voluntary with-drawl and loss to follow up was significant between the two groups. The clinical predictors of treatment failure that were significant by day 6 were very severe disease, inability to drink, change of antibiotic, and fever alone. The effect was almost consistent across the studies. CONCLUSION: Though oral amoxicillin is effective in treatment of severe CAP in under-five children in developing country, the evidence generated is of low-quality. More trials with uniform comparators are needed in order to strengthen the evidence.

  4. Treatment of Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia with Oral Amoxicillin in Under-Five Children in Developing Country: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rashmi Ranjan; Singh, Meenu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the evidence regarding efficacy of oral amoxicillin compared to standard treatment for WHO-defined severe community acquired pneumonia in under-five children in developing country. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of data from published Randomized trials (RCTs). Data sources MEDLINE (1970– July 2012) via PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 7, July 2012), and EMBASE (1988– June 2012). Methods Eligible trials compared oral amoxicillin administered in ambulatory setting versus standard treatment for WHO-defined severe community acquired pneumonia in children under-five. Primary outcomes were proportion of children developing treatment failure at 48 hr, and day 6. GRADE criteria was used to rate the quality of evidence. Results Out of 281 full text articles assessed for eligibility, 5 trials including 12364 children were included in the meta-analysis. Oral amoxicillin administered either in hospital or community setting is effective in treatment of severe pneumonia and is not inferior to the standard treatment. None of the clinical predictors of treatment failure by 48 hr (very severe disease, fever and lower chest indrawing, and voluntary with-drawl and loss to follow up) was significant between the two groups. The clinical predictors of treatment failure that were significant by day 6 were very severe disease, inability to drink, change of antibiotic, and fever alone. The effect was almost consistent across the studies. Conclusion Though oral amoxicillin is effective in treatment of severe CAP in under-five children in developing country, the evidence generated is of low-quality. More trials with uniform comparators are needed in order to strengthen the evidence. PMID:23825532

  5. TGF-β Blood Levels Distinguish Between Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 Virus Sepsis and Sepsis due to Other Forms of Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Ramirez, Erick J; Ortiz-Stern, Alejandro; Martinez-Mejia, Corazon; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Rendon, Adrian; Mata-Tijerina, Viviana L; Rosas-Taraco, Adrian G

    2015-06-01

    There is a strong interest in finding adequate biomarkers to aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 virus infection. In this study, serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and laboratory markers were evaluated to assess their usefulness as biomarkers of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 and their association with fatal cases. Serum samples of consecutive patients with a clinical presentation suggestive of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 and progression to sepsis were evaluated. Serum inflammatory cytokines and routine laboratory tests were performed and correlated with positivity for influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 influenza by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and the results of three clinical severity scores (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment [SOFA], CURB-65, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II [APACHE II]). High SOFA scores and some of its individual components, but not CURB-65 or APACHE II scores, correlate with fatal cases regardless of etiology. Total and unconjugated bilirubin, Ca(++), Cl(-), prothrombin times, and partial thromboplastin times discriminate influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 from other causes of community-acquired pneumonia. High levels of IL-8, IL-10, and IL-17 were increased in influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 patients when compared with controls (pcauses of community-acquired pneumonia. TGF-β levels were negatively correlated with SOFA on admission in influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 patients. TGF-β levels are a useful tool for differentiating influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 from other causes of pneumonia progressing to sepsis.

  6. Impacts of Mergers and Acquisitions on Acquirer Banks’ Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan Ali Shah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of mergers and acquisitions (M & A on the operating performance of the acquirer banks in Pakistan. For this purpose, a sample of 18 transactions, involving acquirer banks, listed on the Karachi Stock Exchange, is used. The Financial Ratio Analysis (FRA is used to determine the effects of M & A. The significance of change in the operating performances is tested through a paired sample t-test. The results indicate deterioration in the performances of the acquirer banks in the post-merger period.

  7. Impact of adequate empirical combination therapy on mortality from bacteremic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia

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    Park So-Youn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa has gained an increasing amount of attention in the treatment of patients with pneumonia. However, the benefit of empirical combination therapy for pneumonia remains unclear. We evaluated the effects of adequate empirical combination therapy and multidrug-resistance in bacteremic Pseudomonas pneumonia on the mortality. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed at the 2,700-bed tertiary care university hospital. We reviewed the medical records of patients with bacteremic pneumonia between January 1997 and February 2011. Patients who received either inappropriate or appropriate empirical therapy were compared by using marginal structural model. Furthermore, we investigated the direct impact of combination therapy on clinical outcomes in patients with monomicrobial bacteremic pneumonia. Results Among 100 consecutive patients with bacteremic Pseudomonas pneumonia, 65 patients were classified in the adequate empirical therapy group, 32 of whom received monotherapy and 33 combination therapy. In the marginal structural model, only inadequate therapy was significantly associated with 28-day mortality (p = 0.02, and multidrug-resistance was not a significant risk factor. To examine further the direct impact of combination therapy, we performed a subgroup analysis of the 65 patients who received adequate therapy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified absence of septic shock at the time of bacteremia (OR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.01-0.49; p = 0.008, and adequate combination therapy (OR, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.01-0.34; p = 0.002 as variables independently associated with decreased all-cause 28-day mortality. Conclusions Our study suggests that adequate empirical combination therapy can decrease mortality in patients with bacteremic Pseudomonas pneumonia.

  8. First report of cavitary pneumonia due to community-acquired Acinetobacter pittii, study of virulence and overview of pathogenesis and treatment.

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    Larcher, Romaric; Pantel, Alix; Arnaud, Erik; Sotto, Albert; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe

    2017-07-06

    Acinetobacter pittii is a nosocomial pathogen rarely involved in community-acquired infections. We report for the first time that A. pittii can be responsible for cavitary community-acquired pneumonia and study its virulence, and discuss its pathogenesis and treatment options. A 45-year-old woman with a history of smoking and systemic lupus was admitted to Nimes University Hospital (France) with coughing and sputum lasting for three weeks. Thoracic CT scanner showed cavitary pneumonia. Broncho-alveolar lavage cultures found community-acquired Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex. The clinical outcome was favourable after twenty-one days of antimicrobial treatment by piperacillin/tazobactam and amikacin then cefepime. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analyses identified an A. pittii ST249. Despite the atypical clinical presentation with an unexpected partial destruction of lung parenchyma, we found very low virulence potential of the A. pittii strain with nematode killing assays and biofilm formation test. The median time required to kill 50% of the nematodes was 7 ± 0.3 days for A. pittii ST249, 7 ± 0.2 days for A. baumanii NAB ST2 and 8 ± 0.2 days for E. coli OP50, (p > 0,05). A. pittii ST249 showed significantly slower biofilm formation than A. baumanii NAB ST2: BFI = 8.83 ± 0.59 vs 3.93 ± 0.27 at 2 h (p < 0.0001), BFI = 6.3 ± 0.17 vs 1.87 ± 0.12 at 3 h (p < 0.0001) and BFI = 3.67 ± 0.41 vs 1.7 ± 0.06 after 4 h of incubation (p < 0.01). Community-acquired A. pittii should be considered as possible cause of sub-acute cavitary pneumonia particularly in a smoking and/or immunocompromised patient despite its low virulence potential.

  9. [Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia by pristinamycin (Pyostacine 500). Results of a non comparative open study].

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    Petitpretz, P; Guerin, J C; Nouvet, G; Poirier, R; Portier, F; Vergeret, J; Fraysse, P; Vercken, J B

    1994-01-01

    Activity of natural streptogramin (NSG) appears well adapted to pathogens responsible for CAP. The goal of this multicenter pilot study was to bring first data about efficacy of NSG in treatment of CAP. PATIENTS METHOD: Ten days of a NSG (1 gr b.i.d. or t.i.d.) regimen was administered to 46 hospitalized adult patients for CAP defined with fever > 38 degrees C, respiratory symptoms and X-ray opacity. Severely ill patients were excluded. A broncho-pulmonar sample (expectoration or trantracheal aspiration or protected distal sample) was performed in all patients. two patients were excluded because of pulmonary embolism (n = 1) or tuberculosis (n = 1) and 44 patients were analyzed. 50% of them had associated disease, 20% had failure of prior antibiotherapy. At inclusion, mean fever was 39.2 +/- 0.7 degrees C, respiratory rate was 22 +/- 5/mn, PaO2 was 74 +/- 10 mmHg, chest X-ray showed bilateral opacity in 16%, unilateral in 84% and pleural fluid level in 6 cases. Etiological diagnosis was determined in 70% of cases. Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 14), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 5), Legionella pneumophila (n = 2), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (n = 2) and Chlamydia psittaci (n = 1) were the most frequent isolated pathogens. 40 patients (91%) were cured with NSG and delay to obtain apyrexia was 4.4 +/- 3.9 days. NSG was stopped in 4 patients: 1 clinical and bacteriological failure (Klebsiella pneumoniae), 2 clinical failures (1 pneumococcus with purulent pleurisy, 1 pneumococcus with worsening of respiratory status), 1 patient with resistant H. influenzae strain in spite of favourable clinical evolution. NSG was well tolerated in 86% of patients. these data invite to carry on evaluation of first line therapy of CAP with NSG.

