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Sample records for acquired immunodificiency syndrome

  1. The acquired hyperostosis syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dihlmann, W.; Hering, L.; Bargon, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    Sterno-costo-clavicular hyperostosis (SCCH) is the most common manifestation of a syndrome, consisting of increased bone metabolism, mostly new bone formation and heterotopic ossification of fibrous tissue, which we have characterised as the acquired hyperostosis syndrome. In part I we discuss the terminology, radiological appearances, scintigraphy, clinical and laboratory findings, bacteriology, histology, nosology, complications, treatment and differential diagnosis of SCCH. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is regarded as a phaenotype of SCCH, depending on the age. CRMO occurs in children, adolescents and young adults, SCCH predominantly in middleaged and elderly adults. (orig.) [de

  2. Acquired ichthyosis with hoffman's syndrome

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    Sathyanarayana B

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A middle aged man presented with features of acquired ichthyosis with Hoffman's syndrome. Laboratory tests support hypothyodism. Myoedema and hypertrophy of muscles were present. Patient was previously treated for Pellagra.

  3. Acquired hyperostosis syndrome. Pt. 2

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    Dihlmann, W.; Hering, L.; Bargon, G.W.

    1988-12-01

    In the second part of this publication, we describe some additional findings in cases of sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis (SCCH). These include focal hyperostosis of the spine, in the pelvis and in the extremities and psoriatric skin lesions and severe forms of acne (acne conglobata, acne fulminans). An analysis of our 13 patients and of the relevant literature indicates that the hyperostosis is due to increased bone metabolism and heterotopic ossification of fibrous tissue and that these are the pathogenic bases of the changes in the axial skeleton, the pelvis and the bones of the extremities. We have suggested a scheme which would categorise the syndrom into complete, incomplete and possibly acquired forms. (orig./GDG).

  4. Radiological pulmonary manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchiori, Edson; Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves de; Ossa, Alfonso Jaramillo

    1999-01-01

    In this article are reviewed the principal radiologic manifestations of inflammatory and tumoral diseases the compromise the lungs of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In the group of inflammatory diseases the radiologic aspects of pneumocystosis, cytomegalovirus disease, cryptococcosis, tuberculosis and bacterial pneumonias are emphasized. In the neoplasic diseases' group the aspects of lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma are specially presented. (author)

  5. Cerebral involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krestin, G.P.; Juergens, R.; Steinbrich, W.; Diederich, N.; Koeln Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Involvement of the central nervous system in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is usually due to opportunistic infections; these frequently offer a difficult differential diagnostic problem. Imaging methods play an important part in the elucidation of symptoms. CT and MR findings were analysed in 13 patients with AIDS and neurological symptoms. Some infections of the central nervous system (encephalitis of unknown aetiology, cytomegalic encephalitis, meningitis) may show cerebral atrophy or even no morphological changes. Toxoplasmosis and PML are the most common opportunistic infections typical changes on CT and MR may lead to diagnosis. MR offers advantages compared with CT in its higher sensitivity for the demonstration even of small lesions. (orig.) [de

  6. The acquired hyperostosis syndrome. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dihlmann, W.; Hering, L.; Bargon, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    In the second part of this publication, we describe some additional findings in cases of sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis (SCCH). These include focal hyperostosis of the spine, in the pelvis and in the extremities and psoriatric skin lesions and severe forms of acne (acne conglobata, acne fulminans). An analysis of our 13 patients and of the relevant literature indicates that the hyperostosis is due to increased bone metabolism and heterotopic ossification of fibrous tissue and that these are the pathogenic bases of the changes in the axial skeleton, the pelvis and the bones of the extremities. We have suggested a scheme which would categorise the syndrom into complete, incomplete and possibly acquired forms. (orig./GDG) [de

  7. Ocular Manifestations of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

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    Kim, Young Shin; Sun, Hae Jung; Kim, Tae Hyong; Kang, Kui Dong; Lee, Sung Jin

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the patterns and risk factors of the ocular manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and their correlation with CD4+ count in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This retrospective study examined 127 AIDS patients who presented to Soonchunhyang University Hospital. Data were collected from patient interviews, clinical examinations, and laboratory investigations. Ophthalmologic examinations included the best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, anterior segment and adnexal examination, and dilated fundus examination. Of the 127 patients with AIDS, 118 were on HAART and 9 were not. The mean CD4+ count was 266.7 ± 209.1 cells/µL. There were ocular manifestations in 61 patients (48.0%). The incidence of anterior segment manifestations was higher than posterior segment manifestations at 28.3% and 19.7%, respectively. The mean CD4+ count was significantly (p AIDS. In this study, anterior segment and external ocular manifestations occurred more frequently than posterior segment manifestations. Also, the mean CD4+ count was significantly lower in patients with posterior segment ocular manifestations versus anterior segment ocular manifestations. We found that CD4+ count and age >35 years were independent risk factors for developing ocular manifestations.

  8. Hyperthyroidism caused by acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

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    Wang, J-J; Zhou, J-J; Yuan, X-L; Li, C-Y; Sheng, H; Su, B; Sheng, C-J; Qu, S; Li, H

    2014-01-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an immune deficiency disease. The etiology of hyperthyroidism, which can also be immune-related, is usually divided into six classical categories, including hypophyseal, hypothalamic, thyroid, neoplastic, autoimmune and inflammatory hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is a rare complication of highly active antimicrobial therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Hyperthyroidism caused directly by AIDS has not been previously reported. A 29-year-old man who complained of dyspnea and asthenia for 1 month, recurrent fever for more than 20 days, and breathlessness for 1 week was admitted to our hospital. The thyroid function test showed that the level of free thyroxine (FT4) was higher than normal and that the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was below normal. He was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. Additional investigations revealed a low serum albumin level and chest infection, along with diffuse lung fibrosis. Within 1 month, he experienced significant weight loss, no hand tremors, intolerance of heat, and perspiration proneness. We recommended an HIV examination; subsequently, AIDS was diagnosed based on the laboratory parameters. This is the first reported case of hyperthyroidism caused by AIDS. AIDS may cause hyperthyroidism by immunization regulation with complex, atypical, and easily ignored symptoms. Although hyperthyroidism is rare in patients with AIDS, clinicians should be aware of this potential interaction and should carefully monitor thyroid function in HIV-positive patients.

  9. Neurofibromatosis, Down's syndrome, and acquired abnormalities

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    Syed Yousuf Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a patient with Down's syndrome and neurofibromatosis who presented with a keloid, sebaceous cyst and acanthosis nigricans, along with dental and ophthalmological defects. The coexistence of neurofibromatosis type 1 and Down's syndrome which are two unrelated genetic conditions is itself a rarity.

  10. Acquired Bartter syndrome following gentamicin therapy

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    J Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity may manifest as nonoliguric renal failure or tubular dysfunction, such as Fanconi-like syndrome, Bartter-like syndrome (BS, or distal renal tubular acidosis. We report a case who developed severe renal tubular dysfunction on the the 7 th day of gentamicin therapy, resulting in metabolic alkalosis, refractory hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and polyuria. The patient was diagnosed as a case of transient BS associated with gentamicin exposure. The patient recovered with conservative management.

  11. Acquired Bartter syndrome following gentamicin therapy.

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    Singh, J; Patel, M L; Gupta, K K; Pandey, S; Dinkar, A

    2016-01-01

    Aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity may manifest as nonoliguric renal failure or tubular dysfunction, such as Fanconi-like syndrome, Bartter-like syndrome (BS), or distal renal tubular acidosis. We report a case who developed severe renal tubular dysfunction on the the 7 th day of gentamicin therapy, resulting in metabolic alkalosis, refractory hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and polyuria. The patient was diagnosed as a case of transient BS associated with gentamicin exposure. The patient recovered with conservative management.

  12. Tuberculosis and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome in South Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, M.V.; Genro, C.H.; Santos Silveira, R. de C. dos

    1989-01-01

    Tuberculosis and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome in South Brazil. The authors studied the incidence of tuberculosis in South Brazilian patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome from January 1985 to June 1988. During this period, tuberculosis occurred in 10.3% of acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients. The socioeconomic conditions and the incidence of disease in the population were not confirmed as a potential risk for tuberculosis infection. Chest radiographs revealed pulmonary infiltrates in six patients, hilar and/or mediastinal adenopathy in three, and pleural effusion in two. The two remaining patients had pulmonary consolidation associated with other features. None of these patients presented pulmonary cavitation or radiographic findings of typical reactivation of pulmonary tuberculosis. (author) [pt

  13. Toxicity of oral radiotherapy in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.S.; Fried, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Although radiotherapy is a standard form of management of head and neck tumors, treatment of the oral cavity in patients who have the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome has produced unacceptable toxicity. Five such patients are described as a warning of enhanced toxicity of oral radiotherapy in this patient population

  14. Hemorrhagic abscess in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado-Naranjo, I.; Lopez-Trigo, J.; Ferrandiz, A.; Cervello, A.; Navarro, V.

    1989-01-01

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis is frequent among patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The common computed tomography appearance of this complication is multiple low density area with ring enhancement. We describe a very rare picture of cerebral toxoplasmosis, this is multiple hemorrhagic toxoplasmic abscess. (orig.)

  15. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome associated with blood-product transfusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jett, J.R.; Kuritsky, J.N.; Katzmann, J.A.; Homburger, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    A 53-year-old white man had fever, malaise, and dyspnea on exertion. His chest roentgenogram was normal, but pulmonary function tests showed impaired diffusion capacity and a gallium scan showed marked uptake in the lungs. Results of an open-lung biopsy documented Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Immunologic test results were consistent with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The patient denied having homosexual contact or using intravenous drugs. Twenty-nine months before the diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia was made, the patient had had 16 transfusions of whole blood, platelets, and fresh-frozen plasma during coronary artery bypass surgery at another medical center. This patient is not a member of any currently recognized high-risk group and is believed to have contracted the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from blood and blood-product transfusions

  16. Cerebral computed tomography in men with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, B.; Boesen, F.; Gerstoft, J.; Nielsen, J.O.; Praestholm, J.; Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen; Hvidovre Hospital; Hvidovre Hospital; Hvidovre Hospital

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral CT scannings were performed in 19 homosexual men with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Nearly half of them (9 patients) had cortical atrophy. Three patients with toxoplasmosis had cerebral pathology, in two of them with ring enhancement while the third had an ill-defined nonspecific lesion with slight heterogeneous enhancement without ring formation. Two patients with multifocal leucoencephalopathy and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, respectively, presented non-enhancing, low attenuating lesions at CT. (orig.)

  17. Anthracyclines and Acquired Long QT Syndrome. A Case Report

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    Carlos Rodríguez Armada

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acquired long QT syndrome results from secondary causes and can be caused by more than 100 non-antiarrhythmic drugs. Cardiac arrest due to Torsades de pointes induced by drugs causing prolonged QT syndrome is a rare but potentially fatal event, even in hospitals. The case of a 47-year-old patient diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma admitted to the hematology department of the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima University General Hospital in Cienfuegos is presented. The patient had been previously treated with anthracyclines and developed episodes of palpitations and syncope later. The treatment included monitoring the patient, avoiding other QT prolonging agents and administrating magnesium sulfate and potassium chloride with a proper maintenance of the fluid and acid-base balance. The presentation of this case aims at motivating interest in new reports on the subject and establishing a direct causal relationship through the evidence provided by new experiences.

  18. Sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome in western Canada: 93 cases.

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    Leis, Marina L; Lucyshyn, Danica; Bauer, Bianca S; Grahn, Bruce H; Sandmeyer, Lynne S

    2017-11-01

    This study reviewed clinical data from dogs diagnosed with sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS) in western Canada. Medical records from the Western College of Veterinary Medicine from 2002 to 2016 showed that 93 cases of SARDS were diagnosed based on presentation for sudden blindness and a bilaterally extinguished electroretinogram. The most common pure breeds were the miniature schnauzer, dachshund, and pug. The mean age at diagnosis was 8.1 years and males and females were equally affected. Most of the dogs were presented with normal non-chromatic, but abnormal chromatic pupillary light reflexes. The incidence of retinal degeneration as detected via ophthalmoscopy increased over time after SARDS diagnosis. Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight gain, elevated liver enzyme values, isosthenuria, and proteinuria were common clinical and laboratory findings. Chromatic pupillary light reflex testing may be more valuable than non-chromatic pupillary light testing in detecting pupil response abnormalities in dogs with SARDS, although electroretinography remains the definitive diagnostic test.

  19. Bronchogenic carcinoma in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siciliano, Antonio Alexandre de Oliveira; Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves de; Marchiori, Edson

    1999-01-01

    The authors report two cases of bronchogenic carcinoma in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The first patient, a ee-year-old male, developed a left hilar adenocarcinoma, with spleen and bilateral adrenal metastases. The disease progressed unfavourably, resulting in the patient's death in less than a month. The second patient, a 47-year-old male, developed a large mass in the left upper lobe, with invasion of the thoracic wall and destruction of adjacent ribs. The histopathologic study revealed a non-oat-cell carcinoma. Both patients received palliative treatment since diagnosis was established late in the course of the disease. Recent studies suggest an association between bronchogenic carcinoma and human immunodeficiency virus infection. However, an actual increase in the prevalence of bronchogenic carcinoma in HIV-positive patients remains controversial. (author)

  20. Sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome in western Canada: 93 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis, Marina L.; Lucyshyn, Danica; Bauer, Bianca S.; Grahn, Bruce H.; Sandmeyer, Lynne S.

    2017-01-01

    This study reviewed clinical data from dogs diagnosed with sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS) in western Canada. Medical records from the Western College of Veterinary Medicine from 2002 to 2016 showed that 93 cases of SARDS were diagnosed based on presentation for sudden blindness and a bilaterally extinguished electroretinogram. The most common pure breeds were the miniature schnauzer, dachshund, and pug. The mean age at diagnosis was 8.1 years and males and females were equally affected. Most of the dogs were presented with normal non-chromatic, but abnormal chromatic pupillary light reflexes. The incidence of retinal degeneration as detected via ophthalmoscopy increased over time after SARDS diagnosis. Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight gain, elevated liver enzyme values, isosthenuria, and proteinuria were common clinical and laboratory findings. Chromatic pupillary light reflex testing may be more valuable than non-chromatic pupillary light testing in detecting pupil response abnormalities in dogs with SARDS, although electroretinography remains the definitive diagnostic test. PMID:29089658

  1. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and lymphoma in patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laviopierre, A.M.; Lawler, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis now constitutes a relatively frequent central nervous system (CNS) complication of AIDS, primary CNS lymphoma being far less common. CT scanning using the double-dose delayed (D-D-D) scan technique has proved an effective way of helping in the diagnosis of these complications. 16 patients with CNS complications of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are described. All patients were male homosexuals. The most common demonstrable lesion in the parenchyma was toxoplasmosis, which produced an area of focal oedema, usually containing a central zone of nodular or ring-shaped enhancement. Cerebral atrophy was also a common finding. One patient had diffuse peri-ventricular lymphomatous infiltration, and a further two patients had both cerebral toxoplasmosis and lymphoma. A delayed double dose contrast examination appears to be the most accurate method of outlining the total extent of CNS disease in these patients. 11 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome: A rare disorder of heterogeneous etiology

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    P Kasatkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS is a rare bleeding disorder that mimics the inherited form of von Willebrand disease (VWD in terms of laboratory findings and clinical presentation. Aims: To study the etiology of acquired VWD. Settings and Design: The patients referred from various hospitals in and out of Mumbai were included in the study. Materials and Methods: Six patients with AVWS diagnosed at this center over the last 10 years were analyzed against 171 patients with inherited VWD. The differential diagnosis of AVWS was made based on reduced levels of von Willebrand antigen and von Willebrand ristocetin cofactor, decrease in ristocetin induced platelet aggregation, absence of correction in mixing studies with no prior history of bleeding problems and a negative family history for bleeding disorders. Results: In three patients, the disease was associated with systematic lupus erythematosus, out of which one was also associated with Kikuchi lymphadenitis and second with autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Fourth case was associated with hypothyroidism and fifth was a case of dermatitis and vitiligo. The last patient was a case of hemophilia A with Burkitts lymphoma, who developed autoantibodies to von Willebrand factor. Except two patients, all other patients responded to immune suppressive therapy with corticosteroids, while the patient with hypothyroidism responded to oral thyroxine. Conclusion: AVWS is a rare condition and may often be missed or diagnosed as inherited disease associated with heterogeneous disease conditions.

  3. Management of Diabetes Mellitus in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

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    Miulescu Rucsandra Dănciulescu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is a human immune system disease characterized by increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, certain cancers and neurological disorders. The syndrome is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV that is transmitted through blood or blood products, sexual contact or contaminated hypodermic needles. Antiretroviral treatment reduces the mortality and the morbidity of HIV infection but is increasingly reported to be associated with increasing reports of metabolic abnormalities. The prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus in patients on antiretroviral therapy is high. Recently, a joint panel of American Diabetes Association (ADA and European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD experts updated the treatment recommendations for type 2 diabetes (T2DM in a consensus statement which provides guidance to health care providers. The ADA and EASD consensus statement concur that intervention in T2DM should be early, intensive, and uncompromisingly focused on maintaining glycemic levels as close as possible to the nondiabetic range. Intensive glucose management has been shown to reduce microvascular complications of diabetes but no significant benefits on cardiovascular diseases. Patients with diabetes have a high risk for cardiovascular disease and the treatment of diabetes should emphasize reduction of the cardiovascular factors risk. The treatment of diabetes mellitus in AIDS patients often involves polypharmacy, which increases the risk of suboptimal adherence

  4. Acquired Von Willebrand’s Syndrome in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

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    Sara Taveras Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS is an uncommon, underdiagnosed, and heterogeneous disease which is increasingly recognized as a cause of bleeding diatheses. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an infrequent cause of AVWS. Herein, we report a case of AVWS diagnosed during the initial presentation of SLE in a previously healthy young man with no family history of bleeding diathesis who presented with worsening epistaxis, gastrointestinal bleeding, and anasarca. He was found to have severe anemia and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT with severely decreased levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF measurements in addition to markedly decreased factor VIII levels. Further evaluation revealed nephrotic syndrome and interstitial lung disease due to SLE. He initially received combination therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG and von Willebrand factor/factor VIII concentrates without significant improvement. Treatment with steroids, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab was followed by clinical improvement evidenced by cessation of bleeding. The short follow-up did not allow us to definitely prove the therapeutic effect of immunosuppressive treatment on AVWS in SLE patients. This case adds to the literature supporting the relationship between AVWS and SLE and highlights the importance of combination therapy in the treatment of severe AVWS as well as the role of IVIG, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab in AVWS associated with SLE.

  5. [Neural mechanism underlying autistic savant and acquired savant syndrome].

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    Takahata, Keisuke; Kato, Motoichiro

    2008-07-01

    It is well known that the cases with savant syndrome, demonstrate outstanding mental capability despite coexisting severe mental disabilities. In many cases, savant skills are characterized by its domain-specificity, enhanced memory capability, and excessive focus on low-level perceptual processing. In addition, impaired integrative cognitive processing such as social cognition or executive function, restricted interest, and compulsive repetition of the same act are observed in savant individuals. All these are significantly relevant to the behavioral characteristics observed in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). A neurocognitive model of savant syndrome should explain these cognitive features and the juxtaposition of outstanding talents with cognitive disabilities. In recent neuropsychological studies, Miller (1998) reported clinical cases of "acquired savant," i.e., patients who improved or newly acquired an artistic savant-like skill in the early stage of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Although the relationship between an autistic savant and acquired savant remains to be elucidated, the advent of neuroimaging study of ASD and the clarification of FTD patients with savant-like skills may clarify the shared neural mechanisms of both types of talent. In this review, we classified current cognitive models of savant syndrome into the following 3 categories. (1) A hypermnesic model that suggests that savant skills develop from existing or dormant cognitive functions such as memory. However, recent findings obtained through neuropsychological examinations imply that savant individuals solve problems using a strategy that is fairly different from a non-autistic one. (2) A paradoxical functional facilitation model (Kapur, 1996) that offers possible explanations about how pathological states in the brain lead to development of prodigious skills. This model emphasizes the role of reciprocal inhibitory interaction among adjacent or distant cortical regions

  6. Diagnostic algorithm for relapsing acquired demyelinating syndromes in children.

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    Hacohen, Yael; Mankad, Kshitij; Chong, W K; Barkhof, Frederik; Vincent, Angela; Lim, Ming; Wassmer, Evangeline; Ciccarelli, Olga; Hemingway, Cheryl

    2017-07-18

    To establish whether children with relapsing acquired demyelinating syndromes (RDS) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Ab) show distinctive clinical and radiologic features and to generate a diagnostic algorithm for the main RDS for clinical use. A panel reviewed the clinical characteristics, MOG-Ab and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) Ab, intrathecal oligoclonal bands, and Epstein-Barr virus serology results of 110 children with RDS. A neuroradiologist blinded to the diagnosis scored the MRI scans. Clinical, radiologic, and serologic tests results were compared. The findings showed that 56.4% of children were diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS), 25.4% with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), 12.7% with multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis (MDEM), and 5.5% with relapsing optic neuritis (RON). Blinded analysis defined baseline MRI as typical of MS in 93.5% of children with MS. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis presentation was seen only in the non-MS group. Of NMOSD cases, 30.7% were AQP4-Ab positive. MOG-Ab were found in 83.3% of AQP4-Ab-negative NMOSD, 100% of MDEM, and 33.3% of RON. Children with MOG-Ab were younger, were less likely to present with area postrema syndrome, and had lower disability, longer time to relapse, and more cerebellar peduncle lesions than children with AQP4-Ab NMOSD. A diagnostic algorithm applicable to any episode of CNS demyelination leads to 4 main phenotypes: MS, AQP4-Ab NMOSD, MOG-Ab-associated disease, and antibody-negative RDS. Children with MS and AQP4-Ab NMOSD showed features typical of adult cases. Because MOG-Ab-positive children showed notable and distinctive clinical and MRI features, they were grouped into a unified phenotype (MOG-Ab-associated disease), included in a new diagnostic algorithm. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Acquired Myelodysplasia or Myelodysplastic Syndrome: Clearing the Fog

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    Ethan A. Natelson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS are clonal myeloid disorders characterized by progressive peripheral blood cytopenias associated with ineffective myelopoiesis. They are typically considered neoplasms because of frequent genetic aberrations and patient-limited survival with progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML or death related to the consequences of bone marrow failure including infection, hemorrhage, and iron overload. A progression to AML has always been recognized among the myeloproliferative disorders (MPD but occurs only rarely among those with essential thrombocythemia (ET. Yet, the World Health Organization (WHO has chosen to apply the designation myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN, for all MPD but has not similarly recommended that all MDS become the myelodysplastic neoplasms (MDN. This apparent dichotomy may reflect the extremely diverse nature of MDS. Moreover, the term MDS is occasionally inappropriately applied to hematologic disorders associated with acquired morphologic myelodysplastic features which may rather represent potentially reversible hematological responses to immune-mediated factors, nutritional deficiency states, and disordered myelopoietic responses to various pharmaceutical, herbal, or other potentially myelotoxic compounds. We emphasize the clinical settings, and the histopathologic features, of such AMD that should trigger a search for a reversible underlying condition that may be nonneoplastic and not MDS.

  8. Radionuclide brain imaging in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, D.C.; Gacinovic, S.; Miller, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) may produce a variety of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms and signs. CNS involvement in patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) includes AIDS dementia complex or HIV-1 associated cognitive/motor complex (widely known as HIV encephalopathy), progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML), opportunistic infections such as Toxoplasma gondii, TB, Cryptococcus and infiltration by non-Hodgkin's B cell lymphoma. High resolution structural imaging investigations, either X-ray Computed Tomography (CT scan) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have contributed to the understanding and definition of cerebral damage caused by HIV encephalopathy. Atrophy and mainly high signal scattered white matter abnormalities are commonly seen with MRI. PML produces focal white matter high signal abnormalities due to multiple foci of demyelination. However, using structural imaging techniques there are no reliable parameters to distinguish focal lesions due to opportunistic infection (Toxoplasma gondii abscess) from neoplasm (lymphoma infiltration). It is studied the use of radionuclide brain imaging techniques in the investigation of HIV infected patients. Brain perfusion Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPET), neuroreceptor and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies are reviewed. Greater emphasis is put on the potential of some radiopharmaceuticals, considered to be brain tumour markers, to distinguish intracerebral lymphoma infiltration from Toxoplasma infection. SPET with 201 Tl using quantification (tumour to non-tumour radioactivity ratios) appears a very promising technique to identify intracerebral lymphoma

  9. Autoimmunity and dysmetabolism of human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

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    Huang, Yan-Mei; Hong, Xue-Zhi; Xu, Jia-Hua; Luo, Jiang-Xi; Mo, Han-You; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2016-06-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains ill-defined by lists of symptoms, infections, tumors, and disorders in metabolism and immunity. Low CD4 cell count, severe loss of body weight, pneumocystis pneumonia, and Kaposi's sarcoma are the major disease indicators. Lines of evidence indicate that patients living with AIDS have both immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. Immunodeficiency is attributed to deficits in the skin- and mucosa-defined innate immunity, CD4 T cells and regulatory T cells, presumably relating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The autoimmunity in AIDS is evident by: (1) overproduction of autoantibodies, (2) impaired response of CD4 cells and CD8 cells, (3) failure of clinical trials of HIV vaccines, and (4) therapeutic benefits of immunosuppression following solid organ transplantation and bone marrow transplantation in patients at risk of AIDS. Autoantibodies are generated in response to antigens such as debris and molecules de novo released from dead cells, infectious agents, and catabolic events. Disturbances in metabolic homeostasis occur at the interface of immunodeficiency and autoimmunity in the development of AIDS. Optimal treatments favor therapeutics targeting on the regulation of metabolism to restore immune homeostasis.

  10. A nationwide survey of pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes in Japan

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    Yamaguchi, Y.; Kira, R.; Ishizaki, Y.; Sakai, Y.; Sanefuji, M.; Ichiyama, T.; Oka, A.; Kishi, T.; Kimura, S.; Kubota, M.; Takanashi, J.; Takahashi, Y.; Tamai, H.; Natsume, J.; Hamano, S.; Hirabayashi, S.; Maegaki, Y.; Mizuguchi, M.; Minagawa, K.; Yoshikawa, H.; Kira, J.; Kusunoki, S.; Hara, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical and epidemiologic features of pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS) of the CNS in Japan. Methods: We conducted a nationwide survey and collected clinical data on children with ADS aged 15 years or younger, who visited hospitals between 2005 and 2007. Results: Among 977 hospitals enrolled, 723 (74.0%) responded to our inquiries and reported a total of 439 patients as follows: 244 with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), 117 with multiple sclerosis (MS), 14 with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and 64 with other ADS. We collected and analyzed detailed data from 204 cases, including those with ADEM (66), MS (58), and NMO (10). We observed the following: (1) the estimated annual incidence rate of pediatric ADEM in Japan was 0.40 per 100,000 children (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34–0.46), with the lowest prevalence in the north; (2) the estimated prevalence rate of MS was 0.69 per 100,000 children (95% CI, 0.58–0.80), with the lowest prevalence in the south; (3) NMO in Japan was rare, with an estimated prevalence of 0.06 per 100,000 children (95% CI, 0.04–0.08); and (4) the sex ratio and mean age at onset varied by ADS type, and (5) male/female ratios correlated with ages at onset in each ADS group. Conclusions: Our results clarify the characteristic clinical features of pediatric ADS in the Japanese population. PMID:27742816

  11. An Increased Risk of Osteoporosis during Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

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    Annapoorna, N; Rao, G Venkateswara; Reddy, N S; Rambabu, P; Rao, K R S Samabasiva

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by decreased bone mineral density and mechanistic imbalances of bone tissue that may result in reduced skeletal strength and an enhanced susceptibility to fractures. Osteoporosis in its most common form affects the elderly (both sexes) and all racial groups of human beings. Multiple environmental risk factors like acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are believed to be one of the causes of osteoporosis. Recently a high incidence of osteoporosis has been observed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals. The etiology of this occurrence in HIV infections is controversial. This problem seems to be more frequent in patients receiving potent antiretroviral therapy. In AIDS, the main suggested risk factors for the development of osteoporosis are use of protease inhibitors, longer duration of HIV infection, lower body weight before antiretroviral therapy, high viral load. Variations in serum parameters like osteocalcin, c-telopeptide, levels of elements like Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, concentration of vitamin-D metabolites, lactate levels, bicarbonate concentrations, amount of alkaline phosphatase are demonstrated in the course of development of osteoporosis. OPG/RANKL/RANK system is final mediator of bone remodeling. Bone mineral density (BMD) test is of added value to assess the risk of osteoporosis in patients infected with AIDS. The biochemical markers also aid in this assessment. Clinical management mostly follows the lines of treatment of osteoporosis and osteopenia.

  12. Computed tomography of the lungs in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartelius, H.; Gaub, J.; Jensen, L.I.; Jensen, J.; Faber, V.; Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen

    1988-01-01

    Computed tomography of the chest was performed on 42 occasions as part of the diagnostic work-up in 26 homosexual men with, or suspected of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In 17 cases both the chest radiographs and the lung scans were abnormal, and bronchoscopy and/or lung biopsy established an etiologic diagnosis in the majority of these cases. In 9 cases CT of the lungs revealed unequivocal interstitial infiltration in the presence of a normal chest radiography, and subsequently and etiologic agent was demonstrated in all these cases. In 9 cases, patients with symptoms indicative of pulmonary infection had both a normal chest radiograph and a normal lung scan, and in none of these cases did the clinical course or additional diagnostic procedures indicate the presence of current opportunistic lung infection. CT of the lungs seems to identify accurately those patients with severe HIV-related diseases in whom invasive diagnostic procedures such as bronchoalveolar lavage and/or lung biopsy should be done. (orig.)

  13. Treatment of infectious complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furio, M M; Wordell, C J

    1985-01-01

    The infectious complications of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are discussed, and the conventional and nonconventional therapies used for these infections are reviewed. The infections most commonly encountered in patients with AIDS are Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (58%), Candida esophagitis (31%), toxoplasmosis (21%), cytomegalovirus infections (15%), and herpes-simplex virus infections (12%). Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is the most common life-threatening process in these patients. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) is considered the drug of choice for its treatment. Oral candidiasis often indicates the progression to AIDS in the high-risk populations of homosexual or bisexual men, intravenous drug abusers, and individuals with hemophilia. Nystatin suspension is commonly used to treat oral candidiasis, while Candida esophagitis demands systemic therapy with ketoconazole. Toxoplasmosis most commonly manifests itself in patients with AIDS as a cerebral mass lesion. The recommended therapy includes sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine. AIDS patients frequently experience protozoal invasion of the intestinal tract with Giardia lamblia, Isospora belli, and Cryptosporidium muris. Various drugs have been tried for these infections, including quinacrine hydrochloride, metronidazole, TMP-SMZ, and spiramycin. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections commonly involve the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, eyes, brain, and nervous system. Attempts to treat these disseminated CMV infections with antiviral agents, including acyclovir, have not been successful. However, acyclovir has been found beneficial in the treatment of herpes-simplex virus infections. Multiple infectious complications may occur in patients with AIDS as a result of the cellular-immune deficiency associated with this disease. Until more research is done with AIDS patients, therapy must be based on the data available from the treatment of these infections in immunosuppressed patients without AIDS.

  14. Orbital manifestations in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodhi, Punita Kumari

    2014-01-01

    The orbital manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(AIDS) are uncommon. To provide a review of orbital manifestations of AIDS, the predisposing factors, investigations, treatment and outcome. Meticulous and systematic literature search of Pubmed to identify manuscripts describing orbital manifestations of AIDS was done and the articles were reviewed.The keywords used in the search were “orbit and AIDS”, “HIV positive and orbit”,“orbit manifestations in AIDS”, “orbital disease and AIDS” and “orbital infections and AIDS”. The orbital involvement in AIDS may present with opportunistic infections from organisms like fungi, viruses, bacteria and protozoa or with malignancies like Kaposi’s sarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, smooth muscle cell tumors and lymphoma.The predisposing factors for orbital involvement in AIDS are low CD4+ cell count and the immunosuppressive states like diabetes, diabetic ketoacidosis, intravenous drug abuse and neutropenia. A patient may present with fever, headache, nausea, vomiting,decreased vision, ocular pain, and, in cases of mass formation, there is periorbital swelling, axial proptosis, globe displacement and swollen optic disc. Radiologically,mass formation, orbital bony destruction, and spread of disease to contiguous structures including the central nervous system may be seen. The medical management includes therapy for infection and HIV-1 protease inhibitors (highly active antiretroviral therapy)to suppress HIV-1 replication. For tumors, radical surgery including debulking followed by postoperative radiotherapy is generally needed. Orbital involvements with AIDS in any form, infective or malignancy, causes significant morbidity and mortality and should be diagnosed and managed as early as possible.

  15. Introduction and immunopathogenesis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudharshan S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available India has a large number of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, the third largest population of this group in the world. This disease was first described in patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia in 1981. Ocular lesions can occur at any stage of the disease but are more commonly seen at the late stages. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, the causative agent of AIDS is a retrovirus with RNA genome and a unique ′Reverse transcriptase enzyme′ and is of two types, HIV-1 and 2. Most human diseases are caused by HIV-1. The HIV-1 subtypes prevalent in India are A, B and C. They act predominantly by reducing the CD4+ cells and thus the patient becomes susceptible to opportunistic infections. High viral titers in the peripheral blood during primary infection lead to decrease in the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Onset of HIV-1-specific cellular immune response with synthesis of HIV-1 specific antibodies leads to the decline of plasma viral load and chronification of HIV-1 infection. However, the asymptomatic stage of infection may lead to persistent viral replication and a rapid turnover of plasma virions which is the clinical latency. During this period, there is further decrease in the CD4+ counts which makes the patient′s immune system incapable of controlling opportunistic pathogens and thus life-threatening AIDS-defining diseases emerge. Advent of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART has revolutionized the management of AIDS though there is associated increased development of immune recovery uveitis in a few of these patients.

  16. Mechanisms, Risk Factors, and Management of Acquired Long QT Syndrome: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftherios M. Kallergis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Long QT syndrome is characterized by prolongation of the corrected QT (QTc interval on the surface electrocardiogram and is associated with precipitation of torsade de pointes (TdP, a polymorphic ventricular tachycardia that may cause sudden death. Acquired long QT syndrome describes pathologic excessive prolongation of the QT interval, upon exposure to an environmental stressor, with reversion back to normal following removal of the stressor. The most common environmental stressor in acquired long QT syndrome is drug therapy. Acquired long QT syndrome is an important issue for clinicians and a significant public health problem concerning the large number of drugs with this adverse effect with a potentially fatal outcome, the large number of patients exposed to these drugs, and our inability to predict the risk for a given individual. In this paper, we focus on mechanisms underlying QT prolongation, risk factors for torsades de pointes and describe the short- and long-term treatment of acquired long QT syndrome.

  17. Kaposi sarcoma and lymphadenopathy syndrome: limitations of abdominal CT in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, K.L. Jr.; Federle, M.P.; Abrams, D.I.; Volberding, P.; Lewis, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was performed in 31 patients with Kaposi sarcoma (KS) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), three patients with classic KS, and 12 patients with the newly described lymphadenopathy syndrome (LNS). The frequency, distribution, and appearance of lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly were similar in the AIDS-related KS and LNS groups. Rectal and perirectal disease was identified in 86% of homosexual men studied; rectal KS could not be distinguished from proctitis on CT criteria alone. No CT abnormalities were seen in patients with classic KS. The CT demonstration of retroperitoneal, mesenteric, or pelvic adenopathy or of rectal or perirectal disease in patients with AIDS-related KS is not necessarily indicative of widespread involvement with the disease

  18. Implantation of cultured thymic fragments in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danner, S. A.; Schuurman, H. J.; Lange, J. M.; Gmelig Meyling, F. H.; Schellekens, P. T.; Huber, J.; Kater, L.

    1986-01-01

    Cultured thymic fragments were implanted in one patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related complex (ARC) and in eight AIDS patients with opportunistic infections (OIs, four patients), Kaposi's sarcoma (KS, two patients), or both (two patients). Thereafter, objective clinical

  19. Kaposi sarcoma related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: hepatic findings on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Daniel Nobrega da; Viana, Publio Cesar Cavalcante; Maciel, Rosangela Pereira; Rocha, Manoel de Souza; Gebrim, Eloisa Maria Mello Santiago [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Inst. de Radiologia]. E-mail: dnobrega@gmail.com

    2008-03-15

    Kaposi sarcoma is a neoplasm associated with immunosuppressive conditions, and involving blood and lymphatic vessels. It is the most frequent intrahepatic neoplasm in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrate multiple small nodules, prominence and contrast-enhancement of periportal branches due to the presence of the neoplastic tissue. The authors report a case of a 47-year-old male patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome presenting disseminated Kaposi sarcoma. (author)

  20. Acquired Demyelinating Syndromes: Focus on Neuromyelitis Optica and childhood-onset Multiple Sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.D. van Pelt - Gravesteijn (Daniëlle)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAcquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS) cover a broad spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory demyelinating syndromes, of which multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common subtype. This thesis focuses on two relatively rare clinical subtypes of ADS: neuromyelitis optica

  1. A case of phace syndrome and acquired hypopituitarism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denzer Friederike

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PHACE is a neurocutaneous syndrome associated with: Posterior fossa brain malformations, large “segmental” facial hemangiomas, arterial cerebrovascular-, cardiovascular-, and eye anomalies. Case vignette We are reporting a girl with PHACE syndrome. The patient had a congenital right-sided facial hemangioma with plaque-morphology. At age 11 years and 2 months she presented with short stature, markedly decreased growth velocity and signs and symptoms suggestive of hypothyroidism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI of the brain revealed complex structural and cerebrovascular arterial anomalies, including an empty sella. Testing of pituitary function revealed multiple pituitary dysfunctions, including absolute growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, central hypothyroidism, and secondary adrenal insufficiency. Conclusions This case suggests the necessity to screen all patients with PHACE syndrome and intracranial malformations for pituitary dysfunction at regular intervals.

  2. Reiter's Syndrome associated with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B.N.S. Malta

    Full Text Available The association of Reiter's Syndrome (RS with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS is seldom mentioned in the medical literature. This report illustrates this relationship in a 46 years old male patient suffering from AIDS (CD4+ = 240 cells/mm³, CD8+ = 1,301 cells/mm³ and viral load = 330,000 copies/ml, pulmonary tuberculosis (positive catarrhal bacilluscopy, and RS. The diagnosis of RS was based on the combination of dermatological and articular alterations. The patient's cutaneous lesions were characterized by exfoliation and the formation of crusts located on the face, scalp, genitals, hands, and feet; onychodystrophy with opacity; yellowish coloring; and hyperkeratosis of the nails. Articular lesions led to progressive deformity of phalangeal joints of the hands, and intensive arthralgia, mainly of the larger joints (shoulders, elbows, hips and knees. AIDS treatment was administered with anti-retroviral drugs (zidovudine and didanosine; for tuberculosis (isoniazid, rifampicine, and pyrazinamide; and (prednisone and inometacine for the RS. The patient recovered with the improvement of articular symptoms; however, on the eighth day of treatment, the patient showed significant hemoptysis and hypovolemic shock, and died. The association of RS and HIV infection is reviewed.

  3. Acquired factor VIII inhibitor syndrome: A rare cause of hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthuvel Seral Kannan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old woman presented with gross hematuria for 1 month. Clinical examinations, laboratory investigations, ultrasound and contrast computed tomography were normal, except anemia. Cystoscopy revealed bloody efflux from the right side. Retrograde pyelogram showed filling defect in the renal pelvis and biopsy was inconclusive. Renal angiogram was normal. She developed ecchymosis on the right thigh and arm with elevated activated partial thromboplastin time. The partial thromboplastin time correction study and Bethesda study confirmed the presence of acquired factor VIII inhibitor (acquired hemophilia. With flexible ureterorenoscopy, the mass in the renal pelvis was removed and its histopathology revealed clotted blood. The patient was subsequently managed with steroids and Factor eight inhibitor bypass activity.

  4. Opportunistic Neurologic Infections in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarillo, Fritzie; O'Keefe, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) especially in the resource-limited regions of the world. Diagnosis of these infections may be challenging because findings on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and brain imaging are nonspecific. While brain biopsy provides a definitive diagnosis, it is an invasive procedure associated with a relatively low mortality rate, thus less invasive modalities have been studied in recent years. Diagnosis, therefore, can be established based on a combination of a compatible clinical syndrome, radiologic and CSF findings, and understanding of the role of HIV in these infections. The most common CNS opportunistic infections are AIDS-defining conditions; thus, treatment of these infections in combination with HAART has greatly improved survival.

  5. Sizeable acquired subglottic cyst in a baby with Williams-Beuren syndrome: association or coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoforidis, Athanasios; Tsakalides, Christos; Chatziavramidis, Angelos; Karagianni, Paraskevi; Dimitriadou, Meropi; Konstantinidis, Iordanis

    2013-10-15

    We describe a case of an acquired subglottic cyst presented with persistent stridor and voice hoarsening in a baby diagnosed with Williams-Beuren syndrome that was born premature and required intubation during neonatal period. We also comment on whether this is a coincidence or there can be an association between impaired elastogenesis, a feature of patients with the syndrome and the formation of a subglottic cyst. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Acquired Elliptocytosis as a Manifestation of Myelodysplastic Syndrome with Ring Sideroblasts and Multilineage Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob D. Kjelland

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired elliptocytosis is a known but rarely described abnormality in the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS. Here we report the case of an elderly male who was admitted to the hospital with chest pain, dyspnea, and fatigue and was found to be anemic with an elliptocytosis that had only recently been noted on peripheral smears of his blood. After bone marrow biopsy he was diagnosed with MDS with ring sideroblasts and multilineage dysplasia and acquired elliptocytosis. Here we report a rare case of acquired elliptocytosis cooccurring with MDS with ring sideroblasts and multilineage dysplasia.

  7. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: A Preliminary Examination of the Effects on Gay Couples and Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Douglas

    1986-01-01

    The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic significantly influences attitudes about life and lifestyles. Homosexuals have to give increased consideration to coupling, the nature of coupled relationships, sex and intimacy, and death long before the normal time. Discusses impact of AIDS on the early stages of gay coupling and on the…

  8. Epithelioid angiomatosis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: morphology and differential diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walford, N.; van der Wouw, P. A.; Das, P. K.; ten Velden, J. J.; Hulsebosch, H. J.

    1990-01-01

    A rare vascular proliferation found as a skin lesion in patients suffering from the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and sometimes referred to as epithelioid angiomatosis is believed to be a manifestation of infection by the cat scratch bacillus or a related organism. We describe the histological

  9. Relationship between current level of immunodeficiency and non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reekie, Joanne; Kosa, Csaba; Engsig, Frederik

    2010-01-01

    In the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) era, non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining malignancies account for more morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients than AIDS-defining malignancies. However, conflicting data have been reported...

  10. Microbe-Induced Inflammatory Signals Triggering Acquired Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, J Luis; Kotecha, Ritesh; Nakao, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    Acquired bone marrow failure syndromes encompass a unique set of disorders characterized by a reduction in the effective production of mature cells by the bone marrow (BM). In the majority of cases, these syndromes are the result of the immune-mediated destruction of hematopoietic stem cells or their progenitors at various stages of differentiation. Microbial infection has also been associated with hematopoietic stem cell injury and may lead to associated transient or persistent BM failure, and recent evidence has highlighted the potential impact of commensal microbes and their metabolites on hematopoiesis. We summarize the interactions between microorganisms and the host immune system and emphasize how they may impact the development of acquired BM failure.

  11. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) secondary to disseminated histoplasmosis in the setting of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanad, Samuel; Cerk, Brendan; Ramirez, Veronica

    2018-06-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare and aggressive disease involving immune system over-activation leading to hemophagocytosis. HLH requires early diagnosis and prompt treatment initiation, especially in patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). We present a case of a middle-aged male with AIDS and renal failure, who developed HLH secondary to disseminated histoplasmosis. Etoposide chemotherapy as recommended by the HLH 2004 Guidelines was deferred and treatment focused instead on anti-fungal therapy. Anti-retroviral therapy followed thereafter.

  12. Progressive multifocal leukoence-phalopathy presenting as homonymous hemianopia in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive patient who was referred for retinal evaluation to rule out ophthalmic manifestations of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS. She complained of some disturbance in vision in both eyes. Fundus examination showed no abnormality. Perimetry, done to rule out optic nerve pathology, showed a left homonymous hemianopia. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI scan showed features of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML. She had no other neurological symptoms or signs.

  13. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a patient with no known risk factors: a pathological study.

    OpenAIRE

    Burt, A D; Scott, G; Shiach, C R; Isles, C G

    1984-01-01

    We present the pathological findings in a case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in a patient with no known risk factor. Postmortem examination showed klebsiella lung abscess, generalised cytomegalovirus infection, cerebral toxoplasmosis, and a primary cerebral lymphoma. An additional feature was the presence of dilatation of the intrahepatic large bile ducts in association with an atypical distribution of cytomegalovirus. The relation between this case and previously reported case...

  14. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a patient with no known risk factors: a pathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, A D; Scott, G; Shiach, C R; Isles, C G

    1984-04-01

    We present the pathological findings in a case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in a patient with no known risk factor. Postmortem examination showed klebsiella lung abscess, generalised cytomegalovirus infection, cerebral toxoplasmosis, and a primary cerebral lymphoma. An additional feature was the presence of dilatation of the intrahepatic large bile ducts in association with an atypical distribution of cytomegalovirus. The relation between this case and previously reported cases of AIDS is discussed.

  15. Acquired Long QT Syndrome and Torsade de Pointes Associated with HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shimabukuro-Vornhagen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report the case of an HIV infected patient that was treated for pneumonia with a macrolid antibiotic. The patient experienced a prolongation of the already pathologic QTc interval resulting in repeated torsades de pointes necessitating CPR and implantation of an AICD. This case exemplifies that torsades de pointes due to acquired long QT syndrome is a serious and potentially fatal complication in HIV-positive patients.

  16. Heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans) in acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Detection by gallium scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drane, W.E.; Tipler, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    A case of heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans) secondary to the central nervous system complications of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is reported. Because of the overwhelming suspicion of infection in this patient, this diagnosis was not considered until a gallium scan revealed the typical findings of heterotopic ossification. Because of the increasing utilization of gallium imaging in the AIDS population, every imaging specialist should be aware of this potential disorder

  17. Progressive multifocal leukoence--phalopathy presenting as homonymous hemianopia in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Amit; Bandivdekar, Karishma; Ramchandani, Suresh; Ramchandani, Sushama

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive patient who was referred for retinal evaluation to rule out ophthalmic manifestations of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). She complained of some disturbance in vision in both eyes. Fundus examination showed no abnormality. Perimetry, done to rule out optic nerve pathology, showed a left homonymous hemianopia. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan showed features of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML). She had no other neurological symptoms or signs.

  18. Radiological pulmonary manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; Manifestacoes radiologicas pulmonares da sindrome da imunodeficiencia adquirida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson; Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves de; Ossa, Alfonso Jaramillo [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    1999-06-01

    In this article are reviewed the principal radiologic manifestations of inflammatory and tumoral diseases the compromise the lungs of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In the group of inflammatory diseases the radiologic aspects of pneumocystosis, cytomegalovirus disease, cryptococcosis, tuberculosis and bacterial pneumonias are emphasized. In the neoplasic diseases' group the aspects of lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma are specially presented. (author)

  19. Thyroid hormone levels in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related complex.

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, W W; Kaptein, E M

    1989-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction and thyroid gland cytomegalovirus inclusions have been described in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex (ARC). We evaluated 80 patients with AIDS or ARC for the frequency of hypothalamic-pituitary or thyroid gland failure and altered serum thyroid hormone levels due to nonthyroidal disorders. One patient had subclinical hypothyroidism. Of these patients, 60% had low free triiodothyronine (T3) index values and ...

  20. [Systemic lupus erythematosus masking the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A report on four cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyla, Przemysław; Kucharz, Eugeniusz J

    2012-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic inflammatory disease of connective tissue with an unknown etiology and a rich clinical picture with involvement of multiple organs. Given the rich symptomatology, application of the current classification criteria is associated with a significant risk of attributing symptoms of other pathologies to lupus and/or other connective tissue disease. Inherited and acquired immune deficiencies may sometimes demonstrate a lupus-like clinical symptomatology. In this work we reviewed 4 of cases referred to the Department of Internal Diseases and Rheumatology of the Silesian Medical University in Katowice with suspected or confirmed systemic lupus erythematosus. A positive anti-HIV antibody test led to the diagnosis of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Due to the close similarity of the clinical picture and the presence of antinuclear antibodies in both diseases, the authors postulate that the anti-HIV antibody test should be done routinely in patients with connective tissue diseases.

  1. Radiological findings in three acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with Rhodococcus equi pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinxin; Tang Xiaoping; Zhang Lieguang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the imaging appearances of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in three patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( AIDS). Methods: Thoracic imaging appearances of' Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in three patients with AIDS were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The chest radiograph showed patchy consolidations and small nodules (n=3), large consolidations with multiple cavitations (n=2). CT showed large lobar or segmental consolidations with multiple cavitations (n=2), patchy consolidations (n=2), bronchiectasis (n=1), multiple small centrilobular nodules (n=2) and tree-in-bud patterns (n=2). Conclusion: The most common radiological findings in AIDS patients with Rhodococcus equi pulmonary infection are large consolidations with multiple cavitations and multiple centrilobular nodules. (authors)

  2. [Primary Intracranial Malignant Lymphoma Associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome(AIDS):A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaka, Yasufumi; Otani, Naoki; Nishida, Sho; Fujii, Kazuya; Ueno, Hideaki; Tomura, Satoshi; Tomiyama, Arata; Osada, Hideo; Wada, Kojiro; Maeda, Takuya; Mori, Kentaro

    2017-11-01

    The spread of human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)infection may result in an increased likelihood of surgery in patients with HIV infection. We treated a patient with intracranial malignant lymphoma associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(AIDS)caused by HIV infection. The recommendations of the countermeasure manual for AIDS were followed. Only surgical staff without finger injury or inflammation were permitted to be involved in the operation. All staff were dressed in a waterproof, full-body surgical gown, and wore double gloves, double foot covers, and an N95 mask. The surgery could be performed safely with such infection control measures. Histological examination revealed a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The patient was referred to the Division of Infectious Diseases and Respiratory Medicine for chemotherapy.

