WorldWideScience

Sample records for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

  1. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, N. J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    2002-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Ca...

  2. The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: current status.

    OpenAIRE

    Quagliarello, V.

    1982-01-01

    A recently recognized syndrome of acquired immunodeficiency (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-AIDS) has arisen since June 1981. It has received international attention. The clinical spectrum consists of repeated opportunistic infections, rare malignancies, and autoimmune phenomena, occurring in previously healthy adults with no history of an immunologic disorder. The population subset at risk for this syndrome appears to be predominantly homosexual American males and intravenous drug abuser...

  3. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, H W; Hardy, A M; Morgan, W M; Darrow, W W

    1985-11-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a major health problem for gay men in the United States. About three fourths of all reported cases have occurred in this population, and the number is projected to double in the next year. In Manhattan and San Francisco, AIDS is now the leading cause of premature mortality in men aged 25 to 44 years who have never married. In a sample of a cohort of gay men enrolled in a San Francisco clinic, 2.7% of the men had the syndrome and 26% had related conditions in 1984. Antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus, type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus was found in sera from 67% of the men, including 58% of asymptomatic men. Behavioral factors associated with an increased risk of AIDS include large numbers of sexual partners, receptive anal intercourse, and "fisting." The adoption of safer lifestyles is currently the basis of attempts to control the syndrome in gay men. PMID:2996396

  4. Cytomegalovirus retinitis associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Shuang; YE Jun-jie; ZHAO Jia-liang; LI Tai-sheng; HAN Yang

    2011-01-01

    Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is the most severe intraocular complication that results in total retinal destruction and loss of visual acuity in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study aimed to investigate the fundus characteristics, systemic manifestations and therapeutic outcomes of CMV retinitis associated with AIDS.Methods It was a retrospective case series. CMV retinitis was present in 39 eyes (25 patients). Best corrected visual acuities, anterior segment, fundus features, fundus fluorescence angiography (FFA) and CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts of the patients with CMV retinitis associated with AIDS were analyzed. Intravitreal injections of ganciclovir (400 μg) were performed in 4 eyes (2 patients).Results Retinal vasculitis, dense, full-thickness, yellow-white lesions along vascular distribution with irregular granules at the border, and hemorrhage on the retinal surface were present in 28 eyes. The vitreous was clear or mildly opaque.Late stage of the retinopathy was demonstrated in 8 eyes characterized as atrophic retina, sclerotic and attenuated vessels, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy, and optic nerve atrophy. Retinal detachment was found in 3 eyes. The average CD4+ T-lymphocyte count in peripheral blood of the patients with CMV retinitis was (30.6±25.3) ×106/L (range,(0-85) × 106/L). After intravitreal injections of ganciclovir, visual acuity was improved and fundus lesions regressed.Conclusions CMV retinitis is the most severe and the most common intraocular complication in patients with AIDS. For the patients with yellow-white retinal lesions, hemorrhage and retinal vasculitis without clear cause, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serology should be performed. Routine eye examination is also indicated in HIV positive patients.

  5. Thymus involution in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grody, W W; Fligiel, S; Naeim, F

    1985-07-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a severe disorder of unknown etiology and pathogenesis, predominantly affecting homosexual males and other high-risk groups and characterized by profound alterations in T-lymphocyte function. The authors have examined thymus tissue from 14 patients who died of AIDS and compared the results with findings in five control groups: healthy age-matched controls, elderly individuals, patients with chronic or debilitating illnesses other than AIDS, infants with conditions causing "stress atrophy," and patients with myasthenia gravis. The AIDS group included 11 homosexual males, 1 Haitian, 1 homosexual who was also a drug abuser, and a 10-month-old infant believed to have contracted AIDS following blood transfusion. All the AIDS cases showed marked thymus involution with severe depletion of both lymphocytes and epithelial elements. The latter component consisted primarily of thin cords and nests of primitive-appearing epithelial cells that could be defined by positive immunohistochemical staining for keratin. Many cases showed a variable plasma cell infiltration, and the majority exhibited distinct vascular changes in the form of hyalinization and/or onion-skin patterns, primarily in the adventitia. Most striking of all was the marked paucity of Hassall's corpuscles; four patients had none at all, while in the other ten patients all the Hassall's corpuscles were calcified. These changes were far more extensive than those seen in any of the control groups, which retained most of their complement of Hassall's corpuscles even in the face of marked overall involution. The physiologic function of Hassall's corpuscles is not known, but recent immunohistochemical studies have implicated them in the synthesis of "facteur thymique serique" (FTS, thymulin) and other thymic hormones known to play a role in regulating T-helper and suppressor cell activity. It is conceivable that the extensive destruction of Hassall's corpuscles observed in

  6. Relationship between current level of immunodeficiency and non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reekie, Joanne; Kosa, Csaba; Engsig, Frederik;

    2010-01-01

    In the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) era, non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining malignancies account for more morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients than AIDS-defining malignancies. However, conflicting data have been reported on the re......In the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) era, non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining malignancies account for more morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients than AIDS-defining malignancies. However, conflicting data have been reported...... on the relationship between immunodeficiency and the development of some non-AIDS-defining malignancies....

  7. Improving Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Related Cancer Outcomes through International Collaboration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mostafa Nokta

    2011-01-01

    @@ The spectrum of cancers seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)infected individuals is diverse and complex,and reflects an ever-changing HIV epidemic.In parts of the world where combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is available,HIV-infected patients are living longer and are less likely to die of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)defining malignancies within a year or two of developing AIDS.

  8. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and its ocular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Narsing

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus infection is the first major pandemic of the 20th century. At present, almost 10 million people are known to be infected with this virus, and it is estimated that by the year 2000, approximately 40 million people will be infected. Transmission of this deadly infection is predominantly by sexual contact. Individuals infected with this virus pass through several predictable stages with progressive decrease in circulating CD4+ T cells. During the advanced stage, these patients develop various opportunistic infections or malignancies, or both. It is this advanced stage that was first recognized as AIDS, which has a 100% mortality rate. The opportunistic organisms that can involve the eye in patients with AIDS include cytomegalovirus, herpes zoster, Toxoplasma gondii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, Pneumocystis carinii, Histoplasma capsulatum, Candida, and others. Intraocular lesions from these agents often represent disseminated infections. Visual morbidity occurs secondary to retinitis due to cytomegalovirus, herpes zoster, or Toxoplasma gondii. Anti-viral agents such as ganciclovir or foscarnet are effective against cytomegalovirus infection. The role of the ophthalmologist in the diagnosis and management of AIDS is becoming increasingly important. Not only does the eye reflect systemic disease, but ocular involvement may often precede systemic manifestations. In the AIDS patient, the ophthalmologist thus has an opportunity to make not only a slight-saving, but also life-saving diagnosis of disseminated opportunistic infections.

  9. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome associated with blood-product transfusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jett, J.R.; Kuritsky, J.N.; Katzmann, J.A.; Homburger, H.A.

    1983-11-01

    A 53-year-old white man had fever, malaise, and dyspnea on exertion. His chest roentgenogram was normal, but pulmonary function tests showed impaired diffusion capacity and a gallium scan showed marked uptake in the lungs. Results of an open-lung biopsy documented Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Immunologic test results were consistent with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The patient denied having homosexual contact or using intravenous drugs. Twenty-nine months before the diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia was made, the patient had had 16 transfusions of whole blood, platelets, and fresh-frozen plasma during coronary artery bypass surgery at another medical center. This patient is not a member of any currently recognized high-risk group and is believed to have contracted the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from blood and blood-product transfusions.

  10. Cerebral computed tomography in men with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, B.; Boesen, F.; Gerstoft, J.; Nielsen, J.O.; Praestholm, J.

    Cerebral CT scannings were performed in 19 homosexual men with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Nearly half of them (9 patients) had cortical atrophy. Three patients with toxoplasmosis had cerebral pathology, in two of them with ring enhancement while the third had an ill-defined nonspecific lesion with slight heterogeneous enhancement without ring formation. Two patients with multifocal leucoencephalopathy and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, respectively, presented non-enhancing, low attenuating lesions at CT.

  11. Management of Diabetes Mellitus in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miulescu Rucsandra Dănciulescu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is a human immune system disease characterized by increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, certain cancers and neurological disorders. The syndrome is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV that is transmitted through blood or blood products, sexual contact or contaminated hypodermic needles. Antiretroviral treatment reduces the mortality and the morbidity of HIV infection but is increasingly reported to be associated with increasing reports of metabolic abnormalities. The prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus in patients on antiretroviral therapy is high. Recently, a joint panel of American Diabetes Association (ADA and European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD experts updated the treatment recommendations for type 2 diabetes (T2DM in a consensus statement which provides guidance to health care providers. The ADA and EASD consensus statement concur that intervention in T2DM should be early, intensive, and uncompromisingly focused on maintaining glycemic levels as close as possible to the nondiabetic range. Intensive glucose management has been shown to reduce microvascular complications of diabetes but no significant benefits on cardiovascular diseases. Patients with diabetes have a high risk for cardiovascular disease and the treatment of diabetes should emphasize reduction of the cardiovascular factors risk. The treatment of diabetes mellitus in AIDS patients often involves polypharmacy, which increases the risk of suboptimal adherence

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: correlation but not causation.

    OpenAIRE

    Duesberg, P H

    1989-01-01

    AIDS is an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defined by a severe depletion of T cells and over 20 conventional degenerative and neoplastic diseases. In the U.S. and Europe, AIDS correlates to 95% with risk factors, such as about 8 years of promiscuous male homosexuality, intravenous drug use, or hemophilia. Since AIDS also correlates with antibody to a retrovirus, confirmed in about 40% of American cases, it has been hypothesized that this virus causes AIDS by killing T cells. Consequently, ...

  13. Radionuclide brain imaging in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, D.C.; Gacinovic, S.; Miller, R.F. [London University College Medical School, Middlesex Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-09-01

    Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) may produce a variety of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms and signs. CNS involvement in patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) includes AIDS dementia complex or HIV-1 associated cognitive/motor complex (widely known as HIV encephalopathy), progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML), opportunistic infections such as Toxoplasma gondii, TB, Cryptococcus and infiltration by non-Hodgkin`s B cell lymphoma. High resolution structural imaging investigations, either X-ray Computed Tomography (CT scan) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have contributed to the understanding and definition of cerebral damage caused by HIV encephalopathy. Atrophy and mainly high signal scattered white matter abnormalities are commonly seen with MRI. PML produces focal white matter high signal abnormalities due to multiple foci of demyelination. However, using structural imaging techniques there are no reliable parameters to distinguish focal lesions due to opportunistic infection (Toxoplasma gondii abscess) from neoplasm (lymphoma infiltration). It is studied the use of radionuclide brain imaging techniques in the investigation of HIV infected patients. Brain perfusion Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPET), neuroreceptor and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies are reviewed. Greater emphasis is put on the potential of some radiopharmaceuticals, considered to be brain tumour markers, to distinguish intracerebral lymphoma infiltration from Toxoplasma infection. SPET with {sup 201}Tl using quantification (tumour to non-tumour radioactivity ratios) appears a very promising technique to identify intracerebral lymphoma.

  14. Radionuclide brain imaging in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) may produce a variety of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms and signs. CNS involvement in patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) includes AIDS dementia complex or HIV-1 associated cognitive/motor complex (widely known as HIV encephalopathy), progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML), opportunistic infections such as Toxoplasma gondii, TB, Cryptococcus and infiltration by non-Hodgkin's B cell lymphoma. High resolution structural imaging investigations, either X-ray Computed Tomography (CT scan) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have contributed to the understanding and definition of cerebral damage caused by HIV encephalopathy. Atrophy and mainly high signal scattered white matter abnormalities are commonly seen with MRI. PML produces focal white matter high signal abnormalities due to multiple foci of demyelination. However, using structural imaging techniques there are no reliable parameters to distinguish focal lesions due to opportunistic infection (Toxoplasma gondii abscess) from neoplasm (lymphoma infiltration). It is studied the use of radionuclide brain imaging techniques in the investigation of HIV infected patients. Brain perfusion Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPET), neuroreceptor and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies are reviewed. Greater emphasis is put on the potential of some radiopharmaceuticals, considered to be brain tumour markers, to distinguish intracerebral lymphoma infiltration from Toxoplasma infection. SPET with 201Tl using quantification (tumour to non-tumour radioactivity ratios) appears a very promising technique to identify intracerebral lymphoma

  15. Skin aging in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino Favarato, Grace Kelly Naves; da Silva, Aline Cristina Souza; Oliveira, Lívia Ferreira; da Fonseca Ferraz, Mara Lúcia; de Paula Antunes Teixeira, Vicente; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the histomorphometric skin changes over aging patients with autopsied acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In 29 skin fragments of autopsied elderly (older than 50 years) and nonelderly patients with AIDS, epidermal thickness, the number of layers, the diameter of cells, the percentage of collagen and elastic fibers in the dermis, and the number and morphology of Langerhans cells were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed by SigmaStat 2.03 program. The thickness of the epidermis (92.55 × 158.94 μm), the number of layers (7 × 9 layers), and the diameter of the cells (13.27 × 17.6 μm) were statistically lower among the elderly. The quantity of collagen fibers (9.68 × 14.11%) and elastic fibers (11.89 × 15.31%) was also significantly lower in the elderly. There was a decrease in total (10.61 × 12.38 cel/mm(2)) and an increase in immature Langerhans cells (6.31 × 4.98 cel/mm(2)) in elderly patients with AIDS. The aging of the skin of patients with AIDS is amended in different histomorphometric aspects, the epidermis constituents suffer less pronounced changes in normal aging, and the dermis has more intense changes in elastic fibers and collagen. PMID:27649952

  16. Brazilian response to the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic among injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Fábio; Doneda, Denise; Gandolfi, Denise; Nemes, Maria Inês Battistella; Andrade, Tarcísio; Bueno, Regina; Piconez e Trigueiros, Daniela

    2003-12-15

    The Brazilian response to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic is being observed all over the world because of its success. Understanding the role of injection drug users (IDUs) in the epidemic and the political response thereto is a key factor in the control of the epidemic in Brazil. This paper summarizes some of the most important analyses of the Brazilian response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic among and from IDUs. Key elements of the response include the support of the Brazilian Universal Public Health System, the provision of universal access to highly active antiretroviral therapy, and the creation of harm reduction projects that are politically and financially supported by the federal government. The response among and from IDUs is a key element in overall control of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The response to the epidemic among and from IDUs has been headed in the correct direction since its beginning and is now being intensively expanded.

  17. Unsuspected pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Niazi Masooma; DeLaCruz Angel E; Tejwani Dimple; Diaz-Fuentes Gilda

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Diffuse lung infiltrates are a common finding in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and causes range from infectious processes to malignancies or interstitial lung diseases. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare pulmonary disorder rarely reported in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is associated with conditions involving functional impairment or reduced numbers of alveolar macrophages. It can b...

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and tropical diseases: a Brazilian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza G Morgado

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes recent findings on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/Aids, highlighting the role of co-infections with major tropical diseases. Such co-infections have been studied in the Brazilian context since the beginning of the Aids epidemic and are expected to be more frequent and relevant as the Aids epidemic in Brazil proceeds towards smaller municipalities and the countryside, where tropical diseases are endemic. Unlike opportunistic diseases that affect basically the immunocompromised host, most tropical diseases, as well as tuberculosis, are pathogenic on their own, and can affect subjects with mild or no immunossuppression. In the era of highly active anti-retroviral therapies (HAART, opportunistic diseases seem to be on decrease in Brazil, where such medicines are fully available. Benefiting from HAART in terms of restoration of the immune function, putative milder clinical courses are expected in the future for most co-infections, including tropical diseases. On the other hand, from an ecological perspective, the progressive geographic diffusion of Aids makes tropical diseases and tuberculosis a renewed challenge for Brazilian researchers and practitioners dealing with HIV/Aids in the coming years.

  19. Opportunistic Neurologic Infections in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarillo, Fritzie; O'Keefe, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) especially in the resource-limited regions of the world. Diagnosis of these infections may be challenging because findings on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and brain imaging are nonspecific. While brain biopsy provides a definitive diagnosis, it is an invasive procedure associated with a relatively low mortality rate, thus less invasive modalities have been studied in recent years. Diagnosis, therefore, can be established based on a combination of a compatible clinical syndrome, radiologic and CSF findings, and understanding of the role of HIV in these infections. The most common CNS opportunistic infections are AIDS-defining conditions; thus, treatment of these infections in combination with HAART has greatly improved survival.

  20. Impairment of polymorphonuclear leucocyte function in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and with lymphadenopathy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarin, A; Uberti Foppa, C; Galli, M; Mantovani, A; Poli, G; Franzetti, F; Nóvati, R

    1986-01-01

    Granulocyte functions were studied in 20 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), 20 subjects with lymphadenopathy syndrome (LAS) and 15 symptom-free drug addicts (SFDA). Polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMNL) phagocytosis and killing of C. albicans appeared normal in homosexual men with AIDS, while drug addicts with AIDS or LAS and SFDA showed a significant defect of these functions as compared to healthy controls. Migration of PMNL in response to a chemoattractant was normal in SFDA, but markedly defective both in LAS and in AIDS patients. In the AIDS group no significant differences were evident between homosexual men and drug addicts. We conclude that defective PMNL phagocytosis and killing, unlike defective migration, are somehow related to drug abuse rather than to infection with the causative agent of the immunodeficiency. PMID:3791696

  1. Progressive multifocal leukoence-phalopathy presenting as homonymous hemianopia in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive patient who was referred for retinal evaluation to rule out ophthalmic manifestations of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS. She complained of some disturbance in vision in both eyes. Fundus examination showed no abnormality. Perimetry, done to rule out optic nerve pathology, showed a left homonymous hemianopia. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI scan showed features of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML. She had no other neurological symptoms or signs.

  2. Disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Da-wei; ZHANG Tong; MA Da-qing; WANG Wei; YUAN Chun-wang; DUAN Yong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Penicillium marneffei (P. marneffei) is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the only thermally dimorphic fungus. This fungal infection is commonly found in Southeast Asian, Hong Kong, south China, and especially in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients.1-4 We reported a patient with AIDS in whom infection due to P. marneffei was demonstrated.

  3. CT features of pulmonary mycobacterial disease in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱莹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the CT features of pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and explore the different CT appearances between AIDS-NTM and AIDS-TB. Methods CT findings of pulmonary NTM

  4. Abacavir-induced reversible Fanconi syndrome with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad M

    2006-01-01

    There are several reports of Fanconi syndrome (FS) with or without nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, treated with various antiretroviral medications like cidofovir, adefovir, didenosine and tenofovir. But neither FS nor NDI has been documented with abacavir therapy. We are reporting the first case of abacavir-induced reversible FS with NDI in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, who recovered completely with suppo...

  5. Kaposi sarcoma and lymphadenopathy syndrome: limitations of abdominal CT in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, K.L. Jr.; Federle, M.P.; Abrams, D.I.; Volberding, P.; Lewis, B.J.

    1984-02-01

    Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was performed in 31 patients with Kaposi sarcoma (KS) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), three patients with classic KS, and 12 patients with the newly described lymphadenopathy syndrome (LNS). The frequency, distribution, and appearance of lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly were similar in the AIDS-related KS and LNS groups. Rectal and perirectal disease was identified in 86% of homosexual men studied; rectal KS could not be distinguished from proctitis on CT criteria alone. No CT abnormalities were seen in patients with classic KS. The CT demonstration of retroperitoneal, mesenteric, or pelvic adenopathy or of rectal or perirectal disease in patients with AIDS-related KS is not necessarily indicative of widespread involvement with the disease.

  6. Meningitis and stridor in advanced Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidoo P

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available P Naidoo, D Pillay, S SamanDepartment of Internal Medicine, Port Shepstone Regional Hospital, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South AfricaAbstract: A 37-year-old female presented confused with a preceding history of severe headache. After clinical examination and investigations, she was diagnosed with disseminated tuberculosis (including central nervous system involvement, and Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Her hospital stay was complicated. She developed stridor and a cerebrovascular accident with left hemiplegia. She died approximately 2 weeks after admission. The potential causes of her stridor included a mediastinal mass or a central mechanism secondary to tuberculosis meningitis. Limited resources precluded definitive imaging of the chest to rule out a mediastinal mass. Further, an autopsy was not done. Despite these limitations, this case is unique because it reports the presence of both stridor and tuberculosis meningitis in an adult patient.Keywords: Human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, meningitis, stridor, tuberculosis

  7. Progressive Outer Retinal Necrosis Combined with Vitreous Hemorrhage in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    You, Yong Sung; Lee, Sung Jin; Lee, Sung Ho; Park, Chang Hyun; Kwon, Oh Woong

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To describe an unusual case of rapidly progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) with vitreous hemorrhage in a 41-year-old woman with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), who had retinitis developed from what was probably varicellar-zoster virus combined with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex type 1,2, as proven by the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP). Methods This study is a case report detailing clinical follow-up and ...

  8. Meningitis and stridor in advanced Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Naidoo P; Pillay D; Saman S

    2013-01-01

    P Naidoo, D Pillay, S SamanDepartment of Internal Medicine, Port Shepstone Regional Hospital, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South AfricaAbstract: A 37-year-old female presented confused with a preceding history of severe headache. After clinical examination and investigations, she was diagnosed with disseminated tuberculosis (including central nervous system involvement), and Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Her hospital stay was complicated. She developed stri...

  9. Premature atherosclerosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yong; YE Yi-cong; LUO Ling; QIU Zhi-feng; HAN Yang; LI Xiao-meng; FANG Quan; ZHANG Shu-yang; LI Tai-sheng

    2010-01-01

    Background Increased risk of atherosclerosis has been reported in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)infection since highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has come into use. However, there is no clear evidence of premature atherosclerosis in Chinese HIV-infected patients. Our study was designed to determine the relationship between HIV infection and atherosclerosis in Chinese HIV-infected patients.Methods One hundred and forty-five patients were enrolled in this study. These included 82 HIV-infected patients (41HAART-treated and 41 antiretroviral therapy (ART) naive patients) and 43 HIV-negative control subjects. Data on traditional cardiovascular risk factors, HIV infection parameters, and treatment regimens were collected. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was determined using a pulse pressure analyzer to evaluate the function of the arterial wall as an indicator of atherosclerotic vascular damage.Results A higher PWV ((1358.3±117.8) cm/s vs. (1270.2±189.2) cm/s, P=0.010) was found in ART na(i)ve HIV-infected patients compared with control subjects. However, HAART treated patients had lower PWV compared to ART na(i)ve patients ((1283.8±181.4) cm/s vs. (1358.0±117.8) cm/s, P=0.033). Multiple regression analysis revealed that age (B=5.218, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.420-9.016, P=0.008), current smoking (B=-74.671, 95% CI -147.003 to -2.339, P=0.043) and HAART (92.7% patients on a protease inhibitor-free regimen) (B=-169.169, 95% CI-272.508 to -65.831, P=0.010) were associated with reduced PWV in HIV-infected patients.Conclusions Reduced PWV in HIV-infected Chinese patients indicates that they are more likely to develop arterial wall stiffness, possibly by atherosclerosis. A protease inhibitor-free regime may be protective for arterial wall of HIV infected patients.

  10. Reiter's Syndrome associated with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B.N.S. Malta

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The association of Reiter's Syndrome (RS with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS is seldom mentioned in the medical literature. This report illustrates this relationship in a 46 years old male patient suffering from AIDS (CD4+ = 240 cells/mm³, CD8+ = 1,301 cells/mm³ and viral load = 330,000 copies/ml, pulmonary tuberculosis (positive catarrhal bacilluscopy, and RS. The diagnosis of RS was based on the combination of dermatological and articular alterations. The patient's cutaneous lesions were characterized by exfoliation and the formation of crusts located on the face, scalp, genitals, hands, and feet; onychodystrophy with opacity; yellowish coloring; and hyperkeratosis of the nails. Articular lesions led to progressive deformity of phalangeal joints of the hands, and intensive arthralgia, mainly of the larger joints (shoulders, elbows, hips and knees. AIDS treatment was administered with anti-retroviral drugs (zidovudine and didanosine; for tuberculosis (isoniazid, rifampicine, and pyrazinamide; and (prednisone and inometacine for the RS. The patient recovered with the improvement of articular symptoms; however, on the eighth day of treatment, the patient showed significant hemoptysis and hypovolemic shock, and died. The association of RS and HIV infection is reviewed.

  11. Pancreatic tuberculosis with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: A case report and systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somchai Meesiri

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic tuberculosis (TB) is a relatively rare disease that can mimic carcinoma,lymphoma,cystic neoplasia,retroperitoneal tumors,pancreatitis or pseudocysts.Here,I report the case of a 31-year-old immigrant Burmese woman who exhibited epigastralgia,fever,weight loss and an epigastric mass.The patient was diagnosed with pancreatic TB and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,and was treated with antituberculous drugs and percutaneous catheter drainage without a laparotomy.The clinical presentation,radiographic investigation and management of pancreatic TB are summarized in this paper to emphasize the importance of considering this rare disease in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic masses concomitant with human immunodeficiency virus infection.I also emphasize the need for both histopathological and microbiological diagnosis via fineneedle aspiration.

  12. Fear of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and fear of other illness in suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Jallinoja, P T; Henriksson, M M;

    1994-01-01

    other suicides. Suicidal fear of AIDS calls for evaluation of sexual and other risk behaviour, but fear of AIDS was largely generated by the extensive media coverage. Fear of other somatic illness was more diverse in origin and related to illness experiences. Suicidal fear of illness calls......Suicide victims with fear of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other somatic illness were compared for psychosocial and health-related characteristics, triggers and content of fear. Fear of AIDS cases (n = 28), 2% of the 1-year Finnish suicide population (n = 1397), were younger...

  13. Detection of thoracic infections by nuclear medicine techniques in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, E.L.; Sanger, J.J. (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1989-11-01

    The challenge of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for nuclear medicine has been the early detection of related intrathoracic opportunistic infections, inflammatory conditions, and neoplasms. Gallium-67 citrate scanning has proved a sensitive test not only for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia but for many of the other opportunistic infections and malignancies, including mycobacterial infections and lymphoma. Patterns and intensity of gallium uptake may suggest more specific diagnoses. Indium-111-labeled white blood cells may also be a valuable diagnostic tool in the AIDS patient.41 references.

  14. Unsuspected pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niazi Masooma

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Diffuse lung infiltrates are a common finding in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and causes range from infectious processes to malignancies or interstitial lung diseases. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare pulmonary disorder rarely reported in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is associated with conditions involving functional impairment or reduced numbers of alveolar macrophages. It can be caused by hematologic malignancies, inhalation of toxic dust, fumes or gases, infectious or pharmacologic immunosuppression, or lysinuric protein intolerance. Case presentation A 42-year-old African American man infected with human immunodeficiency virus was admitted with chronic respiratory symptoms and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. Chest computed tomography revealed bilateral spontaneous pneumothoraces, for which he required bilateral chest tubes. Initial laboratory investigations did not reveal any contributory conditions. Histological examination of a lung biopsy taken during video-assisted thoracoscopy showed pulmonary alveolar proteinosis concurrent with cytomegalovirus pneumonitis. After ganciclovir treatment, our patient showed radiologic and clinical improvement. Conclusion The differential diagnosis for patients with immunosuppression and lung infiltrates requires extensive investigations. As pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is rare, the diagnosis can be easily missed. Our case highlights the importance of invasive investigations and histology in the management of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus and pulmonary disease who do not respond to empiric therapy.

  15. Altered Virome and Bacterial Microbiome in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Cynthia L; Gootenberg, David B; Zhao, Guoyan; Handley, Scott A; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Lim, Efrem S; Lankowski, Alex; Baldridge, Megan T; Wilen, Craig B; Flagg, Meaghan; Norman, Jason M; Keller, Brian C; Luévano, Jesús Mario; Wang, David; Boum, Yap; Martin, Jeffrey N; Hunt, Peter W; Bangsberg, David R; Siedner, Mark J; Kwon, Douglas S; Virgin, Herbert W

    2016-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with increased intestinal translocation of microbial products and enteropathy as well as alterations in gut bacterial communities. However, whether the enteric virome contributes to this infection and resulting immunodeficiency remains unknown. We characterized the enteric virome and bacterial microbiome in a cohort of Ugandan patients, including HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected subjects and those either treated with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) or untreated. Low peripheral CD4 T cell counts were associated with an expansion of enteric adenovirus sequences and this increase was independent of ART treatment. Additionally, the enteric bacterial microbiome of patients with lower CD4 T counts exhibited reduced phylogenetic diversity and richness with specific bacteria showing differential abundance, including increases in Enterobacteriaceae, which have been associated with inflammation. Thus, immunodeficiency in progressive HIV infection is associated with alterations in the enteric virome and bacterial microbiome, which may contribute to AIDS-associated enteropathy and disease progression. PMID:26962942

  16. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis: a common cause of pulmonary disease in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a 4.4-year period, nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis was seen in 41 of 110 (38%) patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and accounted for 32% (48/152) of all episodes of clinical pneumonitis. Diffuse alveolar damage was typically a feature of nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis, but neither lung biopsy nor bronchoalveolar lavage detected a pathogen. Of these 41 patients, 13 had no associated pulmonary tumor and had not been exposed to pulmonary toxins, whereas 28 patients had either concurrent pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma, previous experimental therapies, or a history of pneumocystis pneumonia or drug abuse. Of these 41, 23 had normal chest radiographs. The clinical features of patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis were similar to those of patients with pneumocystis pneumonia, although histologic findings showed less severe alveolar damage in patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis (p less than 0.001). Pathologic evaluation and clinical follow-up suggest that many clinical episodes of pneumonitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are due to nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis of unknown cause

  17. Behavioral surveillance survey regarding human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among high school and junior college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhosale S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: It is necessary to know the baseline knowledge, attitude, and practices about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among young people and the changes in these with intervention to guide prevention efforts. Methods: A cross-sectional pre- and post-survey with health education as a method of intervention was carried out in four different randomly selected schools and junior colleges among the Class IX-XII students of both sex. Instrument developed by the World Health Organization (WHO/UNAIDS in their best practice recommendations was used for data collection. Results: Knowledge about all correct methods was present in 61.23% of the respondents. Knowledge of at least two methods of prevention was present in 70.31% of the respondents. Misconceptions about prevention were that good diet (33.42%, avoiding mosquito bite (49.71% and avoiding public toilets (65.14% could help in the prevention. With intervention, there was an improvement in the knowledge. However, the proportion of students with misconceptions did not come down. Correct knowledge about two methods of prevention also did not reach the WHO recommendation of 90%. Conclusion: It is very difficult to change the attitude and practices by a single health educational intervention and an ongoing behavior change communication is recommended.

  18. The human immunodeficiency virus preventive vaccine research at the French National Agency for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Fischer

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS epidemic is of unprecedented gravity and is spreading rapidly, notably in the most disadvantaged regions of the world. The search for a preventive vaccine is thus an absolute priority. For over 10 years the French National Agency for AIDS research (ANRS has been committed to an original program combining basic science and clinical research. The HIV preventive vaccine research program run by the ANRS covers upstream research for the definition of immunogens, animal models, and clinical research to evaluate candidate vaccines. Most researchers in 2004 believe that it should be possible to obtain partial vaccine protection through the induction of a strong and multiepitopic cellular response. Since 1992, the ANRS has set up 15 phases I and II clinical trials in order to evaluate the safety and the capacity of the candidate vaccines for inducing cellular immune responses. The tested candidate vaccines were increasingly complex recombinant canarypox viruses (Alvac containing sequences coding for certain viral proteins, utilized alone or combined with other immunogens (whole or truncated envelope proteins. ANRS has also been developing an original strategy based on the utilization of lipopeptides. These comprise synthetic fragments of viral proteins associated with lipids that facilitate the induction of a cellular immune response. These approaches promptly allowed the assessment of a prime-boost strategy combining a viral vector and lipopeptides.

  19. A Web-Based System To Enchance The Management Of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS/ Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbelusi Olutola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS, a global disease, caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is arguably the greatest health problem of this age and there is need to make first class information on the management of HIV/AIDS available through the use of Web-Based Technology. This paper examined the various ways of contacting HIV and the effort made by Information and Technology to make life easier for people living with the virus in Nigeria. Questionnaires were distributed to Doctors and people living with HIV/AIDS to access their knowledge and belief about the said disease. MySQL was used to generate the database, to store all the vital information about the patients, their Doctors and their complaints. PHP programming for the implementation of the interfaces, Dreamweaver HTML for the design of the web-based application, T-test and Microsoft Excel were used for the analysis of data collected. The study looked into the occupation, age range and the marital status of different categories of people living with the virus. It was discovered that there were quite large numbers of people who are living with the virus.

  20. Human papillomavirus-associated cancers as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defining illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Shahabi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control currently report cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal and some head and neck cancers as human papillomavirus (HPV-associated cancers. Only cervical cancer is listed amongst acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS defining illnesses. All of these cancers may represent progression of the immunocompromised state with the inability to eradicate viral infection. This study reports the case of a 27-year old HIV positive female presenting with a persistent right vulvar exophytic lesion. High-risk HPV analysis and immunostaining for P16 were both positive. A biopsy of the lesion revealed invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The patient underwent neoadjuvant radiation and chemotherapy followed by a radical vulvectomy. During treatment, her CD4 T-lymphocyte count decreased to 120 advancing her condition from HIV to AIDS. This case suggests that all HPV-associated cancers should be included as AIDS defining illnesses.

  1. Toxoplasmosis of spinal cord in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient presenting as paraparesis: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin R Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although brain has been the most common site for toxoplasma infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients, involvement of spinal cord by toxoplasma has been rarely found. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis can present as acute onset weakness in both lower limbs associated with sensory and bladder dysfunction. A presumptive diagnosis can be made in patients with CD4 count <100/mm 3 based on a positive serum Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies, no recent prophylaxis against toxoplasmosis, intramedullary ring enhancing lesion in spinal cord supported by similar lesions in brain parenchyma. Institutions of antitoxoplasma treatment in such patients result in prompt clinical response and therefore avoiding the need of unnecessary invasive diagnostic tests. Here, we report a case of toxoplasmic myelitis in immunocompromised patient presenting as myelopathy who showed significant clinical improvement after starting antitoxoplasma treatment. Hence toxoplasmic myelitis should be considered in toxoplasma seropositive immunocompromised patients presenting as myelopathy and imaging studies showing ring enhancing intramedullary lesion.

  2. Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: report of 23 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, A; Chang, P; Moreno, K; Fernández-Fernández, V; Montes de Oca, G; Araiza, J; Ponce, R M

    2009-06-01

    Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis is an opportunistic infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We report a series of 23 cases (21 men, two women; median age 29 years) with disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis seen at two hospital centres. Most of the patients (21/23) were classified as stage C3. The most common dermatological findings were papules, crusting plaques, nodules and ulcers, mainly located on the face and chest. Of the 23 cases, 15 (65%) had pulmonary involvement. Amphotericin B and itraconazole were the main drugs used for treatment. Treatment response was variable: four of the patients were cured, six improved and remain stable, nine patients died, and four patients were lost to follow-up.

  3. 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT imaging in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In order to investigate the changes of regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndromes (AIDS), 99mTc-ECDbrain SPECT imaging was performed in 5 patients with AIDS and 16 sex and agematched normal controls, and the rCBF percentages compared to the cerebellum werecalculated using a semi-quantitative processing software. Hypoperfusions in the rightand left frontal, temporal, porietal lobe, basal ganglia and left thalamus were seen in1 patient with dementia. Hypoperfusions in the right and left frontal and temporallobe were seen in 4 asymptomatic patients. The rCBF in the right and left frontal.temporal, porietal lobe, basal ganglia and thalamus, front and pons were decreasedsignificantly in patients with AIDS than those of the control subjects (p <0.005). Itis concluded that there exists reduced cortico-subcortical rCBF in AIDS patients.``

  4. First report of Cystoisospora belli parasitemia in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Jorge Néstor; di Risio, Cecilia Alicia; Etchart, Cristina Beatriz; Chertcoff, Agustín Víctor; Nigro, Mónica Gabriela; Pantano, María Laura; Ledesma, Bibiana Alba; Vittar, Natalia; Carnevale, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Cystoisospora belli in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been described as cause of chronic diarrhea and disseminated cystoisosporosis. Diagnosis of intestinal cystoisosporosis can be achieved at the tissue level in the villus epithelium of the small bowel. Disseminated cystoisosporosis is diagnosed by microscopy identification of unizoite tissue cysts in the lamina propria of the intestine. We report a case of disseminated cystoisosporosis in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient with detection of parasitemia. We studied a 39-year old patient with AIDS and chronic diarrhea by analysis of stool and duodenal biopsy samples. Blood samples were also collected and examined by light microscopy and molecular techniques for C. belli DNA detection. The unizoite tissue cyst stages were present in the lamina propria, with unsporulated oocysts in feces. Zoites were present in blood smears and DNA of C. belli was detected in blood samples. Our study identified a new stage in the life cycle of C. belli. Detection of parasitemia is a novel and noninvasive tool for diagnosis of disseminated cystoisosporosis.

  5. Selected Laws, Rules and State-Level Activities in Wisconsin Related to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Information Memorandum 87-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Richard

    This information memorandum describes the selected laws, rules, and state-level activities in Wisconsin related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and tests for antibodies to the virus (HIV) that causes AIDS. A section on current state laws on AIDS and HIV antibody testing describes laws related to informed consent for testing,…

  6. Erythrovirus B19 infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: screening by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Setúbal

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythrovirus B19 infects erythrocytic progenitors, transiently interrupting erythropoiesis. In AIDS patients it causes chronic anemia amenable to treatment. We looked for evidences of B19 infection in stored bone marrow material from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Histological sections were made from stored paraffin blocks from 33 autopsies (39 blocks and 35 biopsies (45 blocks, 30 patients performed from 1988 to 2002. They were examined after hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining, immunohistochemical (IHC, and in situ hybridization. HE revealed intra-nuclear inclusion bodies ("lantern cells" suggesting B19 infection in 19 sections corresponding to 19 of 63 patients examined with this test. Seven of 78 sections subjected to immunohistochemistry were positive, corresponding to 7 of 58 patients examined with this test. Fourteen sections corresponding to 13 of the 20 HE and/or IHC positive patients were subjected to in situ hybridization, with six positives results. Among the 13 patients subjected to the three techniques, only one gave unequivocal positive results in all and was considered a true positive. The frequency of B19 infection (1/63 patients in the material examined can be deemed low.

  7. Sodium stibogluconate (pentostan) overdose in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymond, J M; Desmeules, J

    1998-12-01

    A 32-year-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) admitted to the hospital for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis was inadvertently given 10 times the prescribed first dose of sodium stibogluconate ([Sb] 6.5 g instead of 0.65 g). He experienced no immediate major toxicity during the first 48 hours, but a significant rise of pancreatic enzyme activities was observed (amylase at 10 times the upper limit of normal, lipase at 50 times the upper limit of normal) without clinical signs or indications on computed tomography (CT) of pancreatitis. The third day after the overdose, he developed appendicitis, which appeared coincidental; he recovered uneventfully from surgery. Most of the overdose of Sb was eliminated within the first few hours. Pharmacokinetics remained linear; the rapid, long elimination half-lives (2.7 hours and 54 hours, respectively) were similar to those in previously published results. The administration of a chelating agent, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), 72 hours after the Sb overdose did not modify the pharmacokinetics of the medication.

  8. Morphological changes of an inflammatory myopathy in rhesus monkeys with simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalakas, M C; Gravell, M; London, W T; Cunningham, G; Sever, J L

    1987-09-01

    Eleven of 25 rhesus monkeys which died of simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (SAIDS) caused by infection with a type D retrovirus related to Mason-Pfizer monkey virus showed evidence of muscle weakness and atrophy and had elevated levels of muscle enzymes. Biopsies of affected muscle studied with enzyme histochemistry showed the characteristic features of polymyositis. Inflammatory cells consisting of lymphocytes, macrophages, and large vacuolated bizarre-shaped cells of undetermined type were surrounding or invading muscle fibers and were present in the perivascular spaces and endomysia septa. Within the perivascular infiltrates, lymphocytes were abundant but very few macrophages were present. Other myopathic features including profound proliferation of fibrous tissue, necrosis, and phagocytosis of muscle fibers were noted to a variable degree. The retrovirus was isolated from affected muscles. The clinical and historical features of polymyositis in rhesus monkeys with SAIDS are very similar to those of human polymyositis. The polymyositis in SAIDS induced by a type D retrovirus related to Mason-Pfizer monkey virus is an excellent primate model to study the mechanism and morphological changes of viral-induced muscle damage.

  9. Infection and T lymphocyte subpopulations: changes associated with bacteremia and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, J A; Martell, K M; Rubin, R H

    1983-01-01

    Patients with bacteremia, bacterial endocarditis, or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were prospectively studied using monoclonal antibody reagents to assess alterations in T-lymphocyte subpopulations. Patients with endocarditis had significantly higher ratios of T-helper (OKT4+) to T-suppressor-cytotoxic (OKT8+) cells than did patients with bacteremia alone. Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis patients had a mean ratio of 8.49 (range 4.73-22.36) while S aureus bacteremia had a mean ratio of 2.75 (range 2.15 to 3.21). Similar results were found with Staphylococcus epidermidis endocarditis (mean 1.62) and bacteremia (mean 1.23). Klebsiella pneumoniae endocarditis (5.10) and sepsis (4.32), and E coli bacteremia (2.15). Nine male patients with AIDS had markedly depressed ratios (mean 0.25, range 0.04 to 0.67) while eight male homosexuals with unexplained lymphadenopathy ("pre-AIDS") had normal or increased ratios. Bacteremic infections are associated with an increased OKT4+/OKT8+ ratio with the degree of increase dependent upon virulence, location, and duration of infection. The immunomodulating effects of infection are manifested in changes in T-cell subsets, and these measurements can be useful in clinical management. PMID:6094086

  10. Computed tomography of the lungs in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. An early indicator of interstitial pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartelius, H.; Gaub, J.; Jensen, L.I.; Jensen, J.; Faber, V.

    Computed tomography of the chest was performed on 42 occasions as part of the diagnostic work-up in 26 homosexual men with, or suspected of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In 17 cases both the chest radiographs and the lung scans were abnormal, and bronchoscopy and/or lung biopsy established an etiologic diagnosis in the majority of these cases. In 9 cases CT of the lungs revealed unequivocal interstitial infiltration in the presence of a normal chest radiography, and subsequently and etiologic agent was demonstrated in all these cases. In 9 cases, patients with symptoms indicative of pulmonary infection had both a normal chest radiograph and a normal lung scan, and in none of these cases did the clinical course or additional diagnostic procedures indicate the presence of current opportunistic lung infection. CT of the lungs seems to identify accurately those patients with severe HIV-related diseases in whom invasive diagnostic procedures such as bronchoalveolar lavage and/or lung biopsy should be done.

  11. Pathologic findings in the adrenal glands of autopsied patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Denise; Reis, Marlene; Teixeira, Vicente; Silva-Vergara, Mário; Filho, Dalmo Correia; Adad, Sheila; Lazo, Javier

    2002-01-01

    A morphologic evaluation was carried out on adrenal glands from 128 autopsied patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The adrenal gland was compromised in 99.2% of the cases, with distinct pathological features and infectious agents. Inflammatory infiltrates were observed in 99.2% of the cases with a predominance of mononuclear cells in 97.4%, affecting mainly the medulla. Necrosis, fibrosis, hemorrhages and neoplasias were observed. We also described 3 (2.3%) cases of calcification located in the adrenal gland central vein (AGCV). This is seldom mentioned in the literature. Cytomegalovirus was the most frequent infectious agent, observed in 48.4% of cases. Balamuthia mandrillaris, a free living ameba, was found in one case affecting the entire gland. We also found a nest of Trypanosoma cruzi in the musculature of the AGCV. The presence of the nest of T cruzi in AGCV may play a role in the reactivation of this infection in immunosuppressed individuals. Pathologic processes and opportunistic infections may contribute to the alterations in the adrenal gland that lead to multiple organ failure observed in terminal AIDS patients.

  12. Cytomegalovirus retinitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients: A problem worth giving attention to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Kapadia Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis remains the most common ocular opportunistic infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Increased survival of patients on HAART has increased incidence of blindness, which will further increase in the future. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of CMV retinitis and the effect of HAART on the natural history of CMV retinitis in patients referred from ART center. Materials and Methods: Patients with baseline/current CD4 counts <150 cells/µl were evaluated for CMV retinitis. Complete ophthalmological evaluation was carried out and records of CD4 counts, HAART regime, presence of any form of CMV retinitis and response to HAART were noted. Results: Out of 800 patients registered with CD4 <150 cells/µl in ART center, 100 patients reached us. Among these, CMV retinitis was observed in 15% patients, with median CD4 count at the time of examination being 56 cells/µl (range: 24-306 cells/µl. 66.67% patients were HAART non-responders and 63.6% eyes were economically blind. Conclusion: CMV retinitis occurs even in patients with higher CD4 counts. Timely diagnosis and intervention of this treatable condition can reduce the number of blinding years in these young patients who otherwise live longer as a result of HAART.

  13. Respiratory failure in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxfield, R A; Sorkin, I B; Fazzini, E P; Rapoport, D M; Stenson, W M; Goldring, R M

    1986-05-01

    Seven patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were studied to define the pathophysiology of their respiratory failure. The patients had fever, cough, dyspnea, hypoxemia, and diffuse infiltrates on chest x-ray. Biopsies revealed a spectrum of alveolar filling, interstitial edema and infiltration, and fibrosis. The patients were studied on mechanical ventilation to assess the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and supplemental oxygen on shunt fraction. Mean anatomic shunt (measured on 100% oxygen) was 34 +/- 8%, which increased significantly (p less than .001) to 43 +/- 9% when the FIO2 was decreased to 40% to 60% (physiologic shunt), indicating ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) imbalance or impaired diffusion. Increasing PEEP by 9 +/- 2 cm H2O reduced the anatomic shunt to 30 +/- 7% (p less than .01) and the physiologic shunt to 37 +/- 7% (p less than .02). There was a similar decrease in anatomic and physiologic shunts in five studies, a greater decrease in physiologic shunt in four, and a greater decrease in anatomic shunt in two. Evidence of alveolar recruitment with PEEP, measured by an increase in static thoracic compliance, was found in only one study. There was no correlation between the effect of PEEP on compliance and its effect on shunt. The data suggest that in patients with AIDS and P. carinii pneumonia, PEEP can decrease shunt by reducing the anatomic shunt, improving V/Q imbalance, and converting areas of anatomic shunt to areas of low V/Q. P. carinii pneumonia in patients with AIDS can produce a clinical and pathophysiologic pattern similar to that described in the adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:3516574

  14. Rapid diagnosis by buffy coat smear of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Nussbaum, J. M.; Dealist, C; Lewis, W; Heseltine, P N

    1990-01-01

    A smear of the buffy coat of peripheral blood for acid-fast bacilli was assessed for sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Seventeen AIDS patients with blood cultures positive for MAC had simultaneous quantitative blood cultures and buffy coat smears performed, as did 4 patients later proven not to have disseminated MAC. The sensitivity of the buffy coat smear for the dete...

  15. Lymphoma Secondary to Congenital and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndromes at a Turkish Pediatric Oncology Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanyildiz, Hikmet G; Dincaslan, Handan; Yavuz, Gulsan; Unal, Emel; Ikinciogulları, Aydan; Dogu, Figen; Tacyildiz, Nurdan

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence of lymphoma in primary immunodeficiency cases and autoimmune diseases, as well as on a background of immunodeficiency following organ transplants, is increasing. The lymphoma treatment success rate is known to be a low prognosis. Our study aimed to emphasize the low survival rates in immunodeficient vs. immunocompetent lymphoma patients and also to investigate the effect of rituximab in patients with ataxia telangiectasia and other immunodeficiencies. We summarized the clinical characteristics and treatment results of 17 cases with primary immunodeficiency that developed non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) retrospectively. Seven patients were diagnosed with ataxia-telangiectasia, two with common variable immunodeficiency, two with selective IgA deficiency, one with X-related lymphoproliferative syndrome, one with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, one with Epstein-Barr virus-related lymphoproliferative syndrome, one with interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase (ITK) deficiency, and one with lymphoma developing after autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). One patient underwent a renal transplant. Of the nine males and eight females (aged 3-12 years, median = 7) that developed lymphoma, seven were diagnosed with HL and ten with NHL (seven B-cell, three T-cell). The NHL patients were started on the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster, POG9317, LMB-96, or R-CHOP treatment protocols with reduced chemotherapy dosages. HL cases were started on the doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) and/or cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (COPP) protocol, also with modified dosages. Importantly, all seven cases of HL are alive and in remission, while six of the ten NHL patients have died. Primary immunodeficiency is a strong predisposing factor for developing lymphoma. Low treatment success rates relative to other lymphomas and difficulties encountered during treatment indicate that new treatment agents are needed

  16. Serum selenium and skin diseases among Nigerians with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinboro AO

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Adeolu Oladayo Akinboro,1 David Ayodele Mejiuni,2 Olaniyi Onayemi,3 Olugbenga Edward Ayodele,4 Adeniran Samuel Atiba,5 Gbenga Micheal Bamimore6 1Dermatology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Osogbo, and LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria; 2Bullsbrook Medical Practice, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Department of Dermatology and Venereology, College of Health Science, Obafemi Awolowo University and OAUTHC, Ile – Ife, Osun State, Nigeria; 4Department of Internal Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Osogbo and LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria; 5Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicine, Ekiti State University, and Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ekiti State, Nigeria; 6Dermatology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria Background: The role of selenium as an antioxidant micronutrient has garnered the unprecedented focus of researchers in recent times. No clinical study has related serum selenium concentration to skin diseases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients. Methods: In this study, 134 newly diagnosed HIV patients that satisfied the inclusion criteria were included. Skin diseases were clinically diagnosed and fasting venous blood was taken for assessment of serum selenium using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: The mean age of HIV subjects with and without skin disease were not significantly different: 32.72 ± 9.21 versus 35.86 ± 8.55 years, P = 0.077, respectively. The mean of serum selenium (0.51 ± 0.48 versus 0.81 ± 0.39, CD4+ count (228.06 ± 212.89 versus 446.41 ± 182.87, and body mass index (BMI; 21.09 ± 3.58 versus 23.53 ± 3.35 were significantly lower (P 0.05. Conclusion: serum selenium concentration was lower among HIV subjects with skin diseases than those without skin disease. Pruritic papular eruption, xeroderma

  17. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated cancers in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J O

    2001-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is considered home to more than 60% of all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected cases, with an estimated adult prevalence of 8.0%. It is stated that this region has contributed more than 90% of childhood deaths related to HIV infection and about 93% of childhood acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related deaths. Although no country in Africa is spared of the infection, the bulk is seen in East and South Africa, with the highest recorded rates of 20% to 50% in Zimbabwe. On the other hand, West Africa is less affected, while countries in Central Africa have relatively stable infection rates. Although infections, especially tuberculosis, have emerged as the most important HIV/AIDS-associated killers in recent times, AIDS-associated malignancies are increasingly identified in the late stages. As a result of incomplete data from African countries, it is unclear whether the epidemiology and risks of these cancers are the same as observed in the developed countries. Since the advent of AIDS, epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) has become more common in both sexes in Africa, with a dramatic lowering of the male to female ratio from 19:1 to 1.7:1, especially in East Africa. Although there has been a rising trend of AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) worldwide, there is an apparently lower risk in Africa compared with that in the developing world. At present, there is no strong evidence linking increased incidence of invasive cervical cancer to the HIV epidemic; however, some studies have demonstrated an association between HIV and the increased prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). On the other hand, HIV infection is now established as a risk factor for the development of squamous cell neoplasia of the conjunctiva based on studies from Rwanda, Malawi, and Uganda. Despite the problems and limitations of information from sub-Saharan Africa, interesting trends of HIV/AIDS-related cancers

  18. De Novo intracerebral aneurysm in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad G Bakhaidar; Ahamed, Naushad A.; Almekhlafi, Mohammed A; Saleh S. Baeesa

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection associated aneurysmal vasculopathy is a rare complication of HIV infection affecting the pediatric and adult population. We present a case of a 7-year-old male child known to have a congenitally acquired HIV infection presenting with a ruptured left distal internal carotid artery fusiform aneurysm that was diagnosed on MRI scans 6 months prior to his presentation. He underwent craniotomy and successful aneurysm reconstruction. He had uncomplicated ...

  19. Avian influenza: potential impact on sub-Saharan military populations with high rates of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Robert L; Nickell, Kent

    2007-07-01

    Several sub-Saharan militaries have large percentages of troops with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. With the arrival of avian influenza in Africa, the potential exists that some of those soldiers might also become infected with H5N1, the virus responsible for the disease. Two possible scenarios have been postulated regarding how such a coinfection of HIV and H5N1 might present. (1) Soldiers already weakened by HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome rapidly succumb to H5N1. The cause of death is a "cytokine storm," essentially a runaway inflammatory response. (2) The weakened immune system prevents the cytokine storm from occurring; however, H5N1 is still present, replicating, and being shed, leading to the infection of others. A cytokine storm is particularly dangerous for individuals of military age, as evidenced by the large number of soldiers who died during the 1918 influenza epidemic. If large numbers of sub-Saharan soldiers suffer a similar fate from avian influenza, then military and political instability could develop.

  20. Recursion-based depletion of human immunodeficiency virus-specific naive CD4(+) T cells may facilitate persistent viral replication and chronic viraemia leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tetsuo; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Okada, Seiji; Matano, Tetsuro

    2016-09-01

    Although antiretroviral therapy has made human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection a controllable disease, it is still unclear how viral replication persists in untreated patients and causes CD4(+) T-cell depletion leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in several years. Theorists tried to explain it with the diversity threshold theory in which accumulated mutations in the HIV genome make the virus so diverse that the immune system will no longer be able to recognize all the variants and fail to control the viraemia. Although the theory could apply to a number of cases, macaque AIDS models using simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) have shown that failed viral control at the set point is not always associated with T-cell escape mutations. Moreover, even monkeys without a protective major histocompatibility complex (MHC) allele can contain replication of a super infected SIV following immunization with a live-attenuated SIV vaccine, while those animals are not capable of fighting primary SIV infection. Here we propose a recursion-based virus-specific naive CD4(+) T-cell depletion hypothesis through thinking on what may happen in individuals experiencing primary immunodeficiency virus infection. This could explain the mechanism for impairment of virus-specific immune response in the course of HIV infection. PMID:27515208

  1. Toxoplasma encephalitis in Haitian adults with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a clinical-pathologic-CT correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, M.J.D.; Chan, J.C.; Hensley, G.T.; Hoffman, T.A.; Moskowitz, L.B.; Lippmann, S.