  10. Severe Hyponatremia due to Levofloxacin Treatment for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Community-Acquired Pneumonia in a Patient with Oropharyngeal Cancer

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    Mihaela Mocan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia (serum Na levels of <135 mEq/L is the most common electrolyte imbalance encountered in clinical practice, affecting up to 15–28% of hospitalized patients. This case report refers to a middle-aged man with severe hyponatremia due to Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion related to four possible etiological factors: glossopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, cisplatin treatment, right basal pneumonia with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the treatment with Levofloxacin. This case report discusses a rare complication of common conditions and of a common treatment. To our knowledge this is the first case of hyponatremia related to Levofloxacin and the second related to fluoroquinolones.

  11. Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia in Newborns with Birth Weight Less Than 1500 Grams: Risk Factors and Causes

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    Folic Nevena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight newborns (≤1500 grams are at a high risk of acquiring hospital infections due to the immaturity of the immune system, lack of efficient structural barriers, and an incomplete development of endogenous microbial flora.

  12. Inpatient rehabilitation improves functional capacity, peripheral muscle strength and quality of life in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a randomised trial

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    Anderson José

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Question: Among people who are hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia, does an inpatient exercise-based rehabilitation program improve functional outcomes, symptoms, quality of life and length of hospital stay more than a respiratory physiotherapy regimen? Design: Randomised trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis and blinding of some outcomes. Participants: Forty-nine adults hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia. Intervention: The experimental group (n = 32 underwent a physical training program that included warm-up, stretching, peripheral muscle strength training and walking at a controlled speed for 15 minutes. The control group (n = 17 underwent a respiratory physiotherapy regimen that included percussion, vibrocompression, respiratory exercises and free walking. The intervention regimens lasted 8 days. Outcome measures: The primary outcome was the Glittre Activities of Daily Living test, which assesses the time taken to complete a series of functional tasks (eg, rising from a chair, walking, stairs, lifting and bending. Secondary outcomes were distance walked in the incremental shuttle walk test, peripheral muscle strength, quality of life, dyspnoea, lung function, C-reactive protein and length of hospital stay. Measures were taken 1 day before and 1 day after the intervention period. Results: There was greater improvement in the experimental group than in the control group on the Glittre Activities of Daily Living test (mean between-group difference 39 seconds, 95% CI 20 to 59 and the incremental shuttle walk test (mean between-group difference 130 m, 95% CI 77 to 182. There were also significantly greater improvements in quality of life, dyspnoea and peripheral muscle strength in the experimental group than in the control group. There were no between-group differences in lung function, C-reactive protein or length of hospital stay. Conclusion: The improvement in functional outcomes after an

  13. A Culture-Proven Case of Community-Acquired Legionella Pneumonia Apparently Classified as Nosocomial: Diagnostic and Public Health Implications

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    Annalisa Bargellini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of Legionella pneumonia in a 78-year-old patient affected by cerebellar haemangioblastoma continuously hospitalised for 24 days prior to the onset of overt symptoms. According to the established case definition, this woman should have been definitely classified as a nosocomial case (patient spending all of the ten days in hospital before onset of symptoms. Water samples from the oncology ward were negative, notably the patient’s room and the oxygen bubbler, and the revision of the case history induced us to verify possible contamination in water samples collected at home. We found that the clinical strain had identical rep-PCR fingerprint of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolated at home. The description of this culture-proven case of Legionnaires’ disease has major clinical, legal, and public health consequences as the complexity of hospitalised patients poses limitations to the rule-of-thumb surveillance definition of nosocomial pneumonia based on 2–10-day incubation period.

  14. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children

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    Youn, You-Sook; Lee, Kyung-Yil

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP), the smallest self-replicating biological system, is a common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections, leading to a wide range of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary manifestations. MP pneumonia has been reported in 10 to 40% of cases of community-acquired pneumonia and shows an even higher proportion during epidemics. MP infection is endemic in larger communities of the world with cyclic epidemics every 3 to 7 years. In Korea, 3 to 4-year cycles have be...

  15. Plasma levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 as a biomarker for disease severity of patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

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    Chang, Pin-Yu; Tsao, Shih-Ming; Chang, Jer-Hwa; Chien, Ming-Hsien; Hung, Wen-Yueh; Huang, Yi-Wen; Yang, Shun-Fa

    2016-12-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is characterized as an acute inflammation of the lung associated with the activation of macrophages and neutrophils. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is an essential adhesion molecule involved in immune cell recruitment in lung inflammation. We investigated whether ICAM-1 is a useful biomarker for assessing the disease severity of hospitalized adult patients with CAP. Plasma soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) levels were measured in 78 patients with CAP and 69 healthy controls by using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The pneumonia severity index scores were used to determine CAP severity in patients upon initial hospitalization. The sICAM-1 and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels decreased significantly in patients with CAP after antibiotic treatment. The plasma concentration of sICAM-1 alone, but not CRP, was correlated with CAP severity according to the pneumonia severity index scores (r=0.431, p<0.001). The sICAM-1 levels in patients with CAP with high mortality risk were significantly higher than those in patients with CAP with medium or low mortality risk. Moreover, the sICAM-1 level showed a significant correlation with the length of hospital stay (r=0.488, p<0.001). Mechanistic investigations found that bacterial lipopolysaccharide induced upregulation of ICAM-1 expression through the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway in RAW264.7 macrophages. Plasma sICAM-1 levels may play a role in the diagnosis and clinical assessment of CAP severity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effectiveness of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination in preventing community-acquired pneumonia hospitalization and severe outcomes in the elderly in Spain.

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    Àngela Domínguez

    Full Text Available Pneumococcal pneumonia is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly, but investigation of the etiological agent of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is not possible in most hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination (PPSV23 in preventing CAP hospitalization and reducing the risk of intensive care unit admission (ICU and fatal outcomes in hospitalized people aged ≥65 years. We made a multicenter case-control study in 20 Spanish hospitals during 2013-2014 and 2014-2015. We selected patients aged ≥65 years hospitalized with a diagnosis of pneumonia and controls matched by sex, age and date of hospitalization. Multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression to estimate vaccine effectiveness and unconditional logistic regression to evaluate the reduction in the risk of severe and fatal outcomes. 1895 cases and 1895 controls were included; 13.7% of cases and 14.4% of controls had received PPSV23 in the last five years. The effectiveness of PPSV23 in preventing CAP hospitalization was 15.2% (95% CI -3.1-30.3. The benefit of PPSV23 in avoiding ICU admission or death was 28.1% (95% CI -14.3-56.9 in all patients, 30.9% (95% CI -32.2-67.4 in immunocompetent patients and 26.9% (95% CI -38.6-64.8 in immunocompromised patients. In conclusion, PPSV23 showed a modest trend to avoidance of hospitalizations due to CAP and to the prevention of death or ICU admission in elderly patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of CAP.