  3. Bone paracoccidioidomycosis associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: evaluation by radiological methods - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Lucimara; Hara, Monica Hiromi; Sabedotti, Ismail Fernando; Montandon, Cristiano; Torriani, Martin; Nanni, Livio

    1999-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a chronic granulomatous disease, caused by the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis fungus. This disease involves primarily the lungs, although disseminated forms may occur. Bone involvement is rare, and is associated to systemic disease or may present as a focal lesion. An association between paracoccidioidomycosis and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first established in 1989. There are only a few reports on this association, and none of them was the fungus isolated from bone lesions. This is the first case report on the paracoccidioidomycosis-AIDS association in which bone lesions demonstrated infection by P. brasiliensis. The authors propose the inclusion of paracoccidioidomycosis in the differential diagnosis of lytic bone lesions in patients with AIDS and discuss the role of radiological diagnostic in this case. (author)

  4. Self-care of elderly people after the diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Graciela Machado de; Leite, Marinês Tambara; Hildebrandt, Leila Mariza; Oliveski, Cinthia Cristina; Beuter, Margrid

    2018-01-01

    to characterize the seropositive elderly for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in their socio-demographic aspects; to understand how the elderly take care of themselves from the diagnosis of HIV/AIDS. Qualitative, descriptive, exploratory research conducted at a Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center with 10 elderly people receiving treatment for HIV/AIDS. The data were analyzed according to the content analysis. Data show the elderly people's lack of knowledge about HIV/AIDS transmission, the experience of being elderly and having HIV/AIDS, caring for oneself and life after diagnosis of HIV/AIDS in their daily lives. Final considerations: The diagnosis of HIV/AIDS seropositivity in the elderly generates a blend of feelings and fears that lead to food changes, adherence to treatment and the renunciation of daily and social habits, manifested as ways of self-care.

  5. Treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with Chinese medicine in China: opportunity, advancement and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Bin; Wang, Xin; Liu, Hui-Juan; Jin, Yan-Tao; Guo, Hui-Jun; Jiang, Zi-Qiang; Li, Zhen; Xu, Li-Ran

    2013-08-01

    Chinese medicine (CM) has been used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for 30 years and the demonstrated therapeutic effects of CM, such as reducing plasma HIV viral load, increasing CD4(+)T cell counts, promoting immunity reconstitution, ameliorating symptoms and signs, improving the health related quality of life (HRQOL) and counteracting against the effects of anti-retroviral drugs, were summarized and reviewed in this article. The authors point out that it had been a good opportunity to use CM for the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS in the past and also there are huge challenges ahead for CM research and clinicians to discover more effective CM and its underlying mechanisms for treatment of AIDS.

  6. Human papillomavirus-associated cancers as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defining illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Shahabi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control currently report cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal and some head and neck cancers as human papillomavirus (HPV-associated cancers. Only cervical cancer is listed amongst acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS defining illnesses. All of these cancers may represent progression of the immunocompromised state with the inability to eradicate viral infection. This study reports the case of a 27-year old HIV positive female presenting with a persistent right vulvar exophytic lesion. High-risk HPV analysis and immunostaining for P16 were both positive. A biopsy of the lesion revealed invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The patient underwent neoadjuvant radiation and chemotherapy followed by a radical vulvectomy. During treatment, her CD4 T-lymphocyte count decreased to 120 advancing her condition from HIV to AIDS. This case suggests that all HPV-associated cancers should be included as AIDS defining illnesses.

  7. Immunological studies in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Functional studies of lymphocyte subpopulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Ødum, Niels; Platz, P

    1985-01-01

    The lymphocyte transformation response in vitro to mitogens (phytohaemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and pokeweed mitogen) and antigens (purified protein derivative and tetanus) was studied in three patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), three patients with pre-AIDS, and six healthy...... controls before and after depletion of T4- or T8-positive cells. In controls, T8-depleted lymphocytes responded as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) when monocytes were added, whereas T4-depleted cells gave about 50% of this response to mitogens and no response at all to antigens....... No evidence of suppression was seen when various mixtures of T4- and T8-depleted cells were made. In particular, there was a virtually linear relationship between the percentage of T8-depleted cells and the response to antigens. The PBMC of all AIDS and pre-AIDS patients had very low or absent responses...

  8. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - correlation of high-resolution computed tomography and anatomopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchiori, Edson; Moreira, Luiza Beatriz; Capone, Domenico; Moraes, Heleno Pinto de; Pereira, Cyntia Inez Guedes Soares

    2001-01-01

    We present the main findings observed on the high-resolution computed tomography examinations of 15 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. The high-resolution computed tomography and autopsy findings of 5 patients were also compared. The most frequently observed high-resolution computed tomography patterns were ground-glass attenuation, consolidation areas, crazy-paving pattern and cysts. Nodules and intralobular reticulation were less frequently observed. Ground-glass attenuation and consolidation areas corresponded to alveolar filling with inflammatory exudate. Thickening of the interlobular septa was due to cell infiltration and edema. One patient presented interlobular reticulation, and the pathology study revealed alveolar septa thickening due to cell infiltration and fibrosis. Nodules observed in one of the patients corresponded to a patchy intra alveolar accumulation of microorganisms and inflammatory cells forming a 'granulomatous' pattern. (author)

  9. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Concepción; Castillo-Álvarez, Federico; Azcona-Gutiérrez, José M; Herraiz, María J; Ibarra, Valvanera; Oteo, José A

    2015-05-01

    Neurological complications in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are still common, even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Opportunistic infections, immune reconstitution, the virus itself, antiretroviral drugs and neurocognitive disorders have to be considered when establishing the differential diagnosis. Toxoplasmic encephalitis remains the major cause of space-occupying lesions in the brain of patients with HIV/AIDS; however, spinal cord involvement has been reported infrequently. Here, we review spinal cord toxoplasmosis in HIV infection and illustrate the condition with a recent case from our hospital. We suggest that most patients with HIV/AIDS and myelitis with enhanced spine lesions, multiple brain lesions and positive serology for Toxoplasma gondii should receive immediate empirical treatment for toxoplasmosis, and a biopsy should be performed in those cases without clinical improvement or with deterioration.

  10. Toxoplasmosis of spinal cord in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient presenting as paraparesis: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin R Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although brain has been the most common site for toxoplasma infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients, involvement of spinal cord by toxoplasma has been rarely found. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis can present as acute onset weakness in both lower limbs associated with sensory and bladder dysfunction. A presumptive diagnosis can be made in patients with CD4 count <100/mm 3 based on a positive serum Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies, no recent prophylaxis against toxoplasmosis, intramedullary ring enhancing lesion in spinal cord supported by similar lesions in brain parenchyma. Institutions of antitoxoplasma treatment in such patients result in prompt clinical response and therefore avoiding the need of unnecessary invasive diagnostic tests. Here, we report a case of toxoplasmic myelitis in immunocompromised patient presenting as myelopathy who showed significant clinical improvement after starting antitoxoplasma treatment. Hence toxoplasmic myelitis should be considered in toxoplasma seropositive immunocompromised patients presenting as myelopathy and imaging studies showing ring enhancing intramedullary lesion.

  11. Chest radiographs in acquired antibody deficiency syndrome with chronic granulomatous inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaiyumi, S.A.A.; Peest, D.; Galanski, M.; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover

    1990-01-01

    Ten cases of acquired antibody deficiency syndrome with chronic granulomatous infection were diagnosed in our hospital during the past 10 years. We were able to perform a retrospective analysis of the initial and follow-up chest radiographs in 8 of these patients. The following pathological findings could be demonstrated: 1. increased bronchovascular markings in the basal lung fields, 2. reticular densities in the middle and basal lung fields, 3. confluent nodular densities of varying size in the periphery of the basal and middle fields, 4. pulmonary infiltrates in the middle and lower lobes, 5. hilar node enlargement of moderate extent. Findings 2, 3 and 5 completely disappeared under steroid therapy whereas 1 showed only partial recovery. If both the radiologic and serologic findings are considered, it is possible to differentiate this disease from sarcoidosis. (orig.) [de

  12. Fear of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and fear of other illness in suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Jallinoja, P T; Henriksson, M M

    1994-01-01

    Suicide victims with fear of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other somatic illness were compared for psychosocial and health-related characteristics, triggers and content of fear. Fear of AIDS cases (n = 28), 2% of the 1-year Finnish suicide population (n = 1397), were younger...... and fewer had serious somatic disease (32% vs 64%) compared with cases of fear of other somatic illness. Both groups had more depression, especially major depression (54% and 61% vs 26%), more psychotic disorders (50% and 32% vs 24%) and health care contacts during their final week (61% and 64% vs 36%) than...... other suicides. Suicidal fear of AIDS calls for evaluation of sexual and other risk behaviour, but fear of AIDS was largely generated by the extensive media coverage. Fear of other somatic illness was more diverse in origin and related to illness experiences. Suicidal fear of illness calls...

  13. Beneficial Effects of High-Density Lipoproteins on Acquired von Willebrand Syndrome in Aortic Valve Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhard, C; Maafi, F; Stähli, B E; Bonnefoy, A; Gebhard, C E; Nachar, W; de Oliveira Moraes, A Benjamim; Mecteau, M; Mihalache-Avram, T; Lavoie, V; Kernaleguen, A E; Shi, Y; Busseuil, D; Chabot-Blanchet, M; Perrault, L P; Rhainds, D; Rhéaume, E; Tardif, J C

    2018-02-01

     Infusions of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major protein component of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), result in aortic valve stenosis (AVS) regression in experimental models. Severe AVS can be complicated by acquired von Willebrand syndrome, a haemorrhagic disorder associated with loss of high-molecular-weight von Willebrand factor (vWF) multimers (HMWM), the latter being a consequence of increased shear stress and enhanced vWF-cleaving protease (ADAMTS-13) activity. Although antithrombotic actions of HDL have been described, its effects on ADAMTS-13 and vWF in AVS are unknown.  We assessed ADAMTS-13 activity in plasma derived from a rabbit model of AVS ( n  = 29) as well as in plasma collected from 64 patients with severe AVS (age 65.0 ± 10.4 years, 44 males) undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR). In both human and rabbit AVS plasma, ADAMTS-13 activity was higher than that in controls ( p  AVS patients had less HMWM than controls (66.3 ± 27.2% vs. 97.2 ± 24.1%, p  AVS rabbits as compared with the placebo group (2.0 ± 0.5 RFU/sec vs. 3.8 ± 0.4 RFU/sec, p  AVS ( r  = -0.3, p  = 0.045).  Our data indicate that HDL levels are associated with reduced ADAMTS-13 activity and increased HMWM. HDL-based therapies may reduce the haematologic abnormalities of the acquired von Willebrand syndrome in AVS. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  14. [The use of growth hormone to treat endocrine-metabolic disturbances in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinola-Castro, Angela Maria; Siviero-Miachon, Adriana A; da Silva, Marcos Tadeu Nolasco; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2008-07-01

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (Aids) was initially related to HIV-associated wasting syndrome, and its metabolic disturbances to altered body composition. After Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) was started, malnutrition has declined and HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome has emerged as an important metabolic disorder. Aids is also characterized by hormonal disturbances, principally in growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF-1) axis. The use of recombinant human GH (hrGH) was formerly indicated to treat wasting syndrome, in order to increase lean body mass. Even though the use of hrGH in lipodystrophy syndrome has been considered, the decrease in insulin sensitivity is a limitation for its use, which has not been officially approved yet. Diversity in therapeutic regimen is another limitation to its use in Aids patients. The present study has reviewed the main HIV-related endocrine-metabolic disorders as well as the use of hrGH in such conditions.

  15. The Basic Nature of Ethical Problems Experienced by Persons with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Implications for Nursing Ethics Education and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Miriam E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-five persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) described and validated 100 ethical problems that are experienced by people with AIDS from 3 levels of ethical inquiry: descriptive ethics, normative ethics, and metaethics. Findings suggest strategies for improving nursing ethics education. (JOW)

  16. Utility of gallium imaging in the diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, M.C.; Bagwell, S.P.; Masur, H.

    1986-01-01

    Whole body Ga-67 scans revealed increased uptake in lymph nodes accessible for biopsy in three patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) infected by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI). In diagnostically difficult cases where the usual methods for diagnosing MAI are not helpful, Ga-67 studies may be of value

  17. Kaposi sarcoma of the conjunctiva and eyelids associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuler, J.D.; Holland, G.N.; Miles, S.A.; Miller, B.J.; Grossman, I.

    1989-01-01

    Three studies were performed to assess more accurately the prevalence, natural history, and appropriate treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposi sarcoma involving ocular structures. The first study was a prospective examination of 100 male homosexuals with AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma for signs of ophthalmic involvement. Of the 20 patients who had ophthalmic lesions, 16 had eyelid lesions and seven had conjunctival lesions. In four patients, the ophthalmic lesion was the first, and initially the only, clinically identified manifestation of Kaposi sarcoma. The second study was a retrospective review of all patients with ophthalmic Kaposi sarcoma examined at one institution over a six-year period to determine its natural history and response to therapy. Most lesions were slowly progressive and responded to systemic drug therapy. Six patients were successfully treated with radiation therapy to prevent complications. The third study was a retrospective review of all patients with AIDS-related ophthalmic Kaposi sarcoma treated with local irradiation by one radiation oncologist. Each of 12 patients showed a response to treatment, and ten had a complete resolution of lesions, but recurrences were common. Side effects included skin erythema in six patients and hair loss in one patient. For local treatment of ophthalmic Kaposi sarcoma, irradiation appears to be safe and effective for palliative therapy

  18. Progressive outer retinal necrosis associated with occlusive vasculitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chi Tseng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old man, a case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, received a highly active antiretroviral therapy at the outpatient service for 4 years without regular follow-up. He experienced progressively blurred vision for 6 months and a cutaneous zoster on his back 3 months ago. He was diagnosed with progressive outer retinal necrosis by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism using an aqueous humor sample, which revealed an existence of varicella zoster virus. He was given a combination of systemic, intravitreal antiviral and a highly active antiretroviral therapy. Occlusive vasculitis, an unusual finding for progressive outer retinal necrosis, developed in both eyes 1 week after the secondary intravitreal injection. Unfortunately, his vision deteriorated to no light perception in both eyes within 2 weeks. Progressive outer retinal necrosis is characterized clinically as showing minimal or no inflammation in the aqueous and vitreous humors, absence of retinal vasculitis, and patches of yellowish spots located deep in the retina. Physicians should pay attention to this rare case of progressive outer retinal necrosis associated occlusive vasculitis with very poor prognosis in spite of aggressive treatment.

  19. Effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine in treating acquired immune deficiency syndrome: 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Ji-Ping; Xu, Li-Ran

    2015-12-23

    Substantial progress has been made in China in using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Our objective was to review the latest developments in TCM treatment of AIDS in China between 2004 and 2014. We reviewed the content of original articles investigating the efficacy and safety of TCM for treating AIDS published in Chinese and English language journals. Relevant references from 2004 to 2014 were found using PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database. We found that TCM has been widely used for treating AIDS and its complications in China. The number of TCM studies has increased, which indicates efficacy and safety. Measures of efficacy in the reviewed articles included the alleviation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related signs and symptoms, improvements in quality of life, improvements in long-term survival, counteraction of the adverse side effects of antiviral drugs, promotion of immune reconstitution, and improvement of laboratory results. In sum, the literature indicates that TCM is safe. TCM plays an important role in the treatment of AIDS. Some studies have attempted to measure the efficacy and safety of TCM for treating AIDS, but more evidence is needed. Therefore, more research on this topic is required in the future.

  20. Use of etanercept in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Patricia T; Koo, John Y

    2006-06-01

    Etanercept (Enbrel, Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA), a soluble p75 tumor necrosis factor receptor:FC (TNFR:FC) fusion protein for plasma cytokines, specifically tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), is used in the treatment of immune-mediated rheumatic diseases. To our knowledge, the use of etanercept in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is relatively uncommon. The main purpose of this short review is to examine the safety of etanercept in patients with HIV/AIDS. A Medline search was conducted using the keywords etanercept and HIV and/or AIDS for any published articles between 1966 to the present (September 2004). A case report, one case series, and one clinical trial pertained to the use of etanercept in HIV patients. No reports were found on the use of etanercept in AIDS. In addition, two case reports were found documenting the use of infliximab in HIV patients. Preliminary reports indicate that the administration of etanercept does not appear to increase the morbidity or mortality rates in HIV. The inhibition of TNF-alpha may actually improve the symptoms of HIV/AIDS-associated aphthous ulcers, cachexia, dementia, fatigue, and fever, as well as help manage concomitant rheumatic diseases and psoriasis. The use of etanercept shows promise for applications in disease management in patients with HIV/AIDS. Continued research efforts are necessary to establish the long-term safety and efficacy of etanercept and other biologic agents in this patient population.

  1. Pathology of Penicillium marneffei. An emerging acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C R; McGinnis, M R

    1997-08-01

    To summarize current knowledge regarding the opportunistic dimorphic fungal pathogen Penicillium marneffei. Clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, mycology, histopathology, diagnostic serology, in vitro antifungal agent susceptibility testing, and therapy are discussed for human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals primarily living in Southeast Asia. Critical evaluation of peer-reviewed publications located through an electronic literature database search, supplemented by unpublished observations, were used to prepare this report. Studies were selected based on either the fungal name Penicillium marneffei, penicilliosis, penicilliosis marneffei, or a combination of these. Articles were reviewed with appropriate data being abstracted and then synthesized into the review. Differential diagnostic criteria for tissue diagnosis and laboratory identification of the fungus are detailed. The usefulness of mycoserology and antifungal therapy are evaluated. Penicillium marneffei is an emerging pathogen, primarily among patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome residing in Southeast Asia. Although infection caused by P marneffei is endemic to this portion of the world, cases are being diagnosed and treated involving individuals who have traveled to this region. Penicilliosis marneffei can clinically resemble tuberculosis, molluscum contagiosum, cryptococcosis, and histoplasmosis. The successful treatment of P marneffei infection is dependent on its rapid and accurate diagnosis.

  2. Current diagnosis and treatment of cryptococcal meningitis without acquired immunodeifciency syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Su Guo; Ze-Yan Zhao; Hui Bu; Jun-Ying He; Yue-Li Zou; Yue Zhao; Yuan-Yuan Li; Jun-Zhao Cui; Ming-Ming Zheng; Wei-Xin Han

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a central nervous system infectious disease caused by Cryptococcus. It is the most common fungal infection in the central nervous system, accounting for about 48% of fungal infection. The disease occurs mainly in acquired immunodeifciency syndrome (AIDS) patients and concentrates in the immunocompromised people without AIDS. There are nearly one million new cases of CM each year, and about 70% of them died. In China, CM occurs mainly in people without AIDS and there is an increasing trend in recent years. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with CM. The diagnosis mainly depends on laboratory examination such as morphological examination, fungal culture and antigen detection. History, clinical manifestation and imaging examination are the important parts of auxiliary examination. The initial combined antifungal treatment is emphasized, and the principle of fractional treatment including induction, consolidation and maintenance therapy should be followed. The high intracranial pressure must be reduced actively at the same time. In addition, it is proved that the novel immunotherapy combined with antifungal agents can improve the curative effect and limit the chance of antimicrobial resistance. Large-scale clinical trials are needed for further study.

  3. CT features of pulmonary mycobacterial disease in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ying; Zhang Zhiyong; Shi Yuxin; Feng Feng

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT features of pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and explore the different CT appearances between AIDS-NTM and AIDS-TB. Methods: CT findings of pulmonary NTM disease in 27 AIDS patients (NTM group) were retrospectively analyzed and compared with that of tuberculosis in 30 AIDS patients (TB group). The results were statistically analyzed using Fisher's exact test. Results: CT findings of NTM appeared significantly more than that of TB as follows: high-density nodules (n = 18 vs 1, P < 0.01), ground-glass opacities (n = 10 vs 0, P < 0.01), fibrotic band (n = 17 vs 3, P < 0.01), bronchiectasis (9 vs 2, P = 0.012). CT findings of NTM appeared significantly less than that of TB as follows: miliary nodules (0 vs 6, P = 0.016), air space consolidations (n = 2 vs 11, P < 0.01), pleural effusion (n = 1 vs 9, P < 0.01). Conclusion: Nodule and fibrotic band accompanied with bronchiectasis were the main CT manifestations of pulmonary NTM disease in AIDS patients, while air space consolidation accompanied with pleural effusion and miliary nodules were the predominate CT findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in AIDS patients. (authors)

  4. Radiation therapy for Kaposi's sarcoma associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebara, Takeshi; Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Maebayashi, Katsuya; Kurosaki, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Kaizu, Toshihide; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Akagi, Kumiko; Masuda, Gota

    2000-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma is frequently found in association with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report on radiotherapy for patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma at Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital. Between April 1991 and May 1997, radiotherapy was given to 11 lesions in eight men with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma to relieve their symptoms. The lesions involved the head and neck region, the legs, and the gastrointestinal tract. Radiotherapy was carried out with 4-MV photon through parallel opposed field or high energy electrons. Total doses ranged from 20 to 38 Gy, with a median of 30 Gy, delivered in 2- to 3-Gy fractions. Four patients were given other treatments prior to the radiotherapy. Acute reaction was evaluated according to the modified acute radiation morbidity scoring criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Radiotherapy had relieved the symptoms in all patients at completion of this therapy. Lesions that involved the hard palate and vocal cords had completely disappeared. The lesions that received radiotherapy were controlled without symptoms until the patients died. Patients who had the head and neck region treated exhibited severe acute mucosal reaction (at a dose of 30 Gy, there was grade 2 morbidity by modified RTOG criteria, in two patients, and grade 3 in three patients) although the radiation therapy was completed for these patients. Radiotherapy promises a favorable outcome for symptom relief in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. (author)

  5. Progressive Outer Retinal Necrosis Combined with Vitreous Hemorrhage in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yong Sung; Lee, Sung Jin; Lee, Sung Ho; Park, Chang Hyun

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To describe an unusual case of rapidly progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) with vitreous hemorrhage in a 41-year-old woman with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), who had retinitis developed from what was probably varicellar-zoster virus combined with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex type 1,2, as proven by the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP). Methods This study is a case report detailing clinical follow-up and an aqueous humor test by PCR-RFLP. Results The deep, white retinal lesions coalesced and progressively expanded in a circumferential manner, with sparing of the perivascular retina. However, retinal and vitreous hemorrhages, unusual findings for PORN, could be noted around the optic nerve. Varicellar-zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes simplex types 1,2 (HSV-1,2) were detected in the aqueous humor by PCR. Conclusions PORN has been described as a variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy, occurring particularly in patients with AIDS. Although the etiologic agent has been reported to be VZV, concurrent or combined etiologic agents can include HSV-1, HSV-2, and CMV in AIDS patients. Therefore, combined antiviral therapy with acyclovir and ganciclovir could be more reasonable as an initial therapy. PMID:17460434

  6. Imaging findings of disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Wenyan; Zhao Zuqi; Zhao Dawei; Jia Cuiyu; Zhang Ruichi; Liu JinXin; Guan Wanhua; Liang Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the imaging findings of disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: X-ray and multi-slice CT (MSCT) data from 33 AIDS patients with disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis confirmed by clinical manifestations and laboratory tests were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Thirty patients underwent initial chest radiography examination, 29 patients showed abnormal appearances, including bilateral disseminations in 21 patients and unilateral multiple disseminations in 8 patients. All patients underwent MSCT examination, 26 patients showed bilateral disseminations and 7 patients showed unilateral multiple disseminations. The abnormal pulmonary appearances included nodule (n = 25), miliary nodule (n = 22), air-space consolidation (n = 22), cavity (n = 11), fibrosis (n = 7), ground-glass opacity (n = 7), pneumatocele (n = 4), calcification (n = 2). There were 20 patients with more than 3 abnormal appearances and 13 patients with one or two abnormal appearances. The extra-pulmonary tuberculosis included pleural effusion (n = 33), lymphadenopathy (n = 30), intestinal tuberculosis (n = 3), splenic tuberculosis (n = 1) and cerebral tuberculosis (n = 1). Conclusion: Disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis should be highly suspected in AIDS patients with diffused nodules, miliary nodules, air-space consolidations or multiple cavities, accompanied with pleural effusion and lymphadenopathy. (authors)

  7. Erythrovirus B19 infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: screening by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Setúbal

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythrovirus B19 infects erythrocytic progenitors, transiently interrupting erythropoiesis. In AIDS patients it causes chronic anemia amenable to treatment. We looked for evidences of B19 infection in stored bone marrow material from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Histological sections were made from stored paraffin blocks from 33 autopsies (39 blocks and 35 biopsies (45 blocks, 30 patients performed from 1988 to 2002. They were examined after hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining, immunohistochemical (IHC, and in situ hybridization. HE revealed intra-nuclear inclusion bodies ("lantern cells" suggesting B19 infection in 19 sections corresponding to 19 of 63 patients examined with this test. Seven of 78 sections subjected to immunohistochemistry were positive, corresponding to 7 of 58 patients examined with this test. Fourteen sections corresponding to 13 of the 20 HE and/or IHC positive patients were subjected to in situ hybridization, with six positives results. Among the 13 patients subjected to the three techniques, only one gave unequivocal positive results in all and was considered a true positive. The frequency of B19 infection (1/63 patients in the material examined can be deemed low.

  8. The imaging appearances of the pulmonary mucormycosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinxin; Tang Xiaoping; Zhang Lieguang; Jiang Songfeng; Chen Bihua; Gan Xinqing; Huang Ruilian; Shi Hongling; Huang Wuzhi; Huang Deyang; Tang Yong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To manifest the imaging appearances of the pulmonary mucormycosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: The radiographic and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) features of the pulmonary, mucormycosis in 13 patients with AIDS were retrospectively analyzed. Results: On radiography, the infiltrative lesions were found in 5 patients, 7 cases had reticular pattern, 4 cases had pleural effusion, 4 cases had enlarged hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes, 3 cases had diffuse milliary lesions, 3 cases had masses, 2 cases had ground-glass shadows, 2 cases had cystic lesions, cavity, pleural thickening, pericardial effusion and focal pneumothorax was presented in 1 case respectively. On HRCT, 7 cases had enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes, 7 cases had interlobular septal thickening, the infiltrative lesion were found in 6 patients, 5 cases had diffuse milliary lesions, 4 cases had pleural effusion, 3 cases had masses, 2 eases had ground-glass shadows, 2 cases had cystic lesions, cavity, pleural thickening, focal bronchiectasis, pericardial effusion and focal pneumothorax was presented in 1 case respectively. Conclusion: The main imaging appearances of the pulmonary mucormycosis in patients with AIDS include diffuse milliary lesion, enlarged hilar and mediastinal lymph node, interlobular septal thickening, infiltrative lesion, pleural effusion and mass. (authors)

  9. A patient with hypereosinophilic syndrome that manifested with acquired hemophilia and elevated IgG4: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagao Yoshiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hypereosinophilic syndrome is defined as a prolonged state (more than six months of eosinophilia (greater than 1500 cells/μL, without an apparent etiology and with end-organ damage. Hypereosinophilic syndrome can cause coagulation abnormalities. Among hypereosinophilic syndrome types, the lymphocytic variant (lymphocytic hypereosinophilic syndrome is derived from a monoclonal proliferation of T lymphocytes. Here, we describe the case of a patient with lymphocytic hypereosinophilic syndrome who presented with a coagulation abnormality. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such report including a detailed clinical picture and temporal cytokine profile. Case presentation A 77-year-old Japanese man presented to our facility with massive hematuria and hypereosinophilia (greater than 2600 cells/μl. His eosinophilia first appeared five years earlier when he developed femoral artery occlusion. He manifested with multiple hematomas and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. His IgG4 level was remarkably elevated (greater than 2000 mg/dL. Polymerase chain reaction tests of peripheral blood and bone marrow identified lymphocytic hypereosinophilic syndrome. His prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time was found to be due to acquired hemophilia. Glucocorticoids suppressed both the hypereosinophilia and coagulation abnormality. However, tapering of glucocorticoids led to a relapse of the coagulation abnormality alone, without eosinophilia. Tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-5, and/or eotaxin-3 may have caused the hypereosinophilia, and interleukin-10 was correlated with the coagulation abnormality. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case in which lymphocytic hypereosinophilic syndrome and IgG4-related disease have overlapped. In addition, our patient is only the second case of hypereosinophilic disease that manifested with acquired hemophilia. Our patient relapsed with the

  10. Toxic shock syndrome due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection: Two case reports and a literature review in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Sada, Ryuichi; Fukuda, Saori; Ishimaru, Hiroyasu

    2017-01-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been spreading worldwide, including in Japan. However, few cases of toxic shock syndrome caused by Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus have been reported in Japan. We report 2 cases, in middle-aged women, of toxic shock syndrome due to Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus via a vaginal portal of entry. The first patient had used a tampon and the second patient had vaginitis ...

  11. Cofactors associated with Sudden Acquired Retinal Degeneration Syndrome: 151 dogs within a reference population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auten, Candace R; Thomasy, Sara M; Kass, Philip H; Good, Kathryn L; Hollingsworth, Steven R; Maggs, David J

    2018-05-01

    To determine factors associated with sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS) diagnosed within one referral population. 151 dogs diagnosed with SARDS. Breed, age, sex, and body weight were compared between dogs with electroretinogram-confirmed SARDS and dogs presented to the UC Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (UCD-VMTH) from 1991 to 2014. SARDS was diagnosed in 151 dogs, representing 1.3% of dogs presented to the UCD-VMTH for ophthalmic disease. Although dogs of 36 breeds were affected, the Dachshund (n = 31, 21%), Schnauzer (16, 11%), Pug (11, 7%), and Brittany (5, 3%) were significantly overrepresented, and the Labrador Retriever (3, 2%) was significantly underrepresented vs. the reference population (P < 0.001). Median (range) age and body weight of affected vs. reference dogs were 8.9 (3-20) vs. 6.8 (0.1-26) years and 12.4 (2.8-52.7) vs. 22.3 (0.1-60) kg, respectively. Dogs 6-10 years of age and between 10-20 kg in body weight were significantly overrepresented in the SARDS population, while dogs <6 years of age were significantly underrepresented (P < 0.01). Spayed females (59% of affected dogs) were significantly overrepresented compared to the reference population, whereas intact females (1% of affected dogs) were significantly underrepresented. Consistent with previous studies, smaller, middle-aged, spayed female dogs may be at increased risk of developing SARDS. Unlike previous studies, this is the first study comparing a variety of SARDS-affected breeds to a reference population. Potentially increased risk of SARDS in several breeds, particularly Dachshunds, suggests a familial factor that warrants further investigation using genetic techniques. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  12. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related primary cerebral lymphoma: response to irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, V.S.; Wilson, P.C.; Sexton, M.J.; Liew, K.H.

    2000-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related primary cerebral lymphoma (AIDS-PCL) is uncommon. Fourteen cases of presumed AIDS-PCL between 1986 and 1995 were reviewed retrospectively in order to characterize the natural history, and the response to radiotherapy. The median age was 38 years (range 24-65). The median interval between seropositive diagnosis of HIV and AIDS-PCL was 28 months (range 5-113). The median duration of symptoms was 2 weeks (range 0.2-12). At presentation, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS) was PS1 (2/14 patients), PS2 (6/14) and PS3 (6/14). The symptoms and signs were non-specific and depended on the site and extent of cerebral involvement. There was no characteristic pattern of brain imaging in terms of size, number, location or pattern of contrast enhancement of the cerebral lesions. Nine patients received various fractionation-dose schedules (range 8-50 Gy). Complete and partial responses were seen in 2/9 and 3/9 cases, respectively. Clinical stabilization of neurological symptoms was noted in 3/9 cases and disease progression in 1/9. The median survival times (MST) from presentation for irradiated and non-irradiated patients were 9.3 and 2.1 weeks, respectively (range 0.9-43.1). Although patient selection introduced bias, there appears to be a modest improvement in MST for treated patients. The MST with radiotherapy alone remains poor, but radiotherapy may provide palliation. For some selected patients, a prolonged response is possible. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  13. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome: specific aspects of the disease in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, J M; Malebranche, R; Elie, R; Laroche, A C; Pierre, G D; Arnoux, E; Spira, T J; Dupuy, J M; Seemayer, T A; Pean-Guichard, C

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents clinical data on 41 patients (29 male and 12 female) from Haiti who presented with acquired immunedeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Their mean age was 32 years (range 17-61 years). 4 of thes cases were homosexual or bisexual; none was an illicit drug user or a hemophiliac. In addition, 3 of the female patients had sexual contact with a male partner with AIDS. 4 patients had received blood transfusions before their illness. The most prominent clinical symptom in this series was chronic diarrhea of 2-33 months' duration, which occurrred in 39 patients (95%). Also reporte were marked weight loss (95%), fatigue (95%), prolonger fever (90%), and nodular or maculopapular skin lesions (54%). Opportunistic infections in this series included oroesophageal candidiasis (88%) and intestinal cryptosporidiosis (31%). Tuberculosis developed in 22% of patients. Immunologic evaluation revealed profoundly depressed T-helper cells and an inverted T-helper/T-suppressor cell ratio. Biologic markers included elevated alpha-1 thymosin and beta-2 microglobulin levels, elevated immune complexes, and the presence of acid-labile interferon. Of interest were differences in the clinical expression of AIDS between this series and cases in the US. The Haitian data suggest a higher incidencs of female cases,a predominance of gastrointestinal symptoms rather than respiratory symptoms and lymphadenopathy, a frequent association with tuberculosis, and a relatively low incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma or P. carinii pneumonia compared to the situation in the US. As in the US, where most AIDS cases are concentrated in New York and California, most AIDS cases in Haiti are found in residents of Port-au-Prince and Carrefour, which are centers for male and female prostitution.

  14. Science and ethics of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome controversies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, David

    2011-09-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in Africa has raised important ethical issues for both researchers and clinicians. The most notorious controversy has been related to the zidovudine (AZT) trials in Africa in the late 1990s, in which the control groups were given a placebo rather than an effective drug to prevent vertical transmission. This raised concerns in the sponsoring country about exploitation of subjects, injustice and an ethical double standard between donor countries and resource-poor settings. However, the real double standard is between clinical practice standards in Western versus African countries, which must be addressed as part of the increasing global inequity of wealth both between countries and also within countries. There are important limitations to ethical declarations, principles and guidelines on their own without contextual ethical reasoning. The focus on research ethics with the HIV epidemic has led to a relative neglect of ethical issues in clinical practice. Although the scientific advances in HIV/AIDS have changed the ethical issues since the 1990s, there has also been progress in the bioethics of HIV/AIDS in terms of ethical review capability by local committees as well as in exposure to ethical issues by clinicians and researchers in Africa. However, serious concerns remain about the overregulation of research by bureaucratic agencies which could discourage African research on specifically African health issues. There is also a need for African academic institutions and researchers to progressively improve their research capacity with the assistance of research funders and donor agencies. © 2011 The Author. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. Epidemiology of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Cerebrovascular Disease in a Post Antiretroviral Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucab, Phillip; Bhattacharya, Pratik

    2017-06-01

    People with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) develop ischemic stroke through distinct mechanisms. These include infections such as syphilis, tuberculosis, varicella, and other conditions such as cocaine abuse, endocarditis, and hypercoagulability. The effect of improved awareness, detection, and treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the incidence and outcome of AIDS patients with stroke is unknown. Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1995 to 2010 were analyzed. Patients with ischemic stroke and AIDS were identified using ICD-9 (International Classification of Diseases) codes. Time trends for demographics, survival, and frequency of AIDS-associated conditions were analyzed. Proportion of AIDS among stroke patients increased significantly during the study. Median age of all strokes decreased from 75 years in 1995 to 72 years in 2010. Conversely, median age for men with stroke and AIDS increased from 43 years to 53 years; and for women with stroke and AIDS, from 41 years to 51 years. Death rates from stroke in the AIDS patients declined. In recent years, the death rates from stroke are similar to patients without HIV/AIDS. Stroke patients with AIDS had increased odds of syphilis (odds ratio [OR]: 33.50), varicella (OR: 48.34), tuberculosis (OR: 137.48), endocarditis (OR: 5.19), cocaine abuse (OR: 26.05), and hypercoagulability (OR: 4.82). In the HAART era, the median age of incident stroke in AIDS has increased and the mortality from stroke has improved. Research should focus on optimal management of dyslipidemia while on HAART. Whether HAART can reduce the incidence and improve survival of stroke needs to be explored. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Correlation of diagnostic imaging and autopsy findings of eight patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongjun; Zhang Yuzhong; Cheng Jingliang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the imaging findings with pathologic correlation in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: Imaging findings, autopsy and pathological data were retrospectively analyzed in eight patients with AIDS. Routine CT scanning of different body parts was performed during their hospitalization. CT scanning was performed from the skull to the pelvis immediately following their death. After routine formalin fixing, 7 cadavers were cross sectioned for autopsy in freezing state and 1 for gross autopsy. Tissues were obtained from each sections and organs for pathological examinations. Results: The autopsy data showed parasitic infections (5 cases), bacterial infections (3 cases), fungal infections (2 cases), virus infections (2 cases), lymphoma (1 case) and cerebrovascular diseases (1 case)in eight patients with AIDS. The CT scanning demonstrated symmetrical ground glass liked shadows with pulmonary hilus as the center in 5 cases of pulmonary PCP infection; pulmonary patchy shadows, scattering distribution of nodular shadows, extensive military nodular shadows with even distribution and tuberculous pleurisy; cloudy shadows for 2 cases of fungi infection with multiple foci of chronic inflammation; pulmonary net-like parenchymal changes for 2 cases of pulmonary CMV infection; thickened intestinal wall and narrowed intestinal lumen for 1 case of intestinal tumor; low density shadows of brain tissue for 1 case of CMV encephalitis and MRI findings of high T 1 and high T 2 signals as well as MRA findings of broken vascular channels in liquefied areas of brain tissues; patchy low density areas inside a cyst of brain for one case of brain toxoplasmosis infection; multiple small patchy low density areas in cerebral basal ganglia for one case of brain cryptococcus infection. Conclusions: In AIDS patients, infection and tumor may occur in various organs resulting in complex symptoms, which makes it more complicated and difficult to make

  17. Physicians' obligations to patients infected with Ebola: echoes of acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Howard; Ecker, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Physicians across the United States are engaged in training in the identification, isolation, and initial care of patients with Ebola. Some will be asked to do more. The issue this viewpoint will address is the moral obligation of physicians to participate in these activities. In order to do so the implicit contract between society and its physicians will be considered, as will many of the arguments that are redolent of those that were litigated 30 years ago when acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was raising public fears to similar levels, and some physicians were publically proclaiming their unwillingness to render care to those individuals. We will build the case that if steps are taken to reduce risks-optimal personal protective equipment and training-to what is essentially the lowest possible level then rendering care should be seen as obligatory. If not, as in the AIDS era there will be an unfair distribution of risk, with those who take their obligations seriously having to go beyond their fair measure of exposure. It would also potentially undermine patients' faith in the altruism of physicians and thereby degrade the esteem in which our profession is held and the trust that underpins the therapeutic relationship. Finally there is an implicit contract with society. Society gives tremendously to us; we encumber a debt from all society does and offers, a debt for which recompense is rarely sought. The mosaic of moral, historical, and professional imperatives to render care to the infected all echoes the words of medicine's moral leaders in the AIDS epidemic. Arnold Relman perhaps put it most succinctly, "the risk of contracting the patient's disease is one of the risks that is inherent in the profession of medicine. Physicians who are not willing to accept that risk…ought not be in the practice of medicine." Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cholecystitis in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: ultrasonographic findings in a case of uncommon presentation during childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubi-Palomares, I.; Martinez-Leon, M. I.; Alonso-Usabiaga, I.; Ceres-Ruiz, L.

    2001-01-01

    We present the case of a boy with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in whom ultrasound revealed the presence of a calculous cholecystitis. Abdominal ultrasound was essential in the initial diagnosis and the assessment of the response to treatment. This entity has rarely been reported in the pediatric radiology literature. In our patient, the cholecystitis may have been caused by infection, and the involvement of regional lymphatic obstruction in the pathogenesis is considered. (Author) 14 refs

  19. Clinical characteristics of abnormal savda syndrome type in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients: A cross-sectional investigation in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peierdun, Mi-ji-ti; Liu, Wen-xian; Renaguli, Ai-ze-zi; Nurmuhammat, Amat; Li, Xiao-chun; Gulibaier, Ka-ha-er; Ainivaer, Wu-la-mu; Halmurat, Upur

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the distribution of abnormal hilit syndromes in traditional Uighur medicine (TUM) among human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients, and to find out the clinical characteristics of abnormal savda syndrome type HIV/AIDS patients. Between June and July in 2012, 307 eligible HIV/AIDS patients from in-patient department and out-patient clinics of Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region the Sixth People's Hospital in Urumqi were investigated. TUM syndrome differentiation was performed by a senior TUM physician. Each participant completed a Sign and Symptom Check-List for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS (SSC-HIV) questionnaire. Depression was evaluated by using Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression Questionnaire. Blood specimen was collected from each participant to test the levels of blood chemicals. Of 307 HIV/AIDS patients, 189 (61.6%) were abnormal savda syndrome type, 118 (38.4%) were non-abnormal-savda syndrome type. Mean CD4 counts of abnormal savda syndrome type patients was (227.61±192.93) cells/µL, and the prevalence of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated cystatin C were 49.7%, 28.6%, and 44.7%, which were significantly higher than those in the non-abnormal-savda syndrome type patients (26.3%, 16.0% and 25.0%,PHIV/AIDS-related symptoms such as fatigue (42.3%), back aches (40.7%), lack of appetite (33.9%), night sweats (31.7%) were more common among abnormal savda syndrome patients (PHIV/AIDS patients, and they present a more sever clinical manifestation.

  20. Acquired retinal pigmentary degeneration in a child with 13q deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Zenia P; Belin, Peter J; Cavuoto, Kara M; Jayakar, Parul; McKeown, Craig A

    2015-10-01

    Orbeli syndrome, or 13q deletion syndrome, is a rare condition caused by a distal deletion in the long arm of chromosome 13. The syndrome is characterized by severe physical malformations and developmental delays and has been associated with numerous ocular manifestations. We report the case of a 10-year-old boy with 13q deletion syndrome, who was evaluated for impaired vision and found to have bilateral retinal pigmentary changes resembling those seen in retinitis pigmentosa. There has only been one other case of retinal pigment variation in association with 13q deletion syndrome; however, this represents the first case of bilateral symmetric retinal pigmentary changes with corresponding rod and cone dysfunction on electroretinography. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Avian Influenza: Potential Impact on Sub-Saharan Military Populations with High Rates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feldman, Robert L; Nickell, Kent

    2007-01-01

    ...)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. With the arrival of avian influenza in Africa, the potential exists that some of those soldiers might also become infected with H5N1, the virus responsible for the disease...

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging depiction of acquired Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome with crossed cerebro-cerebellar diaschisis: Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ranjana; Joshi, Sandeep; Mittal, Amit; Luthra, Ishita; Mittal, Puneet; Verma, Vibha

    2015-01-01

    Acquired Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome, also known as hemispheric atrophy, is characterized by loss of volume of one cerebral hemisphere from an insult in early life. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis refers to dysfunction/atrophy of cerebellar hemisphere which is secondary to contralateral supratentorial insult. We describe magnetic resonance imaging findings in two cases of acquired Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome with crossed cerebro-cerebellar diaschisis.

  3. Thalidomide for treatment of gastrointestinal bleedings due to angiodysplasia : a case report in acquired von Willebrand syndrome and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, E T; van Galen, K P M; Schutgens, R E G

    INTRODUCTION: Acquired von Willebrand syndrome is a rare bleeding disorder and treatment of the associated gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding due to angiodysplasia is challenging. AIM: The aim of this study was to present a new case on the successful use of thalidomide in a patient with acquired von

  4. Production of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated retrovirus in human and nonhuman cells transfected with an infectious molecular clone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, A.; Gendelman, H.E.; Koenig, S.; Folks, T.; Willey, R.; Rabson, A.; Martin, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors considered an infectious molecular clone of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated retrovirus. Upon transfection, this clone directed the production of infectious virus particles in a wide variety of cells in addition to human T4 cells. The progeny, infectious virions, were synthesized in mouse, mink, monkey, and several human non-T cell lines, indicating the absence of any intracellular obstacle to viral RNA or protein production or assembly. During the course of these studies, a human colon carcinoma cell line, exquisitely sensitive to DNA transfection, was identified

  5. Pediatric patient with systemic lupus erythematosus & congenital acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: An unusual case and a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaee Fariba

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The coexistence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in patients with congenital human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is rare. This is a case report of a child diagnosed with SLE at nine years of age. She initially did well on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, hydroxychloroquine, and steroids. She then discontinued her anti-lupus medications and was lost to follow-up. At 13 years of age, her lupus symptoms had resolved and she presented with intermittent fevers, cachexia, myalgias, arthralgias, and respiratory symptoms. Through subsequent investigations, the patient was ultimately diagnosed with congenitally acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS.

  6. Gastric and Peritoneal Involvement of Human Herpes Virus 8 Related Kaposi Sarcoma in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Ribeiro Ferreira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma (KS is one of the most frequent neoplastic diseases in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. The authors report the case of a 40-year-old male with ascites, peripheral edema and peritoneal carcinomatosis secondary to a gastric KS related to human herpes virus type 8 (HHV-8. The patient had severe immunodeficiency, with a TCD4+ count of 86 cells/µl and newly diagnosed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. His clinical condition rapidly deteriorated, with multiorgan failure, and he died without the possibility of initiating antiretroviral therapy or chemotherapy. To the authors’ knowledge, carcinomatosis is a rare feature in KS.

  7. The role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of the patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mali, Mrinal; Freeman, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Acquired Immuno-deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was first recognized in the spring of 1981 in New York and California by the centers for Disease Control (CDC). Subsequently there have been numerous invasive and non-invasive methods proposed for the early diagnosis and treatment of this usually fatal disorder. This article reviews the ongoing role of nuclear medicine in the diagnosis of HIV infection and HIV related diseases over the last decade as well as some recently introduced radionuclide investigations that are still in the realm of 'work in progress'. (author). 49 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  8. Role of flexible bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage in the diagnosis of pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birriel, J A; Adams, J A; Saldana, M A; Mavunda, K; Goldfinger, S; Vernon, D; Holzman, B; McKey, R M

    1991-06-01

    Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in 16 pediatric patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and deterioration in pulmonary function suggestive of opportunistic infection. In 62% of the patients Pneumocystis carinii was identified. Culture results showed a pure growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa for one patient in addition to the Pneumocystis carinii. Bronchoscopy with lavage was well tolerated, with few complications even among patients with significant tachypnea and hypoxia. Because of its relative safety and effectiveness, this procedure should be considered the first invasive measurement used for evaluation of parenchymal lung disease in this population of patients.

  9. Thyrotoxicosis followed by Hypothyroidism due to Suppurative Thyroiditis Caused by Nocardia brasiliensis in a Patient with Advanced Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teckie, G2; Bhana, S A; Tsitsi, J M L; Shires, R

    2014-03-01

    Acute thyroiditis is an extremely rare complication of nocardiosis. We report a patient with hyperthyroidism due to suppurative thyroiditis caused by Nocardia brasiliensis. A 38-year-old Black male presented with features of thyrotoxicosis, sepsis and airway obstruction. He had no evidence of underlying thyroid disease, but was severely immunocompromised as a result of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. He had previously been diagnosed with pulmonary nocardiosis and also had nocardial abscesses on his anterior chest wall. Investigations revealed thyrotoxicosis, with a FT4 of 43.2 pmol/l and a suppressed TSH Nocardia.

  10. Acquired Ulcero-Mutilating Bilateral Acro-Osteopathy (Bureau-Barrière Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Tchernev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a 35-year-old male patient with Bureau-Barrière syndrome. Bureau-Barrière syndrome is an ulcero-mutilating acropathy almost invariably associated with excessive alcohol intake. It presents with a triad of trophic skin changes with recurrent ulcerations, bone lesions and nerve damage. The clinical presentation includes chronic painless plantar ulcerations with periulcerous hyperkeratosis, hyperhidrosis, livedoid skin colour, nail dystrophy, widening and infiltration of the toes and common interdigital mycoses. Other non-specific skin changes related to the alcohol consumption are commonly observed as well. The condition affects mainly middle-aged men suffering from alcoholism. Often a bilateral location at the lower limb of male alcoholics has been described, as in our patient. Successful treatment of the Bureau-Barrière syndrome requires an interdisciplinary approach. Cessation of alcohol intake and smoking is of paramount importance.

  11. Reproductive aspects and knowledge of family planning among women with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ivana Cristina Vieira de; Cunha, Maria da Conceição Dos Santos Oliveira; Cunha, Gilmara Holanda da; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz

    2017-05-25

    To analyze the reproductive aspects and knowledge of family planning among women with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Cross-sectional and descriptive study carried out from January to December, 2015, in the outpatient care of infectious disease unit in a hospital located in Fortaleza, Ceará. Data were collected through a form applied by interview in a private setting. 102 women participated in the study. Most were aware that they were serologically positive with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during prenatal care (96.1%) and did not intend to have more children (63.7%). Women who were less than 39 years of age, had a higher educational level, and a shorter time of antiretroviral therapy had better chances of having children (p≤0.05). Having a steady partner increased the chance of desiring to have children, while tubal ligation was higher among women that did not receive counseling on family planning. Knowledge of family planning was limited because of lack of assistance provided by health professionals. Analisar aspectos reprodutivos e conhecimento sobre planejamento familiar de mulheres com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (Aids). Estudo transversal, descritivo, realizado de janeiro a dezembro de 2015, no ambulatório de infectologia de um hospital em Fortaleza, Ceará. Os dados foram coletados por meio de formulário, aplicado por entrevista em ambiente privativo. Participaram do estudo 102 mulheres. A maioria delas teve conhecimento da sorologia positiva para vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) durante o pré-natal (96,1%), e estas não pretendiam mais ter filhos (63,7%). Mulheres com idade menor que 39 anos, maior escolaridade e menor tempo de terapia antirretroviral tiveram maiores chances de ter filhos (p≤0,05). Mulheres com idade menor que 39 anos e maior escolaridade tiveram maiores chances de ter informações corretas sobre ter filhos na vigência do HIV (p≤0,05). Ter parceiro fixo aumentou a chance de desejar ter

  12. The Relationship between Acquired Impairments of Executive Function and Behaviour Change in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Dawn; Oliver, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The latter stages of dementia in individuals with Down syndrome are well documented; however, earlier cognitive and behavioural changes have only recently been described. Holland et al. suggested such early signs of dementia in this population are behavioural and are similar to those seen in frontotemporal dementia, but there is, as…

  13. Disseminated cryptococcosis and fluconazole resistant oral candidiasis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothavade, Rajendra J; Oberai, Chetan M; Valand, Arvind G; Panthaki, Mehroo H

    2010-10-28

    Disseminated cryptococcosis and recurrent oral candidiasis was presented in a-heterosexual AIDS patient. Candida tropicalis (C.tropicalis) was isolated from the oral pseudomembranous plaques and Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) was isolated from maculopapular lesions on body parts (face, hands and chest) and body fluids (urine, expectorated sputum, and cerebrospinal fluid). In vitro drug susceptibility testing on the yeast isolates demonstrated resistance to fluconazole acquired by C. tropicalis which was a suggestive possible root cause of recurrent oral candidiasis in this patient.