    1983-05-01

    The clinical data, histologic findings, and computed tomographic (CT) abnormalities in eight adult Haitians with toxoplasma encephalitis were analyzed retrospectively. Diagnosis was established by identification of Toxoplasma gondii on autopsy in five and brain biopsy in three specimens and subsequently confirmed by the immunoperoxidase method. All these patiens, six of whom had been in the United States for 24 months or less, had severe idiopathic immunodeficiency syndrome. All were lymphopenic and six were on treatment for tuberculosis when the toxoplasma encephalitis developed. All patients were studied with CT when they developed an altered mental status and fever associated with seizures and/or focal neurologic deficits. Scans before treatment showed multiple intraparenchymal lesions in seven and a single lesion in the thalamus in one. Ring and/or nodular enhancement of the lesions was found in six and hypodense areas in two. Progressions of abnormalities occurred on serial studies. These CT findings that were best shown on axial and coronal thin-section double-dose contrast studies were useful but not diagnostically pathognomonic. In patients with similar clinical presentation CT is recommended to identify focal areas of involvement and to guide brain biopsy or excision so that prompt medical thereapy of this often lethal infection can be instituted.

  2. Risky sexual behavior related to human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among seasonal labor migrants: A cross-sectional study from far Western Region of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillee Prasad Paudel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a global public health problem; enormously affecting the national economy, social development and human rights with posing a challenge to human civilization. Seasonal labor migrants are the most at risk population for HIV/AIDS and their risky sexual behaviors exacerbate its transmission. The aim of the study was to explore the HIV/AIDS related sexual behavior of migrant workers. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 372 migrant workers backing to Nepal from Banbasa border of India-Nepal during August-October 2010. Migrants having permanent residents of far western region, Nepal were individually contacted at the entry point of Nepal and interviewed in a confidential environment after obtaining informed consent. Data were analysed using the SPSS (16.0 version. Descriptive and inferencial statistics were applied considering P 3 sex partners. Most (82.25% had vaginal sex and 43.54% reported the consistent use of condom. About 64.76% had sex after drinking alcohol. Age, education, monthly income and nature of works were significant with risky behaviors. Conclusion: Inconsistent condom use, multiple sexual partners and sex after drinking alcohol have a cumulative effect on the risk of HIV transmission.

  3. Behaviors Influencing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission in the Context of Positive Prevention among People Living with HIV/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ramin Radfar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying factors, which influence health behaviors is critical to designing appropriate and effective preventive programs. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission is highly related to people behaviors and understanding factors influencing healthy behaviors among Iranian people living with HIVs (PLHIVs/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is very important to tailor an effective response to HIV/AIDS epidemic. Methods: This study was conducted as a qualitative study by methods of focus group discussion and in-depth interview in six provinces of Iran with 64 PLHIVs to determine factors influence engagement in positive prevention. Results: Knowledge and education, feelings of responsibility and positive prevention practices were identified as the primary domains of engagement. These domains were found to be influenced by feelings of ostracism and frustration, poverty, barriers to disclosure of HIV status, access to and utilization of drug abuse treatment services and antiretroviral therapy, adherence to treatment, age, religiousness, sex work, singleness, and incarceration. Conclusions: Designing new interventions and updating current interventions directed toward the aforementioned factors should be addressed by responsible Iranian authorities in order to have a national effective response on the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

  4. Is human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome decreasing among Brazilian injection drug users? Recent findings and how to interpret them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco I Bastos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review findings from Brazilian settings where the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS epidemic among injection drug users (IDUs seems to be decreasing, highlighting recent findings from Rio de Janeiro and discussing methodological alternatives. Former analyses using serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion have shown that HIV incidence has been low in IDUs recruited by two different surveys carried out in Rio, where low injection frequencies and infection rates have been found among new injectors. The proportion of AIDS cases among IDUs in Rio has been fairly modest, compared to São Paulo and especially to the southernmost states. Notwithstanding, the interpretation of findings from serial surveys constitutes a challenge, magnified in the assessment of HIV spread among IDUs due to the dynamic nature of the drug scenes and limitations of sampling strategies targeting hard-to-reach populations. Assessment of epidemic trends may profit from the triangulation of data, but cannot avert biases associated with sampling errors. Efforts should be made to triangulate data from different sources, besides exploring specific studies from different perspectives. In an attempt to further assess the observed trends, we carried out original analyses using data from Brazilian AIDS databank.

  5. Atypical Herpes Zoster as a clinic begining of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Blanco Córdova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Herpes Zoster is produced by the reactivation of the Chicken Pox Zoster Virus. It has an incidence of three cases for each thousand inhabitants a year, and they increase the possibility to suffer it with the age. A 48 year old case of a patient with atypical Zoster with postherpetic neuralgia who came to the Dermatology consultation with cutaneous and mucous lesions is presented. This article has the objective to describe the evolution of the Herpes Zoster in the last patient diagnosed like seropositive to the virus of Human Immunodeficiency Virus It is considered of concern once both entities association was given, indicator that although Herpes Zoster incidence is low, considering the possible presence of diseases that involve the immune system. We conclude that in the presence of the clinical variety of Atypical Herpes Zoster, the coexistence of other diseases that compromise the immune system, as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus must be considered.

  6. Food Security in Households of People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study in a Subdivision of Darjeeling District, West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) adversely impacts food security in households of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Little research has focused on food insecurity among PLWHA in India. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of and factors relating to food security in households of PLWHA in the Siliguri subdivision of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 173 PLWHA residing in Siliguri and registered at the Anti-retroviral Therapy Centre of North Bengal Medical College & Hospital. Data was collected at the household level with interviews of PLWHA using a food security survey instrument. We analyzed the associations using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of household food security among the participants was 50.9% (88/173). Five years or more of schooling, higher socioeconomic class and males were found to be significantly associated with a higher likelihood of food security. A later stage of the disease and the presence of other family members with HIV/AIDS were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of food security. The major coping strategies to deal with food insecurity in the acute phase HIV infection included borrowing money (56.1%), followed by spousal support, loans from microfinance institutions, banks, or money lenders, borrowing food, or selling agricultural products. Conclusions: The present study revealed that only about half of households with PLWHA were food secure. Prior interventions relating to periods of food and economic crisis as well as strategies for sustaining food security and economic status are needed in this area. PMID:27499166

  7. Retrovirus-induced murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: natural history of infection and differing susceptibility of inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, J W; Fredrickson, T N; Yetter, R A; Makino, M; Morse, H C

    1989-03-01

    C57BL mice (Fv-1b) develop a severe immunodeficiency disease following inoculation as adults with LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus (MuLV), a derivative of Duplan-Laterjet virus which contains B-tropic ecotropic and mink cell focus-inducing MuLVs and a putative defective genome which may be the proximal cause of disease. The stages of development of this disease were defined for C57BL mice on the basis of lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly; histopathological changes consistent with B-cell activation; and alterations in expression of cell surface antigens affected by proliferation of T cells, B cells, and macrophages. By using this disease profile as a standard, the response of adult mice of various inbred strains and selected F1 hybrids was compared. We show that although the strains which are highly sensitive are of the Fv-1b genotype (i.e., permissive for B-tropic MuLVs), certain Fv-1b strains, e.g., BALB/c and A/J, are resistant to murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, whereas certain Fv-1n strains (permissive for N-tropic MuLVs but restrictive for B-tropic MuLVs), notably P/N, BDP, and AKR, show moderate sensitivity and (C57BL/6 x CBA/N)F1 mice (Fv-1n/b and thus dually restrictive) are of relatively high susceptibility. The results of virus recovery tests suggest that apparently anomalous sensitivity, based on predicted Fv-1 restriction, may reflect MuLV induction and/or mutation to provide a helper virus for which the host is permissive.

  8. Pulmonary cryptococcosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients: Comparison of imaging characteristics among RA, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and immunocompetent patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagawa, Noriyo, E-mail: noriyo_yana@ybb.ne.jp [Departments of Radiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital, 3-8-22, Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan); Sakai, Fumikazu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka-shi, Saitama 350-1298 (Japan); Takemura, Tamiko [Department of Pathology, Japanese Red Cross Medical Center, 4-1-22 Hiroo, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8935 (Japan); Ishikawa, Satoru [Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Hospital Organization Chiba-East-Hospital, 673 Nitona-cho, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 260-8712 (Japan); Takaki, Yasunobu [Departments of Radiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital, 3-8-22, Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan); Hishima, Tsunekazu [Department of Pathology, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital, 3-8-22, Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan); Kamata, Noriko [Departments of Radiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital, 3-8-22, Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: The imaging characteristics of cryptococcosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were analyzed by comparing them with those of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and immunocompetent patients, and the imaging findings were correlated with pathological findings. Methods: Two radiologists retrospectively compared the computed tomographic (CT) findings of 35 episodes of pulmonary cryptococcosis in 31 patients with 3 kinds of underlying states (10 RA, 12 AIDS, 13 immunocompetent), focusing on the nature, number, and distribution of lesions. The pathological findings of 18 patients (8 RA, 2 AIDS, 8 immunocompetent) were analyzed by two pathologists, and then correlated with imaging findings. Results: The frequencies of consolidation and ground glass attenuation (GGA) were significantly higher, and the frequency of peripheral distribution was significantly lower in the RA group than in the immunocompetent group. Peripheral distribution was less common and generalized distribution was more frequent in the RA group than in the AIDS group. The pathological findings of the AIDS and immunocompetent groups reflected their immune status: There was lack of a granuloma reaction in the AIDS group, and a complete granuloma reaction in the immunocompetent group, while the findings of the RA group varied, including a complete granuloma reaction, a loose granuloma reaction and a hyper-immune reaction. Cases with the last two pathologic findings were symptomatic and showed generalized or central distribution on CT. Conclusion: Cryptococcosis in the RA group showed characteristic radiological and pathological findings compared with the other 2 groups.

  9. Pulmonary cryptococcosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients: Comparison of imaging characteristics among RA, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and immunocompetent patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The imaging characteristics of cryptococcosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were analyzed by comparing them with those of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and immunocompetent patients, and the imaging findings were correlated with pathological findings. Methods: Two radiologists retrospectively compared the computed tomographic (CT) findings of 35 episodes of pulmonary cryptococcosis in 31 patients with 3 kinds of underlying states (10 RA, 12 AIDS, 13 immunocompetent), focusing on the nature, number, and distribution of lesions. The pathological findings of 18 patients (8 RA, 2 AIDS, 8 immunocompetent) were analyzed by two pathologists, and then correlated with imaging findings. Results: The frequencies of consolidation and ground glass attenuation (GGA) were significantly higher, and the frequency of peripheral distribution was significantly lower in the RA group than in the immunocompetent group. Peripheral distribution was less common and generalized distribution was more frequent in the RA group than in the AIDS group. The pathological findings of the AIDS and immunocompetent groups reflected their immune status: There was lack of a granuloma reaction in the AIDS group, and a complete granuloma reaction in the immunocompetent group, while the findings of the RA group varied, including a complete granuloma reaction, a loose granuloma reaction and a hyper-immune reaction. Cases with the last two pathologic findings were symptomatic and showed generalized or central distribution on CT. Conclusion: Cryptococcosis in the RA group showed characteristic radiological and pathological findings compared with the other 2 groups

  10. Clinical, endoscopic and prognostic aspects of primary gastric non-hodgkin's lymphoma associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosamar Eulira Fontes Rezende

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary gastric non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL is a co-morbidity that can be observed during the clinical course of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. We evaluated the prevalence, clinical-evolutive aspects and form of endoscopic presentation of primary gastric NHL associated with AIDS. Two hundred and forty-three HIV patients were submitted to upper digestive endoscopy, with evaluation of clinical, endoscopic and histological data. A CD4 count was made by flow cytometry and viral load was determined in a branched-DNA assay. Six cases (five men; mean age: 37 years; range: 29-46 years of primary gastric NHL were detected. The median CD4 count was 140 cells/mm³ and the median viral load was 40,313 copies/mL. Upper digestive endoscopy revealed polypoid (in four patients ulcero-infiltrative (two patients and ulcerated (two patients lesions and combined polypoid and ulcerated lesions (two patients. Histology of the gastric lesions demonstrated B cell NHL (four patients and T cell NHL (two patients. Five of the six patients died of complications related to gastric NHL. We concluded that primary gastric NHL is an important cause of mortality associated with AIDS.

  11. The hypertriglyceridemia of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is associated with an increased prevalence of low density lipoprotein subclass pattern B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feingold, K.R.; Krauss, R.M.; Pang, M.; Doerrler, W.; Jensen, P.; Grunfeld, C. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (United States) Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1993-06-01

    To better define the role of environmental factors on LDL phenotypic expression, the authors determined LDL patterns in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and infection characterized by hypertriglyceridemia and weight loss. Similar to previous studies, plasma triglyceride levels were increased, whereas plasma cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol levels were decreased in the AIDS subjects compared to those in age-matched controls. The percentage of AIDS subjects with the LDL B phenotype was increased 2.5-fold, demonstrating an increased prevalence of the LDL B phenotype in an acquired form of hypertriglyceridemia. For each LDL phenotype in AIDS, serum triglyceride levels were higher than the same phenotypic pattern in controls, with the most marked elevations in triglycerides found in AIDS subjects with the LDL B phenotype. In contrast to what was observed in controls, HDL cholesterol levels were decreased in all AIDS subjects and were unrelated to LDL pattern. Total and LDL cholesterol levels were higher in controls with the LDL B phenotype than in those with the LDL A phenotype, but there was no difference in total and LDL cholesterol in AIDS subjects with LDL B compared to A. On multiple regression analysis in subjects with AIDS, plasma triglyceride levels, age, and HDL cholesterol all contribute to the occurrence of the LDL B phenotype, but elevations in plasma triglyceride levels are the strongest independent predictor. Body mass index was not a predictor of LDL B phenotype in AIDS. These results suggest that disturbances in triglyceride metabolism that are caused by AIDS lead to the appearance of the LDL subclass B phenotype and provide further evidence that environmental or disease states that perturb lipid metabolism can produce an increased prevalence of the LDL B phenotype. 35 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging: early detection of central nervous system involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central Nervous System (CNS) involvement, whether primary by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV - itself, or secondary (toxoplasmosis or lymphoma) is remarkably frequent in AIDS, in 40 to 70% of cases, depending upon the author. In order to study the natural history of this illness, a cohort of 25 asymptomatic seropositive patients have been established. Every 6 months these patients undergo biological and clinical examinations, as well as Magnetic Resonance brain scans. After two examinations at a 6 month's interval, the first results are reported. Out of these 25 cases, 9 present anomalies: One patient with diffuse cerebral atrophy and 8 others with high signal intensity areas on T2 weighted sequences, like those of the Multiple Sclerosis. No relationship could be demonstrated between the existence of these lesions and various criteria such as age, sex, risk factors and T4 cells count. The nature of these lesions is not lear. They certainly indicate early involvement of the CNS after primary infection by the HIV virus. They may either represent scars of the primary infection or early alterations announcing developing encephalopathy

  13. Disseminated cryptococcosis and fluconazole resistant oral candidiasis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothavade, Rajendra J; Oberai, Chetan M; Valand, Arvind G; Panthaki, Mehroo H

    2010-10-28

    Disseminated cryptococcosis and recurrent oral candidiasis was presented in a-heterosexual AIDS patient. Candida tropicalis (C.tropicalis) was isolated from the oral pseudomembranous plaques and Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) was isolated from maculopapular lesions on body parts (face, hands and chest) and body fluids (urine, expectorated sputum, and cerebrospinal fluid). In vitro drug susceptibility testing on the yeast isolates demonstrated resistance to fluconazole acquired by C. tropicalis which was a suggestive possible root cause of recurrent oral candidiasis in this patient.

  14. Disseminated histoplasmosis presenting as pyoderma gangrenosum-like lesions in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laochumroonvorapong, P; DiCostanzo, D P; Wu, H; Srinivasan, K; Abusamieh, M; Levy, H

    2001-08-01

    A 33-year-old Hispanic woman with newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, a CD4 T-lymphocyte count of 2, viral load of 730,000 copies/mL, candidal esophagitis, seizure disorder, a history of bacterial pneumonia, and recent weight loss was admitted with tonic clonic seizure. On admission, her vital signs were: pulse of 88, respiration rate of 18, temperature of 37.7 degrees C, and blood pressure of 126/76. Her only medication was phenytoin. On examination, the patient was found to have multiple umbilicated papules on her face, as well as painful, erythematous, large, punched-out ulcers on the nose, face, trunk, and extremities of 3 months' duration (Fig. 1). The borders of the ulcers were irregular, raised, boggy, and undermined, while the base contained hemorrhagic exudate partially covered with necrotic eschar. The largest ulcer on the left mandible was 4 cm in diameter. The oral cavity was clear. Because of her subtherapeutic phenytoin level, the medication dose was adjusted, and she was empirically treated with Unasyn for presumptive bacterial infection. Chest radiograph and head computed tomography (CT) scan were within normal limits. Sputum for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear was negative. Serologic studies, including Histoplasma antibodies, toxoplasmosis immunoglobulin M (IgM), rapid plasma reagin (RPR), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) antibodies were all negative. Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid was within normal limits without the presence of cryptococcal antigen. Blood and cerebrospinal cultures for bacteria, mycobacteria, and fungi were all negative. Viral culture from one of the lesions was also negative. The analysis of her complete blood count showed: white blood count, 2300/microl; hemoglobin, 8.5 g/dL; hematocrit, 25.7%; and platelets, 114,000/microl. Two days after admission, the dermatology service was asked to evaluate the patient. Although the umbilicated papules on the patient's face resembled

  15. Measures to decrease the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome transmission by blood transfusion. Evidence of volunteer blood donor cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindyck, J; Waldman, A; Zang, E; Oleszko, W; Lowy, M; Bianco, C

    1985-01-01

    We studied whether volunteers giving blood to the Greater New York Blood Program (GNYBP) cooperated with procedures implementing public health recommendations intended to decrease the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) transmission by blood transfusion. Predonation medical screening was expanded to exclude donors who might be ill with AIDS. To exclude possible asymptomatic carriers of the disease, members of groups at increased risk of AIDS were asked either not to give blood or to give it for laboratory studies. A confidential questionnaire, administered to all donors after medical screening, provided the vehicle for donors to advise the GNYBP whether their donation was for laboratory studies or for patient transfusion. We found that the number of male donors decreased; AIDS-related questions in medical history led to a 2 percent increase in donor rejections; 97 percent of donors said their blood could be used for transfusions; 1.4 percent said their blood could be used for laboratory studies only; and 1.6 percent did not respond. Only units designated for transfusion were released to hospitals. People who indicated that their donation was for laboratory studies had a higher prevalence of markers for hepatitis B virus and of antibodies to cytomegalovirus. White cell counts and helper/suppressor T lymphocyte ratios were not significantly different in the two groups. We conclude that volunteer donors have cooperated with the established procedures. None of the laboratory assays identified blood units donated by individuals who, based on information about AIDS high-risk groups, designated their donation for laboratory studies. PMID:3969698

  16. Endemic cryptosporidiosis and exposure to municipal tap water in persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vugia Duc J

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, Cryptosporidium parvum causes a prolonged, severe diarrheal illness to which there is no effective treatment, and the risk of developing cryptosporidiosis from drinking tap water in non-outbreak settings remains uncertain. To test the hypothesis that drinking tap water was associated with developing cryptosporidiosis, we conducted a matched case-control study among persons with AIDS in San Francisco. Methods Among patients reported to the San Francisco AIDS Registry from May 1996 through September 1998, we compared patients who developed cryptosporidiosis to those who did not. Cases were individually matched to controls based on age, sex, race/ethnicity, CD4+ T lymphocyte count, date of CD4+ count, and date of case diagnosis. Population attributable fractions (PAFs were calculated. Results The study consisted of 49 cases and 99 matched controls. In the multivariable analysis with adjustments for confounders, tap water consumption inside and outside the home at the highest exposure categories was associated with the occurrence of cryptosporidiosis (inside the home: odds ratio (OR, 6.76; 95% CI 1.37–33.5, and outside the home: OR 3.16; 95% CI 1.23–8.13. The PAF was 85%; that is, the proportion of cases of cryptosporidiosis in San Francisco AIDS patients attributable to tap water consumption could have been as high as 85%. Conclusions Although the results from this observational study cannot be considered definitive, until there is more data, we recommend persons with AIDS, especially those with compromised immune systems, consider avoiding tap water.

  17. The role of nurses in the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome policy process in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaladze, N A

    2003-03-01

    In Botswana, there is dearth of literature on the role of nursing in health-care policy and resource allocation and yet nurses constitute the majority (85%) of health manpower. The health-care delivery system depends mostly on nurses for service provision. There were two main purposes of this study: first, to gather descriptive data from major key players (with particular emphasis on nurses) concerning knowledge of the policy process and resource allocation for management and care of clients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Botswana; and, second, to identify nurse characteristics (e.g. position, education, experience, job category) associated with motivation to influence health-care policy in HIV/AIDS management and care in Botswana. A policy process conceptual framework was used to guide data collection and analysis. A case-study research method was used to conduct in-depth interviews from a purposive sample of 19 policy makers, and a survey questionnaire was used to collect data from a purposive sample of 95 registered nurses from six study sites in Botswana. The study findings indicate minimal participation of nurses in health-care policy process and resource allocation. The demographic variable of position was a predictor of the involvement of nurses in policy and in budgetary decisions. Both survey and interview data indicated that this minimal participation of nurses in the policy process resulted in implementation problems, thus compromising service provision. Implications of the findings for the nursing profession, nursing practice and policy, which address the importance of nurses' involvement, are discussed. PMID:12581124

  18. Bronchogenic carcinoma in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - report of two cases; Carcinoma broncogenico na sindrome da imunodeficiencia adquirida - relato de dois casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, Antonio Alexandre de Oliveira [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiodiagnostico; Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves de; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    1999-12-01

    The authors report two cases of bronchogenic carcinoma in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The first patient, a ee-year-old male, developed a left hilar adenocarcinoma, with spleen and bilateral adrenal metastases. The disease progressed unfavourably, resulting in the patient's death in less than a month. The second patient, a 47-year-old male, developed a large mass in the left upper lobe, with invasion of the thoracic wall and destruction of adjacent ribs. The histopathologic study revealed a non-oat-cell carcinoma. Both patients received palliative treatment since diagnosis was established late in the course of the disease. Recent studies suggest an association between bronchogenic carcinoma and human immunodeficiency virus infection. However, an actual increase in the prevalence of bronchogenic carcinoma in HIV-positive patients remains controversial. (author)

  19. Monocyte function in intravenous drug abusers with lymphadenopathy syndrome and in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: selective impairment of chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, G; Bottazzi, B; Acero, R; Bersani, L; Rossi, V; Introna, M; Lazzarin, A; Galli, M; Mantovani, A

    1985-01-01

    We have investigated monocyte function in 17 intravenous drug abusers with the clinical and laboratory features of lymphadenopathy syndrome (LAS). LAS patients had normal numbers of circulating monocytes. Monocytes from LAS patients were comparable to cells from normal donors in terms of phagocytosis of latex beads, interleukin-1 secretion, O2- release and killing of antibody-sensitized lymphoma cells or actinomycin D pretreated WEHI 164 cells. In contrast 13 out of 17 LAS subjects tested in this respect as well as six out of nine AIDS patients showed a marked defect of monocyte chemotaxis. Thus monocytes from patients with LAS or AIDS have a selective defect of monocyte chemotaxis. PMID:2998656

  20. Bone paracoccidioidomycosis associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: evaluation by radiological methods - a case report; Paracoccidioidomicose ossea associada a sindrome da imunodeficiencia adquirida - relato de um caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Lucimara; Hara, Monica Hiromi; Sabedotti, Ismail Fernando; Montandon, Cristiano; Torriani, Martin; Nanni, Livio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Radiologia

    1999-03-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a chronic granulomatous disease, caused by the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis fungus. This disease involves primarily the lungs, although disseminated forms may occur. Bone involvement is rare, and is associated to systemic disease or may present as a focal lesion. An association between paracoccidioidomycosis and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first established in 1989. There are only a few reports on this association, and none of them was the fungus isolated from bone lesions. This is the first case report on the paracoccidioidomycosis-AIDS association in which bone lesions demonstrated infection by P. brasiliensis. The authors propose the inclusion of paracoccidioidomycosis in the differential diagnosis of lytic bone lesions in patients with AIDS and discuss the role of radiological diagnostic in this case. (author)

  1. Endogenous sodium potassium ATPase inhibition related biochemical cascade and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome -Neural regulation of viral replication and immune response to the virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikumar A

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The isoprenoid pathway and its metabolites - digoxin, dolichol and ubiquinone were assessed in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Digoxin is an endogenous regulator of membrane Na+-K+ ATPase secreted by the human hypothalamus. The HMG CoA reductase activity was increased with increased digoxin and dolichol levels and reduced ubiquinone levels in AIDS. Membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity and serum magnesium levels were reduced. The tryptophan catabolites were increased and the tyrosine catabolites were reduced. The glycoconjugate metabolites were increased and lysosomal stability was reduced. There was reduced incorporation of glycoconjugates into membranes and increased membrane cholesterol: phospholipid ratio. Lipid peroxidation products and NO were increased while free radical scavenging enzymes and reduced glutathione were reduced. The role of the isoprenoid pathway related cascade in the pathogenesis of AIDS is discussed.

  2. Unusual Case of Metastatic Gastrointestinal Adenocarcinoma to the Cervical Spine without a Detectable Primary Source in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Kaloostian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of metastatic gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma to the cervical spine in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS being treated with antiretroviral therapy. The source of this tumor could not be identified despite a thorough evaluation. A 49-year-old male being treated for AIDS presents with worsening neck pain and left distal arm weakness. MRI demonstrated an erosive mass within the cervical four vertebral body extending through the pedicle on the left side. Patient underwent needle biopsy followed by combined anterior and posterior fusion procedures. Pathology demonstrated metastatic gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma without known primary origin. He is currently undergoing palliative radiotherapy. This is an unusual case of metastatic gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma to the cervical spine. This should be included on the differential diagnosis of spinal lesions in this patient population and may represent a unique tumor in patients with HIV/AIDS who are on immunosuppressive therapy.

  3. The chest radiographic appearances of non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the chest radiographic appearances of the non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary infection in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: Ten patients with AIDS and NTM underwent chest X-ray radiography and 7 patients performed high-resolution CT (HRCT) scan. Chest radiographic features of' NTM in patients with AIDS were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The chest radiograph showed bilateral pulmonary involvement in 6 cases and single lung involvement in 4 cases (3 cases in the right, 1 case in the left). Patchy air space consolidation (6 cases), large consolidation (5 cases), cavitation (5 cases), small nodules (3 cases), military nodules (2 cases), linear opacity (1 cases) were demonstrated on radiography. On HRCT, air space consolidation (7 cases), small nodules (6 cases), large consolidation (5 cases) with cavitation and cylindric bronchiectasis after the absorption of consolidation, enlarged hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes (4 cases), ground-glass opacities (3 cases), military nodules and 'tree-in-bud' sign (2 case), pleural effusion (1 case), pericardial effusion (1 case) and fibrotic band (1 case) were found. Conclusion: The most common radiographic appearances of NTM in patients with AIDS are bilateral small nodules, large consolidation with cavitation and cylindric bronchiectasis, enlarged hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes. (authors)

  4. Manifestações reumáticas da síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS Rheumatic manifestations of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Siqueira-Batista

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes síndromes reumáticas e fenômenos auto-imunes já foram associados à infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV, quer pela maior freqüência de adoecimento, quer pela maior gravidade. Ademais, em muitos casos, sintomas e sinais da doença reumática estão presentes na abertura do quadro de infecção pelo HIV (como na síndrome de soroconversão ou da síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS. O reconhecimento deste horizonte é da maior importância para a prática do reumatologista, tornando-se altamente necessário ampliar a familiaridade com estes conceitos. Revisitar as interseções reumatológicas da infecção pelo HIV - enfatizando-se situações como as espondiloartropatias soronegativas, as artralgias, as artrites infecciosas, fibromialgia, miopatias, vasculites, síndrome linfocítica infiltrante difusa, lúpus eritematoso sistêmico e fenômenos auto-imunes - é, pois, o objetivo do presente artigo.Different rheumatic syndromes and auto-immune phenomena have already been associated with the infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, either by the higher frequency of the disease or by the greater severity. Furthermore, in many cases, symptoms and signs of rheumatic disease are present at the beginning of the infection condition by HIV (as in the serum conversion or the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS. Recognition of these possibilities is of fundamental importance to the rheumatologist practice and is necessary to have familiarity with these concepts. Revisiting the rheumatologic intersections of the infection by HIV - emphasizing situations such as seronegative spondyloarthropathies, arthralgia, infectitious arthritis, fibromyalgia, myopathy, vasculitis, difuse infiltranting lymphocytic syndrome systemic lupus erythematous and auto-immune phenomena - is then, the aim of the present article.

  5. The correlation between perceived social support and illness uncertainty in people with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosa Sajjadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Illness uncertainty is a source of a chronic and pervasive psychological stress for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS (PLWH, and largely affects their quality of life and the ability to cope with the disease. Based on the uncertainty in illness theory, the social support is one of the illness uncertainty antecedents, and influences the level of uncertainty perceived by patients. Aim: To examine uncertainty in PLWH and its correlation with social support in Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional correlational study was conducted with 80 PLWH presenting to AIDS Research Center, Tehran, Iran in 2013. The data collected using illness uncertainty and social support inventories were analyzed through Pearson′s correlation coefficient, Spearman′s correlation coefficient, and regression analysis. Results: The results showed a high level of illness uncertainty in PLWH and a negative significant correlation between perceived social support and illness uncertainty ( P = 0.01, r = -0.29. Conclusion: Uncertainty is a serious aspect of illness experience in Iranian PLWH. Providing adequate, structured information to patients as well as opportunities to discuss their concerns with other PLWH and receive emotional support from their health care providers may be worthwhile.

  6. Psychopathology in 90 consecutive human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive and acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients with mostly intravenous drug use history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perretta, P; Nisita, C; Zaccagnini, E; Lorenzetti, C; Nuccorini, A; Cassano, G B; Akiskal, H S

    1996-01-01

    This report presents systematic clinical data regarding psychiatric diagnoses, personal and family psychiatric histories, and symptomatologic aspects of 90 consecutive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, of whom slightly less than two thirds were at risk due to intravenous drug abuse. In addition, a comparison was made between the distribution patterns of these variables at various stages of HIV illness and related at-risk behaviors. Eighty-four percent of the patients met criteria for a spectrum of DSM-III-R diagnoses (mostly affective) that were associated with high rates of affective and alcohol abuse disorders among first-degree relatives. Mood disorders did not differ significantly between the two main groups at risk (intravenous drug users [IVDUs] v others) by gender, age, or stage of illness. The overall data from the rating scales show high levels of psychic and somatic anxiety in the early stages of illness, whereas cognitive symptoms, retardation, and disorientation are dominant in later stages. A noteworthy finding in this study is that many depressed patients demonstrated current and/or past hypomanic, hyperthymic, or cyclothymic features with no evidence of brain damage detectable by computed axial tomography (CAT). These temperamental attributes, which preceded HIV infection, may have served as risk factors for both drug abuse and impulsive sexual behavior in all types of at-risk groups. PMID:8826691

  7. Cholecystitis in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: ultrasonographic findings in a case of uncommon presentation during childhood; Colecistitis en un nino con sida: hallazgos ecograficos en una forma infrecuente de presentacion en la infancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubi-Palomares, I.; Martinez-Leon, M. I.; Alonso-Usabiaga, I.; Ceres-Ruiz, L. [Hospital Materno Infantil del C.H.U. Carlos Haya. Malaga (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    We present the case of a boy with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in whom ultrasound revealed the presence of acalculous cholecystitis. Abdominal ultrasound was essential in the initial diagnosis and the assessment of the response to treatment. This entity has rarely been reported in the pediatric radiology literature. In our patient, the cholecystitis may have been caused by infection, and the involvement of regional lymphatic obstruction in the pathogenesis is considered. (Author) 14 refs.

  8. [Pathology of the internal organs and central nervous system in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (with special reference to opportunistic infections)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, T; Chinaglia, D; Riviera, L; Capricci, E; Gullotta, F; Spigolon, G; Bauer, A L

    1990-01-01

    Extracerebral and cerebral pathology in AIDS (with particular emphasis on the opportunistic infections). The Authors present the extracerebral pathology of 27 cases of AIDS observed at the Department of Pathology of Milan and the cerebral pathology of 80 cases of AIDS collected by three Institutes (Department of Pathology of Milan, Department of Pathology of Rimini and Department of Neuropathology of Münster) with particular emphasis on the pathology of the opportunistic infections. In the adults' group, the most frequent infections are the protozoan ones (T. gondii) followed with equal incidence by the viral and fungal diseases. In the pediatric group the viral diseases are the most frequently seen. Almost all of the adults show multiple infections in the same organ or in different organs. Diffuse lesions with heavy pathologic fields were observed also without tissue reaction. As to cerebral pathology AIDS' patients with opportunistic infections show focal symptoms, whereas the so called "subacute microglial encephalitis" generally appears as a demential syndrome. In cases with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy JC virus was always found and in one case also SV 40 - and BK virus. The diffuse demyelinization in some cases of HIV-Encephalopathy is aspecific. In HIV-positive newborns with cerebral signs, the lesions are characterized by oedema, spongiosis and microcalcifications of the basal ganglia; these are aspecific lesions which can be found in toxic and infectious encephalopathies.

  9. Nocardiose pulmonar em paciente com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida: relato de caso Pulmonary nocardiosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carina Gamboa da Silva

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem um caso de nocardiose pulmonar em um homem de 37 anos de idade com a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida, em tratamento com anti-retrovirais, cujos sintomas de apresentação foram tosse com expectoração, hemoptóicos e emagrecimento progressivo. Foi realizada radiografia do tórax, que demonstrou consolidação no lobo superior do pulmão direito, e tomografia computadorizada do tórax, que evidenciou consolidação pulmonar com áreas escavadas. Diante dos achados radiológicos inespecíficos, foi realizada broncoscopia com lavado broncoalveolar, evidenciando estruturas filamentosas Gram-positivas compatíveis com Nocardia sp. O tratamento utilizado foi sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, com remissão completa do quadro respiratório. Após revisão da literatura, foram discutidos os principais aspectos radiológicos desta doença.The authors describe a case of pulmonary nocardiosis in a 37-year-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in treatment with antiretroviral drugs. Clinical symptoms were productive cough, hemoptysis and progressive weight loss. A chest x-ray film showed a right upper lobe consolidation while the computed tomography demonstrated consolidation and areas of cavitation. The radiologic findings were unspecific. Consequently, a bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, revealing filamentous Gram-positive bacteria (Nocardia sp. Treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resulted in complete remission of the respiratory symptoms. The authors review the literature and discuss the main radiological features of this disease.

  10. Recent progress on functional cure for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome%艾滋病功能性治愈研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙佳; 朱彪

    2014-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome caused by HIV has been considered as one of the worldwide incurable illnesses.Despite the huge clinical success of HAART,several factors such as adverse effects,requirement of life-long adherence,high cost,and drug resistance make the request for an ultimate cure of HIV/ AIDS.The functional cure is the achievement of spontaneous drug-free control of HIV infection without disease progression.The review summarizes the main achievements in protecting HIV target cells—CD4+ T cells,CLT immune enhancement,depletion of latent reservoir,hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and gene therapy.%艾滋病是目前尚不能根治的顽疾之一,HAART虽取得了举世瞩目的疗效,但由于它的不良反应明显,需要终身服药,价格昂贵并且易出现耐药,使得研发一种能够治愈HIV/AIDS疗法成为非常迫切的任务.功能性治愈是指艾滋病患者在没有接受任何抗病毒治疗的情况下,能够持续控制HIV复制.此文将从保护HIV的靶细胞—CD4+T细胞、增强机体CTL反应、减少和打破HIV潜伏性感染、细胞移植和基因修饰治疗等方面对艾滋病功能性治愈研究的最新进展作一综述.

  11. Associação de carcinoma broncogênico com síndrome de Pancoast e síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida Association of bronchogenic carcinoma with Pancoast's syndrome and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. FRÖHLICH

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o caso de um paciente portador da síndrome de Pancoast associada à síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida. Esta apresentação é rara, visto que os tumores mais freqüentemente associados à SIDA são o sarcoma de Kaposi e o linfoma não-Hodgkin. O paciente, com passado de uso de drogas injetáveis, internou-se para investigação de massa em ápice pulmonar, com presença de síndrome de Pancoast, sendo solicitado anti-HIV, com resultado positivo, e tendo sido feito diagnóstico de Ca brônquico não-pequenas células.A case of a patient with Pancoast's syndrome associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is reported. This association is rare and Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma are the most recurrent tumors in AIDS. The patient was an IV drug user and was admitted to the hospital for diagnosis of apex lung mass with signs of Pancoast's syndrome. HIV serology was positive and pathology of lung mass showed non-small cell lung cancer.

  12. Acquired von Willebrand Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭涛

    2005-01-01

    @@ Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AvWS) is kind of bleeding disorder with laboratory findings similar to those in congenital yon Willebrand disease (vWD).AvWS doesn's have any personal or family history of bleeding, but is associated with certain diseases or abnormal conditions or drugs. Although AvWS is being stated as a rare disease, it has gained more and more attention during the past years. Not because of the severity of the disease, but it is more common than we thought and most patients don' t have a proper diagnosis.

  13. Primary parotid B-cell lymphoma successfully treated with chemotherapy plus highly active antiretroviral therapy with prolonged survival and immune reconstitution in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Corti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL is the second most common acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS-defining cancer. In this population, up to 70-80% of cases may present as extranodal location as the primary clinical manifestation of the neoplasm disease. Gastrointestinal tract is the most frequent location of AIDS-associated NHL. However, salivary gland involvement, including the parotid gland is a rare complication in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-patients. Here, we describe a patient seropositive for the HIV, who developed a primary NHL of the parotid gland histologically classified as a high-grade diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Patient was treated with a combination of chemotherapy plus highly active antiretroviral therapy with a good clinical, virological and immunological response and a prolonged survival, more than 5 years, without evidence of neoplasm relapse.

  14. 筛查确诊的人免疫缺陷病毒感染52例分析%Retrospective analysis of 52 cases of screening-detected human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高清云; 沈亮亮; 刘和平; 赵敬军

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV感染/艾滋病)的流行现状及其临床特点.方法 回顾性分析2006-2011年,由上海市艾滋病检测中心复筛确诊的52例HIV感染者的流行病学资料及部分临床资料.结果 筛查对象以30~39岁年龄段的阳性检查率为最高,确诊的52例HIV感染/艾滋病患者男女之比为4.2∶1;家政服务及待业人员18例占34.62%,民工13例占25%,驾驶员10例占19.23%;外省市户籍35例占67.31%,上海市户籍17例占32.69%.感染途径中异性性传播23例占44.23%,其次是男男同性恋14例占26.92%; HIV感染合并梅毒11例,艾滋病期合并梅毒2例.艾滋病期临床表现以发热、外周血细胞减少、肺部感染为主.结论 综合性医院诊断的HIV感染/艾滋病患者中,感染途径以性传播为主,艾滋病患者的临床表现无特异性,外省市户籍及低教育水平人群的HIV感染需引起临床医生重视.%Objective To investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) infection.Methods A retrospective study was carried out on 52 cases of screening-detected HIV infection/AIDS in the Department of Dermatology,Tongji Hospital from 2006 to 2011.The epidemiological and clinical data were collected and analyzed.Results People aged 30-39 years showed the highest detection rate of HIV infection/AIDS (0.14%,19/13 544) among all the subjects who underwent screening.The male to female ratio was 4.2 ∶ 1 in the 52 confirmed cases of HIV infection/AIDS.Of these patients,housekeeping workers and job-waiting people predominated (18,34.62%),followed by casual workers (13,25%) and drivers(10,19.23%); only 32.69% (17) hold a shanghai household registration,and the remaining 67.31% (35/52) hold non-shanghai household registration.The main route of HIV/AIDS transmission was heterosexual contact (23,44.23%),followed by male

  15. Síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida: descrição anátomo-patológica de dois casos de necropsia Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: pathologic description of two autopsy cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera L. C. Delmonte

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available Os Autores apresentam dois casos de Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida com ênfase aos achados de necropsia. A criptococose generalizada de padrão miliar, infreqüente, e a pneumocistose foram infecções oportunísticas de curso fatal pela destruição parenquimatosa de órgãos vitais que acarretaram. É destacado o papel etiopatogênico do citomegalovírus, pela concomitância de infecção em ambos os casos e associação aos órgãos mais afetados. Extensa necrose de supra-renal foi constatada, possivelmente secundária à destruição celular viral pelo CMV.Two autopsy cases of acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome are reported. One case showed widespread miliar cryptococcosis, with scarce inflammatory response. The other developed respiratory failure due to pulmonary infection by P. carinii. In both cases we could observe generalized cytomegalic infection, with striking adrenal involvement. Special emphasis is given to the pathologic changes and the possible etiopathogenic role of cytomegaloviroses in the acquired immunodeficiency cases.

  16. Reliability and validity of questionnaire of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome prevention for senior high school students%高中生预防艾滋病量表的信度和效度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡泳; 施榕; 黄红; 钱序

    2011-01-01

    目的 考察高中生预防艾滋病量表的可行性和有效性.方法 设计拟定基于健康促进理论的高中生预防艾滋病量表.采用整群随机抽样的方法,对上海市、福建省三明市和广西壮族自治区北海市的12 313名高一学生进行预防艾滋病量表测量,并对其中251名学生进行重复测量,考评其信度和效度.结果 高中生预防艾滋病量表的内在信度Cronbacb's α系数为0.608-0.916;重测信度考评中Sperman相关系数均>0.7;因子分析显示结构效度较好,15个公因子(包括知识、态度、信念和行为)能解释问卷全部内容的58.381%.结论 该研究制定的高中生预防艾滋病量表具有良好的信度和效度,可用于相关研究.%Objective To evaluate the reliability and validity of questionnaire of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome prevention for senior high school students. Methods The questionnaire of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome prevention for senior high school students was designed on the basis of health promotion theory. A total of 12 313 students of grade 1 in senior high schools were selected by cluster random sampling from Shanghai, Sanming of Fujian Province and Beihai of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, and survey with the questionnaire was conducted. Two hundred and fifty-one students were retested, and the reliability and validity of the questionnaire were examined. Results Cronbach's a coefficient of the reliability of the questionnaire ranged from O.608 to 0. 916. Spearman correlation coefficients were all higher than 0. 7 in the evaluation of test-retest reliability. The construct validity of the questionnaire was good by factor analysis, and 15 common factors including knowledge, attitude, belief and practice could explain 58. 381% of the questionnaire. Conclusion The questionnaire of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome prevention for senior high school students designed in this study has favorable reliability and validity, and

  17. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - correlation of high-resolution computed tomography and anatomopathology; Pneumocistose na sindrome da imunodeficiencia adquirida: correlacao da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao com a anatomopatologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson; Moreira, Luiza Beatriz [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: edmarchiori@zipmail.com.br; Capone, Domenico [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Moraes, Heleno Pinto de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Patologia; Pereira, Cyntia Inez Guedes Soares

    2001-12-01

    We present the main findings observed on the high-resolution computed tomography examinations of 15 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. The high-resolution computed tomography and autopsy findings of 5 patients were also compared. The most frequently observed high-resolution computed tomography patterns were ground-glass attenuation, consolidation areas, crazy-paving pattern and cysts. Nodules and intralobular reticulation were less frequently observed. Ground-glass attenuation and consolidation areas corresponded to alveolar filling with inflammatory exudate. Thickening of the interlobular septa was due to cell infiltration and edema. One patient presented interlobular reticulation, and the pathology study revealed alveolar septa thickening due to cell infiltration and fibrosis. Nodules observed in one of the patients corresponded to a patchy intra alveolar accumulation of microorganisms and inflammatory cells forming a 'granulomatous' pattern. (author)

  18. Acquired ichthyosis with hoffman's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathyanarayana B

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A middle aged man presented with features of acquired ichthyosis with Hoffman's syndrome. Laboratory tests support hypothyodism. Myoedema and hypertrophy of muscles were present. Patient was previously treated for Pellagra.

  19. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted infections among health care providers in Lahore, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is a global problem of extraordinary dimensions and has so far resulted in nearly 25 million deaths worldwide. Health care providers (HCPs) are considered to play a pivotal role in the provision of preventive and curative services to individuals suffering from HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections. Pakistan, which was previously categorised as having a low-prevalence, high-risk HIV epidemic, is now facing a concentrated HIV epidemic among its most at-risk populations such as injecting drug users. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and reported practices relating to HIV/AIDS and STIs among private and public sector health care providers providing clinical services in areas where women sell sex. This was an exploratory quantitative study, where a structured questionnaire was administered in face-to-face interviews with 200 HCPs from the public and private sectors. Knowledge about AIDS and correct diagnosis of STIs were defined as according to the national guidelines of NACP. Pearson's chi-square analysis was performed to test associations between predictors and level of knowledge of STIs in each group separately. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to indicate predicting factors for correct management of STIs. Forty-five percent of the HCPs had correct knowledge about the transmission and prevention of HIV, whereas 21% had seen a patient with advanced HIV infection, only two HCPs had been trained to manage such cases and 82% were not aware of syndromic management of STIs. Only 10% could cite the 'correct treatment' of gonorrhoea, syphilis and vaginal discharge. The odds of having the 'correct knowledge' of diagnosing gonorrhoea and syphilis were 2.1 (CI 95%, 1.2-3.8) if the HCP was a female medical doctor working in public sector. Further intensive training is needed to improve the ability of relevant HCPs to correctly diagnose and effectively treat patients

  20. Gastric cryptosporidiosis as a clue for the diagnosis of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome Criptosporidiose gástrica como pista para o diagnóstico da síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyntia Mendes CLEMENTE

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium parvum has been detected with increasing frequency in the gastrointestinal tract, but involvement of the stomach is rarely reported. Whenever found in the histologic examination of the gastrointestinal mucosa, it should raise the suspicion of an immunocompromised host. We report a case of Cryptosporidium-associated erosive gastritis in a 64-year-old woman, who was found later to have the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Gastroduodenoendoscopy and biopsy of the gastric mucosa played an invaluable role in the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis and to disclose the underlying immunodeficiency stateInfecções oportunistas do trato gastrointestinal constituem ameaça à população crescente de portadores de imunossupressão. O comprometimento do estômago por Cryptosporidium é incomum. Quando identificado no exame histopatológico da mucosa gástrica, é mandatória a investigação do estado imunológico do hospedeiro. São apresentados os dados clinicopatológicos e endoscópicos de uma paciente de 64 anos com gastrite erosiva associada à infecção por Cryptosporidium. O encontro deste agente oportunista no exame histopatológico da mucosa gástrica foi fundamental para esclarecer a doença de base da paciente, que era a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida.

  1. 473例艾滋病毒感染者和艾滋病患者中医临床症状和证候分布规律初探%A Pilot Study on the Syndromes and Symptoms of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Report of 473 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国梁; 徐经凤; 刘健; 陆平; 汪小波; 李玉升; 曹承楼; 昝兴平; 聂辉

    2009-01-01

    目的:对皖北地区艾滋病毒(human immunodeficiency virus, HIV)感染者和艾滋病(acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS)患者的中医临床症状和证候特点进行初步探讨.方法:采用中医临床流行病学调查方法,制定统一的临床观察表与调查方法,用Excel建立相关数据库,对症状、体征和证型的频数分布进行统计.结果:皖北地区HIV感染者和AIDS患者的感染途径主要为经血感染;临床症状以乏力、气短为最多见;HIV期以气血两亏型为最多见,AIDS期以气阴两虚、肺肾不足型,肝经风火、湿毒蕴结型,脾肾亏虚、湿邪阻滞型和气虚血瘀、邪毒壅滞型为前4位复合证型.结论:AIDS中医临床症状特征是"以虚为主,虚实夹杂,气血津液俱亏,湿毒瘀虚同在",证型特征是"复杂多变,以虚为本,多脏腑受累",病情呈现渐行性发展、渐进性加重之特点.

  2. [Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma: 1. Course during the 20 years of the epidemic. 2. The experience at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán: 1986-2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rivera, E Gabriela; Gómez-Roel, Xóchitl; Villasís-Keever, Angelina

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this presentation is the description of the epidemiologic evolution and changes in natural history of the human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) epidemic itself and its relation with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma (ARL). We have started with the description of the world's state of the HIV epidemic, its features since the first case report in the United States of America in 1981, through the peak of new diagnoses in 1993 until the event that changed the natural history of the disease: the era of the widespread use of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), introduced in 1995 in the world and in 1997 in our country. The widespread introduction of HAART led to dramatic reductions in AIDS related mortality and morbidity throughout the developed world with a marked fall in the incidence of the major opportunistic infections in AIDS. We describe the main risk factors for the development of ARL, and the prognostic factors for survival and response to treatment. There is no clear definition in the literature of the roll that has played the use of HAART in relation to survival and response to treatment in ARL, but there is evidence that the basal count of CD4 cells has increased with HAART, leading to a better survival and response in ARL. The debate regarding this issue is surely affected by factors such as degree of antiretroviral treatment compliance, antiretroviral therapy resistance and chemotherapy heterogeneity. Finally we present the preliminary results of the analysis of our experience in ARL from 1986 to 2003.

  3. Primary Extranodal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma of the Head and Neck in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Clinicopathologic Study of 24 Patients in a Single Hospital of Infectious Diseases in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corti, Marcelo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs are commonly described in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS and are related with an atypical morphology and aggressive clinical course. AIDS-associated lymphomas are characterized by their rapid progression, frequent extranodal manifestations, and poor outcome. Objective The aim of this article is to remake the clinical features of head and neck (HN NHL in patients with AIDS to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. Methods We evaluated the epidemiologic, clinical, immunologic, virologic, and histopathologic characteristics of 24 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS with primary HN NHL treated at a single institution between 2002 and 2012. Histopathologic diagnosis was made according to the criteria of the World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. Additional immunohistochemical stains were applied in all cases. Results Eighteen patients (75% were men and the median of age was 39 years. The gingiva and the hard palate were the most common sites of the lesions (15 patients, 62.5%. Lactate dehydrogenase levels were elevated in 16 cases (84%. Bone marrow infiltration was detected only in 4 cases (16.6%. The median CD4 T-cell count was 100 cells/µL. According to the histopathologic evaluation, the most common subtype was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (12 cases, 50%, followed by plasmablastic lymphoma (9 cases, 37.5% and Burkitt lymphoma (3 cases, 12.5%. Conclusion HN NHL is a severe complication of advanced HIV/AIDS disease. Early diagnosis followed by chemotherapy plus highly active antiretroviral treatment is necessary to improve the prognosis and the survival of these patients.

  4. Severe Dermatophytosis and Acquired or Innate Immunodeficiency: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Rouzaud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi responsible for benign and common forms of infection worldwide. However, they can lead to rare and severe diseases in immunocompromised patients. Severe forms include extensive and/or invasive dermatophytosis, i.e., deep dermatophytosis and Majocchi’s granuloma. They are reported in immunocompromised hosts with primary (autosomal recessive CARD9 deficiency or acquired (solid organ transplantation, autoimmune diseases requiring immunosuppressive treatments, HIV infection immunodeficiencies. The clinical manifestations of the infection are not specific. Lymph node and organ involvement may also occur. Diagnosis requires both mycological and histological findings. There is no consensus on treatment. Systemic antifungal agents such as terbinafine and azoles (itraconazole or posaconazole are effective. However, long-term outcome and treatment management depend on the site and extent of the infection and the nature of the underlying immunodeficiency.