  17. Evidence for short duration of antibiotic treatment for non-severe community acquired pneumonia (CAP in children - are we there yet? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials

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    Shalom Ben-Shimol

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context: The ideal duration of antibiotic treatment for childhood community acquired pneumonia (CAP has not yet been established. Objective: A literature search was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of shorter than 7 days duration of oral antibiotic treatment for childhood non-severe CAP. Data sources: A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed database. The search was limited to randomised controlled trials (RCTs conducted between January 1996 and May 2013 in children up to 18 years old. Search terms included pneumonia, treatment, duration, child, children, days, short, respiratory infection and non-severe (nonsevere. Study selection: Only RCTs of oral antibiotic treatment for non-severe CAP in children were included. Data extraction: Independent extraction of articles was done by 3 authors using a preformed questionnaire. Data synthesis: Eight articles meeting the selection criteria were identified: 7 from 2 developing countries (India and Pakistan, and 1 from a developed country (The Netherlands. Studies from developing countries used the World Health Organization clinical criteria for diagnosing CAP, which includes mainly tachypnoea. None of those studies included fever, chest radiography or any laboratory test in their case definition. The Dutch study case definition used laboratory tests and chest radiographies (x-rays in addition to clinical criteria. Five articles concluded that 3 days of treatment are sufficient for non-severe childhood CAP, 2 articles found 5 days treatment to be sufficient, and one article found no difference between 3 days of amoxicillin treatment and placebo. Conclusions: The efficacy of short duration oral antibiotic treatment for non-severe CAP in children has not been established in developed countries. Current RCTs from developing countries used clinical criteria that may have failed to appropriately identify children with true bacterial pneumonia necessitating antibiotic treatment. More RCTs

  18. Focus on JNJ-Q2, a novel fluoroquinolone, for the management of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections

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    Jones TM

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Travis M Jones,1,2 Steven W Johnson,1,3 V Paul DiMondi,1,4 Dustin T Wilson,1,2 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Campbell University, Buies Creek, 2Department of Pharmacy, Duke University Hospital, Durham, 3Department of Pharmacy, Forsyth Medical Center, Novant Health, Winston-Salem, 4Department of Pharmacy, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: JNJ-Q2 is a novel, fifth-generation fluoroquinolone that has excellent in vitro and in vivo activity against a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. In vitro studies indicate that JNJ-Q2 has potent activity against pathogens responsible for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. JNJ-Q2 also has been shown to have a higher barrier to resistance compared to other agents in the class and it remains highly active against drug-resistant organisms, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus, ciprofloxacin-resistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and drug-resistant S. pneumoniae. In two Phase II studies, the efficacy of JNJ-Q2 was comparable to linezolid for ABSSSI and moxifloxacin for CABP. Furthermore, JNJ-Q2 was well tolerated, with adverse event rates similar to or less than other fluoroquinolones. With an expanded spectrum of activity and low potential for resistance, JNJ-Q2 shows promise as an effective treatment option for ABSSSI and CABP. Considering its early stage of development, the definitive role of JNJ-Q2 against these infections and its safety profile will be determined in future Phase III studies. Keywords: JNJ-Q2, fluoroquinolone, ABSSSI, CABP, MRSA

  19. Macrolide-based regimens and mortality in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Asadi, Leyla; Sligl, Wendy I; Eurich, Dean T; Colmers, Isabelle N; Tjosvold, Lisa; Marrie, Thomas J; Majumdar, Sumit R

    2012-08-01

    Macrolides are used to treat pneumonia despite increasing antimicrobial resistance. However, the immunomodulatory properties of macrolides may have a favorable effect on pneumonia outcomes. Therefore, we systematically reviewed all studies of macrolide use and mortality among patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). All randomized control trials (RCTs) and observational studies comparing macrolides to other treatment regimens in adults hospitalized with CAP were identified through electronic databases and gray literature searches. Primary analysis examined any macrolide use and mortality; secondary analysis compared Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society guideline-concordant macrolide/beta-lactam combinations vs respiratory fluoroquinolones. Random effects models were used to generate pooled risk ratios (RRs) and evaluate heterogeneity (I(2)). We included 23 studies and 137,574 patients. Overall, macrolide use was associated with a statistically significant mortality reduction compared with nonmacrolide use (3.7% [1738 of 47,071] vs 6.5% [5861 of 90,503]; RR, 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], .64-.95; P = .01; I(2)= 85%). There was no survival advantage and heterogeneity was reduced when analyses were restricted to RCTs (4.6% [22 of 479] vs 4.1% [25 of 613]; RR, 1.13; 95% CI, .65-1.98; P = .66; I(2)= 0%) or to patients treated with guideline-concordant antibiotics (macrolide/beta-lactam, 5.3% [297 of 5574] vs respiratory fluoroquinolones, 5.8% [408 of 7050]; RR, 1.17; 95% CI, .91-1.50; P = .22; I(2)= 43%). In hospitalized patients with CAP, macrolide-based regimens were associated with a significant 22% reduction in mortality compared with nonmacrolides; however, this benefit did not extend to patients studied in RCTs or patients that received guideline-concordant antibiotics. Our findings suggest guideline concordance is more important than choice of antibiotic when treating CAP.

  20. Neumonía adquirida en la comunidad en niños y adolescentes Community-acquired pneumonia in children and adolescents

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    Isabel de los Milagros Toledo Rodríguez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La neumonía tiene una alta morbilidad y mortalidad en países en desarrollo y en Cuba sigue siendo un problema de salud importante. El propósito de este trabajo es ofrecer información actualizada a los profesionales de la atención primaria de salud acerca de la neumonía en los primeros años de vida. La neumonía adquirida en la comunidad ocurre en sujetos que conviven en ella, por un fallo en los mecanismos de defensa a nivel de las vías aéreas frente diversos agentes infecciosos que difieren según la edad del paciente, siendo Streptococcus pneumoniae el más importante en la infancia. Su diagnóstico es fundamentalmente clínico y la taquipnea es el mejor signo predictor en niños menores de 5 años; las pruebas de laboratorio no son estrictamente necesarias en la atención primaria, donde tampoco están indicados estudios microbiológicos y la radiografía de tórax no debe hacerse de forma rutinaria. Ante complicaciones y otros criterios, el paciente debe ser hospitalizado para su tratamiento y control. Se recomienda tratamiento antibiótico en todos los casos, en función de la edad del paciente. La prevención es de vital importancia en el control de esta enfermedad. Se trata de una enfermedad curable que puede ser fatal, sobre todo en niños, por lo que resulta necesario conocer su importancia como problema de la salud pública y tener un conocimiento actualizado acerca de su etiología, patogenía, diagnóstico y las estrategias para su tratamiento y prevención.Pneumonia brings high morbidity and mortality to developing countries and it is still a substantial health problem in Cuba. The objective of this paper was to provide the primary health care professionals with updated information about pneumonia in the childhood. Community-acquired pneumonia appears in individuals living in the community as a result of a failure in the mechanisms of defense at airways against the action of infective agents that vary with the patient's age

  1. A questionnaire study of injections prescribed and dispensed for patients diagnosed with mild/moderate community-acquired pneumonia in Mongolia

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    Gereltuya Dorj

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study aimed to determine the extent of and factors influencing the prescribing of injections for the treatment of mild/moderate community acquired pneumonia (CAP in Mongolia.Methods. Questionnaires were developed and administered to medication providers (34 Pharmacists, 27 pharmacy technicians and prescribers (22 general doctors and 49 medical specialists working in Mongolia.Results. Cefalosporins were prescribed for patients with mild pneumonia and doctors tended to prescribe injectable cefalosporins (cefazolin rather than oral dosage forms. This was supported by the questionnaire study with pharmacists and pharmacy technicians. Additionally, 23 pharmacists and pharmacy technicians indicated that OTC injectable cefalosporins (37.7% and injectable aminopenicillins (33,9% were frequently sold by pharmacies for the treatment of mild/moderate CAP. Doctors and particularly pharmacists in the questionnaire studies indicated choosing an injection was to avoid non-compliance problems.Conclusion. High levels of injectable prescribing of antibiotics were found in non-hospitalized patients with CAP in Mongolia. This prevalence level indicated that inappropriate injection prescribing is a public health hazard for Mongolia and requires consideration by the appropriate authorities.