  14. Primary growth hormone insensitivity (Laron syndrome and acquired hypothyroidism: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneli Ginevra

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary growth hormone resistance or growth hormone insensitivity syndrome, also known as Laron syndrome, is a hereditary disease caused by deletions or different types of mutations in the growth hormone receptor gene or by post-receptor defects. This disorder is characterized by a clinical appearance of severe growth hormone deficiency with high levels of circulating growth hormone in contrast to low serum insulin-like growth factor 1 values. Case presentation We report the case of a 15-year-old Caucasian girl who was diagnosed with Silver-Russell syndrome at the age of four and a half years. Recombinant growth hormone was administered for 18 months without an appropriate increase in growth velocity. At the age of seven years, her serum growth hormone levels were high, and an insulin-like growth factor 1 generation test did not increase insulin-like growth factor 1 levels (baseline insulin-like growth factor 1 levels, 52 μg/L; reference range, 75 μg/L to 365 μg/L; and peak, 76 μg/L and 50 μg/L after 12 and 84 hours, respectively, from baseline. The genetic analysis showed that the patient was homozygous for the R217X mutation in the growth hormone receptor gene, which is characteristic of Laron syndrome. On the basis of these results, the diagnosis of primary growth hormone insensitivity syndrome was made, and recombinant insulin-like growth factor 1 therapy was initiated. The patient's treatment was well tolerated, but unexplained central hypothyroidism occurred at the age of 12.9 years. At the age of 15 years, when the patient's sexual development was almost completed and her menstrual cycle occurred irregularly, her height was 129.8 cm, which is 4.71 standard deviations below the median for normal girls her age. Conclusion The most important functional tests for the diagnosis of growth hormone insensitivity are the insulin-like growth factor 1 generation test and genetic analysis. Currently, the only effective

  15. Primary growth hormone insensitivity (Laron syndrome) and acquired hypothyroidism: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotta, Oana R; Santarpia, Libero; Curtò, Lorenzo; Aimaretti, Gianluca; Corneli, Ginevra; Trimarchi, Francesco; Cannavò, Salvatore

    2011-07-11

    Primary growth hormone resistance or growth hormone insensitivity syndrome, also known as Laron syndrome, is a hereditary disease caused by deletions or different types of mutations in the growth hormone receptor gene or by post-receptor defects. This disorder is characterized by a clinical appearance of severe growth hormone deficiency with high levels of circulating growth hormone in contrast to low serum insulin-like growth factor 1 values. We report the case of a 15-year-old Caucasian girl who was diagnosed with Silver-Russell syndrome at the age of four and a half years. Recombinant growth hormone was administered for 18 months without an appropriate increase in growth velocity. At the age of seven years, her serum growth hormone levels were high, and an insulin-like growth factor 1 generation test did not increase insulin-like growth factor 1 levels (baseline insulin-like growth factor 1 levels, 52 μg/L; reference range, 75 μg/L to 365 μg/L; and peak, 76 μg/L and 50 μg/L after 12 and 84 hours, respectively, from baseline). The genetic analysis showed that the patient was homozygous for the R217X mutation in the growth hormone receptor gene, which is characteristic of Laron syndrome. On the basis of these results, the diagnosis of primary growth hormone insensitivity syndrome was made, and recombinant insulin-like growth factor 1 therapy was initiated. The patient's treatment was well tolerated, but unexplained central hypothyroidism occurred at the age of 12.9 years. At the age of 15 years, when the patient's sexual development was almost completed and her menstrual cycle occurred irregularly, her height was 129.8 cm, which is 4.71 standard deviations below the median for normal girls her age. The most important functional tests for the diagnosis of growth hormone insensitivity are the insulin-like growth factor 1 generation test and genetic analysis. Currently, the only effective treatment is daily administration of recombinant insulin-like growth

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is highly associated with giant idiopathic esophageal ulcers in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Bei; Cheng, Xin; Gao, Jackson; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Liping; Wang, Liwei; Huang, Shaoping; Fan, Zhenyu; Zhang, Renfang; Shen, Yinzhong; Li, Lei; Liu, Baochi; Qi, Tangkai; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Jilin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exists in giant idiopathic esophageal ulcers in the patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). 16 AIDS patients with a primary complaint of epigastric discomfort were examined by gastroscopy. Multiple and giant esophageal ulcers were biopsied and analyzed with pathology staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to determine the potential pathogenic microorganisms, including HIV, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex viruses (HSV). HIV was detected in ulcer samples from 12 out of these 16 patients. Ulcers in 2 patients were infected with CMV and ulcers in another 2 patients were found HSV positive. No obvious cancerous pathological changes were found in these multiple giant esophageal ulcer specimens. HIV may be one of the major causative agents of multiple benign giant esophageal ulcers in AIDS patients.

  17. A preliminary report of 99Tcm-ECD brain SPECT imaging in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hao; Tong Yuwei; Luo Jinxiang; Chen Jian; Wu Qiulian

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: 99 Tc m -ECD brain SPECT imaging was performed on 5 patients with AIDS and 16 sex- and age-matched normal controls. The rCBF percentages compared to the cerebellum were calculated using a semi-quantitative processing software. Results: Hypo-perfusions in the right and left frontal, temporal, parietal lobe, basal ganglia and left thalamus were seen in 1 patient with dementia. Hypo-perfusions in the right and left frontal and temporal lobe were seen in 4 patients without dementia. The rCBF in the right and left frontal, temporal, parietal lobe, basal ganglia and thalamus, straight gyri and pons decreased significantly in patients with AIDS than those of the control subjects (P < 0.01). Conclusion: There is reduced cortico-subcortical rCBF in patients with AIDS

  18. Acquired von Willebrand Syndrome Associated to Secondary IgM MGUS Emerging after Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation for AL Amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Hina; Lee, Adrienne; Valentine, Karen; Skeith, Leslie; Jimenez-Zepeda, Victor H

    2017-01-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) is a rare hemorrhagic disorder that occurs in patients with no prior personal or family history of bleeding. Here, we describe a case of AVWS occurring after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Interestingly, AVWS developed after bortezomib-based induction and conditioning regimens. Recent evidence suggests that the proximity of the bortezomib therapy to the collection of stem cells with consequent depletion of regulatory T cells after the conditioning regimen could explain some of the unusual autoimmune complications reported in patients receiving bortezomib prior to ASCT. In addition, this patient developed a secondary MGUS post-ASCT, which may have also contributed to the AVWS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of post-ASCT AVWS reported. Prospective data is needed to better elucidate the mechanisms by which these unusual complications occur in patients receiving bortezomib prior to ASCT.

  19. Acquired von Willebrand Syndrome associated to secondary IgM MGUS emerging after Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation for AL Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H Jimenez-Zepeda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS is a rare hemorrhagic disorder that occurs in patients with no prior personal or family history of bleeding. Here, we describe a case of AVWS occurring after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT. Interestingly, AVWS developed after bortezomib-based induction and conditioning regimens. Recent evidence suggests that the proximity of the bortezomib therapy to the collection of stem cells with consequent depletion of regulatory T cells after the conditioning regimen could explain some of the unusual autoimmune complications reported in patients receiving bortezomib prior to ASCT. In addition, this patient developed a secondary MGUS post-ASCT, which may have also contributed to the AVWS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of post-ASCT AVWS reported. Prospective data is needed to better elucidate the mechanisms by which these unusual complications occur in patients receiving bortezomib prior to ASCT.

  20. Silent sinus syndrome an acquired condition and the essential role of otorhinolaryngologist consultation: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Capoccioni, Gabriel; Varela-Martínez, Ernesto; Martín-Martín, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    The silent sinus syndrome (SSS) is a rare clinical entity characterized by painless spontaneous enophthalmos, hypoglobus, and facial deformities secondary to chronic maxillary sinus atelectasis. The aim of this study was to present an SSS diagnostic feature and evaluate the relationship between nasal septum deviation and maxillary sinus volume. A retrospective chart review of the clinical characteristics of 20 patients diagnosed with SSS between January 2013 and July 2014 were analyzed by the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of University Hospital Complex of Santiago de Compostela. 14 patients were females and six males. The mean age was 43 years (range 28-67 years). The right maxillary sinus was involved in 12 patients and the left maxillary sinus in eight patients. There was no statistical difference between gender and the presence of SSS. Maxillary sinus sizes were significantly smaller on the same side as the deviation (p craneo-caudal photographs. The present study demonstrates that, in adult patients, SSS generally presents a septal deviation to the affected maxillary sinus. We recommend performing a paranasal sinus CT scan when the patient has a deviated nasal septum, retraction of the malar eminence (evidenced from the viewpoint cranio-caudal facial) and hypoglobus. FESS performing postero-anterior uncinectomy and enlargement of the maxillary ostium is recommended to restore sinus pressure and prevent progression of the enophthalmos, hypoglobus and facial deformities.

  1. Giant T-U waves precede torsades de pointes in long QT syndrome: a systematic electrocardiographic analysis in patients with acquired and congenital QT prolongation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchhof, Paulus; Franz, Michael R.; Bardai, Abdennasser; Wilde, Arthur M.

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to identify electrocardiographic (ECG) criteria that are associated with initiation of torsades de pointes (TdP) in patients with acquired (a-) and congenital (c-) long QT syndrome (LQTS). Electrocardiographic criteria used as risk predictors for TdP commonly rely on a prolonged QT

  2. Toxic shock syndrome due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection: Two case reports and a literature review in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Ryuichi; Fukuda, Saori; Ishimaru, Hiroyasu

    2017-01-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been spreading worldwide, including in Japan. However, few cases of toxic shock syndrome caused by Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus have been reported in Japan. We report 2 cases, in middle-aged women, of toxic shock syndrome due to Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus via a vaginal portal of entry. The first patient had used a tampon and the second patient had vaginitis due to a cleft narrowing associated with vulvar lichen sclerosus. Both patients were admitted to our hospital with septic shock and severe acute kidney injury and subsequently recovered with appropriate antibiotic treatment. In our review of the literature, 8 cases of toxic shock syndrome caused by Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were reported in Japan. In these 8 cases, the main portals of entry were the skin and respiratory tract; however, the portal of entry of Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from a vaginal lesion has not been reported in Japan previously.

  3. Clinical, endoscopic and prognostic aspects of primary gastric non-hodgkin's lymphoma associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

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    Rosamar Eulira Fontes Rezende

    Full Text Available Primary gastric non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL is a co-morbidity that can be observed during the clinical course of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. We evaluated the prevalence, clinical-evolutive aspects and form of endoscopic presentation of primary gastric NHL associated with AIDS. Two hundred and forty-three HIV patients were submitted to upper digestive endoscopy, with evaluation of clinical, endoscopic and histological data. A CD4 count was made by flow cytometry and viral load was determined in a branched-DNA assay. Six cases (five men; mean age: 37 years; range: 29-46 years of primary gastric NHL were detected. The median CD4 count was 140 cells/mm³ and the median viral load was 40,313 copies/mL. Upper digestive endoscopy revealed polypoid (in four patients ulcero-infiltrative (two patients and ulcerated (two patients lesions and combined polypoid and ulcerated lesions (two patients. Histology of the gastric lesions demonstrated B cell NHL (four patients and T cell NHL (two patients. Five of the six patients died of complications related to gastric NHL. We concluded that primary gastric NHL is an important cause of mortality associated with AIDS.

  4. Pulmonary cryptococcosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients: Comparison of imaging characteristics among RA, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and immunocompetent patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagawa, Noriyo; Sakai, Fumikazu; Takemura, Tamiko; Ishikawa, Satoru; Takaki, Yasunobu; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Kamata, Noriko

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The imaging characteristics of cryptococcosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were analyzed by comparing them with those of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and immunocompetent patients, and the imaging findings were correlated with pathological findings. Methods: Two radiologists retrospectively compared the computed tomographic (CT) findings of 35 episodes of pulmonary cryptococcosis in 31 patients with 3 kinds of underlying states (10 RA, 12 AIDS, 13 immunocompetent), focusing on the nature, number, and distribution of lesions. The pathological findings of 18 patients (8 RA, 2 AIDS, 8 immunocompetent) were analyzed by two pathologists, and then correlated with imaging findings. Results: The frequencies of consolidation and ground glass attenuation (GGA) were significantly higher, and the frequency of peripheral distribution was significantly lower in the RA group than in the immunocompetent group. Peripheral distribution was less common and generalized distribution was more frequent in the RA group than in the AIDS group. The pathological findings of the AIDS and immunocompetent groups reflected their immune status: There was lack of a granuloma reaction in the AIDS group, and a complete granuloma reaction in the immunocompetent group, while the findings of the RA group varied, including a complete granuloma reaction, a loose granuloma reaction and a hyper-immune reaction. Cases with the last two pathologic findings were symptomatic and showed generalized or central distribution on CT. Conclusion: Cryptococcosis in the RA group showed characteristic radiological and pathological findings compared with the other 2 groups

  5. Epstein-Barr virus myelitis and Castleman's disease in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome: a case report

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    Balderacchi Jasminka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Few cases of Epstein-Barr virus myelitis have been described in the literature. Multi-centric Castleman's disease is a lymphoproliferative disorder that is well known for its associations with the human immunodeficiency virus, human herpes virus 8, and Kaposi's sarcoma. The concurrent presentation of these two diseases in a patient at the same time is extremely unusual. Case Presentation We describe the case of a 43-year-old Caucasian man with acquired immune deficiency syndrome who presented with fever, weight loss and diffuse lymphadenopathy, and was diagnosed with multi-centric Castleman's disease. He presented three weeks later with lower extremity weakness and urinary retention, at which time cerebrospinal fluid contained lymphocytic pleocytosis and elevated protein. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated abnormal spinal cord signal intensity over several cervical and thoracic segments, suggesting the diagnosis of myelitis. Our patient was ultimately diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus myelitis, as Epstein-Barr virus DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the cerebrospinal fluid. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of multi-centric Castleman's disease followed by acute Epstein-Barr virus myelitis in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient. Clinicians caring for human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients should be vigilant about monitoring patients with increasing lymphadenopathy, prompting thorough diagnostic investigations when necessary.

  6. Genetic Associations in Acquired Immune-Mediated Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes: Insights in Aplastic Anemia and Chronic Idiopathic Neutropenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroudi, Irene; Papadaki, Helen A.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing interest on the field of autoimmune diseases has unveiled a plethora of genetic factors that predispose to these diseases. However, in immune-mediated bone marrow failure syndromes, such as acquired aplastic anemia and chronic idiopathic neutropenia, in which the pathophysiology results from a myelosuppressive bone marrow microenvironment mainly due to the presence of activated T lymphocytes, leading to the accelerated apoptotic death of the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, such genetic associations have been very limited. Various alleles and haplotypes of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) molecules have been implicated in the predisposition of developing the above diseases, as well as polymorphisms of inhibitory cytokines such as interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, and transforming growth factor-β1 along with polymorphisms on molecules of the immune system including the T-bet transcription factor and signal transducers and activators of transcription. In some cases, specific polymorphisms have been implicated in the outcome of treatment on those patients. PMID:22956967

  7. Behavioral surveillance survey regarding human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among high school and junior college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhosale S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: It is necessary to know the baseline knowledge, attitude, and practices about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among young people and the changes in these with intervention to guide prevention efforts. Methods: A cross-sectional pre- and post-survey with health education as a method of intervention was carried out in four different randomly selected schools and junior colleges among the Class IX-XII students of both sex. Instrument developed by the World Health Organization (WHO/UNAIDS in their best practice recommendations was used for data collection. Results: Knowledge about all correct methods was present in 61.23% of the respondents. Knowledge of at least two methods of prevention was present in 70.31% of the respondents. Misconceptions about prevention were that good diet (33.42%, avoiding mosquito bite (49.71% and avoiding public toilets (65.14% could help in the prevention. With intervention, there was an improvement in the knowledge. However, the proportion of students with misconceptions did not come down. Correct knowledge about two methods of prevention also did not reach the WHO recommendation of 90%. Conclusion: It is very difficult to change the attitude and practices by a single health educational intervention and an ongoing behavior change communication is recommended.

  8. The human immunodeficiency virus preventive vaccine research at the French National Agency for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Fischer

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS epidemic is of unprecedented gravity and is spreading rapidly, notably in the most disadvantaged regions of the world. The search for a preventive vaccine is thus an absolute priority. For over 10 years the French National Agency for AIDS research (ANRS has been committed to an original program combining basic science and clinical research. The HIV preventive vaccine research program run by the ANRS covers upstream research for the definition of immunogens, animal models, and clinical research to evaluate candidate vaccines. Most researchers in 2004 believe that it should be possible to obtain partial vaccine protection through the induction of a strong and multiepitopic cellular response. Since 1992, the ANRS has set up 15 phases I and II clinical trials in order to evaluate the safety and the capacity of the candidate vaccines for inducing cellular immune responses. The tested candidate vaccines were increasingly complex recombinant canarypox viruses (Alvac containing sequences coding for certain viral proteins, utilized alone or combined with other immunogens (whole or truncated envelope proteins. ANRS has also been developing an original strategy based on the utilization of lipopeptides. These comprise synthetic fragments of viral proteins associated with lipids that facilitate the induction of a cellular immune response. These approaches promptly allowed the assessment of a prime-boost strategy combining a viral vector and lipopeptides.

  9. Pulmonary cryptococcosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients: Comparison of imaging characteristics among RA, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and immunocompetent patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagawa, Noriyo, E-mail: noriyo_yana@ybb.ne.jp [Departments of Radiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital, 3-8-22, Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan); Sakai, Fumikazu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka-shi, Saitama 350-1298 (Japan); Takemura, Tamiko [Department of Pathology, Japanese Red Cross Medical Center, 4-1-22 Hiroo, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8935 (Japan); Ishikawa, Satoru [Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Hospital Organization Chiba-East-Hospital, 673 Nitona-cho, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 260-8712 (Japan); Takaki, Yasunobu [Departments of Radiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital, 3-8-22, Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan); Hishima, Tsunekazu [Department of Pathology, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital, 3-8-22, Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan); Kamata, Noriko [Departments of Radiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital, 3-8-22, Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: The imaging characteristics of cryptococcosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were analyzed by comparing them with those of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and immunocompetent patients, and the imaging findings were correlated with pathological findings. Methods: Two radiologists retrospectively compared the computed tomographic (CT) findings of 35 episodes of pulmonary cryptococcosis in 31 patients with 3 kinds of underlying states (10 RA, 12 AIDS, 13 immunocompetent), focusing on the nature, number, and distribution of lesions. The pathological findings of 18 patients (8 RA, 2 AIDS, 8 immunocompetent) were analyzed by two pathologists, and then correlated with imaging findings. Results: The frequencies of consolidation and ground glass attenuation (GGA) were significantly higher, and the frequency of peripheral distribution was significantly lower in the RA group than in the immunocompetent group. Peripheral distribution was less common and generalized distribution was more frequent in the RA group than in the AIDS group. The pathological findings of the AIDS and immunocompetent groups reflected their immune status: There was lack of a granuloma reaction in the AIDS group, and a complete granuloma reaction in the immunocompetent group, while the findings of the RA group varied, including a complete granuloma reaction, a loose granuloma reaction and a hyper-immune reaction. Cases with the last two pathologic findings were symptomatic and showed generalized or central distribution on CT. Conclusion: Cryptococcosis in the RA group showed characteristic radiological and pathological findings compared with the other 2 groups.

  10. New clinical and histological patterns of acute disseminated histoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollague Sierra, Jose E; Ollague Torres, Jose M

    2013-04-01

    Histoplasmosis has attained increasing relevance in the past 3 decades because of the appearance of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In most immunocompetent persons, the infection is asymptomatic or can produce a respiratory condition with symptoms and radiological images similar to those observed in pulmonary tuberculosis; in non-HIV+ immunocompromised patients, it can cause respiratory symptoms or evolve into a disseminated infection. The same can occur in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. We have observed a series of HIV+ patients with AIDS who presented with cutaneous histoplasmosis and in whom the clinical and histopathological features were highly unusual, including variable mucocutaneous lesions that were difficult to diagnose clinically. These patients displayed unusual, previously undescribed, histological patterns, including lichenoid pattern, nodular pseudomyxoid pattern, pyogenic granuloma-like pattern, perifollicular pattern, and superficial (S), mid (M), and deep perivascular dermatitis; and more commonly encountered patterns, such as histiocytic lobular panniculitis and focal nodular dermatitis. The novel histopathological patterns of cutaneous involvement by histoplasmosis seen in these patients resembled other common inflammatory and infectious conditions and required a high level of suspicion and the application of special stains for organisms for confirmation. These new, clinical, and histological findings do not seem to be commonly encountered in HIV- patients infected with the fungus but seem to be displayed most prominently in HIV+ patients with AIDS.

  11. Simulation study of the effect of influenza and influenza vaccination on risk of acquiring Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, Steven; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Deeks, Shelley L; Crowcroft, Natasha S; McGeer, Allison J; Ducharme, Robin; Campitelli, Michael A; Coyle, Doug; Wilson, Kumanan

    2015-02-01

    It is unclear whether seasonal influenza vaccination results in a net increase or decrease in the risk for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). To assess the effect of seasonal influenza vaccination on the absolute risk of acquiring GBS, we used simulation models and published estimates of age- and sex-specific risks for GBS, influenza incidence, and vaccine effectiveness. For a hypothetical 45-year-old woman and 75-year-old man, excess GBS risk for influenza vaccination versus no vaccination was -0.36/1 million vaccinations (95% credible interval -1.22% to 0.28) and -0.42/1 million vaccinations (95% credible interval, -3.68 to 2.44), respectively. These numbers represent a small absolute reduction in GBS risk with vaccination. Under typical conditions (e.g. influenza incidence rates >5% and vaccine effectiveness >60%), vaccination reduced GBS risk. These findings should strengthen confidence in the safety of influenza vaccine and allow health professionals to better put GBS risk in context when discussing influenza vaccination with patients.

  12. High rate of mutation K103N causing resistance to nevirapine in Indian children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

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    Sehgal S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In north India the number of paediatric cases with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is on the rise. Most drug combinations used for treatment of AIDS incorporate nevirapine, resistance to which develops very fast if given singly or because of unplanned interruptions. This paper investigates presence of mutations at codon 103 and codon 215 of the HIV pol gene causing resistance to nevirapine and zidovudine (AZT respectively in 25 children with AIDS. Mutations T215Y and K103N were detected by a nested cum amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS PCR and the results were confirmed by direct sequencing in five randomly selected cases. Nineteen patients had received nevirapine containing regimen and six were drug naive. Mutation K103N was observed in 56% (14/25 of the children while mutation T215Y was found in none. Two of the six drug naοve children also showed K103N mutation. Thus, Indian children drug naοve or treated with nevirapine containing regimens show a high rate of mutation conferring resistance to nevirapine which calls for a judicious use of nevirapine both in antenatal and postnatal setting.

  13. Radiation therapy for Kaposi's sarcoma associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebara, Takeshi [Municipal Kanbara General Hospital, Fujikawa, Shizuoka (Japan); Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Maebayashi, Katsuya; Kurosaki, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Kaizu, Toshihide; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Akagi, Kumiko; Masuda, Gota

    2000-12-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma is frequently found in association with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report on radiotherapy for patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma at Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital. Between April 1991 and May 1997, radiotherapy was given to 11 lesions in eight men with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma to relieve their symptoms. The lesions involved the head and neck region, the legs, and the gastrointestinal tract. Radiotherapy was carried out with 4-MV photon through parallel opposed field or high energy electrons. Total doses ranged from 20 to 38 Gy, with a median of 30 Gy, delivered in 2- to 3-Gy fractions. Four patients were given other treatments prior to the radiotherapy. Acute reaction was evaluated according to the modified acute radiation morbidity scoring criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Radiotherapy had relieved the symptoms in all patients at completion of this therapy. Lesions that involved the hard palate and vocal cords had completely disappeared. The lesions that received radiotherapy were controlled without symptoms until the patients died. Patients who had the head and neck region treated exhibited severe acute mucosal reaction (at a dose of 30 Gy, there was grade 2 morbidity by modified RTOG criteria, in two patients, and grade 3 in three patients) although the radiation therapy was completed for these patients. Radiotherapy promises a favorable outcome for symptom relief in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. (author)

  14. Depression among people living with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Benin City, Nigeria: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikezie, U E; Otakpor, A N; Kuteyi, O B; James, B O

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a common co-morbidity among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) (PLWHAs). It is associated with poor treatment adherence and higher mortality rates. Few reports have, however, emanated from developing countries where socioeconomic factors may confound this association. We conducted a cross-sectional comparative study of PLWHAs and apparently healthy staff of three LGA's. The depression module of the Schedule for the Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to diagnose depression and depression symptom severity, respectively. Depression was commonly co-morbid among individuals with HIV/AIDS. It was five times more common in PLWHAs than in apparently healthy populations (29.3% vs. 7.3%, OR: 5.25, 95% CI: 2.50-11.76). A similar trend was observed for depression symptom severity. Among PLWHAs, depression was significantly more likely among females (OR: 7.91, 95% CI: 1.83-71.00, P 3 years (OR: 7.90, P risk. Depression was commonly co-morbid among PLWHAs studied. Clinicians should be aware of risk factors for depression among PLWHAs in order to improve treatment outcomes.

  15. MR findings of central nervous system involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient : a report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hye Suk; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Byeong Hee; Jeong, Sun Yang

    1996-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) manifestations in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients are an early and common feature. The spectrum of AIDS-related CNS diseases are encephalitis caused by the human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) itself, opportunistic infection, infarct and malignancy. We experienced two cases of CNS involvement in AIDS and they were serologically diagnosed as HIV encephalitis and CNS toxoplasmosis, respectively. In the case of the HIV encephalitis patient, brain MRI showed a non-enhancing lesion with high signal intensity on T2WI and low signal on T1WI and there was no mass effect on the right frontal lobe, periventricular white matter, splenium of the corpus callosum or bilateral basal ganglia. In the other case of CNS toxoplasmosis, MR showed multiple nodular and rim enhanced mass lesions in the right basal ganglia, thalamus and periventricular white matter, which were of low signal intensity on T1WI and of high intensity on T2WI. We thus report the related MRI findings

  16. In Vitro and In Silico Risk Assessment in Acquired Long QT Syndrome: The Devil Is in the Details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William; Windley, Monique J; Vandenberg, Jamie I; Hill, Adam P

    2017-01-01

    Acquired long QT syndrome, mostly as a result of drug block of the Kv11. 1 potassium channel in the heart, is characterized by delayed cardiac myocyte repolarization, prolongation of the T interval on the ECG, syncope and sudden cardiac death due to the polymorphic ventricular arrhythmia Torsade de Pointes (TdP). In recent years, efforts are underway through the Comprehensive in vitro proarrhythmic assay (CiPA) initiative, to develop better tests for this drug induced arrhythmia based in part on in silico simulations of pharmacological disruption of repolarization. However, drug binding to Kv11.1 is more complex than a simple binary molecular reaction, meaning simple steady state measures of potency are poor surrogates for risk. As a result, there is a plethora of mechanistic detail describing the drug/Kv11.1 interaction-such as drug binding kinetics, state preference, temperature dependence and trapping-that needs to be considered when developing in silico models for risk prediction. In addition to this, other factors, such as multichannel pharmacological profile and the nature of the ventricular cell models used in simulations also need to be considered in the search for the optimum in silico approach. Here we consider how much of mechanistic detail needs to be included for in silico models to accurately predict risk and further, how much of this detail can be retrieved from protocols that are practical to implement in high throughout screens as part of next generation of preclinical in silico drug screening approaches?

  17. X-ray and CT findings of soft tissue and bone infections secondary to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Songfeng; Liu Jinxin; Chen Bihua; Zhang Lieguang; Gan Qingxin; Huang Deyang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To summarize X-ray and CT findings of soft tissue and bone infections secondary to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: The data of X-ray and CT findings of soft tissue and bone infections in 18 patients with AIDS were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results: Of 18 patients with AIDS, the CT features of soft tissue demonstrated that subcutaneous patchy high density in 1 case which considered as cellulitis, round low density lesions with ring enhancement in 6 cases which considered as soft tissue abscesses, heterogeneous density lesions with peripheral enhancement in 1 case which considered as pyomyositis. Of 18 patients with AIDS, septic arthritis was found in 4 cases involving knee lesion in 3 cases and hip lesion. In the 4 case, the X-ray films showed bony destruction in 2 cases and the CT showed bone destruction in 3 cases and arthroedema in 4 cases. Of 18 patients with AIDS, osteomyelitis was found in 9 cases of which tuberculosis was considered in. 8 cases and vertebral involvement in 6 cases. In the 9 cases, the X-ray films and CT displayed bony destruction, hyperostosis, small sequestra, and intervertebral space narrowing. Of 18 patients with AIDS, costal lesions were found in 3 cases in which the CT showed expandable bony destruction. Of 18 patients with AIDS, ilium and sacroiliac joint lesions were found in 1 case in which the X-ray films and CT showed bony destruction, sequestra, and joint widening. Of 18 patients with AIDS, chronic pyogenic osteomyelitis of femur was found in 1 case in which the X-ray films showed bony destruction, hyperostosis osteosclerosis, and periosteal reaction. Conclusion: The X-ray and CT features of soft tissue and bone infections secondary to AIDS are characterized. The X-ray and CT are useful tools to early diagnose soft tissue and bone infections secondary to AIDS. (authors)

  18. A Clinical Study of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Associated Penicillium Marneffei Infection from a Non-Endemic Area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinding; Gui, Xien; Cao, Qian; Yang, Rongrong; Yan, Yajun; Deng, Liping; Lio, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of penicilliosis among the patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in non-endemic areas of China, and then to discuss its incubation period and the diagnostic performance of serum galactomannan test for penicilliosis. Medical records and travel histories of penicilliosis patients in Zhongnan hospital from January 2006 to December 2013, and the interval from when the patients left the endemic area to the onset of the disease was analyzed. Serum galactomannan levels of penicilliosis patients and AIDS patients with fever were measured by the Platelia Aspergillus Enzyme Immunoassay Kit. A total of 47 AIDS-associated penicilliosis were confirmed by fungal culture, which accounted for 4.8% of 981 AIDS-related admissions. The sensitivity and specificity of serum galactomannan test for penicilliosis were 95.8% (23/24) and 90.9% (30/33), respectively, (cutoff index = 1.0). Two independent predictors for early mortality (death within 12 weeks) of the patients (21.3%, 10/47) were a delayed diagnosis and no treatment with antifungal therapy. Among 14 patients who became ill after leaving endemic areas, ten patients presented with the onset symptoms within 12 months (from 11 days to 360 days). We found a patient living with asymptomatic P. marneffei fungemia who had not received any antifungal therapy until 18 months' follow up. The co-infection of P. marneffei and HIV was not uncommon in the non-endemic areas of penicilliosis in China. There exists a latent form of infection for P. marneffei. The incubation period of penicilliosis may be quite different from one patient to another. In AIDS patients, the serum galactomannan test has utility for the diagnosis of penicilliosis. When patients with penicilliosis/AIDS were diagnosed early and treated with standardized antifungal therapy and combined antiretroviral therapy, their prognosis improved.

  19. Risky sexual behaviour and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS among healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Khamisa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa is known to have one of the highest prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS globally, with one in seven healthcare workers being HIV-positive. An HIV-positive healthcare workforce is less equipped to respond to the increasing spread of the epidemic. Objectives: Assessment of the factors contributing to high HIV prevalence rates among healthcare workers is important in planning the development of human resources. This review sought to identify and understand predominant risky sexual behaviours among healthcare workers in HIV and AIDS-affected countries. Methods: This study reviewed articles focusing on sexual behaviour among healthcare workers. Major health science databases (e.g. ProQuest, Cochrane, PubMed and CINAHL were searched for combinations of keywords including ‘healthcare workers’, ‘risky sexual behaviour’ and ‘HIV and AIDS’. Articles from a range of countries met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Findings of the study revealed three main contributing factors: unprotected sex, multiple sex partners and sexual violence. Sexual violence emerged as the dominant risk factor in the majority of the studies. Most research was conducted in developed countries where the HIV infection rate is much lower than it is in developing countries. Conclusion: More research needs to be conducted in developing countries and appropriate strategies should be implemented to reduce sexual violence among healthcare workers. Appropriate procedures on reporting sexual violence coupled with education on HIV and AIDS as well as influencing attitudes and belief systems could assist in reducing the spread of HIV and AIDS within the healthcare workforce while minimising the effect on patient care.

  20. In Vitro and In Silico Risk Assessment in Acquired Long QT Syndrome: The Devil Is in the Details

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Acquired long QT syndrome, mostly as a result of drug block of the Kv11. 1 potassium channel in the heart, is characterized by delayed cardiac myocyte repolarization, prolongation of the T interval on the ECG, syncope and sudden cardiac death due to the polymorphic ventricular arrhythmia Torsade de Pointes (TdP. In recent years, efforts are underway through the Comprehensive in vitro proarrhythmic assay (CiPA initiative, to develop better tests for this drug induced arrhythmia based in part on in silico simulations of pharmacological disruption of repolarization. However, drug binding to Kv11.1 is more complex than a simple binary molecular reaction, meaning simple steady state measures of potency are poor surrogates for risk. As a result, there is a plethora of mechanistic detail describing the drug/Kv11.1 interaction—such as drug binding kinetics, state preference, temperature dependence and trapping—that needs to be considered when developing in silico models for risk prediction. In addition to this, other factors, such as multichannel pharmacological profile and the nature of the ventricular cell models used in simulations also need to be considered in the search for the optimum in silico approach. Here we consider how much of mechanistic detail needs to be included for in silico models to accurately predict risk and further, how much of this detail can be retrieved from protocols that are practical to implement in high throughout screens as part of next generation of preclinical in silico drug screening approaches?

  1. Risky sexual behaviour and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) among healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamisa, Natasha; Mokgobi, Maboe

    2018-01-01

    South Africa is known to have one of the highest prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) globally, with one in seven healthcare workers being HIV-positive. An HIV-positive healthcare workforce is less equipped to respond to the increasing spread of the epidemic. Assessment of the factors contributing to high HIV prevalence rates among healthcare workers is important in planning the development of human resources. This review sought to identify and understand predominant risky sexual behaviours among healthcare workers in HIV and AIDS-affected countries. This study reviewed articles focusing on sexual behaviour among healthcare workers. Major health science databases (e.g. ProQuest, Cochrane, PubMed and CINAHL) were searched for combinations of keywords including 'healthcare workers', 'risky sexual behaviour' and 'HIV and AIDS'. Articles from a range of countries met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Findings of the study revealed three main contributing factors: unprotected sex, multiple sex partners and sexual violence. Sexual violence emerged as the dominant risk factor in the majority of the studies. Most research was conducted in developed countries where the HIV infection rate is much lower than it is in developing countries. More research needs to be conducted in developing countries and appropriate strategies should be implemented to reduce sexual violence among healthcare workers. Appropriate procedures on reporting sexual violence coupled with education on HIV and AIDS as well as influencing attitudes and belief systems could assist in reducing the spread of HIV and AIDS within the healthcare workforce while minimising the effect on patient care.

  2. Consensus on context-specific strategies for reducing the stigma of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Zambézia Province, Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Mukolo, Abraham; Torres, Isabel; Bechtel, Ruth M.; Sidat, Mohsin; Vergara, Alfredo E.

    2014-01-01

    Stigma has been implicated in poor outcomes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) care. Reducing stigma is important for HIV prevention and long-term treatment success. Although stigma reduction interventions are conducted in Mozambique, little is known about the current nature of stigma and the efficacy and effectiveness of stigma reduction initiatives. We describe action research to generate consensus on critical characteristics of HIV stigma and an...

  3. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus knowledge, attitudes, and practices, and use of healthcare services among rural migrants: a cross-sectional study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying; Cochran, Christopher; Xu, Peng; Shen, Jay J; Zeng, Gang; Xu, Yanjun; Sun, Mei; Li, Chengyue; Li, Xiaohong; Chang, Fengshui; Lu, Jun; Hao, Mo; Lu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Background Today’s rapid growth of migrant populations has been a major contributor to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, relatively few studies have focused on HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice among rural-to-urban migrants in China. This cross-sectional study was to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perceptions, including knowledge about reducing high-risk sex. Methods Two-phase stratified cluster sampling was...

  4. Cyclical thrombocytosis, acquired von Willebrand syndrome and aggressive non-melanoma skin cancers are common in patients with Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms treated with hydroxyurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verner, Emma; Forsyth, Cecily; Grigg, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Abstract Cyclical thrombocytosis, acquired von Willebrand syndrome, aggressive non-melanoma skin cancers and other hydroxyurea complications have been reported in Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), but their incidence and clinical consequences have not been defined in a large cohort of patients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 188 consecutive patients with MPNs specifically addressing the incidence of these complications. Cyclical thrombocytosis was documented in 29 patients (15%), the majority of whom were receiving hydroxyurea. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome was identified in 17 of the 84 screened patients (20%), but was not associated with any major bleeding complications. Non-melanoma skin cancers were reported in 51 patients (27%). Hydroxyurea-related fever occurred in nine of 149 patients (6%) who received hydroxyurea. Seventy-three patients (39%) experienced a total of 98 major thrombotic events, with the majority of these occurring prior to or within 3 months of the diagnosis. Cyclical thrombocytosis, acquired von Willebrand syndrome, aggressive non-melanoma skin cancers and other hydroxyurea-related complications are not infrequent in MPNs and have important clinical consequences for management.

  5. [The incidence of oral candidiasis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from Yunnan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yan; Li, Chengwen; Pei, Junhaoxiang; Bai, Jinsong; Yang, Xianghong; Duan, Kaiwen

    2014-08-01

    To assess the incidence of oral candidiasis and its influencing factors in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). An oral examination was conducted in the 1 566 HIV/AIDS patients in the Third Hospital of Kunming from March 2008 to September 2012 (M/F: 1 062/504, age range: 0.2 to 84.0 years old). The HIV viral load (HIV- RNA) and peripheral blood CD4 count were respectively analyzed by Bayer Q340 fluorescence signal surveying instrument (bDNA method) and flow cytometry analysis. The information on usage of highly active anti-retroviral (HAART) drugs and transmission of HIV were obtained through questionnaires. The incidence of oral candidiasis in patients with different HIV-RNA levels and CD4 count and the use of HAART was analyzed and compared. The total incidence of oral candidosis was 31.0% (486/1 566) and there was no difference in sex. The oral lesions were presented by three types, psudomembranous candidosis (PC), erythematous candidosis (EC) and angular cheilitis (AC), and the morbidity was 13.9% (217/1 566), 17.0% (267/1 566) and 4.9% (77/1 566), respectively. The average level of CD4 count in psudomembranous candidosis, erythematous candidosis and angular cheilitis [81.0 (146.0), 74.0 (152.0) and 69.0 (121.5) cell/µl] showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). The incidence of oral candidiasis in non-HAART and HAART subjects were 36.3% (402/1 107) and 18.3% (84/459), respectively (P = 0.000). The CD4 count and absolute counts of HIV viral load in oral candidiasis patients and non-oral candidiasis patients had significant difference (Z = -10.261, P = 0.000 and Z = -4.762, P = 0.000). The morbidity of oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients in Yunnan Province was high, including PC, EC and AC and hyperplastic candidosis was not detected. The incidence was related to the degree of immune suppression and HIV viral load.

  6. Efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xin; Jiang, Manjun; Zhao, Xiaofang; Liang, Jian

    2014-02-01

    To systematically review the efficacy and safety of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) interventions, compared with control interventions (placebo or conventional Western medical therapy), in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Electronic databases including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Data were searched to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published as of May 2012. Studies were selected according to the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria and then subjected to methodological quality assessment, data extraction, and meta-analysis according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Twelve RCTs involving 881 patients with AIDS were included. Methodological quality assessment showed that two were high-quality, two were moderate-quality, and eight were low-quality. Meta-analysis showed that TCM interventions were associated with significantly reduced plasma viral load compared with placebo [odds ratio OR = 2.46, 95% confidence interval CI (1.02, 5.94); P = 0.04]. However, the reductions in plasma viral load significantly favored conventional Western medical therapy alone over integrated traditional Chinese and Western medical therapy [OR = 0.16, 95% CI (0.05, 0.55); P = 0.004]. Patients receiving TCM interventions had significantly higher CD4+ T lymphocyte counts compared with those on placebo [OR = 2.54, 95% CI (1.40, 4.60); P = 0.002]. In addition, TCM interventions were significantly more likely to have improved clinical symptoms [OR = 2.82, 95% CI (1.85, 4.31); P risk of adverse events (AEs) compared with control interventions [OR = 1.87, 95% CI (0.58, 6.01); P = 0.29]. Current evidence suggests that TCM interventions are significantly more effective than placebo in reducing plasma viral load and increasing CD4+ T lymphocyte count in patients with AIDS. When compared with conventional Western medical therapy, TCM interventions

  7. Impaired expression of mitochondrial and adipogenic genes in adipose tissue from a patient with acquired partial lipodystrophy (Barraquer-Simons syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guallar Jordi P

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acquired partial lipodystrophy or Barraquer-Simons syndrome is a rare form of progressive lipodystrophy. The etiopathogenesis of adipose tissue atrophy in these patients is unknown. Case presentation This is a case report of a 44-year-old woman with acquired partial lipodystrophy. To obtain insight into the molecular basis of lipoatrophy in acquired partial lipodystrophy, we examined gene expression in adipose tissue from this patient newly diagnosed with acquired partial lipodystrophy. A biopsy of subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained from the patient, and DNA and RNA were extracted in order to evaluate mitochondrial DNA abundance and mRNA expression levels. Conclusion The expression of marker genes of adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism, including the master regulator PPARγ, was down-regulated in subcutaneous adipose tissue from this patient. Adiponectin mRNA expression was also reduced but leptin mRNA levels were unaltered. Markers of local inflammatory status were unaltered. Expression of genes related to mitochondrial function was reduced despite unaltered levels of mitochondrial DNA. It is concluded that adipogenic and mitochondrial gene expression is impaired in adipose tissue in this patient with acquired partial lipodystrophy.

  8. Immunological studies in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. II. Active suppression or intrinsic defect--investigated by mixing AIDS cells with HLA-DR identical normal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Ødum, Niels; Jakobsen, B K

    1986-01-01

    The lymphocyte transformation responses to mitogens (phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (Con A), and pokeweed mitogen (PWM)), allogeneic cells, and the antigen-purified protein derivative (PPD) were studied in six acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and in six healthy controls...... with the strong mitogens PHA and Con A or with allogeneic cells, but suppression may be involved in the decreased responses in cultures stimulated with PWM or PPD. Addition of supernatants from macrocultures of AIDS cells did not suppress responses of control PBMC. Thus, suppression by any lymphocyte subset...

  9. Changing patterns of Kaposi's sarcoma in Danish acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with complete follow-up. The Danish Study Group for HIV Infection (DASHI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Melbye, M; Pedersen, C

    1995-01-01

    The objective was to study changes in the occurrence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-related Kaposi's sarcoma and the association with degree of immunodeficiency over time. Danish patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) diagnosed between 1979 and 1990 (n = 687) were followed...... the proportion of patients who died with Kaposi's sarcoma remained constant over time. Furthermore, the CD4 cell count at time of AIDS for patients diagnosed with Kaposi's sarcoma has declined in recent years. A CD4 cell count liter at the time of AIDS diagnosis predicted an increased risk...

  10. Radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunoassay of antibodies to the core protein (P24) of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV III). [Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neurath, A R; Strick, N; Sproul, P

    1985-05-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic viruses designated HTLV III or LAV are considered to represent the causative agents of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Therefore a simple direct RIA or ELISA method for antibodies to distinct epitopes of HTLV III/LAV structural components would be of great value. The authors describe RIA and ELISA assays which obviate the need for purified virus or virus proteins, do not utilize infected cells and thus do not diminish the source for continuous production of viral antigens and are specific for a major core protein of HTLV III/LAV.

  11. A novel paraneoplastic syndrome with acquired lipodystrophy and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in an adolescent male with craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockemer, Hillary Elizabeth; Sumpter, Kathryn Maria; Cope-Yokoyama, Sandy; Garg, Abhimanyu

    2018-03-28

    Acquired lipodystrophy, craniopharyngioma and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) are individually rare disorders, and have never before been reported in a single patient. A 15-year-7 month old Caucasian male presented with lower extremity weakness, frequent falls and abnormal fat distribution occurring over the previous 1 year. He was diagnosed with CIDP, craniopharyngioma and acquired lipodystrophy. The patient underwent tumor debulking and cranial irradiation for the craniopharyngioma, and received monthly intravenous immunoglobulin for the CIDP. The patient initially had some resolution of the lipodystrophy phenotype, but subsequently the abnormal fat distribution recurred and the patient developed additional systemic abnormalities, including mild pancytopenia and hepatic fibrosis. Our patient represents a novel association of acquired lipodystrophy, craniopharyngioma, and CIDP, possibly due to an as yet unidentified paraneoplastic autoantibody.

  12. Antiarrhythmic properties of a rapid delayed-rectifier current activator in rabbit models of acquired long QT syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Thomas G; Yeh, Yung-Hsin; Qi, Xiao Yan

    2008-01-01

    effect of a novel compound (NS1643) that activates the rapid delayed-rectifier K+ current, I(Kr), in two rabbit models of acquired LQTS. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used two clinically relevant in vivo rabbit models of TdP in which we infused NS1643 or vehicle: (i) three-week atrioventricular block...

  13. Cardiac abnormalities in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A prospective study with a clinical-pathological correlation in twenty-one adult patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herdy Gesmar Volga Haddad

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To evaluate the cardiac abnormalities and their evolution during the course of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, as well as to correlate clinical and pathological data. METHODS - Twenty-one patients, admitted to the hospital with the diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, were prospectively studied and followed until their death. Age ranged from 19 to 42 years (17 males. ECG and echocardiogram were also obtained every six months. After death, macro- and microscopic examinations were also performed. RESULTS - The most frequent causes of referral to the hospital were: diarrhea or repeated pneumonias, tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis or Kaposi sarcoma. The most frequent findings were acute or chronic pericarditis (42% and dilated cardiomyopathy (19%. Four patients died of cardiac problems: infective endocarditis, pericarditis with pericardial effusion, bacterial myocarditis and infection by Toxoplasma gondii. CONCLUSION - Severe cardiac abnormalities were the cause of death in some patients. In the majority of the patients, a good correlation existed between clinical and anatomical-pathological data. Cardiac evaluation was important to detect early manifestations and treat them accordingly, even in asymptomatic patients.

  14. Epstein-Barr virus-associated primary central nervous system lymphoma in a child with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M M; Delgado, P I; Petito, C K

    1997-12-01

    A 34-month-old black boy who had contracted acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from his mother presented with fever, vomiting, and cough. He was cachectic, hypertonic, and developmentally delayed. A brain computed tomography scan revealed masses in the left frontal horn, subependymal, and periventricular regions; secondary edema; and hydrocephalus. The differential diagnosis was cerebral lymphoma versus toxoplasmosis. The patient had disseminated Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection, lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis, as well as Pseudomonas and Klebsiella pneumonia. He died of respiratory insufficiency 53 days after admission. The autopsy confirmed a primary cerebral B-cell lymphoma, large cell type, which was positive for Epstein-Barr virus, latent phase, by in situ hybridization. Primary central nervous system lymphomas are rare in children, in contrast to adults. To our knowledge, only five well-documented cases of primary cerebral lymphomas in infants and children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome have been reported previously. The current study shows that these childhood lymphomas are associated with and presumably caused by Epstein-Barr virus and thus have a pathogenesis similar to that of primary central nervous system lymphomas in adults.

  15. Temporal lobe pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma and acquired BRAF mutation in an adolescent with the constitutional 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jeffrey C; Donahue, David J; Malik, Saleem I; Dzurik, Yvette B; Braly, Emily Z; Dougherty, Margaret J; Eaton, Katherine W; Biegel, Jaclyn A

    2011-05-01

    DiGeorge syndrome, or velocardiofacial syndrome (DGS/VCFS), is a rare and usually sporadic congenital genetic disorder resulting from a constitutional microdeletion at chromosome 22q11.2. While rare cases of malignancy have been described, likely due to underlying immunodeficiency, central nervous system tumors have not yet been reported. We describe an adolescent boy with DGS/VCFS who developed a temporal lobe pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. High-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism array studies of the tumor confirmed a constitutional 22q11.21 deletion, and revealed acquired gains, losses and copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity of several chromosomal regions, including a homozygous deletion of the CDKN2A/B locus. The tumor also demonstrated a common V600E mutation in the BRAF oncogene. This is the first reported case of a patient with DiGeorge syndrome developing a CNS tumor of any histology and expands our knowledge about low-grade CNS tumor molecular genetics.

  16. Nephrin redistribution on podocytes is a potential mechanism for proteinuria in patients with primary acquired nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doublier, S; Ruotsalainen, V; Salvidio, G; Lupia, E; Biancone, L; Conaldi, P G; Reponen, P; Tryggvason, K; Camussi, G

    2001-05-01

    We investigated the distribution of nephrin by immunofluorescence microscopy in renal biopsies of patients with nephrotic syndrome: 13 with membranous glomerulonephritis (GN), 10 with minimal change GN, and seven with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. As control, six patients with IgA GN without nephrotic syndrome and 10 normal controls were studied. We found an extensive loss of staining for nephrin and a shift from a podocyte-staining pattern to a granular pattern in patients with nephrotic syndrome, irrespective of the primary disease. In membranous GN, nephrin was co-localized with IgG immune deposits. In the attempt to explain these results, we investigated in vitro whether stimuli acting on the cell cytoskeleton, known to be involved in the pathogenesis of GN, may induce redistribution of nephrin on the surface of human cultured podocytes. Aggregated but not disaggregated human IgG(4), plasmalemmal insertion of membrane attack complex of complement, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and puromycin, induced the shedding of nephrin with a loss of surface expression. This phenomenon was abrogated by cytochalasin and sodium azide. These results suggest that the activation of cell cytoskeleton may modify surface expression of nephrin allowing a dislocation from plasma membrane to an extracellular site.