  5. Tuberculose como doença definidora de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida: dez anos de evolução na Cidade do Rio de Janeiro Tuberculosis as a disease defining acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: ten years of surveillance in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Cristina Coelho Soares

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a freqüência da tuberculose e das outras principais doenças oportunistas definidoras de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida, no momento em que estes casos são notificados, no Município do Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODOS: Análise do banco de dados do Sistema de Vigilância Epidemiológica do Programa de Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis e Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro, no período de 1993 a 2002. RESULTADOS: A expansão da definição de casos de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida ocorrida em 1998 criou um aumento substancial no número de casos notificados de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida, principalmente por aqueles que passaram a ser definidos pelo critério imunológico. Dentre os casos de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida que foram definidos apenas por doença, a candidíase em suas diversas formas manteve-se como a doença oportunista de maior freqüência no momento da notificação. Embora a pneumonia por Pneumocystis carinii se apresentasse como a segunda doença mais freqüente na maioria dos anos observados, a partir de 2001, a tuberculose ultrapassou-a em freqüência, tornando-se a segunda doença mais freqüente no momento da notificação dos casos de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar da diminuição do número de casos de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida definidos por doença, a tuberculose manteve-se como um importante evento definidor dessa síndrome, sendo atualmente de ocorrência mais freqüente do que a pneumonia por Pneumocystis carinii e a toxoplasmose, provavelmente por sua alta taxa de prevalência na cidade.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency of tuberculosis and of the other principal opportunistic infections defining acquired immunodeficiency syndrome at the time such cases were reported in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: Analysis of the data compiled in the Rio de Janeiro Municipal

  6. Inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies underlying tuberculosis in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Bustamante, Jacinta; El-Baghdadi, Jamila; Camcioglu, Yildiz; Parvaneh, Nima; Azbaoui, Safaa El; Agader, Aomar; Hassani, Amal; Hafidi, Naima El; Mrani, Nidal Alaoui; Jouhadi, Zineb; Ailal, Fatima; Najib, Jilali; Reisli, Ismail; Zamani, Adil; Yosunkaya, Sebnem; Gulle-Girit, Saniye; Yildiran, Alisan; Cipe, Funda Erol; Torun, Selda Hancerli; Metin, Ayse; Atikan, Basak Yildiz; Hatipoglu, Nevin; Aydogmus, Cigdem; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Dogu, Figen; Karaca, Neslihan; Aksu, Guzide; Kutukculer, Necil; Keser-Emiroglu, Melike; Somer, Ayper; Tanir, Gonul; Aytekin, Caner; Adimi, Parisa; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Mamishi, Setareh; Bousfiha, Aziz; Sanal, Ozden; Mansouri, Davood; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and a few related mycobacteria, is a devastating disease, killing more than a million individuals per year worldwide. However, its pathogenesis remains largely elusive, as only a small proportion of infected individuals develop clinical disease either during primary infection or during reactivation from latency or secondary infection. Subacute, hematogenous, and extrapulmonary disease tends to be more frequent in infants, children, and teenagers than in adults. Life-threatening primary TB of childhood can result from known acquired or inherited immunodeficiencies, although the vast majority of cases remain unexplained. We review here the conditions conferring a predisposition to childhood clinical diseases caused by mycobacteria, including not only M.tb but also weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as BCG vaccines and environmental mycobacteria. Infections with weakly virulent mycobacteria are much rarer than TB, but the inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies underlying these infections are much better known. Their study has also provided genetic and immunological insights into childhood TB, as illustrated by the discovery of single-gene inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlying severe cases of TB. Novel findings are expected from ongoing and future human genetic studies of childhood TB in countries that combine a high proportion of consanguineous marriages, a high incidence of TB, and an excellent clinical care, such as Iran, Morocco, and Turkey. PMID:25703555

  7. Cardiovascular complications in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome Complicações cardiovasculares na síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Barbaro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has significantly improved the clinical outcome of HIV disease, with increased survival rates. However, the introduction of HAART has generated a contrast in the cardiac manifestations of AIDS. In developed countries, we observed an approximate 30% reduction in the prevalence of HIV-associated cardiomyopathy, possibly related to a reduction of opportunistic infections and myocarditis. In developing countries, however, where the availability of HAART is limited and the pathogenic impact of nutritional factors is significant, we observed an increase of approximately 32% in the prevalence of HIV-associated cardiomyopathy and a related high mortality rate from congestive heart failure. Also, some HAART regimens in developed countries, especially those including protease inhibitors, have been shown to cause, in a high proportion of HIV-infected patients, a iatrogenic metabolic syndrome (HIV-lipodystrophy syndrome.This is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular events even in young HIV-infected people. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for this syndrome will lead to the discovery of new drugs that will reduce cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients receiving HAART.A introdução da terapia antitroviral altamente potente (HAART melhorou significativamente a evolução clínica da infecção pelo HIV com um aumento nas taxas de sobrevida. Apesar deste benefício, o uso da HAART gerou contrastes nas manifestações cardíacas da Aids. Nos países desenvolvidos, observou-se uma redução de aproximadamente 30% na prevalência de cardiomiopatia associada ao HIV, possivelmente relacionada à redução das infecções oportunistas e da miocardite. Nos países em desenvolvimento, entretanto, aonde a disponibilidade da HAART é limitada e o impacto patogênico dos fatores nutricionais é significante, observou-se um aumento de

  8. Lúpus eritematoso sistêmico juvenil em adolescente com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida Juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus in a adolescent with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália de Carvalho Sacilotto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O lúpus eritematoso sistêmico juvenil (LESJ é uma doença inflamatória crônica, multissistêmica e autoimune. Algumas manifestações clínicas dessa condição são semelhantes às encontradas na síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (SIDA. A coexistência da SIDA com o LESJ é rara, especialmente na população pediátrica, sendo descritos na literatura pesquisada apenas cinco casos de pacientes com infecção congênita por HIV que desenvolveram essa enfermidade reumatológica, tendo como manifestação inicial a nefrite lúpica. Relata-se o caso de uma paciente de 14 anos, com diagnóstico de infecção pelo HIV aos 8 meses de idade, na qual se realizou diagnóstico de LESJ com base nos critérios diagnósticos do Colégio Americano de Reumatologia. Este relato tem a finalidade de descrever uma paciente com SIDA que, embora tenha desenvolvido LESJ em sua forma clássica e grave, evoluiu satisfatoriamenteSystemic lupus erythematosus juvenile (SLEJ is a multi-systemic, chronic inflammatory disease, and with autoimmune features. Some clinical manifestations of this disease are similar to those found inAcquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS. Coexistence of AIDS with SLEJ is rare, especially in the pediatric population, being described in the literature just 5 patients with congenital HIV infection who developed this rheumatological condition, presenting lupus nephritis as the initial manifestation. We report the case of a 14 year old patient, diagnosed with HIV infection at 8 months of age, with signs and symptoms of SLEJ. This report aims to describe a female patient with AIDS who developed SLE in its classic and forms, but has evolved satisfactorily

  9. Goldenhar syndrome: a cause of secondary immunodeficiency?

    OpenAIRE

    De Golovine Serge; Wu Shuya; Hunter Jill V; Shearer William T

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Goldenhar syndrome (GS) results from an aberrant development of the 1st and 2nd branchial arches. There is a wide range of clinical manifestations, the most common being microtia, hemifacial microsomia, epibulbar dermoids and vertebral malformations. We present two cases of GS and secondary immunodeficiency due to anatomical defects characteristic of this disorder. Case 1 (3-year-old female) averaged 6 episodes of sinusitis and otitis media per year. Case 2 (7-year-old female) also h...

  10. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection, distribution of viral types and risk factors in cervical samples from human immunodeficiency virus-positive women attending three human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immune deficiency syndrome reference centres in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Eduardo Silva Martins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients have a greater prevalence of coinfection with human papillomavirus (HPV is of high oncogenic risk. Indeed, the presence of the virus favours intraepithelial squamous cell lesion progression and may induce cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection, distribution of HPV types and risk factors among HIV-positive patients. Cervical samples from 450 HIV-positive patients were analysed with regard to oncotic cytology, colposcopy and HPV presence and type by means of polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. The results were analysed by comparing demographic data and data relating to HPV and HIV infection. The prevalence of HPV was 47.5%. Among the HPV-positive samples, 59% included viral types of high oncogenic risk. Multivariate analysis showed an association between HPV infection and the presence of cytological alterations (p = 0.003, age greater than or equal to 35 years (p = 0.002, number of partners greater than three (p = 0.002, CD4+ lymphocyte count < 200/mm3 (p = 0.041 and alcohol abuse (p = 0.004. Although high-risk HPV was present in the majority of the lesions studied, the low frequency of HPV 16 (3.3%, low occurrence of cervical lesions and preserved immunological state in most of the HIV-positive patients were factors that may explain the low occurrence of precancerous cervical lesions in this population.

  11. Esofagites em pacientes com síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida: estudo histológico e imunoistoquímico Esophagitis in patients with acquired human immunodeficiency syndrome: an histological and immunohistochemistry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Aguiar Vidal

    2007-12-01

    citomegalovírus, respectivamente. O emprego da técnica de imunoistoquímica auxilia no diagnóstico das esofagites virais e torna possível detectar o citomegalovírus em esôfagos normais à endoscopia e/ou ao exame histopatológico.BACKGROUND: Almost all patients with acquired immunodeficiency virus syndrome will have gastrointestinal symptoms during the course of their illness. The high prevalence and complications of esophagitis are well documented. AIM: Graduate esophagitis; identify microorganisms like Candida sp, cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus and mycobacteria; identify by immunohistochemical staining viral agents cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus I, herpesvirus II, Epstein-Barr Virus, human papilloma virus and human immunodeficiency virus; verify how immunohistochemistry changes the profile of esophagitis; verify the association between the histological and endoscopical findings; verify the relevance of the number of fragments studied in the characterization of the histological agents. METHODS: We studied retrospectively esophageal biopsies in 227 patients with acquired immunodeficiency virus syndrome using hematoxylin and eosin, PAS (periodic acid of Schiff, Groccott and Ziehl-Nielsen stains and immunoperoxidase stains to detect opportunistic agents. Endoscopic aspects were studied. RESULTS: The non-specific esophagitis grade III, in the inferior third of the esophagus, was the most frequent type. Candida sp was the most frequent agent, followed by viruses cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus and mycobacteria. The presence of plaque and ulceration suggested the diagnosis of esophageal candidiasis and cytomegalovirus esophagitis. Immunohistochemical allowed the characterization of cytomegalovirus and of herpesvirus in those cases where other techniques could not achieve it, furthermore the cytomegalovirus was also found in histological normal cases, making the use of this technique advisable in routine diagnosis. The herpesvirus I was not found isolated but associated to

  12. Clinicopathological analysis of ten cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients complicated with malignant tumors%艾滋病合并恶性肿瘤10例临床病理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德纯; 李宏军

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the clinicopathological characteristics of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( AIDS ) patients complicated with malignant tumors. Methods:The consulted pathological biopsy and autopsy data of 48 AIDS patients were studied by the combination of clinical analysis,imaging,anatomy and pathology. Results:Among the 48 AIDS cases,10 patients were complicated with malignant tumors;the 2 children acquired the disease from their mothers and 4 of the 8 adults from blood transfusion. Four of the cases were complicated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma,2 cases breast carcinoma,1 case was complicated with Kaposi's sarcoma,1 case hepatic blastoma,1 case esophageal carcinoma and 1 case renal carcinoma. Conclusions:AIDS patients tend to develop malignant tumors with broad spectrum,among which malignant lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma are commonly seen. Diagnosis should be based on pathologic examination.%目的::分析艾滋病( AIDS)合并恶性肿瘤的临床与病理特点。方法:对会诊和复查的48例AIDS患者的病理活检与尸检材料进行临床、影像、解剖与病理对照研究。结果:48例AIDS患者中合并恶性肿瘤10例;其中儿童2例系母婴传播;成年人8例中经输血传播4例。合并非霍奇金淋巴瘤4例,乳腺癌2例,卡波西肉瘤1例,肝母细胞瘤1例,食管癌1例,肾癌1例。结论:AIDS患者易合并恶性肿瘤,疾病谱广泛,以淋巴瘤多见,确诊需依赖病理检查。

  13. 艾滋病合并恶性肿瘤10例临床病理分析%Clinicopathological analysis of ten cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients complicated with malignant tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德纯; 李宏军

    2015-01-01

    目的::分析艾滋病( AIDS)合并恶性肿瘤的临床与病理特点。方法:对会诊和复查的48例AIDS患者的病理活检与尸检材料进行临床、影像、解剖与病理对照研究。结果:48例AIDS患者中合并恶性肿瘤10例;其中儿童2例系母婴传播;成年人8例中经输血传播4例。合并非霍奇金淋巴瘤4例,乳腺癌2例,卡波西肉瘤1例,肝母细胞瘤1例,食管癌1例,肾癌1例。结论:AIDS患者易合并恶性肿瘤,疾病谱广泛,以淋巴瘤多见,确诊需依赖病理检查。%Objective:To analyze the clinicopathological characteristics of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( AIDS ) patients complicated with malignant tumors. Methods:The consulted pathological biopsy and autopsy data of 48 AIDS patients were studied by the combination of clinical analysis,imaging,anatomy and pathology. Results:Among the 48 AIDS cases,10 patients were complicated with malignant tumors;the 2 children acquired the disease from their mothers and 4 of the 8 adults from blood transfusion. Four of the cases were complicated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma,2 cases breast carcinoma,1 case was complicated with Kaposi's sarcoma,1 case hepatic blastoma,1 case esophageal carcinoma and 1 case renal carcinoma. Conclusions:AIDS patients tend to develop malignant tumors with broad spectrum,among which malignant lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma are commonly seen. Diagnosis should be based on pathologic examination.

  14. 莫西沙星治疗艾滋病合并下呼吸道感染的临床观察%Clinical Observation of Moxifloxacin in the Treatment of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Complicated with Lower Respiratory Tract Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪智

    2011-01-01

    目的探讨莫西沙星治疗敏感菌引起的艾滋病合并下呼吸道感染的疗效.方法将184例艾滋病合并下呼吸道感染患者随机分成两组,治疗组(n=94)予莫西沙星静脉滴注,对照组(n=90)予盐酸左氧氟沙星静脉滴注,疗程均为7 ~12 d.结果两组治疗效果比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).细菌清除率:治疗组92.3%,对照组88.5%,两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);不良反应发生率:治疗组4.3%,对照组5.6%,两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论莫西沙星治疗艾滋病合并下呼吸道感染疗效确切,安全性好.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of moxifloxacin therapy in the treatment of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome( AIDS )complicated with lower respiratory tract infection.Methods 184 patients with AIDS complicated with lower respiratory tract Infection were randomly divided into two groups. In treatment group( n = 94 ),moxifloxacin was administered by intravenous infusion. In control group( n = 90 ), levofloxacin was administered by intravenous infusion. The total treatment duration was 7 ~ 12 days. Results There was statistically significant difference( P < 0.05 )in treatment effectiveness. The bacterial clearance rates were 92.3% in treatment group,88.5% in control group. There was no significant difference( P > 0.05 ). The incidence of adverse drug reactions of two groups were 4.3% in treatment group and 5.6% in control group,respectively. There was no significant difference( P > 0.05 ). Conclusion moxifloxacin intravenous infusion in the treatment of AIDS complicated with lower respiratory tract infection was more effective and safe.

  15. 建筑工地农民工艾滋病和性传播疾病健康教育效果评价%Effects of health education on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted diseases among migrant construction workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 徐刚; 蔡泳; 冯易; 仇玉兰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of health education on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted disease-related knowledge, attitude and practice among migrant construction workers. Methods Cluster random sampling was adopted to select 1 031 male migrant construction workers from 3 construction sites in a district of Shanghai, health education on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted diseases were conducted, and the effects of health education were evaluated. Results The awareness rate of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted disease-related knowledge after health education was significantly higher than that before health education among migrant construction workers (P < 0. 001). The awareness rate of transmission routes ( sex transmission, blood transmission and vertical transmission) and non-transmission routes of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome was significantly increased after health education, especially on " antibody can not be detected during window period", "relationship between sexually transmitted diseases and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome" and "sexually transmitted diseases can be prevented by avoiding premarital sex". The attitude toward premarital sex and patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome was significantly changed after health education. Among all the migrant construction workers, 49.4% chose not to avoid people infected with human immunodeficiency virus, and 64. 5% believed that patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome should live and work like a normal person. Behavior survey indicated that 54. 9% of migrant construction workers were for the use of condoms after health education. AH the above attitude and behavior were significantly different from those before health education ( P < 0. 01). Conclusion Health education is an effective measure to improve acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted disease-related knowledge, attitude and

  16. Evolução de parâmetros antropométricos em portadores do vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana ou com Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida: um estudo prospectivo Changes in the anthropometric parameters of patients with the Human Immunodeficiency virus or Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Ladeia Rodrigues Curti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional e a evolução de parâmetros antropométricos para alterações morfológicas em pacientes vivendo com o vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana ou com Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida em uso de terapia antirretroviral de alta atividade. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo de coorte prospectiva com duração de 12 meses, envolvendo indivíduos adultos, de ambos os sexos, em terapia antirretroviral recém introduzida. Os indicadores antropométricos estudados foram índice de massa corporal, circunferência de cintura, dobras cutâneas subescapular, biciptal e triciptal, avaliados com intervalos de três meses, totalizando 4 medidas do tempo. Variáveis foram descritas segundo mediana e percentis 25 e 75 e analisadas por ANOVA para medidas repetidas. RESULTADOS: A população estudada foi composta por 53 indivíduos, a maioria do sexo masculino (81%, entre 30 e 39 anos. Apenas a dobra cutânea subescapular apresentou significante variação no tempo (T1=13,7 vs T4=16,0; pOBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status and changes in the anthropometric indicators of patients with the human Immunodeficiency virus or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome using the highly active antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: This is a 12-month prospective cohort study of adult males and females who recently started antiretroviral therapy. The anthropometric indicators studied were body mass index, waist circumference and subscapular, biceps and triceps skinfold thicknesses, taken 4 times during the year in 3-month intervals. The variables were described according to medians and 25 and 75 percentiles and analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measurements. RESULTS: The studied population consisted of 53 patients, mostly males (81% aged 30 to 39 years. Only subscapular skinfold thickness changed significantly over time (T1=13.70 vs T4=16.00, p<0.001, indicating cervical lipohypertrophy (buffalo hump. CONCLUSION

  17. 云南地区人类免疫缺陷病毒感染者及获得性免疫缺陷综合征患者口腔念珠菌病患病情况分析%The incidence of oral candidiasis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温龑; 李承文; 裴峻浩翔; 白劲松; 杨向红; 段开文

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the incidence of oral candidiasis and its influencing factors in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(HIV/AIDS).Methods An oral examination was conducted in the 1 566 HIV/AIDS patients in the Third Hospital of Kunming from March 2008 to September 2012 (M/F:1 062/504,age range:0.2 to 84.0 years old).The HIV viral load(HIV-RNA) and peripheral blood CD4 count were respectively analyzed by Bayer Q340 fluorescence signal surveying instrument(bDNA method) and flow cytometry analysis.The information on usage of highly active anti-retroviral(HAART) drugs and transmission of HIV were obtained through questionnaires.The incidence of oral candidiasis in patients with different HIV-RNA levels and CD4 count and the use of HAART was analyzed and compared.Results The total incidence of oral candidosis was 31.0%(486/1 566) and there was no difference in sex.The oral lesions were presented by three types,psudomembranous candidosis(PC),erythematous candidosis(EC) and angular cheilitis(AC),and the morbidity was 13.9%(217/1 566),17.0%(267/1 566) and 4.9%(77/1 566),respectively.The average level of CD4 count in psudomembranous candidosis,erythematous candidosis and angular cheilitis[81.0 (146.0),74.0 (152.0) and 69.0 (121.5) cell/μl] showed no significant difference(P > 0.05).The incidence of oral candidiasis in non-HAART and HAART subjects were 36.3%(402/1 107) and 18.3%(84/459),respectively(P=0.000).The CD4 count and absolute counts of HIV viral load in oral candidiasis patients and non-oral candidiasis patients had significant difference(Z=-10.261,P=0.000 and Z=-4.762,P=0.000).Conclusions The morbidity of oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients in Yunnan Province was high,including PC,EC and AC and hyperplastic candidosis was not detected.The incidence was related to the degree of immune suppression and HIV viral load.%目的 探讨人类免疫缺陷病毒(human immunodeficiency virus,HIV)感染者

  18. 广西地区人类免疫缺陷病毒感染者及获得性免疫缺陷综合征患者口腔病变特点的临床观察%Clinical features of oral lesions in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/ acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Guangxi autonomous region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雍翔智; 蒋兰岚; 卢祥婵; 刘伟; 吴念宁; 陶人川

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the features of oral lesions in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(HIV/AIDS).Methods A total of 127 HIV-seropositive patients were interviewed for health information and examined for their HIV-related oral lesions according to the EC Clearing House Criteria on Oral Problems related to HIV-Infection (1992).The examinations were conducted by dental specialist and HIV specialist.The CD4 T cell count in peripheral blood of the patients was tested by flow cytometry.The patients were divided into HIV-infected group(42) and AIDS group(85) according to CDC Classification System for HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents(revised in 1993).Chi-square test was used to test the relationship between systemic disease and oral lesions,and the difference of the prevalence of oral lesions between the two groups.Results Among the 127 patients,oral candidiasis(51/127),oral hairy leukoplakia(24/127) were common oral manifestation.There was no relationship between the oral manifestation and systemic disease(P=0.397).The occurrence of oral lesions and oral candidiasis was significantly different between the two groups(x2=7.684,P=0.006; x2=14.410,P<0.001).The CD4 count was related to the prevalence of oral lesions (P==0.006) and oral candidasis (P=0.003).Conclusions Most oral lesions appeared before the appearance of systemic disease.Oral candidiasis and oral hairy leukoplakia were the most common lesions.Oral lesions had no relationship with systemic disease but could be still an indicator for disease progress.%目的 分析人免疫缺陷病毒(human immunodeficiency virus,HIV)感染及获得性免疫缺陷综合征(acquired immune deficiency syndrome,AIDS)患者的常见口腔病损,提高口腔医师对HIV/AIDS早期临床表现的诊断能力.方法 对127例确诊的HIV/AIDS患者进行病史采集及口腔黏膜健康状况检查和分类,同时取患者外周静脉血,采用流式细胞技术检测CD4T

  19. X-ray and CT findings of soft tissue and bone infections secondary to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome%艾滋病并发软组织骨骼感染的X线和CT表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江松峰; 刘晋新; 陈碧华; 张烈光; 甘清鑫; 黄德扬

    2011-01-01

    Objective To summarize X-ray and CT findings of soft tissue and bone infections secondary to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Methods The data of X-ray and CT findings of soft tissue and bone infections in 18 patients with AIDS were retrospectively collected and analyzed.Results Of 18 patients with AIDS,the CT features of soft tissue demonstrated that subcutaneous patchy high density in 1 case which considered as cellulitis,round low density lesions with ring enhancement in 6 cases which considered as soft tissue abscesses,heterogeneous density lesions with peripheral enhancement in 1 case which considered as pyomyositis.Of 18 patients with AIDS,septic arthritis was found in 4 cases involving knee lesion in 3 cases and hip lesion.In the 4 case,the X-ray films showed bony destruction in 2 cases and the CT showed bone destruction in 3 cases and arthroedema in 4 cases.Of 18 patients with AIDS,osteomyelitis was found in 9 cases of which tuberculosis was considered in 8 cases and vertebral involvement in 6 cases.In the 9 cases,the X-ray films and CT displayed bony destruction,hyperostosis,small sequestra,and intervertebral space narrowing.Of 18 patients with AIDS,costal lesions were found in 3 cases in which the CT showed expandable bony destruction.Of 18 patients with AIDS,ilium and cacroihac joint lesions were found in 1 case in which the X-ray films and CT showed bony destruction,sequestra,and joint widening.Of 18 patients with AIDS,chronic pyogenic osteomyelitis of femur was found in 1 case in which the X-ray films showed bony destruction,hyperostosis osteosclerosis,and periosteal reaction.Conclusion The X-ray and CT features of soft tissue and bone infections secondary to AIDS are characterized.The X-ray and CT are useful tools to early diagnose soft tissue and bone infections secondary to AIDS.%目的 探讨艾滋病(AIDS)并发软组织骨骼感染的X线和CT表现.方法 回顾性分析18例AIDS并发软组织骨骼感染的X线和CT表现.结果 18

  20. Goldenhar syndrome: a cause of secondary immunodeficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Golovine Serge

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Goldenhar syndrome (GS results from an aberrant development of the 1st and 2nd branchial arches. There is a wide range of clinical manifestations, the most common being microtia, hemifacial microsomia, epibulbar dermoids and vertebral malformations. We present two cases of GS and secondary immunodeficiency due to anatomical defects characteristic of this disorder. Case 1 (3-year-old female averaged 6 episodes of sinusitis and otitis media per year. Case 2 (7-year-old female also had recurrent otitis media, an episode of bacterial pneumonia, and 2 episodes of bacterial meningitis. Their immune evaluation included a complete blood count with differential, serum immunoglobulin levels and specific antibody concentrations, lymphocyte phenotyping, and mitogen and antigen responses, the results of which were all within normal ranges. Both children demonstrated major structural abnormalities of the inner and middle ear structures, retention of fluid in mastoid air cells, and chronic sinusitis by computed tomography. These two cases illustrate how a genetically-associated deviation of the middle ear cleft can cause recurrent infections and chronic inflammation of the middle ear and adjacent sinuses, even meninges, leading to a greatly reduced quality of life for the child and parents.

  1. Severe Dermatophytosis and Acquired or Innate Immunodeficiency: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Claire Rouzaud; Roderick Hay; Olivier Chosidow; Nicolas Dupin; Anne Puel; Olivier Lortholary; Fanny Lanternier

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi responsible for benign and common forms of infection worldwide. However, they can lead to rare and severe diseases in immunocompromised patients. Severe forms include extensive and/or invasive dermatophytosis, i.e., deep dermatophytosis and Majocchi’s granuloma. They are reported in immunocompromised hosts with primary (autosomal recessive CARD9 deficiency) or acquired (solid organ transplantation, autoimmune diseases requiring immunosuppressive treatmen...

  2. 获得性免疫缺陷患者18F-FDG PET/CT表现分析%PET/CT manifestations of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 李宏军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the PET/CT features of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods We analyzed the PET/CT findings of 12 patients in AIDS. Results 18F-FDG PET/CT diagnosis was pulmonary tuberculosis in 3 cases, systemic disseminated tuberculosis in 1 case, toxoplasma encephalitis in 2 cases, glioma, brain tuberculosis, neurocysticercosis, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in 1 case each, and of hepatocellular carcinoma and esophageal cancer in 1 case each. Conclusion 18 F-FDG PET/CT have important value in the diagnosis of patients with AIDS-associated infections, cancer and other diseases.%目的 探讨AIDS患者18F-FDG PET/CT表现.方法 对12例AIDS患者行18F-FDG PET/CT检查,分析其PET/CT表现.结果 18F-FDG PET/CT诊断肺结核且合并肺外结核3例,全身播散性结核1例;弓形虫脑炎2例,脑胶质瘤、脑结核、脑囊虫病和进行性多灶性白质脑病各1例;肝细胞肝癌和食道癌各1例.结论 18F-FDG PET/CT显像对AIDS患者相关感染、肿瘤等疾病有较高的诊断价值.

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and pneumothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Terzi, Eirini; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Madesis, Athanasios; Karaiskos, Theodoros; Zarogoulidis, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Pneumothorax is a serious and relatively frequent complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that may associate with increased morbidity and mortality and may prove difficult to manage, especially in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

  4. Aneurisma de artéria cerebral em criança com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida: relato de caso Cerebral arterial aneurysm in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnolfo de Carvalho Neto

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A dilatação aneurismática dos vasos do polígono de Willis é manifestação incomum da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência adquirida (HIV, tendo sido relatados, até o momento, 15 casos na literatura. O presente estudo tem por objetivo relatar um novo caso dessa apresentação rara, além de revisar aspectos importantes relacionados à mesma. Um paciente, do sexo masculino, 6 anos de idade, com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS de transmissão perinatal e tetraparesia, desenvolveu sintomas caracterizados por episódios de crises distônicas. A tomografia computadorizada de crânio, que inicialmente era normal, mostrou dilatação aneurismática dos vasos do polígono de Willis. A revisão de literatura demonstra que os principais achados patológicos em casos similares, são, principalmente, fibrose de camada média com destruição da lâmina interna e hiperplasia da íntima. A etiologia da vasculite não é conhecida, acreditando-se que o vírus da varicela-zoster e o próprio HIV possam estar relacionados à mesma. Conclui-se que, apesar de incomum, tal complicação apresenta grande importância pelo fato dos aneurismas colocarem esses pacientes em grupo de alto risco para acidentes vasculares. A sobrevida relatada na literatura é de menos de 6 meses após o diagnóstico da arteriopatia aneurismática cerebral.Cerebral aneurysmal arteriopathy of the circle of Willis is an uncommon manifestation of acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and up to now only 15 cases have been published in the literature. For this reason we add our experience of this rare case, and review the most important aspects related to this entity. The patient is a 6 year old male with perinatal transmitted AIDS, tetraparethic, developed symptoms characterized by episodes of dystonic postures. The computed tomography of the brain showed aneurismal arteriopathy of the circle of Willis. He had a previous normal examination. The review

  5. Immunodeficiency, radiosensitivity, and the XCIND syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Richard A; Boder, Elena; Good, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Through the analysis of a rare disorder called ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), many important biological lessons have been gleaned. Today, it is clear that the underlying defect of A-T lies in the nucleus, as an inability to repair or process double strand breaks. More important, by the A-T phenotype now allows us to appreciate a much more general distinction between immunodeficiencies that are radiosensitive and those that are not.

  6. Audiological and Ontological Findings in Acquired Immune-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Vadoudfam

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immune-deficiency syndrome. Head and neck are the most common sites in contamination with this virus. HIV can affect outer, middle and inner parts of the ear. Changing in the color of the skin, effusion, infection and sudden hearing loss are some types of the audiological and ontological findings in such patients.

  7. Manifestações otológicas em criança com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida Otologic manifestations in child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos E. B. Rezende; Rubens E. C. Rodrigues; Leonardo Haddad; Ricardo Yoshimura; Priscila B. Rapoport

    2004-01-01

    As manifestações otológicas são particularmente comuns em crianças portadoras do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana (HIV). A disacusia nestes pacientes pode ser condutiva, principalmente decorrente de otite média ou sensorioneural, pela ação direta do vírus ou pela ação de drogas anti-retrovirais. Neste trabalho, relatamos o caso de uma criança de 10 anos de idade, portadora de HIV, com disacusia e revisamos a literatura.Patients infected with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often present wi...

  8. Manifestações otológicas em criança com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida Otologic manifestations in child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. B. Rezende

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available As manifestações otológicas são particularmente comuns em crianças portadoras do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana (HIV. A disacusia nestes pacientes pode ser condutiva, principalmente decorrente de otite média ou sensorioneural, pela ação direta do vírus ou pela ação de drogas anti-retrovirais. Neste trabalho, relatamos o caso de uma criança de 10 anos de idade, portadora de HIV, com disacusia e revisamos a literatura.Patients infected with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV often present with otologic manifestations. The hearing loss may be condutive type, resulting from middle ear disease or sensorineural type due virus action or drug therapy. In this paper we describe and discuss a case of a ten years old child with HIV and otologic manifestations including hearing loss.

  9. 高效抗反转录病毒治疗相关脂肪营养不良综合征的发生及其影响因素%Prevalence and risk factors of lipodystrophy syndrome in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宝国; 蔡卫平; 戴朝霞; 胡凤玉; 李凌华; 唐小平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (LD) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treated with HAART in China.Methods A total of 137 AIDS patients treated with HAART for more than 2 years were analyzed.Sixteen clinical parameters (including gender,age,baseline body mass index,baseline human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] viral load,stage of disease,routes of HIV transmission,baseline CD4+ T lymphocyte count,white blood cell count,fasting plasma glucose level,serum triglycerides level,serum cholesterol level and other laboratory results,and HAART regimens) that might be associated with HAART-LD occurrence were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models.Results HAART regimens were significantly correlated with HAART-LD (P=0.031),while the remaining 15 factors were not associated with the risk of HAART-LD (all P>0.05).Patients who received stavudine d4T)-containing regimen was 2.684 times more likely to develop HAART-LD than patients who received zidovudine (AZT)-containing regimen (95 % CI:1.302-5.531,P=0.007) ; HAART-LD prevalence rates were gradually increased with treatment duration in both groups.First HAART-LD was seen at 24 weeks in both d4T group and AZT group,and the prevalence rates were 2.7%,1.6% at 24 weeks,27.0%,7.9% at 48 weeks and 37.8%,15.9% at 96 weeks respectively.The prevalence of HAART-LD in d4T group was much higher than that in AZT group and the difference was statistically significant (x2 =8.285,P=0.004).Conclusions HAART regimen is an independent predictor of HAART-LD.HAART-LD tend to occur more frequently in patients treated with d4T or AZT,especially d4T.Our study recommends to avoid the use of d4T-contained HAART regimen.%目的 了解我国HIV/艾滋病患者HAART相关脂肪营养不良综合征的发生率并探讨其影响因素.方法 采用Cox比例风险模型,前瞻性地对137例接受HAART 2

  10. Sweet's syndrome in association with common variable immunodeficiency.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Regan, G M

    2009-03-01

    Sweet\\'s syndrome (SS), a rare reactive neutrophilic dermatosis, has been reported to occur in association with a variety of systemic disorders, categorized by von den Diesch into idiopathic, paraneoplastic, pregnancy and parainflammatory subgroups. The parainflammatory group has been well defined, and includes a wide spectrum of infectious triggers and disorders of immune dysregulation. To date, however, no cases of SS have been described in the context of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). We report a case of paediatric-onset SS, previously reported as idiopathic, with a subsequent diagnosis of CVID.

  11. Lipodistrofia em crianças e adolescentes com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida e sua relação com a terapia antirretroviral empregada Lipodystrophy in children and adolescents with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and its relationship with the antiretroviral therapy employed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Oselka Saccardo Sarni

    2009-08-01

    acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and to relate it to the antiretroviral regimen employed, to changes in lipid profile and to insulin resistance. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that evaluated 30 children and adolescents (median age = 9.1 years with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome during 2004 and 2005. The following clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed: classification of HIV infection, anthropometric measurements (weight and height, serum glycemia, serum insulin and lipid profile (LDL-c, HDL-c, triglycerides. Lipodystrophy was diagnosed using clinical parameters. The chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: All of the patients were taking antiretroviral therapy regularly (median duration of 28.4 months; 80% were on three drugs in combination (highly active therapy and 30% were on protease inhibitors. Lipodystrophy and dyslipidemia were observed in 53.3 and 60% of the patients, respectively. Children on a highly active therapy regimen with protease inhibitors exhibited a higher percentage of mixed lipodystrophy; the difference between these children and the group on highly active therapy without protease inhibitors and the group not on a highly active therapy was statistically significant (44.4 vs. 16.7%; p = 0.004. There was no statistically significant association between the presence of lipodystrophy and sex, age (> 10 years, changes to the lipid profile or insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: The elevated prevalence of dyslipidemia and lipodystrophy observed among children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, which exhibited a relationship with the antiretroviral regimen employed, may represent an increased risk for future complications, in particular cardiovascular problems.

  12. Abnormal in vitro thymocyte differentiation in a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency-Nezelof`s syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutsen, A.P.; Wall, D.; Mueller, K.R.; Bouhasin, J.D. [Pediatric Research Institute, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    An in vitro coculture model system of CD34+ stem cells and allogenic cultured thymic epithelia fragments was used to evaluate thymocyte differentiation in a 9-month-old child of Amish descent with Nezelof syndrome. Though the patient`s stem cells differentiate to acquire normal expression of CD2 and CD7, later steps of maturation were abnormal. There was detectable but reduced expression of CD3 and CD4 phenotypes. CD44+ expression, however, was markedly reduced. CD44 is an adhesion molecule, interacting with the matrix ligands hyaluronan and fibronectin, and is expressed early in thymocyte differentiation and subsequently in mature T cells. It is hypothesized that abnormal expression of CD44 in a variant of severe combined immunodeficiency, Nezelof`s syndrome, interferes with normal thymocyte and thymic epithelial interaction, which leads to abnormal thymocyte differentiation. 35 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Utilidade da teoria de autocuidado na assistência ao portador do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/ Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida Utilidad de la teoría del autocuidado en la asistencia al portador del Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Humana/Síndrome de la Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida Utility of the self-care theory to assist the bearer of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Maria Moura Barroso

    2010-01-01

    utilidad de la Teoría de Orem para la práctica, investigación, educación y administración.OBJECTIVE: To analyze, within Orem's general theory, the utility of the Self-care Theory to assist patients who carries the Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS, according to the standard model to analyze theories. METHODS: Literature review conducted in the databases LILACS, BDENF and MEDLINE with the keywords: self-care, Orem and HIV/AIDS. It was utilized the Meleis's analysis model of theories, focusing on the component of usefulness. It was identified a study that used Orem's Theory on patients who carries the HIV/AIDS. RESULTS: The theory proved useful to: guide the systematization of nursing care on patients with HIV/AIDS; build assessment and guidance tools; measure the quality of care; verify models; classify patients; and, as an aid to support education. CONCLUSION: The Meleis model allowed to understand the usefulness of Orem's theory into practice, research, education and administration.

  14. Adolescents and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J R

    1992-12-01

    As of March 31, 1992, individuals 13 to 19 years of age had been diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; over one third were diagnosed in the past 2 years alone. Because of the long incubation period from initial infection to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosis, the majority of young adults with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were probably initially infected as adolescents. In 1991, 34% of adolescents with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were female, and their predominant mode of transmission was heterosexual contact. Human immunodeficiency virus seroprevalence studies of adolescents show a male-to-female ratio approaching 1:1, with many human immunodeficiency virus-infected adolescent women identifying none of the standard risk. Factors such as sexual and drug experimentation, risk taking, and sense of invulnerability so characteristic of adolescence put adolescents at special risk for human immunodeficiency virus. There is no published information on if or how clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus disease in adolescents might differ from those seen in adults. Medical care should be broad-based and should include access to clinical trials for new drug treatments. General knowledge levels about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are high among US adolescents, but behavioral changes have lagged behind. All adolescents should be targeted for intensive education about human immunodeficiency virus along with interventions designed to enhance their general coping, communication, and decision-making skills. PMID:1450349

  15. Neurofibromatosis, Down's syndrome, and acquired abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Yousuf; Manne, Vimala; Manne, Ranjit; Himani, Chennamaneni

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with Down's syndrome and neurofibromatosis who presented with a keloid, sebaceous cyst and acanthosis nigricans, along with dental and ophthalmological defects. The coexistence of neurofibromatosis type 1 and Down's syndrome which are two unrelated genetic conditions is itself a rarity. PMID:27294059

  16. Neurofibromatosis, Down's syndrome, and acquired abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Yousuf; Manne, Vimala; Manne, Ranjit; Himani, Chennamaneni

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with Down's syndrome and neurofibromatosis who presented with a keloid, sebaceous cyst and acanthosis nigricans, along with dental and ophthalmological defects. The coexistence of neurofibromatosis type 1 and Down's syndrome which are two unrelated genetic conditions is itself a rarity. PMID:27294059

  17. Neurofibromatosis, Down's syndrome, and acquired abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Yousuf Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a patient with Down's syndrome and neurofibromatosis who presented with a keloid, sebaceous cyst and acanthosis nigricans, along with dental and ophthalmological defects. The coexistence of neurofibromatosis type 1 and Down's syndrome which are two unrelated genetic conditions is itself a rarity.

  18. Cernunnos/XLF Deficiency: A Syndromic Primary Immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Erol Çipe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemis, DNA ligase IV, DNA protein kinase catalytic subunit, and Cernunnos/XLF genes in nonhomologous end joining pathways of DNA repair mechanisms have been identified as responsible for radiosensitive SCID. Here, we present a 3-year-old girl patient with severe growth retardation, bird-like face, recurrent perianal abscess, pancytopenia, and polydactyly. Firstly, she was thought as Fanconi anemia and spontaneous DNA breaks were seen on chromosomal analysis. After that DEB test was found to be normal and Fanconi anemia was excluded. Because of that she had low IgG and IgA levels, normal IgM level, and absence of B cells in peripheral blood; she was considered as primary immunodeficiency, Nijmegen breakage syndrome. A mutation in NBS1 gene was not found; then Cernunnos/XLF deficiency was investigated due to clinical similarities with previously reported cases. Homozygous mutation in Cernunnos/XLF gene (NHEJ1 was identified. She is now on regular IVIG prophylaxis and has no new infection. Fully matched donor screening is in progress for bone marrow transplantation which is curative treatment of the disease. In conclusion, the patients with microcephaly, bird-like face, and severe growth retardation should be evaluated for hypogammaglobulinemia and primary immunodeficiency diseases.

  19. Psychological change of patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection or acquired immune deficiency syndrome%艾滋病患者及人类免疫缺陷病毒感染者心理健康状况及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建宁; 屈文妍

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解艾滋病患者及人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)感染者心理健康状况,并探讨其影响因素.方法 确诊艾滋病患者及HIV检测阳性者共94例为研究组,38名健康人作为对照组,对二者进行症状自评量表(SCL-90)、社会支持量表、应付方式问卷(CSQ)及艾森克人格问卷(EPQ)测评.结果 研究组SCL-90的强迫、抑郁、焦虑及精神病因子分显著高于对照组(P<0.05或0.01),研究组内部男性抑郁因子分和偏执因子分均高于女性,其SCL-90多个因子与CSQ和EPQ多个因子之间存在显著相关关系,相关系数在0.21~0.70之间.结论 艾滋病患者及HIV感染者心理健康状况不良,以情绪障碍为主,应进行心理社会支持和治疗.%Objective To investigate the mental health status of adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)infection or acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS).Methods Ninety-four patients with HIV infection or AIDS and 38 healthy subjects were enrolled and filled in the Symptom Checklist 90(SCL-90),Coping Styles Questionnaire(CSQ)and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire(EPQ).Results in SCL-90,the scores of compulsion ,depression,anxiety and psychoticism factor were significantly increased in the patient group(all P<0.05).In the study group,the scores of depression and paranoid ideation factors of male patients were higher than those of female patients.For the participants with HIV infection or AIDS,several factors of SCL-90 were correlative with CSQ and EPQ(r=0.21 to 0.70).Conclusion Emotional disorders may be the most common mental problem of patients with HIV infection or AIDS,and social and psychological supports should be needed.

  20. Tuberculosis and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome in South Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuberculosis and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome in South Brazil. The authors studied the incidence of tuberculosis in South Brazilian patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome from January 1985 to June 1988. During this period, tuberculosis occurred in 10.3% of acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients. The socioeconomic conditions and the incidence of disease in the population were not confirmed as a potential risk for tuberculosis infection. Chest radiographs revealed pulmonary infiltrates in six patients, hilar and/or mediastinal adenopathy in three, and pleural effusion in two. The two remaining patients had pulmonary consolidation associated with other features. None of these patients presented pulmonary cavitation or radiographic findings of typical reactivation of pulmonary tuberculosis. (author)

  1. Cystic fibrosis, common variable immunodeficiency and Aspergers syndrome: an immunological and behavioural challenge.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chotirmall, S H

    2009-08-07

    INTRODUCTION: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is of particular importance in Ireland as the Irish population has both the highest incidence (2.98\\/10,000) and the highest carrier rate (1 in 19) in the world. Primary immunodeficiency has not been previously reported as co-existing with CF. CASE REPORT: We report a unique case of CF associated with a primary immunodeficiency syndrome-common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). DISCUSSION: Our patient has CF, CVID and the additional comorbidity of Aspergers syndrome. The challenges inherent in diagnosing and treating such a case are outlined herein and the successful management of this case is evidenced by the well-preserved lung function of our patient.

  2. Cystic fibrosis, common variable immunodeficiency and Aspergers syndrome: an immunological and behavioural challenge.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chotirmall, S H

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is of particular importance in Ireland as the Irish population has both the highest incidence (2.98\\/10,000) and the highest carrier rate (1 in 19) in the world. Primary immunodeficiency has not been previously reported as co-existing with CF. CASE REPORT: We report a unique case of CF associated with a primary immunodeficiency syndrome--common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). DISCUSSION: Our patient has CF, CVID and the additional comorbidity of Aspergers syndrome. The challenges inherent in diagnosing and treating such a case are outlined herein and the successful management of this case is evidenced by the well-preserved lung function of our patient.

  3. Pneumonia complicada por pneumatocele gigante em criança com síndrome da imunodeficência adquirida: importância da fisioterapia respiratória Pneumonia complicated by a giant pneumatocele in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: importance of chest physiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina M. de Paula

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os efeitos do tratamento fisioterapêutico na prevenção de complicações respiratórias de uma criança com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida, que apresentava pneumatocele gigante. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Criança com oito anos de idade, do sexo feminino, encaminhada para acompanhamento fisioterapêutico em hospital universitário devido a quadro de hipersecreção pulmonar, histórico de pneumonias e presença de pneumatocele gigante. A conduta fisioterapêutica incluiu técnicas de higiene brônquica ativa, envolvendo fluxo aéreo expiratório, com o intuito de promover a desobstrução pulmonar sem causar risco de complicações à criança. O seguimento foi multiprofissional e direcionado à prevenção de infecções recorrentes e de ruptura da bolha, que tornariam necessária a internação hospitalar. Durante o acompanhamento, o quadro pulmonar manteve-se estável, sem aumento ou ruptura da pneumatocele, radiograficamente visível. COMENTÁRIOS: A atuação da fisioterapia respiratória nos casos de pneumatocele gigante não está definida na literatura. Não há, até o momento, evidências de seus efeitos benéficos, bem como diretrizes a respeito dos métodos mais eficientes e seguros. Ao contrário, muito se discute sobre os riscos e complicações decorrentes dessa intervenção. No presente caso, a assistência fisioterapêutica regular foi importante para garantir a estabilidade do quadro pulmonar da criança, sendo necessários estudos com desenho metodológico apropriado para verificação de eficácia clínica.OBJECTIVE: To describe the effects of chest physiotherapy in preventing respiratory complications in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and a giant pneumatocele. CASE DESCRIPTION: An eight-year-old female child was sent to the physiotherapy service of a university hospital due to pulmonary hypersecretion, repeated pneumonias and presence of a giant pneumatocele. The physiotherapy

  4. Human immunodeficiency syndromes affecting human natural killer cell cytolytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Denis Billadeau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available NK cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that secrete cytokines upon activation and mediate the killing of tumor cells and virus-infected cells, especially those that escape the adaptive T-cell response caused by the down regulation of MHC-I. The induction of cytotoxicity requires that NK cells contact target cells through adhesion receptors, and initiate activation signaling leading to increased adhesion and accumulation of F-actin at the NK cell cytotoxic synapse. Concurrently, lytic granules undergo minus-end directed movement and accumulate at the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC through the interaction with microtubule motor proteins, followed by polarization of the lethal cargo toward the target cell. Ultimately, myosin-dependent movement of the lytic granules toward the NK cell plasma membrane through F-actin channels, along with SNARE-dependent fusion promotes lytic granule release into the cleft between the NK cell and target cell resulting in target cell killing. Herein, we will discuss several disease-causing mutations in primary immunodeficiency syndromes and how they impact NK cell-mediated killing by disrupting distinct steps of this tightly regulated process.

  5. Chest radiography patterns in 75 adolescents with vertically-acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, S.R., E-mail: sujal.desai@nhs.ne [King' s College London, King' s Health Partners, Department of Radiology, King' s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Copley, S.J. [Department of Radiology, Hammersmith Hospital (United Kingdom); Barker, R.D.; Elston, C.M. [King' s College London, King' s Health Partners, Department of Respiratory Medicine, King' s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Miller, R.F. [Research Department of Infection and Public Health, Division of Population Health, University College London (United Kingdom); Clinical Research Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Wells, A.U. [The Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Munyati, S. [Biomedical Research and Training Institute, Samora Machel Avenue (Zimbabwe); Nathoo, K. [Department of Paediatrics, University of Zimbabwe (Zimbabwe); Harare Central Hospital, Lobengula Road, Harare (Zimbabwe); Corbett, E.L.; Ferrand, R.A. [Clinical Research Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Biomedical Research and Training Institute, Samora Machel Avenue (Zimbabwe)

    2011-03-15

    Aim: To evaluate lung disease on chest radiography (CR), the relative frequency of CR abnormalities, and their clinical correlates in adolescents with vertically-acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Materials and methods: CRs of 75 patients [59 inpatients (33 males; mean age 13.7 {+-} 2.3 years) and 16 outpatients (eight males; mean age 14.1 {+-} 2.1 years)] were retrospectively reviewed by three independent observers. The overall extent of disease (to the nearest 5%), its distribution, and the proportional extents (totalling 100%) of different radiographic patterns (including ring/tramline opacities and consolidation) were quantified. CR features and clinical data were compared. Results: CRs were abnormal in 51/75 (68%) with 'extensive' disease in 38/51 (74%). Ring/tramline opacities and consolidation predominated (i.e., proportional extent >50%) in 26 and 21 patients, respectively. Consolidation was significantly more common in patients hospitalized primarily for a respiratory illness than patients hospitalized for a non-respiratory illness or in outpatients (p < 0.005, {chi}{sup 2} for trend); by contrast, ring/tramline opacities did not differ in prevalence across the groups. On stepwise logistic regression, predominant consolidation was associated with progressive dyspnoea [odds ratio (OR) 5.60; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.60, 20.1; p < 0.01] and was associated with a primary respiratory cause for hospital admission (OR: 22.0; CI: 2.7, 181.1; p < 0.005). Ring/tramline opacities were equally prevalent in patients with and without chronic symptoms and in those admitted to hospital with respiratory and non-respiratory illness. Conclusion: In HIV-infected adolescents, evaluated in secondary practice, CR abnormalities are prevalent. The presence of ring/tramline opacities, believed to reflect chronic airway disease, is not linked chronic respiratory symptoms.

  6. Chest radiography patterns in 75 adolescents with vertically-acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate lung disease on chest radiography (CR), the relative frequency of CR abnormalities, and their clinical correlates in adolescents with vertically-acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Materials and methods: CRs of 75 patients [59 inpatients (33 males; mean age 13.7 ± 2.3 years) and 16 outpatients (eight males; mean age 14.1 ± 2.1 years)] were retrospectively reviewed by three independent observers. The overall extent of disease (to the nearest 5%), its distribution, and the proportional extents (totalling 100%) of different radiographic patterns (including ring/tramline opacities and consolidation) were quantified. CR features and clinical data were compared. Results: CRs were abnormal in 51/75 (68%) with 'extensive' disease in 38/51 (74%). Ring/tramline opacities and consolidation predominated (i.e., proportional extent >50%) in 26 and 21 patients, respectively. Consolidation was significantly more common in patients hospitalized primarily for a respiratory illness than patients hospitalized for a non-respiratory illness or in outpatients (p 2 for trend); by contrast, ring/tramline opacities did not differ in prevalence across the groups. On stepwise logistic regression, predominant consolidation was associated with progressive dyspnoea [odds ratio (OR) 5.60; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.60, 20.1; p < 0.01] and was associated with a primary respiratory cause for hospital admission (OR: 22.0; CI: 2.7, 181.1; p < 0.005). Ring/tramline opacities were equally prevalent in patients with and without chronic symptoms and in those admitted to hospital with respiratory and non-respiratory illness. Conclusion: In HIV-infected adolescents, evaluated in secondary practice, CR abnormalities are prevalent. The presence of ring/tramline opacities, believed to reflect chronic airway disease, is not linked chronic respiratory symptoms.

  7. 艾滋病急性期患者血浆可溶性 CD14的变化与病程进展的相关性%The relationship between plasma soluble CD14 level and disease progression in patients with acute phase of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between plasma soluble CD14 (sCD14)level and disease progression in patients with acute phase of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods Forty-one human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients were followed up from June 2007 to June 2010 in Beijing You′an Hospital,including 20 patients with CD4 + T lymphocyte counts more than 350/μL,and 21 less than 350/μL after 3 years of HIV infection.Twenty healthy blood donors were recruited as controls.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)was employed to test the plasma sCD14 level of healthy controls and patients infected with HIV at 1 -30 d,31 -90 d,91 - 180 d and 181 -360 d.Student t test was used to compare the means between two groups.ANOVA analysis was used to compare the means among more than two groups.Results The mean plasma sCD14 level in control group was (1 654±904)μg/L.Three years after HIV infection,the sCD14 level of patients with CD4 + T lymphocyte counts less than 350/μL group was (4 214±2 635)μg/L,which was higher than that of patients with CD4 + T lymphocyte counts more than 350/μL ([2 275 ±1 457 ]μg/L).The difference was statistically significant(t=-5 .41 ,P <0.01).The plasma sCD14 level in patients infected with HIV 181 -360 d was significantly higher than that in patients infected with HIV 1 - 30 days ([4 485 ± 2 779]μg/L vs [2 577 ±1 635 ]μg/L;t = -3.39,P <0.05 ).The plasma sCD14 level was positively correlated with HIV viral load (r =0.35,P =0.000 1 ),and negatively correlated with CD4 + T lymphocyte counts (r=-0.28,P =0.001 ).Conclusions The plasma sCD14 level in patients with acute phase of HIV infection is higher than that of healthy people,which increases with prolonged HIV infection.Plasma sCD14 level in of HIV infection acute phase may be closely related to HIV/AIDS progression.%目的:了解艾滋病急性期患者血浆可溶性 CD14(sCD14)水平变化对病程进展的影响。方法纳入2007年6月至2010年6

  8. Metabolic syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Bajaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives : To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive patients. Prevalence of MetS was compared in patients who were not on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART to patients who were on HAART. Materials and Methods: Seventy HIV positive cases were studied. Pregnant and lactating women, patients on drugs other than HAART known to cause metabolic abnormalities and those having diabetes or hypertension were excluded. Cases were evaluated for MetS by using National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel-III. Results: 47 cases were on HAART and 23 cases were not on HAART. Fasting Blood Glucose ≥100 mg/dl was present in 28.6% cases, out of whom 27.7% were on HAART and 30.4% were not on HAART (P = 0.8089. 12.9% cases had BP ≥130/≥85 mm Hg, out of whom 14.9% were on HAART and 8.7% were not on HAART (P = 0.4666. 42.9% cases had TG ≥150 mg/dl, out of whom 44.7% were on HAART and 39.1% were not on HAART (P = 0.6894. HDL cholesterol was low (males <40 mg/dl, females <50 mg/dl in 50% cases, out of whom 55.3% were on HAART and 39.1% were not on HAART (P = 0.2035. Conclusions: Prevalence of MetS was 20%. Majority of patients had only one component of MetS (32.9%. Low HDL was present in 50%, followed by raised triglycerides in 42.9%. Waist circumference was not increased in any of the patients. There was no statistically significant difference between those on HAART and those not on HAART in distribution of risk factors and individual components of MetS.

  9. Sexually transmitted infections in India: Current status (except human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thappa Devinder

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are more dynamic than other infections prevailing in the community. It is important that such dynamic epidemiological changes in STIs are acknowledged and kept track of in a vast and populous developing country like India, particularly in this HIV era. It is with this aim that the authors have reviewed the relevant literature in STI epidemiology in India during the past 25 years. Admittedly, there has been heterogeneity of data to account for the subcontinental dimension of this country. But a basic pattern in the changing epidemiology is discernible. Like the developed countries, in India too the bacterial STIs like chancroid and gonorrhea are declining, while viral STIs like HPV and herpes genitalis are on an upswing. The overall decline in the prevalence of STIs has to be interpreted with caution, however. This may partially reflect the improved facilities of treatment in the peripheral centres that obviates the need of many patients in attending the STD clinics in the tertiary centres. Also, the improved pharmacotherapy of many of the bacterial STIs may result in partial clearance and non-reporting of many of these infections.