  2. RNA viruses in community-acquired childhood pneumonia in semi-urban Nepal; a cross-sectional study

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    Basnet Sudha

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumonia is among the main causes of illness and death in children Methods From July 2004 to June 2007, we examined nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA from 2,230 cases of pneumonia (World Health Organization criteria in children 2 to 35 months old recruited in a randomized trial of zinc supplementation at a field clinic in Bhaktapur, Nepal. The specimens were examined for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, influenza virus type A (InfA and B (InfB, parainfluenza virus types 1, 2 and 3 (PIV1, PIV2, and PIV3, and human metapneumovirus (hMPV using a multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. Results We identified 919 virus isolates in 887 (40.0% of the 2,219 NPA specimens with a valid PCR result, of which 334 (15.1% yielded RSV, 164 (7.4% InfA, 129 (5.8% PIV3, 98 (4.4% PIV1, 93 (4.2% hMPV, 84 (3.8% InfB, and 17 (0.8% PIV2. CAP occurred in an epidemic pattern with substantial temporal variation during the three years of study. The largest peaks of pneumonia occurrence coincided with peaks of RSV infection, which occurred in epidemics during the rainy season and in winter. The monthly number of RSV infections was positively correlated with relative humidity (rs = 0.40, P = 0.01, but not with temperature or rainfall. An hMPV epidemic occurred during one of the three winter seasons and the monthly number of hMPV cases was also associated with relative humidity (rs = 0.55, P = 0.0005. Conclusion Respiratory RNA viruses were detected from NPA in 40% of CAP cases in our study. The most commonly isolated viruses were RSV, InfA, and PIV3. RSV infections contributed substantially to the observed CAP epidemics. The occurrence of viral CAP in this community seemed to reflect more or less overlapping micro-epidemics with several respiratory viruses, highlighting the challenges of developing and implementing effective public health control measures.

  3. Chronic Klebsiella pneumonia: a rare manifestation of Klebsiella pneumonia

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    Boonsarngsuk, Viboon; Thungtitigul, Poungrat; Suwatanapongched, Thitiporn

    2015-01-01

    K. pneumoniae can present as two forms of community-acquired pneumonia, acute and chronic. Although acute pneumonia may turn into necrotizing pneumonia, which results in a prolonged clinical course, it often has a rapidly progressive clinical course. In contrast, chronic Klebsiella pneumonia runs a protracted indolent course that mimics other chronic pulmonary infections and malignancies. Herein, we present two cases of chronic Klebsiella pneumonia. The diagnosis was made by microorganism ide...

  4. International ERS/ESICM/ESCMID/ALAT guidelines for the management of hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia: Guidelines for the management of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)/ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) of the European Respiratory Society (ERS), European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM), European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) and Asociación Latinoamericana del Tórax (ALAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Antoni; Niederman, Michael S; Chastre, Jean; Ewig, Santiago; Fernandez-Vandellos, Patricia; Hanberger, Hakan; Kollef, Marin; Li Bassi, Gianluigi; Luna, Carlos M; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Paiva, J Artur; Read, Robert C; Rigau, David; Timsit, Jean François; Welte, Tobias; Wunderink, Richard

    2017-09-01

    The most recent European guidelines and task force reports on hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) were published almost 10 years ago. Since then, further randomised clinical trials of HAP and VAP have been conducted and new information has become available. Studies of epidemiology, diagnosis, empiric treatment, response to treatment, new antibiotics or new forms of antibiotic administration and disease prevention have changed old paradigms. In addition, important differences between approaches in Europe and the USA have become apparent.The European Respiratory Society launched a project to develop new international guidelines for HAP and VAP. Other European societies, including the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine and the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, were invited to participate and appointed their representatives. The Latin American Thoracic Association was also invited.A total of 15 experts and two methodologists made up the panel. Three experts from the USA were also invited (Michael S. Niederman, Marin Kollef and Richard Wunderink).Applying the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology, the panel selected seven PICO (population-intervention-comparison-outcome) questions that generated a series of recommendations for HAP/VAP diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  5. Cumulative clinical experience from over a decade of use of levofloxacin in community-acquired pneumonia: critical appraisal and role in therapy

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    Noreddin AM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ayman M Noreddin1, Walid F Elkhatib2, Kenji M Cunnion3, George G Zhanel41Department of Pharmacy Practice, Hampton University, Hampton, VA, USA; 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt; 3Department of Pediatrics, East Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USA; 4Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Abstract: Levofloxacin is the synthetic L-isomer of the racemic fluoroquinolone, ofloxacin. It interferes with critical processes in the bacterial cell such as DNA replication, transcription, repair, and recombination by inhibiting bacterial topoisomerases. Levofloxacin has broad spectrum activity against several causative bacterial pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. Oral levofloxacin is rapidly absorbed and is bioequivalent to the intravenous formulation such that patients can be conveniently transitioned between these formulations when moving from the inpatient to the outpatient setting. Furthermore, levofloxacin demonstrates excellent safety, and has good tissue penetration maintaining adequate concentrations at the site of infection. The efficacy and tolerability of levofloxacin 500 mg once daily for 10 days in patients with CAP are well established. Furthermore, a high-dose (750 mg and short-course (5 days of once-daily levofloxacin has been approved for use in the US in the treatment of CAP, acute bacterial sinusitis, acute pyelonephritis, and complicated urinary tract infections. The high-dose, short-course levofloxacin regimen maximizes its concentration-dependent antibacterial activity, decreases the potential for drug resistance, and has better patient compliance.Keywords: levofloxacin, community-acquired pneumonia, pharmacodynamics, resistance, pharmacokinetics, clinical use

  6. Atypical aetiology in patients hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia is associated with age, gender and season; a data-analysis on four Dutch cohorts.

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    Raeven, Vivian M; Spoorenberg, Simone M C; Boersma, Wim G; van de Garde, Ewoudt M W; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Voorn, G P Paul; Bos, Willem Jan W; van Steenbergen, Jim E

    2016-06-17

    Microorganisms causing community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) can be categorised into viral, typical and atypical (Legionella species, Coxiella burnetii, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Chlamydia species). Extensive microbiological testing to identify the causative microorganism is not standardly recommended, and empiric treatment does not always cover atypical pathogens. In order to optimize epidemiologic knowledge of CAP and to improve empiric antibiotic choice, we investigated whether atypical microorganisms are associated with a particular season or with the patient characteristics age, gender, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A data-analysis was performed on databases from four prospective studies, which all included adult patients hospitalised with CAP in the Netherlands (N = 980). All studies performed extensive microbiological testing. A main causative agent was identified in 565/980 (57.7 %) patients. Of these, 117 (20.7 %) were atypical microorganisms. This percentage was 40.4 % (57/141) during the non-respiratory season (week 20 to week 39, early May to early October), and 67.2 % (41/61) for patients under the age of 60 during this season. Factors that were associated with atypical causative agents were: CAP acquired in the non-respiratory season (odds ratio (OR) 4.3, 95 % CI 2.68-6.84), age <60 year (OR 2.9, 95 % CI 1.83-4.66), male gender (OR 1.7, 95 % CI 1.06-2.71) and absence of COPD (OR 0.2, 95 % CI 0.12-0.52). Atypical causative agents in CAP are associated with respectively non-respiratory season, age <60 years, male gender and absence of COPD. Therefore, to maximise its yield, extensive microbiological testing should be considered in patients <60 years old who are admitted with CAP from early May to early October. NCT00471640 , NCT00170196 (numbers of original studies).

  7. Impact of benzodiazepines on functional outcome and occurrence of pneumonia in stroke: evidence from VISTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Benedikt; Fulton, Rachael L; Lees, Kennedy R; Sanders, Robert D

    2014-10-01

    Benzodiazepines have been proposed both as a neuroprotectant and risk factor for pneumonia in acute stroke. We assessed the impact of benzodiazepine exposure on the modified Rankin scale score distribution at 90 days as well as pneumonia rates among patients registered in a trials archive. We used an age, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Score, and thrombolysis-rate adjusted Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test to test significance (P) followed by proportional odds logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratios for improved modified Rankin scale score, and binary logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio for developing pneumonia. Data were available for 5938 patients, of whom 1800 received benzodiazepines. No association of benzodiazepine use and overall stroke outcome could be found (odds ratio 0·90, 95% confidence interval 0·82-1·00, P=0·121). Pneumonia occurred in 12·8% of patients treated with benzodiazepines and in 13·6% of the controls (odds ratio 0·99, 95% confidence interval 0·83-1·18, P=0·904). In this nonrandomized comparison, treatment with benzodiazepines as a concomitant medication had no independent impact on stroke outcome. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  8. [Community acquired pneumonia in children: Treatment of complicated cases and risk patients. Consensus statement by the Spanish Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases (SEIP) and the Spanish Society of Paediatric Chest Diseases (SENP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Pérez, D; Andrés Martín, A; Tagarro García, A; Escribano Montaner, A; Figuerola Mulet, J; García García, J J; Moreno-Galdó, A; Rodrigo Gonzalo de Lliria, C; Saavedra Lozano, J