  17. Bronchogenic carcinoma in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - report of two cases; Carcinoma broncogenico na sindrome da imunodeficiencia adquirida - relato de dois casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, Antonio Alexandre de Oliveira [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiodiagnostico; Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves de; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    1999-12-01

    The authors report two cases of bronchogenic carcinoma in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The first patient, a ee-year-old male, developed a left hilar adenocarcinoma, with spleen and bilateral adrenal metastases. The disease progressed unfavourably, resulting in the patient's death in less than a month. The second patient, a 47-year-old male, developed a large mass in the left upper lobe, with invasion of the thoracic wall and destruction of adjacent ribs. The histopathologic study revealed a non-oat-cell carcinoma. Both patients received palliative treatment since diagnosis was established late in the course of the disease. Recent studies suggest an association between bronchogenic carcinoma and human immunodeficiency virus infection. However, an actual increase in the prevalence of bronchogenic carcinoma in HIV-positive patients remains controversial. (author)

  18. Management of a rare presentation of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, D; Sudharshan, S; Biswas, Jyotirmay

    2017-05-01

    Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH), a multisystem autoimmune bilateral panuveitis with systemic manifestations, is uncommon in immunocompromised patients such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome (AIDS). We report a rare presentation of VKH in a 45-year-old HIV-positive female on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) who presented with a history of recurrent panuveitis. A diagnosis of probable VKH was made based on ocular and systemic signs and symptoms. She was treated with topical and systemic steroids with close monitoring of CD4 counts and viral loads. After inflammation control, complicated cataract was managed surgically under perioperative steroid cover. VKH in HIV/AIDS has not been reported earlier. This case shows that significant inflammation can be seen even in HIV/AIDS patients on HAART with VKH in spite of moderate CD4 counts. Management is a challenge considering the systemic risks with long-term use of steroids.

  19. Endogenous sodium potassium ATPase inhibition related biochemical cascade and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome -Neural regulation of viral replication and immune response to the virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikumar A

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The isoprenoid pathway and its metabolites - digoxin, dolichol and ubiquinone were assessed in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Digoxin is an endogenous regulator of membrane Na+-K+ ATPase secreted by the human hypothalamus. The HMG CoA reductase activity was increased with increased digoxin and dolichol levels and reduced ubiquinone levels in AIDS. Membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity and serum magnesium levels were reduced. The tryptophan catabolites were increased and the tyrosine catabolites were reduced. The glycoconjugate metabolites were increased and lysosomal stability was reduced. There was reduced incorporation of glycoconjugates into membranes and increased membrane cholesterol: phospholipid ratio. Lipid peroxidation products and NO were increased while free radical scavenging enzymes and reduced glutathione were reduced. The role of the isoprenoid pathway related cascade in the pathogenesis of AIDS is discussed.

  20. Unified-planning, graded-administration, and centralized-controlling: a management modality for treating acquired immune deficiency syndrome with Chinese medicine in Henan Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Ran; Guo, Hui-jun; Liu, Zhi-bin; Li, Qiang; Yang, Ji-ping; He, Ying

    2015-04-01

    Henan Province in China has a major epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Chinese medicine (CM) has been used throughout the last decade, and a management modality was developed, which can be described by unified-planning, graded-administration, and centralized-controlling (UGC). The UGC modality has one primary concept (patient-centered medicine from CM theory), four basic foundations (classifying administrative region, characteristics of CM on disease treatment, health resource conditions, and distribution of patients living with HIV), six important relationships (the "three uniformities and three combinations," and the six relationships therein guide the treatment of AIDS with CM), and four key sections (management, operation, records, and evaluation). In this article, the authors introduce the UGC modality, which could be beneficial to developing countries or resource-limited areas for the management of chronic infectious disease.

  1. Presentation and outcome amongst older Singaporeans living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS): does age alone drive excess mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggan, Paul J; Foo, Rui Min; Olszyna, Dariusz; Chew, Nicholas S; Smitasen, Nares; Mukhopadhyay, Amartya; Archuleta, Sophia

    2012-12-01

    There is little detailed information on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) amongst older adults in Singapore. A retrospective study of 121 consecutive referrals of patients presenting for HIV care was conducted. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were collected. A prognostic model derived from the North American Veterans' Affairs Cohort Study (VACS) was used to estimate prognosis. The median age at presentation was 43 (range, 18 to 76). Thirty-eight patients (31%) were aged 50 or older and 106 patients (88%) were male. Older patients were more likely to be of Chinese ethnicity (P = 0.035), married (P = 0.0001), unemployed or retired (P = 0.0001), and to have acquired their infection heterosexually (P = 0.0002). The majority of patients in both groups were symptomatic at presentation. Eighty-one (67%) had CD4 counts less than 200 at baseline with no observable differences in HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA) or clinical stage based on age. Non-Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) morbidity was observed more frequently amongst older patients. The estimated prognosis of patients differed significantly based on age. Using the VACS Index and comparing younger patients with those aged 50 and above, mean 5 year mortality estimates were 25% and 50% respectively (P HIV/AIDS cases and present with more non-AIDS morbidity. This confers a poor prognosis despite comparable findings with younger patients in terms of clinical stage, AIDS-defining illness, CD4 count and HIV viral load.

  2. Sensitivity and specificity of Ga-67 pulmonary scans for the detection of p. carinii pneumonitis in patients with the acquired immunodefficiency syndrome and pulmonary symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattner, R.S.; Sollitto, R.A.; Golden, J.A.; Coleman, D.L.; Okerlund, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a severe disorder of cellular immunity of obscure etiology. Since its original recognition in 1981 the incidence of AIDS has doubled in each of the succeeding six months. The most common causes of death in AIDS are Kaposi's sarcoma and p. carinii pneumonia (PCP). The latter is treatable if diagnosed early, and AIDS patients (pts) may suffer recurrent episodes of PCP. Since the invasive technique of fiberoptic bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy, brushing, and bronchialveolar lavage are necessary for diagnosis and follow-up a noninvasive method of categorizing which AIDS pts require this procedure would be most welcome. Twenty-one pts with the syndrome of AIDS and pulmonary symptoms underwent Ga-67 scans of the thoracic region, and fibroptic bronchoscopy with washings, and brush and transbronchial biopsy. Pulmonary activity was graded in a blinded fashion by three experienced observers as follows: 1, less than, or equal to adjacent soft tissues; 2, greater than adjacent soft tissues, but less than liver; 3, equal to liver; 4, greater than liver. Eleven pts had documented PCP, and the remaining ten had non-specific pulmonary inflammation, or other, in some cases, putative, infections. The sensitivity and specificity of Ga-67 scans ≥ grade 3 was 100% and 90% respectively. These results suggests a useful role for graded Ga-67 scans in AIDS pts with pulmonary symptoms, permitting selection of pts with a high risk of PCP for further mandatory invasive investigation of this otherwise usually fatal disease

  3. The application of root mean square electrocardiography (RMS ECG) for the detection of acquired and congenital long QT syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, Robert L; Sower, Christopher Todd; Allen, Nancy; Etheridge, Susan P; Tristani-Firouzi, Martin; Saarel, Elizabeth V

    2014-01-01

    Precise measurement of the QT interval is often hampered by difficulty determining the end of the low amplitude T wave. Root mean square electrocardiography (RMS ECG) provides a novel alternative measure of ventricular repolarization. Experimental data have shown that the interval between the RMS ECG QRS and T wave peaks (RTPK) closely reflects the mean ventricular action potential duration while the RMS T wave width (TW) tracks the dispersion of repolarization timing. Here, we tested the precision of RMS ECG to assess ventricular repolarization in humans in the setting of drug-induced and congenital Long QT Syndrome (LQTS). RMS ECG signals were derived from high-resolution 24 hour Holter monitor recordings from 68 subjects after receiving placebo and moxifloxacin and from standard 12 lead ECGs obtained in 97 subjects with LQTS and 97 age- and sex-matched controls. RTPK, QTRMS and RMS TW intervals were automatically measured using custom software and compared to traditional QT measures using lead II. All measures of repolarization were prolonged during moxifloxacin administration and in LQTS subjects, but the variance of RMS intervals was significantly smaller than traditional lead II measurements. TW was prolonged during moxifloxacin and in subjects with LQT-2, but not LQT-1 or LQT-3. These data validate the application of RMS ECG for the detection of drug-induced and congenital LQTS. RMS ECG measurements are more precise than the current standard of care lead II measurements.

  4. Animal models of Central Diabetes Insipidus: Human relevance of acquired beyond hereditary syndromes and the role of oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Antonio; Mahía, Javier; Puerto, Amadeo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to review different animal models of Central Diabetes Insipidus, a neurobiological syndrome characterized by the excretion of copious amounts of diluted urine (polyuria), a consequent water intake (polydipsia), and a rise in the serum sodium concentration (hypernatremia). In rodents, Central Diabetes Insipidus can be caused by genetic disorders (Brattleboro rats) but also by various traumatic/surgical interventions, including neurohypophysectomy, pituitary stalk compression, hypophysectomy, and median eminence lesions. Regardless of its etiology, Central Diabetes Insipidus affects the neuroendocrine system that secretes arginine vasopressin, a neurohormone responsible for antidiuretic functions that acts trough the renal system. However, most Central Diabetes Insipidus models also show disorders in other neurobiological systems, specifically in the secretion of oxytocin, a neurohormone involved in body sodium excretion. Although the hydromineral behaviors shown by the different Central Diabetes Insipidus models have usually been considered as very similar, the present review highlights relevant differences with respect to these behaviors as a function of the individual neurobiological systems affected. Increased understanding of the relationship between the neuroendocrine systems involved and the associated hydromineral behaviors may allow appropriate action to be taken to correct these behavioral neuroendocrine deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Aspectos psicossociais da Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida Psychosocial aspects of Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila de Moura

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram abordados os aspectos psicossociais que envolvem as pessoas atingidas direta ou indiretamente pela AIDS: pacientes, familiares e equipe profissional. Os resultados evidenciam que a população assistida na região de Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brasil, é predominantemente jovem, masculina e de toxicômanos. Os pacientes com resultado positivo apresentam reações semelhantes às definidas por Kluber-Ross (1977, para pacientes terminais. Os comportamentos observados nos familiares estão num contínuo entre a negação da doença e a superproteção do paciente. Para os profissionais, as reações mais freqüentes são de perplexidade diante de uma população diferente das que estão acostumados a lidar. Os dados obtidos indicam que o psicólogo pode auxiliar os profissionais a lidarem com as reações dos pacientes, integrando-os em seus aspectos orgânicos e emocionais.Psychosocial aspects which arise with regard to people directly or indirectly involved with AIDS: patients, relatives and professional staff, are studied. The results show that the population assisted in the Ribeirão Preto region is predominantly young, male and drug-addicted. The patients with "positive" results show reactions similar to those described by Kluber-Ross (1977 for terminal patients. The behavior observed in relatives forms a continuum which varies from the negation of the illness to the overprotection of the patient. For the professionals, perplexity is the most common reaction when they face a population which is different from that with which they are used to dealing. Finally, the data acquired indicate that the psychologist can help the professionals to deal with the reactions of the patients by integrating them into their organic and emotional aspects.

  6. Variable RNA expression from recently acquired, endogenous viral elements (EVE) of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utari, Heny Budi; Soowannayan, Chumporn; Flegel, Timothy W; Whityachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Kruatrachue, Maleeya

    2017-11-01

    The viral accommodation hypothesis proposes that endogenous viral elements (EVE) from both RNA and DNA viruses are being continually integrated into the shrimp genome by natural host processes and that they can result in tolerance to viral infection by fortuitous production of antisense, immunospecific RNA (imRNA). Thus, we hypothesized that previously reported microarray results for the presence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) open reading frames (ORFs) formerly called 151, 366 and 427 in a domesticated giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) breeding stock might have represented expression from EVE, since the stock had shown uninterrupted freedom from white spot disease (WSD) for many generations. To test this hypothesis, 128 specimens from a current stock generation were confirmed for freedom from WSSV infection using two nested PCR detection methods. Subsequent nested-PCR testing revealed 33/128 specimens (26%) positive for at least one of the ORF at very high sequence identity (95-99%) to extant WSSV. Positive results for ORF 366 (now known to be a fragment of the WSSV capsid protein gene) dominated (28/33 = 84.8%), so 9 arbitrarily selected 366-positive specimens were tested by strand-specific, nested RT-PCR using DNase-treated RNA templates. This revealed variable RNA expression in individual shrimp including no RNA transcripts (n = 1), sense transcripts only (n = 1), antisense transcripts only (n = 2) or transcripts of both sense (n = 5). The latter 7 expression products indicated specimens producing putative imRNA. The variable types and numbers of the EVE and the variable RNA expression (including potential imRNA) support predictions of the viral accommodation hypothesis that EVE are randomly produced and expressed. Positive nested PCR test results for EVE of ORF 366 using DNA templates derived from shrimp sperm (germ cells), indicated that they were heritable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Associação de carcinoma broncogênico com síndrome de Pancoast e síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida Association of bronchogenic carcinoma with Pancoast's syndrome and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. FRÖHLICH

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o caso de um paciente portador da síndrome de Pancoast associada à síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida. Esta apresentação é rara, visto que os tumores mais freqüentemente associados à SIDA são o sarcoma de Kaposi e o linfoma não-Hodgkin. O paciente, com passado de uso de drogas injetáveis, internou-se para investigação de massa em ápice pulmonar, com presença de síndrome de Pancoast, sendo solicitado anti-HIV, com resultado positivo, e tendo sido feito diagnóstico de Ca brônquico não-pequenas células.A case of a patient with Pancoast's syndrome associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is reported. This association is rare and Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma are the most recurrent tumors in AIDS. The patient was an IV drug user and was admitted to the hospital for diagnosis of apex lung mass with signs of Pancoast's syndrome. HIV serology was positive and pathology of lung mass showed non-small cell lung cancer.

  8. Direct Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) typing on peripheral blood mononuclear cells: no association between EBV type 2 infection or superinfection and the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baarle, D.; Hovenkamp, E.; Kersten, M. J.; Klein, M. R.; Miedema, F.; van Oers, M. H.

    1999-01-01

    In the literature, a correlation has been suggested between the occurrence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) type 2 infection. To further investigate a possible role for EBV type 2 infection in the development of AIDS-NHL,

  9. Acquired neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozeron, Pierre; Trocello, Jean-Marc; Kubis, Nathalie

    2013-09-01

    Acquired neuropathies represent most of the neuropathies encountered in clinical practice. Hundreds of causes have been identified even though up to 41% of patients are still classified as idiopathic (Rajabally and Shah in J Neurol 258:1431-1436, 1). Routine evaluation relies on comprehensive medical history taking, clinical examination, nerve conduction studies and laboratory tests. Other investigations such as nerve biopsy or nerve or muscle imaging are performed in specific settings. This review focuses on recent advances in acquired neuropathies.

  10. Manifestações reumáticas da síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS Rheumatic manifestations of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS

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    Rodrigo Siqueira-Batista

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes síndromes reumáticas e fenômenos auto-imunes já foram associados à infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV, quer pela maior freqüência de adoecimento, quer pela maior gravidade. Ademais, em muitos casos, sintomas e sinais da doença reumática estão presentes na abertura do quadro de infecção pelo HIV (como na síndrome de soroconversão ou da síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS. O reconhecimento deste horizonte é da maior importância para a prática do reumatologista, tornando-se altamente necessário ampliar a familiaridade com estes conceitos. Revisitar as interseções reumatológicas da infecção pelo HIV - enfatizando-se situações como as espondiloartropatias soronegativas, as artralgias, as artrites infecciosas, fibromialgia, miopatias, vasculites, síndrome linfocítica infiltrante difusa, lúpus eritematoso sistêmico e fenômenos auto-imunes - é, pois, o objetivo do presente artigo.Different rheumatic syndromes and auto-immune phenomena have already been associated with the infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, either by the higher frequency of the disease or by the greater severity. Furthermore, in many cases, symptoms and signs of rheumatic disease are present at the beginning of the infection condition by HIV (as in the serum conversion or the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS. Recognition of these possibilities is of fundamental importance to the rheumatologist practice and is necessary to have familiarity with these concepts. Revisiting the rheumatologic intersections of the infection by HIV - emphasizing situations such as seronegative spondyloarthropathies, arthralgia, infectitious arthritis, fibromyalgia, myopathy, vasculitis, difuse infiltranting lymphocytic syndrome systemic lupus erythematous and auto-immune phenomena - is then, the aim of the present article.

  11. Knowledge, attitude, and behavioral practices pertaining to human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome among secondary school adolescents in makurdi, Nigeria

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    Ayu Agbecha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents knowledge with their safe practices pertaining to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has a critical impact on the prevention of contracting and spreading HIV. Reports have shown that adolescents in the general setting engage in activities that enhance the spread of the virus. Aim: The study assessed school adolescent's HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS knowledge, with its impact on their behaviors and attitudes regarding the infection. Materials and Methods: Two hundred randomly selected adolescent students from 10 different schools in the city metropolis were involved in the cross-sectional study. Primary data were collected using a validated self-administered questionnaire on students HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA, and safe practices preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS. Results: The study observed that majority of the students had good knowledge about HIV/AIDS, had good attitude toward PLWHA, and engaged in safe practices that prevent the spread of HIV. The sources of HIV/AIDS information were hospital, school, home, electronic, and print media. The study also found that HIV/AIDS knowledge instilled good attitudes and behavioral practices in the students. Conclusion: The study shows that school sex education, as well as health promotion campaigns through media platforms, could impact positively on the knowledge, attitude, and behavioral practices of adolescents in curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS.

  12. Behaviors Influencing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission in the Context of Positive Prevention among People Living with HIV/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Iran: A Qualitative Study

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    Seyed Ramin Radfar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying factors, which influence health behaviors is critical to designing appropriate and effective preventive programs. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission is highly related to people behaviors and understanding factors influencing healthy behaviors among Iranian people living with HIVs (PLHIVs/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is very important to tailor an effective response to HIV/AIDS epidemic. Methods: This study was conducted as a qualitative study by methods of focus group discussion and in-depth interview in six provinces of Iran with 64 PLHIVs to determine factors influence engagement in positive prevention. Results: Knowledge and education, feelings of responsibility and positive prevention practices were identified as the primary domains of engagement. These domains were found to be influenced by feelings of ostracism and frustration, poverty, barriers to disclosure of HIV status, access to and utilization of drug abuse treatment services and antiretroviral therapy, adherence to treatment, age, religiousness, sex work, singleness, and incarceration. Conclusions: Designing new interventions and updating current interventions directed toward the aforementioned factors should be addressed by responsible Iranian authorities in order to have a national effective response on the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

  13. High Mortality and Coinfection in a Prospective Cohort of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Patients with Histoplasmosis in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samayoa, Blanca; Roy, Monika; Cleveland, Angela Ahlquist; Medina, Narda; Lau-Bonilla, Dalia; Scheel, Christina M; Gomez, Beatriz L; Chiller, Tom; Arathoon, Eduardo

    2017-07-01

    Histoplasmosis is one of the most common and deadly opportunistic infections among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Latin America, but due to limited diagnostic capacity in this region, few data on the burden and clinical characteristics of this disease exist. Between 2005 and 2009, we enrolled patients ≥ 18 years of age with suspected histoplasmosis at a hospital-based HIV clinic in Guatemala City. A case of suspected histoplasmosis was defined as a person presenting with at least three of five clinical or radiologic criteria. A confirmed case of histoplasmosis was defined as a person with a positive culture or urine antigen test for Histoplasma capsulatum . Demographic and clinical data were also collected and analyzed. Of 263 enrolled as suspected cases of histoplasmosis, 101 (38.4%) were confirmed cases. Median time to diagnosis was 15 days after presentation (interquartile range [IQR] = 5-23). Crude overall mortality was 43.6%; median survival time was 19 days (IQR = 4-69). Mycobacterial infection was diagnosed in 70 (26.6%) cases; 26 (25.7%) histoplasmosis cases were coinfected with mycobacteria. High mortality and short survival time after initial symptoms were observed in patients with histoplasmosis. Mycobacterial coinfection diagnoses were frequent, highlighting the importance of pursuing diagnoses for both diseases.

  14. Effect of traditional Chinese medicine for treating human immunodeficiency virus infections and acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Boosting immune and alleviating symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wen; Wang, Jian; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    To respond to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in China, the integration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has important implications in health outcomes, especially in China where the use of TCM is widespread. The National Free TCM Pilot Program for HIV Infected People began in 5 provinces (Henan, Hebei, Anhui, Hubei, and Guangdong) in 2004, and quickly scaled up to 19 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China including some places with high prevalence, 26,276 adults have been treated thus far. Usually, people with HIV infection seek TCM for four main reasons: to enhance immune function, to treat symptoms, to improve quality of life, and to reduce side effects related to medications. Evidences from randomized controlled clinical trials suggested some beneficial effects of use of traditional Chinese herbal medicine for HIV infections and AIDS. More proofs from large, well-designed, rigorous trials is needed to give firm support. Challenges include interaction between herbs and antiretroviral drugs, stigma and discrimination. The Free TCM Program has made considerable progress in providing the necessary alternative care and treatment for HIV-infected people in China, and has strong government support for continued improvement and expansion, establishing and improving a work mechanism integrating Chinese and Western medicines.

  15. Acquired auditory agnosia in childhood and normal sleep electroencephalography subsequently diagnosed as Landau-Kleffner syndrome: a report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bogaert, Patrick; King, Mary D; Paquier, Philippe; Wetzburger, Catherine; Labasse, Catherine; Dubru, Jean-Marie; Deonna, Thierry

    2013-06-01

      We report three cases of Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) in children (two females, one male) in whom diagnosis was delayed because the sleep electroencephalography (EEG) was initially normal.   Case histories including EEG, positron emission tomography findings, and long-term outcome were reviewed.   Auditory agnosia occurred between the age of 2 years and 3 years 6 months, after a period of normal language development. Initial awake and sleep EEG, recorded weeks to months after the onset of language regression, during a nap period in two cases and during a full night of sleep in the third case, was normal. Repeat EEG between 2 months and 2 years later showed epileptiform discharges during wakefulness and strongly activated by sleep, with a pattern of continuous spike-waves during slow-wave sleep in two patients. Patients were diagnosed with LKS and treated with various antiepileptic regimens, including corticosteroids. One patient in whom EEG became normal on hydrocortisone is making significant recovery. The other two patients did not exhibit a sustained response to treatment and remained severely impaired.   Sleep EEG may be normal in the early phase of acquired auditory agnosia. EEG should be repeated frequently in individuals in whom a firm clinical diagnosis is made to facilitate early treatment. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.

  16. The correlation between perceived social support and illness uncertainty in people with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Iran

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    Moosa Sajjadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Illness uncertainty is a source of a chronic and pervasive psychological stress for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS (PLWH, and largely affects their quality of life and the ability to cope with the disease. Based on the uncertainty in illness theory, the social support is one of the illness uncertainty antecedents, and influences the level of uncertainty perceived by patients. Aim: To examine uncertainty in PLWH and its correlation with social support in Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional correlational study was conducted with 80 PLWH presenting to AIDS Research Center, Tehran, Iran in 2013. The data collected using illness uncertainty and social support inventories were analyzed through Pearson′s correlation coefficient, Spearman′s correlation coefficient, and regression analysis. Results: The results showed a high level of illness uncertainty in PLWH and a negative significant correlation between perceived social support and illness uncertainty ( P = 0.01, r = -0.29. Conclusion: Uncertainty is a serious aspect of illness experience in Iranian PLWH. Providing adequate, structured information to patients as well as opportunities to discuss their concerns with other PLWH and receive emotional support from their health care providers may be worthwhile.

  17. A controlled study of funding for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome as resource capacity building in the health system in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Donald S; Zeng, Wu; Amico, Peter; Rwiyereka, Angelique K; Avila-Figueroa, Carlos

    2012-05-01

    Because human inmmunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) receives more donor funding globally than that for all other diseases combined, some critics allege this support undermines general health care. This empirical study evaluates the impact of HIV/AIDS funding on the primary health care system in Rwanda. Using a quasi-experimental design, we randomly selected 25 rural health centers (HCs) that started comprehensive HIV/AIDS services from 2002 through 2006 as the intervention group. Matched HCs with no HIV/AIDS services formed the control group. The analysis compared growth in inputs and services between intervention and control HCs with a difference-in-difference analysis in a random-effects model. Intervention HCs performed better than control HCs in most services (seven of nine), although only one of these improvements (Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination) reached or approached statistical significance. In conclusion, this six-year controlled study found no adverse effects of the expansion of HIV/AIDS services on non-HIV services among rural health centers in Rwanda.

  18. Utility of 67Ga scintigraphy and bronchial washings in the diagnosis and treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuazon, C.U.; Delaney, M.D.; Simon, G.L.; Witorsch, P.; Varma, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and suspected Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were evaluated by 67 Ga scintigraphy and fiberoptic bronchoscopy for initial diagnosis and response to therapy. Lung uptake of 67 Ga was demonstrated in 100% of AIDS patients with P. carinii pneumonia, including those with subclinical infection. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy identified P. carinii in the bronchial washings of 100% of cases (19 patients), whereas only 13 of 16 (81%) patients had P. carinii in lung tissue obtained by transbronchial biopsy. Repeat fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed in 16 of 20 patients. After 2 to 4 wk of therapy, P. carinii was identified in bronchial washings in 8 of 16 (50%) patients and in transbronchial biopsy in 1 of 10 (10%) patients examined. Bronchial washing has a higher yield than transbronchial biopsy in demonstrating P. carinii in patients with AIDS and may evolve as the procedure of choice in such patients. Based on the clinical course and results of 67 Ga scintigraphy and fiberoptic bronchoscopy in AIDS patients with P. carinii pneumonia, optimal therapy may require at least 3 wk of treatment

  19. Pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis and other acquired demyelinating syndromes of the central nervous system in Denmark during 1977-2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Magnus Spangsberg; Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS) including multiple sclerosis (MS) has never been investigated in a Danish pediatric population. OBJECTIVES: We estimated the nationwide age- and sex-specific incidence of pediatric ADS including MS. METHODS: Data were sourced from...... the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry, providing cases of pediatric MS for 1977-2015, and the National Patient Register, providing cases of ADS during 2008-2015. All medical records were reviewed to validate the register-based diagnoses. RESULTS: We identified 364 cases of pediatric MS occurring during 1977......-2015 (incidence rate = 0.79 per 100,000 person-years). MS was exceptionally rare before puberty, but the incidence rose considerably from 9 years in girls and 11 years in boys. The female-to-male ratio was 2.5; the median age at onset was 16 years (range = 7-17 years). The MS incidence rate was relatively stable...

  20. Is human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome decreasing among Brazilian injection drug users? Recent findings and how to interpret them

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    Francisco I Bastos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review findings from Brazilian settings where the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS epidemic among injection drug users (IDUs seems to be decreasing, highlighting recent findings from Rio de Janeiro and discussing methodological alternatives. Former analyses using serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion have shown that HIV incidence has been low in IDUs recruited by two different surveys carried out in Rio, where low injection frequencies and infection rates have been found among new injectors. The proportion of AIDS cases among IDUs in Rio has been fairly modest, compared to São Paulo and especially to the southernmost states. Notwithstanding, the interpretation of findings from serial surveys constitutes a challenge, magnified in the assessment of HIV spread among IDUs due to the dynamic nature of the drug scenes and limitations of sampling strategies targeting hard-to-reach populations. Assessment of epidemic trends may profit from the triangulation of data, but cannot avert biases associated with sampling errors. Efforts should be made to triangulate data from different sources, besides exploring specific studies from different perspectives. In an attempt to further assess the observed trends, we carried out original analyses using data from Brazilian AIDS databank.

  1. Neuroradiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Paz, R.; Enzmann, D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses MRI and CT scanning in the evaluation of AIDS patients with neurological symptoms. MRI is the more sensitive of the two techniques but has poor tissue specificity. Contrast enhancement and identification of tissue calcification on CT scans may improve tissue characterization, but a specific etiological diagnosis may not be possible with either MRI or CT scanning; confirmation by biopsy or the response to treatment is often needed. The finding of multiple focal cerebral lesions on MRI and CT scans usually indicates T. gondii infection. Toxoplasmosis may, however, coexist with primary CNS lymphoma or with fungal, mycobacterial, or viral infection. The presence of a solitary focal cerebral lesion, especially on MRI scans, suggests lymphoma or infection with an agent other than T. gondii. Focal cerebral lesions show a variety of complex signal patterns on MRI and enhancement patterns on CT, none of which are specific for a single etiology. Focal lesions on MRI and CT scans are usually associated with focal neurological deficits, but a significant minority of these lesions, especially those seen on MRI scans, may cause only generalized complaints, such as headache and encephalopathy. MRI and CT are both useful for monitoring therapy and show a reduction in the size, number, and enhancement of lesions with successful treatment. The authors conclude that, owing to its greater sensitivity, MRI appears to be more useful for detecting recurrent disease

  2. Acquired Methemoglobinaemia

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    Adil Al-Lawati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acquired methemoglobinaemia is a relatively rare condition and, therefore infrequently encountered in acute medical practice. Suspicion of the condition may be triggered when the measured PaO2 is ‘out of keeping’ with the oxygen saturations that are discovered with pulse oximetry. We describe two separate cases of acquired methemoglobinaemia secondary to the recreational use of alkyl nitrites (’poppers’. The patients presented at separate times to two different teaching hospitals in London, UK. The similarity of these cases has led the authors to conclude that a raised awareness of this potentially fatal condition, and its association with a widely-available recreational drug, is necessary to ensure a correct and timely diagnosis.

  3. [Cerebral infarction and intracranial aneurysm related to the reactivation of varicella zoster virus in a Japanese acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Chiharu; Okada, Kazumasa; Ohnari, Norihiro; Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi

    2013-01-01

    A 35-years-old right-handed man admitted to our hospital with a worsening of dysarthria, left facial palsy and left hemiparesis for 2 days. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was diagnosed when he was 28 years old. At that time, he also was treated for syphilis. After highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) was introduced at the age of 35 years old, serum level of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was not detected, but the number of CD4+ T cells was still less than 200/μl. He had no risk factors of atherosclerosis including hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia. He had neither coagulation abnormality nor autoimmune disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed acute ischemic infarction spreading from the right corona radiate to the right internal capsule without contrast enhancement. Stenosis and occlusion of intracranial arteries were not detected by MR angiography. Although argatroban and edaravone were administered, his neurological deficits were worsened to be difficult to walk independently. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination showed a mild mononuclear pleocytosis (16/μl). Oligoclonal band was positive. The titer of anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) IgG antibodies was increased, that indicated VZV reactivation in the central nervous system (CNS), although VZV DNA PCR was not detected. Therefore, acyclovir (750 mg/day for 2 weeks) and valaciclovir (3,000 mg/day for 1 month) were administered in addition to stroke therapy. He recovered to be able to walk independently 2 month after the admission.Angiography uncovered a saccular aneurysm of 3 mm at the end of branch artery of right anterior cerebral artery, Heubner artery, 28 days after the admission. We speculated that VZV vasculopathy caused by VZV reactivation in CNS was involved in the pathomechanism of cerebral infarction rather than HIV vasculopathy in the case.

  4. Knowledge and attitude of Indian clinical dental students towards the dental treatment of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Marya, Charu Mohan; Sharma, Nilima; Mohanty, Vikrant; Marwah, Mohita; Oberoi, Avneet

    2014-12-01

    Oral health care of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a growing area of concern. Information on HIV- and AIDS-related knowledge among dental students provides a crucial foundation for efforts aimed at developing an appropriate dental curriculum on HIV and AIDS. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of Indian clinical dental students towards the treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS and perceived sources of information regarding HIV-related issues. Data were collected from clinical dental students (third year, fourth year and internship) from three dental institutions in Delhi National Capital Region (NCR). The questions assessed the knowledge and attitude towards treatment of patients with HIV and the perceived source of information related to HIV. The willingness to treat HIV-positive patients among dental students was 67.0%, and 74.20% were confident of treating a patient with HIV/AIDS. The potential problems in rendering treatment to these patients were effect on the attitude of other patients (49.90%) and staff fears (52.50%). The correct knowledge regarding the infection-control practice (barrier technique) was found among only 15.50% of respondents. The respondents had sufficient knowledge regarding the oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS. There was no correlation between the knowledge and attitude score, demonstrating a gap between knowledge and attitude among dental students regarding treatment of HIV-infected patients. Appropriate knowledge has to be delivered through the dental education curriculum, which can instil confidence in students about their ability to manage HIV-positive patients. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  5. Epidemiological situation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related mortality in a municipality in northeastern Brazil. A retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luana Rodrigues da; Araújo, Ellen Thallita Hill; Carvalho, Moisés Lopes; Almeida, Camila Aparecida Pinheiro Landim; Oliveira, Adélia Dalva da Silva; Carvalho, Patrícia Maria Gomes de; Rodrigues, Tatyanne Silva; Campelo, Viriato

    2018-01-01

    The number of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related deaths covers different segments of the population differently, making monitoring of this mortality essential. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological situation of AIDS-related mortality in a municipality in the northeastern region of Brazil. Retrospective cross-sectional study based on data from death certificates in the mortality information system of the Health Information Center, Municipal Health Foundation, Brazil. Between 2003 and 2013, we investigated death certificates on which AIDS-related mortality was reported. Sociodemographic data, year, place, type of establishment where death occurred and underlying and associated causes that led to AIDS-related death were described. The Mann-Kendall test was used to verify the growth trend of the standardized mortality rate over the period studied. Among the 1,066 AIDS-related deaths, 69.7% were among men; 47.2% of the individuals were 28-41 years of age, 32.7% had had 4-7 years of schooling, 66.9% were pardos (mixed race), 55.7% were unmarried and 15.3% were housekeepers. Hospitals were the site of 97% of the deaths, and 91% occurred at public hospitals. Respiratory failure was the main cause of death. The prevalence of infectious and parasitic diseases was 99.0%. AIDS-related mortality increased by 160% over the period studied, from 5.5/100,000 inhabitants in 2003 to 14.3/100,000 in 2013. In the Brazilian municipality studied here, AIDS-related mortality was most prevalent among men and young adults of lower socioeconomic level. Over the period studied, the mortality rate increased.

  6. Knowledge, attitude, and perception of disease among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome: A study from a tertiary care center in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mahajan, Vikram K; Chauahn, Pushpinder S; Mehta, Karainder S; Rawat, Ritu; Shiny, T N

    2016-01-01

    Although modification of behavioral practices among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-affected patients is important in decreasing HIV disease transmission, the knowledge, attitude, and perception studies about HIV infection rarely include persons living with HIV/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS). To assess knowledge, attitude, and perceptions of persons living with HIV/AIDS for the disease and other epidemiological aspects. One-hundred and fifty consecutive persons living with HIV/AIDS were enrolled for this questionnaire-based cross-sectional, descriptive study. These 150 patients comprised 93 men and 57 women, aged between 14 and 78 (mean 37.13) years. The majority, 112 (74.67%) patients were between 20 and 50 years of age and 116 (77.3%) patients were either illiterate or high-school dropouts. Drivers, laborers, and self-employed comprised 69 (74.2%) patients among affected males. Only 129 (86%) respondents had heard about HIV/AIDS and knew about its heterosexual transmission. Ninety-eight (65.3%) respondents were aware of disease transmission from infected blood or needle pricks. Interestingly, 106 (70.7%) respondents were aware of the importance of using condom in preventing disease transmission. Television/radio was the most common sources of information for 135 (90%) patients. Nearly, 69% respondents disfavored disclosing their disease to friends/colleagues fearing stigmatization. Information, education, and communication activities are imperative to educate persons living with HIV/AIDS about life-long nature of the disease, modes of its transmission, and significance of preventive measures to bridge the gaps in their knowledge. While improvement in individual economic status, education, and health services remains highly desirable, mass media can play a pivotal role in creating awareness among masses.

  7. Knowledge and attitude about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among higher secondary school students of Jaipur city: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Chaudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: India is estimated to have the third highest number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infections in the world with about 20.89 lakh people currently living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Inadequate knowledge, negative attitudes, and ignorance among the school students are major hindrances to prevent the spread of HIV. Aim: To assess the knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDS among the higher secondary school students of Jaipur city. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study comprising 613 higher secondary school students (male = 390, female = 223 from Jaipur city were included in the study. The city was divided into 4 zones and one school from each zone was selected randomly. A questionnaire assessing the knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDS was distributed among the senior school students. Pilot study was done among 50 students to test the validity of the questionnaire. Results: All the students (100% in our sample knew what is AIDS. About 96.2% of the students knew that AIDS is not a simple disease, the correct knowledge about the modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS was nearly 85.6% and about 94% of students would not leave the school if there was an AIDS student in their class. Eighty-four percent of students believed that students with AIDS should not go to special schools and about 95.8% students believed that HIV individuals must be supported, treated, and helped. Conclusion: The students had satisfactory knowledge about HIV/AIDS and their attitude toward this group of people was good. There is need and opportunity to provide factual and precise knowledge on HIV/AIDS for school students. There should also be a drive to increase education and awareness about HIV/AIDS in educational institutes.

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome vulnerability of men who have sex with men in a border area of West Bengal, India

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    Dibakar Haldar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studying level of living, awareness about sexually transmitted infections (STIs including human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS and sex behavior of men who have sex with men (MSMs is prerequisite for control of increasing AIDS among them in India. Objective: To assess sociodemographics, awareness about STIs including AIDS, and find out the pattern of high risk sex behavior of MSM. Methodology: Cross-sectional survey was undertaken in May, 2012 among MSMs catered by T I program via Nongovernmental Organization "Madhya Banglar Sangram" in Murshidabad District. 62 MSMs were included from five cruising spots sampled randomly out of fourteen such. Information was collected via interview and focused group discussions (FGD using questionnaire and FGD guide. Blood samples were examined for VDRL reactivity. Results: Median age was 25 years and sexual debut at 13.67 ± 4.29 years. 87% respondents were residing in parental house, 20% was married, 40% had low education, 80.33% had additional jobs but 54% reported poor income. About 56% respondents knew "what is AIDS" and its spread via anal sex, mother to child transmission, needle sharing, sex worker, and blood transfusion reported by 52.46, 50.82, 47.54, 45.90, and 34.43%, respectively. More than 2/3rd, about 40 and 34.43% MSMs played "anal and oral receptive," "anal insertive" and "oral insertive" role. About 33% used condom regularly. Majority knew main symptoms of STIs. About 2/3rd reported discrimination by neighbors. Blood examination showed 6.45% VDRL reactivity. Conclusion: Reducing vulnerability of MSMs to HIV/AIDS requires holistic programs.

  9. [Present situation of awareness of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) knowledge and AIDS-related behaviors among youth students in gay dating sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-18

    To investigate the awareness of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) knowledge and AIDS-related behaviors among youth students in gay dating sites, and to provide evidences for AIDS prevention education through the internet. The students in gay dating sites, selected by a snowball sampling, were interviewed by questionnaires. Chi-square tests were used to analyze the awareness of AIDS knowledge among the students of different characteristics. The Logistic regression was used to analyze the factors associated with ever testing for HIV. In the study, 469 youth students in gay dating sites filled in the questionnaires, and a total of 442 (94.2%) valid samples were collected. The awareness of HIV/AIDS knowledge for the public among the youth students in gay dating sites was 83.9% (371).The awareness of HIV/AIDS knowledge for the youth students was 77.1% (341), and the rate of ever testing for HIV was 52.0% (230). The awareness of HIV/AIDS knowledge for the public in the students were different in different age groups (P=0.001), different marital statuses (Pdating sites was 75.1% (332), and the rate of multiple sexual partnerships among the youth students was 41.3% (137). Compared with homosexual orientation, sexual orientation as heterosexual (OR=0.282, 95%CI: 0.151 to 0.528) and not sure (OR=0.175, 95%CI: 0.035 to 0.885) were risk factors of ever testing for HIV. Multiple sexual partnerships (OR=2.103, 95%CI: 1.278 to 3.462) were promoting factors of ever testing for HIV. The rate of high-risk behaviors among the youth students in gay dating sites was high. The concern should be raised to heterosexual male students who had tendency to homosexual behavior. The AIDS prevention education should be developed in gay dating sites, to improve the self-protection awareness of the youth students.

  10. Food Security in Households of People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study in a Subdivision of Darjeeling District, West Bengal

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    Pallabi Dasgupta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS adversely impacts food security in households of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA. Little research has focused on food insecurity among PLWHA in India. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of and factors relating to food security in households of PLWHA in the Siliguri subdivision of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 173 PLWHA residing in Siliguri and registered at the Anti-retroviral Therapy Centre of North Bengal Medical College & Hospital. Data was collected at the household level with interviews of PLWHA using a food security survey instrument. We analyzed the associations using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of household food security among the participants was 50.9% (88/173. Five years or more of schooling, higher socioeconomic class and males were found to be significantly associated with a higher likelihood of food security. A later stage of the disease and the presence of other family members with HIV/AIDS were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of food security. The major coping strategies to deal with food insecurity in the acute phase HIV infection included borrowing money (56.1%, followed by spousal support, loans from microfinance institutions, banks, or money lenders, borrowing food, or selling agricultural products. Conclusions: The present study revealed that only about half of households with PLWHA were food secure. Prior interventions relating to periods of food and economic crisis as well as strategies for sustaining food security and economic status are needed in this area.

  11. Hepatitis B and C Sero-prevalence in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Izmir

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    Sabri ATALAY

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Infections caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV represent a significant health problem. Co-infection with these viral agents is not uncommon as a result of the similar transmission routes. Our study was planned to investigate the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections in HIV/Acquired Immune Deficiency syndrome (AIDS patients followed up at our institution. Materials and Methods: In this study conducted in the Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology at Izmir Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, medical records of patients followed at the HIV/AIDS outpatient clinic between August 2002 and December 2014 were evaluated. Demographic data, main route of HIV transmission, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, anti-hepatitis B core (HBc immunoglobulin G (IgG, anti-HBs and anti-HCV results were evaluated. Results: A total of 157 treatment-naïve patients who were followed up at our HIV/AIDS outpatient clinic were included in this study. Four patients (2.6%, had HBsAg positivity. Anti-HBc IgG and anti-HBs positivity were detected in 34% and 28.4% of the patients, respectively. No patients had anti-HCV positivity. Conclusion: The prevalence of HBsAg in HIV-positive individuals was found to be similar to that in other population-based studies in our country. Absence of anti-HCV positivity suggests that hepatitis C infection is not a major health problem in this population.

  12. Nocardiose pulmonar em paciente com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida: relato de caso Pulmonary nocardiosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: case report

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    Ana Carina Gamboa da Silva

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem um caso de nocardiose pulmonar em um homem de 37 anos de idade com a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida, em tratamento com anti-retrovirais, cujos sintomas de apresentação foram tosse com expectoração, hemoptóicos e emagrecimento progressivo. Foi realizada radiografia do tórax, que demonstrou consolidação no lobo superior do pulmão direito, e tomografia computadorizada do tórax, que evidenciou consolidação pulmonar com áreas escavadas. Diante dos achados radiológicos inespecíficos, foi realizada broncoscopia com lavado broncoalveolar, evidenciando estruturas filamentosas Gram-positivas compatíveis com Nocardia sp. O tratamento utilizado foi sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, com remissão completa do quadro respiratório. Após revisão da literatura, foram discutidos os principais aspectos radiológicos desta doença.The authors describe a case of pulmonary nocardiosis in a 37-year-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in treatment with antiretroviral drugs. Clinical symptoms were productive cough, hemoptysis and progressive weight loss. A chest x-ray film showed a right upper lobe consolidation while the computed tomography demonstrated consolidation and areas of cavitation. The radiologic findings were unspecific. Consequently, a bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, revealing filamentous Gram-positive bacteria (Nocardia sp. Treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resulted in complete remission of the respiratory symptoms. The authors review the literature and discuss the main radiological features of this disease.

  13. Estimation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients in Manipur

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    Singh H

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To estimate and stratify CD4 + and CD8 + T-lymphocyte levels in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected (asymptomatic and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients (symptomatic and correlate the clinical features of the patients with CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte level. Methods : Between April 2002 and September 2003, a total of 415 HIV seropositive adult patients (297 males and 118 females attending Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS hospitals were tested for CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes by fluorescent activated cell sorter (FACS counter (Becton Dickinson. Symptomatic patients were diagnosed as per NACO clinical case definition. Results : Ranges of 0-50, 51-100, 101-200, 201-300, 301-400, 401-500 and above 500 CD4+ T-lymphocyte per microlitre were seen in 68, 52, 101, 73, 47, 31 and 43 patients respectively whereas CD8+ T-lymphocyte ranges of 0-300, 301-600, 601-900, 901-1500, 1501-2000, 2001-3500 per microlitre were seen in 29, 84, 92, 145, 40 and 25 patients respectively. One hundred and fifty patients were asymptomatic and 265 were symptomatic. CD4/CD8 ratio in asymptomatics and symptomatics were 0.13-1.69 and 0.01-0.93 respectively. Tuberculosis and candidiasis occurred in CD4+ T-lymphocyte categories between 0-400 cells per mL in symptomatics. However, cryptosporidiosis, toxoplasmosis, herpes zoster, cryptococcal meningitis, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, penicilliosis and cytomegalovirus retinitis were seen in patients having CD4+ T-lymphocyte less than 200 per mL. Conclusions : CD4+ T-lymphocyte was decreased in both asymptomatic and symptomatic HIV patients, The decrease was greater in symptomatics while CD8+ T-lymphocyte was increased in both except advanced stage symptomatics. CD4:CD8 ratio was reversed in both groups. Opportunistic infections correlated with different CD4+ T-lymphocyte categories.

  14. Cholecystitis in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: ultrasonographic findings in a case of uncommon presentation during childhood; Colecistitis en un nino con sida: hallazgos ecograficos en una forma infrecuente de presentacion en la infancia

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    Rubi-Palomares, I.; Martinez-Leon, M. I.; Alonso-Usabiaga, I.; Ceres-Ruiz, L. [Hospital Materno Infantil del C.H.U. Carlos Haya. Malaga (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    We present the case of a boy with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in whom ultrasound revealed the presence of acalculous cholecystitis. Abdominal ultrasound was essential in the initial diagnosis and the assessment of the response to treatment. This entity has rarely been reported in the pediatric radiology literature. In our patient, the cholecystitis may have been caused by infection, and the involvement of regional lymphatic obstruction in the pathogenesis is considered. (Author) 14 refs.

  15. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus knowledge, attitudes, and practices, and use of healthcare services among rural migrants: a cross-sectional study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Cochran, Christopher; Xu, Peng; Shen, Jay J; Zeng, Gang; Xu, Yanjun; Sun, Mei; Li, Chengyue; Li, Xiaohong; Chang, Fengshui; Lu, Jun; Hao, Mo; Lu, Fan

    2014-02-13

    Today's rapid growth of migrant populations has been a major contributor to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, relatively few studies have focused on HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice among rural-to-urban migrants in China. This cross-sectional study was to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perceptions, including knowledge about reducing high-risk sex. Two-phase stratified cluster sampling was applied and 2,753 rural migrants participated in this study. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was conducted in Guangdong and Sichuan provinces in 2007. Descriptive analysis was used to present the essential characteristics of the respondents. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression models were performed to examine the associations between identified demographic factors and high-risk sex, sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms, and access to HIV screening services among the seven types of workers. 58.6% of participants were knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS transmission, but approximately 90% had a negative attitude towards the AIDS patients, and that 6.2% had engaged in high-risk sex in the past 12 months. Logistic regression analysis revealed sex, marital status, income, migration and work experience to be associated with high-risk sex. Among the 13.9% of workers who reported having STD symptoms, risk factors that were identified included female gender, high monthly income, being married, daily laborer or entertainment worker, frequent migration, and length of work experience. Only 3% of migrant workers received voluntary free HIV screening, which was positively associated with monthly income and workplace. HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and practices among rural migrants in China remain a thorny health issue, and use of healthcare services needs to be improved. Low levels of education and knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS among housekeepers and migrant day laborers result in

  16. Do Students Eventually Get to Publish their Research Findings? The Case of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Research in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munung, Ns; Vidal, L; Ouwe-Missi-Oukem-Boyer, O

    2014-05-01

    Scientific publication is commonly used to communicate research findings and in most academic/research settings, to evaluate the potential of a researcher and for recruitment and promotion. It has also been said that researchers have the duty to make public, the findings of their research. As a result, researchers are encouraged to share their research findings with the scientific world through peer review publications. In this study, we looked at the characteristics and publication rate of theses that documented studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Cameroon. TO CHECK IF A THESIS RESULTED IN A PUBLICATION, WE SEARCHED: A database of publications on HIV in Cameroon, African Journals Online, PubMed and Google scholar. For each publication we recorded if the student was an author, the position of the student in the author listing, the journal and where the journal was indexed. We also looked at the impact factor of the journals. One hundred and thirty theses/dissertations were included in the study, 74.6% (97/130) were written as part of a medical degree (MD), 23.8% (31/130) a postgraduate (PG) degree and 1.5% (2/130) for a Doctorate/PhD. On a whole, 13.9% (18/130) of the theses resulted in at least one publication in a scientific journal with a total of 22 journal articles, giving a mean publication rate of 0.17 article/thesis, 86.4% (11/22) were indexed on PubMed, 9.1% (2/22) on African Journals Online and 4.6% (1/22) on Google scholar. One PG thesis led to two book chapters. The student was the first author in 22.7% (5/22) of the articles and not an author in 9.1% (2/22) of the articles. Student supervisor was an author in all the articles. This study reveals that most students in Cameroon failed to transform their theses/dissertations to scientific publications. This indicates an urgent need to sensitize students on the importance of presenting their research findings in scientific meetings and peer reviewed journals

  17. Eradication of hepatitis C virus and non-liver-related non-acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related events in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Juan; Rodríguez-Castellano, Elena; Carrero, Ana; Von Wichmann, Miguel A; Montero, Marta; Galindo, María J; Mallolas, Josep; Crespo, Manuel; Téllez, María J; Quereda, Carmen; Sanz, José; Barros, Carlos; Tural, Cristina; Santos, Ignacio; Pulido, Federico; Guardiola, Josep M; Rubio, Rafael; Ortega, Enrique; Montes, María L; Jusdado, Juan J; Gaspar, Gabriel; Esteban, Herminia; Bellón, José M; González-García, Juan

    2017-08-01

    We assessed non-liver-related non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related (NLR-NAR) events and mortality in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients treated with interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV), between 2000 and 2008. The censoring date was May 31, 2014. Cox regression analysis was performed to assess the adjusted hazard rate (HR) of overall death in responders and nonresponders. Fine and Gray regression analysis was conducted to determine the adjusted subhazard rate (sHR) of NLR deaths and NLR-NAR events considering death as the competing risk. The NLR-NAR events analyzed included diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, cardiovascular events, NLR-NAR cancer, bone events, and non-AIDS-related infections. The variables for adjustment were age, sex, past AIDS, HIV transmission category, nadir CD4 + T-cell count, antiretroviral therapy, HIV RNA, liver fibrosis, HCV genotype, and exposure to specific anti-HIV drugs. Of the 1,625 patients included, 592 (36%) had a sustained viral response (SVR). After a median 5-year follow-up, SVR was found to be associated with a significant decrease in the hazard of diabetes mellitus (sHR, 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35-0.93; P = 0.024) and decline in the hazard of chronic renal failure close to the threshold of significance (sHR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.17-1.09; P = 0.075). Our data suggest that eradication of HCV in coinfected patients is associated not only with a reduction in the frequency of death, HIV progression, and liver-related events, but also with a reduced hazard of diabetes mellitus and possibly of chronic renal failure. These findings argue for the prescription of HCV therapy in coinfected patients regardless of fibrosis stage. (Hepatology 2017;66:344-356). © 2017 The Authors. Hepatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. Epidemiology and clinical parameters of adult human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome at the initiation of antiretroviral therapy in South eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleje, Gu; Ele, Pu; Okocha, Ec; Iloduba, Uc

    2014-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has continued to ravage the teeming populations in Nigeria, with disastrous consequences. Despite many studies and progress on HIV/AIDS in Africa, the data on the status of the patients at the commencement of therapy is lacking. The aim of this study is to determine the demographic, clinical and some laboratory features of adult HIV/AIDS patients, seen at the commencement of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, south-east Nigeria between July 2002 and October 2004. The study was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Adult patients living with HIV/AIDS were studied using an interview administered questionnaire. Data was analyzed using Epi Info 2008 version 3.5.1. A total of 400 respondents participated in this study. The mean age was 36.8 (8.8) years. Almost 60% patients were married and the HIV concordance rate was 53.3% (136/255). Nearly 30% of the families had at least one child positive for HIV. The most common associated risky behavior was injection administered in patent medicine stores 74.5%(302/400) and the most common clinical symptom was respiratory. Of the 400 patients recruited in this study, 19 (4.8%) were lost to follow-up on the 6 months' visit, giving a follow-up rate of 95.2% (381/400). There was statistically significant difference in the mean body weight (P = 0.02), mean total white blood cell count (P < 0.001) and mean CD4(+) count (P < 0.001) at presentation and after 6 months of ART therapy. HIV/AIDS patients present late and body weight, CD4(+) count and total white blood cell count seemed to recover quickly on commencement of ART. The prevalence of concordance among couples and mother to child transmission rates tended to be high. Administration of injectable at patent medicine stores and multiple sexual partners are the most significant risk factors.