  10. Acquired Fanconi syndrome in patients with Legionella pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kinoshita-Katahashi, Naoko; Fukasawa, Hirotaka; Ishigaki, Sayaka; Isobe, Shinsuke; Imokawa, Shiro; Fujigaki, Yoshihide; Furuya, Ryuichi

    2013-01-01

    Background Hyponatremia is often observed in patients with Legionella pneumonia. However, other electrolyte abnormalities are uncommon and the mechanism remains to be clarified. Case presentation We experienced two male cases of acquired Fanconi syndrome associated with Legionella pneumonia. The laboratory findings at admission showed hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, hypouricemia and/or hyponatremia. In addition, they had the generalized dysfunction of the renal proximal tubules presenting decr...

  11. Sequence analysis of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer of clinical isolates of Penicillium marneffei obtained from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients%艾滋病患者马尔尼菲青霉菌rDNA转录间隔区序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凌华; 胡凤玉; 陈万山; 宋伟南; 邝燕玲; 蔡卫平; 唐小平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the characteristics and mutations of the internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS) seque\tnces of Penicillium marneffei (PM) isolates obtained from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients in different areas of Guangdong Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.Methods Fifteen PM isolates were obtained from AIDS patients,12 of which were originated from four geographic areas of Guangdong (western Guangdong,eastern Guangdong,northern Guangdong and central Guangdong) and 3 of which came from Guangxi area.Fungal universal primers ITS1 and ITS4 were applied to amplify the rDNA ITS region of the 15 PM isolates.The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were purified and sequenced by T clone sequencing.Homologous sequences of the sequencing results were searched in the nucleotide sequence database of GenBank to construct the neighboring NJ phylogenetic tree.Results The rDNA ITS sequences of the 15 PM isolates obtained from AIDS patients were 578 bp in length,including 18S rRNA,ITS1,5.8S rRNA,ITS2 and 28S rRNA.These rDNA ITS sequences were highly concordant with those PM isolates originated from Japanese and Thailand (97 %-100 %),with the homology of 100%.The rDNA ITS sequences of 11 PM isolates from Guangdong Province and 1 strain from Guangxi area were identical,while 2 PM isolates from Guangxi area and 1 strain from Guangdong Province had one single base mutation.NJ phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the genetic distances of rDNA ITS sequences between PM and mold fungus,Rhizopus oryzae were the farthest,while those between PM and Acremonium cellulolyticus,Histoplasma capsulatum,and other species of marneffei,such as Penicillium pinophilum,Penicillium aculeatum were closer.Conclusions The rDNA ITS sequence of clinical PM isolate is highly conserved in Guangdong and Guangxi areas.Therefore,it may be the target gene to design the species specific primer for strain identification.%目的 了解广东省和广西地区AIDS患者

  12. Vitamin D status in a Brazilian cohort of adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Annie Schtscherbyna; Carla Gouveia; Maria Fernanda Miguens Castelar Pinheiro; Ronir Raggio Luiz; Maria Lucia Fleiuss de Farias; Elizabeth Stankiewicz Machado

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to determine the prevalence and related factors of vitamin D (VitD) insufficiency in adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus. A cohort of 65 patients (17.6 ± 2 years) at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were examined for pubertal development, nutrition, serum parathormone and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [s25(OH)D]. s25(OH)D levels < 30 ng/mL (< 75 nmol/L) were defined as VitD insufficiency. CD4+ T-cell counts and viral...

  13. Bilateral Central Retinal Vein Occlusions Combined with Artery Occlusions in A Patient with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Wen; Xuemei Chen; Haitai Li; Ruiduan Liao; Dezheng Wu

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This is the first report of a bilateral nonischemic central retinal vein occlusionscombined with artery occlusions in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS). Methods: Case report. Results: A 22-year-old Chinese(male) with a positive human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) infection developed bilateral nonischemic central retinal vein occlusions combinedwith artery occlusions and severe vision loss. The manifestations of the fundus andfluorescein angiography were similar in both eyes.Conclusion: This case report provides the evidences that central retinal vein and arteryocclusions are probably part of the spectrum of AIDS vascular diseases.

  14. Primary immunodeficiency update I: Syndromes associated with eczematous dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichard, Dominique C.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Cowen, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the availability of powerful molecular techniques has accelerated the pace of discovery of several new primary immunodeficiencies (PID) and revealed the biologic basis of other established PID. These genetic advances, in turn, have facilitated more precise phenotyping of associated skin and systemic manifestations and provide a unique opportunity to better understand the complex human immunologic response. These continuing medical education articles will provide an update of recent advances about PID that may be encountered by dermatologists through their association with eczematous dermatitis, infectious, and non-infectious cutaneous manifestations. Part I will discuss new primary immunodeficiencies that have an eczematous dermatitis. Part II will focus on primary immunodeficiencies that greatly increase susceptibility to fungal infection and the noninfectious presentations of PID. PMID:26282794

  15. Sweet′s Syndrome Leading To Acquired Cutis Laxa (Marshall′s Syndrome In A Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Meenakshi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (AFND, commonly known as Sweet’s syndrome, is a disorder seen in adult females, being extremely rare in children. Typical features include spiky fever, sudden eruption of raised painful erythematous to plum-colored nodules and plaques, neutrophilic leucocytosis, a dermal neutrophili infiltrate an a rapid response to systemic steroid. The eruption is believed to represent a hypersensitivity reaction to an antecedent infection or malignancy. There have been rare reports of acquired cutis laxa (Marshall’s syndrome following Sweet’s syndrome. We report one such case of Sweet’s syndrome leading to acquired cutis laxa (Marshall’ syndrome in a child.

  16. Regulatory T cells and immunodeficiency in mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsgaard, Thorbjørn Frej; Ødum, Niels; Geisler, Carsten;

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is the term for diseases characterized by primary accumulation of malignant T cells in the skin. Patients with the two predominant clinical forms of CTCL called mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS) characteristically develop severe immunodeficiency during...

  17. Progressive intracranial fusiform aneurysms and T-cell immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantino, Juan A; Goldenberg, Fernando D; Pytel, Peter; Wagner-Weiner, Linda; Ansari, Sameer A

    2013-02-01

    In the pediatric population, intracranial fusiform aneurysms have been associated with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and rarely with opportunistic infections related to other immunodeficiencies. The HIV virus and other infectious organisms have been implicated in the pathophysiology of these aneurysms. We present a child with T-cell immunodeficiency but no evidence of human immunodeficiency virus or opportunistic intracranial infections that developed progressive bilateral fusiform intracranial aneurysms. Our findings suggest a role of immunodeficiency or inflammation in the formation of some intracranial aneurysms.

  18. Anthracyclines and Acquired Long QT Syndrome. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodríguez Armada

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acquired long QT syndrome results from secondary causes and can be caused by more than 100 non-antiarrhythmic drugs. Cardiac arrest due to Torsades de pointes induced by drugs causing prolonged QT syndrome is a rare but potentially fatal event, even in hospitals. The case of a 47-year-old patient diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma admitted to the hematology department of the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima University General Hospital in Cienfuegos is presented. The patient had been previously treated with anthracyclines and developed episodes of palpitations and syncope later. The treatment included monitoring the patient, avoiding other QT prolonging agents and administrating magnesium sulfate and potassium chloride with a proper maintenance of the fluid and acid-base balance. The presentation of this case aims at motivating interest in new reports on the subject and establishing a direct causal relationship through the evidence provided by new experiences.

  19. Características histopatológicas e imunohistoquímicas das lesões cutâneas e da mucosa oral na histoplasmose disseminada de portadores da síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS Histopathology and immunohistochemistry of skin and oral mucosa in disseminated histoplasmosis associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Corrêa Garcia Pires D'Avila

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A análise histopatológica e imunohistoquímica de 25 biópsias cutâneas e da mucosa oral de portadores da associação AIDS e histoplasmose mostrou o seguinte: 1 em 18 casos as lesões cutâneas eram múltiplas e se apresentavam sob a forma de pápulas (eritematosas, violáceas ou acastanhadas, úlceras, vesículo-pústulas e eram distribuídas por todo tegumento cutâneo; Em sete casos as lesões se localizavam na mucosa da língua, palato, úvula e eram do tipo ulcerado ou moruliforme; 2 histologicamente as lesões apresentavam quatro aspectos distintos: macrofágico difuso; granulomatoso; vasculítico com leucocitoclasia; e com escassa reação inflamatória; 3 a tipagem dos linfócitos T e B e dos macrófagos através dos anticorpos monoclonais mostrou que a resposta imunológica ao Histoplasma capsulatum é predominantemente do tipo celular nos quatro tipos histológicos; 4 o teste imunohistoquímico para o fungo nas lesões confirmou o diagnóstico morfológico de H. capsulatum.Biopsy specimens of the skin and oral mucosa from twenty-five patients bearing the disseminated form of histoplasmosis (H. capsulatum associated with AIDS (aquired immunodeficiency syndrome were studied by histologic and immunohistochemistry techniques. Histologically, the skin lesions showed four different patterns: diffuse macrophage, granulomatous, vasculitic with leucocytoclastic and scarce inflammatory reaction. The cell markers for macrophages, lymphocytes B and T and H. capsulatum revealed CD68, UCHL-1 and L26 associated with variable amounts of fungi.

  20. 石家庄市2008年450例男男性接触者艾滋病和梅毒感染状况及艾滋病知识、态度、行为调查%INVESTIGATION OF ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME CORRELATED WITH KNOWLEDGE,ATTTTUDE, HIGH RISK SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND HIV/SYPHILIS INFECTION IN MSM POPULATION IN SHIJIAZHUANG IN 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹莹; 杨海涛; 李生奎; 刘淑君; 刘丽花; 党静; 刘晓松; 周红

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解石家庄市男男性接触者(men who have sex with mem,MSM)基本情况及艾滋病相关知识、态度、行为特征及HIV、梅毒感染率现状.[方法]对符合条件的MSM人群进行面对面的问卷调查,并采集静脉血进行HIV抗体和梅毒抗体检测.[结果]共调查450人,艾滋病知识总体知晓率为86.67%,HIV抗体、梅毒抗体阳性率分别为2.22%和756%;调查对象以青壮年为主,文化程度较高,存在多性伴和同性商业性行为,安全套每次使用率为41.03%,25.33%的人最近半年既有同性又有异性性伴.[结论]MSM人群中存在着艾滋病传播的危险因素,应采取有针对性的干预措施.%[Objective] To find out the current situation about the attitude towards acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), knowledge, high risk sexual behavior and the status of HIV and syphilis infection among MSM population in Shiji-azhuang. [Methods] 450 MSMs were investigated anonymously and their blood were determined. [Results] The integrated awareness rate of AIDS knowledge was 86.67% among the 450 MSMs. The prevalence of HIV and T.pallidum were 2.22% and 736% among the 450 MSMs respectively. The majority was young with higher educational level. They had too much sexual behavior with different persons and provided sexual service for other people. The rate of using condoms every time was only 41.03%. In the past 6 months, 25.33% of them had the opposite-sex sexual partners in addition to the same sexual partners. [Conclusion] There is potential risk of AIDS epidemic in MSM in Shijiazhuang and the effective measures for prevention should be taken.

  1. Histoplasma capsulatum fungemia in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: detection by lysis-centrifugation blood-culturing technique Fungemia por Histoplasma capsulatum em pacientes com a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida: detecção através da técnica de hemocultivo por lise-centrifugação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de Mattos Oliveira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis (PDH is an increasingly common cause of infection in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS. We report 21 cases of PDH associated with AIDS diagnosed by lysis-centrifugation blood culture method. The most prevalent clinical findings were fever, weight loss, respiratory symptoms, and mucocutaneous lesions. Chest roentgenogram showed diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in 13 of 21 patients (62%. Brochoalveolar fluid has yelded positive culture in four patients only in medium with cycloheximide.Histoplasmose progressiva disseminada (HPD tem aumentado e é causa comum de infecção em pacientes com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (Aids. Relatamos 21 casos de HPD associado com Aids diagnosticada pela técnica de hemocultivo por lise-centrifugação. Os achados clínicos mais prevalentes foram febre, perda de peso, sintomas respiratórios e lesões mucocutâneas. Raios X de tórax mostrou infiltrados pulmonares difusos em 13 dos 21 pacientes (62%. Amostras de lavado broncoalveolar foram positivos em apenas 4 pacientes através de meio com cicloheximida.

  2. [ANEMIC SYNDROME IN PATIENTS WITH COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnevsky, A V; Esaulenko, I E; Ovsyannikov, E S; Labzhaniya, N B; Voronina, E V; Chernov, A V

    2016-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia remains a most widespread acute infectious disease of socio-economic significance all over the world. Up to 30% of the patients present with anemia responsible for the unfavourable prognosis and elevated mortality. Not infrequently, anemia is not diagnosed during the hospital stay und therefore remains uncorrected. Severe anemia results in enhanced hypercapnia and slowed maturation of red blood cells in the bone marrow which facilitates the development of ischemic syndrome. Hepcidin, a mediator of inflammation and iron-regulatory hormone, plays an important role in the clinical course of community-acquired pneumonia. Hepsidin production increases during inflammation; it suppresses erythtropoiesis and depletes the iron depot leading to so-called anemia of inflammation. Hypoxia and anemia activate erythtropoiesis, and the released erythropoietin inhibits hepsidin production. During pneumonia resolution, hepsidin promotes recovery from anemia by activating iron absorption. The curreni literature contains few data on the use of hepcidin as a diagnostic marker of anemia. The necessity oftreating anemia in patients with pneumonia under hospital conditions is a matter of discussion. Direct involvement of hepcidin in iron metabolism creates a prerequisite for the treatment of anemia. Medicamental suppression of its activity by stimulating erythtropoiesis can facilitate normalization of iron metabolism and restoration of hemoglobin level.

  3. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome: A rare disorder of heterogeneous etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kasatkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS is a rare bleeding disorder that mimics the inherited form of von Willebrand disease (VWD in terms of laboratory findings and clinical presentation. Aims: To study the etiology of acquired VWD. Settings and Design: The patients referred from various hospitals in and out of Mumbai were included in the study. Materials and Methods: Six patients with AVWS diagnosed at this center over the last 10 years were analyzed against 171 patients with inherited VWD. The differential diagnosis of AVWS was made based on reduced levels of von Willebrand antigen and von Willebrand ristocetin cofactor, decrease in ristocetin induced platelet aggregation, absence of correction in mixing studies with no prior history of bleeding problems and a negative family history for bleeding disorders. Results: In three patients, the disease was associated with systematic lupus erythematosus, out of which one was also associated with Kikuchi lymphadenitis and second with autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Fourth case was associated with hypothyroidism and fifth was a case of dermatitis and vitiligo. The last patient was a case of hemophilia A with Burkitts lymphoma, who developed autoantibodies to von Willebrand factor. Except two patients, all other patients responded to immune suppressive therapy with corticosteroids, while the patient with hypothyroidism responded to oral thyroxine. Conclusion: AVWS is a rare condition and may often be missed or diagnosed as inherited disease associated with heterogeneous disease conditions.

  4. Epstein-Barr virus myelitis and Castleman's disease in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balderacchi Jasminka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Few cases of Epstein-Barr virus myelitis have been described in the literature. Multi-centric Castleman's disease is a lymphoproliferative disorder that is well known for its associations with the human immunodeficiency virus, human herpes virus 8, and Kaposi's sarcoma. The concurrent presentation of these two diseases in a patient at the same time is extremely unusual. Case Presentation We describe the case of a 43-year-old Caucasian man with acquired immune deficiency syndrome who presented with fever, weight loss and diffuse lymphadenopathy, and was diagnosed with multi-centric Castleman's disease. He presented three weeks later with lower extremity weakness and urinary retention, at which time cerebrospinal fluid contained lymphocytic pleocytosis and elevated protein. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated abnormal spinal cord signal intensity over several cervical and thoracic segments, suggesting the diagnosis of myelitis. Our patient was ultimately diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus myelitis, as Epstein-Barr virus DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the cerebrospinal fluid. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of multi-centric Castleman's disease followed by acute Epstein-Barr virus myelitis in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient. Clinicians caring for human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients should be vigilant about monitoring patients with increasing lymphadenopathy, prompting thorough diagnostic investigations when necessary.

  5. [Neural mechanism underlying autistic savant and acquired savant syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Keisuke; Kato, Motoichiro

    2008-07-01

    It is well known that the cases with savant syndrome, demonstrate outstanding mental capability despite coexisting severe mental disabilities. In many cases, savant skills are characterized by its domain-specificity, enhanced memory capability, and excessive focus on low-level perceptual processing. In addition, impaired integrative cognitive processing such as social cognition or executive function, restricted interest, and compulsive repetition of the same act are observed in savant individuals. All these are significantly relevant to the behavioral characteristics observed in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). A neurocognitive model of savant syndrome should explain these cognitive features and the juxtaposition of outstanding talents with cognitive disabilities. In recent neuropsychological studies, Miller (1998) reported clinical cases of "acquired savant," i.e., patients who improved or newly acquired an artistic savant-like skill in the early stage of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Although the relationship between an autistic savant and acquired savant remains to be elucidated, the advent of neuroimaging study of ASD and the clarification of FTD patients with savant-like skills may clarify the shared neural mechanisms of both types of talent. In this review, we classified current cognitive models of savant syndrome into the following 3 categories. (1) A hypermnesic model that suggests that savant skills develop from existing or dormant cognitive functions such as memory. However, recent findings obtained through neuropsychological examinations imply that savant individuals solve problems using a strategy that is fairly different from a non-autistic one. (2) A paradoxical functional facilitation model (Kapur, 1996) that offers possible explanations about how pathological states in the brain lead to development of prodigious skills. This model emphasizes the role of reciprocal inhibitory interaction among adjacent or distant cortical regions

  6. Vanishing bile duct syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus: Nevirapine hepatotoxicity revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajan; Kochar; Moises; I; Nevah; Frank; J; Lukens; Michael; B; Fallon; Victor; I; Machicao

    2010-01-01

    Vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS) refers to a group of disorders characterized by prolonged cholestasis as a result of destruction and disappearance ofintrahepatic bile ducts. Multiple etiologies have been indentifi ed including infections, neoplastic disorders, autoimmune conditions and drugs. The natural history of this condition is variable and may involve resolution of cholestasis or progression with irreversible damage. VBDS is extremely rare in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients an...

  7. Immune reconstitution syndrome in a human immunodeficiency virus infected child due to giardiasis leading to shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Sneha; Shah, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has been reported in association with tuberculosis, herpes zoster (shingles), Cryptococcus neoformans, Kaposi's sarcoma, Pneumocystis pneumonia, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex virus, Histoplasma capsulatum, human papillomavirus, and Cytomegalovirus. However, it has never been documented with giardiasis. We present a 7-year-old HIV infected girl who developed diarrhea and shock following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and her stool showed the presence of giardiasis. PMID:26985424

  8. Immune reconstitution syndrome in a human immunodeficiency virus infected child due to giardiasis leading to shock

    OpenAIRE

    Nandy, Sneha; Shah, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has been reported in association with tuberculosis, herpes zoster (shingles), Cryptococcus neoformans, Kaposi's sarcoma, Pneumocystis pneumonia, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex virus, Histoplasma capsulatum, human papillomavirus, and Cytomegalovirus. However, it has never been documented with giardiasis. We present a 7-year-old HIV infected girl who developed diarrhea and shock follo...

  9. Alterações renais clínico-laboratoriais em pacientes com a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida em relação aos achados anatomopatológicos Clinical and laboratory renal alterations in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in relation to natomopathological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Alberto Laguna-Torres

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas as alterações renais, tanto clínicas como anatomopatológicas, em 119 indivíduos com a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida no Hospital Escola da Faculdade de Medicina do Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG. A média das idades foi de 33 ± 10,4 anos (variando de 18 a 67 anos. Predominaram a cor branca (59% e o sexo masculino (80%. Procedência: 90% de Uberaba e região. Havia 59 (50% heterossexuais, 25 (21% homossexuais, 17 (14% bissexuais e 18 (15% sem dados conhecidos. Havia 43% usuários de drogas intravenosas. Catorze (12,2% casos apresentavam creatininemia acima de 3mg/dl nos 10 dias antes do óbito, destes encontrou-se necrose tubular aguda em 64%. Em 71 (61% pacientes encontrou-se hiponatremia e 8 (7% exibiram hipernatremia. Houve 28 (24% com hipocalemia e 8 (7% com hipercalemia. Doze pacientes tinham proteinúria de 24 horas elevada, sendo 7 acima de 1g/24h. Dois pacientes apresentaram glomeruloesclerose segmentar focal, sendo que um deles apresentou proteinúria de 5,5g/24h e creatinemia de 1,5mg/dl, sem edema. Na maioria (56% dos casos, encontrou-se nefrite túbulo-intersticial. As alterações glomerulares foram relativamente raras em tanto que as lesões túbulo-intersticiais foram muito freqüentes, principalmente a nefrite túbulo intersticial e a necrose tubular aguda. Nem sempre se pode observar uma correlação anatomoclínica pois, muitas vezes, a alteração foi predominantemente funcional, especialmente nas hidroeletrolíticas.Clinical as well as renal anatomopathological data of 119 patients with acquired immunodeffiency syndrome from the Hospital of the Faculty of Medicine of Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG, Brazil, were studied. Mean age was 33 ± 10.4 years (range 18 to 67 years. White (59% and male (80% individuals predominated. Ninety percent of patients came from Uberaba or neighborhood. There were 59 (50% heterosexual, 25 (21% homosexual, 17 (14% bisexual and 18 (15% unknown. Forty three percent

  10. Penicillium marneffei chylous ascites in acquired immune deficiency syndrome: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-Zhong Shen; Zhen-Yan Wang; Hong-Zhou Lu

    2012-01-01

    Penicillium marneffei (P.marneffei) infection usually occurs with skin,bone marrow,lung or hepatic involvement.However,no cases of P.marneffei infection with chylous ascites have been reported thus far.In this report,we describe the first case of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) which has been complicated by a P.marneffei infection causing chylous ascites.We describe the details of the case,with an emphasis on treatment regimen.This patient was treated with amphotericin B for 3 mo,while receiving concomitant therapy with an efavirenz-containing antiretroviral regimen,but cultures in ascitic fluid were persistently positive for P.marneffei.The infection resolved after treatment with high-dose voriconazole (400 mg every 12 h) for 3 mo.P.marneffei should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chylous ascites in human immunodeficiency virus patients.High-dose voriconazole is an effective,well-tolerated and convenient option for the treatment of systemic infections with P.marneffei in AIDS patients on an efavirenz-containing antiretroviral regimen.

  11. Griscelli Syndrome Type 2; A Pediatric Case with Immunodeficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Parviz Tabatabaie; Fatemeh Mahjoub; Taher Cheraghi; Nima Parvaneh

    2007-01-01

    A 3.5 month-old girl was admitted with silvery gray hair, light  colored skin, recurrent diarrhea, chest infections, hepatosplenomegaly, episodes of pancytopenia, and hemophagocytosis in the bone marrow. Light microscopy of hair showed characteristic large and irregular clumps of melanin in the middle of hair shaft. Peripheral blood smear examination did not show giant granules in granulocytes. On the basis of these clinical and laboratory findings, Griscelli syndrome was diagnosed. The ...

  12. Griscelli Syndrome Type 2; A Pediatric Case with Immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Tabatabaie

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A 3.5 month-old girl was admitted with silvery gray hair, light  colored skin, recurrent diarrhea, chest infections, hepatosplenomegaly, episodes of pancytopenia, and hemophagocytosis in the bone marrow. Light microscopy of hair showed characteristic large and irregular clumps of melanin in the middle of hair shaft. Peripheral blood smear examination did not show giant granules in granulocytes. On the basis of these clinical and laboratory findings, Griscelli syndrome was diagnosed. The child succumbed to infection during an accelerated phase of the disease.

  13. The retinal lesions of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, A H

    1984-01-01

    AIDS is a reliably diagnosed disease that is indicative of an underlying cellular immunodeficiency with no other cause for the disorder. To date over 2000 cases have been reported in North America and Europe and the number is rising. Patients fulfilling the definition for AIDS have included male homosexuals, IV drug abusers of both sexes, people from Haiti, heterosexual partners of AIDS patients, hemophiliacs, and some patients who fit no particular pattern. The etiology has been attributed t...

  14. Epidemiology of children with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (stage 3): A referral hospital-based study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Zahra; Mahmoudi, Shima; Pourakbari, Babak; Keshavarz Valian, Nasrin; Sabouni, Farah; Ramezani, Amitis; Bahador, Abbas; Mamishi, Setareh

    2016-01-01

    Lack of recognition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection especially in children and delayed implementation of effective control programs makes HIV infection as a major cause for concern. Information on HIV epidemiology in Iran as well as other Islamic countries is limited. The aim of our study was to describe the clinical manifestation and laboratory finding of HIV infected children who were admitted to a referral Children Medical Center (CMC) in Tehran, Iran, during 11 years from January 2002 to January 2013. This was a retrospective study carried out over a period of 11 years. The records of all patients attending to the CMC with confirmed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were screened. The patients were evaluated for social circumstance, family history, age, gender, clinical, and laboratory features. Clinical data including fever, respiratory distress, diarrhea, rash, etc. as well as laboratory tests including complete blood count, serum glucose level, electrolytes, liver function test, cultures, CD4 lymphocyte count were evaluated. During the study period, 32 HIV positive children were enrolled. The majority of patients were presented with weight loss, prolonged fever, respiratory infection and chronic diarrhea. In this study, salmonella infections as well as streptococcal pneumonia and candida infections followed by, tuberculosis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections were the predominant opportunistic infections. Since the number of HIV-positive children has been alarmingly increasing in recent years and perinatal transmission is the most common route of HIV infection in children, essential recommendations for prenatal HIV testing as well as appropriate antiretroviral therapy by HIV infected mothers are needed.

  15. Vitamin D status in a Brazilian cohort of adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schtscherbyna, Annie; Gouveia, Carla; Pinheiro, Maria Fernanda Miguens Castelar; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss; Machado, Elizabeth Stankiewicz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to determine the prevalence and related factors of vitamin D (VitD) insufficiency in adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus. A cohort of 65 patients (17.6 ± 2 years) at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were examined for pubertal development, nutrition, serum parathormone and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [s25(OH)D]. s25(OH)D levels < 30 ng/mL (< 75 nmol/L) were defined as VitD insufficiency. CD4+ T-cell counts and viral load, history of worst clinical status, immunologic status as nadir, current immunologic status, and antiretroviral (ART) regimen were also evaluated as risk factors for VitD insufficiency. Mean s25(OH)D was 37.7 ± 13.9 ng/mL and 29.2% had VitD insufficiency. There was no difference between VitD status and gender, age, nutritional status, clinical and immunological classification, and type of ART. Only VitD consumption showed tendency of association with s25(OH)D (p = 0.064). Individuals analysed in summer/autumn season had a higher s25(OH)D compared to the ones analysed in winter/spring (42.6 ± 14.9 vs. 34.0 ± 11.9, p = 0.011). Although, the frequency of VitD insufficiency did not differ statistically between the groups (summer/autumn 17.9% vs. winter/spring 37.8%, p = 0.102), we suggest to monitor s25(OH)D in seropositive adolescents and young adults, especially during winter/spring months, even in sunny regions. PMID:26872341

  16. Vitamin D status in a Brazilian cohort of adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Schtscherbyna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to determine the prevalence and related factors of vitamin D (VitD insufficiency in adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus. A cohort of 65 patients (17.6 ± 2 years at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were examined for pubertal development, nutrition, serum parathormone and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [s25(OHD]. s25(OHD levels < 30 ng/mL (< 75 nmol/L were defined as VitD insufficiency. CD4+ T-cell counts and viral load, history of worst clinical status, immunologic status as nadir, current immunologic status, and antiretroviral (ART regimen were also evaluated as risk factors for VitD insufficiency. Mean s25(OHD was 37.7 ± 13.9 ng/mL and 29.2% had VitD insufficiency. There was no difference between VitD status and gender, age, nutritional status, clinical and immunological classification, and type of ART. Only VitD consumption showed tendency of association with s25(OHD (p = 0.064. Individuals analysed in summer/autumn season had a higher s25(OHD compared to the ones analysed in winter/spring (42.6 ± 14.9 vs. 34.0 ± 11.9, p = 0.011. Although, the frequency of VitD insufficiency did not differ statistically between the groups (summer/autumn 17.9% vs. winter/spring 37.8%, p = 0.102, we suggest to monitor s25(OHD in seropositive adolescents and young adults, especially during winter/spring months, even in sunny regions.

  17. Vitamin D status in a Brazilian cohort of adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schtscherbyna, Annie; Gouveia, Carla; Pinheiro, Maria Fernanda Miguens Castelar; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss; Machado, Elizabeth Stankiewicz

    2016-02-01

    The purpose was to determine the prevalence and related factors of vitamin D (VitD) insufficiency in adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus. A cohort of 65 patients (17.6 ± 2 years) at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were examined for pubertal development, nutrition, serum parathormone and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [s25(OH)D]. s25(OH)D levels ng/mL (nmol/L) were defined as VitD insufficiency. CD4+ T-cell counts and viral load, history of worst clinical status, immunologic status as nadir, current immunologic status, and antiretroviral (ART) regimen were also evaluated as risk factors for VitD insufficiency. Mean s25(OH)D was 37.7 ± 13.9 ng/mL and 29.2% had VitD insufficiency. There was no difference between VitD status and gender, age, nutritional status, clinical and immunological classification, and type of ART. Only VitD consumption showed tendency of association with s25(OH)D (p = 0.064). Individuals analysed in summer/autumn season had a higher s25(OH)D compared to the ones analysed in winter/spring (42.6 ± 14.9 vs. 34.0 ± 11.9, p = 0.011). Although, the frequency of VitD insufficiency did not differ statistically between the groups (summer/autumn 17.9% vs. winter/spring 37.8%, p = 0.102), we suggest to monitor s25(OH)D in seropositive adolescents and young adults, especially during winter/spring months, even in sunny regions. PMID:26872341

  18. Clinical features and treatment of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus co-infection among patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蓉蓉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the clinical features of hepatitis B virus(HBV)and hepatitis C virus(HCV)co-infection among acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS)patients and the interaction of lamivudine(3 TC)contained antiretroviral therapy(ART)with hepatitis virus replication.Methods From 2004 to 2010,199human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)/HBV coinfected patients admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University were enrolled,including 76 cases of HIV/HBV/HCV triple infection and 123 cases of

  19. Cryptococcus sp abdominal infection in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency under secondary prophylaxis with fluconazole; Infeccao abdominal por Cryptococcus sp em paciente com imunodeficiencia adquirida em uso de profilaxia secundaria com fluconazol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutinho, Rosane Luiza; Zarehdinne, Monica [Infectologia do Hospital Eduardo de Menezes Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Peixoto, Arley; Tardieu Junior, Jose [Medicina da Faculdade de Saude e Ecologia Humana - FASEH, Vespasiano, MG (Brazil); Pedroso, Enio Roberto Pietra [Departamento de Clinica Medica da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    This paper reports on a Cryptococcus sp infection relapse in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency three years after the first episode, when her T CD4+ lymphocyte count was high and she was making regular use of antiretroviral drugs. (author)

  20. Immunodeficiency, Centromeric instability, Facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome, due to ZBTB24 mutations, presenting with large cerebral cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbone, Manuela; Wang, Jun; Van der Maarel, Silvère M.; d’Amico, Alessandra; d’Agostino, Antonio; Romano, Alfonso; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    The Immunodeficiency, Centromeric instability, Facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease presenting with immunodeficiency secondary to hypo- or agammaglobulinemia, developmental delay, and facial anomalies. Centromeric instability is the cytogenetic hallmark of the disorder which results from targeted chromosomal rearrangements related to a genomic methylation defect. We describe a patient carrying a homozygous mutation of the ZBTB24 gene, which has been recently shown to be responsible for ICF syndrome type 2. Our patient presented with intellectual disability, multiple café-au-lait spots, and a large cerebral arachnoidal cyst. Although laboratory signs of impaired immune function, such as reduced serum IgM were detected, our patient did not present clinical manifestations of immunodeficiency. Brain malformations have not been reported so far in ICF syndrome and it can be speculated that ZBTB24 mutations may alter cerebral development. Nevertheless, we cannot rule out that the presence of the cerebral cyst in the patient is coincidental. In summary, our patient illustrates that clinical evidence of immunodeficiency is not a universal feature of ICF2 syndrome type 2 and suggests that brain malformations may be present in other ICF cases. PMID:22786748

  1. Mutations in Z8T824 Are Associated with Immunodeficiency, Centromeric Instability, and Facial Anomalies Syndrome Type 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Greef, Jessica C.; Wang, Jun; Balog, Judit; den Dunnen, Johan T.; Frants, Rune R.; Straasheijm, Kirsten R.; Aytekin, Caner; van der Burg, Mirjam; Duprez, Laurence; Ferster, Alina; Gennery, Andrew R.; Gimelli, Giorgio; Reisli, Ismail; Schuetz, Catharina; Schulz, Ansgar; Smeets, Dominique F. C. M.; Sznajer, Yves; Wijmenga, Cisca; van Eggermond, Maria C.; van Ostaijen-ten Dam, Monique M.; Lankester, Arjan C.; van Tol, Maarten J. D.; van den Elsen, Peter J.; Weemaes, Corry M.; van der Maarel, Silvere M.

    2011-01-01

    Autosomal-recessive immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, and facial anomalies (ICE) syndrome is mainly characterized by recurrent, often fatal, respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. About 50% of patients carry mutations in the DNA methyltransferase 3B gene (DNMT3B) (ICF1). The remaining

  2. A case of phace syndrome and acquired hypopituitarism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denzer Friederike

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PHACE is a neurocutaneous syndrome associated with: Posterior fossa brain malformations, large “segmental” facial hemangiomas, arterial cerebrovascular-, cardiovascular-, and eye anomalies. Case vignette We are reporting a girl with PHACE syndrome. The patient had a congenital right-sided facial hemangioma with plaque-morphology. At age 11 years and 2 months she presented with short stature, markedly decreased growth velocity and signs and symptoms suggestive of hypothyroidism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI of the brain revealed complex structural and cerebrovascular arterial anomalies, including an empty sella. Testing of pituitary function revealed multiple pituitary dysfunctions, including absolute growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, central hypothyroidism, and secondary adrenal insufficiency. Conclusions This case suggests the necessity to screen all patients with PHACE syndrome and intracranial malformations for pituitary dysfunction at regular intervals.

  3. Experimental oral polio vaccines and acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, E

    2001-06-29

    The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) of the common chimpanzee is widely acknowledged as the direct ancestor of HIV-1. There is increasing historical evidence that during the late 1950s, kidneys were routinely excised from central African chimpanzees by scientists who were collaborating with the polio vaccine research of Dr Hilary Koprowski, and sent - inter alia - to vaccine-making laboratories in the USA and Africa, and to unspecified destinations in Belgium. While there is no direct evidence that cells from these kidneys were used as a substrate for growing Dr Koprowski's oral polio vaccines, there is a startling coincidence between places in Africa where his CHAT vaccine was fed, and the first appearances in the world of HIV-1 group M and group-M-related AIDS. Because of the enormous implications of the hypothesis that AIDS may be an unintended iatrogenic (physician-caused) disease, it is almost inevitable that this theory will engender heated opposition from many of those in the scientific establishment, and those with vested interests. PMID:11405924

  4. The 11q Terminal Deletion Disorder Jacobsen Syndrome is a Syndromic Primary Immunodeficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.A.S.H. Dalm (Virgil); G.J.A. Driessen (Gertjan); B.H. Barendregt (Barbara); P.M. van Hagen (Martin); M. van der Burg (Mirjam)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Jacobsen syndrome (JS) is a rare contiguous gene syndrome caused by partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. Clinical features include physical and mental growth retardation, facial dysmorphism, thrombocytopenia, impaired platelet function and pancytopenia. In case

  5. Immune dysregulation, Polyendocrinopathy, Enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX syndrome: a paradigm of immunodeficiency with autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica eBarzaghi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Immune dysregulation, Polyendocrinopathy, Enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX syndrome is a rare monogenic primary immunodeficiency (PID due to mutations of FOXP3, a key transcription factor for naturally occurring (n regulatory T (Treg cells. The dysfunction of Treg cells is the main pathogenic event leading to the multi-organ autoimmunity that characterizes IPEX syndrome, a paradigm of genetically determined PID with autoimmunity. IPEX has a severe early onset and can become rapidly fatal within the first year of life regardless of the type and site of the mutation. The initial presenting symptoms are severe enteritis and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus, alone or in combination with eczema and elevated serum IgE. Other autoimmune symptoms, such as hypothyroidism, cytopenia, hepatitis, nephropathy, arthritis, and alopecia, can develop in patients who survive the initial acute phase.The current therapeutic options for IPEX patients are limited. Supportive and replacement therapies combined with pharmacological immunosuppression are required to control symptoms at onset. However, these procedures can allow only a reduction of the clinical manifestations without a permanent control of the disease. The only known effective cure for IPEX syndrome is haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, but it is always limited by the availability of a suitable donor and the lack of specific guidelines for bone marrow transplant in the context of this disease.This review aims to summarize the clinical histories and genomic mutations of the IPEX patients described in the literature to date. We will focus on the clinical and immunological features that allow differential diagnosis of IPEX syndrome and distinguish it from other PID with autoimmunity. The efficacy of the current therapies will be reviewed, and possible innovative approaches, based on the latest highlights of the pathogenesis to treat this severe primary autoimmune disease of childhood, will be discussed.

  6. Nervous system manifestations and neuroradiologic findings in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodesch, G.; Parizel, P.M.; Lalmand, B.; Vanderhofstadt, A.; Baleriaux, D.; Farber, C.M.; Calck, M. van; Przedborski, S.; Haens, J. d' ; Taelman, H.

    1989-03-01

    We report a series of thirteen patients with nervous system complications out of a total of thirty AIDS patients admitted to our hospital over the last two years for which CT and/or MRI have been performed. Five were homosexual men and eight patients (5 men, 3 women) were of African origin (Zaire and Rwanda) (n=5) or had had sexual intercourse with the local African population (n=3). The nervous system complications encountered included: Toxoplasma gondii brain abscess (2 patients); cryptococcus neoformans meningitis+toxoplasmosis (1 patient); toxoplasmosis+lymphoma (2 patients); progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (1 patient); lymphocytic meningitis or encephalitis (3 patients); lymphoma (1 patient); polyradiculoneuritis (3 patients). Three of thirteen patients had multiple intracranial abnormalities: One had concomitant intraparenchymal toxoplasma abscess and cryptococcal meningitis; in one patient a lymphoma developed after the successful medical treatment of a toxoplasma abscess; conversely, one patient developed a toxoplasma abscess two years after mediastinal radiotherapy for a systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In conclusion, in our experience, nervous system toxoplasmosis is the most frequent AIDS related CNS complication. Our series demonstrates the high frequency of a second neurological disease occurring either concomitantly or separately. In these cases, while CT may readily identify the intracranial abnormalities, it contributes little towards an etiological diagnosis. Finally, our series illustrates the importance of a central African endemic focus for AIDS.

  7. [Subconjunctival chemotherapy in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Experimental study of 3 clinical cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgares-Ramos, María de los Ángeles; Carnesoltas-Lázaro, Deyanira; Silveira-Melgares, Yiliam Suyen; Domínguez-Odio, Aníbal

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: el carcinoma escamoso de la conjuntiva (CEC) es un tumor maligno epitelial de la mucosa conjuntival, de etiología multifactorial. Existen varias alternativas de tratamiento para el control de esta enfermedad con diferentes resultados terapéuticos. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la respuesta antitumoral de la preparación de una formulación de cisplatino en 3 pacientes con HIV y CEC recidivante, candidatos a tratamiento de enucleación y exenteración orbitaria, y evaluar los efectos adversos que se presentaron con la administración de la formulación aplicada. Métodos: fueron tratados 3 pacientes masculinos, caucásicos, con media de edad 37 años, a los que se les realizó cirugía exerética y se les administraron 3 ciclos de quimioterapia subconjuntival, con duración de 3 meses. Resultados: todos los pacientes conservaron sus ojos y la visión. No hubo persistencia ni aparecieron recidivas tumorales durante el periodo evaluado. Un paciente falleció por progresión del HIV 2 años después de finalizado el tratamiento, mantuvo visión conservada y sin actividad tumoral. Conclusión: el tratamiento con quimioterapia subconjuntival adyuvante a la cirugía resulta eficaz y es tolerable en la población de pacientes tratados.

  8. Bioethical aspects of the management of patients with Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Jesús Sánchez Bouza

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioethical aspects related with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of patients with AIDS are present in the Cuban strategy to fight the epidemic. Through the revision of the essentials and principles of Bioethics, we analyze the problems that doctors face when treating these patients and aspects related with education for health in the case of this disease. It also outlines the association between these principles and the disposition, manifested or not, of theses patients to be part of some researches. This infection should be the target of permanent analysis by the Bioethics due to the constant challenges that it represent for medical staff and for society, either for the prevention, treatment and care, or for other kids of actions. Cuba has exceptional results in this field.

  9. Atypical Herpes Zoster as a clinic begining of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Blanco Córdova; Teresa Cangas García

    2015-01-01

    The Herpes Zoster is produced by the reactivation of the Chicken Pox Zoster Virus. It has an incidence of three cases for each thousand inhabitants a year, and they increase the possibility to suffer it with the age. A 48 year old case of a patient with atypical Zoster with postherpetic neuralgia who came to the Dermatology consultation with cutaneous and mucous lesions is presented. This article has the objective to describe the evolution of the Herpes Zoster in the last patient diagnosed li...

  10. Immune Reconstitution——the Footing of Chinese Medicine Treatment for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jie

    2011-01-01

    @@ The Current AIDS Status "The global AIDS report"issued by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS)on November 23,2010(1)stated that there were 2.6 million AIDS cases in 2009,1.8 million people died related to AIDS,and until the end of 2009,the HIV infectors reached 33.3 million.The current ratio is 2:5,that is,when two AIDS patients start to receive treatment,five new HIV infectors appear(2).

  11. Magnetic resonance evaluation of cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batra, A; Tripathi, R.P.; Gorthi, S.P. [Inst. of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi (India). NMR Research Center

    2004-04-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate and delineate the characteristics of cerebral toxoplasmosis lesions using a combination of magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy, diffusion, and perfusion studies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 8 patients with 23 lesions were evaluated on a 1.5-T MR system. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed with three 'b' values of 50, 500, and 1000 s/mm2, and the apparent diffusion coefficient maps were calculated. The diffusion-weighted appearances and the T2-weighted MR appearances of the lesions were compared. MR spectroscopy was performed using the point-resolved single-voxel technique with two TE values of 135 ms and 270 ms. Perfusion studies were carried out using the dynamic contrast-enhanced technique, and the relative cerebral blood volume maps were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. RESULTS: DWI revealed the majority of the lesions as having increased diffusion within their necrotic centers, with the ADC ranging from 0.5 to 3.01 (mean {+-} SD: 1.49 {+-} 0.7). All the lesions revealed a predominant lipid peak on MR spectroscopy and were extremely hypovascular on perfusion MR studies. CONCLUSION: MR diffusion, spectroscopy, and perfusion studies help in characterizing toxoplasmosis lesions and, in most cases, can be used in combination to help establish the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.

  12. CT findings of abdominal tuberculosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the CT findings of abdominal tuberculosis in patients with AIDS. Methods: CT imaging features of abdominal tuberculosis in 33 patients with AIDS were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Abdominal lymph adenopathy were observed in 23 cases (69.7%, 23/33). Hepatosplenomegaly were observed in 10 cases (30.3%, 10/33). Multiple low density nodes in spleen were observed in 14 cases (42.4%,14/33) including 9 cases of diffuse, low density nodes (27.3%, 9/33). Low density lesions in liver were observed in 7 cases (21.2%, 7/33) including a case of tuberculous abscess (3.0%, 1/33). Peritoneum and epiploon involvements were found in 5 cases (15.2%, 5/33) with associated ascites in 2 cases (6.1%, 2/33). Thickening of intestines wall were observed in 4 cases (12.1%, 4/33). Destruction of lumbar vertebra with cold abscess was observed in 1 case (3.0%, 1/33). Abscess in psoas was observed in 1 case (3.0%, 1/33). Conclusion: Abdominal tuberculosis in patients with AIDS usually involves multiple organs in the abdomen. CT has an important role in the detection and following up examination of these lesions. (authors)

  13. Epidemiological aspects of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in older Brazilians: a comparative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Max Fagundes de Carvalho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare epidemiological aspects of young (15 to 49 years old and older (more than 50 years old AIDS patients. METHODS: We analyzed 511,633 AIDS cases notified to the Brazilian Ministry of Health in the period of 1980-2008 looking at sex, age ranges, educational level and exposure category. Patients were divided into three age groups: under 15, from 15 to 49 and over 50 years old. Using a comparative approach, we analyzed data with regard to category of exposure, education (expressed in years of schooling, and sex ratio among younger (15-49 and older adults (over 50 years old. Time series data were log-transformed and normalized, and the temporal trend was evaluated. RESULTS: AIDS incidence is increasing among people over 50 years old in Brazil, with those older than 50 being responsible for 9.64 % of AIDS cases. There was no significant difference between educational level and gender (p = 0.468, but there was a significant difference in exposure category with a lower proportion of injecting drug users amongst the older group. CONCLUSION: Based on this analysis over the last 10 years, the percentage of AIDS cases has increased almost three times among people over 50 years old when compared with the 15-49 year-old group. Our findings suggest that public campaigns have to be specially targeted to the older segment of the population, aiming at heterosexual transmission.

  14. Zidovudine disposition during hemodialysis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglione, T A; Holeman, E; Opheim, K; Smith, T; Collier, A C

    1990-01-01

    Zidovudine (azidothymidine, AZT) disposition was examined during a hemodialysis session in an HIV-infected male with mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis. Serum concentrations of zidovudine and its glucuronidated inactive metabolite (G-ZDV) were measured by HPLC. Zidovudine pharmacokinetics were similar to previous reports in patients with normal renal function, however, G-ZDV concentrations were significantly elevated (23-440 times zidovudine concentration). Hemodialysis did not appreciably reduce zidovudine or G-ZDV levels. Significance of chronically elevated G-ZDV levels is unknown.

  15. [A case of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy concomitant with acquired von Willebrand syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Maki; Kawamura, Nobutoshi; Tateishi, Takahisa; Shigeto, Hiroshi; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Kira, Jun-ichi

    2011-05-01

    We report a case of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) concomitant with acquired von Willebrand syndrome. A 33-year-old man developed motor and sensory polyneuropathy with electrophysiological conduction slowing. At this time, M-protein was absent He was diagnosed with CIDP and received intravenous immunoglobulin and subsequent oral corticosteroids, which resulted in almost complete remission for over 10 years. At the age of 44, he presented with chronic anemia. Laboratory tests and colonoscopy revealed that he had acquired von Willebrand syndrome with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (IgG lambda type) and colon cancer. Bleeding symptoms were.resolved with intravenous immunoglobulin, but not with supplementation of factor VIII. Shortly after successful excision of the cancer, CIDP and acquired von Willebrand syndrome simultaneously recurred. Intravenous immunoglobulin produced rapid improvement of both neurological and hematological abnormalities. Concurring CIDP and acquired von Willebrand syndrome in the present case may indicate that the conditions have a partly common immunological background including monoclonal gammopathy and a potential common autoantibody-mediated mechanism. Alternatively, dysfunction of von Willebrand factor may increase blood-nerve barrier permeability, inducing the recurrence of CIDP.

  16. Angiographic Features and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients With First-Time Acute Coronary Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Mathiasen, Anders B; Worck, R.H.;

    2013-01-01

    A matched cohort study was conducted comparing patients with first-time acute coronary syndromes infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to non-HIV-infected patients with and without diabetes matched for smoking, gender, and type of acute coronary syndrome who underwent first-time corona...... angiography. A total of 48 HIV-infected patients were identified from a national database. Coronary angiography showed that the HIV-infected patients had significantly fewer lesions with classification B2/C than the 2 control groups (p...

  17. Low-dose growth hormone and human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipodystrophy syndrome: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Haugaard, S B; Flyvbjerg, A;

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment with high doses (2-6 mg day(-1)) of human growth hormone (hGH) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) has been shown to increase concentrations of total insulin-like growth-factor-I (IGF-I) more than twofold greater than.......01). Patients reported improvements of lipodystrophy, which was supported by a decreased waist-to-thigh ratio (P = 0.01), and waist-to-hip ratio (P = 0.06). Ratio of peripheral to trunk soft tissue mass increased (P = 0.01, measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans) and a trend towards reduction......' treatment of lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients with hGH, 0.7 mg day(-1), increased total and free IGF-I twofold and appeared safe and tolerable. The potential of low-dose hGH in the treatment of HIV-lipodystrophy awaits examination by placebo-controlled, randomized trials....

  18. Study of a human immunodeficiency virus-associated multiple-tissue dysfunction syndrome in one boy: Analysis of multiple tissues using X-ray, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xichao Xia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the previous study, reports of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-associated multiple tissue dysfunction syndromes are limit. Now, multiple tissue lesions of one boy with AIDS were analyzed using X-ray, computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Results showed that obvious brain atrophy and several focus were detected by CT and MRI. Lung lymphoid inflammation and pulmonary lymphoplasia were observed by CT. A swelling with a slight low density in hepatic anterior region of right lobe and a large soft tissue neoplasm in right abdomen were obtained by CT. An obvious damage of intestinal duct and intestinal lymphomas were respectively observed by molybdenum contrast image and CT. X-ray showed a low density of thoracic bone and iliac bone, and irregular shapes of bone joint and epiphysis. Characterizations of HIV-associated multiple organ dysfunction syndromes in the case are benefit to understand features of children with acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

  19. Identification of a mutation associated with fatal Foal Immunodeficiency Syndrome in the Fell and Dales pony.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Y Fox-Clipsham

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Fell and Dales are rare native UK pony breeds at risk due to falling numbers, in-breeding, and inherited disease. Specifically, the lethal Mendelian recessive disease Foal Immunodeficiency Syndrome (FIS, which manifests as B-lymphocyte immunodeficiency and progressive anemia, is a substantial threat. A significant percentage (∼10% of the Fell ponies born each year dies from FIS, compromising the long-term survival of this breed. Moreover, the likely spread of FIS into other breeds is of major concern. Indeed, FIS was identified in the Dales pony, a related breed, during the course of this work. Using a stepwise approach comprising linkage and homozygosity mapping followed by haplotype analysis, we mapped the mutation using 14 FIS-affected, 17 obligate carriers, and 10 adults of unknown carrier status to a ∼1 Mb region (29.8 - 30.8 Mb on chromosome (ECA 26. A subsequent genome-wide association study identified two SNPs on ECA26 that showed genome-wide significance after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing: BIEC2-692674 at 29.804 Mb and BIEC2-693138 at 32.19 Mb. The associated region spanned 2.6 Mb from ∼29.6 Mb to 32.2 Mb on ECA26. Re-sequencing of this region identified a mutation in the sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter gene (SLC5A3; this causes a P446L substitution in the protein. This gene plays a crucial role in the regulatory response to osmotic stress that is essential in many tissues including lymphoid tissues and during early embryonic development. We propose that the amino acid substitution we identify here alters the function of SLC5A3, leading to erythropoiesis failure and compromise of the immune system. FIS is of significant biological interest as it is unique and is caused by a gene not previously associated with a mammalian disease. Having identified the associated gene, we are now able to eradicate FIS from equine populations by informed selective breeding.

  20. Unified-planning, graded-administration, and centralized-controlling: a management modality for treating acquired immune deficiency syndrome with Chinese medicine in Henan Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Ran; Guo, Hui-jun; Liu, Zhi-bin; Li, Qiang; Yang, Ji-ping; He, Ying

    2015-04-01

    Henan Province in China has a major epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Chinese medicine (CM) has been used throughout the last decade, and a management modality was developed, which can be described by unified-planning, graded-administration, and centralized-controlling (UGC). The UGC modality has one primary concept (patient-centered medicine from CM theory), four basic foundations (classifying administrative region, characteristics of CM on disease treatment, health resource conditions, and distribution of patients living with HIV), six important relationships (the "three uniformities and three combinations," and the six relationships therein guide the treatment of AIDS with CM), and four key sections (management, operation, records, and evaluation). In this article, the authors introduce the UGC modality, which could be beneficial to developing countries or resource-limited areas for the management of chronic infectious disease. PMID:25877652

  1. Unified-planning, graded-administration, and centralized-controlling: a management modality for treating acquired immune deficiency syndrome with Chinese medicine in Henan Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Ran; Guo, Hui-jun; Liu, Zhi-bin; Li, Qiang; Yang, Ji-ping; He, Ying

    2015-04-01

    Henan Province in China has a major epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Chinese medicine (CM) has been used throughout the last decade, and a management modality was developed, which can be described by unified-planning, graded-administration, and centralized-controlling (UGC). The UGC modality has one primary concept (patient-centered medicine from CM theory), four basic foundations (classifying administrative region, characteristics of CM on disease treatment, health resource conditions, and distribution of patients living with HIV), six important relationships (the "three uniformities and three combinations," and the six relationships therein guide the treatment of AIDS with CM), and four key sections (management, operation, records, and evaluation). In this article, the authors introduce the UGC modality, which could be beneficial to developing countries or resource-limited areas for the management of chronic infectious disease.

  2. Unilateral acquired Brown′s syndrome in systemic scleroderma: An unusual cause for diplopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Pawar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown′s syndrome can be congenital or acquired with multiple causes. It has been described as a ocular complication in various rheumatic and nonrheumatic diseases. We describe a case of 27-year-old female patient with 5 years old history of systemic scleroderma who developed vertical diplopia, a left head tilt, and restriction of left eye on elevation in adduction. The patient responded to systemic steroids with resolution of diplopia.

  3. A Case Report of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy Presenting as Acquired Symptomatic West Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shridhar Jadhav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Munchausen Syndrome By Proxy (MSBP is an extremely complicated diagnosis because of the difficulty in finding the incriminating evidence of its existence and because of the ethical issue it raises for caregivers. Its implications from a medical, psychological and legal point of view raise difficult questions for any professional confronted to it. We present a case of 8 month female infant who was diagnosed to have Hyperinsulinism causing hypoglycemic brain injury and later developing intractable convulsion with head drops, where EEG was suggestive of West Syndrome, was actually a case of Munchausen syndrome by proxy to start with.