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of community-acquired pneumonia complications has increased during the last decade. According to the records from several countries, empyema and necrotizing pneumonia became more frequent during the last few years. The optimal therapeutic approach for such conditions is still controversial. Both pharmacological management (antimicrobials and fibrinolysis), and surgical management (pleural drainage and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery), are the subject of continuous assessment. In this paper, the Spanish Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases and the Spanish Society of Paediatric Chest Diseases have reviewed the available evidence. Consensus treatment guidelines are proposed for complications of community-acquired pneumonia in children, focusing on parapneumonic pleural effusion. Recommendations are also provided for the increasing population of patients with underlying diseases and immunosuppression. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Ventilator Associated Pneumonia in a Military Deployed Setting: The Impact of an Aggressive Infection Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    patients were clas- sified and treated for VAP if after 48 hours of mechanical ventilation they developed fever, leukocytosis, new or pro- gressive...medical conditions known at the time of admission. Median days of mechanical ventilation before onset of VAP was 5 (range, 2–11 days). Sixteen patients ... Ventilator Associated Pneumonia in a Military Deployed Setting: The Impact of an Aggressive Infection Control Program Michael L. Landrum, MD and

  10. CURB-65, PSI, and APACHE II to assess mortality risk in patients with severe sepsis and community acquired pneumonia in PROWESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Guy; Levy, Howard; Laterre, Pierre-Francois; Feldman, Charles; Woodward, Brad; Bates, Becky M; Qualy, Rebecca L

    2011-01-01

    Patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) comprised 35.6% of the overall phase 3 Recombinant Human Activated Protein C Worldwide Evaluation in Severe Sepsis (PROWESS) study and 33.1% of the placebo arm. We investigated the use of CURB-65, the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) prediction scores to identify the CAP population from the PROWESS placebo arm at the greatest mortality risk. Patients were classified as having CAP if the lung was the primary infection site and the patient originated from home. The abilities of CURB-65, PSI, and APACHE II scores to determine the 28-day and in-hospital mortality were compared using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and the associated areas under the curve. PROWESS enrolled 278 patients with CAP in the placebo arm. The areas under the ROC curves for PSI = 5, CURB-65 ≥ 3, and APACHE II ≥ 25 for predicting 28-day (c = 0.65, 0.66, and 0.64, respectively) and in-hospital mortality (c = 0.65, 0.65, and 0.64, respectively) were not statistically different from each other. The 28-day mortality of patients with a PSI score of 5, CURB-65 ≥ 3, and APACHE II ≥ 25 was 41.6%, 37.9%, and 43.5%, respectively. Despite early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic therapy, conventionally treated CAP with PSI = 5, CURB-65 3, or APACHE II 25 has an unacceptably high mortality. In this study, PSI, CURB-65, and APACHE II scoring systems perform similarly in predicting the 28-day and in-hospital mortality; however, differences in the categorization of severe CAP were observed and there was a significant mortality in patients with a CURB-65 <3 and PSI <5.

  11. Effect of Prior Atorvastatin Treatment on the Frequency of Hospital Acquired Pneumonia and Evolution of Biomarkers in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Multicenter Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuetian Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate whether prior treatment of atorvastatin reduces the frequency of hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP. Methods. Totally, 492 patients with acute ischemic stroke and Glasgow Coma Scale ≤ 8 were enrolled in this study. Subjects were assigned to prior atorvastatin treatment group (n=268, PG and no prior treatment group (n=224, NG. All the patients were given 20 mg atorvastatin every night during their hospital stay. HAP frequency and 28-day mortality were measured. Levels of inflammatory biomarkers [white blood cell (WBC, procalcitonin (PCT, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, and interleukin-6 (IL-6] were tested. Results. There was no significant difference in the incidence of HAP between PG and NG (25.74% versus. 24.55%, p>0.05 and 28-day mortality (50.72% versus 58.18%, p>0.05. However, prior statin treatment did modify the mortality of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP (36.54% versus 58.14%, p=0.041 and proved to be a protective factor (HR, 0.564; 95% CI, 0.310~0.825, p=0.038. Concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 in PG VAP cases were lower than those in NG VAP cases (p<0.01. Conclusions. Prior atorvastatin treatment in patients with ischemic stroke was associated with a lower concentration of IL-6 and TNF-α and improved the outcome of VAP. This clinical study has been registered with ChiCTR-ROC-17010633 in Chinese Clinical Trial Registry.

  12. Hospitalisation with community-acquired pneumonia among patients with type 2 diabetes: an observational population-based study in Spain from 2004 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-de-Andrés, Ana; de Miguel-Díez, Javier; Jiménez-Trujillo, Isabel; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; de Miguel-Yanes, José M; Méndez-Bailón, Manuel; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón; Salinero-Fort, Miguel Á ngel; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To describe trends in the incidence and outcomes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) hospitalisations among patients with or without diabetes in Spain (2004–2013). Design Retrospective, observational study using the Spanish National Hospital Discharge Database (Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos (CMBD)). Setting Spain. Participants We used national hospital discharge data to select all hospital admissions for CAP. Main outcome measures Incidence was calculated overall and stratified by diabetes status: type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and no diabetes. Results We identified 901 136 admissions for CAP (24.8% with T2DM). Incidence rates of CAP increased significantly in patients with T2DM over time. The incidence was higher among people with T2DM for all time periods. Patients with T2DM were older and had higher comorbidity index than non-diabetics. Streptococcus pneumoniae decreased over time for both groups. Time trend analyses showed significant decreases in mortality during admission for CAP for patients with and without T2DM. Factors associated with higher mortality in both groups included: older age, higher comorbidity, mechanical ventilation, red cell transfusion, readmission and Staphylococcus aureus detection. Diabetes was associated with a lower in-hospital mortality (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.94) after a CAP hospitalisation. Conclusions CAP incidence rates were higher and increased over time at a higher rate among patients with T2DM. Mortality decreased over time in all groups. The presence of diabetes is not a risk factor for death during admission for CAP. PMID:28057653

  13. Community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: validation of severity criteria. The Grupo Andaluz para el Estudio de las Enfermedades Infecciosas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, E; Pachón, J; Rivero, A; Girón, J A; Gómez-Mateos, J; Merino, M D; Torres-Tortosa, M; González-Serrano, M; Aliaga, L; Collado, A; Hernández-Quero, J; Barrera, A; Nuño, E

    2000-12-01

    Severity criteria for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) have always excluded patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A 1-yr, multicenter, prospective observational study of HIV-infected patients with bacterial CAP was done to validate the criteria used in the American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines for CAP, and to determine the prognosis-associated factors in the HIV-infected population with bacterial CAP. Overall, 355 cases were included, with an attributable mortality of 9.3%. Patients who met the ATS criteria had a longer hospital stay (p = 0.01), longer duration of fever (p < 0.001), and higher attributable mortality (13.1% versus 3.5%, p = 0.02) than those who did not. Three factors were independently related to mortality: CD4(+) cell count < 100/microl, radiologic progression of disease, and shock. Pleural effusion, cavities, and/or multilobar infiltrates at admission were independently associated with radiologic progression. A prognostic rule based on the five criteria of shock, CD4(+) cell count < 100/microl, pleural effusion, cavities, and multilobar infiltrates had a high negative predictive value for mortality (97.1%). The attributable mortality for severe pneumonia was 11.3%, as compared with 1.3% for nonsevere disease (p = 0.008). The ATS severity criteria are valid in HIV-infected patients with bacterial CAP. Our study provides the basis for identification of patients who may require hospitalization determined by clinical judgment and the five clinical criteria of shock, a CD4(+) cell count < 100/microl, pleural effusion, cavities, and multilobar involvement. These prognostic factors should be validated in independent cohort studies.