  19. Contribution of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic to de novo presentations of heart disease in the Heart of Soweto Study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Karen; Carrington, Melinda J; Becker, Anthony; Thienemann, Friedrich; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Stewart, Simon

    2012-04-01

    The contemporary impact of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic on heart disease in South Africa (>5 million people affected) is unknown. The Heart of Soweto Study provides a unique opportunity to identify the contribution of cardiac manifestations of this epidemic to de novo presentations of heart disease in an urban African community in epidemiological transition. Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital services the >1 million people living in Soweto, South Africa. A prospective, clinical registry captured data from all de novo cases of heart disease presenting to the Cardiology Unit during 2006-08. We describe all cases where HIV/AIDS was concurrently diagnosed. Overall, 518 of 5328 de novo cases of heart disease were identified as HIV-positive (9.7%) with 54% of these prescribed highly active anti-retroviral therapies on presentation. Women (62%) and Africans (97%) predominated with women being significantly younger than men 38 ± 13 vs. 42 ± 13 years (P = 0.002). The most common primary diagnosis attributable to HIV/AIDS was HIV-related cardiomyopathy (196 cases, 38%); being prescribed more anti-retroviral therapy (127/196 vs. 147/322; odds ratio 2.85, 95% confidence interval 1.81-3.88) with higher viral loads [median 110 000 (inter-quartile range 26 000-510 000) vs. 19 000 (3200-87 000); P = 0.018] and a lower CD4 count [median 180 (71-315) vs. 211 (96-391); P = 0.019] than the rest. An additional 128 cases (25%) were diagnosed with pericarditis/pericardial effusion with a range of other concurrent diagnoses evident, including 42 cases (8.1%) of HIV-related pulmonary arterial hypertension. Only 14 of all 581 cases of coronary artery disease (CAD) (2.4%, mean age 41 ± 13 years) were confirmed HIV-positive. Cardiac manifestations of HIV/AIDS identified within this cohort were relatively infrequent. While HIV-related cardiomyopathy and pericardial disease remain important targets for early detection and treatment in

  20. Bacteremia por Rhodococcus equi em paciente com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida: relato de caso Bacteremia due to Rhodococcus equi in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: case report

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    Carina Secchi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhodococcus equi é um importante agente de infecções zoonóticas, podendo causar sérias infecções em humanos, principalmente em pacientes imunocomprometidos. Neste estudo, nós relatamos o caso de uma bacteremia fatal devido a Rhodococcus equi em paciente com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (HIV positivo.Rhodococcus equi is an important agent for zoonotic infections, and may cause serious infections in humans, especially immunocompromised patients. In this study, a case of fatal bacteremia due to Rhodococcus equi in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV positive is reported.

  1. Rapid containment of nosocomial transmission of a rare community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) clone, responsible for the Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS)

    OpenAIRE

    Lamanna, Onofrio; Bongiorno, Dafne; Bertoncello, Lisa; Grandesso, Stefano; Mazzucato, Sandra; Pozzan, Giovanni Battista; Cutrone, Mario; Chirico, Michela; Baesso, Flavia; Brugnaro, Pierluigi; Cafiso, Viviana; Stefani, Stefania; Campanile, Floriana

    2017-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to identify the source and the transmission pathway for a Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS) outbreak in a maternity setting in Italy over 2?months, during 2014; to implement appropriate control measures in order to prevent the epidemic spread within the maternity ward; and to identify the Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) epidemic clone. Methods Epidemiological and microbiological investigations, based on phenotyping and genoty...

  2. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - correlation of high-resolution computed tomography and anatomopathology; Pneumocistose na sindrome da imunodeficiencia adquirida: correlacao da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao com a anatomopatologia

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    Marchiori, Edson; Moreira, Luiza Beatriz [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: edmarchiori@zipmail.com.br; Capone, Domenico [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Moraes, Heleno Pinto de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Patologia; Pereira, Cyntia Inez Guedes Soares

    2001-12-01

    We present the main findings observed on the high-resolution computed tomography examinations of 15 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. The high-resolution computed tomography and autopsy findings of 5 patients were also compared. The most frequently observed high-resolution computed tomography patterns were ground-glass attenuation, consolidation areas, crazy-paving pattern and cysts. Nodules and intralobular reticulation were less frequently observed. Ground-glass attenuation and consolidation areas corresponded to alveolar filling with inflammatory exudate. Thickening of the interlobular septa was due to cell infiltration and edema. One patient presented interlobular reticulation, and the pathology study revealed alveolar septa thickening due to cell infiltration and fibrosis. Nodules observed in one of the patients corresponded to a patchy intra alveolar accumulation of microorganisms and inflammatory cells forming a 'granulomatous' pattern. (author)

  3. [Treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma associated with acquired immnodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriarte-Duque, Juan; Hernández-Riverab, Gabriela

    2006-01-01

    Survival in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma has improved with the use of High Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) and less toxic chemotherapy. Clinical characteristics and outcome among patients treated for AIDS related non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma are described. Nine patients were studied retrospectively. Overall survival (OS) and Free Disease Survival (FDS) using a Kaplan-Meier model were analyzed. Patients received (DA-EPOCH) etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. The overall Survival was 18 months and 13 month Free Disease Survival with a median follow-up of 16 months showing full response in 8/9 patients was observed. A very satisfactory treatment response in this group of patients expressed as an increased Overall Survival was noted.

  4. Cardiovascular complications in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome Complicações cardiovasculares na síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida

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    Giuseppe Barbaro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has significantly improved the clinical outcome of HIV disease, with increased survival rates. However, the introduction of HAART has generated a contrast in the cardiac manifestations of AIDS. In developed countries, we observed an approximate 30% reduction in the prevalence of HIV-associated cardiomyopathy, possibly related to a reduction of opportunistic infections and myocarditis. In developing countries, however, where the availability of HAART is limited and the pathogenic impact of nutritional factors is significant, we observed an increase of approximately 32% in the prevalence of HIV-associated cardiomyopathy and a related high mortality rate from congestive heart failure. Also, some HAART regimens in developed countries, especially those including protease inhibitors, have been shown to cause, in a high proportion of HIV-infected patients, a iatrogenic metabolic syndrome (HIV-lipodystrophy syndrome.This is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular events even in young HIV-infected people. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for this syndrome will lead to the discovery of new drugs that will reduce cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients receiving HAART.A introdução da terapia antitroviral altamente potente (HAART melhorou significativamente a evolução clínica da infecção pelo HIV com um aumento nas taxas de sobrevida. Apesar deste benefício, o uso da HAART gerou contrastes nas manifestações cardíacas da Aids. Nos países desenvolvidos, observou-se uma redução de aproximadamente 30% na prevalência de cardiomiopatia associada ao HIV, possivelmente relacionada à redução das infecções oportunistas e da miocardite. Nos países em desenvolvimento, entretanto, aonde a disponibilidade da HAART é limitada e o impacto patogênico dos fatores nutricionais é significante, observou-se um aumento de

  5. Rapid containment of nosocomial transmission of a rare community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) clone, responsible for the Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanna, Onofrio; Bongiorno, Dafne; Bertoncello, Lisa; Grandesso, Stefano; Mazzucato, Sandra; Pozzan, Giovanni Battista; Cutrone, Mario; Chirico, Michela; Baesso, Flavia; Brugnaro, Pierluigi; Cafiso, Viviana; Stefani, Stefania; Campanile, Floriana

    2017-01-06

    The aims of this study were to identify the source and the transmission pathway for a Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS) outbreak in a maternity setting in Italy over 2 months, during 2014; to implement appropriate control measures in order to prevent the epidemic spread within the maternity ward; and to identify the Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) epidemic clone. Epidemiological and microbiological investigations, based on phenotyping and genotyping methods, were performed. All neonates involved in the outbreak underwent clinical and microbiological investigations to detect the cause of illness. Parents and healthcare workers were screened for Staphylococcus aureus to identify asymptomatic carriers. The SSSS outbreak was due to the cross-transmission of a rare clone of ST5-CA-MRSA-SCCmecV-spa type t311, exfoliative toxin A-producer, isolated from three neonates, one mother (from her nose and from dermatological lesions due to pre-existing hand eczema) and from a nurse (colonized in her nose by this microorganism). The epidemiological and microbiological investigation confirmed these as two potential carriers. A rapid containment of these infections was obtained only after implementation of robust swabbing of mothers and healthcare workers. The use of molecular methodologies for typing was able to identify all carriers and to trace the transmission.

  6. Treatment of facial lipoatrophy with polymethylmethacrylate among patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS): impact on the quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintas, Rodrigo C S; de França, Emmanuel R; de Petribú, Kátia C L; Ximenes, Ricardo A A; Quintas, Lóren F F M; Cavalcanti, Ernando L F; Kitamura, Marco A P; Magalhães, Kássia A A; Paiva, Késsia C F; Filho, Demócrito B Miranda

    2014-04-01

    The lipodystrophy syndrome is characterized by selective loss of subcutaneous fat on the face and extremities (lipoatrophy) and/or accumulation of fat around the neck, abdomen, and thorax (lipohypertrophy). The aim of this study has been to assess the impact of polymethylmethacrylate facial treatment on quality of life, self-perceived facial image, and the severity of depressive symptoms in patients living with HIV/AIDS. A non-randomized before and after interventional study was developed. Fifty-one patients underwent facial filling. The self-perceived quality of life, facial image, and degree of depressive symptoms were measured by the Short-Form 36 and HIV/AIDS--Targeted quality of life questionnaires, by a visual analogue scale and by the Beck depression inventory, respectively, before and three months after treatment. Six of the eight domains of Short-Form 36 and eight of the nine dimensions of the HIV/AIDS--Targeted quality of life questionnaires, together with the visual analogue scale and by the Beck depression inventory scores, revealed a statistically significant improvement. The only adverse effects registered were edema and ecchymosis. The treatment of facial lipoatrophy improved the self-perceived quality of life and facial image as well as any depressive symptoms among patients with HIV/AIDS. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  7. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted infections among health care providers in Lahore, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is a global problem of extraordinary dimensions and has so far resulted in nearly 25 million deaths worldwide. Health care providers (HCPs) are considered to play a pivotal role in the provision of preventive and curative services to individuals suffering from HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections. Pakistan, which was previously categorised as having a low-prevalence, high-risk HIV epidemic, is now facing a concentrated HIV epidemic among its most at-risk populations such as injecting drug users. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and reported practices relating to HIV/AIDS and STIs among private and public sector health care providers providing clinical services in areas where women sell sex. This was an exploratory quantitative study, where a structured questionnaire was administered in face-to-face interviews with 200 HCPs from the public and private sectors. Knowledge about AIDS and correct diagnosis of STIs were defined as according to the national guidelines of NACP. Pearson's chi-square analysis was performed to test associations between predictors and level of knowledge of STIs in each group separately. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to indicate predicting factors for correct management of STIs. Forty-five percent of the HCPs had correct knowledge about the transmission and prevention of HIV, whereas 21% had seen a patient with advanced HIV infection, only two HCPs had been trained to manage such cases and 82% were not aware of syndromic management of STIs. Only 10% could cite the 'correct treatment' of gonorrhoea, syphilis and vaginal discharge. The odds of having the 'correct knowledge' of diagnosing gonorrhoea and syphilis were 2.1 (CI 95%, 1.2-3.8) if the HCP was a female medical doctor working in public sector. Further intensive training is needed to improve the ability of relevant HCPs to correctly diagnose and effectively treat patients

  8. Constitutional t(5;7)(q11;p15) rearranged to acquire monosomy 7q and trisomy 1q in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome transforming to acute myelocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganly, Peter; McDonald, Margaret; Spearing, Ruth; Morris, Christine M

    2004-03-01

    We report the case of a 61-year-old woman who presented with a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and a t(5;7)(q11.2;p15) in her bone marrow cells. Subsequent analysis of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes and cultured skin fibroblasts showed that the translocation was constitutional. Disruption of chromosome bands 5q11.2 and 7p15 has been described recurrently in MDS and acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and, although the age of onset was not earlier than usual, it is nonetheless possible that genes interrupted by this translocation may been a predisposing factor for her condition. With progression to AML, a further rearrangement of the constitutional der(7)t(5;7) occurred, involving chromosome arm 1q. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole-chromosome paints showed that the result of the second rearrangement, a t(1;7)(q32.1;q32), was observed, leading to trisomy of the segment 1q32.1 approximately qter and monosomy of the segment 7q32.1 approximately qter. The acquired imbalances, particularly loss of 7q, are commonly associated with MDS/AML and a poor prognosis; however, this patient remained in remission after treatment for more than two years before AML relapse, perhaps because the affected regions fall outside of the critical regions of imbalance.

  9. Gastric cryptosporidiosis as a clue for the diagnosis of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome Criptosporidiose gástrica como pista para o diagnóstico da síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyntia Mendes CLEMENTE

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium parvum has been detected with increasing frequency in the gastrointestinal tract, but involvement of the stomach is rarely reported. Whenever found in the histologic examination of the gastrointestinal mucosa, it should raise the suspicion of an immunocompromised host. We report a case of Cryptosporidium-associated erosive gastritis in a 64-year-old woman, who was found later to have the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Gastroduodenoendoscopy and biopsy of the gastric mucosa played an invaluable role in the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis and to disclose the underlying immunodeficiency stateInfecções oportunistas do trato gastrointestinal constituem ameaça à população crescente de portadores de imunossupressão. O comprometimento do estômago por Cryptosporidium é incomum. Quando identificado no exame histopatológico da mucosa gástrica, é mandatória a investigação do estado imunológico do hospedeiro. São apresentados os dados clinicopatológicos e endoscópicos de uma paciente de 64 anos com gastrite erosiva associada à infecção por Cryptosporidium. O encontro deste agente oportunista no exame histopatológico da mucosa gástrica foi fundamental para esclarecer a doença de base da paciente, que era a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida.

  10. Oral manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and their correlation to cluster of differentiation lymphocyte count in population of North-East India in highly active antiretroviral therapy era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarat Kumar Nayak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection which manifests as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is a disease involving the defects of the T-lymphocyte arm of the immune system. Certain laboratory parameters such as the cluster of differentiation (CD4 count and clinical parameters have long been used as markers of disease progression. In industrialized countries, many studies show a highly correlation between the incidence of oral lesions and immunosuppression and hence, can be used as a marker of immunosuppression. This might not be applicable to a developing country like India. In this study, efforts have been made to supplement the present knowledge on various aspects of oral manifestations in HIV patients in the Indian subcontinent. Aims: To correlate the oral manifestations in HIV/AIDS patients to the level of circulating CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and their effect in anti-retroviral therapy (ART. Subjects and Methods: A total of 104 HIV positive patients were examined for oral lesions. The CD4 count estimated on the same day by fluorescent activated cell sort count machine was then correlated with various oral lesions. Results: Oral manifestations appeared when CD4 count decreased below 500 cells/mm3. Moreover, oral lesions found at different stages showed very strong correlation to their respective CD4 count. Furthermore, there was considerable decline in the incidence of oral manifestations in patients undergoing highly active ART. Conclusions: Oral manifestations are highly predictive markers of severe immune deterioration and disease progression in HIV patients.

  11. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, C.

    1987-01-01

    The diagnostic relevance of bronchological examination methods in addition to lung function and X-ray thorax diagnostics as well as 67 Ga thorax scintigraphy in AIDS patients suffering from pneumocystis carinii pneumonia are discussed. Data on the diagnostic strategy regarding pneumological conditions as well as in the out-patient care of HIV-infected and of AIDS patients are presented. (author)

  12. Wle behoort Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-01-22

    Jan 22, 1983 ... most at risk, the male homosexuals and the drug abusers. Two things should be ... has been clouded by the acceptance of the concept of being explored ... appetite, weight loss, extreme fatigue and enlargement of lymph nodes. ... at risk, the most important task of general practitioners is to allay the fears.

  13. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and its ocular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Narsing

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus infection is the first major pandemic of the 20th century. At present, almost 10 million people are known to be infected with this virus, and it is estimated that by the year 2000, approximately 40 million people will be infected. Transmission of this deadly infection is predominantly by sexual contact. Individuals infected with this virus pass through several predictable stages with progressive decrease in circulating CD4+ T cells. During the advanced stage, these patients develop various opportunistic infections or malignancies, or both. It is this advanced stage that was first recognized as AIDS, which has a 100% mortality rate. The opportunistic organisms that can involve the eye in patients with AIDS include cytomegalovirus, herpes zoster, Toxoplasma gondii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, Pneumocystis carinii, Histoplasma capsulatum, Candida, and others. Intraocular lesions from these agents often represent disseminated infections. Visual morbidity occurs secondary to retinitis due to cytomegalovirus, herpes zoster, or Toxoplasma gondii. Anti-viral agents such as ganciclovir or foscarnet are effective against cytomegalovirus infection. The role of the ophthalmologist in the diagnosis and management of AIDS is becoming increasingly important. Not only does the eye reflect systemic disease, but ocular involvement may often precede systemic manifestations. In the AIDS patient, the ophthalmologist thus has an opportunity to make not only a slight-saving, but also life-saving diagnosis of disseminated opportunistic infections.

  14. A mathematical model on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

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    Buddhadeo Mahato

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model SEIA (susceptible-exposed-infectious-AIDS infected with vertical transmission of AIDS epidemic is formulated. AIDS is one of the largest health problems, the world is currently facing. Even with anti-retroviral therapies (ART, many resource-constrained countries are unable to meet the treatment needs of their infected populations. We consider a function of number of AIDS cases in a community with an inverse relation. A stated theorem with proof and an example to illustrate it, is given to find the equilibrium points of the model. The disease-free equilibrium of the model is investigated by finding next generation matrix and basic reproduction number R0 of the model. The disease-free equilibrium of the AIDS model system is locally asymptotically stable if R0⩽1 and unstable if R0>1. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the results.

  15. The Acquired Immunedeficiency Syndrome and related diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HTLV-III are helpful but are not available. Other investigations may be required depending on clinical findings to exclude other diseases and confirm opportunistic infection. •. Treatment. There is no specific treatment for AIDS at present. Infections detected in such patie~ts, eg oral candidiasis or T.B., should be treated m the.

  16. Acquired immunedeficiency syndrome in forensic autopsies

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    Carlos Delmonte Prints

    Full Text Available From May 1985 to May 1989, 126 necropsies were performed at the São Paulo City Morgue on cadavers of individuals AIDS victims whose unnatural deaths had prompted police investigations. One hundred and nineteen males and 17 females were included. Ages were most commonly in the 20-to-30 year range. Fifty four deaths occurred in penal institutions, 29 deaths resulted from suicides, 17 deaths from manslaughter, 17 deaths were considered suspicious, 5 willful murders and 4 others also considered suspicious because corpses were found in advanced stages of putrefaction. Inmates, except one man who was strangled, died as a consequence of the disease. During all autopsies, special attention was paid to the high rate of extrapulmonary Mycobacterial infections. Suicides were committed in different ways and the majority of the victims were documented to be still in the initial stages of the disease. Suspicious deaths and deteriorated corpses were the result of negligence of the subject's families. Homicidal deaths occurred in subjects in the terminal stages of the disease inside the hospital where these subjects were assisted and the immunedeficiency certainly contributed to aggravate the injuries leading to death. Attention is drawn to both legal and social issues affecting AIDS victims. The authors believe these issues may pose a hindrance for efficient control of the AIDS epidemic.

  17. Behcet's disease in acquired immune deficiency syndrome

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    Beenish Siddiqui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS patients often present with orogenital ulcers. In the immunocompromised patient diagnosis of these ulcers pose a challenge, as there is a myriad of etiologies. We present a case of an HIV/AIDS patient with recurrent orogenital aphthosis that was confirmed to have concomitant diagnosis of Behcet's disease. Proper awareness of the causes of these ulcers is essential for prompt and effective treatment. While rare causes may be at the bottom of a differential list in an immunocompetent host, when HIV/AIDS is involved these rare causes often percolate to the top.

  18. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in acquired immuno deficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaston, A.; Wallman, J.; Le Bras, F.; Marsault, C.; Gherardi, R.; Wechsler, J.; N'Guyen, J.P.; Perroud, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Authors report a case of fatal CNS toxoplasmosis in a young homosexual man suffering from Kaposi angio-sacroma. This paper is principally concerned with CT scan and neuropathological correlations. (orig.)

  19. Acquired Auditory Verbal Agnosia and Seizures in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Judith A.; Ferry, Peggy C.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents a review of cases of children with acquired aphasia with convulsive disorder and discusses clinical features of three additional children in whom the specific syndrome of auditory verbal agnosia was identified. (Author/CL)

  20. [Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma: 1. Course during the 20 years of the epidemic. 2. The experience at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán: 1986-2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rivera, E Gabriela; Gómez-Roel, Xóchitl; Villasís-Keever, Angelina

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this presentation is the description of the epidemiologic evolution and changes in natural history of the human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) epidemic itself and its relation with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma (ARL). We have started with the description of the world's state of the HIV epidemic, its features since the first case report in the United States of America in 1981, through the peak of new diagnoses in 1993 until the event that changed the natural history of the disease: the era of the widespread use of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), introduced in 1995 in the world and in 1997 in our country. The widespread introduction of HAART led to dramatic reductions in AIDS related mortality and morbidity throughout the developed world with a marked fall in the incidence of the major opportunistic infections in AIDS. We describe the main risk factors for the development of ARL, and the prognostic factors for survival and response to treatment. There is no clear definition in the literature of the roll that has played the use of HAART in relation to survival and response to treatment in ARL, but there is evidence that the basal count of CD4 cells has increased with HAART, leading to a better survival and response in ARL. The debate regarding this issue is surely affected by factors such as degree of antiretroviral treatment compliance, antiretroviral therapy resistance and chemotherapy heterogeneity. Finally we present the preliminary results of the analysis of our experience in ARL from 1986 to 2003.

  1. Tuberculose como doença definidora de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida: dez anos de evolução na Cidade do Rio de Janeiro Tuberculosis as a disease defining acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: ten years of surveillance in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Cristina Coelho Soares

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a freqüência da tuberculose e das outras principais doenças oportunistas definidoras de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida, no momento em que estes casos são notificados, no Município do Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODOS: Análise do banco de dados do Sistema de Vigilância Epidemiológica do Programa de Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis e Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro, no período de 1993 a 2002. RESULTADOS: A expansão da definição de casos de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida ocorrida em 1998 criou um aumento substancial no número de casos notificados de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida, principalmente por aqueles que passaram a ser definidos pelo critério imunológico. Dentre os casos de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida que foram definidos apenas por doença, a candidíase em suas diversas formas manteve-se como a doença oportunista de maior freqüência no momento da notificação. Embora a pneumonia por Pneumocystis carinii se apresentasse como a segunda doença mais freqüente na maioria dos anos observados, a partir de 2001, a tuberculose ultrapassou-a em freqüência, tornando-se a segunda doença mais freqüente no momento da notificação dos casos de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar da diminuição do número de casos de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida definidos por doença, a tuberculose manteve-se como um importante evento definidor dessa síndrome, sendo atualmente de ocorrência mais freqüente do que a pneumonia por Pneumocystis carinii e a toxoplasmose, provavelmente por sua alta taxa de prevalência na cidade.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency of tuberculosis and of the other principal opportunistic infections defining acquired immunodeficiency syndrome at the time such cases were reported in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: Analysis of the data compiled in the Rio de Janeiro Municipal

  2. Acquired bleeding disorders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B one marrow aplasia ... Laboratory approach to a suspected acquired bleeding disorder. (LER = leuko- .... lymphocytic leukaemia, and lymphoma). ... cells), a bone marrow aspirate and trephine biopsy (BMAT) is not ..... transplantation.

  3. Pneumonia - children - community acquired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchopneumonia - children; Community-acquired pneumonia - children; CAP - children ... Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in infants and children. Ways your child can get CAP include: Bacteria and viruses living in the nose, sinuses, or mouth may spread ...

  4. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  5. Esofagites em pacientes com síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida: estudo histológico e imunoistoquímico Esophagitis in patients with acquired human immunodeficiency syndrome: an histological and immunohistochemistry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Aguiar Vidal

    2007-12-01

    citomegalovírus, respectivamente. O emprego da técnica de imunoistoquímica auxilia no diagnóstico das esofagites virais e torna possível detectar o citomegalovírus em esôfagos normais à endoscopia e/ou ao exame histopatológico.BACKGROUND: Almost all patients with acquired immunodeficiency virus syndrome will have gastrointestinal symptoms during the course of their illness. The high prevalence and complications of esophagitis are well documented. AIM: Graduate esophagitis; identify microorganisms like Candida sp, cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus and mycobacteria; identify by immunohistochemical staining viral agents cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus I, herpesvirus II, Epstein-Barr Virus, human papilloma virus and human immunodeficiency virus; verify how immunohistochemistry changes the profile of esophagitis; verify the association between the histological and endoscopical findings; verify the relevance of the number of fragments studied in the characterization of the histological agents. METHODS: We studied retrospectively esophageal biopsies in 227 patients with acquired immunodeficiency virus syndrome using hematoxylin and eosin, PAS (periodic acid of Schiff, Groccott and Ziehl-Nielsen stains and immunoperoxidase stains to detect opportunistic agents. Endoscopic aspects were studied. RESULTS: The non-specific esophagitis grade III, in the inferior third of the esophagus, was the most frequent type. Candida sp was the most frequent agent, followed by viruses cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus and mycobacteria. The presence of plaque and ulceration suggested the diagnosis of esophageal candidiasis and cytomegalovirus esophagitis. Immunohistochemical allowed the characterization of cytomegalovirus and of herpesvirus in those cases where other techniques could not achieve it, furthermore the cytomegalovirus was also found in histological normal cases, making the use of this technique advisable in routine diagnosis. The herpesvirus I was not found isolated but associated to

  6. Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loss of interest in normal play Delayed speech development or loss of previously acquired speech abilities Problem behavior or marked mood swings Any clear loss of previously gained milestones in gross motor or fine motor skills Causes Rett syndrome is a rare genetic disorder. ...

  7. Síndromes disexecutivas do desenvolvimento e adquiridas na prática clínica: três relatos de caso Developmental and acquired dysexecutive syndromes in clinical practice: three case-reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Borges

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Síndromes disexecutivas podem ser observadas em diversas condições neuropsiquiátricas, como transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH, traumatismos cranioencefálicos (TCE ou esquizofrenia, frequentemente se associando à ampla gama de comprometimento, incluindo ambientes familiar, acadêmico e profissional. O objetivo do presente estudo é apresentar três casos de disfunções executivas, nos quais, embora todos os pacientes tenham QI dentro dos limites da normalidade, existe significativo comprometimento social e ocupacional. O primeiro caso apresenta uma jovem que sofreu TCE, com queixas de dificuldades de memória para material novo, além de apatia e diminuição de iniciativa e persistência. O segundo caso versa sobre uma mulher que apresenta problemas desde a educação infantil, com histórico de tratamentos ineficazes e nenhum diagnóstico formal. Segundo relato de informante colateral, há déficits de planejamento, comportamentos antissociais, aversão a gratificações tardias e dificuldades de ativação. O último caso refere-se a indivíduo do sexo masculino, avaliado depois de grave TCE após acidente de carro. Há relato de mudança de comportamento com desinibição, diminuição da persistência e desatenção, relatadas como mais graves do que as apresentadas durante a infância, apesar de desempenho normal em testes de funções executivas. A avaliação de disfunções executivas (do desenvolvimento ou adquiridas pode ser de extrema importância para servir como base de tratamento visando à diminuição de comprometimento nas atividades cotidianas.Dysexecutive syndromes are often observed in several neuropsychiatric conditions, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, traumatic brain injuries (TBI or schizophrenia, and usually associate with significant impairments, including familial, academic and professional areas. The present paper aims at presenting three cases of executive

  8. Lesões do trato gastrointestinal na síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida: [title]estudo de 45 necrópsias consecutivas Gastrointestinal tract lesions in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: study of forty five consecutive necropsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goretti Freire de Carvalho

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de estudar afrequência e etiologia das lesões do tubo digestivo na Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida (AIDS, foram analisadas retrospectivamente 45 necrópsias consecutivas de pacientes adultos portadores do vírus da AIDS. Lesões macroscópicas e cortes histológicos de amostras da boca à região anal foram estudados, sendo as lâminas coradas por HE, métodos histoquímicos ou imunohistoquímicos. Trinta e sete (82,3 %pacientes apresentaram lesões no tubo digestivo. O local mais freqüente de lesões foi a boca (73,3%, seguido do cólon (55,5%. Lesões múltiplas foram identificadas em 17 (37,7% casos. O diagnóstico mais prevalente foi infecção pelo citomegalovírus (35,7% identificado predominantemente no cólon. Candidíasefoi mais freqüente na boca (26,6% e infecção herpética no esôfago (8,8%. Verificou-se leucoplasiapilosa oral em 16 (35,5% eneoplasias emsete (15,5%. Asneoplasias incluíram quatro sarcomas de Kaposi, dois Carcinomas intramucosos anais e um linfoma gástrico. Os dados do presente estudo confirmam a importância do trato gastrointestinal como sede de alterações patológicas relacionadas à AIDS.This study was designed to evaluate restropectivefy the frequency and etiology of the gastrointestinal (GI lesions in 45 consecutive necropsies of adult patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS. Gross descriptions and histological sections of the GI tract, from mouth to anus, were reviewed. The slides were H&E stained, and when necessary special stains and immunohistochemicalmethods were also employed. There were lesions in GI tract in 37(82.3% patients; the mouth was the segment mostfrequently involved (73.3% of the cases, followed by the colon (55.5%. Multiple lesions occurred in 17 (37.7% cases. Cytomegalovirus caused colonic lesions in 35.7% of the cases. Candidiasis was observed in 26.6% mainly in the mouth and herpes simplex (8.8% was the important agent of esophageal lesions. Oral

  9. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  10. Acquired hypofibrinogenemia: current perspectives

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    Besser MW

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Martin W Besser,1 Stephen G MacDonald2 1Department of Haematology, 2Department of Specialist Haemostasis, The Pathology Partnership, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Acquired hypofibrinogenemia is most frequently caused by hemodilution and consumption of clotting factors. The aggressive replacement of fibrinogen has become one of the core principles of modern management of massive hemorrhage. The best method for determining the patient’s fibrinogen level remains controversial, and particularly in acquired dysfibrinogenemia, could have major therapeutic implications depending on which quantification method is chosen. This review introduces the available laboratory and point-of-care methods and discusses the relative advantages and limitations. It also discusses current strategies for the correction of hypofibrinogenemia. Keywords: Clauss fibrinogen assay, fibrinogen antigen, viscoelastic testing, ­gravimetric fibrinogen assay, PT-derived fibrinogen, functional fibrinogen, direct oral anticoagulant, dysfibrinogenemia, afibrinogenemia

  11. Acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa

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    Kumar Pramod

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired hypertirichosis lanuginose developed rapidly in a patient with no detectable malignancy. Soft, fine, downy hair growth was noticed on the face, ears, limbs and trunk. Bilaterally symmetrical vitiliginous macules were present on the ear and preauricular region. This case is reported because of its rarity, absence of any detectable malignancy and development of vitiligo, which to our knowledge has not been reported earlier.

  12. Acquired epidermolysis bullosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricel Sucar Batista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa is a group of diseases or skin disorders genetically transmitted and it is characterized by the appearance of bullae, ulcers and skin wounds. It usually appears at birth or in the first months of life. This is a case of a 72-year-old female patient who comes to the dermatology department with skin lesions of 6 months of evolution. A skin biopsy was performed, taking a sample for direct and indirect immunofluorescence. Acquired epidermolysis bullosa of unknown etiology was diagnosed. Treatment was started with low-dose colchicine to increase it later, according to the patient’s tolerance and disease progression.

  13. Sarcoma de Kaposi relacionado à síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida: características do comprometimento hepático na tomografia computadorizada e na ressonância magnética Kaposi sarcoma related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: hepatic findings on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nobrega da Costa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoma de Kaposi é uma neoplasia associada a condições de imunossupressão que acomete os vasos linfáticos e sanguíneos. É a neoplasia intra-hepática mais comum na síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida. A tomografia computadorizada e a ressonância magnética revelam múltiplos pequenos nódulos, proeminência e realce dos planos periportais, devido à presença de tecido neoplásico. Os autores descrevem um caso de paciente masculino, de 47 anos de idade, com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida e sarcoma de Kaposi disseminado.Kaposi sarcoma is a neoplasm associated with immunosuppressive conditions, and involving blood and lymphatic vessels. It is the most frequent intrahepatic neoplasm in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrate multiple small nodules, prominence and contrast-enhancement of periportal branches due to the presence of the neoplastic tissue. The authors report a case of a 47-year-old male patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome presenting disseminated Kaposi sarcoma.

  14. Clinicopathological associations of acquired erythroblastopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Gursel; Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Yasar, Hatime Arzu; Eliacik, Eylem; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin; Demiroglu, Haluk; Sayinalp, Nilgun; Aksu, Salih; Etgul, Sezgin; Aslan, Tuncay; Goker, Hakan; Ozcebe, Osman Ilhami; Buyukasik, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Acquired erythroblastopenia (AE) is a rare clinical situation. It is characterized by the reduction of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow together with the low reticulocyte counts in the peripheral blood. Main secondary causes of AE are drugs, Parvovirus B19 and other infectious reasons, lymphoid and myeloid neoplasia, autoimmune diseases, thymoma and pregnancy. The aim of this study is to assess the frequencies and clinical associations of AE via analyzing 12340 bone marrow samples in a retrospective manner. Bone marrow aspirations which were obtained from patients who applied to Hacettepe University Hematology Clinic between 2002 and 2013, were analyzed retrospectively. Thirty four erythroblastopenia cases were found. Patients ranged in age from 16 to 80 years with a median of 38 years. Fifteen patients were men (44%) and nineteen were women (56%). In these patients, detected causes of erythroblastopenia were MDS, idiopathic pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), parvovirus infection, post chemotherapy aplasia, plasma proliferative diseases, copper deficiency due to secondary amyloidosis, fever of unknown origin, hemophagocytic syndrome, enteric fever and legionella pneumonia. We found that between those reasons the most common causes of erythroblastopenia are MDS (17.7%) and idiopathic PRCA (17.7%). As a result, erythroblastopenia in the bone marrow may be an early sign of MDS. In those AE cases possibility of being MDS must be kept in mind as it can be mistaken for PRCA. To conclude, in adults MDS without excess blast is one of the most common causes of erythroblastopenia in clinical practice and in case of erythroblastopenia the presence of MDS should be investigated.

  15. Intercontrole acquiring by Framatome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Framatome group, as the worldwide leader in nuclear power plant construction, has reinforced his competences in nuclear services thanks to the acquiring of the Intercontrole company, specialized in non-destructive testing in nuclear and industrial environments. After a presentation of the functioning principle and of the safety aspects of a PWR reactor, this press dossier presents in a first part the role of nuclear services and in particular of non-destructive testing in nuclear power plants (in-service inspection, regulatory aspects, testing processes). This part is illustrated with some examples of inspection performed on some components of the primary coolant loop (steam generators, reactor vessel, pressurizer, pipes, primary pumps). A second part presents the technical centres and units of Framatome in charge of performing non-destructive inspections, while a third part describes the industrial policy and strategy of the group in this domain (market of nuclear park maintenance in France, in the USA and worldwide, creation of the 'inspection and control' centre of Framatome). A last part presents the activities of the Intercontrole company and of its daughter companies with some examples of actions realized in the nuclear and natural gas domains. (J.S.)

  16. Pediatric acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodack, Marie I

    2010-10-01

    Although pediatric patients are sometimes included in studies about visual problems in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI), few studies deal solely with children. Unlike studies dealing with adult patients, in which mechanisms of brain injury are divided into cerebral vascular accident (CVA) and traumatic brain injury (TBI), studies on pediatric patients deal almost exclusively with traumatic brain injury, specifically caused by accidents. Here we report on the vision problems of 4 pediatric patients, ages 3 to 18 years, who were examined in the ophthalmology/optometry clinic at a children's hospital. All patients had an internally caused brain injury and after the initial insult manifested problems in at least one of the following areas: acuity, binocularity, motility (tracking or saccades), accommodation, visual fields, and visual perceptual skills. Pediatric patients can suffer from a variety of oculo-visual problems after the onset of head injury. These patients may or may not be symptomatic and can benefit from optometric intervention. Copyright © 2010 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Community-acquired pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetter-Lang, S.; Herold, C.J.

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often not possible based only on the clinical symptoms and biochemical parameters. For every patient with the suspicion of CAP, a chest radiograph in two planes should be carried out. Additionally, a risk stratification for the decision between outpatient therapy or hospitalization is recommended. Based on the evaluation of the different radiological patterns as well as their extent and distribution, a rough allocation to so-called pathogen groups as well as a differentiation between viral and bacterial infections are possible; however, because different pathogens cause different patterns an accurate correlation is not feasible by relying purely on imaging. The radiological findings serve as proof or exclusion of pneumonia and can also be used to evaluate the extent of the disease (e.g. monolobular, multilobular, unilateral or bilateral). In cases of prolonged disease, suspicion of complications (e.g. pleural effusion or empyema, necrotizing pneumonia or abscess) or comorbid conditions (e.g. underlying pulmonary or mediastinal diseases) computed tomography is an important diagnostic tool in addition to chest radiography. Ultrasound is often used to diagnose pleural processes (e.g. parapneumonic effusion or pleural empyema). (orig.) [de

  18. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Kasprian, Gregor; Witzani, Linde; Helmer, Hanns; Dietrich, Wolfgang; Eppel, Wolfgang; Langer, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images

  19. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  20. Saúde auditiva, o vírus da imunodeficiência humana e a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida: uma revisão Hearing health, the human immunodeficiency virus and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Catalani Morata

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: a Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida (SIDA/AIDS é causada pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana (VIH/HIV, e resulta numa imunidade reduzida, o que torna o indivíduo mais susceptível a doenças e infecções oportunistas. Com o avanço da doença as estruturas do sistema auditivo central podem ser comprometidas pela ação direta do vírus ou decorrente de infecções secundárias e neoplasias. O portador do HIV/AIDS pode também se tornar mais vulnerável a outras patologias do ouvido. OBJETIVO: o objetivo desta revisão foi exploratório, visando identificar os possíveis pontos de interseção entre distúrbios auditivos e a Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida. Realizou-se uma revisão da literatura sobre a saúde auditiva dos portadores de HIV/AIDS e foi discutido o impacto potencial de patologias auditivas na qualidade de vida. CONCLUSÃO: a literatura sugere que várias possiveis associações existam entre os distúrbios auditivos e a Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida e o Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana. Profissionais de saúde, inclusive aqueles dos serviços públicos no Brasil, deveriam examinar a necessidade de iniciativas de saúde auditiva dirigida aos portadores de HIV/AIDS para prevenir patologias auditivas ou reduzir seu impacto na qualidade de vida.BACKGROUND: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (or Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or AIDS is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV and results in reduced immunity, leaving affected individuals more susceptible to illness and opportunistic infections. As the disease progresses, structures within the central auditory system can be affected either by the direct action of the virus or as a consequence of secondary infections. Other areas of the auditory system may also be more vulnerable to pathology in people living with HIV or AIDS. PURPOSE: the goal of this review was exploratory, to identify possible points of intersection between auditory

  1. Learning-by-Being-Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo Gaetano; Moreira, Solon; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    2016-01-01

    In horizontal acquisitions, the post-acquisition integration of the R&D function often damages the inventive labor force and results in lower innovative productivity of acquired inventors. In this paper we study post-acquisition integration in terms of R&D team reorganization-i.e., the creation...... of new teams with both inventors of the acquiring and acquired firms-and assess the impact of this integration action in the period that immediately follows the acquisition. Drawing on social identity and self-categorization theories, we argue that R&D team reorganization increases the acquired inventors...

  2. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Brouwer, Matthijs; Hasbun, Rodrigo; Koedel, Uwe; Whitney, Cynthia G.; Wijdicks, Eelco

    2016-01-01

    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges and subarachnoid space that can also involve the brain cortex and parenchyma. It can be acquired spontaneously in the community - community-acquired bacterial meningitis - or in the hospital as a complication of invasive procedures or head trauma

  3. Translocations (5;17) and (7;17) in patients with de novo or therapy-related myelodysplastic syndromes or acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. A possible association with acquired pseudo-Pelger-Hut anomaly and small vacuolated granulocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La, J.L.Z.; Zandecki, M.; Fenaux, P.; Le Baron, F.; Bauters, F.; Cosson, A.; Deminatti, M.

    1990-01-01

    Twelve patients [two with de novo myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), four with secondary MDS, five with de novo acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL), one with secondary ANLL] showed a 17p deletion resulting from translocations involving 17p: t(5;17)(p11;p11) in four cases, t(7;17)(p11;p11) in six cases, complex (5;17)(q23;p12) translocation with dicentric chromosome in one case, and t(17;?)(p11-12;?) in the remaining patient. All these structural anomalies were observed in hypodiploid clones associated with total or partial monosomy of chromosomes 5 and 7 (12 cases), monosomy 12 (five cases), monosomy 3 (four cases), and monosomy 4 (three cases). Median survival was only 3.3 months (range 3 days to 8 months). Striking features were observed in bone marrow mature granulocytes: all but one case had a pseudo-Pelger-Hut anomaly in a significant number of granulocytes, and eight patients had granulocytes with reduced size and clear cytoplasmic vacuoles. Careful cytological review of 51 patients with MDS or ANLL and various cytogenetic anomalies was performed for comparison: vacuolated granulocytes were a very uncommon finding. On the other hand, eight patients had a pseudo-Pelger-Hut anomaly, which correlated significantly with total monosomy 17 in these patients. A possible correlation between cytological anomalies and cytogenetic data is discussed, and the role of 17p in the nuclear segmentation of granulocytes is stressed

  4. Acute periostitis in early acquired syphilis simulating shin splints in a jogger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, J L; Mollet, E

    1986-01-01

    Acute periostitis affecting the long bones is a characteristic but uncommon manifestation of syphilis in the adult with an early acquired infection. This report describes the history of a jogger who developed acute localized periostitis of the shaft of both tibiae during the early stage of acquired syphilis. Symptomatology was initially attributed to the medial tibial stress syndrome.

  5. Somatically acquired structural genetic differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magaard Koldby, Kristina; Nygaard, Marianne; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    Structural genetic variants like copy number variants (CNVs) comprise a large part of human genetic variation and may be inherited as well as somatically acquired. Recent studies have reported the presence of somatically acquired structural variants in the human genome and it has been suggested t...... with age.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 20 April 2016; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2016.34....

  6. Aneurisma de artéria cerebral em criança com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida: relato de caso Cerebral arterial aneurysm in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnolfo de Carvalho Neto

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A dilatação aneurismática dos vasos do polígono de Willis é manifestação incomum da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência adquirida (HIV, tendo sido relatados, até o momento, 15 casos na literatura. O presente estudo tem por objetivo relatar um novo caso dessa apresentação rara, além de revisar aspectos importantes relacionados à mesma. Um paciente, do sexo masculino, 6 anos de idade, com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS de transmissão perinatal e tetraparesia, desenvolveu sintomas caracterizados por episódios de crises distônicas. A tomografia computadorizada de crânio, que inicialmente era normal, mostrou dilatação aneurismática dos vasos do polígono de Willis. A revisão de literatura demonstra que os principais achados patológicos em casos similares, são, principalmente, fibrose de camada média com destruição da lâmina interna e hiperplasia da íntima. A etiologia da vasculite não é conhecida, acreditando-se que o vírus da varicela-zoster e o próprio HIV possam estar relacionados à mesma. Conclui-se que, apesar de incomum, tal complicação apresenta grande importância pelo fato dos aneurismas colocarem esses pacientes em grupo de alto risco para acidentes vasculares. A sobrevida relatada na literatura é de menos de 6 meses após o diagnóstico da arteriopatia aneurismática cerebral.Cerebral aneurysmal arteriopathy of the circle of Willis is an uncommon manifestation of acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and up to now only 15 cases have been published in the literature. For this reason we add our experience of this rare case, and review the most important aspects related to this entity. The patient is a 6 year old male with perinatal transmitted AIDS, tetraparethic, developed symptoms characterized by episodes of dystonic postures. The computed tomography of the brain showed aneurismal arteriopathy of the circle of Willis. He had a previous normal examination. The review

  7. Serotonin syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperserotonemia; Serotonergic syndrome; Serotonin toxicity; SSRI - serotonin syndrome; MAO - serotonin syndrome ... brain area. For example, you can develop this syndrome if you take migraine medicines called triptans together ...

  8. Acquiring taste in home economics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbak Larsen, Christian

    Objective: To explore how home economics was taught in Denmark before the recent Danish school reform, which also revised the objectives and content of home economics, naming it Food Knowledge (Madkundskab) Methods: Participant observation was done in home economic lessons in two case schools...... appreciated by the group of boys, and others again learned to stick with their idiosyncrasies when pressured by the teacher. Conclusions: Children were acquiring taste in the home economic lessons, but not only the kind of tastes that the teacher had planned for. This leads to reflections on the very complex...... process of taste acquiring and to a call for further research into taste acquiring in complex real life contexts as home economics lessons....

  9. Comparative dermatology: acquired digital fibrokeratoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha Filho, Roberto Rheingantz da

    2008-01-01

    Demonstra-se quadro característico de fibroqueratoma digital adquirido em trabalhadora rural de 42 anos de idade, que se compara a corno de rinoceronte.It is presented a case of a 42 year-old white female farmer with the classical feature of acquired digital fibrokeratoma, which is compared to rhinoceros horn.

  10. Radiology of syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taybi, H.

    1982-01-01

    In the course of 20 years, the author has investigated the radiological aspects of many different syndromes. 541 of them are listed in this book, together with their typical X-ray pictures. Congenital deformities, genetic diseases, and acquired diseases with typical combinations of sigs and symptoms are presented with information on how to identify them. Clinical manifestations are briefly characterized, and hereditary aspects are mentioned. Pathological characteristics and names of the syndromes are presented. A bibliography is given for every syndrome for those who intend to deepen their knowledge. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Beals Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the syndrome. How does Beals syndrome compare with Marfan syndrome? People with Beals syndrome have many of the ... bone) and aortic enlargement problems as people with Marfan syndrome, and treatments for these problems are the same. ...

  12. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL: one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE. Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis.

  13. [Acquired disorders of color vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascu, Lidia; Balaş, Mihaela

    2002-01-01

    This article is a general view of acquired disorders of color vision. The revision of the best known methods and of the etiopathogenic classification is not very important in ophthalmology but on the other hand, the detection of the blue defect advertise and associated ocular pathology. There is a major interest in serious diseases as multiple sclerosis, AIDS, diabetes melitus, when the first ocular sign can be a defect in the color vision.

  14. Universal acquired melanosis (Carbon baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviarasan P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 3-year-old girl born with fair complexion which became darker. The color change was insidious in onset at the age of 5 months, asymptomatic and progressive involving the entire body surface. Histopathology revealed increased pigmentation of the epidermal basal layer. Universal acquired melanosis is a rare form of hypermelanosis which was synonymously referred to as "Carbon baby". This is a rare presentation with only one earlier case report.

  15. Acquired Aplastic Anemia in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Helge D.; Olson, Timothy S.; Bessler, Monica

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS This article provides a practice-based and concise review of the etiology, diagnosis, and management of acquired aplastic anemia in children. Bone marrow transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy, and supportive care are discussed in detail. The aim is to provide the clinician with a better understanding of the disease and to offer guidelines for the management of children with this uncommon yet serious disorder. PMID:24237973

  16. Musicality: instinct or acquired skill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Gary F

    2012-10-01

    Is the human tendency toward musicality better thought of as the product of a specific, evolved instinct or an acquired skill? Developmental and evolutionary arguments are considered, along with issues of domain-specificity. The article also considers the question of why humans might be consistently and intensely drawn to music if musicality is not in fact the product of a specifically evolved instinct. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. Otologic manifestations in child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rezende, Carlos E. B.; Rodrigues, Rubens E. C.; Haddad, Leonardo; Yoshimura, Ricardo; Rapoport, Priscila B.