  4. Human Immunodeficiency Virus(HIV)First Invasion of Foundation of the Acquired Yang%人类免疫缺陷病毒首犯后天阳之本

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志攀; 马秀霞; 孟鹏飞

    2014-01-01

    After human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)infection the human body,it mainly involves two meridians of the lung,spleen, but first invasion of lung meridian. Lung is the foundation of the acquired yang,and spleen is the foundation of the acquired yin. Accord-ing to the physiological function of the lung and the characteristics of the HIV virus attacks the human body,clinical manifestations of lung channel appear the earliest,the biggest probability. Spleen is the foundation of the acquired yin,when the lung function impairment or insufficient,pathogenic factors can further and result in spleen channel disease. At the same time,HIV virus invasion of lung and spleen has great specificity,which need to be combined with other comprehensive analysis of the pathogenesis of every period,fully un-derstanding of the pathogenesis of viral features.%人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)感染人体后,主要侵犯肺、脾二经,但首犯肺经。肺为后天阳之本,脾为后天阴之本。根据肺的生理功能和 HIV 病毒侵袭人体的特点,肺经的临床表现出现最早,出现的几率也最大。脾为后天阴之本,当肺脏卫外功能减退或不足的时候,病邪即可深入,引起脾经病变。同时 HIV 病毒对肺脾的侵犯具有较大的特异性,需要结合其他各期的病机进行综合分析,完整地认识病毒的发病特性。

  5. Absolute level of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection is not predictive of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Baarle, Debbie; Wolthers, Katja C; Hovenkamp, Egbert; Niesters, Hubert G M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Miedema, Frank; Van Oers, Marinus H J

    2002-01-01

    To study whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load can be used to predict the occurrence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (AIDS-NHL), we determined EBV load longitudinally for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. EBV load in peripheral blood mo

  6. Sweet′s Syndrome Leading To Acquired Cutis Laxa (Marshall′s Syndrome) In A Child

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan Meenakshi; Phiske Meghana; Jerajani H R; Dhurat Rachita

    2004-01-01

    Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (AFND), commonly known as Sweetâ€s syndrome, is a disorder seen in adult females, being extremely rare in children. Typical features include spiky fever, sudden eruption of raised painful erythematous to plum-colored nodules and plaques, neutrophilic leucocytosis, a dermal neutrophili infiltrate an a rapid response to systemic steroid. The eruption is believed to represent a hypersensitivity reaction to an antecedent infection or malignancy....

  7. Acquired disorders of elastic tissue: part I. Increased elastic tissue and solar elastotic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kevan G; Bercovitch, Lionel; Dill, Sara W; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie

    2004-07-01

    Elastic fibers in the extracellular matrix are an integral component of dermal connective tissue. The resilience and elasticity required for normal structure and function of the skin may be attributed to the network of elastic tissue. Advances in our understanding of elastic tissue physiology provide a foundation for studying the pathogenesis of elastic tissue disorders. Many acquired disorders are nevertheless poorly understood due to the paucity of reported cases. Several acquired disorders in which accumulation or elastotic degeneration of dermal elastic fibers produces prominent clinical and histopathologic features have recently been described. They include elastoderma, linear focal elastosis, and late-onset focal dermal elastosis and must be differentiated from better-known disorders, among them acquired pseudoxanthoma elasticum, elastosis perforans serpiginosa, and Favré-Racouchot syndrome. Learning objective At the conclusion of this learning activity, participants should understand the similarities and differences between acquired disorders of elastic tissue that are characterized by an increase in elastic tissue, as well as the spectrum of solar elastotic dermatoses.

  8. Acquired infantile Horner syndrome and spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirouzian, Amir; Holz, Huck A; Ip, Kenneth C; Sudesh, Rattehalli

    2010-04-01

    Horner syndrome, a triad of ptosis, anisocoria, and anhidrosis, results from interruption in the oculosympathetic pathway. It is classically described as either congenital or acquired to depict its underlying pathophysiology and requisite work-up. We report a case of a 10-month-old infant presenting with an acute onset of left Horner syndrome secondary to a spontaneous extracranial internal carotid artery dissection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report in the literature of acute onset of acquired infantile Horner syndrome in association with spontaneous carotid artery dissection confirmed with magnetic resonance angiogram. PMID:20451860

  9. 5-azacytidine and 5-azadeoxycytidine inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchard, J.; Walker, M. C.; Leclerc, J M; Lapointe, N; Beaulieu, R.; Thibodeau, L

    1990-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic agents which affect the integration, stability, or inducibility of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) provirus would have considerable value in treating acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Two nucleoside analogs of cytosine, 5-azacytidine and 5-azadeoxycytidine, which seem to have such value because of their capabilities to affect both the stability and the methylation patterns of the nucleic acids into which they are incorporated, were tested for their ability to inhibit...

  10. A study on Global Human-Immunodeficiency Virus and its Effect in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Jamal; Mohajan, Haradhan; Moolio, Pahlaj; Peter, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with global Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and situation of this disease in Bangladesh. The disease is alarming in poorer areas as like Africa, Latin America, Caribbean islands and some parts of Asia. This paper aware the people who have very few knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Due to ignorance of people, HIV/AIDS is spreading to the developing countries. An attempt is taken here to show the world about the discrimination to the societi...

  11. Social capital of Iranian patients living with acquired immune deficiency syndrome and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, S K; Nedjat, S; Jabbari, H; Saiepour, N; Heris, M J

    2015-12-13

    This study investigated the social capital of Iranian patients living with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the associated factors. In a cross-sectional study the Integrated Social Capital Questionnaire was filled by a sequential sample of 300 patients visiting a referral counselling centre in Tehran. The patients' social capital scores were around 50% in the trust, social cohesion, collective action and cooperation and political empowerment domains. The groups and networks membership domain scored the lowest (27.1%). In regression analysis, employment status was significantly associated with groups and networks membership; age, marital status and financial status were associated with collective action and cooperation; period of disease awareness and marital status affected social cohesion and inclusion; and having risky behaviour affected empowerment and political action. Efforts are needed to enhance the social capital of those patients living with AIDS who are younger, unemployed, divorced/widowed, with risky behaviours and shorter disease awareness.

  12. Social capital of Iranian patients living with acquired immune deficiency syndrome and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, S K; Nedjat, S; Jabbari, H; Saiepour, N; Heris, M J

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the social capital of Iranian patients living with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the associated factors. In a cross-sectional study the Integrated Social Capital Questionnaire was filled by a sequential sample of 300 patients visiting a referral counselling centre in Tehran. The patients' social capital scores were around 50% in the trust, social cohesion, collective action and cooperation and political empowerment domains. The groups and networks membership domain scored the lowest (27.1%). In regression analysis, employment status was significantly associated with groups and networks membership; age, marital status and financial status were associated with collective action and cooperation; period of disease awareness and marital status affected social cohesion and inclusion; and having risky behaviour affected empowerment and political action. Efforts are needed to enhance the social capital of those patients living with AIDS who are younger, unemployed, divorced/widowed, with risky behaviours and shorter disease awareness. PMID:26750165

  13. Transforming Growth Factor-β1 T869C Gene Polymorphism Is Associated with Acquired Sick Sinus Syndrome via Linking a Higher Serum Protein Level

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jan-Yow; Liu, Jiung-Hsiun; Wu, Hong-Dar Isaac; Lin, Kuo-Hung; Chang, Kuan-Cheng; Liou, Ying-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Familial sick sinus syndrome is associated with gene mutations and dysfunction of ion channels. In contrast, degenerative fibrosis of the sinus node tissue plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acquired sick sinus syndrome. There is a close relationship between transforming growth factor-β1 mediated cardiac fibrosis and acquired arrhythmia. It is of interest to examine whether transforming growth factor-β1 is involved in the pathogenesis of acquired sick sinus syndrome. Me...

  14. Primary immunodeficiency update II: Syndromes associated with mucocutaneous candidiasis and non-infectious cutaneous manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichard, Dominique C.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Cowen, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    Several primary immunodeficiencies (PID) have recently been described which confer elevated risk of fungal infections as well as non-infectious cutaneous manifestations. In addition, immunological advances have provided new insights into our understanding of the pathophysiology of fungal infections in established PID. We reviewed PID that present with an eczematous dermatitis in Part I. In Part II, we will discuss updates on PID associated with fungal infections and their biological basis in PID as well as non-infectious cutaneous manifestations. PMID:26282795

  15. Meeting Minutes of International Conference on Prevention and Treatment of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome with Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; WANG Jie; LIN Hong-sheng; WU Xin-fang; LIU Jie; TANG Yan-li; NAN Ji-hong

    2011-01-01

    @@ The International Conference on Prevention and Treatment of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) with Chinese Medicine (CM) was held in Beijing International Hotel from October 16to 17,2010.It was cosponsored by Guang'anmen Hospital,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences (CACMS),and the First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

  16. Acquired CNS Demyelinating Syndrome in Children Referred to Shiraz Pediatric Neurology Ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroor INALOO*

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Inaloo S, Haghbin S, Moradi M, Dashti H, Safari N. Acquired CNS Demyelinating Syndrome in Children Referred to Shiraz Pediatric Neurology Ward. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Spring; 8(2:18-23.ObjectiveIncidence of CNS acquired demyelinating syndrome (ADS, especially multiple sclerosis (MS in children, appears to be on the rise worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine prevalence, clinical presentation, neuroimagingfeatures, and prognosis of different types of ADS in Iranian children.Materials & MethodsDuring the period 2002-2012, all the patients (aged 1-18 years with ADS, such as MS, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM, optic neurotic (ON, Devic disease, and transverse myelitis (TM, referred to the pediatric neurology ward, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, were includedin this study. Demographic data, clinical signs and symptoms, past and family history, preclinical findings, clinical course, and outcome were obtained.ResultsWe identified 88 patients with ADS in our center. The most prevalent disease was MS with 36.5% (n=32, followed by AEDM 26.1% (n=31, ON 17% (n=13, TM 15.9% (n=14, and Devic disease 4.5% (n=4. MS, ON, TM were morecommon among females while ADEM was more common in males. Children with ADEM were significantly younger than those with other types of ADS.Family history was positive in 10% of patients with MS.Previous history of recent infection was considerably seen in cases with ADEM.Clinical presentation and prognosis in this study was in accordance with those in previous studies on children.ConclusionIn this study, the most common type of ADS was MS, which was more common in female and older age cases. ADEM was more common in male and younger children. ADEM and ON had the best and Devic disease had the worst prognosis.References1. Longer-Gould A, Zhaug JL, Chung J, Yeung Y, Wanbant E, Yao J. Incidence of acquired CNS demyelinating syndrome in a

  17. Common variable immunodeficiency with CD4+ T lymphocytopenia and overproduction of soluble IL-2 receptor associated with Turner's syndrome and dorsal kyphoscoliosis.

    OpenAIRE

    al-Attas, R A; Rahi, A H; Ahmed el-FE

    1997-01-01

    An unusual combination of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and Turner's syndrome in a Saudi woman aged 20 years is presented. In addition to panhypogammaglobulinaemia, the patient had CD4+ T lymphocytopenia; however, there was evidence of in vivo activation of T cells and overproduction of soluble interleukin 2 receptor in culture supernate. Mantoux test was positive, but lymphoblastic response to non-specific mitogen was impaired. Immunogenetically the patient was HLA-DR3 positive and...

  18. Predictive factors for the Nursing Diagnoses in people living with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Richardson Augusto Rosendo; Costa, Romanniny Hévillyn Silva; Nelson, Ana Raquel Cortês; Duarte, Fernando Hiago da Silva; Prado, Nanete Caroline da Costa; Rodrigues, Eduardo Henrique Fagundes

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to identify the predictive factors for the nursing diagnoses in people living with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Method: a cross-sectional study, undertaken with 113 people living with AIDS. The data were collected using an interview script and physical examination. Logistic regression was used for the data analysis, considering a level of significance of 10%. Results: the predictive factors identified were: for the nursing diagnosis of knowledge deficit-inadequate following of instructions and verbalization of the problem; for the nursing diagnosis of failure to adhere - years of study, behavior indicative of failure to adhere, participation in the treatment and forgetfulness; for the nursing diagnosis of sexual dysfunction - family income, reduced frequency of sexual practice, perceived deficit in sexual desire, perceived limitations imposed by the disease and altered body function. Conclusion: the predictive factors for these nursing diagnoses involved sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, defining characteristics, and related factors, which must be taken into consideration during the assistance provided by the nurse. PMID:27384466

  19. Patients with an inherited syndrome characterized by immunodeficiency, microcephaly, and chromosomal instability: genetic relationship to ataxia telangiectasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaspers, N.G.; Taalman, R.D.; Baan, C.

    1988-01-01

    Fibroblast cultures from six unrelated patients having a familial type of immunodeficiency combined with microcephaly, developmental delay, and chromosomal instability were studied with respect to their response to ionizing radiation. The cells from five of them resembled those from individuals with ataxia telangiectasia (AT) in that they were two to three times more radiosensitive on the basis of clonogenic cell survival. In addition, after exposure to either X-rays or bleomycin, they showed an inhibition of DNA replication that was less pronounced than that in normal cells and characteristic of AT fibroblasts. However, the patients are clinically very different from AT patients, not showing any signs of neurocutaneous symptoms. Genetic complementation studies in fused cells, with the radioresistant DNA synthesis used as a marker, showed that the patients' cells could complement representatives of all presently known AT complementation groups. Furthermore, they were shown to constitute a genetically heterogeneous group as well. It is concluded that these patients are similar to AT patients with respect to cytological parameters. The clinical differences between these patients and AT patients are a reflection of genetic heterogeneity. The data indicate that the patients suffer from a chromosome-instability syndrome that is distinct from AT.

  20. Computer simulations of the interaction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) aspartic protease with spherical gold nanoparticles: implications in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Chris G.; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-09-01

    The interaction of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) with human immune-deficiency virus aspartic protease (HIVPR) is modelled using a regime of molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations of the ‘docking’, first as a rigid-body complex, and eventually through flexible-fit analysis, creates 36 different complexes from four initial orientations of the nanoparticle strategically positioned around the surface of the enzyme. The structural deviations of the enzymes from the initial x-ray crystal structure during each docking simulation are assessed by comparative analysis of secondary structural elements, root mean square deviations, B-factors, interactive bonding energies, dihedral angles, radius of gyration (R g), circular dichroism (CD), volume occupied by C α , electrostatic potentials, solvation energies and hydrophobicities. Normalisation of the data narrows the selection from the initial 36 to one ‘final’ probable structure. It is concluded that, after computer simulations on each of the 36 initial complexes incorporating the 12 different biophysical techniques, the top five complexes are the same no matter which technique is explored. The significance of the present work is an expansion of an earlier study on the molecular dynamic simulation for the interaction of HIVPR with silver nanoparticles. This work is supported by experimental evidence since the initial ‘orientation’ of the AgNP with the enzyme is the same as the ‘final’ AuNP-HIVPR complex generated in the present study. The findings will provide insight into the forces of the binding of the HIVPR to AuNP. It is anticipated that the protocol developed in this study will act as a standard process for the interaction of any nanoparticle with any biomedical target.

  1. Computer simulations of the interaction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) aspartic protease with spherical gold nanoparticles: implications in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Chris G; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-09-01

    The interaction of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) with human immune-deficiency virus aspartic protease (HIVPR) is modelled using a regime of molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations of the 'docking', first as a rigid-body complex, and eventually through flexible-fit analysis, creates 36 different complexes from four initial orientations of the nanoparticle strategically positioned around the surface of the enzyme. The structural deviations of the enzymes from the initial x-ray crystal structure during each docking simulation are assessed by comparative analysis of secondary structural elements, root mean square deviations, B-factors, interactive bonding energies, dihedral angles, radius of gyration (R g), circular dichroism (CD), volume occupied by C α , electrostatic potentials, solvation energies and hydrophobicities. Normalisation of the data narrows the selection from the initial 36 to one 'final' probable structure. It is concluded that, after computer simulations on each of the 36 initial complexes incorporating the 12 different biophysical techniques, the top five complexes are the same no matter which technique is explored. The significance of the present work is an expansion of an earlier study on the molecular dynamic simulation for the interaction of HIVPR with silver nanoparticles. This work is supported by experimental evidence since the initial 'orientation' of the AgNP with the enzyme is the same as the 'final' AuNP-HIVPR complex generated in the present study. The findings will provide insight into the forces of the binding of the HIVPR to AuNP. It is anticipated that the protocol developed in this study will act as a standard process for the interaction of any nanoparticle with any biomedical target.

  2. CXCL12/CXCR4-Axis Dysfunctions: Markers of the Rare Immunodeficiency Disorder WHIM Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Bachelerie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The WHIM syndrome features susceptibility to human Papillomavirus infection-induced warts and carcinomas, hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent bacterial infections, B and T-cell lymphopenia, and neutropenia associated with retention of senescent neutrophils in the bone marrow (i.e. myelokathexis. This rare disorder is mostly linked to inherited heterozygous autosomal dominant mutations in the gene encoding CXCR4, a G protein coupled receptor with a unique ligand, the chemokine CXCL12/SDF-1. Some individuals who have full clinical forms of the syndrome carry a wild type CXCR4 gene. In spite of this genetic heterogeneity, leukocytes from WHIM patients share in common dysfunctions of the CXCR4-mediated signaling pathway upon exposure to CXCL12. Dysfunctions are characterized by impaired desensitization and receptor internalization, which are associated with enhanced responses to the chemokine. Our increasing understanding of the mechanisms that account for the aberrant CXCL12/CXCR4-mediated responses is beginning to provide insight into the pathogenesis of the disorder. As a result we can expect to identify markers of the WHIM syndrome, as well as other disorders with WHIM-like features that are associated with dysfunctions of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis.

  3. Distinct mechanisms account for acquired von Willebrand syndrome in plasma cell dyscrasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicke, Christina; Schneppenheim, Sonja; Holstein, Katharina; Spath, Brigitte; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Dittmer, Rita; Budde, Ulrich; Langer, Florian

    2016-05-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) is a rare bleeding disorder that may cause life-threatening hemorrhages in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias (PCDs). Early diagnosis and treatment require a thorough understanding of its underlying pathophysiology. Two patients with IgG MGUS presented with dramatically decreased plasma von Willebrand factor (VWF) and a severe type-1 pattern on multimer analysis. A prompt response to intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG), but not to VWF/FVIII, was consistent with accelerated immunologic clearance of plasma VWF. Another IgG MGUS patient showed a type-2 pattern and a less pronounced response to IVIG, suggesting that additional mechanism(s) contributed to AVWS evolution. In a patient with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia and severe depletion of plasma VWF, multimer analysis indicated association of the IgM paraprotein with VWF before, but not after plasmapheresis, resulting in destruction of the agarose gel and a characteristically distorted band structure of VWF multimers. A type-2 pattern with highly abnormal VWF triplets and laboratory evidence of excessive fibrinolytic activity suggested that plasmin-mediated VWF degradation contributed to AVWS in a patient with multiple myeloma (MM) and AL amyloidosis. Finally, in a patient with IgG MM, maximally prolonged PFA-100® closure times and a specific defect in ristocetin-induced platelet agglutination, both of which resolved after remission induction, indicated interference of the paraprotein with VWF binding to platelet GPIb. Importantly, in none of the six patients, circulating autoantibodies to VWF were detected by a specific in-house ELISA. In summary, when evaluating PCD patients with severe bleeding symptoms, AVWS due to various pathogenic mechanisms should be considered. PMID:27040683

  4. Immunological studies in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: effect of TCGF and indomethacine on the in vitro lymphocyte response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Fugger, L; Ryder, L P;

    1987-01-01

    We studied the effects of exogenous T cell growth factor (TCGF) (= interleukin-2) and indomethacine on the lymphocyte transformation response in vitro to allogeneic cells, mitogens, and antigens in AIDS patients, those with AIDS-related complex (ARC), and in healthy controls. While low amounts of...

  5. IgGG Kappa Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS) Presenting as Acquired Type III Von Willebrand Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, C.; Lin, T; Cunningham, M; Lipe, B

    2014-01-01

    Acquired von Willebrand Syndrome (AVWS) is a rare bleeding disorder associated with hematoproliferative disorders, autoimmune conditions, neoplasia, and cardiovascular disorders that often presents a diagnostic challenge. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is one of the most common causes of AVWS that typically presents later in life with mucocutaneous or postsurgical bleeding and multimers consistent with type I or II von Willebrand Disease (VWD). Here we present the c...

  6. Eleven Polish patients with microcephaly, immunodeficiency, and chromosomal instability: The Nijmegan breakage syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrzanowska, K.H.; Krajewska-Walasek, M.; Gutkowska, A. [Memorial Hospital-Child Health Center, Warsaw (Poland)] [and others

    1995-07-03

    We report on 11 patients with 8 independent families (3 pairs of sibs) with a complex clinical pattern including microcephaly, peculiar {open_quotes}bird-like{close_quotes} face, growth retardation, and, in some cases, mild-to-moderate mental deficiency. Most of the patients have recurring respiratory tract infections. One girl has developed B-cell lymphoma. A detailed anthropometric study of 15 physical parameters, including 3 cephalic traits, was performed. It was possible to study the chromosomes of PHA-stimulated lymphocytes in all of the patients. We found structural aberrations with multiple rearrangements, preferentially involving chromosomes 7 and 14 in a proportion of metaphases in all individuals. Profound humoral and cellular immune defects were observed. Serum AFP levels were within normal range. Radioresistant DNA synthesis was strongly increased in all 8 patients who were hitherto studied in this respect. Our patients fulfill the criteria of the Nijmegen breakage syndrome, which belongs to the growing category of ataxia telangiectasia-related genetic disorders. In light of the increased predisposition to malignancy in this syndrome, an accurate diagnosis is important for the patient. 27 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging depiction of acquired Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome with crossed cerebro-cerebellar diaschisis: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome, also known as hemispheric atrophy, is characterized by loss of volume of one cerebral hemisphere from an insult in early life. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis refers to dysfunction/atrophy of cerebellar hemisphere which is secondary to contralateral supratentorial insult. We describe magnetic resonance imaging findings in two cases of acquired Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome with crossed cerebro-cerebellar diaschisis.

  8. Thalidomide for treatment of gastrointestinal bleedings due to angiodysplasia : a case report in acquired von Willebrand syndrome and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, E T; van Galen, K P M; Schutgens, R E G

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Acquired von Willebrand syndrome is a rare bleeding disorder and treatment of the associated gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding due to angiodysplasia is challenging. AIM: The aim of this study was to present a new case on the successful use of thalidomide in a patient with acquired von Wil

  9. A rare radiological manifestation of disseminated tuberculous spondylitisin acquired immune deficiency syndrome patient: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Won; Koo, Joon Bum; Kim, Tae Eun [Dept. of of Radiology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Dongguk University School of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The spine is the most common site of skeletal involvement in tuberculosis. The radiologic features are reportedly characterized by destruction of the vertebral body, subligamentous extension or subchondral penetration, frequent paravertebral abscess formation and late involvement of the disk space. We experienced a case of a 25-year-old male who was a human immunodeficiency virus carrier without antiretroviral therapy. Incidental findings on abdominal computed tomography included multiple well-demarcated and ovoid osteolytic lesions with hyperdense rims disseminated in the thoracic, lumbar, and sacrum vertebrae, as well as in both ilii. On the lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging, multiple small round lesions of isointense signal intensity with peripheral hyperintense rims were found on both T1- and T2-weighted imaging. The lesions had peripheral rim enhancement on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted imaging. Based on our experience, this rare image finding is one of the manifestations of disseminated tuberculosis.

  10. Acute Renal Failure in Association with Community-Acquired Clostridium difficile Infection and McKittrick-Wheelock Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Learney

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 65-year-old Caucasian woman who experienced two separate episodes of acute renal failure within an 18-month period, both requiring emergency admission and complicated treatment. Each episode was precipitated by hypovolaemia from intestinal fluid losses, but from two rare and independent pathologies. Her first admission was attributed to community-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD and was treated in the intensive therapy unit. She returned 18 months later with volume depletion and electrolyte disturbances, but on this occasion a giant hypersecretory villous adenoma of the rectum (McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome was diagnosed following initial abnormal findings on digital rectal examination by a junior physician. Unlike hospital-acquired C. difficile, community-acquired infection is not common, although increasing numbers are being reported. Whilst community-acquired CDAD can be severe, it rarely causes acute renal failure. This case report highlights the pathological mechanisms whereby C. difficile toxin and hypersecretory villous adenoma of the rectum can predispose to acute renal failure, as well as the values of thorough clinical examination in the emergency room, and early communication with intensivist colleagues in dire situations.

  11. Long-term outcome following hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: collaborative study of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies and European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozsahin, H.; Cavazzana-Calvo, M.; Notarangelo, L.D.;

    2008-01-01

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a rare X-linked immunodeficiency with microthrombocytopenia, eczema, recurrent infections, autoimmune disorders, and malignancies that are life-threatening in the majority of patients. In this long-term, retrospective, multicenter study, we analyzed events that o...

  12. Primary growth hormone insensitivity (Laron syndrome and acquired hypothyroidism: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneli Ginevra

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary growth hormone resistance or growth hormone insensitivity syndrome, also known as Laron syndrome, is a hereditary disease caused by deletions or different types of mutations in the growth hormone receptor gene or by post-receptor defects. This disorder is characterized by a clinical appearance of severe growth hormone deficiency with high levels of circulating growth hormone in contrast to low serum insulin-like growth factor 1 values. Case presentation We report the case of a 15-year-old Caucasian girl who was diagnosed with Silver-Russell syndrome at the age of four and a half years. Recombinant growth hormone was administered for 18 months without an appropriate increase in growth velocity. At the age of seven years, her serum growth hormone levels were high, and an insulin-like growth factor 1 generation test did not increase insulin-like growth factor 1 levels (baseline insulin-like growth factor 1 levels, 52 μg/L; reference range, 75 μg/L to 365 μg/L; and peak, 76 μg/L and 50 μg/L after 12 and 84 hours, respectively, from baseline. The genetic analysis showed that the patient was homozygous for the R217X mutation in the growth hormone receptor gene, which is characteristic of Laron syndrome. On the basis of these results, the diagnosis of primary growth hormone insensitivity syndrome was made, and recombinant insulin-like growth factor 1 therapy was initiated. The patient's treatment was well tolerated, but unexplained central hypothyroidism occurred at the age of 12.9 years. At the age of 15 years, when the patient's sexual development was almost completed and her menstrual cycle occurred irregularly, her height was 129.8 cm, which is 4.71 standard deviations below the median for normal girls her age. Conclusion The most important functional tests for the diagnosis of growth hormone insensitivity are the insulin-like growth factor 1 generation test and genetic analysis. Currently, the only effective

  13. Gambaran Mikroskopis Basil Tahan Asam (BTA) pada Pasien Suspek Koinfeksi Tuberkulosis Paru-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) yang Berobat di Klinik Care Support and Treatment (CST) Pusyansus RSUP. Haji Adam Malik Medan Periode Januari 2011 - Desember 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Novyan, Hafis

    2014-01-01

    Background : Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the virus which lead Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) which affect human immune system. Possibility of HIV patients to get opportunistic infection on low immune system is high. One of the most frequent opportunistic infection in HIV patient is Tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis which an Acid Fast Bacili (AFB) bacteria. Mycobacterium tuberculosis been detect to ensure the diagnosis of TB patient and also on co-infection HI...

  14. Fifty cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: immunoultrastructural study of circulating lymphocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Feremans, W W; Huygen, K.; Menu, R; Farber, C M; de Caluwe, J P; van Vooren, J P; Marcelis, L; Andre, L; Brasseur, M; Bondue, H

    1988-01-01

    The peripheral lymphocytes of 50 cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (13 of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 17 of AIDS related complex (ARC), and 20 healthy carriers) were studied immunoultrastructurally. The prevalence of "tubuloreticular structures" and "tubular confronting cisternae" increased with the progression of the disease. Numerous tubular confronting cisternae were noted in patients presenting with a high serum acid labile alpha-interferon values. The ...

  15. Detection and quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells by flow cytometry.

    OpenAIRE

    McSharry, J J; Costantino, R; Robbiano, E; Echols, R; Stevens, R; Lehman, J M

    1990-01-01

    A flow cytometric assay has been developed to detect and quantitate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from HIV-seropositive patients. Peripheral blood was obtained from patients attending an acquired immune deficiency syndrome clinic, and mononuclear cells were separated by centrifugation onto Ficoll-Hypaque. The cell layer at the interface was removed, washed in phosphate-buffered saline without Ca2+ and Mg2+, and fixed with 90% methanol,...

  16. X-Linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome and Common Variable Immunodeficiency May Not Be Differentiated by SH2D1A and XIAP/BIRC4 Genes Sequence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin Gulez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP is a rare, inherited immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent episodes of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, hypogammaglobulinemia, and/or lymphomas. Recently, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP/BIRC4 gene defects, in families with XLP but without SH2D1A gene defects, has been defined. The distinction from primary immunodeficiencies with a defined genetic cause is mandatory. A six-year-old male patient was admitted with the complaints of persistent general lymphadenopathy, for two years had fever, bilateral cervical multiple microlymphadenopathy, hepatic/splenic enlargement with laboratory findings as decreased serum immunoglobulins, negative EBV VCA IgM (viral capsid antigen and anti-EBV EA (antibody to early D antigen, positive EBV VCA IgG (viral capsid antigen and EBV EBNA (antibody to nuclear antigen. SH2D1A gene analysis was negative. XIAP/BIRC4 sequencing revealed two novel single nucleotide variants (exon 7, 1978G > A, and 1996T > A in the 3′UTR of the gene in both patient and mother which were not disease causing. XIAP protein expression was found to be normal. The clinical and laboratory resemblance, no gene mutations, and normal XIAP protein expression led us to think that there may be another responsible gene for XLP. The patient will to be followed up as CVID until he presents new diagnostic signs or until the identification of a new gene.

  17. Primary stomal lymphoma. An unusual complication of ileostomy in a patient with transfusion-related acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levecq, H; Hautefeuille, M; Hoang, C; Galian, A; Hautefeuille, P; Rambaud, J C

    1990-02-15

    A 73-year-old heterosexual man developed a high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma at the site of an ileostomy only 2 years after proctectomy for undetermined colitis not cured by previous colectomy. In fact, the early occurrence of this usually very late and rare complication of ileostomy was probably favored by the simultaneous presence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) due to repeated blood transfusions for refractory anemia with excess blasts. The intestinal location of the tumor, its high-grade malignancy and B-cell origin are all features of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. This case report seems to be one of the rarely identified examples of the cooperation between general predisposing factors and local irritating agents at the origin of a malignant tumor. PMID:2297651

  18. Epstein-Barr serology in immunodeficiencies: an attempt to correlate with immune abnormalities in Wiskott-Aldrich and Chediak-Higashi syndromes and ataxia telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmer, E; Lenoir, G M; Virelizier, J L; Griscelli, C

    1984-01-01

    Epstein-Barr (EB) virus serology was correlated with the results of immunological investigations of three inherited immunodeficiency diseases, in an attempt to understand the immune mechanisms controlling EB virus infection. In nine patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), the constant lack of anti-EB virus associated nuclear antigen (EBNA) was accompanied by a consistent impairment of allogeneic cytotoxicity. We confirmed a frequent absence of anti-EBNA antibody in ataxia telangiectasia (AT), and we showed a correlation between the level of anti-EBNA response and the mixed leucocyte response (MLR), i.e., an absence of anti-EBNA antibody correlated with a decreased MLR. In two of three untreated patients with Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), high persistent titres of anti-EA antibodies were observed, which were possibly related to a defective natural killer (NK) cell activity. In spite of previous infection with EB virus, none of the 41 patients exhibited clinical signs attributable to the virus, suggesting that residual or compensatory mechanisms must have limited activation of the virus. In patients with AT and WAS these mechanisms may include NK cell activity, which is not depressed in these syndromes, whereas in patients with CHS, they may involve T cell cytotoxicity. PMID:6321070

  19. Epstein-Barr virus-associated adult respiratory distress syndrome in a patient with AIDS: a case report and review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stopyra, G A; Multhaupt, H A; Alexa, L;

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been associated with fatal pneumonitis in immunocompetent patients. We present a case of fatal adult respiratory distress syndrome caused by EBV infection in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), to our knowledge the first...

  20. Idiopathic genital ulcers in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J; Clark, R A; Watts, D H; Till, M; Arrastia, C; Schuman, P; Cohn, S E; Young, M; Bessen, L; Greenblatt, R; Vogler, M; Swindells, S; Boyer, P

    1996-12-01

    A national survey of investigators caring for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women was undertaken to describe the clinical presentation of idiopathic genital ulcer disease. Patients with negative syphilis and herpes simplex testing and/or negative genital ulcer biopsy were included in this study. Study participants (n = 29) were generally severely immunocompromised (median CD4 cell count was 50/mm3, and 68% had an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]-defining opportunistic process). Thirty-seven percent had coexistent oral ulcers and 19% had their genital ulcer progress to fistula formation (four rectovaginal and one vaginal-perineal). There was generally a favorable response to topical, systemic, and intralesional steroid treatment. This study suggests that idiopathic or probable aphthous genital ulcers in women have similar clinical characteristics to aphthous oroesophageal ulcers. Although infrequent, these genital ulcers can cause severe morbidity. Further research is warranted to better define the pathophysiology and optimal management.

  1. [Pulmonary complications in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann V, Pablo; Viviani S, Támara; Peña D, Anamaría

    2007-08-01

    Pulmonary complications in children infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are common and may be the first manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The aim of our study was to review pulmonary diseases and complications in pediatric patients with HIV infection in a large tertiary hospital in Santiago, Chile. We performed a retrospective, descriptive analysis of 17 patients with HIV infection controlled at the Hospital Dr. Sótero del Rio. Respiratory complications/diseases were: overall pneumonia (n: 14), recurrent pneumonia (n: 10), citomegalovirus associated pneumonia (n: 4), Pneumocystis jiroveci associated pneumonia (n: 1) pulmonary tuberculosis (n: 1), lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (n: 3) and chronic pulmonary disease (n: 7). Microorganisms isolated were mostly atypical and frequently associated with severe and chronic pulmonary damage. A high degree of suspicion is required to detect atypical microorganisms promptly, in order to rapidly implement pathogen targeted therapy that could potentially decrease the possibility of sequelae. PMID:17728918

  2. Common variable immunodeficiency: etiological and treatment issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Sean; Selmi, Carlo; Naguwa, Stanley M; Teuber, Suzanne S; Gershwin, M Eric

    2009-01-01

    One of the great advances in clinical medicine was the recognition of the pleomorphism of the immune response and the multiple afferent and efferent limbs of antigen processing and responsiveness. A significant contribution to this understanding was derived from studies of human immunodeficiency states, including both inherited and acquired syndromes. Amongst these syndromes, one of the most common, and least understood, is common variable immune deficiency (CVID). CVID is a syndrome that leads to a reduction in serum immunoglobulins and complications including recurrent infections. Management includes immunoglobulin replacement therapy; however, patients with CVID are at risk for complications of exogenous immunoglobulin administration as well as CVID-associated diseases such as autoimmune processes and malignancies. To assess the current state of knowledge in the field, we performed a literature review of a total of 753 publications covering the period of 1968 until 2008. From this list, 189 publications were selected for discussion. In this review, we demonstrate that while the molecular basis of CVID in many cases remains incompletely understood, significant strides have been made and it is now clear that there is involvement of several pathways of immune activation, with contributions from both T and B cells. Furthermore, despite the current gaps in our knowledge of the molecular pathogenesis of the syndrome, there have been dramatic advances in management that have led to improved survival and significantly reduced morbidity in affected patients. PMID:19571563

  3. Lemierre's syndrome due to community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection and presenting with orbital cellulitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadhiravan Tamilarasu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Lemierre's syndrome is septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein leading to metastatic septic complications following an oropharyngeal infection. It is usually caused by the anaerobe, Fusobacterium necrophorum. Of late, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is increasingly being recognised as a cause of community-acquired skin and soft tissue infections. We report a rare case of Lemierre's syndrome caused by community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Case presentation A previously healthy 16-year-old girl presented with fever of 13 days duration, painful swelling around the right eye and diplopia followed by the appearance of pulmonary infiltrates. Imaging studies confirmed the clinical suspicion of bilateral jugular venous thrombosis with septic pulmonary embolism. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was isolated on blood cultures. The hospital course was complicated by massive haemoptysis and pulmonary aspiration necessitating mechanical ventilation. The patient subsequently made a complete recovery. Conclusion Lemierre's syndrome, although rare, is a potentially lethal but treatable complication of head and neck sepsis. Early clinical recognition of Lemierre's syndrome and appropriate antibiotic treatment can be life-saving. One should consider the possibility of community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in patients with suspected Lemierre's syndrome.

  4. Transforming Growth Factor-β1 T869C Gene Polymorphism Is Associated with Acquired Sick Sinus Syndrome via Linking a Higher Serum Protein Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Yow Chen

    Full Text Available Familial sick sinus syndrome is associated with gene mutations and dysfunction of ion channels. In contrast, degenerative fibrosis of the sinus node tissue plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acquired sick sinus syndrome. There is a close relationship between transforming growth factor-β1 mediated cardiac fibrosis and acquired arrhythmia. It is of interest to examine whether transforming growth factor-β1 is involved in the pathogenesis of acquired sick sinus syndrome.Overall, 110 patients with acquired SSS and 137 age/gender-matched controls were screened for transforming growth factor-β1 and cardiac sodium channel gene polymorphisms using gene sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the serum level of transforming growth factor-β1.Two transforming growth factor-β1 gene polymorphisms (C-509T and T+869C and one cardiac sodium channel gene polymorphism (H588R have been identified. The C-dominant CC/CT genotype frequency of T869C was significantly higher in acquired sick sinus syndrome patients than in controls (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.16-3.75, P = 0.01. Consistently, the level of serum transforming growth factor-β1 was also significantly greater in acquired sick sinus syndrome group than in controls (5.3±3.4 ng/ml vs. 3.7±2.4 ng/ml, P = 0.01. In addition, the CC/CT genotypes showed a higher transforming growth factor-β1 serum level than the TT genotype (4.25 ± 2.50 ng/ml vs. 2.71± 1.76 ng/ml, P = 0.028 in controls.Transforming growth factor-β1 T869C polymorphism, correlated with high serum transforming growth factor-β1 levels, is associated with susceptibility to acquired sick sinus syndrome.

  5. Recent advances in primary and acquired immunodeficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiuti F.; Rosen, F.; Cooper, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 38 selections. Some of the titles are: A new, X-chromosomal gene family (XLR) expressed in mature lymphoid cells; Molecular genetic analysis of T-cell antigen and Interleukin-32 receptors on normal and leukemic lymphocytes; Cogenital agammaglobulinaemia associated with malabsorption: no expression of MHC-class-II-antigens due to a regulatory gene defect; and DNA-mediated gene transfer into Ataxia-Telangiectasia cells.

  6. Study of a human immunodeficiency virus-associated multiple-tissue dysfunction syndrome in one boy: Analysis of multiple tissues using X-ray, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Xichao Xia; Qingfu Hu; Shifeng Zhang; Juan Cui; Bingqin Shi; Hongwen Li; Hongjun Li; Xizhong Jia; Lei Jiang; Rongzhi Liu

    2016-01-01

    In the previous study, reports of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated multiple tissue dysfunction syndromes are limit. Now, multiple tissue lesions of one boy with AIDS were analyzed using X-ray, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results showed that obvious brain atrophy and several focus were detected by CT and MRI. Lung lymphoid inflammation and pulmonary lymphoplasia were observed by CT. A swelling with a slight low density in hepatic anterior region ...

  7. Major histocompatibility complex class I-associated vaccine protection from simian immunodeficiency virus-infected peripheral blood cells

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of vaccine protection from infected cells from another individual of the same species, vaccinated rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were challenged with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from another animal diagnosed with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Half of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)- vaccinated animals challenged were protected, whereas unprotected vaccinates progressed as rapidly to AIDS. Protection was unrelated to either total ant...

  8. Comparison of depression, anxiety, stress, and related factors among women and men with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mina Saadat; Behboodi, Zahra M.; Ebrahim Saadat

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To compare depression, anxiety, stress, and related factors among women and men with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Settings And Design: In this cross-sectional survey conducted between November and September 2013, 200 participants with HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) attending Consultation Centers. Materials And Methods: Participants with HIV/AIDS were interviewed using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales questionnaire (DASS 21 ). Results: There were...

  9. Russian nursing students’ knowledge level and attitudes in the context of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) – a descriptive study

    OpenAIRE

    Suominen, Tarja; Laakkonen, Laura; Lioznov, Dmitry; Polukova, Maya; Nikolaenko, Svetlana; Lipiäinen, Liudmila; Välimäki, Maritta; Kylmä, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge of Russian nursing students regarding HIV and Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), and their attitudes towards caring for people/patients living with HIV or AIDS (PLWHA - People Living With HIV/AIDS) and their possible homophobic attitudes. The HIV epidemic in Russia is substantial and increasing rapidly. Hence this study provides important new information regarding this phenomenon. Methods The data was collected by que...

  10. A.S.P.E.N. Clinical Guidelines: Nutrition Support of Children With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sabery, Nasim; Duggan, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The clinical characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in children differ substantially from those in adults, and these differences are important to consider in providing both medical and nutrition care. Growth failure, wasting, and loss of active lean tissue are all associated with increased mortality and accelerated disease progression. The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved the prognosis and life span of c...

  11. The Prevalence of Different Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission Routes and Knowledge about AIDS in Infected People with HIV in Sirjan

    OpenAIRE

    Mahin Behzadpour; Narges Khanjani

    2012-01-01

    Background & Objective: The immune system of Patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is weekend because of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and they become vulnerable to several opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens and different carcinomas. IV drug abuse, sexual contact, occupational transmission, blood transfusion and maternal-fetal transmission are well known transmission routes for HIV infection. This study was under taken to investigate the prevalenc...

  12. Related progress of CT-guided percutaneous biopsy in the thoracic complications of acquired immune deficiency syndrome and occupational exposure prevention%CT引导下经皮穿刺活检术在获得性免疫缺陷综合征胸部并发症中的应用及职业暴露防护相关进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王青

    2011-01-01

    CT-guided percutaneous biopsy in the thoracic complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)is the main clear diagnosis method.The application of technical solutions, complications and prevention, occupational exposure protection principles and methods of CT-guided percutaneous biopsy in thoracic complications of AIDS were reviewed in this article.%CT引导下经皮穿刺活检术是确诊获得性免疫缺陷综合征(AIDS)胸部并发症的主要方法.本文对CT引导下经皮穿刺活检术在AIDS胸部并发症中应用的技术方案、并发症及预防,职业暴露防护原则及方法进行综述.

  13. Characteristics and contributions of defective, ecotropic, and mink cell focus-inducing viruses involved in a retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency syndrome of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, S K; Sengupta, D N; Fredrickson, T N; Morse, H C; Hartley, J W

    1991-08-01

    LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus, a derivative of Duplan-Laterjet virus, contains a mixture of replication-competent B-tropic ecotropic and mink cell focus-inducing (MCF) viruses and a defective genome that is the proximal cause of a syndrome, murine AIDS (MAIDS), characterized by lymphoproliferation and immunodeficiency. The defective (BM5d) and ecotropic components of this mixture were molecularly cloned, and complete (BM5d) or partial (ecotropic) nucleotide sequences were determined. BM5d closely resembled the Du5H genome cloned from the Duplan virus, featuring a highly divergent p12 sequence in the gag open reading frame. In MAIDS-sensitive C57BL/6 mice, BM5d was detected in tissues within 2 weeks of infection but was absent from tissues of the MAIDS-resistant strain, A/J, 12 weeks after infection. B-cell-lineage tumors from mice with MAIDS contained and expressed BM5d, and clonal integrations of this genome were variably associated with clonal expansions of B cells in infected mice. Finally, mRNA crosshybridizing with a probe for BM5d was present in spleen but not kidney cells of uninfected B6 mice.

  14. Polity immunodeficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Ola

    2012-01-01

    Video work at Fremantle Arts Centre, Australia 19 May-15 July 2012. The overall exhibition was called Projektet and was a collaborative project with Amanda Newall, Senior Lecturer in Sculpture at Royal Institute of Art in Stockholm, Sweden. The exhibition had two separate video works, Blood Run by Newall and Polity Immunodeficiency by Johansson. The latter piece was written and facilitated/directed by Johansson, who was also one of its performers. Moreover, Johansson conducted laboratory expe...

  15. A Case of Fatal Congenital Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Uğur Hatipoğlu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acquired immune deficiency syndrome is a clinical condition caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV which can be transmitted either vertically or horizontally. More than 90% of children living with HIV in developing countries have been infected through mother to child transmission during pregnancy, around the time of birth, or through breastfeeding. In order to reduce the number of infected children, increasing emphasis should be placed on preventing mother to child transmission programs with the use of antiretroviral medications in the pregnant woman during pregnancy and at delivery and, starting immediately after birth for the exposed infant. Here, we present the case of a 60-day-old infant heavily immunocompromised due to an extremely high viral burden of HIV, which was acquired perinatally from an undiagnosed and untreated mother, leading to severe bronchopneumonia, sepsis, septic shock and death.

  16. Pharmacological Inhibition of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Bienzle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is a member of the retroviridae family of viruses and causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS in domestic and non-domestic cats worldwide. Genome organization of FIV and clinical characteristics of the disease caused by the virus are similar to those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Both viruses infect T lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages, and their replication cycle in infected cells is analogous. Due to marked similarity in genomic organization, virus structure, virus replication and disease pathogenesis of FIV and HIV, infection of cats with FIV is a useful tool to study and develop novel drugs and vaccines for HIV. Anti-retroviral drugs studied extensively in HIV infection have targeted different steps of the virus replication cycle: (1 inhibition of virus entry into susceptible cells at the level of attachment to host cell surface receptors and co-receptors; (2 inhibition of fusion of the virus membrane with the cell membrane; (3 blockade of reverse transcription of viral genomic RNA; (4 interruption of nuclear translocation and viral DNA integration into host genomes; (5 prevention of viral transcript processing and nuclear export; and (6 inhibition of virion assembly and maturation. Despite much success of anti-retroviral therapy slowing disease progression in people, similar therapy has not been thoroughly investigated in cats. In this article we review current pharmacological approaches and novel targets for anti-lentiviral therapy, and critically assess potentially suitable applications against FIV infection in cats.

  17. Approach to a child with primary immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Yılmaz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary immunodeficiencies are clinically and epidemiologically important, despite their low prevalence, due to the associated risk of high morbidity and mortality. Most commonly encountered primary immunodeficiencies include humoral immune system deficiencies, cellular immune system defects, combined immunodeficiencies, phagocyte system defects, complement system defects. Classical clinical findings of immunodeficiencies include recurrent, severe infections which do not respond to treatment or which progress with complications as well as tendency to develop infections with low virulence microorganisms. Moreover, they may present with autoimmunity, autoinflammatory or hemaphagocytic syndromes. Congenital diseases usually start in early childhood and lead to morbidity and mortality. Therefore, early diagnosis may be life saving and allow increasing quality of life, genetic counseling or prenatal diagnosis. Considering primary immunodeficiencies more frequently in differential diagnosis and early immunological evaluation would lead to early diagnosis of these patients and allow them to reach early treatment or preventive measures.

  18. Impaired expression of mitochondrial and adipogenic genes in adipose tissue from a patient with acquired partial lipodystrophy (Barraquer-Simons syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guallar Jordi P

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acquired partial lipodystrophy or Barraquer-Simons syndrome is a rare form of progressive lipodystrophy. The etiopathogenesis of adipose tissue atrophy in these patients is unknown. Case presentation This is a case report of a 44-year-old woman with acquired partial lipodystrophy. To obtain insight into the molecular basis of lipoatrophy in acquired partial lipodystrophy, we examined gene expression in adipose tissue from this patient newly diagnosed with acquired partial lipodystrophy. A biopsy of subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained from the patient, and DNA and RNA were extracted in order to evaluate mitochondrial DNA abundance and mRNA expression levels. Conclusion The expression of marker genes of adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism, including the master regulator PPARγ, was down-regulated in subcutaneous adipose tissue from this patient. Adiponectin mRNA expression was also reduced but leptin mRNA levels were unaltered. Markers of local inflammatory status were unaltered. Expression of genes related to mitochondrial function was reduced despite unaltered levels of mitochondrial DNA. It is concluded that adipogenic and mitochondrial gene expression is impaired in adipose tissue in this patient with acquired partial lipodystrophy.

  19. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Bruno M.; Hagiwara, Mitika K.; Hosie, Margaret J.; Cruz, Juliano C. M.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid emergence of AIDS in humans during the period between 1980 and 2000 has led to extensive efforts to understand more fully similar etiologic agents of chronic and progressive acquired immunodeficiency disease in several mammalian species. Lentiviruses that have gene sequence homology with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been found in different species (including sheep, goats, horses, cattle, cats, and several Old World monkey species). Lentiviruses, comprising a genus of the ...

  20. Current Perspectives on Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Teuber, Suzanne S.; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2006-01-01

    Since the original description of X-linked agammaglobulinemia in 1952, the number of independent primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) has expanded to more than 100 entities. By definition, a PID is a genetically determined disorder resulting in enhanced susceptibility to infectious disease. Despite the heritable nature of these diseases, some PIDs are clinically manifested only after prerequisite environmental exposures but they often have associated malignant, allergic, or autoimmune manifestations. PIDs must be distinguished from secondary or acquired immunodeficiencies, which are far more common. In this review, we will place these immunodeficiencies in the context of both clinical and laboratory presentations as well as highlight the known genetic basis. PMID:17162365

  1. Current Perspectives on Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the original description of X-linked agammaglobulinemia in 1952, the number of independent primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs has expanded to more than 100 entities. By definition, a PID is a genetically determined disorder resulting in enhanced susceptibility to infectious disease. Despite the heritable nature of these diseases, some PIDs are clinically manifested only after prerequisite environmental exposures but they often have associated malignant, allergic, or autoimmune manifestations. PIDs must be distinguished from secondary or acquired immunodeficiencies, which are far more common. In this review, we will place these immunodeficiencies in the context of both clinical and laboratory presentations as well as highlight the known genetic basis.

  2. A conceptual approach to immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardana, E J

    1981-09-01

    Immunodeficiency represents a congenital or acquired aberration of immune function which is commonly associated with autoimmunity and neoplasia as a potential triad of biologic sequelae. Irrespective of the initial focal point in the triad, the natural evolution of the condition is frequently associated with the other two. This conceptualization should increase the clinician's ability in a more understanding approach to the evaluation and care of immunocompromised patients. PMID:7026918

  3. Strong Impact of Smoking on Multimorbidity and Cardiovascular Risk Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals in Comparison With the General Population.

    OpenAIRE

    Hasse, Barbara; Tarr, Philip E; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Waeber, Gerard; Preisig, Martin; Mooser, Vincent; Valeri, Fabio; Djalali, Sima; Bernasconi, Enos; Calmy, Alexandra; Cavassini, Matthias; Vernazza, Pietro; Battegay, Manuel; Weber, Rainer; Senn, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Background.  Although acquired immune deficiency syndrome-associated morbidity has diminished due to excellent viral control, multimorbidity may be increasing among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons compared with the general population. Methods.  We assessed the prevalence of comorbidities and multimorbidity in participants of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) compared with the population-based CoLaus study and the primary care-based FIRE (Family Medicine ICPC-Research using...

  4. [Stimulus of the hypophyseal-adrenocortical axis with corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Evidence for activation of the immune-neuroendocrine system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewi, D S; Kater, C E; Moreira, A C

    1995-01-01

    Ten-20% of patients with AIDS may present clinical evidence of primary or secondary adrenal insufficiency. PURPOSE--To evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPAA) with CRH in patients with AIDS. METHODS--We studied 20 patients with AIDS and 17 normal subjects (NS) with exogenous ACTH (cosyntropin, 250 micrograms IV bolus) followed one week later by ovine corticotropin releasing hormone (oCRH 1 microgram/kg BW IV bolus). Basal and 60' cortisol (micrograms/dL) were determined in the former whereas ACTH (pg/mL) and cortisol were measured every 15-30' for 2 hours in the latter. RESULTS--Basal and peak values (mean +/- SD) of ACTH and cortisol for both tests were: cosyntropin test (AIDS x NS): basal cortisol 22.5 +/- 7.1 x 10.6 +/- 3.6 (p < 0.01), peak 36.0 +/- 12.8 x 28.3 +/- 7.6 (p < 0.05); oCRH test: basal ACTH 42.2 +/- 33.5 x 28.9 +/- 12.7 (NS), peak 104.7 +/- 62.2 x 59.3 +/- 17.6 (p < 0.05); basal cortisol 19.7 +/- 9.0 x 10.1 +/- 3.4 (p < 0.01), peak 27.5 +/- 8.9 x 18.3 +/- 5.1 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION--AIDS patients had elevated basal and CRH stimulated ACTH levels and an intact glucocorticoid pathway with elevated basal and peak cortisol levels to both stimulation tests. This situation is probably due to the stressful disease condition, where lymphokines may play a role activating the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. PMID:8520591

  5. Changing patterns of Kaposi's sarcoma in Danish acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with complete follow-up. The Danish Study Group for HIV Infection (DASHI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Melbye, M; Pedersen, C;

    1995-01-01

    clinically and with consecutive CD4 cell count measurement from time of AIDS-defining illness to date of death or censoring date, whichever came first. The proportion of homo-/bisexual men (n = 520) with Kaposi's sarcoma (n = 100) at AIDS diagnosis declined from 31% before 1985 to 13% in 1990, whereas...

  6. Recent Advances of Treatment in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-Related Lymphoma%艾滋病相关淋巴瘤的治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静

    2010-01-01

    艾滋病相关淋巴瘤是常见的艾滋病(AIDS)相关肿瘤之一,高效抗反转录病毒治疗(HAART)被广泛采用后,艾滋病相关淋巴瘤患者的免疫功能增强,对化疗的耐受性提高,预后明显改善.临床研究表明,以HAART与CHOP方案或R-CHOP方案联合治疗弥漫大B细胞淋巴瘤安全有效.HAART治疗后,传统的化疗方案治疗AIDS相关Burkitt淋巴瘤(AIDS-BL)患者存活率仍然很低,而采用Burkitt淋巴瘤特定的短期强烈多药联合方案及LMB-86方案可使AIDS-BL的完全有效率和总生存率明显改善.