  14. Evolution over a 15-year period of the clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically ill patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallés, J; Diaz, E; Martín-Loeches, I; Bacelar, N; Saludes, P; Lema, J; Gallego, M; Fontanals, D; Artigas, A

    2016-05-01

    To study the characteristics and outcomes of patients in the ICU with severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP) over a 15-year surveillance period. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of episodes of SCAP, and assessed the epidemiology, etiology, treatment and outcomes of patients admitted to the ICU, comparing three periods (1999-2003, 2004-2008 and 2009-2013). A total of 458 patients were diagnosed with SCAP. The overall cumulative incidence was 37.4 episodes/1000 admissions, with a progressive increase over the three periods (P<0.001). Patients fulfilling the two major IDSA/ATS criteria at admission increased from 64.2% in the first period to 82.5% in the last period (P=0.005). Streptococcus pneumoniae was the prevalent pathogen. The incidence of bacteremia was 23.1%, and a progressive significant reduction in overall incidence was observed over the three periods (P=0.02). Globally, 91% of the patients received appropriate empiric antibiotic treatment, increasing from 78.3% in the first period to 97.7% in the last period (P<0.001). Combination antibiotic therapy (betalactam+macrolide or fluoroquinolone) increased significantly from the first period (61%) to the last period (81.3%) (P<0.001). Global ICU mortality was 25.1%, and decreased over the three periods (P=0.001). Despite a progressively higher incidence and severity of SCAP in our ICU, crude ICU mortality decreased by 18%. The increased use of combined antibiotic therapy and the decreasing rates of bacteremia were associated to improved patient prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk Factors for Long-Term Mortality after Hospitalization for Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A 5-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holter, Jan C; Ueland, Thor; Jenum, Pål A; Müller, Fredrik; Brunborg, Cathrine; Frøland, Stig S; Aukrust, Pål; Husebye, Einar; Heggelund, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Contributors to long-term mortality in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remain unclear, with little attention paid to pneumonia etiology. We examined long-term survival, causes of death, and risk factors for long-term mortality in adult patients who had been hospitalized for CAP, with emphasis on demographic, clinical, laboratory, and microbiological characteristics. Two hundred and sixty-seven consecutive patients admitted in 2008-2011 to a general hospital with CAP were prospectively recruited and followed up. Patients who died during hospital stay were excluded. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected within 48 hours of admission. Extensive microbiological work-up was performed to establish the etiology of CAP in 63% of patients. Mortality data were obtained from the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Cox regression models were used to identify independent risk factors for all-cause mortality. Of 259 hospital survivors of CAP (median age 66 years), 79 (30.5%) died over a median of 1,804 days (range 1-2,520 days). Cumulative 5-year survival rate was 72.9% (95% CI 67.4-78.4%). Standardized mortality ratio was 2.90 for men and 2.05 for women. The main causes of death were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), vascular diseases, and malignancy. Independent risk factors for death were the following (hazard ratio, 95% CI): age (1.83 per decade, 1.47-2.28), cardiovascular disease (2.63, 1.61-4.32), COPD (2.09, 1.27-3.45), immunocompromization (1.98, 1.17-3.37), and low serum albumin level at admission (0.75 per 5 g/L higher, 0.58-0.96), whereas active smoking was protective (0.32, 0.14-0.74); active smokers were younger than non-smokers (P Pneumonia etiology had no prognostic value, but this remains to be substantiated by further studies using extensive diagnostic microbiological methods in the identification of causative agents of CAP.

  16. Granzymes A and B Regulate the Local Inflammatory Response during Klebsiella pneumoniae Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Laorden, M Isabel; Stroo, Ingrid; Blok, Dana C; Florquin, Sandrine; Medema, Jan Paul; de Vos, Alex F; van der Poll, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia. Granzymes (gzms), mainly found in cytotoxic lymphocytes, have been implicated as mediators of infection and inflammation. We here sought to investigate the role of gzmA and gzmB in the host response to K. pneumoniae-induced airway infection and sepsis. For this purpose, pneumonia was induced in wild-type (WT) and gzmA-deficient (gzmA-/-), gzmB-/- and gzmAxB-/- mice by intranasal infection with K. pneumoniae. In WT mice, gzmA and gzmB were mainly expressed by natural killer cells. Pneumonia was associated with reduced intracellular gzmA and increased intracellular gzmB levels. Gzm deficiency had little impact on antibacterial defence: gzmA-/- and gzmAxB-/- mice transiently showed modestly higher bacterial loads in the lungs but not in distant organs. GzmB-/- and, to a larger extent, gzmAxB-/- mice displayed transiently increased lung inflammation, reflected in the semi-quantitative histology scores and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Most differences between gzm-deficient and WT mice had disappeared during late-stage pneumonia. Gzm deficiency did not impact on distant organ injury or survival. These results suggest that gzmA and gzmB partly regulate local inflammation during early pneumonia but eventually play an insignificant role during pneumosepsis by the common human pathogen K. pneumoniae. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Understanding Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Pneumonia Learn About Pneumonia 5 Facts You Should Know about Pneumonia Pneumonia ... vaccinated and practicing good health habits What Is Pneumonia? Pneumonia is an infection in one or both ...

  18. Inpatient rehabilitation improves functional capacity, peripheral muscle strength and quality of life in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José, Anderson; Dal Corso, Simone

    2016-04-01

    Among people who are hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia, does an inpatient exercise-based rehabilitation program improve functional outcomes, symptoms, quality of life and length of hospital stay more than a respiratory physiotherapy regimen? Randomised trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis and blinding of some outcomes. Forty-nine adults hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia. The experimental group (n=32) underwent a physical training program that included warm-up, stretching, peripheral muscle strength training and walking at a controlled speed for 15 minutes. The control group (n=17) underwent a respiratory physiotherapy regimen that included percussion, vibrocompression, respiratory exercises and free walking. The intervention regimens lasted 8 days. The primary outcome was the Glittre Activities of Daily Living test, which assesses the time taken to complete a series of functional tasks (eg, rising from a chair, walking, stairs, lifting and bending). Secondary outcomes were distance walked in the incremental shuttle walk test, peripheral muscle strength, quality of life, dyspnoea, lung function, C-reactive protein and length of hospital stay. Measures were taken 1 day before and 1 day after the intervention period. There was greater improvement in the experimental group than in the control group on the Glittre Activities of Daily Living test (mean between-group difference 39 seconds, 95% CI 20 to 59) and the incremental shuttle walk test (mean between-group difference 130 m, 95% CI 77 to 182). There were also significantly greater improvements in quality of life, dyspnoea and peripheral muscle strength in the experimental group than in the control group. There were no between-group differences in lung function, C-reactive protein or length of hospital stay. The improvement in functional outcomes after an inpatient rehabilitation program was greater than the improvement after standard respiratory physiotherapy. The

  19. Fatores associados às complicações em crianças pré-escolares com pneumonia adquirida na comunidade Factors associated with complications of community-acquired pneumonia in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyana Garcia Amorim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar os fatores socioeconômicos e clínicos associados à evolução para complicações em crianças internadas com pneumonia adquirida na comunidade (PAC. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal prospectivo em crianças diagnosticadas com PAC (12-59 meses de idade internadas em enfermarias gerais de pediatria de dois hospitais na região de Campinas (SP. Os critérios de exclusão foram ter fibrose cística, cardiopatia, malformação pulmonar, neuropatias e doenças genéticas. PAC foi diagnosticada por características clínicas e radiológicas. Os dados foram coletados dos prontuários médicos e por um questionário semiestruturado. Os sujeitos foram divididos em dois grupos (PAC complicada e não complicada. Foram comparadas variáveis socioeconômicas e clínicas, e foi realizada análise de regressão logística multivariada. RESULTADOS: Das 63 crianças incluídas, 29 e 34, respectivamente, apresentaram PAC não complicada e PAC complicada. Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os grupos quanto a idade na admissão, idade gestacional, peso ao nascer, gênero ou variáveis socioeconômicas. Houve diferenças significantes entre os grupos em relação a pneumonia anterior (p = 0,03, antibioticoterapia prévia (p = 0,004, tempo de início da doença (p = 0,01, duração da febre antes da internação (p OBJECTIVE: To identify socioeconomic factors and clinical factors associated with the development of complications in preschool children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. METHODS: This was a prospective longitudinal study involving children (12-59 months of age diagnosed with CAP and admitted to the pediatric wards of two hospitals in the metropolitan area of Campinas, Brazil. Children with cystic fibrosis, heart disease, pulmonary malformations, neurological disorders, or genetic diseases were excluded. The diagnosis of CAP was based on clinical and radiological findings. Data were

  20. Cryptogenic organising pneumonia presenting with spontaneous pneumothorax and the value of procalcitonin: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chong; Vali, Yusuf; Naeem, Muhammad; Reddy, Raja

    2017-01-01

    Cryptogenic Organising Pneumonia (COP) is a relatively rare condition and can be difficult to differentiate from Community acquired pneumonia (CAP). We report two cases which demonstrate the importance of considering this differential diagnosis in patients with spontaneous pneumothorax who have raised inflammatory markers or lung infiltrates. Our report highlights the value of serum procalcitonin as a biomarker in differentiating between community acquired pneumonia and cryptogenic organising pneumonia especially in the context of a high serum C-reactive protein. Furthermore, the cases show early diagnosis and prompt treatment with corticosteroids may impact the clinical outcome.