    2004-01-01

    As manifestações otológicas são particularmente comuns em crianças portadoras do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana (HIV). A disacusia nestes pacientes pode ser condutiva, principalmente decorrente de otite média ou sensorioneural, pela ação direta do vírus ou pela ação de drogas anti-retrovirais. Neste trabalho, relatamos o caso de uma criança de 10 anos de idade, portadora de HIV, com disacusia e revisamos a literatura.Patients infected with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often present wi...

  18. The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. An Air Force Readiness Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    will continue to harbor the infection. The term retroviral refers to the genettic makeup and specific enzyme of the virus that a;lows it to replicate...stages and criteria. Table 1 Walter Reed Classification System HTLV- III Chronic T Helper STAGE Antibody Lymohadenonathy Qells/mm- DHS Thrush 0.1 WR 1...0.80 Reserve 88,411 122 1.38 Guard 126,934 96 0.76 Infection rates are per thousand (Wolfe, 1988; 1989). The figures in table 3 reflect the entire

  19. Acquired long QT syndrome and Torsades de Poin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Seyfeddin Gurbuz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are group of drugs commonly used in Alzheimer disease and have beneficial effects on treatment. Although they have many known side effects, cardiovascular side effects are rarely seen. We present a 84 year old female who was admitted to emergency service due to repetitive syncope episodes while taking donepezil. Her electrocardiogram showed QT prolongation and on follow-up a Torsades de Pointes episode occurred. Patient was discharged with normal corrected QT time after removal of donepezil.

  20. Eye Complications of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skoludek_R

    The introduction of highly active anti-retroretroviral therapy (HAART) has changed the epidemiology of AIDS from ... Diagnosis and treatment of anterior segment disorders ... Carbamazepine 200 mg every night. .... AIDS and cancer in Africa.

  1. An ongoing tragedy: the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, B T

    1989-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic has, to date, had only a minimal impact in India; however, given the low health status of the population and the lack of adequate health care facilities, the emergence of AIDS on a wider scale would be devastating. India's human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity rate now stands at about 2-3/1000 people tested. In what is suspected to be a racially motivated move, the Government of India has embarked on testing all foreign students (most of whom are from Africa) for HIV and is returning all those who test seropositive to their countries of origin. Of concern is the steady increase in HIV infection in professional blood donors (1.5/1000 in late 1988). Mandatory screening of donated blood is prohibitively expensive in India, and none of the 9 companies that manufacture blood products in India test their donors for HIV infection. Another concern is the finding that 1 of every 6 prostitutes in Bombay is infected with HIV. The response of the Indian Government to the AIDS threat has tended to be punitive toward AIDS victims rather than based on a sound preventive strategy. For example, the 1989 AIDS Prevention Bill forces individuals who are infected with HIV to reveal their past sexual partners, empowers authorities to hospitalize AIDS victims and drug addicts, and contains no provisions to protect the human and civil rights of AIDS victims. The mass media have treated AIDS in a sensationalized manner rather than presenting scientific information about the prevention and transmission of the disease. It is essential that the Government of India--and all world governments--realize that punitive measures will do little to reduce the spread of AIDS. Needed, instead, is a global prevention and control effort based on generosity and compassion.

  2. Imaging features of mycobacterium in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jun; Sun Yue; Wei Liangui; Xu Yunliang; Li Xingwang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the imaging features of mycobacterium in AIDS patients. Methods: Twenty-three cases of mycobacterium tuberculosis and 13 patients of non-tuberculous mycobacteria were proved etiologically and included in this study. All patients underwent X-ray and CT examinations, imaging data were analyzed and compared. Results: The imaging findings of mycobacterium tuberculosis in AIDS patients included consolidation (n = 11), pleural effusion (n = 11), mediastinal lymphadenopathy (n = 11). Pulmonary lesions were always diffuse distribution, and 14 patients of extrapulmonary tuberculosis were found. Pulmonary lesions in non-tuberculous mycobacteria tend to be circumscribed. Conclusions: Non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection in AIDS patients is more common and usually combined with other infections. Imaging features are atypical. (authors)

  3. Constitutional and acquired autosomal aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Cook, Colleen

    2011-12-01

    Chromosomal imbalances can result from numerical or structural anomalies. Numerical chromosomal abnormalities are often referred to as aneuploid conditions. This article focuses on the occurrence of constitutional and acquired autosomal aneuploidy in humans. Topics covered include frequency, mosaicism, phenotypic findings, and etiology. The article concludes with a consideration of anticipated advances that might allow for the development of screening tests and/or lead to improvements in our understanding and management of the role that aneuploidy plays in the aging process and acquisition of age-related and constitutional conditions.

  4. Cushing syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypercortisolism; Cortisol excess; Glucocorticoid excess - Cushing syndrome ... The most common cause of Cushing syndrome is taking too much ... Cushing syndrome . Prednisone, dexamethasone, and prednisolone ...

  5. LEOPARD syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple lentigines syndrome; Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines ... Genetics Home Reference -- ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/noonan-syndrome-with-multiple-lentigines National Organization for Rare Disorders -- ...

  6. Acquired Duodenal Obstruction in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hung Chien

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic intramural hematoma of the duodenum is a rare cause of acquired duodenal obstruction in children, and a high degree of suspicion is therefore required to make an early and accurate diagnosis. We report a 6-year-old boy whose epigastrium was impacted by the handlebar of his bicycle during a traffic accident. The boy then experienced epigastralgia. Six days later, progressive bilious vomiting suggestive of gastrointestinal obstruction was noted. Imaging studies revealed a large hematoma extending from the fourth portion of the duodenum to the jejunum. Conservative methods of treatment failed to manage his condition. He underwent laparoscopic surgery to evacuate the hematoma. We also report a case of duodenal obstruction in a previously healthy 2-year-old girl who presented for the first time with acute symptoms of proximal intestinal obstruction. Contrast examinations showed apparent barium retention over the stomach and proximal duodenum. She underwent surgery due to persistent obstruction, and a mushroom-like foreign body was detected embedded in the orifice of the windsock duodenal web. After duodenoduodenostomy and removal of the bezoar, she had a smooth recovery and tolerated feeding well. We conclude that blunt abdominal trauma and incomplete duodenal obstruction, such as that caused by duodenal web, should be considered as possible causes of acquired proximal gastrointestinal obstruction in previously healthy children, despite their rarity.

  7. WAYS OF ACQUIRING FLYING PHOBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Bettina; Vriends, Noortje; Margraf, Jürgen; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-02-01

    The few studies that have explored how flying phobia is acquired have produced contradictory results. We hypothesized that classical conditioning plays a role in acquiring flying phobia and investigated if vicarious (model) learning, informational learning through media, and experiencing stressful life events at the time of onset of phobia also play a role. Thirty patients with flying phobia and thirty healthy controls matched on age, sex, and education were interviewed with the Mini-DIPS, the short German version of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) and the Fear-of-Flying History Interview. Fifty Percent of patients with flying phobia and 53% of healthy controls reported frightening events in the air. There was no significant difference between the two samples. Thus there were not more classical conditioning events for patients with flying phobia. There also was no significant difference between the two samples for vicarious (model) learning: 37% of flying phobia patients and 23% of healthy controls felt influenced by model learning. The influence of informational learning through media was significantly higher for the clinical sample (70%) than for the control group (37%). Patients with flying phobia experienced significantly more stressful life events in the period of their frightening flight experience (60%) than healthy controls (19%). Frightening experiences while flying are quite common, but not everybody develops a flying phobia. Stressful life events and other factors might enhance conditionability. Informational learning through negative media reports probably reinforces the development of flying phobia. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Community-acquired Acinetobacter pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, E; Wüst, J; Speich, R; Flury, G; Krause, M

    1993-08-21

    We report the history of a 38-year-old male native of Sri Lanka admitted to the emergency ward because of chest pain and shortness of breath. On physical and radiographic examination a bilateral predominantly right-sided pneumonia was found. The patient was admitted to the medical ICU and an antibiotic regimen with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and erythromycin was initiated. Shortly afterwards septic shock developed. The patient was intubated and received high doses of catecholamines. He died 30 hours after admission to the hospital. Cultures from sputum, tracheal aspirate and blood grew Acinetobacter baumanni. Acinetobacter is an ubiquitous gram-negative rod with coccobacillary appearance in clinical specimens, that may appear gram-positive due to poor discoloration on Gram-stain. It is a well known causative agent of nosocomial infections, particularly in intensive care units. Community-acquired pneumonias, however, are quite rare. Sporadic cases have been reported from the US, Papua-New Guinea and Australia. Interestingly, these pneumonias are fulminant and have a high mortality. Chronic obstructive lung disease, diabetes, and tobacco and alcohol consumption appear to be predisposing factors. Due to the rapid course and poor prognosis, prompt diagnosis and adequate antibiotic treatment are indicated. Antibiotics use for community-acquired pneumonias, such as amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or macrolides, are not sufficient. Appropriate antibiotics for the initial treatment of suspected Acinetobacter infections include imipenem and carboxy- and ureidopenicillins combined with an aminoglycoside.

  9. Foodborne listeriosis acquired in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Benjamin J; McCoy, Morgan H; Iwamoto, Martha; Griffin, Patricia M

    2014-08-15

    Listeriosis is characterized by bacteremia or meningitis. We searched for listeriosis case series and outbreak investigations published in English by 2013, and assessed the strength of evidence for foodborne acquisition among patients who ate hospital food. We identified 30 reports from 13 countries. Among the case series, the median proportion of cases considered to be hospital-acquired was 25% (range, 9%-67%). The median number of outbreak-related illnesses considered to be hospital-acquired was 4.0 (range, 2-16). All patients were immunosuppressed in 18 of 24 (75%) reports with available data. Eight outbreak reports with strong evidence for foodborne acquisition in a hospital implicated sandwiches (3 reports), butter, precut celery, Camembert cheese, sausage, and tuna salad (1 report each). Foodborne acquisition of listeriosis among hospitalized patients is well documented internationally. The number of listeriosis cases could be reduced substantially by establishing hospital policies for safe food preparation for immunocompromised patients and by not serving them higher-risk foods. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Fanconi syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Toni-Fanconi syndrome ... Fanconi syndrome can be caused by faulty genes, or it may result later in life due to kidney damage. Sometimes the cause of Fanconi syndrome is unknown. Common causes of Fanconi syndrome in ...

  11. Duane Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Duane Syndrome En Español Read in Chinese What is Duane Syndrome? Duane syndrome, also called Duane retraction syndrome (DRS), ...

  12. Involuntary craniofacial lingual movements in intensive care-acquired quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartagena, A M; Jog, M; Young, G B

    2012-02-01

    The syndrome of involuntary craniofacial lingual movements in the setting of acute intensive care-acquired quadriplegia (critical illness neuromyopathy) following sepsis-associated encephalopathy has not been previously described. We suggest a localization and treatment for this disabling condition. Three patients (2 female) from our center were quadriplegic from critical illness neuromyopathy when they developed involuntary craniofacial lingual movements following sepsis-associated encephalopathy. Extensive investigations failed to identify an etiology for the abnormal movements. Movements were of large amplitude, of moderate speed, and semi-rhythmic in the jaw, tongue, and palate, persistent and extremely bothersome to all patients. Injection with Botulinum toxin type A was very beneficial. Involuntary craniofacial lingual movements in the setting of flaccid quadriplegia following sepsis-associated encephalopathy are consistent with focal craniofacial brainstem myoclonus and constitutes a new syndrome. Botulinum toxin type A treatment maybe helpful in treatment.

  13. Magnetic Oculomotor Prosthetics for Acquired Nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachev, Parashkev; Rose, Geoff E; Verity, David H; Manohar, Sanjay G; MacKenzie, Kelly; Adams, Gill; Theodorou, Maria; Pankhurst, Quentin A; Kennard, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    Acquired nystagmus, a highly symptomatic consequence of damage to the substrates of oculomotor control, often is resistant to pharmacotherapy. Although heterogeneous in its neural cause, its expression is unified at the effector-the eye muscles themselves-where physical damping of the oscillation offers an alternative approach. Because direct surgical fixation would immobilize the globe, action at a distance is required to damp the oscillation at the point of fixation, allowing unhindered gaze shifts at other times. Implementing this idea magnetically, herein we describe the successful implantation of a novel magnetic oculomotor prosthesis in a patient. Case report of a pilot, experimental intervention. A 49-year-old man with longstanding, medication-resistant, upbeat nystagmus resulting from a paraneoplastic syndrome caused by stage 2A, grade I, nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's lymphoma. We designed a 2-part, titanium-encased, rare-earth magnet oculomotor prosthesis, powered to damp nystagmus without interfering with the larger forces involved in saccades. Its damping effects were confirmed when applied externally. We proceeded to implant the device in the patient, comparing visual functions and high-resolution oculography before and after implantation and monitoring the patient for more than 4 years after surgery. We recorded Snellen visual acuity before and after intervention, as well as the amplitude, drift velocity, frequency, and intensity of the nystagmus in each eye. The patient reported a clinically significant improvement of 1 line of Snellen acuity (from 6/9 bilaterally to 6/6 on the left and 6/5-2 on the right), reflecting an objectively measured reduction in the amplitude, drift velocity, frequency, and intensity of the nystagmus. These improvements were maintained throughout a follow-up of 4 years and enabled him to return to paid employment. This work opens a new field of implantable therapeutic devices-oculomotor prosthetics-designed to modify eye

  14. And the Winner is - Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Joachim; Rønde, Thomas; Wagner, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    New entrants to a market tend to be superior to incumbents in originating radical innovations. We provide a new explanation for this phenomenon, based on markets for technology. It applies in industries where successful entrepreneurial firms, or their technologies, are acquired by incumbents...... that then commercialize the innovation. To this end we analyze an innovation game between one incumbent and a large number of entrants. In the first stage, firms compete to develop innovations of high quality. They do so by choosing, at equal cost, the success probability of their R&D approach, where a lower probability...... the incumbent performs the least radical project. Entrants pick pairwise different projects; the bigger the number of entrants, the more radical the most radical project. Generally, entrants tend to choose more radical R&D approaches and generate the highest value innovation in case of success. We illustrate...

  15. Pseudomona pseudomallei community acquired pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severiche, Diego

    1998-01-01

    This is the first published case report en Colombia about pseudomona pseudomallei community acquired pneumonia. This uncommon pathogen is from the epidemiological standpoint a very important one and medical community should be aware to look after it in those patients where no other etiological pathogen is recovered. A brief summary about epidemiology is showed, emphasizing those regions where it can be found. Likewise, comments about the differential diagnosis are important since it should be considered in those patients where tuberculosis is suspected. This is particularly representative for countries with high tuberculosis rates. Furthermore, a microbiological review is shown, emphasizing on isolation techniques, descriptions about therapeutics and other regarding treatment issues according international standards. Finally; a description about the clinical picture, laboratory findings, treatment and evolution of the case reported are shown for discussion

  16. [Acquired amusia and musical anhedonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirel, C; Lévêque, Y; Deiana, G; Richard, N; Cho, T-H; Mechtouff, L; Derex, L; Tillmann, B; Caclin, A; Nighoghossian, N

    2014-01-01

    Amusia is defined as an auditory agnosia, specifically related to music, resulting from a cerebral lesion or being of congenital origin. Amusia is rarely associated to musical anhedonia. We report the case of a 43-year-old patient who suffered in January 2012 from a right ischemic lesion affecting the superior temporal cortex, in particular lateral Heschl Gyrus and the posterior part of the Superior Temporal Gyrus (Brodmann areas 21 and 22). Neuropsychological tests revealed an amusia combined to musical anhedonia. The specificity of this case is based on the combination of both syndromes highlighting the relation between neural networks involved in the processing of musical information in both its perceptual and emotional components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Hamartomatous polyposis syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsig, Anne Marie; Qvist, Niels; Brusgaard, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes (HPS) are genetic syndromes, which include Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Juvenile polyposis syndrome, PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome (Cowden Syndrom, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba and Proteus Syndrome) as well as hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome. Other syndromes such as ......Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes (HPS) are genetic syndromes, which include Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Juvenile polyposis syndrome, PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome (Cowden Syndrom, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba and Proteus Syndrome) as well as hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome. Other syndromes...

  18. Seagull to acquire arkla exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Seagull Energy Corp., Houston, has agreed to acquire Arkla Exploration Inc. from Arkla Inc., Shreveport, La., for about $402 million. The transaction-expected to net Seagull reserves totaling about 578 bcf of gas and 7.3 million bbl of oil and condensate-would more than double Seagull's proved reserves and nearly double its total assets. According to Seagull's 1991 annual report, the company's reserves at yearend 1991 were estimated at 401.2 bcf of gas equivalent (bcfe), including 335.1 bcf of gas and 11 million bbl of oil. Independent engineers at yearend 1991 estimated Arkla's proved reserves at 635 bcf of gas and 9 million bbl of liquids. Seagull Chairman Barry J. Galt said the company plans to keep many of Arkla Exploration's employees and to establish a meaningful presence in Shreveport. Arkla's already got good people in Shreveport and an operating base, a Seagull official said. We want to move in, put our name on the door, and continue the good operations Arkla already has. Seagull has lined up financing for the acquisition from a group of major U.S. banks. A new credit facility-consisting of a $475 million line of revolving credit and a $150 million 3 year term loan-will replace an exiting $225 million line of revolving credit. Boards of both companies have approved the deal, which Seagull and Arkla hope to close before yearend, subject to regulatory approvals and purchase price adjustments

  19. Associative Learning Through Acquired Salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Most associative learning studies describe the salience of stimuli as a fixed learning-rate parameter. Presumptive saliency signals, however, have also been linked to motivational and attentional processes. An interesting possibility, therefore, is that discriminative stimuli could also acquire salience as they become powerful predictors of outcomes. To explore this idea, we first characterized and extracted the learning curves from mice trained with discriminative images offering varying degrees of structural similarity. Next, we fitted a linear model of associative learning coupled to a series of mathematical representations for stimulus salience. We found that the best prediction, from the set of tested models, was one in which the visual salience depended on stimulus similarity and a non-linear function of the associative strength. Therefore, these analytic results support the idea that the net salience of a stimulus depends both on the items' effective salience and the motivational state of the subject that learns about it. Moreover, this dual salience model can explain why learning about a stimulus not only depends on the effective salience during acquisition but also on the specific learning trajectory that was used to reach this state. Our mathematical description could be instrumental for understanding aberrant salience acquisition under stressful situations and in neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction.

  20. Long QT syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras Z, Eduardo; Gomez M, Juan E; Zuluaga M, Sandra X.

    2008-01-01

    Long QT syndrome is a disease characterized by the electrocardiographic alteration in ventricular repolarization manifested by prolonged QT interval, secondary to prolonged ventricular repolarization. This makes these patients more vulnerable to very fast ventricular arrhythmias such as torsade des pointes or ventricular fibrillation. This syndrome is generally observed in young people and is associated with sudden death. It may appear as part of congenital LQTS (Jervell and Lange-Nielsen and Romano- Ward), or may be secondarily acquired due to metabolic or toxic alterations or to other pathophysiologic factors.

  1. Jacobsen syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossfeld Paul

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Jacobsen syndrome is a MCA/MR contiguous gene syndrome caused by partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. To date, over 200 cases have been reported. The prevalence has been estimated at 1/100,000 births, with a female/male ratio 2:1. The most common clinical features include pre- and postnatal physical growth retardation, psychomotor retardation, and characteristic facial dysmorphism (skull deformities, hypertelorism, ptosis, coloboma, downslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, broad nasal bridge, short nose, v-shaped mouth, small ears, low set posteriorly rotated ears. Abnormal platelet function, thrombocytopenia or pancytopenia are usually present at birth. Patients commonly have malformations of the heart, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, genitalia, central nervous system and skeleton. Ocular, hearing, immunological and hormonal problems may be also present. The deletion size ranges from ~7 to 20 Mb, with the proximal breakpoint within or telomeric to subband 11q23.3 and the deletion extending usually to the telomere. The deletion is de novo in 85% of reported cases, and in 15% of cases it results from an unbalanced segregation of a familial balanced translocation or from other chromosome rearrangements. In a minority of cases the breakpoint is at the FRA11B fragile site. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings (intellectual deficit, facial dysmorphic features and thrombocytopenia and confirmed by cytogenetics analysis. Differential diagnoses include Turner and Noonan syndromes, and acquired thrombocytopenia due to sepsis. Prenatal diagnosis of 11q deletion is possible by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling and cytogenetic analysis. Management is multi-disciplinary and requires evaluation by general pediatrician, pediatric cardiologist, neurologist, ophthalmologist. Auditory tests, blood tests, endocrine and immunological assessment and follow-up should be offered to all patients. Cardiac malformations can be

  2. Unusual ocular manifestations of silent sinus syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Fabricio Lopes da; Mazoti, Luciana; Polati, Mariza

    2014-01-01

    Silent sinus syndrome is an acquired condition in which there is a gradual collapse of the orbital floor and inward retraction of the maxillary sinus (atelectasis of the maxillary sinus). This in turn may cause associated ocular occurrences of enophthalmos and hypotropia. This is a report of an 8 year-old boy with silent sinus syndrome and associated ocular motility disorders. The association between silent sinus syndrome and ocular motility disturbance has been recently described in the lite...

  3. Human lipodystrophies: genetic and acquired diseases of adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capeau, Jacqueline; Magré, Jocelyne; Caron-Debarle, Martine; Lagathu, Claire; Antoine, Bénédicte; Béréziat, Véronique; Lascols, Olivier; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Vigouroux, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    Human lipodystrophies represent a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by generalized or partial fat loss, with fat hypertrophy in other depots when partial. Insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and diabetes are generally associated, leading to early complications. Genetic forms are uncommon: recessive generalized congenital lipodystrophies result in most cases from mutations in the genes encoding seipin or the 1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate-acyltransferase 2 (AGPAT2). Dominant partial familial lipodystrophies result from mutations in genes encoding the nuclear protein lamin A/C or the adipose transcription factor PPARγ. Importantly, lamin A/C mutations are also responsible for metabolic laminopathies, resembling the metabolic syndrome and progeria, a syndrome of premature aging. A number of lipodystrophic patients remain undiagnosed at the genetic level. Acquired lipodystrophy can be generalized, resembling congenital forms, or partial, as the Barraquer-Simons syndrome, with loss of fat in the upper part of the body contrasting with accumulation in the lower part. Although their aetiology is generally unknown, they could be associated with signs of auto-immunity. The most common forms of lipodystrophies are iatrogenic. In human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, some first generation antiretroviral drugs were strongly related with peripheral lipoatrophy and metabolic alterations. Partial lipodystrophy also characterize patients with endogenous or exogenous long-term corticoid excess. Treatment of fat redistribution can sometimes benefit from plastic surgery. Lipid and glucose alterations are difficult to control leading to early occurrence of diabetic, cardio-vascular and hepatic complications. PMID:20551664

  4. Marfan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfan syndrome is a disorder that affects connective tissue. Connective tissues are proteins that support skin, bones, blood vessels, ... A problem with the fibrillin gene causes Marfan syndrome. Marfan syndrome can be mild to severe, and ...

  5. Aarskog syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarskog disease; Aarskog-Scott syndrome; AAS; Faciodigitogenital syndrome; Gaciogenital dysplasia ... Aarskog syndrome is a genetic disorder that is linked to the X chromosome. It affects mainly males, but females ...

  6. Williams syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Beuren syndrome ... Williams syndrome is caused by not having a copy of several genes. It may be passed down in families. ... history of the condition. However, people with Williams syndrome have a 50% chance of passing the disorder ...

  7. Cushing's Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    宗, 友厚; 伊藤, 勇; 諏訪, 哲也; 武田, 純; MUNE, Tomoatsu

    2003-01-01

    Sixteen cases of verified Cushing's syndrome, and twelve cases of probable Cushing's syndrome were reviewed and data on them were compared with various reports on Cushing's syndrome in the literature.

  8. Tourette syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome; Tic disorders - Tourette syndrome ... Tourette syndrome is named for Georges Gilles de la Tourette, who first described this disorder in 1885. The disorder is likely passed down through families. ...

  9. Nível de Conhecimento de um grupo de idosos em relação à Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida Nivel de conocimiento sobre el Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida en un grupo de adultos mayores Knowledge about the Acquired Inmunodeficiency Syndrome among a group of elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTHA H TEIXEIRA DE SOUZA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar o nível de conhecimento de um grupo de idosos em relação ao Síndromeda Imunodeficiência Adquirida (HIV/AIDS. O método utilizado foi uma pesquisa quantitativo-exploratória. Os dados foram coletados entre março e junho de 2008 por meio de um question ário semi-estruturado com questões abertas e fechadas, aplicado a 23 idosos, integrantes do Grupo de Terceira Idade Mexe Coração do município de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. A faixa et ária dos participantes variou de 58 a 96 anos. A an álise dos dados revela a existência de lacunas no conhecimento dos idosos em relação conceito de HIV/AIDS, grupos de risco, formas de transmissão, vulnerabilidade e outros fatores que contribuem para a ascensão da doença nesta faixa et ária.El objetivo de este trabajo se centró en verificar el nivel de conocimiento de un grupo de adultos mayores con respecto al Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (VIH/SIDA, para ello se utilizó el método de investigación cuantitativa-exploratoria. Los datos se recolectaron entre marzo y junio de 2008 a través de un cuestionario semiestructurado compuesto por preguntas abiertas y cerradas, aplicado a 23 adultos mayores, miembros del Grupo de la Tercera Edad Mexe Coração del municipio de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. El rango etario de los participantes varió desde 58 a 96 años. El an álisis de los datos revela la existencia de vacíos en el conocimiento de los adultos mayores sobre el concepto VIH/SIDA, grupos de riesgo, formas de transmisión, vulnerabilidad y otros factores que contribuyen al aumento de esta enfermedad durante este rango etario.This study aimed to verify the level of knowledge of agroup of elderly in relation to Acquired Inmunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS. The method used was an exploratory quantitative research. Data were collected in 2008 between March and June, through a semistructured questionnaire with open and closed questions, applied in 23

  10. Nivel de conocimiento sobre el Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida en un grupo de adultos mayores Knowledge about the Acquired Inmunodeficiency Syndrome among a group of elderly people Nível de Conhecimento de um grupo de idosos em relação à Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREITAS MEDEIROS HILDA MARIA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo se centró en verificar el nivel de conocimiento de un grupo de adultos mayores con respecto al Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (VIH/SIDA, para ello se utilizó el método de investigación cuantitativa-exploratoria. Los datos se recolectaron entre marzo y junio de 2008 a través de un cuestionario semiestructurado compuesto por preguntas abiertas y cerradas, aplicado a 23 adultos mayores, miembros del Grupo de la Tercera Edad Mexe Coração del municipio de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. El rango etario de los participantes varió desde 58 a 96 años. El análisis de los datos revela la existencia de vacíos en el conocimiento de los adultos mayores sobre el concepto VIH/SIDA, grupos de riesgo, formas de transmisión, vulnerabilidad y otros factores que contribuyen al aumento de esta enfermedad durante este rango etario.This study aimed to verify the level of knowledge of agroup of elderly in relation to Acquired Inmunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS. The method used was an exploratory quantitative research. Data were collected in 2008 between March and June, through a semistructured questionnaire with open and closed questions, applied in 23 elderly, members of the Group of Elderly Mexe Coração in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. The ages of participants ranged from 58 to 96 years. Data analysis revealed the existence of gaps in knowledge of the elderly about the concept of HIV/AIDS, risk groups, ways of transmission and vulnerability and other factors that contribute to the rise of the disease in this age group.Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar o nível de conhecimento de um grupo de idosos em relação ao Síndromeda Imunodeficiência Adquirida (HIV/AIDS. O método utilizado foi uma pesquisa quantitativo-exploratória. Os dados foram coletados entre março e junho de 2008 por meio de um questionário semi-estruturado com questões abertas e fechadas, aplicado a 23 idosos, integrantes do Grupo de Terceira

  11. Hepatorenal syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016:chap 153. Nevah MI, Fallon MB. Hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and other systemic complications of liver disease. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ...

  12. And the Winner is – Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Joachim; Rønde, Thomas; Wagner, Marcus

    value in case of success—that is, a more radical innovation. In the second stage, successful entrants bid to be acquired by the incumbent. We assume that entrants cannot survive on their own, so being acquired amounts to a ‘prize’ in a contest. We identify an equilibrium in which the incumbent chooses...

  13. Acquired Inventors’ Productivity after Horizontal Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo G.; Moreira, Solon; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    Effective integration of the R&D functions of the acquired and acquiring firms is essential for knowledge recombination after acquisition. However, prior research suggests that the post-acquisition integration process often damages the inventive labor force. We argue that an examination of the mu...

  14. Acquired intrathoracic kidney in thoracic kyphosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Sadayuki; Kawashima, Akira; Ohuchida, Toshiyuki; Russell, W.J.

    1986-12-01

    Two cases of acquired intrathoracic kidney associated with thoracic kyphosis are reported, with emphasis on the radiographic manifestations. A search of the scientific literature disclosed that the acquired type of this abnormality is rare. The importance of recognizing this entity from a differential diagnostic standpoint is underscored. (author)

  15. Naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Infection by Plasmodium falciparum parasites can lead to substantial protective immunity to malaria, and available evidence suggest that acquisition of protection against some severe malaria syndromes can be fairly rapid. Although these facts have raised hopes that the development of effective...... protective immunity to P. falciparum malaria is acquired following natural exposure to the parasites is beginning to emerge, not least thanks to studies that have combined clinical and epidemiological data with basic immunological research. This framework involves IgG with specificity for clonally variant...... antigens on the surface of the infected erythrocytes, can explain some of the difficulties in relating particular immune responses with specificity for well-defined antigenic targets to clinical protection, and suggests a radically new approach to controlling malaria-related morbidity and mortality...

  16. Corpus callosum demyelination associated with acquired stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Barbara McElwee; Guitar, Barry; Solomon, Andrew

    2018-04-21

    Compared with developmental stuttering, adult onset acquired stuttering is rare. However, several case reports describe acquired stuttering and an association with callosal pathology. Interestingly, these cases share a neuroanatomical localisation also demonstrated in developmental stuttering. We present a case of adult onset acquired stuttering associated with inflammatory demyelination within the corpus callosum. This patient's disfluency improved after the initiation of immunomodulatory therapy. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Congenital nephrotic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fanni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available CNS (Congenital nephrotic syndrome is a disorder characterized by the presence of a nephrotic syndrome in the first three months of life. Different pathologies can cause this syndrome. In general, we can distinguish primary forms (sporadic and hereditary and secondary forms (acquired and associated with other syndromes. The most common form is the Finnish CNS (CNF, congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type, a hereditary form whose name derives from the fact that the highest incidence is described in that country (1.2:10,000. The pathogenesis, the clinical picture, the diagnostic criteria, the therapy and the outcome are described in details.  Proceedings of the International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · Cagliari (Italy · October 25th, 2014 · The role of the clinical pathological dialogue in problem solving Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Peter Van Eyken

  18. Association of bronchogenic carcinoma with Pancoast's syndrome and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    FRÖHLICH, A.C.; CHIESA, D.; RONSANI, M; HENN, L.A; BARRETO, S.S. MENNA

    2000-01-01

    É relatado o caso de um paciente portador da síndrome de Pancoast associada à síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida. Esta apresentação é rara, visto que os tumores mais freqüentemente associados à SIDA são o sarcoma de Kaposi e o linfoma não-Hodgkin. O paciente, com passado de uso de drogas injetáveis, internou-se para investigação de massa em ápice pulmonar, com presença de síndrome de Pancoast, sendo solicitado anti-HIV, com resultado positivo, e tendo sido feito diagnóstico de Ca brônquic...

  19. Strategy and technology to prevent hospital-acquired infections: Lessons from SARS, Ebola, and MERS in Asia and West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rajakaruna, Sanjeewa Jayachandra; Liu, Wen-Bin; Ding, Yi-Bo; Cao, Guang-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are serious problems for healthcare systems, especially in developing countries where public health infrastructure and technology for infection preventions remain undeveloped. Here, we characterized how strategy and technology could be mobilized to improve the effectiveness of infection prevention and control in hospitals during the outbreaks of Ebola, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Asia and West Afr...

  20. Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In October 2014, CMS began reducing Medicare payments for subsection (d) hospitals that rank in the worst performing quartile with respect to hospital-acquired...

  1. Enhancing Medicares Hospital Acquired Conditions Policy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The current Medicare policy of non-payment to hospitals for Hospital Acquired Conditions (HAC) seeks to avoid payment for preventable complications identified within...

  2. Common acquired kidney diseases in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5. Common acquired kidney diseases in children. Examination of the urine is probably the most important investigation ... result from the same streptococcal infection. .... musculoskeletal system. ... Prediction of histopathology from clinical.

  3. Acquired hemoglobin H disease in a patient with aplastic anemia evolving into acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stella Figueiredo

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The prognosis of severe aplastic anemia has improved since the introduction of bone marrow transplantation and treatment with antithymocyte globulin. In contrast to the success of these protocols, studies with long term follow-up have shown the occurrence of clonal diseases such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, myelodysplastic syndrome and acute leukemia in aplastic anemia. CASE REPORT: We report the first case of a Brazilian patient with aplastic anemia who developed myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia showing acquired hemoglobin H and increased fetal hemoglobin.

  4. How are Concepts of Infinity Acquired?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trzęsicki Kazimierz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Concepts of infinity have been subjects of dispute since antiquity. The main problems of this paper are: is the mind able to acquire a concept of infinity? and: how are concepts of infinity acquired? The aim of this paper is neither to say what the meanings of the word “infinity” are nor what infinity is and whether it exists. However, those questions will be mentioned, but only in necessary extent.

  5. Differences in microbiological profile between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and hospital-acquired infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Teresa; Ribeiro, Orquídea; Aragão, Irene; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Sarmento, António

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological profiles were analysed and compared for intra-abdominal, urinary, respiratory and bloodstream infections according to place of acquisition: community-acquired, with a separate analysis of healthcare-associated, and hospital-acquired. Prospective cohort study performed at a university tertiary care hospital over 1 year. Inclusion criteria were meeting the Centers for Disease Control definition of intra-abdominal, urinary, respiratory and bloodstream infections. A total of 1035 patients were included in the study. More than 25% of intra-abdominal infections were polymicrobial; multi-drug resistant gram-negatives were 38% in community-acquired, 50% in healthcare-associated and 57% in hospital-acquired. E. coli was the most prevalent among urinary infections: 69% in community-acquired, 56% in healthcare-associated and 26% in hospital-acquired; ESBL producers' pathogens were 10% in healthcare-associated and 3% in community-acquired and hospital-acquired. In respiratory infections Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most prevalent in community-acquired (54%) and MRSA in healthcare-associated (24%) and hospital-acquired (24%). A significant association was found between MRSA respiratory infection and hospitalization in the previous year (adjusted OR = 6.3), previous instrumentation (adjusted OR = 4.3) and previous antibiotic therapy (adjusted OR = 5.7); no cases were documented among patients without risk factors. Hospital mortality rate was 10% in community-acquired, 14% in healthcare-associated and 19% in hospital-acquired infection. This study shows that healthcare-associated has a different microbiologic profile than those from community or hospital acquired for the four main focus of infection. Knowledge of this fact is important because the existing guidelines for community-acquired are not entirely applicable for this group of patients.

  6. Risk factors and prognosis analysis of cranial nerve injury in non-acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related cryptococcal meningitis%非艾滋病相关隐球菌性脑膜炎合并脑神经损伤的危险因素及预后分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟新龙; 罗海龙

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the risk and prognosis factor of cranial nerve injury in non acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS)-related cryptococcal meningitis.Methods The clinical data of 115 patients with non-AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis were reviewed retrospectively.Clinical characteristics,initial antifungal therapies and outcome of these patients were analyzed.The risk and prognosis factor was performed by multivariate Logistic regression.Results The incidence of cranial nerve injury was 35.7%(41/115).Among of them,the involved ratio was 48.8% (20/41),39.0% (16/41),24.4% (10/41),12.2% (5/41),7.3% (3/41),4.9% (2/41) in optic nerve,oculomotor nerve,acoustic nerve,abducent nerve,olfactory nerve,facial nerve.Predictive risk factor for cranial nerve injury was duration of diagnosis (OR =1.057,95% CI 1.003-1.112),low cerebrospinal fluid cell count and intracranial hypertension were also the independent predictive factors (both P < 0.05).In the follow-up peried,72.2% (26/36) patients who had cranial nerve injury were fully recovered,with a median time of 0.5-24.0 (3.8 ±1.7) months.The independent predictors of recovery were numbers of nerve involved (OR =0.241,95 % CI 0.067-0.801,P =0.023) and combination therapy (OR =10.328,95 % CI 2.087-51.026,P =0.006).Condusions Cranial nerve injury is common in non-AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis.Delay in diagnosis,intracranial hypertension and low cerebrospinal fluid cell count are independent predictive factors.Less cranial nerve involvement and combination therapy predicts recovery.%目的 探讨非艾滋病(AIDS)相关隐球菌性脑膜炎合并脑神经损伤患者的危险因素及预后因素.方法 回顾性分析非AIDS相关隐球菌性脑膜炎115例患者的临床资料,记录其临床特征、治疗及预后情况,采用Logistic逐步回归法对危险因素和预后因素进行分析.结果 115例患者脑神经损伤发生率为35.7%(41/115),其中视神经、动眼神经、听

  7. Cushing's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing's syndrome is a hormonal disorder. The cause is long-term exposure to too much cortisol, a hormone that ... your body to make too much cortisol. Cushing's syndrome is rare. Some symptoms are Upper body obesity ...

  8. Usher Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher syndrome is an inherited disease that causes serious hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa, an eye disorder that causes ... and vision. There are three types of Usher syndrome: People with type I are deaf from birth ...

  9. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These conditions ... agree on the definition or cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is ...

  10. Reye Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reye syndrome is a rare illness that can affect the blood, liver, and brain of someone who has recently ... a viral illness, seek medical attention immediately. Reye syndrome can lead to a coma and brain death, ...

  11. Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rett syndrome is a rare genetic disease that causes developmental and nervous system problems, mostly in girls. It's related to autism spectrum disorder. Babies with Rett syndrome seem to grow and develop normally at first. ...

  12. Caplan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enable JavaScript. Rheumatoid pneumoconiosis (RP; also known as Caplan syndrome) is swelling (inflammation) and scarring of the ... avoid exposure to inorganic dust. Alternative Names RP; Caplan syndrome; Pneumoconiosis - rheumatoid; Silicosis - rheumatoid pneumoconiosis; Coal worker's ...

  13. Turner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects a girl's development. The cause is a missing or incomplete ... t work properly. Other physical features typical of Turner syndrome are Short, "webbed" neck with folds of skin ...

  14. Gardner's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrado Junior, C.W.; Bresser, A.; Cerri, G.G.; Habr-Gama, A.; Pinotti, H.W.; Magalhaes, A.

    1988-01-01

    A case of familiar poliposis of colon related to a right mandibular osteoma is reported (this association is usually called Gardner's syndrome). Radiologic pictures ae shown and some commentaries about this syndrome concerning the treatment are made. (author) [pt

  15. Sotos Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition Sotos syndrome (cerebral gigantism) is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutation ... have also been reported. × Definition Sotos syndrome (cerebral gigantism) is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutation ...

  16. Felty syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA); Felty's syndrome ... The cause of Felty syndrome is unknown. It is more common in people who have had rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for a long time. People with ...

  17. Bartter syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000308.htm Bartter syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bartter syndrome is a group of rare conditions that affect ...

  18. Pendred Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other possible long-term consequences of the syndrome. Children with Pendred syndrome should start early treatment to gain communication skills, such as learning sign language or cued speech or learning to ...

  19. Dravet Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and supports a broad program of basic and clinical research on all types of epilepsy, including Dravet syndrome. Study of the genetic defects responsible for Dravet syndrome and related ... Publications Definition Dravet ...

  20. Rare acquired hemostatic disorders as a cause of prolonged bleeding – presentation of two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Novak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDPatient’s anamnesis is of primary importance in determining hemostatic disorders. Based on anamnestic data, a clinician may decide for further laboratory tests. We must consider an acquired bleeding disorder in a patient with unusual, unexpected and prolonged bleeding episodes. In this article we will describe two rare acquired hemostatic disordes.TWO CASE REPORTSOur first patient had prolonged bleeding after a pacemaker implantation. We diagnosed him with acquired von Willebrand syndrome. Further on, the patient required a planned surgical procedure. In our second case we describe a patient with unusual and excessive skin bruising and prolonged bleeding after teeth extractions. He was diagnosed with acquired hemophilia.CONCLUSIONIn the assessment of a patient with a potential acquired bleeding disorder we must first rule out the most common causes, such as iatrogenic ones. But, because of high morbidity and mortality rates, we must also be aware of some rare acquired bleeding disorders. In case of uncertainty, we should consult with a hematologist.

  1. Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Down syndrome increases as a woman gets older. Down syndrome cannot be cured. Early treatment programs can help improve skills. They may include ... occupational, and/or educational therapy. With support and treatment, many ... Down syndrome live happy, productive lives. NIH: National Institute of ...

  2. Rowell syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Y Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rowell syndrome is a rare disease consisting of erythema multiforme-like lesions associated with lupus erythematosus. The syndrome occurs mostly in middle-aged women. The authors describe the syndrome in a 15-year-old boy who responded well to systemic steroids and hydroxychloroquine.

  3. Aicardi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, which is an inherited encephalopathy that affects newborn infants.) × Definition Aicardi syndrome is a rare genetic ... from Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, which is an inherited encephalopathy that affects newborn infants.) View Full Definition Treatment There is no ...

  4. Paraneoplastic Cushing Syndrome Due To Wilm's Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizan, Mahwish; Manzoor, Jaida; Saleem, Muhammad; Anwar, Saadia; Mehmood, Qaiser; Hameed, Ambreen; Ali, Agha Shabbir

    2017-05-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare disorders that are triggered by an altered immune system response to neoplasm. Paraneoplastic syndromes may be the first or the most prominent manifestations of cancer. Wilm's tumor is the most frequent pediatric renal malignancy and usually presents with abdominal mass. Unusual presentations like acquired von Willebrand disease, sudden death due to pulmonary embolism and Cushing syndrome have been described in the literature. Cushing syndrome, as the presenting symptom of a malignant renal tumor in children, is a very rare entity. Few case reports are available in the literature exploring the option of preoperative chemotherapy as well as upfront nephrectomy. We report a rare case of paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to a Wilm's tumor. Based on gradual decrease of postoperative weight, blood pressure, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, and plasma cortisol levels, along with histological confirmation of Wilm's tumor, paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to Wilm's tumor was confirmed.

  5. Paraneoplastic cushing syndrome due to wilm's tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faizan, M.; Anwar, S.; Hameed, A.; Manzoor, J.; Saleem, M.; Mehmood, Q.; Ali, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare disorders that are triggered by an altered immune system response to neoplasm. Paraneoplastic syndromes may be the first or the most prominent manifestations of cancer. Wilm's tumor is the most frequent pediatric renal malignancy and usually presents with abdominal mass. Unusual presentations like acquired von Willebrand disease, sudden death due to pulmonary embolism and Cushing syndrome have been described in the literature. Cushing syndrome, as the presenting symptom of a malignant renal tumor in children, is a very rare entity. Few case reports are available in the literature exploring the option of preoperative chemotherapy as well as upfront nephrectomy. We report a rare case of paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to a Wilm's tumor. Based on gradual decrease of postoperative weight, blood pressure, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, and plasma cortisol levels, alongwith histological confirmation of Wilm's tumor, paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to Wilm's tumor was confirmed. (author)

  6. Pennzoil to acquire part of Chevron's production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Pennzoil Co., Houston, will exchange 48% of its $2.2 billion investment in Chevron Corp. for a chunk of chevron's U.S. producing leases. The trade is to involve a tax free exchange of 15.75 million chevron Corp. shares held by Pennzoil for all the stock of Chevron PBC Inc., a Chevron unit owning Gulf of Mexico, Gulf Coast, Permian basin, and other U.S. oil and gas producing leases. Sixty percent of the acquired reserves are in the Gulf of Mexico and Gulf Coast where Pennzoil's operations are concentrated, and 60% of the acquired reserves consist of natural gas, mirroring Pennzoil's reserve ratios

  7. Congenital nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Radi Ma

    2003-01-01

    The congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) is an uncommon disorder with onset of the nephrotic syndrome usually in the first three months of life. Several different diseases may cause the syndrome. These may be inherited, sporadic, acquired or part of a general malformation syndrome. The clinical course is marked by failure to thrive, recurrent life threatening bacterial infections, and early death from sepsis and/or uremia. A characteristic phenotype may be seen in children with CNS. The majority of reported cases of CNS are of the Finnish type (CNF). Although the role of the glomerular basement membrane has been emphasized as the barrier for retaining plasma proteins, recent studies have clearly shown that the slit diaphragm is the structure most likely to be the barrier in the glomerular capillary wall. The gene (NPHS1) was shown to encode a novel protein that was termed nephrin, due to its specific location in the kidney filter barrier, where it seems to form a highly organized filter structure. Nephrin is a transmembrane protein that probably forms the main building block of an isoporous zipper-like slit diaphragm filter structure. Defects in nephrin lead to the abnormal or absent slit diaphragm resulting in massive proteinuria and renal failure.

  8. Lupus anticoagulant-hypoprothrombinemia syndrome and catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome in a patient with antidomain I antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, Joris; Mohamed, Shirine; Revuz, Sabine; de Maistre, Emmanuel; de Laat, Bas; Marie, Pierre-Yves; Zuily, Stéphane; Lévy, Bruno; Regnault, Véronique; Wahl, Denis

    2016-07-01

    Lupus anticoagulant-hypoprothrombinemia syndrome is a rare condition characterized by the association of acquired factor II deficiency and lupus anticoagulant. Contrary to classical antiphospholipid syndrome, it may cause severe life-threatening bleeding (89% of published cases). We report a patient, positive for antidomain I antibodies, with initially primary lupus anticoagulant-hypoprothrombinemia syndrome without previous clinical manifestation or underlying systemic disease. Five years later, he experienced the first systemic lupus erythematous flare. Within a few days, catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome was diagnosed with heart, liver and kidney involvement. The patient recovered under pulse steroids, intravenous heparin and intravenous immunoglobulins.

  9. Dravets syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kjaersgård; Rasmussen, Niels Henrik; Ousager, Lilian Bomme

    2010-01-01

    Dravet syndrome is an epileptic syndrome of infancy and early childhood. Most cases of Dravet syndrome seem to be due to a genetic defect causing the sodium channel to malfunction. We describe the main features of the syndrome. This epilepsy is medically intractable, but we call attention...... to the fact that some medications are of benefit and some could exacerbate the condition. Early recognition of the syndrome including by genetic testing could possibly improve outcome and reduce the need for other specialized investigations. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-Feb-22...

  10. Aetiological considerations of acquired aplastic anaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, S.; Sarwar, I.; Mehmood, T.; Naz, F.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anaemia is one of the important causes of pancytopenia. This study was conducted to observe the mode of presentation of acquired aplastic anaemia and to find out its possible etiological factors. Methods: It is a hospital based descriptive study of 100 patients of acquired aplastic anaemia. Results: Out of 100 patients 60 were male and 40 female. Majority (44%) of the patients were between 12 - 20 years of age. Patient presented with variable symptoms majority (40%) with fever. Most of the patients had haemoglobin levels between 4 - 6 gm/dl. (53%). Seventy percent of the cases had no obvious cause, while in 30% some known causative factors were found. Chloramphenicol was found to be the most common causative drug. Mortality was 35%. Thirty patients were partially treated and 15 were lost to follow up. Twenty patients showed improvement with treatment. Conclusions: Acquired aplastic anaemia is common among males and more prevalent in younger age group. It is idiopathic in 70% cases while 30% had some cause. It has very high mortality. Doctors need to keep in mind this fatal condition in patients presenting with anaemia and should properly investigate before prescribing antibiotics and haematinics. (author)

  11. How Did Light Acquire a Velocity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauginie, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We discuss how light acquired a velocity through history, from the ancient Greeks to the early modern era. Combining abstract debates, models of light, practical needs, planned research and chance, this history illustrates several key points that should be brought out in science education.

  12. Acquired dysfibrinogenemia secondary to multiple myeloma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotlín, R.; Sobotková, A.; Riedel, Tomáš; Salaj, P.; Suttnar, J.; Reicheltová, Z.; Májek, P.; Khaznadar, T.; Dyr, J. E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 2 (2008), s. 75-81 ISSN 0001-5792 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200670701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : acquired dysfibrinogenemia * amorphous clot * fibrinogen Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.191, year: 2008

  13. Acquired secondary Grynfeltt's hernia: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renck, Decio Valente; Lopes Junior, Joao Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Lumbar hernia is a rare condition whose diagnosis is hardly achieved. The prevalence is higher in elderly men. The present case report describes the case of a male, 78-year-old patient who underwent pleural effusion drainage 17 years before presenting with clinical manifestations and tomographic findings compatible with acquired secondary Grynfeltt's hernia. (author)

  14. Some Characteristics of Patients with Community Acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a dearth of studies relating the information from the history of patients with community-acquired pneumonia to the mortality of the disease. The relationship between age, sex, occupation, marital status, smoking history, alcohol use, concomitant COPD / bronchial asthma, source of referral and the mortality of patients ...

  15. Immunomodulation in community-acquired pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmelts, H.H.F.

    2013-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common disease with considerable morbidity and mortality, despite effective antibiotic treatment. In this thesis, we showed that the major causative microorganisms in CAP trigger distinct inflammatory response profiles in the host. While an inflammatory

  16. A Case Of Bilateral Acquired Localized Lipoatrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Tanrıkulu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lipoatrophy is characterized by inflammation and tissue loss in fatty tissue. This disease may be congenital or acquired, primary or secondary. Secondary lipoatrophy develops with infections, collagen tissue diseases, tumors and drug injections. In this report, we present the case of a 14-year-old female patient who developed lipoatrophy following intramuscular steroid injection to both buttocks.

  17. Lutembacher's syndrome: A rare combination of congenital and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because the mitral stenosis was, in fact, rheumatic in aetiology, the syndrome was defined eventually as a combination of congenital atrial septal defect and acquired, almost always rheumatic, mitral stenosis. Keywords:Lutembacher's syndrome, congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, atrial septal defect, mitral ...