  7. Research Advances in Pathogenesis of HIV Infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome%HIV/AIDS发病机制的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽

    2010-01-01

    获得性免疫缺陷综合征是由人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)所引起的致命性慢性传染病,除可通过相关表面分子受体主要感染CD4+T淋巴细胞外,还能影响CD8+T淋巴细胞、单核/巨噬细胞、B细胞及自然杀伤细胞的功能和数量,甚至Th1/Th2的平衡也会发生改变.而这些改变与宿主感染HIV后病情进展的相关机制越来越多地被人们发现,同时也为疫苗的研究指明了方向.

  8. 艾滋病相关性肺部空洞病变的CT表现%CT findings of cavitary pulmonary diseases in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江松峰; 刘晋新; 陈碧华; 梁艺; 张烈光; 凌洲焜; 甘清鑫; 黄德扬

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨艾滋病相关性肺部空洞病变的CT表现.方法 回顾性分析经病理证实的85例艾滋病相关性肺部空洞病变患者的全肺CT扫描资料,71例行病灶处HRCT扫描,总结不同病原菌感染导致肺部空洞病变的CT征象,不同疾病间CT征象的比较使用x2检验.结果 85例艾滋病相关性肺部空洞病变的CT表现:(1)肺结核28例:病灶位于上叶27例,单发空洞15例、多发空洞13例、不规则空洞18例,出现钙化灶8例、引流支气管影8例、卫星灶21例、支气管扩张6例、周边条索影13例、胸膜受累10例、淋巴结肿大10例.病灶位于上叶、出现钙化灶、引流支气管影、卫星灶、周边条索影及胸膜受累6种征象在肺结核与非肺结核之间的差异有统计学意义(x2值分别为12.535、26.753、13.944、17.978、11.362、7.796,P值均<0.01).(2)非结核分枝杆菌肺病6例:病灶位于上叶5例,单发空洞5例、厚壁空洞3例、外壁毛糙6例,出现卫星灶4例、支气管扩张3例.支气管扩张征象在非结核分枝杆菌肺病与非非结核分枝杆菌肺病之间的差异有统计学意义(x2=9.092,P<0.01);卫星灶征象在非结核分枝杆菌肺病和肺脓肿、肺真菌病之间的差异有统计学意义(x2值分别为6.785、9.423,P值均<0.01).(3)肺脓肿12例:多发空洞9例,病灶>4 cm7例,厚壁空洞9例,外壁毛糙8例,内壁光滑11例,空洞内见液-气平面4例.多发空洞、病灶>4 cm及空洞内液-气平面3种征象在肺脓肿与非肺脓肿之间的差异有统计学意义(x2值分别为10.390、4.551、7.635,P值均<0.05).(4)肺真菌病39例;单发空洞33例、规则空洞25例,内壁光滑28例,出现壁结节7例,晕征10例,淋巴结肿大11例.单发空洞征象在肺真菌病与非肺真菌病之间的差异有统计学意义(x2 =11.251,P <0.01).结论 分析空洞的分布、整体形态及周边情况是艾滋病相关性肺部空洞病变诊断的关键.%Objective To evaluate CT findings of cavitary pulmonary diseases in AIDS.Methods CT findings of cavitary pulmonary diseases were retrospectively analyzed in 85 patients with AIDS.Seventyone of the patients were scanned by HRCT.The CT features of various infectious diseases were summarized and their signs were compared by Chi-square test.Results CT findings of cavitary pulmonary diseases in 85 patients with AIDS included:(1) pulmonary tuberculosis in 28 patients,with lesions in upper lung lobes (27 patients),single cavity (15 patients),multiple cavities (13 patients),irregular cavity (18 patients),calcification(8 patients),communication with bronchia (8 patients),satellite lesions (21 patients),bronchiectasis (6 patients),surrounding cord (13 patients),pleural involvement (10 patients),and lymphadenopathy (10 patients).Tuberculous cavity in AIDS is closely related to the following CT findings:the focus in upper lung lobes,calcification,communication with bronchia,satellite lesions,surrounding cord and pleural involvement (P < 0.01).(2) Non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary infection in 6 patients with the lesions in the upper lung lobes (5 patients),single cavity (5 patients),thick-walled cavity (3 patients),rough outer wall (6 patients),satellite lesions (4 patients),and bronchiectasis (3 patients).Non-tuberculous mycobacterial cavity in AIDS is closely related to CT tinging of bronchiectasis (P < 0.01).There was significant difference of satellite lesions between non-tuberculous mycobacterialpulmonary infection and pulmonary abscess and pulmonary mycosis (P < 0.01).(3) pulmonary abscess in 12 patients with multiple cavities (9 patients),the size of more than 4 cm (7 patients),thick-walled cavity (9 patients),rough outer wall(8 patients),smooth inner wall (11 patients),and air-fluid level inside the cavity (4 patients).Pulmonary abscess in AIDS is closely related to the following CT fingings:multiple cavities,the size of more than 4cm and air-fluid level inside the cavity (P < 0.05).(4) pulmonary mycosis in 39 patients with single cavity (33 patients),regular cavity (25 patients),smooth inner wall (28 patients),a mural nodule (7 patients),halo sign (11 patients),and lymphadenopathy (10 patients).Mycotic cavity in AIDS is closely related to CT finding of single cavity(P < 0.01).Conclusion The key of diagnosis in cavitary pulmonary diseases with AIDS is the distribution,shape,and surrounding manifestation of the lesions.

  9. 干燥综合征合并获得性Gitelman综合征二例并文献复习%Acquired Gitelman syndrome associated with primary Sj(o)gren syndrome: two cases report and review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭东; 刘海娜; 方芳; 田百玲; 杨娉婷; 肖卫国

    2012-01-01

    目的 提高对干燥综合征(SS)合并获得性Gitelman综合征的认识,了解其特点及治疗.方法 报告2例SS合并获得性Gitelman综合征病例的临床资料,并结合相关文献进行分析.结果 2例患者均为首次就诊的老年女性,临床以低钾血症及相关肌炎症状、肌酶学改变为特点入院.虽口干、眼干症状不典型,但查体及实验室等相关检查诊断SS明确,伴低血镁、代谢性碱中毒、高肾素-血管紧张素-醛固酮,且无高血压,符合Gitelman综合征改变,因此考虑为SS合并获得性Gitelman综合征.结论 在符合Gitelman综合征临床特点基础上,诊断应完善肾活检.SS患者合并的Gitelman综合征少见,其发生机制与SS的关系有待进一步探讨.%Objective To better understand the clinical features and the diagnosis of acquired Gitelman syndrome associated with primary Sj(o)gren syndrome (SS).Methods Two cases of acquired Gitelman syndrome associated with primary SS were investigated.Literature were reviewed.Results Two women with sicca complex presented to our clinic with intermittent muscle cramping and weakness involving both lower extremities for several months.Laboratory findings showed hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalciuria,all these met the criteria for Gitelman syndrome.Diagnostic evaluation identified primary SS as the cause of the acquired Gitelman syndrome.Conclusion Acquired Gitelman syndrome associated with SS is rare.Kidney biopsy is necessary for the diagnosis of Gitelman syndrome.Further studies are needed.

  10. Congenital and acquired neutropenia consensus guidelines on diagnosis from the Neutropenia Committee of the Marrow Failure Syndrome Group of the AIEOP (Associazione Italiana Emato-Oncologia Pediatrica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioredda, Francesca; Calvillo, Michaela; Bonanomi, Sonia; Coliva, Tiziana; Tucci, Fabio; Farruggia, Piero; Pillon, Marta; Martire, Baldassarre; Ghilardi, Roberta; Ramenghi, Ugo; Renga, Daniela; Menna, Giuseppe; Barone, Angelica; Lanciotti, Marina; Dufour, Carlo

    2011-07-15

    Congenital and acquired neutropenia are rare disorders whose frequency in pediatric age may be underestimated due to remarkable differences in definition or misdiagnosed because of the lack of common practice guidelines. Neutropenia Committee of the Marrow Failure Syndrome Group (MFSG) of the AIEOP (Associazione Italiana Emato-Oncologia Pediatrica) elaborated this document following design and methodology formerly approved by the AIEOP board. The panel of experts reviewed the literature on the topic and participated in a conference producing a document which includes a classification of neutropenia and a comprehensive guideline on diagnosis of neutropenia.

  11. 孕前或孕期感染人类免疫缺陷病毒后的母婴传播%Analysis on mother-to-child transmission after maternal acquired human immunodeficiency virus prenatally or before pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁科; 桂希恩; 张元珍; 邓莉萍; 热孜艳·斯拉夫; 严智昭; 王胜勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the situation of mother to child transmission of HIV after mothers acquired HIV prenatally or before pregnancy and the related factors. Methods Two hundred and seventy-seven mothers who acquired HIV prenatally or before pregnancy and their 322children from Yi-ning city of Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region and some counties of central China were enrolled in this study from January 2000 to December 2009.Subtypes of HIV were determined by detection of Gag sequence,the rate of HIV transmission from mother to child was calculated and its related factors were analyzed by Chi-square test and Logistic regression analysis. Results The HIV subtype of all mothers who were infected through blood (n=174) was B'.The major subtype of mothers who were infected via sexuality (n =58) was recombined subtype CRF01-BC (n=35) and CRF-AE (n=20),accounting for 60.3% and 34.5%,respectively,and only 3 mothers with B'subtype (5.2%).Twelve infants died before HIV detection,and 108 infants out of the rest 310infants were found to be HIV positive, giving the HIV mother-to-child transmission rate of 34.8% (95% CI:29.5%-40.1%).The infection rate of bottle feeding infants was lower than that of breastfeeding infants [12.5% (6/48) vs 38.9% (102/262),x2 =12.484,P=0.000].The infection rate of the infants whose mothers' HIV infection <7 years was lower than that of the infants whose mothers' HIV infection ≥7 years [28.8% (46/160) vs 54.2% (32/59),x2 =12.211,P=0.000].Multi-factor Logistic analysis showed that the duration of maternal HIV infection (OR =1.342,95% CI:1.189-1.515,P=0.000) and duration of breastfeeding (OR =1.137,95% CI:1.053-1.227,P=0.001) were risk factors of HIV vertical transmission. Conclusions The HIV subtypes might be associated with transmission route.Formula feeding could decrease the vertical transmission rate of HIV,while long duration of maternal HIV infection and breastfeeding might increase the vertical transmission rate

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sinha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients.

  13. Abdominal Computed tomography of 25 patients with AIDS or lymphadenopathy Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrive, L.; Frija, J.; Couderc, L.J.; Clauvel, J.P.; Laval-Jeantet, M.

    1986-03-01

    An abdominal computed tomographic examination was performed to 20 patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and to 5 patients with Lymphadenopathy Syndrome (LAS). Intraabdominal lymph nodes were seen in 18 out of 20 cases of AIDS and in 5 cases of LAS. Lymph nodes have a normal size or are slightly enlarged but they are too numerous. Splenomegaly was found in 17 patients. Rectal modifications secondary to a proctitis were seen in the homosexual patients.

  14. Psychological problems of families and health workers dealing with people infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, M

    1991-03-01

    The psychological problems of the families of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected people, and of the health workers taking care of them, have been addressed in a few empirical studies and in several anecdotal reports and theoretical contributions. Apparently, HIV-1 infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are able to elicit a wide range of emotional reactions, from rejection and refusal to provide care to immersion in the infected person's needs and burnout. Since irrational fears and attitudes play an important role in conditioning these reactions, education may not be sufficient to change behaviour. Counselling sessions and mutual support groups are often the most appropriate contexts where fears and concerns can receive an individually tailored response, and where formal and informal caregivers can be helped to manage stress.

  15. [Gastric uptake of gallium67 in the human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera Temprado, T; Banzo Marraco, J; Abós Olivares, M D; Olave Rubio, M T; Prats Rivera, E; García López, F; Razola Alba, P

    2004-02-01

    Nowadays, the human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) is a chronic disease. In the frequent clinical situations with fever, lymph nodes and loss weight it is necessary to determine their etiology, for establishing a specific treatment. Gastrointestinal opportunistic infections or gastric lymphomatous or sarcomatous process, which can accumulate Ga67, may be present in the patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We report 2 cases with gastric uptake in which endoscopy and biopsy was obtained. In the first one, with previous treatment with omeprazol and almalgate for gastroesophagic reflux, endoscopy and biopsy were normal and in the second patient an Helicobacter pylori infection was diagnosed. We think that gastric uptake of Ga67 in HIV patients, must indicate to the clinician to rule out associated pathologies. PMID:14974895

  16. The Biology of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus and the Infection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di QIN; Chun LU

    2008-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV),also known as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8),is discovered in 1994 from Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) lesion of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)patient.In addition to its association with KS,KSHV has also been implicated as the causative agent of two other AIDS-associated malignancies:primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD).KSHV is a complex DNA virus that not only has the ability to promote cellular growth and survival for tumor development,but also can provoke deregulated angiogenesis,inflammation,and modulate the patient's immune system in favor of tumor growth.As KSHV is a necessary but not sufficient etiological factor for KS,human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a very important cofactor.Here we review the basic information about the biology of KSHV,development of pathogenesis and interaction between KSHV and HIV.

  17. Serodiagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H; Andersen, L P

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to the established role of Helicobacter pylori gastritis in gastritis and duodenal ulcer in general, conflicting results have been reported in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The seroprevalence during early HIV...... infection is unknown. We retrospectively studied 102 patients with HIV infection early during the infection and in most cases in asymptomatic patients. Serological IgG antibody response to H. pylori was assessed by ELISA. Compared with an age-matched control group the seroprevalence of H. pylori positivity......) and 2 patients had H. pylori seroconverted, indicating an incidence of new infection of 2%/year. In conclusion, previous reports have underestimated the prevalence of H. pylori infection in HIV patients, which seems to be similar to that in an HIV-negative population....

  18. [Oral plasmablastic lymphoma in a human immunodeficiency virus positive child: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astolfo, María Florencia; D'Antonio, Federico; Dartiguelongue, Juan B; Arabolaza, María N; Cheistwer, Ariel; De Matteo, Elena; Torrado, Lidia; Martínez Iriart, Emilio

    2016-04-01

    Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare and aggressive subtype of diffuse large B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, originally described in the oral cavity of male adults with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. It is composed of neoplastic ceils which resemble immunoblasts but present immunophenotype distinctive of plasma cell and Epstein-Barr virus latent infection. In children, it is an even rarer disease. We present a case of oral plasmablastic lymphoma in a vertically transmitted human immunodeficiency virus-positive five-year-old child.

  19. Proteins, peptides, polysaccharides, and nucleotides with inhibitory activity on human immunodeficiency virus and its enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Wong, Jack Ho; Chan, Wai Yee

    2015-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the causative agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, has claimed innumerable lives in the past. Many biomolecules which suppress HIV replication and also other biomolecules that inhibit enzymes essential to HIV replication have been reported. Proteins including a variety of milk proteins, ribosome-inactivating proteins, ribonucleases, antifungal proteins, and trypsin inhibitors; peptides comprising cathelicidins, defensins, synthetic peptides, and others; polysaccharides and polysaccharopeptides; nucleosides, nucleotides, and ribozymes, demonstrated anti-HIV activity. In many cases, the mechanism of anti-HIV action has been elucidated. Strategies have been devised to augment the anti-HIV potency of these compounds.

  20. Chemokine receptors and their crucial role in human immunodeficiency virus infection: major breakthroughs in HIV research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, T B; Knudsen, T B; Eugen-Olsen, J

    1998-01-01

    Within the last three years, major progress in the understanding of acquired immune deficiency syndrome pathogenesis has been achieved. The discovery that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), in addition to the CD4 receptor, requires the presence of a coreceptor in order to infect cells has led...... to a series of breakthroughs in HIV research and knowledge. These include an increased understanding of viral entry, a connection of viral phenotype to specific coreceptor use, and an unequivocal linkage of a single human gene to host susceptibility. All in all these achievements provide a number of promising...

  1. [Oral plasmablastic lymphoma in a human immunodeficiency virus positive child: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astolfo, María Florencia; D'Antonio, Federico; Dartiguelongue, Juan B; Arabolaza, María N; Cheistwer, Ariel; De Matteo, Elena; Torrado, Lidia; Martínez Iriart, Emilio

    2016-04-01

    Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare and aggressive subtype of diffuse large B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, originally described in the oral cavity of male adults with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. It is composed of neoplastic ceils which resemble immunoblasts but present immunophenotype distinctive of plasma cell and Epstein-Barr virus latent infection. In children, it is an even rarer disease. We present a case of oral plasmablastic lymphoma in a vertically transmitted human immunodeficiency virus-positive five-year-old child. PMID:27079412

  2. Ocular syphilis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John P; Huang, Lynn L; Rosberger, Daniel F

    2015-06-01

    As Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease (AIDS) turns thirty-years old, much progress has been made. 56,000 new cases of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are expected in Americans this year. At least half or more will be in African Americans. Reports of the association between syphilis and HIV infection are well documented. We present a case of bilateral optic neuritis and panuveitis as the initial presentation in a previously undiagnosed patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis. PMID:27269502

  3. Immediate-early gene region of human cytomegalovirus trans-activates the promoter of human immunodeficiency virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Kenney, S.C.; Kamine, J.; Pagano, J.S.; Huang, E.S.

    1987-12-01

    Almost all homosexual patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are also actively infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). The authors have hypothesized that an interaction between HCMV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the agent that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, may exist at a molecular level and contribute to the manifestations of HIV infection. In this report, they demonstrate that the immediate-early gene region of HCMV, in particular immediate-early region 2, trans-activates the expression of the bacterial gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase that is fused to the HIV long terminal repeat and carried by plasmid pHIV-CAT. The HCMV immediate-early trans-activator increases the level of mRNA from the plamid pHIV-CAT. The sequences of HIV that are responsive to trans-activation by the HDMV immediate-early region are distinct from HIV sequences that are required for response to the HIV tat. The stimulation of HIV gene expression by HDMV gene functions could enhance the consequences of HIV infection in persons with previous or concurrent HCMV infection.

  4. Immediate-early gene region of human cytomegalovirus trans-activates the promoter of human immunodeficiency virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost all homosexual patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are also actively infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). The authors have hypothesized that an interaction between HCMV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the agent that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, may exist at a molecular level and contribute to the manifestations of HIV infection. In this report, they demonstrate that the immediate-early gene region of HCMV, in particular immediate-early region 2, trans-activates the expression of the bacterial gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase that is fused to the HIV long terminal repeat and carried by plasmid pHIV-CAT. The HCMV immediate-early trans-activator increases the level of mRNA from the plamid pHIV-CAT. The sequences of HIV that are responsive to trans-activation by the HDMV immediate-early region are distinct from HIV sequences that are required for response to the HIV tat. The stimulation of HIV gene expression by HDMV gene functions could enhance the consequences of HIV infection in persons with previous or concurrent HCMV infection

  5. Antifungal prophylaxis during neutropenia and immunodeficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Lortholary, O; Dupont, B

    1997-01-01

    Fungal infections represent a major source of morbidity and mortality in patients with almost all types of immunodeficiencies. These infections may be nosocomial (aspergillosis) or community acquired (cryptococcosis), or both (candidiasis). Endemic mycoses such as histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and penicilliosis may infect many immunocompromised hosts in some geographic areas and thereby create major public health problems. With the wide availability of oral azoles, antifungal prophylact...

  6. DNA Banking of Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Anna Isaian

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary immunodeficiency disorders are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders, with different modes of inheritance, consisting of more than 100 different types. We constructed the DNA banking of primary immunodeficiency disorders for the first time in Iran. The DNA of 31 immunodeficient patients and their families (total of 92 samples were collected, as the first step for construction of DNA banking. DNA was isolated from whole blood by salting out method. Among our patients, Common variable immunodeficiency was the most common disorder, followed by X-linked agammaglobulinemia, Ataxia-telangiectasia, Chronic granulomatous disease, Severe combined immunodeficiency, Hyper IgM syndromes, and Leukocyte adhesion defects. DNA banking is a useful method for further detection of mutation in immunodeficient patients and prenatal diagnosis for presence or absence of the disorder in the fetus which can be confirmed by molecular genetics testing.

  7. Gastrointestinal opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Anazi Awadh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI opportunistic infections (OIs are commonly encountered at various stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease. In view of the suppressive nature of the virus and the direct contact with the environment, the GI tract is readily accessible and is a common site for clinical expression of HIV. The subject is presented based on information obtained by electronic searches of peer-reviewed articles in medical journals, Cochrane reviews and PubMed sources. The spectrum of GI OIs ranges from oral lesions of Candidiasis, various lesions of viral infections, hepatobiliary lesions, pancreatitis and anorectal lesions. The manifestations of the disease depend on the level of immunosuppression, as determined by the CD4 counts. The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has altered the pattern of presentation, resorting mainly to features of antimicrobial-associated colitis and side effects of antiretroviral drugs. The diagnosis of GI OIs in HIV/ acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients is usually straightforward. However, subtle presentations require that the physicians should have a high index of suspicion when given the setting of HIV infection.

  8. Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atessa Pakfetrat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral lesions are among the earliest clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency (HIV infection and are important in early diagnosis and for monitoring the progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral lesions and their relationship with a number of factors in HIV/AIDS patients attending an HIV center.     Methods: A total of 110 HIV-positive patients were examined to investigate the prevalence of oral lesions according to the criteria established by the European Community Clearing House on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection. An independent T-test was used for correlation of oral lesions with CD4+ count and a χ2 test was used for analysis of the relationship of co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV, sexual contact, route of transmission, history of drug abuse, and history of incarceration.   Results: Most of the cases were male patients (82.7%. The mean age across all participants was 36.2±8.1 years. Rampant carries, severe periodontitis and oral candidiasis were the most notable oral lesions. Oral lesions were more prevalent in patients between 26–35 years of age. There was a significant difference between patients with and without pseudomembranous candidiasis and angular cheilitis according to mean level of CD4+.   Conclusion: The most common oral presentations were severe periodontitis, pseudomembranous candidiasis and xerostomia. 

  9. Reversible acquired epileptic frontal syndrome and CSWS suppression in a child with congenital hemiparesis treated by hemispherotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Kallay-Zetchi C.

    2009-01-01

    Rapport de synthèse : Cette thèse a étudié en détail le cas d'un enfant souffrant d'une hémiplégie congénitale sur un infarctus prénatal étendu qui a développé une forme particulière d'épilepsie, le syndrome des pointes ondes continues du sommeil (POCS), associé à une régression mentale massive. Les caractéristiques de cette détérioration pointaient vers un dysfonctionnement de type frontal. Une chirurgie de l'épilepsie (hémisphérotomie) a, non seulement, permis la guérison de l'épilepsie mai...

  10. Antiarrhythmic properties of a rapid delayed-rectifier current activator in rabbit models of acquired long QT syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Thomas G; Yeh, Yung-Hsin; Qi, Xiao Yan;

    2008-01-01

    effect of a novel compound (NS1643) that activates the rapid delayed-rectifier K+ current, I(Kr), in two rabbit models of acquired LQTS. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used two clinically relevant in vivo rabbit models of TdP in which we infused NS1643 or vehicle: (i) three-week atrioventricular block...... with ventricular bradypacing; (ii) dofetilide-induced I(Kr) inhibition in methoxamine-sensitized rabbits. In addition, we studied effects on ionic currents in cardiomyocytes with I(Kr) suppressed by bradycardia remodelling or dofetilide exposure. Bradypaced rabbits developed QT interval prolongation, spontaneous...... ventricular ectopy, and TdP. Infusion of NS1643 completely suppressed arrhythmic activity and shortened the QT interval; vehicle had no effect. NS1643 also suppressed ventricular tachyarrhythmias caused by infusion of dofetilide to methoxamine-sensitized rabbits, and reversed dofetilide-induced QT...

  11. The application of root mean square electrocardiography (RMS ECG for the detection of acquired and congenital long QT syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Lux

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Precise measurement of the QT interval is often hampered by difficulty determining the end of the low amplitude T wave. Root mean square electrocardiography (RMS ECG provides a novel alternative measure of ventricular repolarization. Experimental data have shown that the interval between the RMS ECG QRS and T wave peaks (RTPK closely reflects the mean ventricular action potential duration while the RMS T wave width (TW tracks the dispersion of repolarization timing. Here, we tested the precision of RMS ECG to assess ventricular repolarization in humans in the setting of drug-induced and congenital Long QT Syndrome (LQTS. METHODS: RMS ECG signals were derived from high-resolution 24 hour Holter monitor recordings from 68 subjects after receiving placebo and moxifloxacin and from standard 12 lead ECGs obtained in 97 subjects with LQTS and 97 age- and sex-matched controls. RTPK, QTRMS and RMS TW intervals were automatically measured using custom software and compared to traditional QT measures using lead II. RESULTS: All measures of repolarization were prolonged during moxifloxacin administration and in LQTS subjects, but the variance of RMS intervals was significantly smaller than traditional lead II measurements. TW was prolonged during moxifloxacin and in subjects with LQT-2, but not LQT-1 or LQT-3. CONCLUSION: These data validate the application of RMS ECG for the detection of drug-induced and congenital LQTS. RMS ECG measurements are more precise than the current standard of care lead II measurements.

  12. Animal models of Central Diabetes Insipidus: Human relevance of acquired beyond hereditary syndromes and the role of oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Antonio; Mahía, Javier; Puerto, Amadeo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to review different animal models of Central Diabetes Insipidus, a neurobiological syndrome characterized by the excretion of copious amounts of diluted urine (polyuria), a consequent water intake (polydipsia), and a rise in the serum sodium concentration (hypernatremia). In rodents, Central Diabetes Insipidus can be caused by genetic disorders (Brattleboro rats) but also by various traumatic/surgical interventions, including neurohypophysectomy, pituitary stalk compression, hypophysectomy, and median eminence lesions. Regardless of its etiology, Central Diabetes Insipidus affects the neuroendocrine system that secretes arginine vasopressin, a neurohormone responsible for antidiuretic functions that acts trough the renal system. However, most Central Diabetes Insipidus models also show disorders in other neurobiological systems, specifically in the secretion of oxytocin, a neurohormone involved in body sodium excretion. Although the hydromineral behaviors shown by the different Central Diabetes Insipidus models have usually been considered as very similar, the present review highlights relevant differences with respect to these behaviors as a function of the individual neurobiological systems affected. Increased understanding of the relationship between the neuroendocrine systems involved and the associated hydromineral behaviors may allow appropriate action to be taken to correct these behavioral neuroendocrine deficits.

  13. Animal models of Central Diabetes Insipidus: Human relevance of acquired beyond hereditary syndromes and the role of oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Antonio; Mahía, Javier; Puerto, Amadeo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to review different animal models of Central Diabetes Insipidus, a neurobiological syndrome characterized by the excretion of copious amounts of diluted urine (polyuria), a consequent water intake (polydipsia), and a rise in the serum sodium concentration (hypernatremia). In rodents, Central Diabetes Insipidus can be caused by genetic disorders (Brattleboro rats) but also by various traumatic/surgical interventions, including neurohypophysectomy, pituitary stalk compression, hypophysectomy, and median eminence lesions. Regardless of its etiology, Central Diabetes Insipidus affects the neuroendocrine system that secretes arginine vasopressin, a neurohormone responsible for antidiuretic functions that acts trough the renal system. However, most Central Diabetes Insipidus models also show disorders in other neurobiological systems, specifically in the secretion of oxytocin, a neurohormone involved in body sodium excretion. Although the hydromineral behaviors shown by the different Central Diabetes Insipidus models have usually been considered as very similar, the present review highlights relevant differences with respect to these behaviors as a function of the individual neurobiological systems affected. Increased understanding of the relationship between the neuroendocrine systems involved and the associated hydromineral behaviors may allow appropriate action to be taken to correct these behavioral neuroendocrine deficits. PMID:27118135

  14. Restless led syndrome model Drosophila melanogaster show successful olfactory learning and 1-day retention of the acquired memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika F. Asaba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS is a prevalent but poorly understood disorder that ischaracterized by uncontrollable movements during sleep, resulting in sleep disturbance.Olfactory memory in Drosophila melanogaster has proven to be a useful tool for the study ofcognitive deficits caused by sleep disturbances, such as those seen in RLS. A recently generatedDrosophila model of RLS exhibited disturbed sleep patterns similar to those seen in humans withRLS. This research seeks to improve understanding of the relationship between cognitivefunctioning and sleep disturbances in a new model for RLS. Here, we tested learning andmemory in wild type and dBTBD9 mutant flies by Pavlovian olfactory conditioning, duringwhich a shock was paired with one of two odors. Flies were then placed in a T-maze with oneodor on either side, and successful associative learning was recorded when the flies chose theside with the unpaired odor. We hypothesized that due to disrupted sleep patterns, dBTBD9mutant flies would be unable to learn the shock-odor association. However, the current studyreports that the recently generated Drosophila model of RLS shows successful olfactorylearning, despite disturbed sleep patterns, with learning performance levels matching or betterthan wild type flies.

  15. The role of monocyte-lineage cells in human immuno-deficiency virus persistence: mechanisms and progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Li

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) persistence is a major barrier to the successful treatment and eradication of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In addition to resting CD4+ T cells, a significant long-lived compartment of HIV-1 infection in vivo includes blood monocytes and tissue macrophages. Studying HIV-1 persistence in monocyte-lineage cells is critical because these cells are important HIV-1 target cells in vivo. Monocyte-lineage cells, including monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, play a significant role in HIV-1 infection and transmission. These cells have been implicated as viral reservoirs that facilitate HIV-1 latency and persistence. A better understanding of HIV-1 interactions with monocyte-lineage cells can potentially aid in the development of new approaches for intervention. This minireview highlights the latest advances in understanding the role of monocyte-lineage cells in HIV-1 persistence and emphasizes new insights into the mechanisms underlying viral persistence.

  16. [Unusual venous thrombosis revealing a human immunodeficiency virus infection and a protein S deficiency. Two cases and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konin, C; Adoh, M; Adoubi, A; Anzouan-Kacou, J B; Azagoh, R; N'guetta, R; Kramoh, E; Séka, R

    2008-06-01

    The authors report two cases of unusual venous thrombosis associated with protein S deficiency in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The first case was a superior mesenteric vein thrombosis caused by HIV-1 infection associated with protein S deficiency in a 53-year-old patient. The second case was a cerebral venous thrombosis in a 34-year-old patient with HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections associated with protein S deficiency. None of the two patients were receiving antiretroviral therapy at the time of diagnosis. The evolution of thrombosis was favorable in both patients with heparin therapy and antivitamin K (AVK).

  17. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... education Fact Sheet PFS005: Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus AUGUST 2015 • Reasons for Getting Tested • Who Should ... For More Information • Glossary Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that ...

  18. To Analyze the Training Effect on Clinical Nursing Practice of Acquired Immune Deifciency Syndrome for Nursing Staff%分析护理人员艾滋病临床护理实践的培训效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄翠英

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析护理人员艾滋病临床护理实践的培训效果。方法选择我院执业护士80名,对所有护理人员均给予艾滋病临床护理实践培训,比较培训前后的艾滋病相关知识掌握情况。结果培训后护理人员的艾滋病综合知识得分优于培训前,两者比较,P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义。结论通过艾滋病临床护理实践培训,可以让护理人员更好掌握艾滋病的相关知识。%Objective Analysis analyze the training effect on clinical nursing practice of acquired immune deifciency syndrome for nursing staff. Methods Selected 80 cases nurse practitioner in our hospital, all of them were given acquired immune deficiency syndrome training for clinical nursing practice, compared the grasp knowledge situation before and after nursing practice. Results After training nursing staff's comprehensive acquired immune deficiency syndrome knowledge score was better than before the training, P<0.05, had difference statistical significance. Conclusion Nursing staff can grasp acquired immune deifciency syndrome relevant knowledge better with clinical nursing practice of acquired immune deifciency syndrome.

  19. Griscelli syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar T

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial albinism with immunodeficiency is a rare and fatal immunologic disorder characterized by pigmentary dilution and variable cellular immunodeficiency. It was initially described in 1978. Primary abnormalities included silvery grayish sheen to the hair, large pigment agglomerations in hair shafts and an abundance of mature melanosomes in melanocytes, with reduced pigmentation of adjacent keratinocytes. We describe a child with Griscelli syndrome who presented with hepatitis, pancytopenia and silvery hair. The diagnosis was confirmed by microscopic skin and hair examination.

  20. National Surveillance of Occupational Exposure to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Ricketts

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In September 1985, a prospective study was initiated to monitor the occurrence of occupational exposures to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected blood and body fluids in Canada. This program was coordinated by the Federal Centre for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS (now the Division of HIV/AIDS Epidemiology at the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control. The objective was to determine the risk to workers of acquiring HIV infection as a result of exposure to HIV-infected blood and other body fluids. To be eligible, a worker must have sustained a documented parenteral, mucous membrane or skin contact exposure to blood or body fluids from an HIV-infected person. A baseline specimen was collected within a week of the exposure and then at six weeks, 12 weeks, six months and 12 months. Information concerning the type of exposure, precautions used and post exposure treatment was submitted to the Federal Centre for AIDS on standard data collection forms. All information was anonymous, identified only by a code number. Guidelines for counselling an exposed employee were provided with enrollment material. As of July 29, 1991, 414 employees have been included in the study. Two hundred and thirty-seven of the 414 exposures (57% were needlestick injuries of which 167 (70% were sustained by nurses. Other exposures consisted of open wound contamination, eye splashes, scalpel wounds and skin contact with blood and body fluids. To date, there have been no seroconversions among workers enrolled in the surveillance program.

  1. Primary immunodeficiency diseases: an update on the classification from the International Union of Immunological Societies Expert Committee for Primary Immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed eAl-Herz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the updated classification of primary immunodeficiencies compiled by the Expert Committee of the International Union of Immunological Societies. In comparison to the previous version, more than 30 new gene defects are reported in this updated version. In addition we have added a table of acquired defects that are phenocopies of primary immunodeficiencies. For each disorder, the key clinical and laboratory features are provided. This classification is the most up to date catalogue of all known primary immunodeficiencies and acts as a current reference of the knowledge of these conditions and is an important aid for the molecular diagnosis of patients with these rare diseases.

  2. Acquired Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen; Halse, Karianne

    2013-01-01

    Acquired Techniques - a Leap into the Archive, at Aarhus School of Architecture. In collaboration with Karianne Halse, James Martin and Mika K. Friis. Following the footsteps of past travelers this is a journey into tools and techniques of the architectural process. The workshop will focus upon...

  3. Acquired blepharoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, HJGH

    1996-01-01

    A review is given of the aetiology and possible treatment of acquired (non-congenital) blepharoptosis, which is a common but not specific sign of neurological disease: The diagnostic categories of upper eyelid drooping are scheduled as (a) pseudo-ptosis due to a local process or overactivity of eye

  4. Disseminated Cryptococcal Infection Resulting in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) as the Initial Clinical Presentation of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Jose; Blaak, Christa; Tam, Eric; Rajayer, Salil; Morante, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a cosmopolitan but rare opportunistic mycosis which is usually caused by Cryptococcus neoformans. Although the most common and worrisome disease manifestation is meningoencephalitis, pulmonary cryptococcosis has the potential to be lethal. The diagnosis of cryptococcal pneumonia is challenging, given its non-specific clinical and radiographic features. Respiratory failure leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome as a consequence of cryptococcal disease has been infrequently addressed in the literature. We herein present a case of disseminated cryptococcal infection leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome, refractory shock, and multiorgan dysfunction as the initial clinical manifestation in a patient who was newly diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. PMID:27086819

  5. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) SCID is a group of rare ... prompt treatment and high survival rates. SCID was added in 2010 to the U.S. Department of Health ...

  6. Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early gene product trans-activates gene expression from the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients are frequently coinfected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). In this report, the authors demonstrate that an EBV immediate-early gene product, BamHI MLF1, stimulates expression of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene linked to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) promoter. The HIV promoter sequences necessary for trans-activation by EBV do not include the tat-responsive sequences. In addition, in contrast to the other herpesvirus trans-activators previously studied, the EBV BamHI MLF1 gene product appears to function in part by a posttranscriptional mechanism, since it increases pHIV-CAT protein activity more than it increases HIV-CAT mRNA. This ability of an EBV gene product to activate HIV gene expression may have biologic consequences in persons coinfected with both viruses

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus-associated disruption of mucosal barriers and its role in HIV transmission and pathogenesis of HIV/AIDS disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugizov, Sharof

    2016-01-01

    Oral, intestinal and genital mucosal epithelia have a barrier function to prevent paracellular penetration by viral, bacterial and other pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV can overcome these barriers by disrupting the tight and adherens junctions of mucosal epithelia. HIV-associated disruption of epithelial junctions may also facilitate paracellular penetration and dissemination of other viral pathogens. This review focuses on possible molecular mechanisms of HIV-associated disruption of mucosal epithelial junctions and its role in HIV transmission and pathogenesis of HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). PMID:27583187

  8. Changing patterns of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neuropathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Francoise

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the evolution of the pathogenic concepts associated with the infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, with emphasis to the pathology of the nervous system. Although the first description of damage to the nervous system in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS only appeared in 1982, the dramatic diffusion of the epidemic worldwide, as well as the invariably rapidly fatal outcome of the disease before the introduction of efficient treatment, generated from the beginning an enormous amount of research and re-thinking on a number of pathogenetic concepts. Less than 25 years after the first autopsy series on AIDS patients were published and the virus responsible for AIDS was identified, satisfactory definition and classification of a number of neuropathological complications of HIV infection have been established. This has led to the establishment of accurate clinical and biological diagnosis of the main neurological complications of the disease, which remain a major cause of disability and death in patients. Clinical and experimental studies have provided essential insight into the pathogenesis of CNS lesions and the natural history of the disorder. The relatively recent introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy in 1995-6 dramatically improved the course of prognosis of HIV disease. However, there remain a number of unsolved pathogenetic issues, the most puzzling of which remains the precise mechanism of neuronal damage underlying the specific HIV-related cognitive disorder (HIV-dementia. In addition, although antiretroviral therapy has changed the course of neurological complications, new issues have emerged, such as the lack of improvement or even paradoxical deterioration of the neurological status in treated patients. Interpretation of these complications remains largely speculative, partly because of the small number of neuropathological studies related to the beneficial consequence of this

  9. Current human immunodeficiency virus epidemic and its response in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Lai-Yi

    2012-01-01

    The first patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was identified in 1985; since then, as of October 31, 2010, a total accumulative number of 370 000 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS have been reported. The estimated number of patients living with HIV (PLHIV) in China was 740 000 in 2009. Although China is still a low-HIV prevalence region (rate of 0.057%), the epidemic has spread more widely from the high-risk groups to the general population. This paper covers five topics of importance, i.e., current trends of the HIV epidemic; HIV-1 subtype diversity; emergence of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR); the country's response to the disease; and future challenges and additional actions needed. This paper emphasizes sexual transmission as the predominant route of transmission and it being spread more frequently among men who have sex with men; the epidemic being concentrated over particular areas in China. We also discuss the fact that diverse HIV-1 subtypes have been found throughout the entire country and that recombinant subtypes became predominant. We also explore other topics such as the possibility of HIVDR, including primary and secondary resistance, with the use of free highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART); the integrated strategy of HIVDR surveillance and individual clinical HIVDR testing as a new attempt in China. For many years both policy-makers and professionals (including non-governmental organizations) have expressed strong commitment to prevention, control, and care of HIV/sexual transmission infection (STI), promoted the research and conducted different actions to slow the rising trend of the HIV epidemics. Although China is facing many challenges, its citizens need to be persistent on continuing the campaign of the State Council titled "Information of Strengthening Work on Prevention and Control of AIDS".

  10. Heat Shock Protein–Based Therapeutic Strategies Against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Brenner

    1999-01-01

    the requirement of CypA in HIV-1 replication and formation of infectious virions. Studies by our group show the upregulated expression of hsp27 and hsp70 during single-cycle HIV infections. These species redistribute to the cell surface following HIV-infection and heat stress, serving as targets for NK and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot studies show that hsp27, hsp70, and hsp78 complex with HIV-1 viral proteins intracellularly. Hsp70, hsp56, and CypA are assembled into HIV-1 virions. The ability of hsps to interact with HIV-1 viral proteins, combined with their inherent adjuvant and immunogenic properties, indicates that hsps may serve as vehicles for antigen delivery and the design of vaccines against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Infect. Dis. Obstet. Gynecol. 7:80–90, 1999.

  11. Mutations in TRNT1 cause congenital sideroblastic anemia with immunodeficiency, fevers, and developmental delay (SIFD)

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Pranesh K.; Schmitz-Abe, Klaus; Kennedy, Erin K.; Mamady, Hapsatou; Naas, Turaya; Durie, Danielle; Dean R. Campagna; Lau, Ashley; Sendamarai, Anoop K.; Wiseman, Daniel H.; May, Alison; Jolles, Stephen; Connor, Philip; Powell, Colin; Heeney, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    SIFD is a syndromic form of congenital sideroblastic anemia associated with immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and developmental delay.SIFD is due to partial loss-of-function mutations in the CCA-adding enzyme TRNT1.

  12. Enhanced levels of urokinase plasminogen activator and its soluble receptor in common variable immunodeficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fevang, Børre; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Yndestad, Arne;

    2009-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by defective immunoglobulin production and high frequency of bacterial infections, autoimmunity and manifestations of chronic inflammation. The urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), its cell bound and soluble recep...

  13. Intestinal disease in acquired immunodeficiency: evaluation by CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knollmann, F.D.; Maeurer, J.; Felix, R. [Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet der Humboldt-Universitaet, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13 353 Berlin (Germany); Gruenewald, T.; Pohle, H.D. [Medizinische Klinik II mit Schwerpunkt Infektionskrankheiten, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet der Humboldt-Universitaet, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13 353 Berlin (Germany); Adler, A.; Hintze, R.E. [Klinik fuer Innere Medizin mit dem Schwerpunkt Gastroenterologie, Zentrale Interdisziplinaere Endoskopie, Virchow-Klinikum, Medizinische Fakultaet der Humboldt-Universitaet, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13 353 Berlin (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    Intestinal symptoms affect most AIDS patients at some point in their disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of CT in this setting. A total of 339 abdominal CT exams were reviewed for signs of intestinal disease. Abdominal CT scans of 45 patients with intestinal symptoms were compared with colonoscopy and histologic data. The CT results were correlated with CD4{sup +} T-lymphocyte counts and patient survival. More than 14 % of all abdominal CT exams displayed signs of enteric disease. Of the 45 patients studied with both CT and colonoscopy, 35 (78 %) had signs of intestinal disease by CT. Of these 35 patients, colonoscopic signs of an intestinal lesion were found in 29 and histologic proof of disease was established in 30 cases. Colonoscopy and histology detected 8 lesions missed by CT. There were 14 cases of unspecific colitis, 15 cases of cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis, and 4 cases of enteric tuberculosis as per biopsy. Five patients presented with Kaposi`s sarcoma and 1 with a non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma. Neither colonoscopic nor CT signs of intestinal disease did reliably distinguish between histologic subgroups. Specifically, CMV colitis could not be distinguished from unspecific colitis. CD4{sup +} T-lymphocyte counts for histologic subgroups were not significantly different, either. No colonoscopic or histologic feature predicted survival, whereas low CD4 counts and ascites on CT indicated a poor prognosis. Whereas CT detects signs of intestinal disease in most AIDS patients, these signs remain largely unspecific. Colonoscopy and biopsies provide no consistently valid standard with which to compare CT because of controversial sensitivity and specificity of these methods. The CT technique detects small bowel as well as extraintestinal disease. Therefore, CT is an important diagnostic modality in abdominal disease of immunocompromised patients. (orig.) With 7 figs., 6 tabs., 30 refs.

  14. Autoimmunity in Immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoric, Krista; Koontz, Jessica B.; Mattox, Daniel; Tarrant, Teresa K.

    2013-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) comprise a diverse group of clinical disorders with varied genetic defects. Paradoxically, a substantial proportion of PID patients develop autoimmune phenomena in addition to having increased susceptibility to infections from their impaired immunity. Although much of our understanding comes from data gathered through experimental models, there are several well-characterized PID that have improved our knowledge of the pathways that drive autoimmunity. The goals of this review will be to discuss these immunodeficiencies and to review the literature with respect to the proposed mechanisms for autoimmunity within each put forth to date. PMID:23591608

  15. Alteration in pancreatic islet function in human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms behind the defects in insulin production and secretion associated with antihuman immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) therapy and the development of HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) are discussed in this article. Data suggesting insulin resistance on the beta cell...

  16. First results about recovery of walking function in patients with intensive care unit-acquired muscle weakness from the General Weakness Syndrome Therapy (GymNAST) cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrholz, Jan; Mückel, Simone; Oehmichen, Frank; Pohl, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the time course of recovery of walking function and other activities of daily living in patients with intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired muscle weakness. Design This is a cohort study. Participants We included critically ill patients with ICU-acquired muscle weakness. Setting Post-acute ICU and rehabilitation units in Germany. Measures We measured walking function, muscle strength, activities in daily living, motor and cognitive function. Results We recruited 150 patien...

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting as a fatal case of Guillain-Barré syndrome on a background of diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enwere O.O

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS, a post-infective acute polyneuropathy, which occurs rarely among Africans, has been associated with HIV infection and less commonly with diabetes mellitus. Aim: The article documents a case of GBS occurring on the setting of HIV infection on a background of diabetes mellitus. Findings: A 47 years old man presented with features of inability to walk, “pins and needles” sensation in the lower limbs, progressive lower limb weakness of 3 days duration and later on admission involving the upper limbs and, finally respiratory distress leading to his death on the 3rd day of hospital admission. He had an antecedent history of a diarrheal illness 3 weeks prior to his admission, and was treated at a private hospital without any complication. He was observed to have concomitant HIV infection and diabetes mellitus. He was not previously known to have any of these diseases and initially diagnosed as having acute diabetic neuropathy. Conclusion: GBS can occur in the setting of HIV infection on a background of DM and may be associated with a poor prognosis. There is a need to have a high index of suspicion in making a diagnosis of GBS in diabetic patients when it occurs concomitantly with HIV infection.

  18. The relationship between personality traits and AIDS in patients with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Bahman; Zarinfar, Nader; Noori, Hasan

    2016-06-01

    This study carried out to survey the relationship between personality traits and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. This case-control study was conducted on 79 AIDS patients of Triangle Clinic in Arak (case group) and 80 healthy people of Valiasr Hospital in Arak (control group). Demographic information checklist and Cloninger' Temperament and Character inventory (TCI) were two instruments applied in the study. SPSS software V.19 and tests independent t-tests, Chi squared and Spearman correlation coefficient were used for data analysis with significant level of control group was significantly higher, and there was a significant difference between two groups variables (P-0.000). The novelty seeking had the highest average in the AIDS patients with a history of addiction (M:74.00), and there was statistically significant difference between perseverance variable (P-0.021) and cooperativeness variable (P-0.041) in the two groups of AIDS patients. There was a significant relationship between novelty seeking and age at the onset of AIDS (P-0.038), harm avoidance and age at the onset of addiction (P-0.046), persistence and age at the onset of AIDS (P-0.035) and the time infected with HIV (P-0.033). It is found that two groups are different due to the personalities, so it is essential to consider the personality traits in order to prevent AIDS and also successfully treat patients suffering from AIDS. PMID:27208456

  19. Current laboratory diagnosis of opportunistic enteric parasites in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Opportunistic enteric parasitic infections are encountered in 30-60% of HIV seropositive patients in developed countries and in 90% of patients in developing countries. Once the CD4(+) cell count drops below 200 cells/μl, patients are considered to have developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), with the risk of an AIDS-defining illness or opportunistic infection significantly increasing. Opportunistic enteric parasites encountered in these patients are Cryptosporidium, Isospora, Cyclospora, and microsporidia; as well as those more commonly associated with gastrointestinal disease, for example, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, and also rarely Balantidium coli. In view of AIDS explosion in India, opportunistic enteric parasites are becoming increasingly important and it has to be identified properly. Apart from wet mounts, concentration methods for stool samples and special staining techniques for identification of these parasites, commercially available fecal immunoassays are widely available for the majority of enteric protozoa. Molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, flow cytometry, and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), have also come in the pipeline for early diagnosis of these infections. Proper disposal of the feces to prevent contamination of the soil and water, boiling/filtering drinking water along with improved personal hygiene might go a long way in preventing these enteric parasitic infections. PMID:23961436

  20. Pulmonary bacterial and fungal infections in human immunodeficiency virus patients: A study from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Shreevidya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-reactive patients are more prone to infections. The morbidity and mortality in HIV-reactive patients is due to opportunistic infections. Most of the infections seen in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome are endemic to that geographical region. Hence, this study was undertaken to document the occurrence of pulmonary bacterial and fungal infections in HIV patients. Materials and Methods: Expectorated and induced sputum samples were collected from 100 HIV-reactive patients and processed for bacterial and fungal pathogens including Pneumocystis carinii. Results: Of 100 samples, 66 were culture positive. Among the isolates, Mycobacterium tuberculosis constituted the highest number, 55 (83.3%, followed by other bacterial infections, 11 (16.6%, and fungi, 2 (3.03%. Tuberculosis patients had a CD4 count of less than 250 cells/μl with a mean count of 186 cells/μl and those with bacterial infections had a CD4 count of more than 300 cells/μl. The study showed that males were infected with HIV more than females and most of them belonged to the adult age group in the prime of their working life. Weight loss followed by fever and cough were the most common symptoms. Conclusion: M. tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic pathogen followed by bacterial pathogens infecting the lung in HIV. Low CD4 count is a dangerous signal of decreased immune status and higher chances of opportunistic infections and high mortality.

  1. Isolation of human immunodeficiency virus from genital ulcers in Nairobi prostitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiss, J K; Coombs, R; Plummer, F; Holmes, K K; Nikora, B; Cameron, W; Ngugi, E; Ndinya Achola, J O; Corey, L

    1989-09-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have implicated genital/anorectal ulcer disease as an important cofactor for acquisition and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during sexual intercourse. To better understand the mechanism for the association between genital ulcers and HIV, exudates from 62 genital ulcers of 56 HIV-seropositive prostitutes in Nairobi (Kenya) were cultured for HIV. Twenty-six ulcer cultures could not be evaluated for the presence of HIV because of bacterial or fungal contamination. HIV was isolated from 4 (11%) of the 36 remaining uncontaminated ulcer cultures (2 introital, 1 vaginal, and 1 cervical) from 4 separate women. HIV was isolated from the cervical os from only 2 of the 4 women. HIV p24 antigen was detected in exudate from 1 of the 4 culture-positive ulcers and 0 of 32 culture-negative ulcers. Genital ulcers in seropositive patients should be regarded as potential sources of HIV, which could be important in transmission of HIV during intercourse. Public health measures aimed at controlling sexually transmitted genital ulcer diseases should be an integral part of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention programs.

  2. 5-azacytidine and 5-azadeoxycytidine inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, J; Walker, M C; Leclerc, J M; Lapointe, N; Beaulieu, R; Thibodeau, L

    1990-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic agents which affect the integration, stability, or inducibility of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) provirus would have considerable value in treating acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Two nucleoside analogs of cytosine, 5-azacytidine and 5-azadeoxycytidine, which seem to have such value because of their capabilities to affect both the stability and the methylation patterns of the nucleic acids into which they are incorporated, were tested for their ability to inhibit the replication of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) in human CEM T cells in vitro. 5-Azadeoxycytidine (1 microM) completely inhibited HIV replication in CEM cells, by the criteria of reduced viral antigen expression and decreased supernatant reverse transcriptase activity, with little toxicity for the treated cells. 5-azacytidine (1 microM) also inhibited HIV replication, but less effectively. When added 2 or more h after CEM cells were infected with HIV-1, both 5-azacytosine derivatives were less effective than they were when added at the time of infection. Even 2 h of exposure to 5-azadeoxycytidine was sufficient for inhibition of HIV replication. Although long exposure to either analog at concentrations of 1 microM would result in pronounced cellular cytotoxicity, the the fact that short exposures to the same dose of drug inhibit HIV replication but are not toxic for the cells implies that cellular toxicity itself is not an important mechanism of the antiviral action of the analogs. PMID:1691617

  3. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of young, college student blood donors about Human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Dubey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Young people, who tend to be healthy, idealistic, and motivated, are an excellent pool of potential voluntary unpaid blood donors. Recruiting and retaining young blood donors improves the long term safety and sufficiency of a country′s blood supply. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV should play an important role in prevention of disease transmission. Materials and Methods: This study was a questionnaire based survey, conducted to explore the levels of knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about HIV in young college student blood donors. Results: The results showed that the proportion of participants with comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission was lesser than expected. Increase in education level and male gender was found to be significantly associated with high HIV-related knowledge. The responses on the different aspects of HIV-related attitude were also varied and there is still stigma associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS even in the educated groups. Discussion: There was a spectrum of myths and misperceptions emphasizing the need of education that recognizes the social context of attitude towards HIV. Results from this study may contribute to the development of appropriate educational and training material for this group of donors which in turn, may assist in achieving the elusive goal of safe blood supply in future.

  4. Projection of human immunodeficiency virus among high-risk groups in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Md Nazrul Islam; Shitan, Mahendran

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) presents a serious healthcare threat to young individuals in Malaysia and worldwide. This study aimed to identify trends in HIV-related risk behaviors among recognized high-risk groups and to estimate HIV transmission up to the year 2015. Data and necessary information were obtained from the Ministry of Health Malaysia, published reports from the World Health Organization and United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS, and other articles. The Estimation and Projection Package was used to estimate HIV transmission. The results of the present study revealed that within the high-risk groups, intravenous drug users (IDUs) had the highest prevalence rate of HIV transmission, followed by patients with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), female sex workers (SWs), and men who have sex with men (MSM). Within these at-risk populations, patients with STIs have the highest prevalence of HIV, followed by IDUs, MSM, and SWs. If the transmission rate continues to increase, the situation will worsen; therefore, there is an urgent need for a comprehensive prevention program to control HIV transmission in Malaysia. PMID:24047742

  5. Aberrant and unstable expression of immunoglobulin genes in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessudo, A; Rassenti, L; Havlir, D; Richman, D; Feigal, E; Kipps, T J

    1998-08-15

    We examined the IgM VH gene subgroup use-distribution in serial blood samples of 37 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and a group of HIV-seronegative healthy adults. The IgM VH gene repertoires of healthy adults were relatively similar to one another and were stable over time. In contrast, individuals infected with HIV had IgM VH gene repertoires that were significantly more heterogeneous and unstable. Persons at early stages of HIV infection generally had abnormal expression levels of Ig VH3 genes and frequently displayed marked fluctuations in the relative expression levels of this VH gene subgroup over time. In contrast, persons with established acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) had a significantly lower incidence of abnormalities in Ig VH3 expression levels, although continued to display abnormalities and instability in the expression levels of the smaller Ig VH gene subgroups. Moreover, the skewing and/or fluctuations in the expressed-IgM VH gene repertoire appeared greatest for persons at earlier stages of HIV infection. These studies show that persons infected with HIV have aberrant and unstable expression of immunoglobulin genes suggestive of a high degree humoral immune dysregulation and ongoing humoral immune responses to HIV-associated antigens and superantigens.