  1. Risk of community-acquired pneumonia in patients with a diagnosis of pernicious anemia: a population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almario, Christopher V; Metz, David C; Haynes, Kevin; Yang, Yu-Xiao

    2015-11-01

    Pernicious anemia (PA) is an autoimmune disease that causes achlorhydria or profound hypochlorhydria. We conducted a population-based study to determine whether individuals with PA are at an increased risk for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We performed a retrospective cohort study using The Health Improvement Network (THIN) from the UK (1993-2009). The eligible study cohort included individuals 18 years of age or older, with at least 1 year of THIN follow-up. The exposed group consisted of individuals with a diagnosis code for PA. The unexposed group consisted of individuals without a diagnosis of PA and was frequency matched with the exposed group with respect to age, sex, and practice site. Cox regression analysis was used to determine the hazard ratio with the 95% confidence interval for CAP associated with PA, accounting for a comprehensive list of potential confounders. The study included 13,605 individuals with PA and 50,586 non-PA individuals. The crude incidence rate of CAP was 9.4/1000 person-years for those with PA, versus 6.4/1000 person-years for those without PA. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratio for CAP associated with PA was 1.18 (95% confidence interval 1.08-1.29). In this large population-based cohort study, individuals with PA and presumed chronic achlorhydria were at an increased risk for CAP.

  2. The Early Mobility Bundle: a simple enhancement of therapy which may reduce incidence of hospital-acquired pneumonia and length of hospital stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolbrink, M; McGowan, L; Saman, H; Nguyen, T; Knightly, R; Sharpe, J; Reilly, H; Jones, S; Turner, A M

    2014-09-01

    Early mobility facilitated by physiotherapy has been shown to reduce the incidence of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) in patients with hip fractures but its effect on HAP incidence in medical patients has not yet been studied. To determine whether early mobility aided by physiotherapy reduces the incidence of HAP and length of stay in patients on medical wards. One respiratory and one elderly care medicine ward in one hospital association in Birmingham, UK, received the 'Early Mobility Bundle'. The bundle consisted of extra targeted physiotherapy and collaboration with ward staff to encourage and promote activity. The incidence of HAP, falls, pressure sores, length of stay (LOS) and activity level were then compared to two matched wards within the same hospital association. HAP incidence was significantly lower in the intervention group (P Early Mobility Bundle demonstrates a promising method to reduce the incidence of HAP and to increase activity in medical inpatients. Copyright © 2014 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk factors for hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in critically ill patients: a multicenter study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tark; Chong, Yong Pil; Park, Seong Yeon; Jeon, Min-Hyok; Choo, Eun Joo; Chung, Jin-Won; Lee, Hyun Kyung; Moon, Chisook; Kim, Dong-Min; Peck, Kyong Ran; Kim, Yang Soo

    2014-04-01

    We performed a case-control study to identify risk factors of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CRGNB) as an increasing cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). The study included critically ill adult patients with HAP whose microbial etiology was identified at eight tertiary centers in Korea between June 2008 and December 2009. Eighty two patients with 86 isolates of CRGNB (62 Acinetobacter baumannii, 14 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 10 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) were included in the case group, and 122 patients with carbapenem-susceptible Gram-negative bacteria were included in the control group. Diabetes mellitus (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.82, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.25-6.38), radiologic score ≥5 (aOR 4.56, 95% CI 2.36-8.81), prior fluoroquinolone (aOR 2.39. 95% CI = 1.07-5.35), or carbapenem usage (aOR 2.82, 95% CI 1.75-17.83) were found to be independent risk factors. Fluoroquinolone and carbapenem should be cautiously used to avoid HAP caused by CRGNB. © 2014.

  4. Efficacy and safety of tigecycline monotherapy versus combination therapy for the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP): a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiang-Rong; Liu, Jia-Ming; Jiang, De-Chun; Yan, Su-Ying

    2018-02-06

    The broad spectrum antibiotic tigecycline shows promising efficacy against many multiple drug resistant (MDR) pathogens. However, its clinical efficacy in the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is unclear. Several studies have reported on the treatment failures of tigecycline monotherapy, suggesting that it may not be sufficient to control severe infections. Combination therapy has become an option to treat MDR bacterial infections. We conducted a literature search using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Elsevier and the Web of Knowledge databases up to 29 February 2017 to identify relevant published studies. Studies were considered eligible if they were a cohort study that assessed mortality and the safety of tigecycline monotherapy versus combination therapy with other antimicrobial agents for HAP. The primary outcome was treatment mortality rate, while the secondary outcomes were adverse events. Meta-analysis was done using fixed-effects models. Five trials were included. The monotherapy tigecycline had a higher mortality compared to the combination therapy group. There was a significant difference for the treatment of HAP. However, two prospective cohort studies showed that there was no significant difference in mortality rate between the tigecycline monotherapy and the tigecycline combination therapy. Three retrospective cohort studies showed that tigecycline monotherapy had a high mortality rate. Tigecycline combination therapy efficiently treats HAP. There is a great need for well-designed studies to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of combination therapies as they compare to tigecycline monotherapy.

  5. Novel Pharmacotherapy for the Treatment of Hospital-Acquired and Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Caused by Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, James M; Kuti, Joseph L; Nicolau, David P

    2018-02-07

    Introduction Hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP) are among the most prevalent infections in hospitalized patients, particularly those in the intensive care unit. Importantly, the frequency of multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative (GN) bacteria as the bacteriologic cause of HABP/VABP is increasing. These include MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and carbapenem resistant Enterobactericeae (CRE). Few antibiotics are currently available when such MDR Gram-negatives are encountered and older agents such as polymyxin B, colistin (polymyxin E), and tigecycline have typically performed poorly in HABP/VABP. Areas Covered In this review, the authors summarize novel antibiotics which have reached phase 3 clinical trials including patients with HABP/VABP. For each agent, the spectrum of activity, pertinent pharmacological characteristics, clinical trial data, and potential utility in the treatment of MDR-GN HABP/VABP is discussed. Expert opinion Novel antibiotics currently available, and those soon to be, will expand opportunities to treat HABP/VABP caused by MDR-GN organisms and minimize the use of more toxic, less effective drugs. However, with sparse clinical data available, defining the appropriate role for each of the new agents is challenging. In order to maximize the utility of these antibiotics, combination therapy and the role of therapeutic drug monitoring should be investigated.

  6. Development of a new resequencing pathogen microarray based assay for detection of broad-spectrum respiratory tract viruses in patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Shen

    Full Text Available A Resequencing Pathogen Microarray (RPM is a single, highly multiplexed assay for detecting and differentiating similarly related pathogens by using closely overlapping probe sets to determine a target organism's nucleotide sequence. In this study, a new RPM (RPM-IVDC1 that consisted of 224-bp detector tiles corresponding to 9 influenza A subtypes, 11 rhinoviruses, 28 enteroviruses and 38 other respiratory viruses was developed and optimized to provide individual and simultaneous detection sensitivities ranging from 15 to 750 genomic copies for 16 common respiratory pathogens. A total of 110 consecutive patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP admitted to 5 district general hospitals in Beijing during a 1-year period were assessed using the new assay. Among the children (under age 5 and adult patients (above age 18, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and rhinovirus (RV were the most common etiological agents, respectively, which is consistent with reference assays. Atypical pathogens that may cause CAP-like illness, including rubella virus, measles virus, influenza type C virus, human herpesvirus (HHV were also detected. The results show the capability of RPM-IVDC1 for the accurate detection and identification of multiple virus types, which may be of significant use in epidemic surveillance and outbreak investigations of atypical pathogens.

  7. Clinical, general, hemocoagulation and pathologicanatomical features of patients with moderate and severe community acquired pneumonia by the data of retrospective analysis

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    Pertseva T.A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available According to literature data, patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP fall into several groups of unfavorable prognostic factors. Development of thrombotic complications is one of causes of mortality of hospitalized patients. In this case systemic inflammation, which is always present in moderate and severe CAP, is the starting mechanism of formation of disorders in the hemostasis system. The aim of our work was to determine anamnestic, clinical, laboratory and pathologic anatomical features in patients with CAP, taking into account markers of systemic inflammation and coagulogram indices, as well as predicting the occurrence of complications. In the course of the work, a retrospective analysis of 151 medical histories of hospitalized patients with CAP was made. We analyzed anthropometric indicators, complaints at the time of hospitalization, results of physical examination, results of the chest X-ray, clinical and laboratory indicators, microbiological sputum analysis and to assess the possibility of thrombotic complications a RAM scale was used. It was found that late asking for medical help, the presence of mixed infection, underestimation of the severity of condition and severe systemic inflammation increase the risk of lethal outcome in patients with CAP. Considering a high risk of thrombosis in patients with CAP, it is necessary to assess the risk of thrombotic complications with the help of special scales, as well as timely detection and correction of disorders from the hemostasis system.