  18. Trans-Catheter Therapy of Lutembacher Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Nough

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Lutembacher syndrome refers to the rare combination of a congenital atrial septal defect and acquired mitral stenosis. Traditionally, Lutembacher syndrome has been corrected by surgical treatment. We describe two patients treated percutaneouly with a combined Inoue balloon valvuloplasty and septal defect closure using the Amplatzer septal occlusion device.

  19. lutembacher's syndrome: a rare combination of congenital and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOBUR

    Lutembacher's syndrome is defined as the rare combination of congenital atrial septal defect and acquired ... atrial septal defect. The definition of Lutembacher's syndrome has undergone many changes. The earliest description in medical literature was found in a letter written ... atrial fibrillation with her chest x-ray showing.

  20. Case Report: Cervical Klippel-Feil syndrome predisposing an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Report: Cervical Klippel-Feil syndrome predisposing an elderly African man to central cord myelopathy following minor trauma. ... unique presentation of this case of Klippel-Feil syndrome further supports the impression that following fusion (congenital or acquired) of one segment of the spinal column, hypermobility of ...

  1. Do the MTHFR gene polymorphism and Down syndrome pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Down syndrome, the most common trisomy 21 arises from abnormal chromosomal segregation. The etiology includes genetic and acquired factors. The main genetic factor that is well appreciated for onset of Down syndrome pregnancy is MTHFR gene polymorphism. But till date, no final conclusion has arrived ...

  2. Pregnancy and Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Karen; Hunt, Beverley J

    2016-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is classified as the association of thrombotic events and/or obstetric morbidity in patients persistently positive for antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). APS is also the most frequently acquired risk factor for a treatable cause of recurrent pregnancy loss and incr......Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is classified as the association of thrombotic events and/or obstetric morbidity in patients persistently positive for antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). APS is also the most frequently acquired risk factor for a treatable cause of recurrent pregnancy loss...... and increases the risk of conditions associated with ischemic placental dysfunction, such as stillbirth, intrauterine death, preeclampsia, premature birth, and fetal growth restriction. The use of low-dose aspirin and heparin has improved the pregnancy outcome in obstetric APS and approximately 70% of pregnant...... women with APS will deliver a viable live infant. However, current management does not prevent all maternal, fetal, and neonatal complications of APS and the current treatment fails in 20 to 30% of APS pregnancies, raising the need to explore other treatments to improve obstetrical outcome. Two clinical...

  3. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Andrea Farias de Melo; Mota Junior, Americo, E-mail: andreafariasm@gmail.com [Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira de Pernambuco (IMIP), Recife, PE (Brazil); Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaete [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2016-07-15

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common - increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations. (author)

  4. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Andrea Farias de Melo; Mota Junior, Americo; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaete; Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common - increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations. (author)

  5. Phylogenetically Acquired Representations and Evolutionary Algorithms.

    OpenAIRE

    Wozniak , Adrianna

    2006-01-01

    First, we explain why Genetic Algorithms (GAs), inspired by the Modern Synthesis, do not accurately model biological evolution, being rather an artificial version of artificial, rather than natural selection. Being focused on optimisation, we propose two improvements of GAs, with the aim to successfully generate adapted, desired behaviour. The first one concerns phylogenetic grounding of meaning, a way to avoid the Symbol Grounding Problem. We give a definition of Phylogenetically Acquired Re...

  6. Acquiring Procedural Skills from Lesson Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-13

    Teachers of Mathematics . Washington, D)C: NCTM . Brueckner, I..J. (1930) Diagnostic aund remedial teaching in arithmetic. Philadelphia. PA: Winston. Burton...arithmetic and algebra, fr-m multi-lesson curricula. The central hypothesis is that students and teachers obey cc: :-.entions that cause the goal hierarchy...students and • . teachers obey conventions that cause the goal hierarchy of the acquired procedure to be a particular structural function of the sequential

  7. Brucella abortus infection acquired in microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, P L; Mastrandrea, S; Rappelli, P; Cappuccinelli, P

    2000-05-01

    We report an outbreak of laboratory-acquired Brucella abortus infection originating in the accidental breakage of a centrifuge tube. A total of 12 laboratory workers were infected (attack rate of 31%), with an incubation time ranging from 6 weeks to 5 months. Antibody titers were evaluated weekly in all personnel exposed, allowing the diagnosis of the infection in most cases before the onset of clinical symptoms, so that specific therapy could be administrated.

  8. Reversible chronic acquired complete atrioventricular block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovec, P; Milcinski, G; Voga, G; Korsic, L

    1982-01-01

    The return of atrioventricular conduction is reported in a case after nearly four years of complete acquired heart block. After recovery from atrioventricular block, right bundle branch block persisted, but P-R interval and H-V interval were normal. Three months later a relapse of second degree infranodal atrioventricular block was noted. A short review of similar cases from the literature is given.

  9. Domestically Acquired Fascioliasis in Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenberg, Scott A.; Perlada, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Two cases of domestically acquired fascioliasis are reported. Patient One was a 63-year-old male who developed a febrile illness 2 months after eating watercress in Marin County. Patient Two was a 38-year-old male who had eaten watercress with Patient One, and also developed a febrile illness. Both patients had eosinophilia and liver lesions on imaging. Diagnosis was made by serology and treatment was with triclabendazole. PMID:23836562

  10. Domestically acquired fascioliasis in northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenberg, Scott A; Perlada, David E

    2013-09-01

    Two cases of domestically acquired fascioliasis are reported. Patient One was a 63-year-old male who developed a febrile illness 2 months after eating watercress in Marin County. Patient Two was a 38-year-old male who had eaten watercress with Patient One, and also developed a febrile illness. Both patients had eosinophilia and liver lesions on imaging. Diagnosis was made by serology and treatment was with triclabendazole.

  11. System Acquires Data On Reactivities Of Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Joe T.

    1994-01-01

    Data-acquisition and -plotting system, called DAPS(TM), developed enabling accurate and objective determination of physical properties related to reactivities of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foams. Automated, computer-controlled test apparatus that acquires data on rates of rise, rise profiles, exothermic temperatures, and internal pressures of foams prepared from both manual and machine-mixed batches. Data used to determine minute differences between reaction kinetics and exothermic profiles of foam formulations, properties of end products which are statistically undifferentiated.

  12. Acquired Credit Unions: Drivers of Takeover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raymond Sant

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study acquired credit unions and analyze their financial performance up to six years prior to merger, on a quarterly basis. The primary focus is on balance sheet (asset liability management and profitability variables (return on assets. We find that acquired credit unions during the period 2008 (third quarter to 2014 (first quarter experienced negative return on assets for several quarters prior to their takeover. This was the result of a declining loan portfolio and increasing charge offs. In spite of decreasing lending activity, such credit unions continued to increase their deposits, i.e., adding to their cost base. Due to declining loans, their net interest margin as a proportion of deposits was also in decline. We argue that this is an indicator of poor management ability. Furthermore, our analysis finds that operating expenses were increasing over time, something that has been documented in previous literature also for smaller credit unions and is attributable to lack of economies of scale. The average asset size of the acquired credit unions in our sample is about $22 million just before acquisition. We attribute our findings to poor business strategy followed by such credit unions. We also conclude that signs of trouble are evident up to two years before merger on average and regulatory policy may have to become more proactive to manage the consolidation challenge faced by the credit union industry in general.

  13. Clonal hematopoiesis in acquired aplastic anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Seishi

    2016-01-01

    Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) in aplastic anemia (AA) has been closely linked to the evolution of late clonal disorders, including paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)/acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which are common complications after successful immunosuppressive therapy (IST). With the advent of high-throughput sequencing of recent years, the molecular aspect of CH in AA has been clarified by comprehensive detection of somatic mutations that drive clonal evolut...

  14. Unusual ocular manifestations of silent sinus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Lopes da Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silent sinus syndrome is an acquired condition in which there is a gradual collapse of the orbital floor and inward retraction of the maxillary sinus (atelectasis of the maxillary sinus. This in turn may cause associated ocular occurrences of enophthalmos and hypotropia. This is a report of an 8 year-old boy with silent sinus syndrome and associated ocular motility disorders. The association between silent sinus syndrome and ocular motility disturbance has been recently described in the literature. However, this is an infrequent association, mainly in childhood.

  15. Urofacial syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal F Akl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The urofacial syndrome is characterized by functional obstructive uropathy asso-ciated with an inverted smile. The importance of the subject is that it sheds light, not only on the muscles of facial expression, but also on the inheritance of voiding disorders and lower urinary tract malformations. We report a 10-year-old-male patient who had the urofacial syndrome. Early diagnosis of the urofacial syndrome is important to avoid upper urinary tract damage and renal failure.

  16. Refeeding syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathy, Swagata; Mishra, Padmini; Dash, S. C.

    2008-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a potentially fatal medical condition that may affect malnourished patients in response to an inappropriately rapid overfeeding. This commonly occurs following the institution of nutritional support, especially parenteral or enteral nutrition. The most characteristic pathophysiology of refeeding syndrome relates to the rapid consumption of phosphate after glucose intake and subsequent hypophosphatemia. Refeeding syndrome can manifest as either metabolic changes (hypokala...

  17. Revesz syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Cristine Issaho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Revesz syndrome is a rare variant of dyskeratosis congenita and is characterized by bilateral exudative retinopathy, alterations in the anterior ocular segment, intrauterine growth retardation, fine sparse hair, reticulate skin pigmentation, bone marrow failure, cerebral calcification, cerebellar hypoplasia and psychomotor retardation. Few patients with this syndrome have been reported, and significant clinical variations exist among patients. This report describes the first Brazilian case of Revesz syndrome and its ocular and clinical features.

  18. Reye's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that contain aspirin. Some hospitals and medical facilities conduct newborn screenings for fatty acid oxidation disorders to determine which children are at greater risk of developing Reye's syndrome. ...

  19. Marfan Syndrome (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic disorder called Marfan syndrome. What Is Marfan Syndrome? Marfan syndrome is named after Antoine Marfan, the French ... immediately. What's Life Like for Teens With Marfan Syndrome? Marfan syndrome affects people differently, so life is not ...

  20. Learning about Marfan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Additional Resources for Marfan Syndrome What is Marfan syndrome? Marfan syndrome is one of the most common inherited ... FAQ Top of page Additional Resources For Marfan Syndrome Marfan syndrome [nlm.nih.gov] From Medline Plus Marfan ...

  1. Russell-Silver syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver-Russell syndrome; Silver syndrome; RSS; Russell-Silver syndrome ... One in 10 children with this syndrome has a problem involving chromosome 7. In other people with the syndrome, it may affect chromosome 11. Most of the time, it ...

  2. What Is Usher Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Action You are here Home › Retinal Diseases Listen Usher Syndrome What is Usher syndrome? How is Usher syndrome ... available? Are there any related diseases? What is Usher Syndrome? Usher syndrome is an inherited condition characterized by ...

  3. 48 CFR 1845.502-70 - Contractor-acquired property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contractor-acquired... Possession of Contractors 1845.502-70 Contractor-acquired property. All contractor-acquired property must be... contractor-acquired. (2) Submission of DD Form 1419, DOD Industrial Plant Requisition, or equivalent format...

  4. Cardiovascular risk in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Beatriz; Ferreira, Maria João

    2018-06-01

    Turner syndrome is a relatively common genetic disorder of female development, characterized by partial or complete absence of an X chromosome, with a variable clinical presentation. Congenital or acquired cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent and a major cause of early death in this syndrome. The most feared complication is aortic dissection, which can occur at a very young age and requires careful assessment of its risk factors. A systematic literature search identified sixty relevant publications. These were reviewed with regard to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in women with Turner syndrome, especially in pregnancy. The most common congenital cardiovascular defects are presented and illustrated with appropriate iconography. The current recommendations regarding the screening and monitoring of cardiovascular disease in these patients are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical significance of acquired somatic mutations in aplastic anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J C W; Mufti, G J

    2016-08-01

    Aplastic anaemia (AA) is frequently associated with other disorders of clonal haemopoiesis such as paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and T-large granular lymphocytosis. Certain clones may escape the immune attack within the bone marrow environment and proliferate and attain a survival advantage over normal haemopoietic stem cells, such as trisomy 8, loss of heterozygosity of short arm of chromosome 6 and del13q clones. Recently acquired somatic mutations (SM), excluding PNH clones, have been reported in around 20-25 % of patients with AA, which predispose to a higher risk of later malignant transformation to MDS/acute myeloid leukaemia. Furthermore, certain SM, such as ASXL1 and DNMT3A are associated with poor survival following immunosuppressive therapy, whereas PIGA, BCOR/BCORL1 predict for good response and survival. Further detailed and serial analysis of the immune signature in AA is needed to understand the pathogenetic basis for the presence of clones with SM in a significant proportion of patients.

  6. Multimodality cardiac imaging in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Kristian H; Gopalan, Deepa; Nørgaard, Bjarne L; Andersen, Niels H; Gravholt, Claus H

    2016-06-01

    Congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases contribute significantly to the threefold elevated risk of premature death in Turner syndrome. A multitude of cardiovascular anomalies and disorders, many of which deleteriously impact morbidity and mortality, is frequently left undetected and untreated because of poor adherence to screening programmes and complex clinical presentations. Imaging is essential for timely and effective primary and secondary disease prophylaxis that may alleviate the severe impact of cardiovascular disease in Turner syndrome. This review illustrates how cardiovascular disease in Turner syndrome manifests in a complex manner that ranges in severity from incidental findings to potentially fatal anomalies. Recommendations regarding the use of imaging for screening and surveillance of cardiovascular disease in Turner syndrome are made, emphasising the key role of non-invasive and invasive cardiovascular imaging to the management of all patients with Turner syndrome.

  7. Detecção de imunoglobulinas IgG, IgM e IgA anti-Toxoplasma gondii no soro, líquor e saliva de pacientes com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida e neurotoxoplasmose Detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG, IgM and IgA immunoglobulins in the serum, cerebrospinal fluid and saliva of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and neurotoxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aercio Sebastião Borges

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudamos 55 pacientes com sindrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (SIDA e neurotoxoplasmose (grupo 1; 37 pacientes com SIDA e comprometimento neurológico por outra etiologia (grupo 2 e 18 indivíduos anti-HIV negativos com manifestações neurológicas (grupo 3, pesquisando IgG, IgA e IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii, no soro, líquor e saliva, utilizando teste ELISA, para fins diagnósticos. O valor preditivo negativo do teste para o encontro de IgG no soro foi 100% e no líquor, 92,4%. Não houve diferença entre os três grupos quanto aos anticorpos IgA neste material. Para IgA, no líquor, o teste alcançou 72,7% de especificidade (pWe studied 55 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS and neurotoxoplasmosis (group 1, 37 patients with AIDS and neurological involvement due to another etiology (group 2 and 18 anti-HIV-negative individuals with neurological manifestations, by searching for anti-T. gondii IgG, IgA and IgM immunoglobulins in serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSFand saliva, using ELISA. The negative predictive value of the test for IgG in serum was 100% and in CSF, 92.4%. There was no difference among the three groups studied regarding IgA in serum. For IgA, in CSF the test reached 72.7% specificity (p<0.05. In saliva, only the detection of IgG was found to be correlated with a diagnosis of neurotoxoplasmosis. We emphasize that the absence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies in serum and CSF strongly indicates the absence of a diagnosis of neurotoxoplasmosis and that specific IgA immunoglobulins in CSF and IgG in saliva may represent two auxiliary markers for the differential diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS.

  8. Obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Valverde, E; Ferrer-Oliveras, R; Alijotas-Reig, J

    2016-04-01

    Obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome is an acquired autoimmune disorder that is associated with various obstetric complications and, in the absence of prior history of thrombosis, with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies directed against other phospholipids, proteins called cofactors or PL-cofactor complexes. Although the obstetric complications have been related to the procoagulant properties of antiphospholipid antibodies, pathological studies of human placenta have shown the proinflammatory capacity of antiphospholipid antibodies via the complement system and proinflammatory cytokines. There is no general agreement on which antiphospholipid antibodies profile (laboratory) confers the greatest obstetric risk, but the best candidates are categories I and IIa. Combined treatment with low doses of aspirin and heparin achieves good obstetric and maternal outcomes. In this study, we also review the therapeutic possibilities in refractory cases, although the likelihood of progressing to other autoimmune diseases is low. We briefly comment on incomplete obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome, also known as antiphospholipid antibody-mediated pregnancy morbidity syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  9. Seckel syndrome: an overdiagnosed syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, E; Pembrey, M

    1985-01-01

    Five children in whom a diagnosis of Seckel syndrome had previously been made were re-examined in the genetic unit. One child had classical Seckel syndrome, a sib pair had the features of the syndrome with less severe short stature, and in two children the diagnosis was not confirmed. Seckel syndrome is only one of a group of low birth weight microcephalic dwarfism and careful attention should be paid to fulfillment of the major criteria defined by Seckel before the diagnosis is made. There r...

  10. Laugier-Hunziker syndrome: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Z; Li, G-Y; Ruan, H-H; Zhang, L; Wang, W-M; Wang, X

    2018-04-01

    Laugier-Hunziker syndrome (LHS) is a rare, benign, acquired pigmentary condition mainly affecting lips, oral mucosa and acral area, frequently associated with longitudinal melanonychia. Herein, we reported a 45-year-old female case with LHS. The clinical, dermoscopic, histopathologic features of LHS were reviewed and the important differential diagnosis was discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhaohui, E-mail: lzhtrhos@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: lijingxbh@yahoo.com.cn [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhao, Pengfei, E-mail: zhaopengf05@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Lv, Han, E-mail: chrislvhan@126.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Dong, Cheng, E-mail: derc007@sina.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Liu, Wenjuan, E-mail: wenjuanliu@163.com [Jining No. 1 People' s Hospital, No. 6 Health Street, Jining 272100 (China); Wang, Zhenchang, E-mail: cjr.wzhch@vip.163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition.

  12. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhaohui; Li, Jing; Zhao, Pengfei; Lv, Han; Dong, Cheng; Liu, Wenjuan; Wang, Zhenchang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition

  13. Functionality predictors in acquired brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas Hoyas, E; Pedrero Pérez, E J; Águila Maturana, A M; García López-Alberca, S; González Alted, C

    2015-01-01

    Most individuals who have survived an acquired brain injury present consequences affecting the sensorimotor, cognitive, affective or behavioural components. These deficits affect the proper performance of daily living activities. The aim of this study is to identify functional differences between individuals with unilateral acquired brain injury using functional independence, capacity, and performance of daily activities. Descriptive cross-sectional design with a sample of 58 people, with right-sided injury (n=14 TBI; n=15 stroke) or left-sided injury (n = 14 TBI, n = 15 stroke), right handed, and with a mean age of 47 years and time since onset of 4 ± 3.65 years. The functional assessment/functional independence measure (FIM/FAM) and the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) were used for the study. The data showed significant differences (P<.000), and a large size effect (dr=0.78) in the cross-sectional estimates, and point to fewer restrictions for patients with a lesion on their right side. The major differences were in the variables 'speaking' and 'receiving spoken messages' (ICF variables), and 'Expression', 'Writing' and 'intelligible speech' (FIM/FAM variables). In the linear regression analysis, the results showed that only 4 FIM/FAM variables, taken together, predict 44% of the ICF variance, which measures the ability of the individual, and up to 52% of the ICF, which measures the individual's performance. Gait alone predicts a 28% of the variance. It seems that individuals with acquired brain injury in the left hemisphere display important differences regarding functional and communication variables. The motor aspects are an important prognostic factor in functional rehabilitation. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Burnout Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Panova, Gordana; Panov, Nenad; Stojanov, H; Sumanov, Gorgi; Panova, Blagica; Stojanovski, Angel; Nikolovska, Lence; Jovevska, Svetlana; Trajanovski, D; Asanova, D

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Increasing work responsibilities, allocation of duties, loss of energy and motivation in everyday activities, emotional exhaustion, lack of time for themselves, insuffi cient time for rest and recreation, dissatisfaction in private life. All these symptoms can be cause of Burnout Syndrome. Aim: To see the importance of this syndrome, the consequences of job dissatisfaction, the environment, family and expression in drastic chan...

  15. Tourette Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have Tourette syndrome, you make unusual movements or sounds, called tics. You have little or no control over them. Common tics are throat- ... spin, or, rarely, blurt out swear words. Tourette syndrome is a disorder of the nervous system. It ...

  16. Fahr's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or 50s, although it can occur at any time in childhood or adolescence. × Definition Fahr's Syndrome is a rare, genetically dominant, inherited ... or 50s, although it can occur at any time in childhood or adolescence. View Full Definition Treatment There is no cure for Fahr's Syndrome, ...

  17. Lemierre's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Katrine; Bødtger, Uffe; Heltberg, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is an often un-diagnosed disease seen in previously healthy young subjects, presenting with symptoms of pharyngitis, fever and elevated markers of inflammation. The syndrome is characterised by infectious thrombosis of the jugular vein due to infection with Fusobacteria, causing...

  18. Ambras syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Malwade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambras syndrome, a form of congenital hypertrichosis lanuginosa, is extremely rare in neonates. It is characterized by typical pattern of hair distribution, dysmorphic facial features and a familial pattern of inheritance. We report a case of Ambras syndrome in a preterm neonate with history of consanguinity and positive family history.

  19. Antiphospholipid syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera, Ricard; Piette, Jean-Charles; Font, Josep

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the clinical and immunologic manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in a large cohort of patients and to define patterns of disease expression.......To analyze the clinical and immunologic manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in a large cohort of patients and to define patterns of disease expression....

  20. Noonan syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Amy E; Allanson, Judith E; Tartaglia, Marco; Gelb, Bruce D

    2013-01-01

    Noonan syndrome is a genetic multisystem disorder characterised by distinctive facial features, developmental delay, learning difficulties, short stature, congenital heart disease, renal anomalies, lymphatic malformations, and bleeding difficulties. Mutations that cause Noonan syndrome alter genes encoding proteins with roles in the RAS–MAPK pathway, leading to pathway dysregulation. Management guidelines have been developed. Several clinically relevant genotype–phenotype correlations aid ris...

  1. Acquired apraxia of speech: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knollman-Porter, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is an acquired adult neurogenic communication disorder that often occurs following stroke. The purpose of this article is to review current research studies addressing the diagnostic and therapeutic management of AOS. Traditional definitions and characteristics are compared with current features that assist in the differential diagnosis of AOS. Prognostic indicators are reviewed in addition to how neuroplasticity may impact treatment in chronic AOS. Treatment techniques discussed include the articulatory kinematic approach (AKA), use of augmentative/alternative communication devices, intersystemic facilitation/reorganization, and constraint-induced therapy. Finally, the need to address functional communication through support groups, outside the therapeutic environment, is discussed.

  2. Acquired Methemoglobinemia - A Sporadic Holi Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masavkar, Sanjeevani Satish; Mauskar, Anupama; Patwardhan, Gaurav; Bhat, Vasudeva; Manglani, Mamta V

    2017-06-15

    To study clinical profile and outcome in patients with methemoglobinemia following exposure to toxic colors during Holi festival. This retrospective study included 112 children (5 to 12 years) admitted with methemoglobinemia after playing Holi. Clinical and treatment details were reviewed. The common symptoms were giddiness, vomiting and headache. Treatment included thorough skin wash, intravenous fluid and methylene blue in 111 children. Age 7-9 and > 11 years, vomiting, giddiness, cyanosis, PaO2 < 80 mm Hg and oxygen saturation < 95% were associated with higher need for methylene blue. All children had a good outcome. Timely diagnosis and management of acquired methemoglobinemia can save lives.

  3. TAFRO Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, Takuro; Sato, Yasuharu

    2018-02-01

    TAFRO syndrome is a newly recognized variant of idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD) that involves a constellation of syndromes: thrombocytopenia (T), anasarca (A), fever (F), reticulin fibrosis (R), and organomegaly (O). Thrombocytopenia and severe anasarca accompanied by relatively low serum immunoglobulin levels are characteristic clinical findings of TAFRO syndrome that are not present in iMCD-not otherwise specified (iMCD-NOS). Lymph node biopsy is recommended to exclude other diseases and to diagnose TAFRO syndrome, which reveals characteristic histopathological findings similar to hyaline vascular-type CD. TAFRO syndrome follows a more aggressive course, compared with iMCD-NOS, and there is no standard treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Electrical Signaling, Photosynthesis and Systemic Acquired Acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Szechyńska-Hebda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrical signaling in higher plants is required for the appropriate intracellular and intercellular communication, stress responses, growth and development. In this review, we have focus on recent findings regarding the electrical signaling, as a major regulator of the systemic acquired acclimation (SAA and the systemic acquired resistance (SAR. The electric signaling on its own cannot confer the required specificity of information to trigger SAA and SAR, therefore, we have also discussed a number of other mechanisms and signaling systems that can operate in combination with electric signaling. We have emphasized the interrelation between ionic mechanism of electrical activity and regulation of photosynthesis, which is intrinsic to a proper induction of SAA and SAR. In a special way, we have summarized the role of non-photochemical quenching and its regulator PsbS. Further, redox status of the cell, calcium and hydraulic waves, hormonal circuits and stomatal aperture regulation have been considered as components of the signaling. Finally, a model of light-dependent mechanisms of electrical signaling propagation has been presented together with the systemic regulation of light-responsive genes encoding both, ion channels and proteins involved in regulation of their activity. Due to space limitations, we have not addressed many other important aspects of hormonal and ROS signaling, which were presented in a number of recent excellent reviews.

  5. Acquired pulmonary artery stenosis in four dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scansen, Brian A; Schober, Karsten E; Bonagura, John D; Smeak, Daniel D

    2008-04-15

    4 dogs with acquired pulmonary artery stenosis (PAS) were examined for various clinical signs. One was a mixed-breed dog with congenital valvular PAS that subsequently developed peripheral PAS, one was a Golden Retriever with pulmonary valve fibrosarcoma, one was a Pembroke Welsh Corgi in which the left pulmonary artery had inadvertently been ligated during surgery for correction of patent ductus arteriosus, and one was a Boston Terrier with a heart-base mass compressing the pulmonary arteries. All 4 dogs were evaluated with 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography to characterize the nature and severity of the stenoses; other diagnostic tests were also performed. The mixed-breed dog with valvular and peripheral PAS was euthanized, surgical resection of the pulmonic valve mass was performed in the Golden Retriever, corrective surgery was performed on the Pembroke Welsh Corgi with left pulmonary artery ligation, and the Boston Terrier with the heart-base mass was managed medically. Acquired PAS in dogs may manifest as a clinically silent heart murmur, syncope, or right-sided heart failure. The diagnosis is made on the basis of imaging findings, particularly results of 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. Treatment may include surgical, interventional, or medical modalities and is targeted at resolving the inciting cause.

  6. Software for Acquiring Image Data for PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Cheung, H. M.; Kressler, Brian

    2003-01-01

    PIV Acquisition (PIVACQ) is a computer program for acquisition of data for particle-image velocimetry (PIV). In the PIV system for which PIVACQ was developed, small particles entrained in a flow are illuminated with a sheet of light from a pulsed laser. The illuminated region is monitored by a charge-coupled-device camera that operates in conjunction with a data-acquisition system that includes a frame grabber and a counter-timer board, both installed in a single computer. The camera operates in "frame-straddle" mode where a pair of images can be obtained closely spaced in time (on the order of microseconds). The frame grabber acquires image data from the camera and stores the data in the computer memory. The counter/timer board triggers the camera and synchronizes the pulsing of the laser with acquisition of data from the camera. PIVPROC coordinates all of these functions and provides a graphical user interface, through which the user can control the PIV data-acquisition system. PIVACQ enables the user to acquire a sequence of single-exposure images, display the images, process the images, and then save the images to the computer hard drive. PIVACQ works in conjunction with the PIVPROC program which processes the images of particles into the velocity field in the illuminated plane.

  7. Knowledge transfer process of Brazilian multinationals: comparing acquired subsidiaries to the greenfield ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Bertoia Silva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to explore the knowledge transfer process between the subsidiaries and the headquarter of Brazilian multinationals, and to identify the most used mechanisms for transferring knowledge. This paper also aims to point out existing barriers in this process, comparing acquired subsidiaries to the greenfield ones. International studies have shown differences in the process of knowledge transfer due to the origin of foreign units (entry mode. We surveyed in 2006 and 2007 a sample of 66 Brazilian subsidiaries of multinationals with overseas activities. As a result, the knowledge transfer from the headquarter to the subsidiary has occurred through meetings with top executives and the reception of Brazilian executives in both types of units. The barriers to knowledge transfer are bland, being clearer in acquired subsidiaries. Cultural resistance is the most prominent. When we focus on the acquired units, the hierarchical structure is seen as a barrier, probably reflecting the centralized attitude by the headquarters. At the same time, the lack of incentives for sharing knowledge is more evident in greenfield units. Also, the syndrome of not invented here is a perceived barrier by acquired units.

  8. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Benefits Observed in Bone Marrow Failure and Acquired Aplastic Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, Vivian Fonseca; Lisboa, Gustavo Sabino; Frare, Eduardo Osório

    2017-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is a type of bone marrow failure (BMF) syndrome characterized by partial or total bone marrow (BM) destruction resulting in peripheral blood (PB) pancytopenia, which is the reduction in the number of red blood cells (RBC) and white blood cells (WBC), as well as platelets (PLT). The first-line treatment option of AA is given by hematopoietic stem cell (HSCs) transplant and/or immunosuppressive (IS) drug administration. Some patients did not respond to the treatment and remain pancytopenic following IS drugs. The studies are in progress to test the efficacy of adoptive cellular therapies as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which confer low immunogenicity and are reliable allogeneic transplants in refractory severe aplastic anemia (SAA) cases. Moreover, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) constitute an essential component of the hematopoietic niche, responsible for stimulating and enhancing the proliferation of HSCs by secreting regulatory molecules and cytokines, providing stimulus to natural BM microenvironment for hematopoiesis. This review summarizes scientific evidences of the hematopoiesis improvements after MSC transplant, observed in acquired AA/BMF animal models as well as in patients with acquired AA. Additionally, we discuss the direct and indirect contribution of MSCs to the pathogenesis of acquired AA. PMID:29333168

  9. Goldenhar syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Goldenhar syndrome is a syndrome of complex structures developing from first and second branchial arches during blastogenesis. The etiology of this rare disease is not fully understood, as it has shown itself variable genetically and of unclear causes. The disorder is characterized by a wide spectrum of symptoms and physical features that may vary greatly in range and severity from case to case. Here we present a unique case of Goldenhar syndrome with absence of left condyle, hypoplasia of the zygomatic bone, no pneumatization of the mastoid process, underdeveloped mandible, bifid tongue and the skin tags in the preauricular area.

  10. Cowden syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Prakash S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowden syndrome or multiple hamartoma syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition with variable expressions that result mainly from mutation in the PTEN gene on arm 10q. It is characterized by multiple hamartomatous neoplasms of the skin, oral mucosa, gastrointestinal tract, bones, CNS, eyes, and genitourinary tract. Mucocutaneous features include trichilemmomas, oral mucosal papillomatosis, acral keratosis, and palmoplantar keratosis. Here we present a case of Cowden syndrome in a 14-year-old female patient with the chief complaint of multiple oral papillomatous lesions.

  11. Costello syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukara J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Costello syndrome is a rare, distinctive, multiple congenital anomaly syndrome, characterized by soft, loose skin with deep palmar and plantar creases, loose joints, distinctive coarse facial features and skeletal and cardiac abnormalities. The affected patients have a predisposition to develop malignancy, developmental delays and mental retardation. Recently, a 7-year-old male child born to normal nonconsanguineous parents presented to us with abnormal facial features, arrhythmia, mitral valve dysfunction and growth retardation. His cutaneous examination revealed lax and pigmented skin over hands and feet with deep creases, acanthosis nigricans and short curly hairs. Its differentiation from other syndromes with similar clinical features is discussed in this article.

  12. Community-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess: an emerging infection in Ireland and Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, R

    2013-02-05

    INTRODUCTION: Klebsiella pneumoniae has emerged as a predominant cause of community-acquired mono-microbial pyogenic liver abscess. This was first described in Taiwan and has been widely reported in Asia. This infectious entity has been described in Europe, with single case reports predominating. METHODS: We present three cases in one year from our institution in Ireland and review the European literature to date. RESULTS\\/CONCLUSION: Klebsiella pneumoniae invasive liver abscess syndrome is now emerging in Europe and notably is not restricted to individuals of Asian descent.

  13. Dendritic ion channelopathy in acquired epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolos, Nicholas P.; Johnston, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Summary Ion channel dysfunction or “channelopathy” is a proven cause of epilepsy in the relatively uncommon genetic epilepsies with Mendelian inheritance. But numerous examples of acquired channelopathy in experimental animal models of epilepsy following brain injury have also been demonstrated. Our understanding of channelopathy has grown due to advances in electrophysiology techniques that have allowed the study of ion channels in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons in cortex and hippocampus. The apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons comprise the vast majority of neuronal surface membrane area, and thus the majority of the neuronal ion channel population. Investigation of dendritic ion channels has demonstrated remarkable plasticity in ion channel localization and biophysical properties in epilepsy, many of which produce hyperexcitability and may contribute to the development and maintenance of the epileptic state. Here we review recent advances in dendritic physiology and cell biology, and their relevance to epilepsy. PMID:23216577

  14. Merge or Acquire - A Strategic Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awadhesh Pratap SINGH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Merger or acquisition is always a long-debated topic in the field of Strategy and Finance from a long time. This article proposes a strategic framework using five steps process to deal with this issue. The step one defines the objective of merger or acquisition. Second step deals with SWOT analysis. Step three follows the framework proposed by Dyer JH et. al (2004 to decide on when to ally and when to acquire. Step four applies Parenting Fit matrix. Finally, the fifth and final step carried out the valuation to take a call on the price for acquisition. All along this journey, the paper takes up a relevant example of Bank of America’s acquisition to Merrill Lynch and concludes.

  15. Prevention of hospital-acquired hyponatraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunøe, Mathilde; Overgaard-Steensen, C

    2015-01-01

    for prevention of hospital-acquired hyponatraemia is an understanding of what determines plasma sodium concentration (P-[Na(+) ]) in the individual patient. P-[Na(+) ] is determined by balances of water and cations according to Edelman. This paper discusses the mechanisms influencing water and cation balances....... In the hospitalised patient, non-osmotic antidiuretic hormone secretion is frequent and results in a reduced renal electrolyte-free water clearance (EFWC). This condition puts the patient at risk of hyponatraemia upon infusion of fluids that are hypotonic such as 5% glucose, Darrow-glucose, NaKglucose and 0.45% Na......Cl in 5% glucose. It is suggested that individualised fluid therapy includes the following: Firstly, bolus therapy with Ringer-acetate/Ringer-lactate/0.9% NaCl in the hypovolaemic patient to minimise the risk of fluid under-/overload. Secondly, P-[Na(+) ] should be monitored together with the balances...

  16. Monitoring Agitated Behavior After acquired Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadal, Lena; Mortensen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbaek

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the onset, duration, intensity, and nursing shift variation of agitated behavior in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI) at a rehabilitation hospital. Design: Prospective descriptive study. Methods: A total of 11 patients with agitated behavior were included. Agitated...... behavior was registered with the Agitated Behavior Scale (ABS). The nurse or therapist allocated the individual patient assessed ABS during each shift. Intensity of agitated behavior was tested using exact test. A within-subject shift effect was analyzed with repeated-measure ANOVA. Findings: The onset...... of agitated behavior was at a median of 14 (1–28) days from admission. Seven patients remained agitated beyond 3 weeks from onset. Severe intensity of agitation was observed in 86 of 453 nursing shifts. Differences in agitated behavior between day, evening, and night shifts were found, F(2.20) = 7.90, p...

  17. Multiple myeloma associated with acquired cutis laxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S Y; Maguire, R F

    1980-08-01

    Acquired cutis laxa is a rare disorder characterized by diffuse laxity of the skin and loss of connective tissue support with involvement of the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, pelvic organs, and aorta. The case report presented herein describes a forty-six year old woman with multiple myeloma and cutis laxa. Her history included several severe allergic reactions and the gradual development of lax skin, loss of connective tissue support throughout the body, and emphysema. At autopsy, multiple myeloma, diffuse laxity of the skin, and panacinar emphysema were found. The amount of elastic fiber in the skin, lungs, and aorta was decreased and showed abnormal fragmentation. Results of direct immunofluorescence study demonstrated IgG bound to dermal elastic fibers. Speculation regarding an immunologic etiology of the elastic tissue abnormality is presented herein.

  18. Contemporary Management of Adult Acquired Buried Penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, M S; Gallegos, M A; Santucci, R A

    2018-04-06

    In 2014, The World Health Organization reported that 1.9 billion adults, 39% of the population, were overweight or obese [1]. Unlike most complications of obesity, adult acquired buried penis is an uncomfortable topic which may be overlooked. Patients are often encouraged to lose weight, but this is futile. Simple weight loss will not cure buried penis, as it is a multifactorial condition caused by a combination of: a) overhanging escutcheon from overweight, b) lichen sclerosus, which often contracts and destroys the penile shaft skin, and c) loss of normal penile shaft attachments to the penile skin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Synesthetic colors for Japanese late acquired graphemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Michiko; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

    2012-06-01

    Determinants of synesthetic color choice for the Japanese logographic script, Kanji, were studied. The study investigated how synesthetic colors for Kanji characters, which are usually acquired later in life than other types of graphemes in Japanese language (phonetic characters called Hiragana and Katakana, and Arabic digits), are influenced by linguistic properties such as phonology, orthography, and meaning. Of central interest was a hypothesized generalization process from synesthetic colors for graphemes, learned prior to acquisition of Kanji, to Kanji characters learned later. Results revealed that color choices for Kanji characters depend on meaning and phonological information. Some results suggested that colors are generalized from Hiragana characters and Arabic digits to Kanji characters via phonology and meaning, respectively. Little influence of orthographic information was observed. The findings and approach of this study contributes to a clarification of the mechanism underlying grapheme-color synesthesia, especially in terms of its relationship to normal language processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Time dysperception perspective for acquired brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica ePiras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distortions of time perception are presented by a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we survey timing abilities in clinical populations with acquired brain injuries in key cerebral areas recently implicated in human studies of timing. We purposely analyzed the complex relationship between cognitive and contextual factors involved in time estimation, as to characterize the correlation between timed and other cognitive behaviors in each group. We assume that interval timing is a solid construct to study cognitive dysfunctions following brain injury, as timing performance is a sensitive metric of information processing, while temporal cognition has the potential of influencing a wide range of cognitive processes. Moreover, temporal performance is a sensitive assay of damage to the underlying neural substrate after a brain insult. Further research in neurological and psychiatric patients will definitively answer the question of whether time distortions are manifestations of cognitive and behavioral symptoms of brain damage and definitively clarify their mechanisms.

  1. Mortality predictors in community-acquired pneumonia | Tanimowo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acquired pneumonia to themedicalwards of Ladoke Akintola University ofTeaching Hospital between Jan. 2003 andDec. 2005. The case notes of 65 patients admitted for community-acquired pneumoniawere studiedwith respect to their admission ...

  2. Reye Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now What Is Reye’s Syndrome? ...

  3. Alagille Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Alagille Syndrome Back Alagille ...

  4. Turner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Failure to begin sexual changes expected during puberty Sexual development that "stalls" during teenage years Early end to menstrual cycles not due to pregnancy For most women with Turner syndrome, inability to ...

  5. [Refeeding syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševela, Stanislav; Novák, František; Kazda, Antonín; Brodská, Helena

    Despite being known more than 60 years, refeeding syndrome (RS) still bears many uncertainties. For example, its definition is not clear and definite, and the attitude to it varies from the complete neglect to over-prevention.The term "refeeding syndrome" refers to electrolyte and metabolic changes occurring in malnourished patients after the readministration of nutrition. These changes concern especially to phosphates and ions. Potassium, magnesium, naturism and fluids balance are involved. The changes lead to cell energetic metabolism and electric potential disturbances, with related clinical symptoms.Fully developed refeeding syndrome is quite rare; nevertheless it can be fatal for the patient. However, even its development can lead to many complications increasing the patient's morbidity and the length of stay in the hospital. Yet the refeeding syndrome is more or less predictable and if kept in mind also preventable.The aim of this article is to get the reader to know more about this metabolic phenomenon and possible attitudes towards it.

  6. Cockayne syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karikkineth, Ajoy C; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Fivenson, Elayne

    2017-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a disorder characterized by a variety of clinical features including cachectic dwarfism, severe neurological manifestations including microcephaly and cognitive deficits, pigmentary retinopathy, cataracts, sensorineural deafness, and ambulatory and feeding difficulties...

  7. Alagille Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  8. Reye Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  9. Turner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... crowding, and osteoporosis (brittle bones). Because of their physical conditions, health concerns, and infertility, some girls and women with TS may have low self- esteem, anxiety, or depression. How is Turner syndrome diagnosed? Physical features may ...

  10. Cushing's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... person cured of Cushing’s syndrome might have some memory loss and slight mental decline. But the change is ... Categories: Family Health, Infants and Toddlers, Kids and Teens, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: acth, adenomas, hormone, sickness September ...

  11. Levator Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abscess Anorectal Fistula Foreign Objects in the Rectum Hemorrhoids Levator Syndrome Pilonidal Disease Proctitis Rectal Prolapse (See ... out other painful rectal conditions (such as thrombosed hemorrhoids , fissures , or abscesses ). The physical examination is often ...

  12. Alport Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... signs and symptoms may differ, based on age, gender and inherited type of Alport syndrome. For example, ... prevention and treatment of kidney disease. The Better Business Bureau Wise Giving Alliance Charity Seal provides the ...

  13. Gilbert's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not know you have the condition until it's discovered by accident, such as when a blood test ... chemotherapy drug Some protease inhibitors used to treat HIV If you have Gilbert's syndrome, talk to your ...

  14. Potter syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter phenotype ... In Potter syndrome, the primary problem is kidney failure. The kidneys fail to develop properly as the baby is ... kidneys normally produce the amniotic fluid (as urine). Potter phenotype refers to a typical facial appearance that ...

  15. Moebius Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delays; high or cleft palate; hearing problems and speech difficulties. Children with Moebius syndrome are unable to move their eyes back and forth. Decreased numbers of muscle fibers have been reported. Deformities of the tongue, jaw, and limbs, such ...

  16. Fraser syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barisic, Ingeborg; Odak, Ljubica; Loane, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Fraser syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cryptophthalmos, cutaneous syndactyly, laryngeal, and urogenital malformations. We present a population-based epidemiological study using data provided by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) network of...

  17. Angelman Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy for seizures is usually necessary. Physical and occupational therapies, communication therapy, and behavioral therapies are important in allowing individuals with Angelman syndrome to reach their maximum developmental potential. × Treatment There ...

  18. Joubert Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CEP290 . View Full Definition Treatment Treatment for Joubert syndrome is symptomatic and supportive. Infant stimulation and physical, occupational, and speech therapy may benefit some children. Infants with abnormal breathing ...

  19. Zellweger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... swallow. Some babies will be born with glaucoma, retinal degeneration, and impaired hearing. Jaundice and gastrointestinal bleeding also may occur. Treatment There is no cure for Zellweger syndrome, nor ...

  20. Nephrotic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your blood — typically with an artificial kidney machine (dialyzer). Chronic kidney disease. Nephrotic syndrome may cause your ... opportunities Reprint Permissions A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. " ...

  1. Ohtahara Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are more often affected than girls. View Full Definition Treatment Antiepileptic drugs are used to control seizures, but are unfortunately ... Other therapies are symptomatic and supportive. × ... Definition Ohtahara syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by ...

  2. Usher Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to abnormal development of the vestibular hair cells, sensory cells that detect gravity and head movement. RP ... 3 Ben-Rebeh, I., et al. (2016). Genetic analysis of Tunisian families with Usher syndrome type 1: ...

  3. Eagle's Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro,Thaís Gonçalves; Soares,Vítor Yamashiro Rocha; Ferreira,Denise Bastos Lage; Raymundo,Igor Teixeira; Nascimento,Luiz Augusto; Oliveira,Carlos Augusto Costa Pires de

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction:?Eagle's syndrome is characterized by cervicopharyngeal signs and symptoms associated with elongation of the styloid apophysis. This elongation may occur through ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, or through growth of the apophysis due to osteogenesis triggered by a factor such as trauma. Elongation of the styloid apophysis may give rise to intense facial pain, headache, dysphagia, otalgia, buzzing sensations, and trismus. Precise diagnosis of the syndrome is diffic...

  4. Barth Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saric, Ana; Andreau, Karine; Armand, Anne-Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme tafazzin, TAZ, cause Barth syndrome (BTHS). Individuals with this X-linked multisystem disorder present cardiomyopathy (CM) (often dilated), skeletal muscle weakness, neutropenia, growth retardation, and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. Biopsies of the heart......, liver and skeletal muscle of patients have revealed mitochondrial malformations and dysfunctions. It is the purpose of this review to summarize recent results of studies on various animal or cell models of Barth syndrome, which have characterized biochemically the strong cellular defects associated...

  5. Pendred's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, M.I.; Cheema, I.A.; Qasim, G.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes Pendred's syndrome in three siblings of a consanguineous marriage, belonging to Rahimyar Khan. The children presented with deafmutism and goiters. The investigations included scintigram, perchlorate discharge test and audiometery. The perchlorate discharge was positive in index case. Bilateral sensorineural hearing defect was detected on Pure Tone Average (PTA) audiometry. Meticulous clinical and laboratory evaluation is mandatory for the detection of rare disorders like Pendred's syndrome. (author)

  6. [Poland's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, R; Sasiadek, M

    2000-08-01

    Poland's syndrome consists of the variable clinical features, but always includes unilateral aplasia of the chest wall muscles and ipsilateral anomalies of upper extremity. The incidence of Poland's syndrome, reported by different authors ranges from 1:10,000 to 1:100,000 and is observed more frequently in males than in females with the right side of the body affected more often than the left. The etiology of this syndrome is still discussed. However most of described cases were sporadic, rare familial incidence of Poland's syndrome were also presented. Therefore different etiologic factors of the Poland's syndrome are taken into account: genetic, vascular compromise during early stages of embriogenesis but also teratogenic effect of environmental xenobiotics (e.g. cigarette smoking by pregnant women). The authors present also the case of 20-years old man with inherited bilateral syndactyly with the right side aplasia of major pectoralis muscle and face asymmetry. The familial history was negative in respect to the features, associated with Poland's syndrome.

  7. Preschoolers Acquire General Knowledge by Sharing in Pretense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar…

  8. 7 CFR 1779.90 - Disposition of acquired property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Disposition of acquired property. (a) General. When the lender acquires title to the collateral and the final... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of acquired property. 1779.90 Section... develop a plan to fully protect the collateral, and the lender must dispose of the collateral without...

  9. Utilidade da teoria de autocuidado na assistência ao portador do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/ Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida Utilidad de la teoría del autocuidado en la asistencia al portador del Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Humana/Síndrome de la Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida Utility of the self-care theory to assist the bearer of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Maria Moura Barroso

    2010-01-01

    utilidad de la Teoría de Orem para la práctica, investigación, educación y administración.OBJECTIVE: To analyze, within Orem's general theory, the utility of the Self-care Theory to assist patients who carries the Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS, according to the standard model to analyze theories. METHODS: Literature review conducted in the databases LILACS, BDENF and MEDLINE with the keywords: self-care, Orem and HIV/AIDS. It was utilized the Meleis's analysis model of theories, focusing on the component of usefulness. It was identified a study that used Orem's Theory on patients who carries the HIV/AIDS. RESULTS: The theory proved useful to: guide the systematization of nursing care on patients with HIV/AIDS; build assessment and guidance tools; measure the quality of care; verify models; classify patients; and, as an aid to support education. CONCLUSION: The Meleis model allowed to understand the usefulness of Orem's theory into practice, research, education and administration.

  10. Diagnósticos de enfermagem em pacientes com o Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/ Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida em assistência ambulatorial Diagnósticos de enfermería en pacientes con el Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Humana/Síndrome de la Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida en asistencia de ambulatorio Nursing diagnoses in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in outpatient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Holanda da Cunha

    2010-01-01

    identify nursing diagnoses in carriers of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS in outpatient care. METHODS: This is a descriptive study performed through the application of a questionnaire based on the theory of Orem Self-care. The sample consisted of 51 patients treated at the clinic of a public hospital in the city of Fortaleza-CE. RESULTS: 17 nursing diagnoses were identified, highlighting: risk of infection, sexual dysfunction, self-care deficit for food and ineffective management of therapeutic regimen. CONCLUSION: The nursing diagnoses obtained identified the main problems presented by the carriers of HIV/AIDS, verifying deficits in self-care and health education. This study contributes to guide the nursing interventions to be appropriated and targeted to existing needs.

  11. Compreendendo o ser familiar de criança com Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/ Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida pelo olhar da complexidade Comprendiendo al familiar de un niño afectado por el Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Humana/Síndrome de la Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida, bajo la perspectiva de la complejidad Understanding the family member of a child affected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, from the perspective of complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Maria Barbosa de Freitas

    2010-10-01

    comprensión que abarca varios factores (biológicos, psicológicos, sociales, espirituales, relacionados con la enfermedad y con el enfermo de una actitud sobre el cuidado que debe ser enfocada en el ser humano - un ser único, complejo y multidimensional.OBJECTIVE: To understand the significance of a family member of a child with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome from the perspective of complexity. METHODS: This is a qualitative and exploratory study; data were collected between July and November 2008, through interviews with five family members of children with AIDS, who were sheltered in an institution of support. RESULTS: The meaning of statements were coded and analyzed, resulting in three categories: experiencing the order, disorder and the organization of a family member of a child with AIDS; dialoguing with the assurance and doubt of disclosing the diagnosis to a child with AIDS; and, facing the limits of unknown, decadence, live and death. CONCLUSION: It was revealed that being a family member and caring for a child with AIDS, is a complex process that requires an understanding of multiple factors (such as: biological, psychological, social, spiritual, and the ones related to the disease and the patient and the attitude of caring focused on the human being - a unique being, complex and multidimensional.

  12. What is Metabolic Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intramural Research Home / Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic Syndrome Also known as What Is Metabolic syndrome ... metabolic risk factors to be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic Risk Factors A Large Waistline Having a large ...

  13. Loeys-Dietz Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the signs and symptoms of Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Marfan syndrome is different from Loeys-Dietz syndrome in that the gene mutation which causes Marfan syndrome is in fibrillin-1 (FBN-1), a protein ...

  14. Milk-alkali syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium-alkali syndrome; Cope syndrome; Burnett syndrome; Hypercalcemia; Calcium metabolism disorder ... Milk-alkali syndrome is almost always caused by taking too many calcium supplements, usually in the form of calcium carbonate. Calcium ...