  6. Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLVs Break the Species Barrier to Acquire New Host Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Cezar Minardi da Cruz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic events of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV from non-human primates to humans have generated the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, one of the most devastating infectious disease of the last century with more than 30 million people dead and about 40.3 million people currently infected worldwide. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and HIV-2, the two major viruses that cause AIDS in humans are retroviruses of the lentivirus genus. The genus includes arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV and Maedi-Visna virus (MVV, and a heterogeneous group of viruses known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs, affecting goat and sheep. Lentivirus genome integrates into the host DNA, causing persistent infection associated with a remarkable diversity during viral replication. Direct evidence of mixed infections with these two closely related SRLVs was found in both sheep and goats. The evidence of a genetic continuum with caprine and ovine field isolates demonstrates the absence of an efficient species barrier preventing cross-species transmission. In dual-infected animals, persistent infections with both CAEV and MVV have been described, and viral chimeras have been detected. This not only complicates animal trade between countries but favors the risk that highly pathogenic variants may emerge as has already been observed in the past in Iceland and, more recently, in outbreaks with virulent strains in Spain. SRLVs affecting wildlife have already been identified, demonstrating the existence of emergent viruses adapted to new hosts. Viruses adapted to wildlife ruminants may acquire novel biopathological properties which may endanger not only the new host species but also domestic ruminants and humans. SRLVs infecting sheep and goats follow a genomic evolution similar to that observed in HIV or in other lentiviruses. Lentivirus genetic diversity and host factors leading to the establishment of naturally occurring virulent versus avirulent infections

  7. Decreases in human immunodeficiency virus infection rates in Kombolcha, Ethiopia: a 10-year data review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiferaw MB

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Melashu Balew Shiferaw,1 Gebremedhin Berhe Gebregergs,2 Mulusew Alemneh Sinishaw,3 Yohannes Amede Yesuf,4 1Laboratory Capacity Building Core Process, Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; 2Department of Epidemiology, College of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia; 3Department of Clinical Chemistry, Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; 4Department of Laboratory, Africa Service Committee Clinic, Kombolcha, Ethiopia Introduction: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is one of the most serious public health and development challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia. A particular challenge for prevention strategies has been the emergence of hotspot areas. Therefore, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome programs should not be based on national level statistics, but need to be more focused geographically. Kombolcha is one of the high spot areas with different projects and development corridors. Hence, the aim of this study is to assess the trend of HIV infection rates among patients who visited Africa Service Committee clinic from 2005 to 2014.Methods: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1 to ­January 30, 2016. All records of new patients enrolled from February 8, 2005 to December 31, 2014 were reviewed. Data on sociodemographic information, risky sexual behavior, and HIV test result were collected from each study participant using data collection format. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors of HIV infection.Results: The overall HIV infection was 10.8% (2,233/20,674. The rate of infection varied from 13.3% in 2005 to 4.5% in 2014, and its trend had significantly declined from 2008 to 2014. Urban residence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–5

  8. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno M. Teixeira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid emergence of AIDS in humans during the period between 1980 and 2000 has led to extensive efforts to understand more fully similar etiologic agents of chronic and progressive acquired immunodeficiency disease in several mammalian species. Lentiviruses that have gene sequence homology with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV have been found in different species (including sheep, goats, horses, cattle, cats, and several Old World monkey species. Lentiviruses, comprising a genus of the Retroviridae family, cause persistent infection that can lead to varying degrees of morbidity and mortality depending on the virus and the host species involved. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV causes an immune system disease in domestic cats (Felis catus involving depletion of the CD4+ population of T lymphocytes, increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and sometimes death. Viruses related to domestic cat FIV occur also in a variety of nondomestic felids. This is a brief overview of the current state of knowledge of this large and ancient group of viruses (FIVs in South America.

  9. 德昌县艾滋病流行特征分析%Analysis on Epidemic Characteristics of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome in Dechang County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施朝瑜

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the epidemiological trend of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Dechang County so as to provide a scientific base for prevention and control of AIDS. Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the AIDS epidemic data in Dechang county. Results From 1995 when the first case of HIV infection was confirmed to August 2011, a total of 262 cases of HIV/AIDS were reported with a total infection rate of 18. 95/100 000. From 2008 to 2010, the reported infections showed rapid growth. The annual infection rate of male was 26. 57/100 000 and female 11. 05/100 000 with a significant difference (Χ2 =43. 94, P = 0. 002). The ratio of male to female infections was 2. 49 : 1. Most of the AIDS cases were young adults aged between 20 and 45 years and old people aged between 55 and 75 years old who occupied 93. 49% of the total infectious cases. The number of reported AIDS cases of farmer and unknown occupations accounted for 82. 4% and there was an obvious occupations peak. Most patients in the county were infected by heterosexual sexual contact and injecting drugs, which accounted for 64. 89% and 32. 82% of the total respectively. The AIDS cases of 29 infected couples and 3 mother-to-child transmission. Conclusions AIDS epidemic growth is rapid in Dechang county with the situation being quite grim. We should enhance the AIDS prevention propaganda in the publicity, to raise national awareness of AIDS prevention. The related departments should cooperate to regulate the illegal entertainment and strengthen the management of migrant workers. The counseling and testing network should be improved so as to raise the detection rate and control the spread of AIDS.%目的 掌握德昌县艾滋病流行趋势,为制订防控措施提供准确依据.方法 利用描述流行病学方法分析德昌县1995年以来艾滋病疫情资料.结果 自1995年德昌县报告首例艾滋病感染者至2011年8月共报告艾滋病感染者/患者262

  10. Late Onset Combined Immunodeficiency Presenting with Recurrent Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Papakonstantinou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Late onset combined immunodeficiency (LOCID is a recently described variant of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID, involving adult patients presenting with opportunistic infections and/or low CD4+ lymphocyte counts. A 36-year-old male with unremarkable past medical history presented with fever, respiratory failure, and lymphocytopenia. He was found to have Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP, subsequently complicated by recurrent hospital-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia and immune reconstitution phenomena, attributed to restoration of immunoglobulin levels. Clinicians should be aware of LOCID, which could be confused with HIV infection/AIDS or idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia. In the English bibliography there is only one case report, where PJP was the initial presentation of CVID (that case would probably be classified as LOCID. Phenomena of immune reconstitution are described in various settings, including primary immunodeficiency, manifesting as temporary clinical and radiologic deterioration and leading to misperceptions of therapeutic failure and/or presence of alternative/additional diagnoses.

  11. Identifying Mutations of the Tetratricopeptide Repeat Domain 37 (TTC37) Gene in Infants With Intractable Diarrhea and a Comparison of Asian and Non-Asian Phenotype and Genotype: A Global Case-report Study of a Well-Defined Syndrome With Immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-I; Huang, Jing-Long; Chen, Chien-Chang; Lin, Ju-Li; Wu, Ren-Chin; Jaing, Tang-Her; Ou, Liang-Shiou

    2016-03-01

    Syndromic diarrhea/tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (SD/THE) is a rare, autosomal recessive and severe bowel disorder mainly caused by mutations in the tetratricopeptide repeat domain 37 (TTC37) gene which act as heterotetrameric cofactors to enhance aberrant mRNAs decay. The phenotype and immune profiles of SD/THE overlap those of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs). Neonates with intractable diarrhea underwent immunologic assessments including immunoglobulin levels, lymphocyte subsets, lymphocyte proliferation, superoxide production, and IL-10 signaling function. Candidate genes for PIDs predisposing to inflammatory bowel disease were sequencing in this study. Two neonates, born to nonconsanguineous parents, suffered from intractable diarrhea, recurrent infections, and massive hematemesis from esopharyngeal varices due to liver cirrhosis or accompanying Trichorrhexis nodosa that developed with age and thus guided the diagnosis of SD/THE compatible to TTC37 mutations (homozygous DelK1155H, Fs*2; heterozygous Y1169Ter and InsA1143, Fs*3). Their immunologic evaluation showed normal mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation, superoxide production, and IL-10 signaling, but low IgG levels, undetectable antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen and decreased antigen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. A PubMed search for bi-allelic TTC37 mutations and phenotypes were recorded in 14 Asian and 12 non-Asian cases. They had similar presentations of infantile onset refractory diarrhea, facial dysmorphism, hair anomalies, low IgG, low birth weight, and consanguinity. A higher incidence of heart anomalies (8/14 vs 2/12; P = 0.0344, Chi-square), nonsense mutations (19 in 28 alleles), and hot-spot mutations (W936Ter, 2779-2G>A, and Y1169Ter) were found in the Asian compared with the non-Asian patients. Despite immunoglobulin therapy in 20 of the patients, 4 died from liver cirrhosis and 1 died from sepsis. Patients of all ethnicities with SD/THE with the characteristic

  12. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Teaniese Latham; DiClemente, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. Surveillance data from 2012 indicate an estimated 1.2 million people aged 13 years and older were living with HIV infection in the United States, and 12.8% do not know their status. There are approximately 50,000 new HIV infections annually. With no available cure for HIV, primary prevention to reduce incident cases of HIV is essential. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission include reducing sexual risk behavior and needle sharing. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has multiple resources available for primary and secondary prevention to reduce disease transmission and severity. PMID:26980130

  13. Analysis of 7 Misdiagnosed Cases of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome with Neurological Symptoms at Onset%以神经系统症状首发的获得性免疫缺陷综合征七例误诊原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶茂斌; 陈研林; 叶飞; 张临洪

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨以神经系统症状首发的获得性免疫缺陷综合征( acquired immune deficiency syndrome, AIDS)的发病机制、误诊原因及防范措施。方法回顾性分析我院2007年1月—2013年12月误诊的以神经系统症状首发的AIDS 7例的临床资料。结果本组6例以头痛、头晕就诊,伴记忆力减退2例,伴腹胀、厌食1例;1例以左上肢麻木就诊。均否认毒品接触史、冶游史及输血史。7例首诊考虑后循环缺血5例,躯体化障碍和脑梗死各1例,给予相应治疗,症状均无缓解,进一步行人类免疫缺陷病毒( human immunodeficiency virus, HIV)抗体定量检查及蛋白印迹确认试验阳性,确诊AIDS,转疾病预防控制中心治疗。结论以神经系统症状首发的AIDS易误诊。耐心细致病史询问、发散诊断思维和及时进行特异性医技检查可减少或避免其误诊误治。%Objective To investigate the first symptom of AIDS in nervous system, and analyze the misdiagnosis cause, and enhance awareness of AIDS. Methods Retrospective analysis of 7 misdiagnosed acquired immune deficiency syndrome ( AIDs) cases with neurological symptoms at onset admitted to our hospital during January 2007 and December 2013 was made. Results There were cases of headaches and dizziness in 6 patients, with memory disorder in 2 patients, with abdominal disten-sion anorexia in 1 patient;Body lack of power in 1 patient. All the patients denied drug exposure history, amusement history and blood transfusion history. In the 7 cases, 5 cases were misdiagnosed as posterior circulation ischemia, 1 case was misdiagnosed as somatization disorder, and 1 case of left upper limb weakness patient was misdiagnosed as cerebral infarction. After corre-sponding treatment there was no sings of relief in symptoms. HIV antibody test result was positive, and validation test later con-firmed AIDS, and then the patients were transferred to the center for disease control and prevention for

  14. FEVER OF UNDETERMINED ORIGIN IN PATIENTS WITH THE ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME IN BRAZIL: REPORT ON 55 CASES Febre de origem indeterminada em pacientes com a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida no Brasil: relato de 55 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Roberto LAMBERTUCCI

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The medical records of patients with AIDS admitted to a general hospital in Brazil from 1989 to 1997 were reviewed retrospectively with the aim at defining the frequency and etiology of fever of undetermined origin (FUO in HIV-infected patients of a tropical country and to evaluate the usefulness of the main diagnostic procedures. 188 (58.4% out of 322 patients reported fever at admission to hospital and 55 (17.1% had FUO. Those with FUO had a mean CD4+ cell count of 98/ml. A cause of fever was identified for 45 patients (81.8%. Tuberculosis (32.7%, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (10.9%, and Mycobacterium avium complex (9.1% were the most frequent diagnoses. Other infectious diseases are also of note, such as cryptococcal meningitis (5.5%, sinusitis (3.6%, Salmonella-S. mansoni association (3.6%, disseminated histoplasmosis (3.6%, neurosyphilis (1.8%, and isosporiasis (1.8%. Four patients had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (7.3%. We conclude that an initial aggressive diagnostic approach should be always considered because biopsies (lymph node, liver and bone marrow produced the highest yield in the diagnosis of FUO and the majority of the diagnosed diseases are treatable. The association of diseases is common and have contributed to delay the final diagnosis of FUO in most cases. In our study area the routine request of hemocultures for Salmonella infection and the investigation of cryptococcal antigen in the serum should be considered.Revisaram-se os prontuários médicos de pacientes com AIDS e febre de origem indeterminada (FOI com o objetivo de definirem-se as causas de FOI em indivíduos HIV positivos em um país tropical e, ainda, determinar o valor dos procedimentos diagnósticos mais utilizados. Cento e oitenta e oito (58,4% de 322 pacientes apresentavam febre à internação e 55 (17,1% preencheram os critérios de FOI. A contagem média de CD4+ no grupo com FOI era de 98 células/ml. Definiu-se a causa da febre em 45 pacientes (81,8%. As seguintes doenças infecciosas predominaram como causa de FOI: Tuberculose (32,7%, pneumonia pelo Pneumocystis carinii (10,9% e Mycobacterium avium complex (9,1%. Outras doenças infecciosas merecem destaque: meningite criptocócica (5,5%, sinusite (3,6%, associação Salmonella-S. mansoni (3,6%, histoplasmose disseminada (3,6%, neuro-sífilis (1,8% e isosporíase (1,8%. No grupo das neoplasias, quatro pacientes (7,3% apresentaram linfomas não-Hodgkin disseminados. As biópsias de linfonodos, de fígado e de medula óssea responsabilizaram-se pelo maior número de diagnósticos definitivos na presente casuística. A associação de doenças mostrou-se comum e atrasou o diagnóstico da febre na maioria dos casos. Em nossa região, a realização rotineira de hemoculturas visando identificar os indivíduos com salmonelose prolongada associada à esquistossomose e a pesquisa de antígeno circulante para Cryptococcus neoformans devem ser consideradas nos pacientes com AIDS e FOI.

  15. Aneurisma de artéria cerebral em criança com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida: relato de caso Cerebral arterial aneurysm in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Arnolfo de Carvalho Neto; Isac Bruck; Luiz Otávio de Mattos Coelho; Cristina Rodrigues da Cruz; Cristian Bark Liu; André Francisco Gomes; Sílvio Atsushi Ogata; Tony Tannous Tahan

    2001-01-01

    A dilatação aneurismática dos vasos do polígono de Willis é manifestação incomum da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência adquirida (HIV), tendo sido relatados, até o momento, 15 casos na literatura. O presente estudo tem por objetivo relatar um novo caso dessa apresentação rara, além de revisar aspectos importantes relacionados à mesma. Um paciente, do sexo masculino, 6 anos de idade, com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS) de transmissão perinatal e tetraparesia, desenvolveu sin...

  16. Bioethical aspects of the management of patients with Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome Aspectos bioéticos relacionados con los pacientes que padecen el Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Jesús Sánchez Bouza

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioethical aspects related with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of patients with AIDS are present in the Cuban strategy to fight the epidemic. Through the revision of the essentials and principles of Bioethics, we analyze the problems that doctors face when treating these patients and aspects related with education for health in the case of this disease. It also outlines the association between these principles and the disposition, manifested or not, of theses patients to be part of some researches. This infection should be the target of permanent analysis by the Bioethics due to the constant challenges that it represent for medical staff and for society, either for the prevention, treatment and care, or for other kids of actions. Cuba has exceptional results in this field.Aspectos éticos relacionados con la prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento a los pacientes con SIDA, están presentes en la estrategia cubana para el enfrentamiento de la epidemia. A través de una revisión de los estatutos o principios de la Bioética, se analizan los problemas que enfrenta el médico al tratar a estos pacientes y los aspectos relacionados con la educación para la salud en el caso de la enfermedad; también se destaca la relación con estos principios y el deseo expreso o no de los pacientes de someterse a determinadas investigaciones. El VIH/sida tiene que constituir una situación de análisis permanente de la Bioética por los desafíos constantes del personal de salud y la sociedad, tanto para la prevención, cuidado y tratamiento como para otras acciones. Cuba exhibe resultados excepcionales, diferentes al resto del mundo.

  17. Study on the effect of intervention about acquired immunodeficiency syndrom among men who have sex with men%重庆市男男性行为人群艾滋病干预效果初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯连贵; 徐世明; 丁贤彬; 吕繁; 潘传波; 易辉容; 刘虹宏; 周超; 卢戎戎; 欧阳琳

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the outcomes of AIDS intervention programs and to provide scientific evidence for developing pertinent strategy on intervention among men who have sex with men (MSM).Methods MSM were recruited through snowballing and investigated by face to face interview in 2006 and 2007 respectively.SPSS 12.0 was used to compare the change of cognition about AIDS,sexual behavior,prevalence rates of HIV and Syphilis before and after the intervention program among the population under study.Results The cognition about AIDS among MSM was obviously improved after the intervention with the rate increased from 74.3% to 82.4% (P=0.01).The rate of last time condom use among MSM increased from 56.4% to 65.5% (P=0.00).The rate of consistent condom use during six months among MSM increased from 31.8% to 41.9% (P=0.00).The rates of both condom use during commercial sex with men and with women did not change much among MSM.The prevalence rates of HIV in 2006 and 2007 were 10.4% and 10.8% and of syphilis in 2006 and 2007 were 9.3% and 7.3% respectively which were not significantly different between before and after the intervention.Conclusion The cognition about AIDS among MSM was improved obviously.However,the rate of consistent condom use was still low,reflecting the segregation phenomenon between their behavior and cognition.All our findings implied that it was crucial to carry out AIDS prevention and control programs.%目的 评估重庆市男男性行为者(MSM)的艾滋病综合干预项目实施效果.方法 2006年与2007年对MSM人群采用"滚雪球"法进行二次面对面的问卷调查,比较干预前后MSM人群知识、行为和HIV及梅毒患病率的变化隋况,采用SPSS 12.0软件进行统计分析.结果 干预后,MSM人群艾滋病防治知识知晓率明显提高,由干预前的74.3%上升到干预后的82.4%(P=0.01);最近一次与男性发生肛交性行为时安全套使用率由56.4%上升到65.5%(P=0.00);最近6个月与男性发生肛交时每次都使用安全套率也由2006年干预前的31.8%上升至41.9%(P=0.00).干预前后HIV感染率分别为10.4%和10.8%,梅毒患病率分别为9.3%和7.3%,干预前后HIV和梅毒的患病率差异均无统计学意义.结论 MSM人群干预后艾滋病防治知识明显提高,安全套使用率也有所提高,干预工作产生明显效果.

  18. 甘露糖结合凝集素与艾滋病相关性的研究%A Study on Relativity of Mannose Binding Lectin or Mannan Binding Lectin (MBL) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜枫; 彭勃; 尚佳; 张庶民

    2006-01-01

    甘露糖结合凝集素(mannose binding lectin or mannan binding lectin;MBL)是一种存在于血清中的C型凝集素.MBL通过结合病原生物表面的甘露糖等糖基受体而直接介导调理吞噬作用和/或通过MBL途径激活补体,在机体的固有性免疫防御中发挥重要作用.HIV-1的表面包膜蛋白gp120/gp41为机体固有免疫系统通过MBL的攻击提供了潜在位点.MBL主要通过四个环节在艾滋病中发挥作用:补体活化、中和作用、调理作用和封闭DC细胞特异的ICAM3结合的非整合素.对于MBL在艾滋病的疾病进展和疾病传播中的作用认识不一,有待进一步研究.

  19. Estimation and prediction of the epidemic situation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Jiangsu province%江苏省AIDS疫情估计和预测分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷娜; 彭志行; 还锡萍; 陈鑫; 喻荣彬; 羊海涛

    2010-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to estimate and predict the AIDS epidemic situation in Jiangsu province by using a software named Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) and then to provide accurate information for making control plans and conducting interventions. Methods Date were obtained from the comprehensively monitored sentinels of AIDS and venereal diseases ( Data were from 28 national monitored stations and 52 provincial stations. From 2003 to 2009, a total of 10 730 000 people had been monitored) as well as project survey and laboratory tests. EPP epidemic model was employed to analyze the prevalence and to predict future epidemic situations. Results A total of 830 000 and 1 020 000 people were monitored in 2003 and 2004 respectively, and 8 880 000 more people were monitored in the following 5 years. By the end of 2009,a total of 4103 HIV infection cases had been reported,among which 918 people were diagnosed with AIDS and 432 died. Since 2003, the cases infected through IDU had decreased from 66.84% (262/392) to 16. 40% (142/868). However,the cases infected through sex contact had increased from 21.68% ( 85/392 ) to 77. 40% ( 672/868 ) . Among these cases, homosexual transmission and heterosexual transmission accounted for 39. 10% (339/868) and 38. 30% (333/868) respectively. It was estimated that there would be 14 290 HIV/AIDS cases in 2011 which is 18. 10% (2191/12 099) higher than that in 2009. The estimated HIV infection rate would be 0.02%. Conclusion EPP prediction showed the AIDS epidemic situation in Jiangsu province had an ascendant trend and the AIDS epidemic situation had demonstrated rapid growth. Therefore, it is necessary to take effective preventive measures to control the spread of AIDS.%目的 利用估计和预测软件包(estimation and projection package,EPP)模型估计和预测江苏省AIDS疫情,为制定防治规划和进行干预活动提供准确的信息.方法 分析江苏全省各类重点人群AIDS、性病综合监测哨点(共80个,其中国家级监测点28个,省级监测点52个,2003-2009年共监测人群10 730 000名)、各类专题调查资料和实验室检测数据,运用EPP疫情模型分析疫情流行规律并预测未来的形势.结果 2003年,共监测人群830 000名,2004年共监测人群1 020 000名,2005-2009年累计监测8 880 000名.截至2009年底累计报告HIV感染者4103例,AIDS患者918例,累计死亡432例.注射吸毒(injection drug users,IDU)占的比例由2003年的66.84%(截至2003年底累计报告感染者392例)(262/392)下降至16 40%(142/868),性途径感染的比例由2003年的21.68%(85/392)上升至77.40%(672/868)[其中同性性传播占39.10%(339/868)、异性性传播占38.30%(333/868)].模型拟合显示2011年存活的感染者将达到14 290例,比2009年增加18.10%(2191/12 099),2011年总人群的感染率为0.02%.结论 EPP预测显示江苏省AIDS疫情呈上升趋势,AIDS疫情已进入快速增长期,应采取积极有效的防控措施,以控制进一步蔓延.

  20. Assessment of sexual risk behaviors and perception of vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in women, 1999–2012: a population based survey in a medium-sized Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Arndt Mesenburg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual behavior is a key factor for susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases. An evaluation of the sexual behavior of women at reproductive age was conducted in 1999. A replication of this study aims to evaluate the current situation and identify changes in sexual behavior, 13 years later. This is a population-based cross-sectional study, conducted with 1071 women in Pelotas, Brazil. Compared to the 1999 study, a 14% increase in early sexual debut and an 8% decrease in the non-use of condoms were observed in 2012. The proportion of women who reported anal sex doubled between these periods. There was no trend of increase or decrease in the prevalence of behaviors with distinct patterns being observed for each of them. Reduction of non-use of condoms may be an indicator of the effectiveness of campaigns to promote safe sex. However, the increased prevalence of early sexual debut and anal sex indicates the need for campaigns to continue and to expand their focus, especially among vulnerable groups.

  1. Space Flight Immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, William T.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has had sufficient concern for the well-being of astronauts traveling in space to create the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), which is investigating several areas of biomedical research including those of immunology. As part of the Immunology, Infection, and Hematology Team, the co-investigators of the Space Flight Immunodeficiency Project began their research projects on April 1, 1998 and are now just into the second year of work. Two areas of research have been targeted: 1) specific immune (especially antibody) responses and 2) non-specific inflammation and adhesion. More precise knowledge of these two areas of research will help elucidate the potential harmful effects of space travel on the immune system, possibly sufficient to create a secondary state of immunodeficiency in astronauts. The results of these experiments are likely to lead to the delineation of functional alterations in antigen presentation, specific immune memory, cytokine regulation of immune responses, cell to cell interactions, and cell to endothelium interactions.

  2. Congenital and acquired neutropenias consensus guidelines on therapy and follow-up in childhood from the Neutropenia Committee of the Marrow Failure Syndrome Group of the AIEOP (Associazione Italiana Emato-Oncologia Pediatrica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioredda, Francesca; Calvillo, Michaela; Bonanomi, Sonia; Coliva, Tiziana; Tucci, Fabio; Farruggia, Piero; Pillon, Marta; Martire, Baldassarre; Ghilardi, Roberta; Ramenghi, Ugo; Renga, Daniela; Menna, Giuseppe; Pusiol, Anna; Barone, Angelica; Gambineri, Eleonora; Palazzi, Giovanni; Casazza, Gabriella; Lanciotti, Marina; Dufour, Carlo

    2012-02-01

    The management of congenital and acquired neutropenias presents some differences according to the type of the disease. Treatment with recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is not standardized and scanty data are available on the best schedule to apply. The frequency and the type of longitudinal controls in patients affected with neutropenias are not usually discussed in the literature. The Neutropenia Committee of the Marrow Failure Syndrome Group (MFSG) of the Associazione Italiana di Emato-Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) elaborated this document following design and methodology formerly approved by the AIEOP board. The panel of experts reviewed the literature on the topic and participated in a conference producing a document that includes recommendations on neutropenia treatment and timing of follow-up.

  3. "Congenital Sensory Neuropathy as a Differential Diagnosis for Phagocytic Immunodeficiency "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gharagozlou

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available There are few reports about congenital indifference to pain or Hereditary and Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy (HSAN. Several investigations for pathophysiology of this syndrome have been performed and different classifications about it. In this report we present a case of HSAN type II with general absence of pain and self amputations and leprosy–like damage of extremities which was suspected to be phagocytic immunodeficiency due to past history of repeated ulcer and abscess formation.

  4. Fundus characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus with acquired immune deficiency%人类免疫缺陷病毒感染合并获得性免疫缺陷综合征眼部病变的眼底特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗静; 曾静; 张慧明; 陈司莹; 杨叶蓁; 魏为; 邓静; 唐罗生

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the fundus characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus with acquired immune deficiency (HIV/AIDS).Methods A total of 1041 HIV/AIDS patients were enrolled in this study.The patients included 882 males (88.70%) and 159 females (11.30%).The patients' ages ranged from 12 to 73 years,with a mean age of 41 years.The median time of HIV/AIDS diagnosis was 12 months,which ranged from one month to 10 years.HIV infection was acquired through sexual contact,intravenous drug use,blood transfusion or mother-to-child transmission in 475 patients (45.63%),508 patients (48.80 %),44 patients (4.25 %) and 14 patients (1.34%),respectively.Ocular examinations (vision acuity,slit lamp microscope and fundus examination) were performed on recruited patients with HIV/AIDS.Additional exams (intraocular pressure, fundus photography and fundus fluorescein angiography) were done if abnormal ocular fundus was found.The ocular manifestations were diagnosed according to clinic reference.Results Ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS were detected in 247 patients(23.73%).Of 247 patients,the most common ocular manifestation was HIV retinopathy,which was present in 132 patients (53.44%); cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR) was second place,affecting 70 participants (28.34%).Clinic findings of HIV retinopathy included retina microaneurysm,hemorrhage along the blood vessel with cotton-wool spots,while irregular dry edge,granular appearing border,were present in CMVR, and the optic nerve may be affected.Fluorescein angiogram of HIV retinopathy demonstrated that hemorrhage was shown as sheltered fluorescence,with strong fluorescence without leakage in center of hemorrhage.Fluorescein angiogram of CMVR demonstrated significant hemorrhage appearing as sheltered fluorescence with leakage and/or transparent fluorescence.The optic disk and lesioned area were stained with fluorescence.Conclusions There are various HIV/AIDS related ocular manifestation.HIV retinopathy and

  5. Filarial/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Coinfection in Urban Southern India

    OpenAIRE

    Talaat, Kawsar R.; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Swaminathan, Soumya; Gopinath, Ramya; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    The disease course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is often altered by existing or newly acquired coinfections. Treatment or prevention of these concomitant infections often improves the quality and duration of life of HIV-infected persons. The impact of helminth infections on infections with HIV is less clear. However, HIV is frequently most problematic in areas where helminth infections are common. In advance of the widespread distribution of drugs for elimination of lymphatic filaria...

  6. Acquired causes of intestinal malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, F

    2016-04-01

    This review focuses on the acquired causes, diagnosis, and treatment of intestinal malabsorption. Intestinal absorption is a complex process that depends on many variables, including the digestion of nutrients within the intestinal lumen, the absorptive surface of the small intestine, the membrane transport systems, and the epithelial absorptive enzymes. Acquired causes of malabsorption are classified by focussing on the three phases of digestion and absorption: 1) luminal/digestive phase, 2) mucosal/absorptive phase, and 3) transport phase. Most acquired diseases affect the luminal/digestive phase. These include short bowel syndrome, extensive small bowel inflammation, motility disorders, and deficiencies of digestive enzymes or bile salts. Diagnosis depends on symptoms, physical examination, and blood and stool tests. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of malabsorption. Further testing should be based on the specific clinical context and the suspected underlying disease. Therapy is directed at nutritional support by enteral or parenteral feeding and screening for and supplementation of deficiencies in vitamins and minerals. Early enteral feeding is important for intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome. Medicinal treatment options for diarrhoea in malabsorption include loperamide, codeine, cholestyramine, or antibiotics. PMID:27086886

  7. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection in pregnancy in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ukey Pawan

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV /Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS is increasing at an alarming rate globally. It has now become a major challenge & threat to public health. HIV infection in women occur primarily during their reproductive years, hence pregnancy provides a unique opportunity for implementing prevention strategies against HIV infection. If we estimate seroprevalence in pregnancy, the effective & timely intervention will reduce the transmission of infection to newborns. AIMS: To study the seroprevalence of HIV infection in pregnancy in a tertiary care hospital. SETTING: Antenatal Care Clinic of a Tertiary Care Hospital. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood samples of all the pregnant women with written consent were collected and tested for HIV antibodies as per National AIDS Control Organization (NACO guidelines over a period from September 2002 to August 2004. However only those who were HIV seroreactive were included in this study. Spouses of seroreactive pregnant women were also counselled and tested. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test. RESULTS: Out of the total 10683 blood samples from pregnant women tested, 147 (1.38% were found to be HIV seroreactive. Seroreactive cases when compiled year-wise, showed increase in the seroprevalence from 1.24% in September 2002 - August 2003 to 1.45% in September 2003 - August 2004. Majority 69 (46.94% seroreactive pregnant women were in the age group of 19-24 years followed by 25-29 years age group (31.29%. Out of 88 spouses of HIV seroreactive pregnant women, 85 (96.59% were found to be HIV seroreactive. CONCLUSION: In the present study, seroprevalence of HIV infection was found to be1.38% amongst pregnant women.

  8. A novel thymoma-associated immunodeficiency with increased naive T cells and reduced CD247 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulos, Petros; Dopfer, Elaine P; Malkovsky, Miroslav; Esser, Philipp R; Schaefer, Hans-Eckart; Marx, Alexander; Kock, Sylvia; Rupp, Nicole; Lorenz, Myriam R; Schwarz, Klaus; Harder, Jan; Martin, Stefan F; Werner, Martin; Bogdan, Christian; Schamel, Wolfgang W A; Fisch, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The mechanisms underlying thymoma-associated immunodeficiency are largely unknown, and the significance of increased blood γδ Τ cells often remains elusive. In this study we address these questions based on an index patient with thymoma, chronic visceral leishmaniasis, myasthenia gravis, and a marked increase of rare γδ T cell subsets in the peripheral blood. This patient showed cutaneous anergy, even though he had normal numbers of peripheral blood total lymphocytes as well as CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Despite his chronic infection, analyses of immunophenotypes and spectratyping of his lymphocytes revealed an unusual accumulation of naive γδ and αβ T cells, suggesting a generalized T cell activation defect. Functional studies in vitro demonstrated substantially diminished IL-2 and IFN-γ production following TCR stimulation of his "untouched" naive CD4(+) T cells. Biochemical analysis revealed that his γδ and αβ T cells carried an altered TCR complex with reduced amounts of the ζ-chain (CD247). No mutations were found in the CD247 gene that encodes the homodimeric ζ protein. The diminished presence of CD247 and increased numbers of γδ T cells were also observed in thymocyte populations obtained from three other thymoma patients. Thus, our findings describe a novel type of a clinically relevant acquired T cell immunodeficiency in thymoma patients that is distinct from Good's syndrome. Its characteristics are an accumulation of CD247-deficient, hyporresponsive naive γδ and αβ T cells and an increased susceptibility to infections. PMID:25732729

  9. White matter tract injury and cognitive impairment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongvatana, Assawin; Schweinsburg, Brian C; Taylor, Michael J; Theilmann, Rebecca J; Letendre, Scott L; Alhassoon, Omar M; Jacobus, Joanna; Woods, Steven P; Jernigan, Terry L; Ellis, Ronald J; Frank, Lawrence R; Grant, Igor

    2009-04-01

    Approximately half of those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exhibit cognitive impairment, which has been related to cerebral white matter damage. Despite the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment, cognitive impairment remains common even in individuals with undetectable viral loads. One explanation for this may be subtherapeutic concentrations of some antiretrovirals in the central nervous system (CNS). We utilized diffusion tensor imaging and a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation to investigate the relationship of white matter integrity to cognitive impairment and antiretroviral treatment variables. Participants included 39 HIV-infected individuals (49% with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]; mean CD4 = 529) and 25 seronegative subjects. Diffusion tensor imaging indices were mapped onto a common whole-brain white matter tract skeleton, allowing between-subject voxelwise comparisons. The total HIV-infected group exhibited abnormal white matter in the internal capsule, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and optic radiation; whereas those with AIDS exhibited more widespread damage, including in the internal capsule and the corpus callosum. Cognitive impairment in the HIV-infected group was related to white matter injury in the internal capsule, corpus callosum, and superior longitudinal fasciculus. White matter injury was not found to be associated with HIV viral load or estimated CNS penetration of antiretrovirals. Diffusion tensor imaging was useful in identifying changes in white matter tracts associated with more advanced HIV infection. Relationships between diffusion alterations in specific white matter tracts and cognitive impairment support the potential utility of diffusion tensor imaging in examining the anatomical underpinnings of HIV-related cognitive impairment. The study also confirms that CNS injury is evident in persons infected with HIV despite effective antiretroviral treatment.

  10. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection-Associated Mortality during Pulmonary Tuberculosis Treatment in Six Provinces of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Yu Ji; LIU Er Yong; WANG Li Ming; Jamie P MORANO; WANG Ning; Kaveh KHOSHNOOD; ZHOU Lin; CHENG Shi Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk factors attributable to tuberculosis-related deaths in areas with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection epidemics. Methods A prospective cohort study of newly registered patients in tuberculosis (TB) dispensaries in six representative Chinese provinces was conducted from September 1, 2009 to August 31, 2011. Risk factors for TB-associated death were identified through logistic regression analysis. Results Of 19,103 newly registered pulmonary TB patients, 925 (4.8%) were found to be HIV-positive. Miliary TB and acid-fast bacillus smear-negative TB were more common among these patients. Out of a total of 322 (1.7%) deaths that occurred during TB treatment, 85 (26%) of the patients were co-infected with HIV. Multivariate analysis revealed that HIV infection was the strongest predictor of death [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7.86]. Other significant mortality risk factors included presentation with miliary TB (aOR 4.10; 95% confidence interval: 2.14-7.88), ≥35 years of age (aOR 3.04), non-Han ethnicity (aOR 1.67), and farming as an occupation (aOR 1.59). For patients with TB/HIV co-infection, miliary TB was the strongest risk factor for death (aOR 5.48). A low CD4 count (≤200 cells/µL) (aOR 3.27) at the time of TB treatment initiation and a lack of antiretroviral therapy (ART) administration (aOR 3.78) were also correlated with an increased risk of death. Conclusion Infection with HIV was independently associated with increased mortality during TB treatment. Offering HIV testing at the time of diagnosis with TB, early TB diagnosis among HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients, and the timely provision of ART were identified as the key approaches that could reduce the number of HIV-associated TB deaths.

  11. Radiographic findings in immunodeficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the chest radiographs and high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans in patients with immunodeficiency disorders and define the role of HRCT. Thirty-three cases were retrospectively graded according to the consensus of two radiologists. Patients with HIV seropositivity and asthma were excluded. HRCT was performed in 12 cases with standard techniques. Diagnoses included common variable hypogammaglobulinemia (n = 19), X-linked agammaglobulinemia (n = 4), chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (n = 4), and selective immunoglobulin g deficiencies (n = 2). Chest radiographs showed bronchiectasis in 11 of 33 cases with a predominant lower lobe distribution (82%). Nodules were present in six cases and mucus plugs in four cases. HRCT showed bronchiectasis in nine of 12 cases; in five of these nine cases, bronchiectasis was not apparent on chest radiographs. Other HRCT findings included segmental air trapping (four of 12), mucus plugs (three of 12), hazy consolidation (four of 12), nodules (five of 12), and bronchiolectasis (two of 12). Therapy was altered in seven of 12 cases in which HRCT was performed. Most pertinent to clinical management were the presence of a thymoma (n = 1) and severe focal of diffuse bronchiectasis

  12. 281例艾滋病患者采用高效抗反转录病毒疗法后血脂变化与中医证型临床分析%Clinical analysis on lipid metabolism and syndrome of TCM in 281 cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome treating by HAART

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 郭会军; 蒋自强; 张晓伟; 谢正

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has a significant impact on the natural history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, leading to a remarkable decrease in its morbidity and mortality, but is frequently associated with metabolic complications, such as dyslipidemia and cardiovascular complications. The purpose of this study is to explore the possible complications of HAART in treated patients on lipid metabolism and syndrome of TCM (TCM). Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in the outpatients. We selected 281 infected men who were receiving HAART. Fasting total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipopmtein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipopmtein (LDL), cholesterol values were compared in various treatment prescription. Statistic analysis of the data was carried out on lipid metabolism and syndrome of TCM. Results: Protease inhibitors (Pis) the incidence of dyslipidemia was significantly higher than other drug combinations in their programs the incidence of dyslipidemia. AIDS patients receiving HAART lipid levels in triglycerides (TGs) increased more in various treatment perscription (82%). Syndrome differentiation type was mainly phlegm or phlegm stasis (78%). Conclusion: These data suggested that HAART was associated with dyslipidemia in patients. In addition to AIDS patients on HAART conventional treatment, and related lipid changes also should pay attention to, TCM treatment should mainly invigorate the spleen and eliminate phlegm.%目的:探讨艾滋病患者HAART后血脂变化与中医证型的关系.方法:对281例艾滋病接受HAART患者,采用BECKMAN全自动生化分析仪测定血清总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TGs)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇( LDL-C)和高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)指标.同时对检测指标达到血脂异常标准者进行中医辨证分型.结果:使用蛋白酶抑制剂血脂异常发病率明显高于其他药物在各自组合方案中血

  13. The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection among TB patients in Port Harcourt Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Erhabor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O Erhabor1, Z A Jeremiah2, T C Adias1, Okere CE21Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilbeforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; 2Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, NigeriaAbstract: The joint statement by the American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends that all patients with tuberculosis (TB undergo testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection after counseling. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of HIV infection among 120 patients diagnosed with microbiologically proven TB aged 18 to 54 years with a mean age of 39.5 years (standard deviation 6.75. The subjects studied were 36 male (30% and 84 females (70%. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods were used to screen for HIV infection among the subjects. Of the 120 TB patients tested 30 (25% were positive for HIV infection. The prevalence of HIV was higher in females 24 (80% compared to males 6 (20% and among singles (66.7% compared to married subjects (33.3% (χ2 = 83.5 and χ2 = 126.2, respectively P = 0.001. HIV-1 was the predominant viral subtype. HIV prevalence was significantly higher in subjects in the 38–47 year and 28–37 year age groups (both 40% followed by the 18–28 year age group (20% (χ2 = 42.6, P = 0.05. The mean CD4 lymphocyte count of the HIV-infected TB subjects was significantly lower (195 ± 40.5 cells/μL compared to the non-HIV infected (288 ± 35.25 cells/μL P = 0.01. This study has shown a high prevalence of HIV among TB patients. Reactivation of TB among people living with HIV can be reduced by TB preventive therapy and by universal access to antiretroviral therapy.Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS, tuberculosis, TB, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

  14. Primary Immunodeficiencies with Elevated IgE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogensen, Trine H

    2016-01-01

    In recent years a number of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) characterized by elevated Immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels have been uncovered and termed as Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES). In addition to the elevated levels of IgE, patients with these PIDs display a spectrum of infections by staphylococci and fungi, and in some cases viruses, particularly affecting skin and lungs. Most of these PIDs also have a non-infectious phenotype, comprising musculoskeletal, vascular, and neurological abnormalities. The genetic basis for the majority of conditions with elevated IgE has now been established and includes mutations in STAT3, DOCK8, TYK2, and most recently PGM3 molecules. However, in some patients with the relevant phenotype, mutations in these molecules are not identified, suggesting additional genetic etiologies of HIES not yet discovered. As the immunological and molecular basis of HIES is being unraveled, important insights are emerging that may have implications for our understanding of basic principles of immunology and protective immunity as well as for the pathogenesis and clinical management of patients with these complex and challenging PIDs. In this review, are presented the current knowledge on the clinical presentation, infectious phenotype, and the genetic and immunological pathogenesis of hyper-IgE syndromes as well as some other PIDs with elevated levels of IgE. PMID:25970001

  15. Feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, N C; Yamamoto, J K; Ishida, T; Hansen, H

    1989-05-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) (formerly feline T-lymphotropic lentivirus or FTLV) was first isolated from a group of cats in Petaluma, California in 1986. The virus is a typical lentivirus in gross and structural morphology. It replicates preferentially but not exclusively in feline T-lymphoblastoid cells, where it causes a characteristic cytopathic effect. The major structural proteins are 10, 17 (small gag), 28 (major core), 31 (endonuclease?), 41 (transmembrane?), 52 (core precursor polyprotein), 54/62 (reverse transcriptase?), and 110/130 (major envelope) kilodaltons in size. The various proteins are antigenically distinguishable from those of other lentiviruses, although serum from EIAV-infected horses will cross-react with some FIV antigens. Kittens experimentally infected with FIV manifest a transient (several days to 2 weeks) fever and neutropenia beginning 4 to 8 weeks after inoculation. This is associated with a generalized lymphadenopathy that persists for up to 9 months. Most cats recover from this initial phase of the disease and become lifelong carriers of the virus. Complete recovery does not occur to any extent in nature or in the laboratory setting. One experimentally infected cat died from a myeloproliferative disorder several months after infection. The terminal AIDS-like phase of the illness has been seen mainly in naturally infected cats. It appears a year or more following the initial infection in an unknown proportion of infected animals. FIV has been identified in cats from all parts of the world. It is most prevalent in high density populations of free roaming cats (feral and pet), and is very uncommon in closed purebred catteries. Male cats are twice as likely to become infected as females. Older male cats adopted as feral or stray animals are at the highest risk of infection, therefore. The infection rate among freely roaming cats rises throughout life, and reaches levels ranging from less than 1% to 12% or more depending on the

  16. An inducible transcription factor activates expression of human immunodeficiency virus in T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabel, Gary; Baltimore, David

    1987-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) production from latently infected T lymphocytes can be induced with compounds that activate the cells to secrete lymphokines1,2. The elements in the HIV genome which control activation are not known but expression might be regulated through a variety of DNA elements. The cis-acting control elements of the viral genome are enhancer and promoter regions. The virus also encodes trans-acting factors specified by the tat-III (refs 3-6) and art genes7. We have examined whether products specific to activated T cells might stimulate viral transcription by binding to regions on viral DNA. Activation of T cells, which increases HIV expression up to 50-fold, correlated with induction of a DNA binding protein indistinguishable from a recognized transcription factor, called NF-κB (ref. 8), with binding sites in the viral enhancer. Mutation of these binding sites abolished inducibility. That NF-κB acts in synergy with the viral tat-III gene product to enhance HIV expression in T cells may have implications for the pathogenesis of AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome).

  17. ANALYSIS OF INITIAL CLINICAL FEATURES OF PRIMARY IMMUNODEFICIENCIES IN ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tuzankina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, we are observing eighty-three adult patients with various primary immunodeficiencies (PID of different origin. The aim of our study was to identify the optimal ways for early detection of such disorders. In this work, we present an analysis of initial clinical manifestations of PID in adults. It was revealed that the type of clinical manifestations is quite unique for individual cases. And the patients exhibit quite diverse clinical findings and course of the disorder, even within a single nosological entity. However, infectious syndrome prevailed among others manifestations. Combinations of complex clinical syndromes were not typical to initial PID pattern. We observed polytopic lesions within each single immunopathological syndrome.

  18. Behcet's disease in acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beenish Siddiqui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS patients often present with orogenital ulcers. In the immunocompromised patient diagnosis of these ulcers pose a challenge, as there is a myriad of etiologies. We present a case of an HIV/AIDS patient with recurrent orogenital aphthosis that was confirmed to have concomitant diagnosis of Behcet's disease. Proper awareness of the causes of these ulcers is essential for prompt and effective treatment. While rare causes may be at the bottom of a differential list in an immunocompetent host, when HIV/AIDS is involved these rare causes often percolate to the top.

  19. In Guangdong Drug Resistance of Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in 2011 and 2012%2011-2012年广东省人类免疫缺陷病毒/获得性免疫缺陷综合征患者的耐药情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟活麟; 梁志伟; 蔡卫平; 兰芸

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨2011—2012年广东省人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)/获得性免疫缺陷综合征(AIDS)患者的耐药情况。方法分别收集广东省2011-2012年接受抗病毒治疗满1年以上的患者血浆,检测HIV病毒载量,对病毒载量(VL)>1000 Copies/ml患者行HIV-1基因分型及耐药位点检测,比较2011—2012年患者的病毒抑制情况、HIV-1基因亚型与感染途径分布、耐药突变的发生情况、治疗药物的耐药情况。结果2012年治疗失败率明显低于2011年下降,差异有统计学意义(χ2=59.57,P<0.01);通过静脉吸毒、同性和异性性传播的感染患者主要为CRF01_AE亚型,而输血传播感染的患者为CRF01_AE及CRF02_AG亚型;2012年NRT区主要耐药位点M184I/V突变比例明显低于2011年,差异有统计学意义(χ2=6.37,P<0.05);2012年患者3TC、FTC、NVP耐药率均明显低于2011年,差异有统计学意义(χ2=6.97, P<0.05)。结论2011—2012年广东省HIV/AIDS患者基因亚型以CRF01_AE为主,两年间各类药物主要耐药位点未发生变化;耐药突变是HIV耐药性产生的主要原因,2012年耐药率下降和耐药突变率相符。%Objective To investigate the characteristic of anti-HIV drug resistance of failure treatment HIV/AIDS patients in Guangdong Province in 2011 and 2012.Methods In Guangdong Province the plasma of Patients,who receive antiretroviral treatment for more than one year,were colected in 2012 and 2011.the detection of HIV virus load,the viral load(VL)and 1000cp/ml in patients with HIV-1 genotype and mutation detection.Viral suppression,HIV-1 genotype and distribution of infection,drug resistance,the occurrence of drug resistance of patients in 2012 were compared with 2011,Results In 2012 the failure rate was significantly lower than in 2011,the difference was statisti- caly significant(χ2=59.57,P<0.01);Gene subtype of patients infected through intravenous drug use,homosexual and heterosexual transmission is mainly CRF01_AE,and transfusion transmitted infections of patients with CRF01_AE and CRF02_AG subtype;main resistance loci M184I/V of NRT mutation in 2012 was significantly lower than that of in 2011,the difference was statisticaly significant(χ2=6.37,P<0.05);In 2012 resistant rates of 3TC、FTC、NVP were significantly lower than that in 2011,there were statisticaly significant differences(χ2=6.97,P<0.05).Conclusion In 2011 and 2012 gene subtype of patients with HIV/AIDS is stil CRF01_AE subtypes,primarily resistance loci of various types of drugs did not change in Guangdong.Resistance mutations are the main causes of HIV drug resistance,the declined rates of drug resistance were the same as mutation rate in 2012.

  20. Renal Alterations in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)-Infected Cats: A Natural Model of Lentivirus-Induced Renal Disease Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Pistello; Grazia Guidi; Natasa Tozon; Alessandro Poli

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some...

  1. Research progress on human immunodeficiency virus reservoir and its eradication%人类免疫缺陷病毒潜伏库的形成与清除

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何涌泉; 孟哲峰; 张晓燕

    2012-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has driven human immunodeficiency virus (HTV) to undetectably low levels in the blood and improved life quality of HTV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (ATDS) patients. However, the eradication of HTV-1 is hindered by the persistence of long-lived, latently infected memory CD4 T cells and the formation of viral reservoirs. Research on HTV reservoir eradication mainly focus on gene therapy, drug treatment targeting latently HTV-1-infected cells or directly reactivating the latent viruses, which are easier to be killed by antiviral therapy. Tn this review, the recent research progress on HTV reservoir and its eradication is summarized.%虽然高效抗反转录病毒治疗(HAART)在抗人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)感染中有较为卓越的疗效,但是HIV潜伏库的存在使HIV感染者面临无法完全根除HIV的困扰.目前,对HIV潜伏库的清除研究主要集中在药物治疗或基因治疗领域,本文就近年来相关领域的研究进展进行综述.

  2. The Application of Feline immunodeficiency virus in Medicine%猫免疫缺陷病毒在医学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李乐; 苗海生; 李华春

    2007-01-01

    猫免疫缺陷病毒(Feline immunodeficiency virus,FIV)是一种主要感染猫的反转录病毒.FIV与人的免疫缺陷病毒(Human immunodeficiency virus,HIV)有许多相似性,可作为HIV的研究模型,如测量FIV病毒在动物体内的感染曲线,可为了解HIV在人体内的传播细节提供蓝图;利用FIV偏好感染发展中的神经系,可以帮助人们了解艾滋病(Acquired immure deficiency syndrome,AIDS)对神经系统的致病机理.FIV疫苗的研究获得成功,可为HIV疫苗的研制提供提示.FIV在基因治疗方面有重要的应用价值,目前应用FIV传递CFTR(cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator)的cDNA到呼吸系统表皮细胞治疗囊肿性纤维化(cystic fibrosis,CF)的研究已经取得了很大进展.

  3. Avaliação nutricional em pacientes infectados pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Adquirida Nutritional assessment in patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Mendes Reis Barbosa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Pacientes infectados com o Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana ou com Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida freqüentemente apresentam desnutrição protéico-energética, com manifestações heterogêneas, as quais dependem do estado de saúde prévio do paciente. O estado nutricional deve ser avaliado e monitorado cuidadosamente para que o plano terapêutico possa ser efetivo. Uma avaliação nutricional abrangente é fundamental; além disso, toda a equipe de profissionais da saúde e os próprios pacientes devem estar atentos para uma ação precoce e integrada.Patients infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus or with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome often present protein-energy malnutrition. The manifestations are heterogeneous and depend on the patient's previous health status. The nutritional status must be assessed and carefully controlled, so that satisfactory results can be achieved and the therapeutic plan can be effective. A complete detailed nutritional assessment is fundamental; besides, the health professional team and the patients themselves need to be aware of the symptoms and the disease progress, in order to take an early and integrated action.

  4. 分析及预测治愈艾滋病的策略%Strategies for human immunodeficiency virus cure:current status and future prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩洋; 曲玉晨; 王茜; 姜世勃; 陆路

    2015-01-01

    抗反转录病毒联合疗法(cART)虽然能控制艾滋病病程,延长患者生命,但需长期用药,停药后会出现人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)反弹。体内HIV潜伏库细胞是造成病毒反弹的主要因素,围绕该潜伏库的研究发展出了多种艾滋病治愈的概念和策略。本文聚焦当前国际前沿,介绍一些具有重要发展前景的艾滋病治愈策略,并预测其未来的发展方向。%The combined antiretroviral therapy (cART ) has been applied to control the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) . However , cART requires life‐long daily treatment and strict adherence . HIV can quickly rebound after drug withdrawal because of the presence of the latent HIV reservoir in vivo .Therefore ,reactivation of latent HIV and elimination of latent HIV reservoir are critical for cure of HIV infection and AIDS .Here ,we review the recent advancements and future prospects on the strategies for HIV cure .

  5. [Severe atopic dermatitis caused by rare immunodeficiency in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolsk, Helene Mygind; Marquart, Hanne V; Laub, Bodil; Gniadecki, Robert; Nysom, Karsten; Ifversen, Marianne

    2015-12-14

    Two children are presented with autosomal recessive hyper IgE syndrome caused by a mutation in the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 gene (DOCK8). The manifestations are typically severe atopic dermatitis, food allergies, elevated serum IgE concentration, viral skin infections and risk of malignancies. DOCK8 deficiency was first reported in 2009, following the death of the oldest sibling. The youngest sibling was cured after allogenic stem cell transplantation. This case report illustrates the need of awareness of primary immunodeficiency in children with atypical manifestation of atopic dermatitis in combination with recurrent infections. PMID:26692033

  6. Viral hepatitis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Helena P. PAVAN; Francisco Hideo Aoki; Dinaida Teresa Monteiro; Neiva Sellan L. Gonçales; Cecília Amélia F. Escanhoela; Fernando L. Gonçales Júnior

    2003-01-01

    From 1992 to 1995 we studied 232 (69% male, 87% Caucasian) anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) positive Brazilian patients, through a questionnaire; HIV had been acquired sexually by 50%, from blood by 32%, sexually and/or from blood by 16.4% and by an unknown route by 1.7%. Intravenous drug use was reported by 29%; it was the most important risk factor for HIV transmission. The alanine aminotransferase quotient (qALT) was >1 for 40% of the patients, 93.6% had anti-hepatitis A virus ...