  8. Burden of hospitalized childhood community-acquired pneumonia: A retrospective cross-sectional study in Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Republic of Korea.

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    Tan, Kah Kee; Dang, Duc Anh; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kartasasmita, Cissy; Kim, Hwang Min; Zhang, Xu-Hao; Shafi, Fakrudeen; Yu, Ta-Wen; Ledesma, Emilio; Meyer, Nadia

    2018-01-02

    Few studies describe the community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) burden in children in Asia. We estimated the proportion of all CAP hospitalizations in children from nine hospitals across the Republic of Korea (high-income), Indonesia, Malaysia (middle-income), and Vietnam (low/middle-income). Over a one or two-year period, children Malaysia (two centers): 1027 CAP episodes were identified with 2.7% (2.6;2.9); 2.6% (2.4;2.8); 0.04% (0.04;0.1) due to S-CAP, C-CAP, and B-CAP, respectively. One child with B-CAP died. Indonesia (one center): 960 CAP episodes identified with 18.0% (17.0;19.1); 16.8% (15.8;17.9); 0.3% (0.2;0.4) due to S-CAP, C-CAP, and B-CAP, respectively. The B-CAP CFR was 20%. Korea (three centers): 3151 CAP episodes were identified with 21.1% (20.4;21.7); 11.8% (11.2;12.3); 2.4% (2.1;2.7) due to S-CAP, C-CAP, and B-CAP, respectively. There were no deaths. CAP-related hospitalization costs were highest for B-CAP episodes: 145.00 (Vietnam) to 1013.3 USD (Korea) per episode. CAP hospitalization causes an important health and cost burden in all four countries studied (NMRR-12-50-10793).

  9. The interrelations of radiologic findings and mechanical ventilation in community acquired pneumonia patients admitted to the intensive care unit: a multicentre retrospective study.

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    Erdem, Hakan; Kocak-Tufan, Zeliha; Yilmaz, Omer; Karakurt, Zuhal; Cilli, Aykut; Turkan, Hulya; Yazicioglu-Mocin, Ozlem; Adıguzel, Nalan; Gungor, Gokay; Taşcı, Canturk; Yilmaz, Gulden; Oncul, Oral; Dogan-Celik, Aygul; Erdemli, Ozcan; Oztoprak, Nefise; Tomak, Yakup; Inan, Asuman; Tok, Demet; Temur, Sibel; Oksuz, Hafize; Senturk, Ozgur; Buyukkocak, Unase; Yilmaz-Karadag, Fatma; Ozturk-Engin, Derya; Ozcengiz, Dilek; Karakas, Ahmet; Bilgic, Hayati; Leblebicioglu, Hakan

    2014-01-08

    We evaluated patients admitted to the intensive care units with the diagnosis of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) regarding initial radiographic findings. A multicenter retrospective study was held. Chest x ray (CXR) and computerized tomography (CT) findings and also their associations with the need of ventilator support were evaluated. A total of 388 patients were enrolled. Consolidation was the main finding on CXR (89%) and CT (80%) examinations. Of all, 45% had multi-lobar involvement. Bilateral involvement was found in 40% and 44% on CXR and CT respectively. Abscesses and cavitations were rarely found. The highest correlation between CT and CXR findings was observed for interstitial involvement. More than 80% of patients needed ventilator support. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) requirement was seen to be more common in those with multi-lobar involvement on CXR as 2.4-fold and consolidation on CT as 47-fold compared with those who do not have these findings. Invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) need increased 8-fold in patients with multi-lobar involvement on CT. CXR and CT findings correlate up to a limit in terms of interstitial involvement but not in high percentages in other findings. CAP patients who are admitted to the ICU are severe cases frequently requiring ventilator support. Initial CT and CXR findings may indicate the need for ventilator support, but the assumed ongoing real practice is important and the value of radiologic evaluation beyond clinical findings to predict the mechanical ventilation need is subject for further evaluation with large patient series.

  10. Establishing Genotype-to-Phenotype Relationships in Bacteria Causing Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia: A Prelude to the Application of Clinical Metagenomics

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    Etienne Ruppé

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical metagenomics (CMg, referred to as the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS to clinical samples, is a promising tool for the diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP. Indeed, CMg allows identifying pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs, thereby providing the information required for the optimization of the antibiotic regimen. Hence, provided that CMg would be faster than conventional culture, the probabilistic regimen used in HAP could be tailored faster, which should lead to an expected decrease of mortality and morbidity. While the inference of the antibiotic susceptibility testing from metagenomic or even genomic data is challenging, a limited number of antibiotics are used in the probabilistic regimen of HAP (namely beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, glycopeptides and oxazolidinones. Accordingly, based on the perspective of applying CMg to the early diagnostic of HAP, we aimed at reviewing the performances of whole genomic sequencing (WGS of the main HAP-causing bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Staphylococcus aureus for the prediction of susceptibility to the antibiotic families advocated in the probabilistic regimen of HAP.

  11. Impact of Interstitial Pneumonia on the Survival and Risk Factors Analysis of Patients with Hematological Malignancy

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    Wei-Liang Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The emergence of interstitial pneumonia (IP in patients with hematological malignancy (HM is becoming a challenging scenario in current practice. However, detailed characterization and investigation of outcomes and risk factors on survival have not been addressed. Methods. We conducted a retrospective study of 42,584 cancer patients covering the period between 1996 and 2008 using the institutional cancer registry system. Among 816 HM patients, 61 patients with IP were recognized. The clinical features, laboratory results, and histological types were studied to determine the impact of IP on survival and identify the profile of prognostic factors. Results. HM patients with IP showed a significant worse survival than those without IP in the 5-year overall survival (P=0.027. The overall survival showed no significant difference between infectious pneumonia and noninfectious interstitial pneumonia (IIP versus nIIP (P=0.323. In a multivariate Cox regression model, leukocyte and platelet count were associated with increased risk of death. Conclusions. The occurrence of IP in HM patients is associated with increased mortality. Of interest, nIIP is a prognostic indicator in patients with lymphoma but not in patients with leukemia. However, aggressive management of IP in patients with HM is strongly advised, and further prospective survey is warranted.

  12. The National Early Warning Score (NEWS) for outcome prediction in emergency department patients with community-acquired pneumonia: results from a 6-year prospective cohort study.

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    Sbiti-Rohr, Diana; Kutz, Alexander; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Thomann, Robert; Zimmerli, Werner; Hoess, Claus; Henzen, Christoph; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2016-09-28

    To investigate the accuracy of the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) to predict mortality and adverse clinical outcomes for patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) compared to standard risk scores such as the pneumonia severity index (PSI) and CURB-65. Secondary analysis of patients included in a previous randomised-controlled trial with a median follow-up of 6.1 years. Patients with CAP included on admission to the emergency departments (ED) of 6 tertiary care hospitals in Switzerland. A total of 925 patients with confirmed CAP were included. NEWS, PSI and CURB-65 scores were calculated on admission to the ED based on admission data. Our primary outcome was all-cause mortality within 6 years of follow-up. Secondary outcomes were adverse clinical outcome defined as intensive care unit (ICU) admission, empyema and unplanned hospital readmission all occurring within 30 days after admission. We used regression models to study associations of baseline risk scores and outcomes with the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) as a measure of discrimination. 6-year overall mortality was 45.1% (n=417) with a stepwise increase with higher NEWS categories. For 30 day and 6-year mortality prediction, NEWS showed only low discrimination (AUC 0.65 and 0.60) inferior compared to PSI and CURB-65. For prediction of ICU admission, NEWS showed moderate discrimination (AUC 0.73) and improved the prognostic accuracy of a regression model, including PSI (AUC from 0.66 to 0.74, p=0.001) and CURB-65 (AUC from 0.64 to 0.73, p=0.015). NEWS was also superior to PSI and CURB-65 for prediction of empyema, but did not well predict rehospitalisation. NEWS provides additional prognostic information with regard to ris