  15. Exogenous Cushing syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing syndrome - corticosteroid induced; Corticosteroid-induced Cushing syndrome; Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome ... Cushing syndrome is a disorder that occurs when your body has a higher than normal level of the hormone ...

  16. Turner Syndrome: Other FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other FAQs Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Turner Syndrome: Other FAQs Basic information for topics, such as " ... been diagnosed with Turner syndrome. Now what? Is Turner syndrome inherited? Turner syndrome is usually not inherited, but ...

  17. Community-acquired pneumonia; Ambulant erworbene Pneumonien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poetter-Lang, S.; Herold, C.J. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Wien (Austria)

    2017-01-15

    The diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often not possible based only on the clinical symptoms and biochemical parameters. For every patient with the suspicion of CAP, a chest radiograph in two planes should be carried out. Additionally, a risk stratification for the decision between outpatient therapy or hospitalization is recommended. Based on the evaluation of the different radiological patterns as well as their extent and distribution, a rough allocation to so-called pathogen groups as well as a differentiation between viral and bacterial infections are possible; however, because different pathogens cause different patterns an accurate correlation is not feasible by relying purely on imaging. The radiological findings serve as proof or exclusion of pneumonia and can also be used to evaluate the extent of the disease (e.g. monolobular, multilobular, unilateral or bilateral). In cases of prolonged disease, suspicion of complications (e.g. pleural effusion or empyema, necrotizing pneumonia or abscess) or comorbid conditions (e.g. underlying pulmonary or mediastinal diseases) computed tomography is an important diagnostic tool in addition to chest radiography. Ultrasound is often used to diagnose pleural processes (e.g. parapneumonic effusion or pleural empyema). (orig.) [German] Anhand der klinischen Symptome und laborchemischen Befundkonstellation alleine ist es oft nicht moeglich, die Diagnose einer ambulant erworbenen Pneumonie (''community-acquired pneumonia'', CAP) zu stellen. Bei jedem Patienten mit Verdacht auf CAP sollte eine Roentgenthoraxaufnahme in 2 Ebenen angefertigt werden. Weiter muss eine Risikostratifizierung im Sinne der Entscheidung ambulante Therapie vs. Hospitalisierung erfolgen. Anhand der Analyse radiologischer Muster sowie deren Verteilung und Ausdehnung koennen eine grobe Zuordnung zu sogenannten Erregergruppen sowie eine Differenzierung zwischen viralen und bakteriellen Infektionen gelingen. Da

  18. Acquired ventricular septal defect due to infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi E Durden

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired intracardiac left-to-right shunts are rare occurrences. Chest trauma and myocardial infection are well-known causes of acquired ventricular septal defect (VSD. There have been several case reports describing left ventricle to right atrium shunt after infective endocarditis (IE. We present here a patient found to have an acquired VSD secondary to IE of the aortic and tricuspid valves in the setting of a known bicuspid aortic valve. This is the first case reported of acquired VSD in a pediatric patient in the setting of IE along with literature review of acquired left-to-right shunts.

  19. Community-acquired pneumonia among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirall, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Bello, Salvador

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have left absolutely no doubt that tobacco increases susceptibility to bacterial lung infection, even in passive smokers. This relationship also shows a dose-response effect, since the risk reduces spectacularly 10 years after giving up smoking, returning to the level of non-smokers. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative microorganism responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most frequently associated with smoking, particularly in invasive pneumococcal disease and septic shock. It is not clear how it acts on the progress of pneumonia, but there is evidence to suggest that the prognosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is worse. In CAP caused by Legionella pneumophila, it has also been observed that smoking is the most important risk factor, with the risk rising 121% for each pack of cigarettes smoked a day. Tobacco use may also favor diseases that are also known risk factors for CAP, such as periodontal disease and upper respiratory viral infections. By way of prevention, while giving up smoking should always be proposed, the use of the pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended, regardless of the presence of other comorbidities. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Acquiring Synaesthesia: Insights from Training Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eRothen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Synaesthesia denotes a condition of remarkable individual differences in experience characterized by specific additional experiences in response to normal sensory input. Synaesthesia seems to (i run in families which suggests a genetic component, (ii is associated with marked structural and functional neural differences, and (iii is usually reported to exist from early childhood. Hence, synaesthesia is generally regarded as a congenital phenomenon. However, most synaesthetic experiences are triggered by cultural artefacts (e.g., letters, musical sounds. Evidence exists to suggest that synaesthetic experiences are triggered by the conceptual representation of their inducer stimuli. Cases were identified for which the specific synaesthetic associations are related to prior experiences and large scale studies show that grapheme-colour associations in synaesthesia are not completely random. Hence, a learning component is inherently involved in the development of specific synaesthetic associations. Researchers have hypothesized that associative learning is the critical mechanism. Recently, it has become of scientific and public interest if synaesthetic experiences may be acquired by the means of associative training procedures and whether the gains of these trainings are associated with similar cognitive benefits as genuine synaesthetic experiences. In order to shed light on these issues and inform synaesthesia researchers and the general interested public alike, we provide a comprehensive literature review on developmental aspects of synaesthesia and specific training procedures in non-synaesthetes. Under the light of a clear working definition of synaesthesia, we come to the conclusion that synaesthesia can potentially be learned by the appropriate training.

  1. Identification of acquired antimicrobial resistance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zankari, Ea; Hasman, Henrik; Cosentino, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    ObjectivesIdentification of antimicrobial resistance genes is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms and the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. As the costs of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) continue to decline, it becomes increasingly available in routine diagnostic laborato......ObjectivesIdentification of antimicrobial resistance genes is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms and the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. As the costs of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) continue to decline, it becomes increasingly available in routine diagnostic...... laboratories and is anticipated to substitute traditional methods for resistance gene identification. Thus, the current challenge is to extract the relevant information from the large amount of generated data.MethodsWe developed a web-based method, ResFinder that uses BLAST for identification of acquired...... antimicrobial resistance genes in whole-genome data. As input, the method can use both pre-assembled, complete or partial genomes, and short sequence reads from four different sequencing platforms. The method was evaluated on 1862 GenBank files containing 1411 different resistance genes, as well as on 23 de...

  2. The body talks, moves and acquires identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Calero

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The body is the main communication tool in the child, gesture and posture of those around you let you understand their environment; from birth the child begins a process of self-recognition to be strengthened in different social spheres from personal experiences, as the emission of sounds with your body, body language and play a fundamental part of your child’s condition.For the child to move in the surrounding medium is what is the most important, as this experience allows the child not only to know his or her body, but also to communicate and form his or her own identity from the personal and social relationships. It is for this reason that the recognition of his body and his skills make fundamental part of this experience is called movement. From the movement of his body the child expresses, lives and acquires skills that enable him or her to understand their environment and so develop themselves physically, cognitively and socially using basic tools of their physical structure, the gesture and posture in different emotional manifestations.

  3. Acquiring energy savings in manufactured housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1991, the Northwest utilities faced a complex situation. They needed new sources of electrical power to avoid future deficits. A significant block of energy savings was available in the manufactured housing sector in the form of energy savings from increased insulation to new manufactured homes. The manufacturers were interested in saving the electricity in the homes, but would only deal with the utility sector as a whole. Half of the homes targeted were sited in investor-owned utility (IOU) service territories, and half in the public sector made up of utilities that purchased some or all of their electricity from the Bonneville Power Administration. Utilities agreed to acquire energy from manufacturers In the form of thermal efficiency measures specified by the Bonneville Power Administration. The program that resulted from over one year of negotiations was called the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program, or MAP. Manufacturers, the utilities, State Energy Offices, the Northwest Power Planning Council and Bonneville all worked closely and with tenacity to build the program that went into effect on April 1, 1992, and should save the region between 7 and 9 megawatts, enough energy to supply 11,000 homes in the Northwest

  4. Antibiotic stewardship in community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viasus, Diego; Vecino-Moreno, Milly; De La Hoz, Juan M; Carratalà, Jordi

    2017-04-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) continues to be associated with significant mortality and morbidity. As with other infectious diseases, in recent years there has been a marked increase in resistance to the antibiotics commonly used against the pathogens that cause CAP. Antimicrobial stewardship denotes coordinated interventions to improve and measure the appropriate use of antibiotics by encouraging the selection of optimal drug regimens. Areas covered: Several elements can be applied to antibiotic stewardship strategies for CAP in order to maintain or improve patient outcomes. In this regard, antibiotic de-escalation, duration of antibiotic treatment, adherence to CAP guidelines recommendations about empirical treatment, and switching from intravenous to oral antibiotic therapy may each be relevant in this context. Antimicrobial stewardship strategies, such as prospective audit with intervention and feedback, clinical pathways, and dedicated multidisciplinary teams, that have included some of these elements have demonstrated improvements in antimicrobial use for CAP without negatively affecting clinical outcomes. Expert commentary: Although there are a limited number of randomized clinical studies addressing antimicrobial stewardship strategies in CAP, there is evidence that antibiotic stewardship initiatives can be securely applied, providing benefits to both healthcare systems and patients.

  5. Acquired agranulocytosis with granulocyte specific cytotoxic autoantibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, J; Goeken, N E; Thompson, J S; Dick, F R; Gingrich, R D

    1979-05-01

    Multiple infections and severe neutropenia were found in a previously healthy 29 year old man with no history of similar syndromes in the family, drug ingestion or exposure to environmental toxins. There was no evidence at the time of presentation of diseases previously associated with agranulocytosis (e.g., neoplasia, thyrotoxicosis, chronic infection, collagen-vascular disease or leukoagglutinating antibody). His serum contained a nonagglutinating, complement-dependent, cytotoxic antibody, however, reactive with peripheral blood granulocytes from 35 per cent of normal donors. The neutropenia was not affected by steroids but resolved promptly after splenectomy. Microscopic examination of the spleen revealed ingestion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes by splenic macrophages. Family studies indicated that the target antigen was non-HLA and that the antibody was not absorbed by lymphocytes or platelets. We conclude that the agranulocytosis was autoimmune in origin and suggest that similar myeloid-specific immune responses could influence granulocyte tranfusion and bone marrow transplantation by alloimmune "rejection" that would not be avoided by matching only for HLA specificities.

  6. Simultaneous Presentation of Duane Retraction Syndrome and Coats' Disease: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sharifi

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: The occurrence of two different congenital and acquired ocular diseases is rare. This is the first simultaneous presentation of Duane syndrome and Coats' disease ever to be reported in a young patient.

  7. Acquired versus Non-Acquired Subsidiaries - Which Entry Mode do Parent Firms Prefer

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Kalkbrenner

    2010-01-01

    Despite the economic importance of international foreign direct investment (FDI) flows, investment decisions of multinational firms are not well understood. A multinational firm can establish a subsidiary in a foreign country through greenfield investment or through acquiring an existing firm in the target country. The goal of this paper is to shed some light on the determinants of foreign market entry modes. In particular to analyze the systematic variation in the mode choice of FDI, namely ...

  8. Pfeiffer syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fryns Jean-Pierre

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pfeiffer syndrome is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that associates craniosynostosis, broad and deviated thumbs and big toes, and partial syndactyly on hands and feet. Hydrocephaly may be found occasionally, along with severe ocular proptosis, ankylosed elbows, abnormal viscera, and slow development. Based on the severity of the phenotype, Pfeiffer syndrome is divided into three clinical subtypes. Type 1 "classic" Pfeiffer syndrome involves individuals with mild manifestations including brachycephaly, midface hypoplasia and finger and toe abnormalities; it is associated with normal intelligence and generally good outcome. Type 2 consists of cloverleaf skull, extreme proptosis, finger and toe abnormalities, elbow ankylosis or synostosis, developmental delay and neurological complications. Type 3 is similar to type 2 but without a cloverleaf skull. Clinical overlap between the three types may occur. Pfeiffer syndrome affects about 1 in 100,000 individuals. The disorder can be caused by mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor genes FGFR-1 or FGFR-2. Pfeiffer syndrome can be diagnosed prenatally by sonography showing craniosynostosis, hypertelorism with proptosis, and broad thumb, or molecularly if it concerns a recurrence and the causative mutation was found. Molecular genetic testing is important to confirm the diagnosis. Management includes multiple-staged surgery of craniosynostosis. Midfacial surgery is performed to reduce the exophthalmos and the midfacial hypoplasia.

  9. Gingival fibromatosis with hypertrichosis syndrome: Case series of rare syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha Balaji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival fibromatosis with hypertrichosis syndrome is an extremely rare genetic condition characterized by profound overgrowth of hair and gums, as well as other variable features. Gingival fibromatosis is characterized by a large increase in the gingival dimension which extends above the dental crowns, covering them partially or completely. They were found to have a genetic origin, may also occur in isolation or be part of a syndrome, or acquired origin, due to specific drugs administered systemically. Congenital generalized hypertrichosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases with continuing excessive growth of terminal hair without androgenic stimulation. It has informally been called werewolf syndrome because the appearance is similar to that of a werewolf. Various syndromes have been associated with these features such as epilepsy, mental retardation, cardiomegaly, or osteochondrodysplasia. As so far very few cases have been reported in literature, we are reporting a series of three cases with management of the same. The excess gingival tissues, in these cases, were removed by conventional gingivectomy under general anesthesia. The postoperative result was uneventful and the patient's appearance improved significantly. Good esthetic result was achieved to allow patient to practice oral hygiene measures. Though this is not a serious condition clinically, psychosocial trauma cannot be neglected owing to the cosmetic disfigurement it produces.

  10. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    NBCC syndrome; Gorlin-Goltz syndrome; Basal cell nevus syndrome; BCNS; Basal cell cancer - nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome ... Nevoid basal cell carcinoma nevus syndrome is a rare genetic ... syndrome is known as PTCH ("patched"). The gene is passed down ...

  11. Next-generation systemic acquired resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Estrella; Bruce, Toby J A; Roberts, Michael R; Flors, Victor; Ton, Jurriaan

    2012-02-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a plant immune response to pathogen attack. Recent evidence suggests that plant immunity involves regulation by chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation. We investigated whether SAR can be inherited epigenetically following disease pressure by Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (PstDC3000). Compared to progeny from control-treated Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; C(1)), progeny from PstDC3000-inoculated Arabidopsis (P(1)) were primed to activate salicylic acid (SA)-inducible defense genes and were more resistant to the (hemi)biotrophic pathogens Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis and PstDC3000. This transgenerational SAR was sustained over one stress-free generation, indicating an epigenetic basis of the phenomenon. Furthermore, P(1) progeny displayed reduced responsiveness of jasmonic acid (JA)-inducible genes and enhanced susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. This shift in SA- and JA-dependent gene responsiveness was not associated with changes in corresponding hormone levels. Instead, chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that SA-inducible promoters of PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENE1, WRKY6, and WRKY53 in P(1) plants are enriched with acetylated histone H3 at lysine 9, a chromatin mark associated with a permissive state of transcription. Conversely, the JA-inducible promoter of PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 showed increased H3 triple methylation at lysine 27, a mark related to repressed gene transcription. P(1) progeny from the defense regulatory mutant non expressor of PR1 (npr1)-1 failed to develop transgenerational defense phenotypes, demonstrating a critical role for NPR1 in expression of transgenerational SAR. Furthermore, the drm1drm2cmt3 mutant that is affected in non-CpG DNA methylation mimicked the transgenerational SAR phenotype. Since PstDC3000 induces DNA hypomethylation in Arabidopsis, our results suggest that transgenerational SAR is transmitted by hypomethylated genes that direct priming

  12. How to acquire customers on the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D L; Novak, T P

    2000-01-01

    Most retailers on the Web spend more to acquire customers than they will ever get back in revenue from them. Many think that sky-high spending on marketing is necessary to stake out their share of Internet space. But is it really? How do retailers know how much to pay? Consider CDnow, which has developed a multifaceted customer-acquisition strategy that reflects a clear understanding of the economics of an on-line business. At the heart of its strategy is affiliate marketing, a concept the company pioneered. Under its BuyWeb program, anyone can put a link to CDnow on his or her Web site, and if a customer uses that link to arrive at CDnow and make a purchase, the referring site owner gets a percentage of the sale. CDnow pays no money if no sale is made, which makes the marketing program completely efficient. But CDnow didn't stop there. Being a Web store, it had complete data on the number of visitors to its site and what they bought, which it used to work out the lifetime value of an average customer. CDnow used that figure to determine how much to wager on the expensive and risky world of traditional advertising to reach a wider audience that wasn't already on-line. CDnow's experience, still a work in progress, contradicts John Wanamaker's oft-quoted lament: "I know half the money I spend on advertising is wasted, but I can never find out which half." As the CDnow example demonstrates, there is a way to find out which half really works.

  13. Clonal hematopoiesis in acquired aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Seishi

    2016-07-21

    Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) in aplastic anemia (AA) has been closely linked to the evolution of late clonal disorders, including paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)/acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which are common complications after successful immunosuppressive therapy (IST). With the advent of high-throughput sequencing of recent years, the molecular aspect of CH in AA has been clarified by comprehensive detection of somatic mutations that drive clonal evolution. Genetic abnormalities are found in ∼50% of patients with AA and, except for PIGA mutations and copy-neutral loss-of-heterozygosity, or uniparental disomy (UPD) in 6p (6pUPD), are most frequently represented by mutations involving genes commonly mutated in myeloid malignancies, including DNMT3A, ASXL1, and BCOR/BCORL1 Mutations exhibit distinct chronological profiles and clinical impacts. BCOR/BCORL1 and PIGA mutations tend to disappear or show stable clone size and predict a better response to IST and a significantly better clinical outcome compared with mutations in DNMT3A, ASXL1, and other genes, which are likely to increase their clone size, are associated with a faster progression to MDS/AML, and predict an unfavorable survival. High frequency of 6pUPD and overrepresentation of PIGA and BCOR/BCORL1 mutations are unique to AA, suggesting the role of autoimmunity in clonal selection. By contrast, DNMT3A and ASXL1 mutations, also commonly seen in CH in the general population, indicate a close link to CH in the aged bone marrow, in terms of the mechanism for selection. Detection and close monitoring of somatic mutations/evolution may help with prediction and diagnosis of clonal evolution of MDS/AML and better management of patients with AA. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  14. Nutcracker syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this case study is to highlight the symptoms of the Nutcracker Syndrome (NCS), the methods of clinical investigations and the importance of differential diagnosis. Introduction: The NCS refers to left renal vein entrapment caused by abnormal branching patterns of the superior mesenteric artery from the aorta. 1,2 Clinical case presentation: A 27 years old female presented to the emergency department with complaints of abdominal discomfort, bloating, loose bowel motions and irregular micro-haematuria. The radiologist's report indicated the findings from computed tomography examination to be consistent with anterior NCS. Discussion: In most of the NCS cases the clinical symptoms are non-specific. 3 The syndrome is caused by a vascular disorder, but its clinical manifestation can relate to a wide range of abdominal, urological, endovascular or gynaecological pathologies. 4 Conclusion: Nutcracker Syndrome is a relatively rare disease and underdiagnosed may lead to left renal vein thrombosis

  15. Compartment syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  16. Usher Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fakin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease with prevalence of 3–6/100.000 and is the most common syndrome that affects vision and hearing. Three subtypes are distinguished on the basis of different degree of hearing loss. All patients develop retinitis pigmentosa with night vision difficulties and constriction of visual field, and ultimately a decline in visual acuity and color vision. Future holds promise for gene therapy. We present a patient with typical clinical picture of Usher syndrome, who started noticing night vision problems at age 13. At age 25 he was operated on for posterior cortical cataracts. At age 34 he has only 5–10° of visual field remaining with 1.0 visual acuity in both eyes. Fundus autofluorescence imaging revealed a typical hyperautofluorescent ring on the border between normal and affected retina.

  17. Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Ikinci

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome is a combination of risk factors including common etiopathogenesis. These risk factors play different roles in occurence of atherosclerotic diseases, type 2 diabetes, and cancers. Although a compromise can not be achieved on differential diagnosis for MS, the existence of any three criterias enable to diagnose MS. These are abdominal obesity, dislipidemia (hypertrigliceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and reduced high density lipoprotein hypertension, and elevated fasting blood glucose. According to the results of Metabolic Syndrome Research (METSAR, the overall prevalence of MS in Turkey is 34%; in females 40%, and in males it is 28%. As a result of “Western” diet, and increased frequency of obesity, MS is observed in children and in adolescents both in the world and in Turkey. Resulting in chronic diseases, it is thought that the syndrome can be prevented by healthy lifestyle behaviours. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 535-540

  18. Eagle's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Thaís Gonçalves; Soares, Vítor Yamashiro Rocha; Ferreira, Denise Bastos Lage; Raymundo, Igor Teixeira; Nascimento, Luiz Augusto; Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa Pires de

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Eagle's syndrome is characterized by cervicopharyngeal signs and symptoms associated with elongation of the styloid apophysis. This elongation may occur through ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, or through growth of the apophysis due to osteogenesis triggered by a factor such as trauma. Elongation of the styloid apophysis may give rise to intense facial pain, headache, dysphagia, otalgia, buzzing sensations, and trismus. Precise diagnosis of the syndrome is difficult, and it is generally confounded by other manifestations of cervicopharyngeal pain. Objective: To describe a case of Eagle's syndrome. Case Report: A 53-year-old man reported lateral pain in his neck that had been present for 30 years. Computed tomography (CT) of the neck showed elongation and ossification of the styloid processes of the temporal bone, which was compatible with Eagle's syndrome. Surgery was performed for bilateral resection of the stylohyoid ligament by using a transoral and endoscopic access route. The patient continued to present pain laterally in the neck, predominantly on his left side. CT was performed again, which showed elongation of the styloid processes. The patient then underwent lateral cervicotomy with resection of the stylohyoid process, which partially resolved his painful condition. Final Comments: Patients with Eagle's syndrome generally have a history of chronic pain. Appropriate knowledge of this disease is necessary for adequate treatment to be provided. The importance of diagnosing this uncommon and often unsuspected disease should be emphasized, given that correct clinical-surgical treatment is frequently delayed. The diagnosis of Eagle's syndrome is clinical and radiographic, and the definitive treatment in cases of difficult-to-control pain is surgical. PMID:25992033

  19. Eagle's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro, Thaís Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eagle's syndrome is characterized by cervicopharyngeal signs and symptoms associated with elongation of the styloid apophysis. This elongation may occur through ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, or through growth of the apophysis due to osteogenesis triggered by a factor such as trauma. Elongation of the styloid apophysis may give rise to intense facial pain, headache, dysphagia, otalgia, buzzing sensations, and trismus. Precise diagnosis of the syndrome is difficult, and it is generally confounded by other manifestations of cervicopharyngeal pain. Objective: To describe a case of Eagle's syndrome. Case Report: A 53-year-old man reported lateral pain in his neck that had been present for 30 years. Computed tomography (CT of the neck showed elongation and ossification of the styloid processes of the temporal bone, which was compatible with Eagle's syndrome. Surgery was performed for bilateral resection of the stylohyoid ligament by using a transoral and endoscopic access route. The patient continued to present pain laterally in the neck, predominantly on his left side. CT was performed again, which showed elongation of the styloid processes. The patient then underwent lateral cervicotomy with resection of the stylohyoid process, which partially resolved his painful condition. Final Comments: Patients with Eagle's syndrome generally have a history of chronic pain. Appropriate knowledge of this disease is necessary for adequate treatment to be provided. The importance of diagnosing this uncommon and often unsuspected disease should be emphasized, given that correct clinical-surgical treatment is frequently delayed. The diagnosis of Eagle's syndrome is clinical and radiographic, and the definitive treatment in cases of difficult-to-control pain is surgical.

  20. Rapunzel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Wadan, Ali H.; Al-Saai, Azan S.; Abdoulgafour, Mohamed; Al-Absi, Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    An 18-year-old single female patient, presented with non specific gastrointestinal symptoms of anorexia, abdominal pain, and change in bowel habit. Clinically she was anemic, cachectic, and depressed. Abdominal examination revealed mobile epigastric mass. The scalp alopecia and endoscopy coupled by computed tomography scan, confirmed the diagnoses of trichobezoar, but it was not diagnosed as Rapunzel syndrome except after laparotomy, gastrotomy, and enterotomy. There are less than 16 cases of Rapunzel syndrome described worldwide, and this is the first case to be described in the middle east. (author)

  1. Waardenburg syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagra Sunita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Waardenburg syndrome is a rare inherited and genetically heterogenous disorder of neural crest cell development. Four distinct subtypes showing marked interfamilial and intrafamilial variability have been described. We report a girl showing constellation of congenital hearing impairment with 110 dB and 105 dB loss in right and left ear respectively, hypoplastic blue iridis, white forelock, dystopia canthorum and broad nasal root. Other affected relatives of the family, with variable features of the syndrome, have been depicted in the pedigree.

  2. Olmsted syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pramod

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Olmsted syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the combination of periorificial, keratotic plaques and bilateral palmoplantar keratoderma. New associated features are being reported. Olmsted syndrome is particularly rare in a female patient, and we report such a case in a six year-old Indian girl, who presented with keratoderma of her soles since birth and on her palms since the age of two years along with perioral and perinasal hyperkeratosis. She had sparse, light brown, thin hair. Although the psychomotor development of the child was normal until 18 months of age, the keratoderma plaques had restricted the child′s mobility after that stage.

  3. Eagle syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raina, Deepika; Gothi, Rajesh; Rajan, Sriram

    2009-01-01

    Eagle syndrome occurs due to elongation of the styloid process or calcification of the stylohyoid ligament, which then may produce a pain sensation due the pressure exerted on various structures in the head and neck. When suspected, imaging helps in identifying the abnormally elongated styloid process or the calcified ligament. In recent years, three-dimensional CT (3DCT) has proved to be valuable in these cases. We report the case of a 62-year-old man with this syndrome in whom imaging with 3DCT conclusively established the diagnosis

  4. Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Sudarshan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects mostly females. Affected females have characteristic features such as short stature, premature ovarian failure, and several other features. Oral manifestations of this condition are not much discussed in the literature. But reported literature includes teeth, palate, periodontal and salivary changes. So the aim of this review is to illustrate the general manifestations, and especially the oral manifestations of Turner syndrome and evaluate their possible management. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(4.000: 246-252

  5. Fenton's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimondi, E.; Albasini, V.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report two recent cases of Fenton's syndrome, a very rare carpal fracture-dislocation. After some anatomophysiopathological considerations and a review of the literature, a wider nosographic frame is proposed in which the entity of the dislocation of the head of capitate bone is not essential. According to both the literature and personal findings, the authors remark that this syndrome is always found in the presence of two morphological variants of the distal radioulnar joint. Finally, the authors stress the importance of a corect diagnosis of this lesion to avoid unnecessary attempts of reduction

  6. Reiter's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savant, S S; Fernandez, J C; Dhurandhar, M W; Fernandez, R J

    1979-01-01

    A case of Reiter's syndrome occurring in a young mate aged 20 years having extensive skin lesions of keratoderina blenoffhagica is presented along with a review of literature. Although urethritis was absent, other clinical and histopathological features of the cutaneous lesions led us to the diagnosis. The-possible relationship of postural psoriasis to Reiter's syndrome is discussed. Failure of the patient to respond satisfactorily to steroids, antibiotics etc, prompted the use of rnethotrexate in the case. The result was dramatic, as the patient completely recovered within ten days of starting treatment.

  7. Larsen syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mahbubul Islam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Larsen syndrome is a rare inherited disorder characterized by congenital dislocation of multiple joints along with other anomalies of heart, face, hands and bones. Larsen syndrome was first described in 1950 by Larsen, Schottstaedt and Bost. In the present report, we describe a 10 year old girl who presented with mid facial hypoplasia with depressed nasal bridge, high arched palate, bilateral talipes equinovarus and high arched feet. On examination, she had short stature (HAZ -3.5 SD with hyperextension of knee joint, fixed flexion of elbow joint. Awareness of this condition and associated complications may help in management and follow up of these patients. 

  8. Joubert syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanua, J.A.; Lopez, J.M.; Recondo, J.A.; Garcia, J.M.; Gaztanaga, R.

    1998-01-01

    Joubert syndrome is a rare malformation of the posterior fossa, mainly affecting the cerebellar vermis, which generally appears as a dysplastic lesion. Other structures of the cervico medullary junction may be involved, with accompanying brainstem hypoplasia according to neuroimaging studies. The diagnosis is usually reached during, childhood, based on a constellation of changes in the child's neurological development that are supported by the results of imaging studied. Respiratory problems are the most common signs in newborns,leading to the suspicion of the presence of this syndrome. (Author) 11 refs

  9. Lemierre's syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dwyer, D N

    2012-02-01

    Lemierre\\'s syndrome is a rare disease that results in an oropharyngeal infection, which precipitates an internal jugular vein thrombosis and metastatic infection. Fusobacterium necrophorum is an anaerobic Gram-negative bacillus and has been identified as the causative agent. We describe the case of a young girl whose presentation and diagnosis were confounded by a history of valvular heart disease. Infection of heart valves can produce many of the signs and symptoms associated with Lemierre\\'s syndrome. We describe the diagnosis, investigation and optimal management of this rare disorder.

  10. Meigs' Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, S.; Khaskheli, M.; Farooq, S.

    2006-01-01

    Meigs' syndrome is a rare clinical condition commonly considered to be associated with malignant ovarian tumour. A case of unmarried female is presented who came with a slowly increasing abdominal mass. Clinical and ultrasonic investigations revealed a mobile, solid right adenexal tumour in the lower abdomen, along with ascites and pleural effusion of the right lung. The level of CA 125 was also raised. Diagnosis of Meigs' syndrome was confirmed after surgical intervention. The tumour was successfully removed and pleural effusion disappeared 15 days after the intervention. Cytomorphologic study of both the tumour and ascitic fluid was negative for malignancy. (author)

  11. [Elsberg syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kristine Esbjerg; Knudsen, Troels Bygum

    2013-12-16

    A syndrome involving acute urinary retention in combination with sacral radiculitis and cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis was first described by the American neurosurgeon Charles Elsberg in 1931. In many instances the aetiology is herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivation from sensory neurons. In this case report we present a 34-year-old pregnant woman with previous undiagnosed sensory lumbosacral symptoms. She was hospitalized with HSV-2 meningitis and lumbosacral radiculitis but no genital rash. A week after the onset of symptoms she developed acute urinary retention, thus indicating Elsberg syndrome.

  12. Neuroimaging experience in pediatric Horner syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadom, Nadja; Rosman, N.P.; Jubouri, Shams; Trofimova, Anna; Egloff, Alexia M.; Zein, Wadih M.

    2015-01-01

    Horner syndrome in children is rare. The frequency and spectrum of malignancy as the cause of Horner syndrome in children remains unclear. Also unclear is whether the imaging work-up should include the entire oculo-sympathetic pathway or should be more targeted. In addition, the value of cross-sectional angiographic imaging in Horner syndrome is uncertain. To review imaging pathology in a cohort of children with Horner syndrome at a major academic pediatric medical center. We reviewed a 22-year period of CT and MR imaging studies in children with a clinical diagnosis of Horner syndrome referred for imaging. We found 38 patients who fulfilled study criteria of Horner syndrome and 6/38 had relevant imaging findings: 2/6 etiologies were neoplastic (congenital neuroblastoma and central astrocytoma), 1/6 had a vascular abnormality (hypoplastic carotid artery), 1/6 had maldevelopment (Chiari I malformation), and 2/6 had inflammatory/traumatic etiology (viral cervical lymphadenopathy, post jugular vein cannulation). There was a similar number of congenital and acquired pathologies. The malignancies were found at any level of the oculosympathetic pathway. There are treatable causes, including malignancies, in children presenting with Horner syndrome, which justify imaging work-up of the entire oculosympathetic pathway, unless the lesion level can be determined clinically. (orig.)

  13. Neuroimaging experience in pediatric Horner syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadom, Nadja [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Rosman, N.P. [Boston Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Neurology, Departments of Pediatrics and Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Jubouri, Shams; Trofimova, Anna; Egloff, Alexia M. [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Washington, DC (United States); Zein, Wadih M. [National Eye Institute (NEI), Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Horner syndrome in children is rare. The frequency and spectrum of malignancy as the cause of Horner syndrome in children remains unclear. Also unclear is whether the imaging work-up should include the entire oculo-sympathetic pathway or should be more targeted. In addition, the value of cross-sectional angiographic imaging in Horner syndrome is uncertain. To review imaging pathology in a cohort of children with Horner syndrome at a major academic pediatric medical center. We reviewed a 22-year period of CT and MR imaging studies in children with a clinical diagnosis of Horner syndrome referred for imaging. We found 38 patients who fulfilled study criteria of Horner syndrome and 6/38 had relevant imaging findings: 2/6 etiologies were neoplastic (congenital neuroblastoma and central astrocytoma), 1/6 had a vascular abnormality (hypoplastic carotid artery), 1/6 had maldevelopment (Chiari I malformation), and 2/6 had inflammatory/traumatic etiology (viral cervical lymphadenopathy, post jugular vein cannulation). There was a similar number of congenital and acquired pathologies. The malignancies were found at any level of the oculosympathetic pathway. There are treatable causes, including malignancies, in children presenting with Horner syndrome, which justify imaging work-up of the entire oculosympathetic pathway, unless the lesion level can be determined clinically. (orig.)

  14. TUBULAR DISORDERS WITH RICKETS-LIKE SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Kartamysheva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Often under the guise of «ordinary» Rickets are more severe kidney diseases, developing as a result of inherited or acquired, primary or secondary defects in the renal tubules. Incorrect diagnosis leads to an inadequate therapy, rapid progression of disease and renal failure. The article describes the main approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of tubular rachitis similar syndrome, presents a number of clinical cases in author's practice.Key words: tubulopathy, acidosis, electrolyte disorders, rickets, rickets-like syndrome, diagnostics, treatment, children.

  15. Low prevalence of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis D virus and hepatitis C virus among patients with human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the Brazilian Amazon basin Baixa prevalência do vírus da hepatite B, vírus da hepatite D e vírus da hepatite C entre pacientes com o vírus da imunodeficiência humana ou síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida na Amazônia Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wornei Silva Miranda Braga

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Comorbidities in human immunodeficiency virus infection are of great interest due to their association with unfavorable outcomes and failure of antiretroviral therapy. This study evaluated the prevalence of coinfection by human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis in an endemic area for hepatitis B in the Western Amazon basin. Serological markers for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis D virus were tested in a consecutive sample of all patients referred for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The variables sex, age, origin and exposure category were obtained from medical records and from the sexually transmitted diseases and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome surveillance database. Among 704 subjects, the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B carriage was 6.4% and past infection 40.2%. The presence of hepatitis B was associated with birth in hyperendemic areas of the Amazon basin, male sex and illegal drug use. The overall prevalence of hepatitis C was 5% and was associated with illegal drug use. The prevalence of hepatitis B and C among human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients in the Western Amazon basin was lower than seen elsewhere and is probably associated with the local epidemiology of these viruses and the degree of overlap of their shared risk factors. An opportunity presents itself to evaluate the prevention of hepatitis C through harm reduction policies and hepatitis B through vaccination programs among human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients.Co-morbidades na infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana são de grande interesse devido à associação com desfechos desfavoráveis e falhas na terapia anti-retroviral. Este estudo avalia a prevalência de co-infecção entre o vírus da imunodeficiência humana e hepatites virais, em uma área endêmica de hepatite B, na Amazônia Ocidental. Marcadores

  16. Male acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salenave, Sylvie; Trabado, Sévérine; Maione, Luigi; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Young, Jacques

    2012-04-01

    Acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (AHH), contrary to congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is characterized by postnatal onset of disorders that damage or alter the function of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and/or pituitary gonadotroph cells. AHH thus prevents the establishment of gonadotropin secretion at puberty, or its post-pubertal maintenance. Thus, postnatal AHH may prevent the onset of puberty or appear during pubertal development, but it usually emerges after the normal age of puberty. Although pituitary tumors, particularly prolactinoma, are the most common cause, sellar tumors or cyst of the hypothalamus or infundibulum, infiltrative, vascular, iron overload and other disorders may also cause AHH. Pituitary surgery and head trauma or cranial/pituitary radiation therapy are also usual causes of AHH. The clinical manifestations of AHH depend on age of onset, the degree of gonadotropin deficiency, the rapidity of its onset and the association to other pituitary function deficiencies or excess. Men with AHH have less stamina, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction and strength, and a worsened sense of well being leading to degraded quality of life. The physical examination is usually normal if hypogonadism is of recent onset. Diminished facial, body hair and muscle mass, fine facial wrinkles, gynecomastia, and hypotrophic testes are observed in long-standing and complete AHH. Spermatogenesis is impaired and the volume of ejaculate is decreased only when gonadotropins and testosterone levels are very low. Men with AHH may have normal or low serum LH and FSH concentrations, but normal gonadotropin values are inappropriate when associated with low serum testosterone. In the majority of AHH patients, serum inhibin B is "normal". The decrease of this sertolian hormone indicates a long-standing and severe gonadotropin deficiency. Symptoms, usually associated with significant testosterone deficiency in men with AHH, improve with

  17. Mutism: elective or selective, and acquired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, N

    2001-03-01

    When a child does not speak, this may be because there is no wish to do so (elective or selective mutism), or the result of lesions in the brain, particularly in the posterior fossa. The characteristics of the former children are described, especially their shyness; and it is emphasized that mild forms are quite common and a definitive diagnosis should only be made if the condition is significantly affecting the child and family. In the case of mutism due to organic causes, the commonest of these is trauma to the cerebellum. Operations on the cerebellum to remove tumours can be followed by mutism, often after an interval of a few days, and it may last for several months or longer, to be followed by dysarthria. Other rarer causes are discussed, and also the differential diagnosis. The so-called posterior fossa syndrome consists of mutism combined with ataxia, cranial nerve palsies, bulbar palsies, hemiparesis, cognitive impairment and emotional lability, but the post-operative symptoms are often dominated by the lack of speech. The most accepted cause for the condition is vascular spasm with involvement of the dentate nucleus and the dentatorubrothalamic tracts to the brain-stem, and subsequently to the cortex. Diaschisis may be involved in causing the loss of higher cerebral functions, and possibly, complicating hydrocephalus. The treatment of elective mutism is reviewed, either using a psychotherapeutic approach or a variety of drugs, or both. These may well be ineffective, and it must be remembered that the condition often resolves on its own. The former treatment must concentrate on the training of social skills and activities of daily life and must be targeted to both the child, the family, and the school. Also, all kinds of punishment and insistence on speech must be discouraged. The drug, which seems to be most effective, is fluoxetine. Discovering more about the causes of mutism due to organic causes may well depend on studies using such techniques as

  18. Marfan syndrome masked by Down syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, J.C.; Engelen, K. van; Timmermans, J.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Mulder, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality. A simultaneous occurrence with Marfan syndrome is extremely rare. We present a case of a 28-year-old female with Down syndrome and a mutation in the fibrillin-1 gene. The patient showed strikingly few manifestations of Marfan syndrome.

  19. PTP1B: a new therapeutic target for Rett syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Tautz, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by successive loss of acquired cognitive, social, and motor skills and development of autistic behavior. RTT affects approximately 1 in 10,000 live female births and is the second most common cause of severe mental retardation in females, after Down syndrome. Currently, there is no cure or effective therapy for RTT. Approved treatment regimens are presently limited to supportive management of specific physica...

  20. Examining Courtesy Stigma in Siblings of People with Down Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Fulk, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether siblings of people with Down syndrome face courtesy stigma, a stigma acquired as a result of an association with a person from a stigmatized group. The central hypothesis was that the majority of people who have a sibling with Down syndrome face courtesy stigma during both adolescence and adulthood. The data supports this hypothesis, showing that 76% of respondents reported courtesy stigma as adolescents and 62% reported courtesy stigma as ad...

  1. Lemierre's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Katrine M; Bodtger, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    This is a systematic review of cases with Lemierre's syndrome (LS) in the past 5 years. LS is characterized by sepsis often evolving after a sore throat or tonsillitis and then complicated by various septic emboli and thrombosis of the internal jugular vein. Symptoms include sepsis, pain, and/or ...... LS in this day and age appears to be low, however the syndrome is difficult to recognize, and still requires the full attention of the clinician.......This is a systematic review of cases with Lemierre's syndrome (LS) in the past 5 years. LS is characterized by sepsis often evolving after a sore throat or tonsillitis and then complicated by various septic emboli and thrombosis of the internal jugular vein. Symptoms include sepsis, pain, and....../or swelling in the throat or neck, as well as respiratory symptoms. Laboratory findings show elevated infectious parameters and radiological findings show thrombosis of the internal jugular vein and emboli in the lungs or other organs. The syndrome is often associated with an infection with Fusobacterium...

  2. Sjogren syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito-Zeron, Pilar; Baldini, Chiara; Bootsma, Hendrika; Bowman, Simon J.; Jonsson, Roland; Mariette, Xavier; Sivils, Kathy; Theander, Elke; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Ramos-Casals, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Sjogren syndrome (SjS) is a systemic autoimmune disease that primarily affects the exocrine glands (mainly the salivary and lacrimal glands) and results in the severe dryness of mucosal surfaces, principally in the mouth and eyes. This disease predominantly affects middle-aged women, but can also be

  3. Nodding Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-12-19

    Dr. Scott Dowell, a CDC director, discusses the rare illness, nodding syndrome, in children in Africa.  Created: 12/19/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/27/2014.

  4. Piriformis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can usually resume their normal activities. In some cases, exercise regimens may need to be modified in order to reduce the likelihood of recurrence or worsening. Clinical Trials Throughout the U.S. ... Definition Piriformis syndrome is a rare neuromuscular disorder that ...

  5. Hellp syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    A 24 years old female presented with hypertension, haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and thrombocytopenia in an unconscious state after undergoing an emergency caesarian section. A diagnosis of HELLP syndrome was made on the above findings. Patient made an uneventful recovery with conservative management. A brief review of the literature is included along with the case report. (author)

  6. Kartagener's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, D K; Ganguly, K C; Alam, S; Hossain, A; Sarker, U K; Das, B K; Haque, M J

    2009-01-01

    Kartagener's Syndrome or Immotile Cilia Syndrome, a variant of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD), is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by defect in the tiny hair like structure, the cilia lining the respiratory tract (upper and lower), sinuses, eustachian tubes, middle ear and fallopian tubes. Here electron microscopy shows abnormal arrangement of ciliary tubules and patients with Kartagener's syndrome has an absence of dynein arms at the base of the cilia. The inability of cilia to move results in inadequate clearance of bacteria from the air passages, resulting in an increased risk of infection and causing bronchiectasis. Another result of ciliary immobility is infertility. A 60 years old lady was diagnosed as a case of Kartagener's syndrome. She had history of chronic cough for 20 years, irregular fever for 20 years and occasional shortness of breath for 5 years. Relevant investigations revealed dextrocardia, situs inversus, bilateral maxillary sinusitis with non pneumatised frontal sinus and bronchiectasis. She was treated with low concentration oxygen inhalation, antibiotic, bronchodilator, chest physiotherapy including postural drainage, vitamins and other supportive treatment.

  7. Carraro syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendler, H.; Schwarz, R.

    1980-07-01

    The report concerns a girl aged 9 1/2 years who was deaf and dumb and had marked shortening of the calves with deformities of the feet and bilateral, congenital hypoplasia of the tibiae. This syndrome was first described by Carraro in 1931, but there have been no further reports since then.

  8. Rett Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, Linda A.

    This pamphlet reviews the historical process involved in initially recognizing Rett Syndrome as a specific disorder in girls. Its etiology is unknown, but studies have considered factors as hyperammonemia, a two-step mutation, a fragile X chromosome, metabolic disorder, environmental causation, dopamine deficiency, and an inactive X chromosome.…

  9. Alagille Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3] Kamath BM, Loomes KM, Piccoli DA. Medical management of Alagille syndrome. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 2010;50(6): ... 30 a.m. to 5 p.m. eastern time, M-F Follow Us NIH… Turning Discovery Into ... Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...

  10. Kounis syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neoplastic agents), exposure to radiological contrast media, poison ivy, bee stings, shellfish and coronary stents. In addition to coronary arterial involvement, Kounis syndrome com prises other arterial systems with similar physiologies, such as mesenteric and cerebral circulation resulting in ischaemia/infarction of the vital ...

  11. Proteus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debi Basanti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteus syndrome is a variable and complex disorder characterized by multifocal overgrowths affecting any tissue or structure of the body. We present a girl aged 3 years and 8 months with an epidermal nevus, port-wine stain, macrodactyly with gigantism of the feet, lymphohemagiomas and multiple lipomas.

  12. Crest syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, B.; Roedl, W.

    1988-01-01

    If a patient has peri- and intra-articular calcinosis, as well as acro-osteolysis and esophageal hypomotility, and rheumatic symptoms, Crest syndrome should be considered as a manifestation of progressive systemic sclerosis. In connection with relevant symptoms on the skin and visceral involvement, radiological studies offer the possibility of classifying progressive systemic sclerosis more accurately. (orig.) [de

  13. Gitelman syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Levtchenko, E.N.

    2008-01-01

    Gitelman syndrome (GS), also referred to as familial hypokalemia-hypomagnesemia, is characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis in combination with significant hypomagnesemia and low urinary calcium excretion. The prevalence is estimated at approximately 1:40,000 and accordingly, the prevalence

  14. Marfan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can treat many of its symptoms. Thanks to new research and treatments, people with Marfan syndrome who are diagnosed early ... This helps doctors stay on top of any new problems. Doctors might also ... or kids with amblyopia or strabismus will probably need to wear glasses. ...

  15. Kartagener's Syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    presenting with recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections, sinusitis or bronchiectasis. Inability to diagnose this condition may subject the patient to unnecessary and repeated hospital admissions, investigations and treatment failure. KEY WORDS: Kartagener's syndrome, primary cilliary dyskinesia, situs inversus, ...

  16. Neural basis of acquired amusia and its recovery after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Sihvonen, A.J.; Ripollés, P.; Leo, V.; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Soinila, S.; Särkämö, T.

    2016-01-01

    Although acquired amusia is a relatively common disorder after stroke, its precise neuroanatomical basis is still unknown. To evaluate which brain regions form the neural substrate for acquired amusia and its recovery, we performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) and morphometry (VBM) study with 77 human stroke subjects. Structural MRIs were acquired at acute and 6 month poststroke stages. Amusia and aphasia were behaviorally assessed at acute and 3 month poststroke stages using t...

  17. Infants with Down Syndrome: Percentage and Age for Acquisition of Gross Motor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues; da Silva, Louise Gracelli Pereira; Tudella, Eloisa

    2013-01-01

    The literature is bereft of information about the age at which infants with Down syndrome (DS) acquire motor skills and the percentage of infants that do so by the age of 12 months. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the difference in age, in relation to typical infants, at which motor skills were acquired and the percentage of infants with DS…

  18. Savant Syndrome: Clinical and Neuropsychological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Durukan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Savant syndrome defines the people who have severe developmental and mental disabilities but also have extraordinary mental skills which are missing in many people. Although general mental capacity is under average mental level, savant has excessive knowledge about one or more domains. It is accepted that as many as one in 10 persons with autistic disorder have such remarkable abilities in varying degrees, although savant syndrome occurs in other developmental disabilities or in other types of central nervous system injury or disease as well. Males outnumber females by an approximate 6 : 1 ratio in savant syndrome. Savant skills are limited to five general categories. These are music, art, calender calculating, mathematics and mechanical or spatial skills. Savant skills can also be divided into three as savants who have splinter skills, talented savants and prodigious savants. A remarkable memory welds to the special abilities determined in savant syndrome. Savant syndrome can be congenital or it can be acquired. Most often savant skills emerge in childhood, superimposed on some underlying developmental disability present at birth. However, acquired savant skills can also appear, when none were previously present, in neurotypical individuals following brain injury or disease later in infancy, childhood or adult life. Savant skills don’t depend on only rote memory. It is approved that an enhanced or spared ability to represent and manipulate highly organised domain-specific information. Various theoretic models were defined to explain the neuropsychological profile in savant syndrome. Interest in savants has a long history, stretching back to the early 18th century; nevertheless, the savant syndrome remains as much a mystery now as it did when it was first described. Given that many questions about the existence and nature of savant talent remain unanswered, it seems likely that research efforts will continue unabated.

  19. Hemofilia A adquirida Acquired hemophilia A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfina Almagro Vázquez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La hemofilia A adquirida (HAA es un trastorno hemorrágico poco frecuente caracterizado por la presencia de autoanticuerpos contra el factor VIII (FVIII circulante. Aproximadamente en la mitad de los casos se ha observado un grupo heterogéneo de procesos patológicos que incluyen, entre otros, enfermedades autoinmunes y malignas y durante el embarazo, parto y puerperio. Las manifestaciones hemorrágicas son variables y fundamentalmente de tipo cutáneo mucoso. El diagnóstico se basa en el hallazgo en un paciente con manifestaciones hemorrágicas, prolongación del tiempo parcial de tromboplastina activado (TPTA, disminución de la actividad del FVIII y presencia de inhibidores del FVIII. El tratamiento de HAA incluye el control de las manifestaciones hemorrágicas y la supresión de la producción del anticuerpo. El concentrado de factor VIIa recombinante (FVIIar y el concentrado de complejo protrombínico (CCPA se consideran el tratamiento antihemorrágico de primera línea. Como terapéutica alternativa, en algunos casos puede utilizarse el concentrado de FVIII, la plasmaféresis y la inmunoadsorción extracorpórea. La prednisona sola o asociada con la ciclofosfamida, constituye el tratamiento inmunosupresor de primera línea. En pacientes refractarios puede administrarse como terapéutica de segunda línea, el rituximab (anti-CD20. Con la azatiopina, la ciclosporina, la vincristina y el micofenolato de mofetil, se han obtenido resultados variables.Acquired hemophilia A (AHA is an uncommon hemorrhagic disorder characterized by presence of autoantibodies to circulating factor VIII. Approximately in half of cases it is noted a heterogeneous group of pathological processes including among others, autoimmune and malignant diseases and during pregnancy, labor and puerperium. Hemorrhagic manifestations are variable and mainly of mucous cutaneous type. Diagnosis is based on the finding of a patient presenting with hemorrhagic manifestations

  20. Laugier-Hunziker Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Kartal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Laugier-Hunziker syndrome (LHS is a rare, acquired mucocutaneous hyperpigmentation often associated with longitudinal melanonychia. It is important to differentiate this condition from the pigmentary disorders of the oral mucosa. The correct clinical identification avoids the need for invasive investigations. A 32-year-old female presented with a number of variably sized, hyperpigmented macules over the oral mucosa and longitudinal melanonychia. Herein, we report a case of LHS and discuss the conditions related with pigmented mucocutaneous lesions.