  7. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Infants Affected by Primary Immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Lanari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary immunodeficiencies are rare inherited disorders that may lead to frequent and often severe acute respiratory infections. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is one of the most frequent pathogens during early infancy and the infection is more severe in immunocompromised infants than in healthy infants, as a result of impaired T- and B-cell immune response unable to efficaciously neutralize viral replication, with subsequent increased viral shedding and potentially lethal lower respiratory tract infection. Several authors have reported a severe clinical course after RSV infections in infants and children with primary and acquired immunodeficiencies. Environmental prophylaxis is essential in order to reduce the infection during the epidemic season in hospitalized immunocompromised infants. Prophylaxis with palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the RSV F protein, is currently recommended in high-risk infants born prematurely, with chronic lung disease or congenital heart disease. Currently however the prophylaxis is not routinely recommended in infants with primary immunodeficiency, although some authors propose the extension of prophylaxis to this high risk population.

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion presenting with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sloan Derek J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection is associated with a range of neurological conditions. Guillain-Barré syndrome is a rare presentation; acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is the commonest form of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy has occasionally been reported in acute Immunodeficiency Virus infection but little data exists on frequency, management and outcome. Case presentation We describe an episode of Guillain-Barré syndrome presenting as acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in a 30-year-old man testing positive for Immunodeficiency Virus, probably during acute seroconversion. Clinical suspicion was confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid analysis and nerve conduction studies. Rapid clinical deterioration prompted intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and early commencement of highly active anti-retroviral therapy. All symptoms resolved within nine weeks. Conclusion Unusual neurological presentations in previously fit patients are an appropriate indication for Immunodeficiency-Virus testing. Highly active anti-retroviral therapy with adequate penetration of the central nervous system should be considered as an early intervention, alongside conventional therapies such as intravenous immunoglobulin.

  9. 遵义市红花岗区艾滋病疫情分析%An Analysis on Epidemic Situation of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome in Honghuagang District in Zunyi City and Adjustment of Its Prevention and Cure Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明杰; 卢太书

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the epidemic status of acquired immune deficiency syndrome ( AIDS) in Honghuagang district, analyze the affecting factors, and so as to adjust prevention and cure strategies effectively. Methods: AIDS monitoring was carried out in high risk crowds such as drug users, sex workers, gay men, pregnant women and prisoners. Ethology data were analyzed. Prevention and cure effects were evaluated. Results: Since 2003 that the demonstration area of integrated AIDS prevention and control began to work, effectiveness of AIDS prevention and control has become remarkable in this region, showing as establishment of an effective working system, and gradual strengthening of intervention to behavior of high-risk groups. Conclusions: AIDS integrated prevention and control measures in Honghuagang district are suitable. The effects are significant. Reinforcing AIDS prevention and cure work among sex workers and gay men should be emphasized in adjusting of prevention and control strategies.%目的:了解艾滋病疫情现状,分析艾滋病流行因素,为有效调整艾滋病防治策略提供依据.方法:对吸毒人群、性服务者、男-男性行为人群、孕妇及在押人员等高危人群或重点人群作HIV监测,依据1998-2009年的调查资料和监测数据分析其行为学资料,评价防治效果.结果:1998-2003年报告5例艾滋病感染者,1998-2009年共感染123例,2009年艾滋病感染者52例;各类调查人群对艾滋病知晓率提高,性服务人群安全套使用率87.1%(2008年),2009年美沙酮治疗人数1 411人.结论:红花岗区艾滋病综合防治措施效果显著.

  10. Highly active antiretroviral therapy per se decreased mortality and morbidity of advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease in Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAN Chi-wai; CHENG Lai-sim; CHAN Wai-kit; WONG Ka-hing

    2005-01-01

    Background Morbidity and mortality of advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) have declined in Western industrialized countries since the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). It is unclear if this has also happened in Hong Kong.Methods We studied a retrospective cohort of patients with advanced HIV disease in Hong Kong, China. First, the mortality of advanced HIV disease per year was calculated for the decade 1993 to 2002, both annually and according to patient observation before and after 1997. Second, the event rates were estimated for the clinical end points of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and death. Univariate and multivariate analyses were then performed to identify associated factors. Results The crude mortality of advanced HIV disease declined from 10.8-30.4 per 100 patients during 1993-1996, to 0.8-6.9 per 100 patients during 1997-2002. A rate ratio of 4.04 (95% CI, 2.52-6.47) was evident for those observed in 1993-1996, compared to those in 1997-2002. In a multivariate analysis where calendar period was adjusted, use of highly active antiretroviral therapy was associated with rate ratios of 0.13 (95% CI, 0.05-0.33) for death after AIDS, 0.08 (95% CI, 0.04-0.19) for AIDS after a CD4 cell count <200/μl, and 0.21 (95% CI, 0.07-0.67) for death after CD4 cell count <200/μl. In the same analysis, calendar period ceased to be a significant factor after adjustment for use of HAART.Conclusions The mortality and morbidity of advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease have declined in Hong Kong. This improved prognosis was attributable to the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

  11. Effect of left ventricular dysfunction and viral load on risk of sudden cardiac death in patients with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Brian S; Secemsky, Eric A; Vittinghoff, Eric; Wong, Joseph K; Havlir, Diane V; Hsue, Priscilla Y; Tseng, Zian H

    2014-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Whether left ventricular (LV) dysfunction predicts SCD in those with HIV is unknown. We sought to determine the impact of LV dysfunction on SCD in patients with HIV. We previously characterized all SCDs and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) deaths in 2,860 consecutive patients in a public HIV clinic from 2000 to 2009. Transthoracic echocardiograms (TTEs) performed during the study period were identified. The effect of ejection fraction (EF), diastolic dysfunction, pulmonary artery pressure, and LV mass on SCD and AIDS death were evaluated: 423 patients had at least 1 TTE; 13 SCDs and 55 AIDS deaths had at least 1 TTE. In the propensity-adjusted analysis, EF 30% to 39% and EF<30% predicted SCD (hazard ratio [HR] 9.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7 to 53.3, p=0.01 and HR 38.5, 95% CI 7.6 to 195.0, p<0.001, respectively) but not AIDS death. Diastolic dysfunction also predicted SCD (HR 14.8, 95% CI 4.0 to 55.4, p<0.001) but not AIDS death, even after adjusting for EF. The association between EF<40% and SCD was greater in subjects with detectable versus undetectable HIV RNA (adjusted HR 11.7, 95% CI 2.9 to 47.2, p=0.001 vs HR 2.7, 95% CI 0.3 to 27.6, p=0.41; p=0.07 for interaction). In conclusion, LV systolic dysfunction and diastolic dysfunction predict SCD but not AIDS death in a large HIV cohort, with greater effect in those with detectable HIV RNA. Further investigation is needed to thoroughly evaluate the effect of low EF and HIV factors on SCD incidence and the potential benefit of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in this high-risk population. PMID:24521717

  12. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tends to be more serious than other lung infections because: People in the hospital are often very sick and cannot fight off ... prevent pneumonia. Most hospitals have programs to prevent hospital-acquired infections.

  13. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  14. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  15. Hemophagocytic Syndrome Associated with Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in a Patient with AIDS Related Burkitt’s Leukemia/Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Kanıtez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has markedly decreased human immunodeficiency virus- (HIV- related mortality and the incidence of opportunistic infections. The dramatic reduction in HIV-1 RNA and increase in CD4 lymphocyte count mean a recovery in immune function. This restoration in immune function may be associated with paradoxical deterioration in subclinical opportunistic infections in some patients, a condition called immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS. IRIS, a “paradoxical” inflammatory response to either previously treated or subclinical infections or noninfectious diseases, can manifest during the restoration phase of immunity hemophagocytic syndrome (HS which is a very rare complication in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS. We describe a case of hemophagocytic syndrome associated with IRIS in a patient with AIDS related Burkitt’s leukemia/lymphoma (BL. IRIS was probably the cause of hemophagocytosis for our patient. Zoster infection may facilitate to IRIS. With the increasing number of people with HIV infection and the accompanying use of HAART, much more clinical manifestations of IRIS will be experienced especially in patients given high dose chemotherapy, just like in our case.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: ZAP70-related severe combined immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ZAP70-related severe combined immunodeficiency ZAP70-related severe combined immunodeficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Open All Close All Description ZAP70 -related severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is an inherited disorder that damages ...

  17. Hoffman syndrome: New patients, new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hügle, Boris; Hoffman, Hal; Bird, Lynne M; Gebauer, Corinna; Suchowerskyj, Philipp; Sack, Ulrich; Kohlhase, Jürgen; Schuster, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Hypogammaglobulinemia or agammaglobulinemia are major features of specific syndromes, including X-linked agammaglobulinemia and common variable immunodeficiency. However, the combination of hypogammaglobulinemia with specific dysmorphic features is less common, with only a few reported cases. One such report was a sporadic case of humoral immunodeficiency, facial dysmorphism, and limb anomalies in a young girl, later referred to as Hoffman syndrome. We report on a 7-year-old girl with almost complete loss of B cells, facial dysmorphism, and malformation of the limbs and genitalia, whose mother shows similar dysmorphic features with an attenuated version of the B-cell deficiency. We believe that all three cases described above represent the same condition. The features of the three affected individuals with Hoffman syndrome are reviewed. Further investigations in this recently recognized B-cell immunodeficiency syndrome are warranted.

  18. Retrospective TREC testing of newborns with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency and other primary immunodeficiency diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Jilkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Manitoba, Canada, the overall incidence of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID is three-fold higher than the national average, with SCID overrepresented in two population groups: Mennonites and First Nations of Northern Cree ancestries. T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC assay is being used increasingly for neonatal screening for SCID in North America. However, the majority of SCID patients in Manitoba are T-cell-positive. Therefore it is likely that the TREC assay will not identify these infants. The goal of this study was to blindly and retrospectively perform TREC analysis in confirmed SCID patients using archived Guthrie cards. Thirteen SCID patients were tested: 5 T-negative SCID (3 with adenosine deaminase deficiency, 1 with CD3δ deficiency, and 1 unclassified and 8 T-positive SCID (5 with zeta chain-associated protein kinase (ZAP70 deficiency and 3 with inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase beta (IKKβ deficiency. As a non-SCID patient group, 5 Primary Immunodeficiency Disease (PID patients were studied: 1 T-negative PID (cartilage-hair hypoplasia and 4 T-positive PID (2 common immune deficiency (CID, 1 Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome, and 1 X-linked lymphoproliferative disease. Both patient groups required hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In addition, randomly-selected de-identified controls (n = 982 were tested. Results: all T-negative SCID and PID had zero TRECs. Low-TRECs were identified in 2 ZAP70 siblings, 1 CID patient as well as 5 preterm, 1 twin, and 4 de-identified controls. Conclusions: TREC method will identify T-negative SCID and T-negative PID. To identify other SCID babies, newborn screening in Manitoba must include supplemental targeted screening for ethnic-specific mutations.

  19. Advances of gene therapy for primary immunodeficiencies [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Candotti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, the gene therapy field has witnessed a remarkable series of successes, many of which have involved primary immunodeficiency diseases, such as X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency, adenosine deaminase deficiency, chronic granulomatous disease, and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. While such progress has widened the choice of therapeutic options in some specific cases of primary immunodeficiency, much remains to be done to extend the geographical availability of such an advanced approach and to increase the number of diseases that can be targeted. At the same time, emerging technologies are stimulating intensive investigations that may lead to the application of precise genetic editing as the next form of gene therapy for these and other human genetic diseases.

  20. Acceptance of referral for partners by clients testing positive for human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netsanet F

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetene Netsanet,1 Ayalew Dessie21IMA World Health SuddHealth Multi Donor Trust Fund-Basic Package of Health Services Project, Juba, South Sudan; 2United States Agency for International Development, Private Health Sector Program, Abt Associates Inc, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive individuals who do not disclose their HIV status to their partners are more likely to present late for HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS care than those who have disclosed their HIV status to their partners. A major area of challenge with regards to HIV counseling for clients is disclosure of their HIV status to their partners. The main methods of partner notification are patient referral, provider referral, contract referral, and outreach assistance. The emphasis on a plausible and comprehensive partner referral strategy for widespread positive case detection in resource-limited countries needs to be thought out and developed.Methods: A qualitative study was conducted among newly HIV-positive clients to identify partners for notification and acceptance of referral by their partners. Health service providers working in HIV testing and counseling clinics were also provided with semistructured questionnaires in order to assess their view towards partner notification strategies for clients testing positive for HIV.Results: Fifteen newly diagnosed HIV-positive clients were counseled to provide referral slips to their partners. All clients agreed and took the referral card. However, only eight were willing and actually provided the card to their partners. Five of the eight partners of clients who tested HIV-positive and who were provided with referral cards responded to the referral and were tested for HIV. Three were positive and two were negative. Nine of 11 counselors did not agree to requesting partner locator information from HIV-positive clients for contractual referral and/or outreach assistance. The findings

  1. Síndromes disexecutivas do desenvolvimento e adquiridas na prática clínica: três relatos de caso Developmental and acquired dysexecutive syndromes in clinical practice: three case-reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Borges

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Síndromes disexecutivas podem ser observadas em diversas condições neuropsiquiátricas, como transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH, traumatismos cranioencefálicos (TCE ou esquizofrenia, frequentemente se associando à ampla gama de comprometimento, incluindo ambientes familiar, acadêmico e profissional. O objetivo do presente estudo é apresentar três casos de disfunções executivas, nos quais, embora todos os pacientes tenham QI dentro dos limites da normalidade, existe significativo comprometimento social e ocupacional. O primeiro caso apresenta uma jovem que sofreu TCE, com queixas de dificuldades de memória para material novo, além de apatia e diminuição de iniciativa e persistência. O segundo caso versa sobre uma mulher que apresenta problemas desde a educação infantil, com histórico de tratamentos ineficazes e nenhum diagnóstico formal. Segundo relato de informante colateral, há déficits de planejamento, comportamentos antissociais, aversão a gratificações tardias e dificuldades de ativação. O último caso refere-se a indivíduo do sexo masculino, avaliado depois de grave TCE após acidente de carro. Há relato de mudança de comportamento com desinibição, diminuição da persistência e desatenção, relatadas como mais graves do que as apresentadas durante a infância, apesar de desempenho normal em testes de funções executivas. A avaliação de disfunções executivas (do desenvolvimento ou adquiridas pode ser de extrema importância para servir como base de tratamento visando à diminuição de comprometimento nas atividades cotidianas.Dysexecutive syndromes are often observed in several neuropsychiatric conditions, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, traumatic brain injuries (TBI or schizophrenia, and usually associate with significant impairments, including familial, academic and professional areas. The present paper aims at presenting three cases of executive

  2. FLASH形式在中学生预防艾滋病教育活动中的作用%Effects of FLASH on health education of acquired immune deficiency syndrome in middle school students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩娟; 赵丽娜; 时俊新; 杨森焙; 宋阎超; 陈宏平

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨FLASH形式在预防艾滋病教育活动中的作用,了解中学生对预防艾滋病的相关知识和态度.方法:在湖北省大冶市和宜昌市秭归县的4所中学采用分层整群抽样的方法抽取在校学生共1 211人,用自制的中学生预防艾滋病生活技能教育的FLASH片进行专题教育,并对其教育前后的预防艾滋病相关知识、态度进行问卷调查.结果:调查对象对艾滋病流行趋势、艾滋病与青少年的关系以及对艾滋病主要传播途径认识,教育后正确回答率提高至80%以上,而对艾滋病的概念以及蚊虫叮咬、同性恋、纹身等认识提高不足80%.结论:中学生仍需加强预防艾滋病知识的教育,教育形式应多样化.FLASH形式生动活泼,教育效果显著,但因其稍纵即逝,会影响教育效果,可作为辅助教材.%Objective: To explore the effects of FLASH on health education of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), un-derstand the related knowledge and attitude to AIDS prevention in middle school students. Methods: 1 211 students were selected from 4 middle school by stratified cluster sampling, then health education of AIDS prevention was carried out in the form of self-designed FLASH,the related knowledge and attitude to AIDS prevention of middle school students before and after health education were observed. Results:The accuracy rates of prevailing trend of AIDS, the relationship between AIDS and adolescents, major spread approaches of AIDS after heslth education were increased to over 80%, but the others improved less than 80% such as the meaning of AIDS, mosquito and insect bite, ho-mesexuallty and tattoo and so on. Conclusion: The middle school students still need to strengthen AIDS preventive education which shouldbe multiple modes and be enjoyed by them. FLASH is a lifelike and brisk mode enjoyed by the students which education effect is marked,but it may be an assistant teaching material because it is easy to go in

  3. Germ-line GATA2 p.THR354MET mutation in familial myelodysplastic syndrome with acquired monosomy 7 and ASXL1 mutation demonstrating rapid onset and poor survival

    OpenAIRE

    Bödör, Csaba; Renneville, Aline; Smith, Matthew; Charazac, Aurélie; Iqbal, Sameena; Étancelin, Pascaline; Cavenagh, Jamie; Barnett, Michael J; Kramarzová, Karolina; Krishnan, Biju; Matolcsy, András; Preudhomme, Claude; Fitzgibbon, Jude; Owen, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    While most myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia cases are sporadic, rare familial cases occur and provide some insight into leukemogenesis. The most clearly defined familial cases result from inherited mutations in RUNX1 or CEBPA. Recently, novel germline mutations in GATA2 have been reported. We, therefore, investigated individuals from families with one or more first-degree relatives with myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia with wild-type RUNX1 and CEBPA, for GATA2 mu...

  4. Etiopathology of acquired cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabodh Karnik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiopathology of acquired cholesteatoma has undergone numerous changes over the past 150 years. However, certain facts stand out with clarity. The presence of cytokeratins in acquired cholesteatoma, which are akin to those found in the tympanic membrane and external auditory canal, shows that these are probably the site of origin of acquired cholesteatoma. The cholesteatoma sac also shows its greatest growth at its tympanic membrane attachment into the middle ear. Implantations of squamous epithelium due to trauma or surgery could be another originating factor. The basic pathology is the formation of papillary cones from the tympanic membrane or external auditory canal, which progress from microcholesteatoma to frank cholesteatoma with keratin collections. There is an altered matrix metalloproteinase pathway. Tumor necrosis factor activation with altered wound healing process contributes to the collateral destruction of bone. Trisomy and aneuploidy of chromosome 8 predispose to cholesteatoma formation in affected individuals. In this article, we present the etiopathology of acquired cholesteatoma as it stands today.

  5. "Ready to Acquire"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yetton, Philip; Henningsson, Stefan; Bjørn-Andersen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of Danisco (a global food ingredients company) as it followed a growth-by-acquisition business strategy, focusing on how a new CIO built the IT resources to ensure the IT organization was "ready to acquire." We illustrate how these IT capabilities expedited...

  6. Griscelli Syndrome: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    MANSOURI NEJAD, Seyed Ebrahim; Mohammad Javad YAZDAN PANAH; Tayyebi Meibodi, Naser; ASHRAFZADEH, Farah; Beiraghi Toosi, Mehran; Akhondian, Javad; ESLAMIEH, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Mansouri Nejad SE, Yazdan panah MJ, Tayyebi Meibodi N, Ashrafzadeh F, Akhondian J, BeiraghiToosi M, Eslamieh H. Griscelli Syndrome: A Case Report. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn;8(4): 72-75.ObjectiveGriscelli syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessive immune deficiency disorder that presents with pigmentary dilution of the skin and hair, recurrent skin and pulmonary infections, neurologic problems, hypogammaglobulinemia, and variable cellular immunodeficiency. Thr...

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus co-infection: epidemiology, natural history and the situation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ying; Matthew Robinson; ZHANG Fu-jie

    2009-01-01

    @@ Worldwide, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and humanimmunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemics poseserious threats to global health, currently infecting 130 million and 40 million people respectively. Of those infected with HIV, an estimated 4-12 million are co-infected with HCV. Due to shared risk factors for transmission, co-infection with HIV and HCV is common in China. Liver disease was the second leading cause of death behind acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in co-infected patients. Several studies have confirmed that HIV co-infection accelerates the clinical course of chronic HCV infection and leads to an increased risk of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and decompensated liver disease. While some studies have shown an increased risk of progression to AIDS andAIDS-related death among HIV-HCV positive persons, others found that HCV may not affect the clinical course of HIV infection. The current optimal therapeutic approach to HCV infection in HIV co-infected patients is peg-IFN plus ribavirin but further investigation is ongoing to improve outcomes.

  8. "Primary Immunodeficiencies Inducing EBV-Associated Severe Illnesses "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Miyawaki

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a ubiquitous human -herpesvirus that infects about 95% of the adult population. The majority of primary infections occurs in early childhood and is generally subclinical; it can cause infectious mononucleosis (IM, which is usually a self-limiting lymphoproliferative disorder. However, infection of EBV occasionally results in severe, often lethal diseases, which include fatal IM, hemophagocytic syndrome, polyclonal lymphoproliferative disorders, and malignant lymphoma. These severe EBV-related illnesses occur secondary to some primary immunodeficiency diseases showing inefficient immune reaction to EBV. One example is X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP, which is caused by mutations in the SLAM-associated protein (SAP gene. The major clinical manifestations of XLP are fulminant IM, malignant lymphoma and dysgammaglobulinemia. Aplastic anemia, virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome, and vasculitis have also been reported in XLP. We have developed a flow cytometric method using the anti-SAP monoclonal antibody to search for XLP. This clinically useful assay has successfully been used to identify XLP patients in Japan. In this review, clinical and mutational characteristics of XLP in Japan are mainly described. In addition, it is shown that the similar situations to XLP can occur in other primary immunodeficiencies involving T-cell killing function, such as autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome caused by Fas gene mutations or familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis caused by perforin gene mutations. Finally, the EBV-related terrible disease condition, namely chronic active EBV infection, which is common in Asian areas but its genetic background remains to be elucidated, will be toughed on.

  9. Lipodystrophy in human immunodeficiency virus patients impairs insulin action and induces defects in beta-cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ulrik B;

    2003-01-01

    The pathophysiology of insulin resistance in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) is not fully clarified. We investigated 18 men with HALS and 18 HIV-positive males without lipodystrophy (control subjects). Duration and modality of antiretroviral therapy were...

  10. Giardia infection: Protein-losing enteropathy in an adult with immunodeficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexandre Khodr Furtado; Virginia Lucia Ribeiro Cabral; Thiago Nunes Santos; Eli Mansour; Cristiane Kibune Nagasako; Sonia Leticia Lorena; Rogerio Antunes Pereira-Filho

    2012-01-01

    The case of a 52-year-old woman with a past history of thymoma resection who presented with chronic diarrhea and generalized edema is the focal point of this article.A diagnosis of Giardia lamblia infection was established,which was complicated by protein-losing enteropathy and severely low serum protein level in a patient with no urinary protein loss and normal liver function.After anti-helmintic treatment,there was recovery from hypoalbuminemia,though immunoglobulins persisted at low serum levels leading to the hypothesis of an immune system disorder.Good's syndrome is a rare cause of immunodeficiency characterized by the association of hypogammaglobulinemia and thymoma.This primary immune disorder may be complicated by severe infectious diarrhea secondary to disabled humoral and cellular immune response.This is the first description in the literature of an adult patient with an immunodeficiency syndrome who presented with protein-losing enteropathy secondary to giardiasis.

  11. Fangchinoline inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by interfering with gp160 proteolytic processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitao Wan

    Full Text Available The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy has led to a significant reduction in the morbidity and mortality of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. However, the emergence of drug resistance has resulted in the failure of treatments in large numbers of patients and thus necessitates the development of new classes of anti-HIV drugs. In this study, more than 200 plant-derived small-molecule compounds were evaluated in a cell-based HIV-1 antiviral screen, resulting in the identification of a novel HIV-1 inhibitor (fangchinoline. Fangchinoline, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Radix Stephaniae tetrandrae, exhibited antiviral activity against HIV-1 laboratory strains NL4-3, LAI and BaL in MT-4 and PM1 cells with a 50% effective concentration ranging from 0.8 to 1.7 µM. Mechanism-of-action studies showed that fangchinoline did not exhibit measurable antiviral activity in TZM-b1 cells but did inhibit the production of infectious virions in HIV-1 cDNA transfected 293T cells, which suggests that the compound targets a late event in infection cycle. Furthermore, the antiviral effect of fangchinoline seems to be HIV-1 envelope-dependent, as the production of infectious HIV-1 particles packaged with a heterologous envelope, the vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein, was unaffected by fangchinoline. Western blot analysis of HIV envelope proteins expressed in transfected 293T cells and in isolated virions showed that fangchinoline inhibited HIV-1 gp160 processing, resulting in reduced envelope glycoprotein incorporation into nascent virions. Collectively, our results demonstrate that fangchinoline inhibits HIV-1 replication by interfering with gp160 proteolytic processing. Fangchinoline may serve as a starting point for developing a new HIV-1 therapeutic approach.

  12. Acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pramod

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired hypertirichosis lanuginose developed rapidly in a patient with no detectable malignancy. Soft, fine, downy hair growth was noticed on the face, ears, limbs and trunk. Bilaterally symmetrical vitiliginous macules were present on the ear and preauricular region. This case is reported because of its rarity, absence of any detectable malignancy and development of vitiligo, which to our knowledge has not been reported earlier.

  13. Analysis of the pathology of lymph nodes in 151 acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients with superficial lymphadenectasis%浅表淋巴结肿大的151例艾滋病患者淋巴结病理学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢祥婵; 邓建宁; 黄爱春; 李雪琴; 牟敏红; 欧汝志; 黄磊; 赵敏

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨浅表淋巴结肿大的HIV/AIDS患者的淋巴结病理类型及其特点.方法 取浅表淋巴结肿大的151例HIV/AIDS患者的淋巴结组织进行病理学检查,通过HE、抗酸、过碘酸雪夫和淀粉酶消化后过碘酸雪夫染色,光学显微镜下观察,描述和分析其病理结果及其与CD4+T淋巴细胞计数的关系.数据行卡方检验.结果 在151例HIV/AIDS患者的淋巴结病理结果中,表现为良性病变的有145例,占96.0%,表现为恶性肿瘤的有6例,占4.0%,其中结核病72例,淋巴结反应性增生34例,淋巴真菌感染23例(其中青霉病19例),AIDS相关淋巴结病14例,非霍奇金淋巴瘤5例,良性纤维组织细胞病1例,结核伴发真菌感染1例,间叶性恶性肿瘤1例.在所有患者中,CD4+T淋巴细胞计数<100×106/L的有83例,占55.0%.青霉病随着CD4+T淋巴细胞计数的减少,发病率明显升高(x2=7.757,P=0.021).结论 HIV/AIDS患者浅表淋巴结肿大的原因大多数为感染性疾病,主要为结核病及真菌感染,且多数发生在CD4+T淋巴细胞计数低下的患者,最常见的恶性肿瘤为非霍奇金淋巴瘤.%Objective To investigate the pathological types and features of lymph nodes in human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS)patients with superficial lymphadenectasis.Methods The tissues of lymph nodes were obtained from 151 HIV/AIDS patients with superficial lymphadenectasis for pathological examination.The pathological results were observed by light microscope after Hematoxylin-Eosin(HE),acid-fast,periodic acid-Schiff (PAS),and digested-PAS(D-PAS)staining.The pathological results of lymph nodes were described and the correlation between pathological changes and CD4+T lymphocyte count was analyzed.Chisquare test was used for the statistic analysis.Results The benign lesions were found in 145 patients (96.0%),while the malignant tumors were found in 6 patients(4.0%).The pathological findings in the 151 HIV

  14. Study of genotypic resistance mutations of protease and reverse transcriptase in non-therapeutic acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients in Heiiongjiang Province%黑龙江省未经治疗的艾滋病患者蛋白酶和反转录酶基因型耐药性检测与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧; 王福祥; 周海舟; 马英骥

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the presence of drug resistant mutations of protease and reverse transcriptase among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 strains isolated from treatment naive HIV/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients in Heilongjiang Province of China and to provide the baseline data for starting antiretroviral therapy in this area. Methods The protease and reverse transcriptase gene sequences were amplified by nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then sequenced. The results were compared to the subtype B consensus amino acid sequence and analyzed with Stanford HIV-db drug resistance sequence interpretation. Results The results showed that HIV strains from 49 patients were classified as subtype B'. No primary mutations associated with protease inhibitor were detected. Some secondary mutations associated with protease inhibitor were detected, which included V77I(91.5%), L63P(76.6%), I93L(74.5%), E35D(61.7%), R57K (19.1%), R41K(10.6%), A71V(8.5%), M36I(8.5%), L10I(6.4%), D60E(6.4%), L89M (4.2%) and G16E(2. 1%). Only one case had a primary mutation M184I that was associated with resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors. However, many secondary mutations associated with resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors were found, including I135L/T/R/V(81.8%), V106I(22.7%), V179D/E(11.4%), R211K(9.1%), L214F(4.5%), V189I(4.5%) and V108I(2. 3%).Conclusions The prevalence of genotypic anti-HIV drug resistance is very low in treatment naive HIV/AIDS patients in Heilongjiang Province. However, closely monitoring on drug resistance mutation is very important for preventing the development and prevalence of multi-drug resistant or cross drug resistant HIV.%目的 对黑龙江省流行的HIV-1毒株的蛋白酶基因及反转录酶基因进行基因型耐药分析,为开展大规模临床抗病毒治疗提供本底数据.方法 采用套式-PCR法扩增黑龙江省内49例HIV-1感染者及AIDS患者外周血单个核细胞中前病毒cDNA的部分

  15. Torsade de pointes caused by polypharmacy and substance abuse in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus

    OpenAIRE

    Prosser, Jane M.; Mills, Angela; Rhim, Eugene S.; Perrone, Jeanmarie

    2008-01-01

    Drug-induced QT prolongation is a potentially dangerous adverse effect of some medication combinations. When QT prolongation progresses to torsade de pointes, life-threatening or fatal outcomes may result. A 57-year-old man with a history of human immunodeficiency syndrome on abacavir, nevirapine, tenofovir, voriconazole, and methadone presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of new-onset seizures. The physical exam was unremarkable. The electrocardiogram demonstrated sinu...

  16. Clinical characteristics and lung function in older children vertically infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Mwalukomo, Thandie; Rylance, Sarah; Webb, Emily; Anderson, Suzanne; O'Hare, Bernadette Ann-Marie; van Oosterhout, Joep J; Ferrand, Rashida A.; Corbett, Elizabeth L; Rylance, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    T. M. was funded by the Commonwealth scholarship, with research costs from a grant fom Helse Nord Northern Norway Regional Health Authority. E. L. C., R. A. F., and J. R. are supported by Wellcome Trust Fellowships (Senior Fellowship in Clinical Sciences WT091769, Career Development Fellowship WT095878 and Clinical PhD Fellowship 086756/B/08/Z, respectively). Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to increased survival of children with vertically acquired human immunodeficiency vi...

  17. Gender inequality and domestic violence: implications for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kaye, Dan K

    2004-01-01

    Domestic violence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are problems of great public health worldwide, especially sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing countries. This is due to their far reaching social, economic and public health consequences. The two problems have gender inequality and gender power imbalances as the driving force behind the “epidemics”. HIV infection is mainly acquired through heterosexual relations, which themselves are greatly influenced by socio-cultu...

  18. Strategies for B-cell receptor repertoire analysis in Primary Immunodeficiencies:From severe combined immunodeficiency to common variable immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna eIJspeert

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The antigen receptor repertoires of B and T cells form the basis of the adaptive immune response. The repertoires should be sufficiently diverse to recognize all possible pathogens. However, careful selection is needed to prevent responses to self or harmless antigens. Limited antigen receptor repertoire diversity leads to immunodeficiency, whereas unselected or misdirected repertoires can result in autoimmunity. The antigen receptor repertoire harbors information about abnormalities in many immunological disorders. Recent developments in next generation sequencing allow the analysis of the antigen receptor repertoire in much greater detail than ever before. Analyzing the antigen receptor repertoire in patients with mutations in genes responsible for the generation of the antigen receptor repertoire will give new insights into repertoire formation and selection. In this perspective we describe strategies and considerations for analysis of the naive and antigen selected B-cell repertoires in primary immunodeficiency (PID patients with a focus on severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID.

  19. 艾滋病合并机会性感染的临床特征和诊疗分析%Analysis on Clinical Features of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Combined with Opportunistic Infections and Its Diagnosis and Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵贺红; 冯萍; 肖贵宝; 徐开菊; 杨志勇

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨艾滋病患者合并机会性感染的临床特征并评价其治疗效果.方法 回顾分析2003年-2009年53例确诊为艾滋病患者的临床资料,对患者合并机会性感染的临床特征,包括发生机会性感染的时间、发生机会性感染时CD+T细胞计数、起病急缓、严重程度等,进行观察和分析,并给予国家推荐的标准治疗方案进行治疗,通过临床症状、病毒载量、CD+T细胞计数、影像学监测进行疗效分析,随访时间为初治至出院后6年.结果 53例艾滋病患者均为重症感染,41例为混合感染,其中2个以上部位感染者为36例(67.9%),2种以上病原体感染者为28例(52.8%),3种以上病原体感染者13例(24.5%).最常见的机会性感染为结核35.8%(19/53);其次为卡氏肺孢子菌肺炎30.2%(16/53);败血症20.8%(11/53),此外,尚有隐球菌感染15.1%(8/53)、弓形虫感染3.8%(2/53)、带状疱疹病毒感染7.5%(4/53)、念珠菌感染17.0%(9/53)、巨细胞病毒感染7.5%(4/53)、合并乙肝11.3%(6/53)、丙肝3.8%(2/53).机会性感染治疗有效率为77.4%(41/53),病死率为22.6%(12/53),其中隐球菌脑膜炎或混合感染者病死率最高.结论艾滋病患者在CD+T细胞计数<350/mm3时各种机会感染明显升高,且随着CD+4T细胞计数的下降呈增高趋势,艾滋病合并机会性感染最常见的是结核,其次卡氏肺孢子菌肺炎;合并结核的治疗效果较好,合并隐球菌脑病的病死率最高.早期启动高效抗逆转录病毒治疗效果好.%Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) combined with opportunistic infections and its treatment. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 53 patients diagnosed to have AIDS in our hospital between 2003 and 2009. The clinical features (such as time of the onset of opportunistic infections, CD4+ T cells value at the onset, severity of the infection, etc

  20. Acquired epidermolysis bullosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricel Sucar Batista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa is a group of diseases or skin disorders genetically transmitted and it is characterized by the appearance of bullae, ulcers and skin wounds. It usually appears at birth or in the first months of life. This is a case of a 72-year-old female patient who comes to the dermatology department with skin lesions of 6 months of evolution. A skin biopsy was performed, taking a sample for direct and indirect immunofluorescence. Acquired epidermolysis bullosa of unknown etiology was diagnosed. Treatment was started with low-dose colchicine to increase it later, according to the patient’s tolerance and disease progression.

  1. Clinical and Immunological Features of Common Variable Immunodeficiency in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian-Jun Lin; Yu-Chuan Wang; Xin-Min Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background:Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is one of the most common symptomatic primary immunodeficiency syndromes.The purpose of this article was to broaden our knowledge about CVID for better diagnosis and treatment.Methods:Clinical and immunological features of 40 Chinese patients with CVID were analyzed retrospectively.Results:The median age at onset was 11-year-old (range 4-51 years).The median age at diagnosis was 14.5-year-old (range 5-66 years).The average time of delay in diagnosis was 5.3 years (range 1-41 years).The most common main complaint was fever due to infections (35 cases,87.5%).Pneumonia (28 cases,70%) was the most common type of infections.Bronchiectasis was present in 6 patients (15%).Autoimmune disease was detected in 6 cases of CVID,and malignancy in 2 cases.The median total serum levels of IgG,IgA,and IgM at diagnosis were 1.07 g/L,0.07 g/L,and 0.28 g/L,respectively.The percentages ofCD3/CD19+ B-cells were 1%-3.14%.Conclusions:Infection is the most frequent presentation of CVID.Patients with unexplainable infections should receive further examination including serum immunoglobulin (Ig) and lymphocyte subset analysis.Regular and sufficient substitution with Ig is recommended.

  2. Cellular Restriction Factors of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Carsten Münk; Jörg Zielonka

    2011-01-01

    Lentiviruses are known for their narrow cell- and species-tropisms, which are determined by cellular proteins whose absence or presence either support viral replication (dependency factors, cofactors) or inhibit viral replication (restriction factors). Similar to Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the cat lentivirus Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is sensitive to recently discovered cellular restriction factors from non-host species that are able to stop viruses from replicating...

  3. Acquired plate-like osteoma cutis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashi, Neelam; Chu, Julie; Patel, Rishi

    2011-10-15

    Plate-like osteoma cutis is a rare disorder that has been historically classified as a congenital syndrome. It has a possible relationship to a mutation in the gene (GNAS1) that encodes the α-subunit of the stimulatory G protein, which regulates adenyl cyclase activity. We report a case of extensive plaque-like masses on the scalp and face with no abnormalities in calcium or phosphate metabolism and no preceding inflammatory cutaneous conditions. With less than ten reported cases, to our knowledge, this is one the few cases of acquired plate-like osteoma cutis described in the literature.

  4. History of Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Moin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric immunology came into sight in the second half of 20th century, when pediatricians and basic immunologists began to give attention to diagnosis and treatment of children with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs. Understanding the genetic and mechanistic basis of PIDs provides unique insight into the functioning of the immune system. By progress in basic and clinical immunology, many infrastructural organizations and academic centers have been established in many countries worldwide to focus on training and research on the immune system and related disorders. Along with progress in basic and clinical immunology in the world, pediatric immunology had a good progress in Iran during the last 33-year period. Now, patients with PIDs can benefit from multidisciplinary comprehensive care, which is provided by clinical immunologists in collaboration with other specialists. Patients with history of recurrent and/or chronic infections suggestive of PIDs are evaluated by standard and research-based testing and receive appropriate treatment. The progress in PIDs can be described in three periods. Development of training program for clinical fellowship in allergy and immunology, multidisciplinary and international collaborative projects, primary immunodeficiency diseases textbooks, meetings on immunodeficiency disorders, improvement in diagnosis and treatment, and construction of Iranian primary immunodeficiency association, Students research group for immunodeficiencies, Iranian primary immunodeficiency registry, and the immunological societies and centers were the main activities on PIDs during these years. In this article, we review the growth of modern pediatric immunology and PIDs status in Iran.

  5. Time to initial antibiotic administration, and short-term mortality among patients admitted with community-acquired severe infections with and without the presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Laursen, Christian B; Hallas, Jesper;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prognosis for patients with severe infection is related to early treatment, including early administration of antibiotics. The study aim was to compare the short-term mortality among patients admitted with severe infection with and without systemic inflammatory response syndrome...... Medicine (ACCP/SCCM) definitions. Cases were identified by manual chart review using predefined criteria of infection. Data on vital signs, laboratory values and antibiotic treatment were obtained electronically. RESULTS: We included 1169 patients with infection and organ dysfunction, treated...

  6. Acquired Blaschkoid dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired Blaschkoid dermatitis characterised by unilateral relapsing inflammatory disease along the lines of Blaschko. A 40-year-old Indian male presented with unilateral erythematous, itchy grouped papules on the left side of the chest, abdomen, back and left arm of 15 days duration. The eruption stopped abruptly at the midline of the torso, completely sparing the right side of the body. The lesions were arranged in whorls and streaks corresponding to the lines of Blaschko. Skin biopsy showed hyperkeratosis and features suggestive of sub-acute spongiotic dermatitis with lymphocytic infiltrate around the blood vessels in the dermis. Patient was diagnosed as a case of Blaschkoid dermatitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of this condition being reported from India.

  7. "Human immunodeficiency virus serostatus disclosure-Rate, reactions, and discrimination": A cross-sectional study at a rural tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh S Joge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: From the moment scientists identified Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS, social responses of fear, denial, stigma, and discrimination have accompanied the epidemic. Aims: To assess the rate of disclosure of HIV serostatus, reactions by the HIV/AIDS patients and their spouse, and discrimination faced by the patients. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted at Antiretroviral Therapy (ART center of a rural tertiary care hospital, situated in Marathawada region of Maharashtra state from November 2008 to October 2010. Totally, 801 HIV-positive patients coming to ART center for treatment were included after ensuring confidentiality and taking informed consent. A preformed questionnaire was used to enquire about reaction after diagnosis, disclosure, and discrimination faced by the patients. The data analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test. Results: The most common immediate reaction by the HIV patients after getting diagnosed as seropositive was fear (593, 74.03% followed by depression (385, 48.06% and suicidal thoughts (98, 12.25%. Out of 801 patients, 769 (96% had spouse and of these maximum number of patients (653, 84.92% had disclosed HIV status to their spouses. Most common immediate reaction by spouse after disclosure was crime (324, 42.13% followed by horror (294, 38.23% and anger (237, 36.29%. Maximum number of patients were discriminated by friends (120, 71.01% followed by discrimination at workplace (49, 67.12%, by neighbors (32, 56.14%, and by relatives (53, 43.80%. Conclusion: Male positives were granted greater acceptance, care, and support by their spouses. More percentage of females discriminated by neighbors, relatives, and friends and at workplace which might be due to factors like customs, morals, and taboos.

  8. Socio-demographic characteristics of adults screened for human immunodeficiency virus infection in Ahoada-East local government area in the Niger Delta of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azuonwu Obi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, the pathogen responsible for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the most significant emerging infectious disease is causing health, social, and developmental problems to mankind. Aims, Setting and Design: This is a cross-sectional study to evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics of adults screened for HIV infection in Ahoada Community in Rivers State in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Materials and Methods: HIV antibodies were detected using "Determine" (Abbott Laboratories, Japan, Start-Pak (Chembio Diagnostics, USA and SD Bioline HIV-1/2 kits (Standard Diagnostics, Korea. All test procedures were carried out according to the manufacturers′ instructions. Subjects included 152 consecutively recruited adults consisting of 955 females and 566 males aged 18-54 years with a mean age of 36.25΁7.02 years. Statistical Analysis: Data were entered and analyzed using statistical package SPSS version 9. A P-value ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant in all statistical comparisms. Results and Conclusion: Out of a total of 1521 persons screened for HIV infection, 162 persons tested positive for HIV (10.6%. HIV infection was higher among females (10.9% compared to males (10.1% and in the 25-34 and 45-60 years age groups (11.1% (P= 0.08. HIV-1 was the predominant subtype (74% compared to 26% for dual HIV-1 and 2. This study indicates the urgent need for both government and non-governmental organizations to intensify awareness campaign programme to reduce the spread of the HIV infection in the area with emphasis on behavioral change and economic empowerment of the people as well as provision of universal access to antiretroviral therapy for those with HIV infection.

  9. Learning-By-Being-Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo G.; Moreira, Solon; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    In this paper we study post-acquisition integration in terms of R&D team reorganization—i.e., the creation of new teams with both inventors of the acquiring and acquired firms—and assess its impact on knowledge transfer in the period that follows the acquisition. Drawing on social identity and self......-categorization theories, we argue that R&D team reorganization increases the acquired inventors’ use of the prior stock of technological knowledge of the acquiring firm after the acquisition. Furthermore, this effect is enhanced if acquired inventors have higher innovation ability relative to their acquiring peers...... but is weakened for acquired inventors with high preacquisition ingroup collaborative strength. We construct a sample of 3,625 acquired inventors implementing the coarsened exact matching (CEM) technique and empirically test our arguments applying a difference-in-differences setup in a longitudinal data setting...

  10. Clinicopathological associations of acquired erythroblastopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Gursel; Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Yasar, Hatime Arzu; Eliacik, Eylem; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin; Demiroglu, Haluk; Sayinalp, Nilgun; Aksu, Salih; Etgul, Sezgin; Aslan, Tuncay; Goker, Hakan; Ozcebe, Osman Ilhami; Buyukasik, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acquired erythroblastopenia (AE) is a rare clinical situation. It is characterized by the reduction of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow together with the low reticulocyte counts in the peripheral blood. Background: Main secondary causes of AE are drugs, Parvovirus B19 and other infectious reasons, lymphoid and myeloid neoplasia, autoimmune diseases, thymoma and pregnancy. The aim of this study is to assess the frequencies and clinical associations of AE via analyzing 12340 bone marrow samples in a retrospective manner. Material and method: Bone marrow aspirations which were obtained from patients who applied to Hacettepe University Hematology Clinic between 2002 and 2013, were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Thirty four erythroblastopenia cases were found. Patients ranged in age from 16 to 80 years with a median of 38 years. Fifteen patients were men (44%) and nineteen were women (56%). In these patients, detected causes of erythroblastopenia were MDS, idiopathic pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), parvovirus infection, post chemotherapy aplasia, plasma proliferative diseases, copper deficiency due to secondary amyloidosis, fever of unknown origin, hemophagocytic syndrome, enteric fever and legionella pneumonia. We found that between those reasons the most common causes of erythroblastopenia are MDS (17.7%) and idiopathic PRCA (17.7%). Discussion: As a result, erythroblastopenia in the bone marrow may be an early sign of MDS. In those AE cases possibility of being MDS must be kept in mind as it can be mistaken for PRCA. Conclusion: To conclude, in adults MDS without excess blast is one of the most common causes of erythroblastopenia in clinical practice and in case of erythroblastopenia the presence of MDS should be investigated. PMID:26885236

  11. Guidelines for prevention of hospital acquired infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatin Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available These guidelines, written for clinicians, contains evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of hospital acquired infections Hospital acquired infections are a major cause of mortality and morbidity and provide challenge to clinicians. Measures of infection control include identifying patients at risk of nosocomial infections, observing hand hygiene, following standard precautions to reduce transmission and strategies to reduce VAP, CR-BSI, CAUTI. Environmental factors and architectural lay out also need to be emphasized upon. Infection prevention in special subsets of patients - burns patients, include identifying sources of organism, identification of organisms, isolation if required, antibiotic prophylaxis to be used selectively, early removal of necrotic tissue, prevention of tetanus, early nutrition and surveillance. Immunodeficient and Transplant recipients are at a higher risk of opportunistic infections. The post tranplant timetable is divided into three time periods for determining risk of infections. Room ventilation, cleaning and decontamination, protective clothing with care regarding food requires special consideration. Monitoring and Surveillance are prioritized depending upon the needs. Designated infection control teams should supervise the process and help in collection and compilation of data. Antibiotic Stewardship Recommendations include constituting a team, close coordination between teams, audit, formulary restriction, de-escalation, optimizing dosing, active use of information technology among other measure. The recommendations in these guidelines are intended to support, and not replace, good clinical judgment. The recommendations are rated by a letter that indicates the strength of the recommendation and a Roman numeral that indicates the quality of evidence supporting the recommendation, so that readers can ascertain how best to apply the recommendations in their practice environments.

  12. Epidemiological Characteristics of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome in Zhoukou, He′nan Province From 1995 to 2014%1995-2014年河南省周口市 AIDS 流行特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张林

    2015-01-01

    势=1419.0, P<0.01),配偶/固定性伴传播占当年累计报告病例的构成比呈下降趋势(χ2趋势=43.6, P<0.01)。男男同性传播自2007年报告首例后,其占当年累计报告病例的构成比呈上升趋势(χ2趋势=132.1, P<0.01)。结论周口市AIDS疫情近年有所抬头,分布范围广,呈聚集性分布。临床相关检测是HIV感染和AIDS患者的重要来源之一,感染途径已由经血传播向性传播转变,非婚异性传播和男男同性传播上升趋势明显,阻断性传播是当前控制AIDS疫情的重要任务。%Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Zhoukou and to provide scientific evidence for the formulation of prevention and control strategies .Methods We collected the data of HIV-infected patients and AIDS patients in Zhoukou from the Information System for AIDS Prevention and Control of China′s Information System for Disease Prevention and Control , with a time range of 1995 to 2014.Results From 1995 to 2014, the total reported number of HIV -infected people and AIDS patients in Zhoukou was 9 187, among which 8 215 (89.42%) were AIDS patents and 3 254 (35.42%) died.After the exclusion of deceased patients , there were 5 933 HIV-infected patients and AIDS patients surviving , accounted for 67.37/105 in all permanent residents of Zhoukou and of which 5 164 were AIDS patients.From 1995 to 2003, with the HIV/AIDS monitoring strengthened , the detected HIV -infected and AIDS patients had been increasing year by year; 2004 witnessed more reported cases than other years , for HIV census was carried out on FPDs this year; from 2005 to 2012, the number of reported cases was in a decreasing trend; from 2013 to 2014, the disease showed a slight rebound .From 2006, death cases began to decrease year by year .HIV-infected patients and AIDS patients of Zhoukou distributed in 204 villages or towns in 10 districts or

  13. 1995-2014年河南省周口市 AIDS 流行特征分析%Epidemiological Characteristics of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome in Zhoukou, He′nan Province From 1995 to 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张林

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Zhoukou and to provide scientific evidence for the formulation of prevention and control strategies .Methods We collected the data of HIV-infected patients and AIDS patients in Zhoukou from the Information System for AIDS Prevention and Control of China′s Information System for Disease Prevention and Control , with a time range of 1995 to 2014.Results From 1995 to 2014, the total reported number of HIV -infected people and AIDS patients in Zhoukou was 9 187, among which 8 215 (89.42%) were AIDS patents and 3 254 (35.42%) died.After the exclusion of deceased patients , there were 5 933 HIV-infected patients and AIDS patients surviving , accounted for 67.37/105 in all permanent residents of Zhoukou and of which 5 164 were AIDS patients.From 1995 to 2003, with the HIV/AIDS monitoring strengthened , the detected HIV -infected and AIDS patients had been increasing year by year; 2004 witnessed more reported cases than other years , for HIV census was carried out on FPDs this year; from 2005 to 2012, the number of reported cases was in a decreasing trend; from 2013 to 2014, the disease showed a slight rebound .From 2006, death cases began to decrease year by year .HIV-infected patients and AIDS patients of Zhoukou distributed in 204 villages or towns in 10 districts or counties, and significant differences (χ2 =1 181.0, P<0.01) existed among the 10 counties or districts in the proportion of surviving cases in permanent residents .There were five first-class AIDS counties and five second -class AIDS counties.Among HIV-infected patients and AIDS patients , the number of male patients was more than female patients , with a ratio of 1.23∶1; the patients were aged from 2 to 82, with a majority ranging from 30 to 60, accounting for 83.37% (7 659/9 187).Ratio of survival cases in permanent residents varied significantly among the groups of different genders, ages

  14. Intercontrole acquiring by Framatome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Framatome group, as the worldwide leader in nuclear power plant construction, has reinforced his competences in nuclear services thanks to the acquiring of the Intercontrole company, specialized in non-destructive testing in nuclear and industrial environments. After a presentation of the functioning principle and of the safety aspects of a PWR reactor, this press dossier presents in a first part the role of nuclear services and in particular of non-destructive testing in nuclear power plants (in-service inspection, regulatory aspects, testing processes). This part is illustrated with some examples of inspection performed on some components of the primary coolant loop (steam generators, reactor vessel, pressurizer, pipes, primary pumps). A second part presents the technical centres and units of Framatome in charge of performing non-destructive inspections, while a third part describes the industrial policy and strategy of the group in this domain (market of nuclear park maintenance in France, in the USA and worldwide, creation of the 'inspection and control' centre of Framatome). A last part presents the activities of the Intercontrole company and of its daughter companies with some examples of actions realized in the nuclear and natural gas domains. (J.S.)

  15. Heterosexually acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection in women in Copenhagen: sexual behavior and other risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, E; Kroon, S; Gerstoft, J;

    1990-01-01

    In order to describe the risk pattern including sexual behaviour among HIV-infected women in Copenhagen we studied the charts of all women tested seropositive between January 1985 and August 1988 in the three main hospitals handling HIV/AIDS. One hundred and fifteen women were positive for HIV an...

  16. Early Treatment Benefits Infants with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 31, 2014 Early treatment benefits infants with severe combined immunodeficiency NIH-funded study identifies factors contributing to ... a highly effective treatment for infants with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a group of rare, life-threatening ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions X-linked SCID X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Open All Close All Description X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is an inherited disorder of the ...

  18. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  19. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images

  20. Preliminary support for the construct of health care empowerment in the context of treatment for human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevelius JM

    2012-05-01

    no association observed between HCE and HIV viral load and CD4+ cell count, there were significant positive associations of HCE scores with likelihood of reporting a recent primary care visit, greater treatment adherence self-efficacy, and higher adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Hypothesized antecedents of HCE included higher beliefs in the necessity of treatment and positive provider relationships.Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, health care empowerment, adherence, compliance

  1. Effect of Probiotic Bacteria on Microbial Host Defense, Growth, and Immune Function in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Bengmark

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that probiotic administration protects the gut surface and could delay progression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type1 (HIV-1 infection to the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS was proposed in 1995. Over the last five years, new studies have clarified the significance of HIV-1 infection of the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT for subsequent alterations in the microflora and breakdown of the gut mucosal barrier leading to pathogenesis and development of AIDS. Current studies show that loss of gut CD4+ Th17 cells, which differentiate in response to normal microflora, occurs early in HIV-1 disease. Microbial translocation and suppression of the T regulatory (Treg cell response is associated with chronic immune activation and inflammation. Combinations of probiotic bacteria which upregulate Treg activation have shown promise in suppressing pro inflammatory immune response in models of autoimmunity including inflammatory bowel disease and provide a rationale for use of probiotics in HIV-1/AIDS. Disturbance of the microbiota early in HIV-1 infection leads to greater dominance of potential pathogens, reducing levels of bifidobacteria and lactobacillus species and increasing mucosal inflammation. The interaction of chronic or recurrent infections, and immune activation contributes to nutritional deficiencies that have lasting consequences especially in the HIV-1 infected child. While effective anti-retroviral therapy (ART has enhanced survival, wasting is still an independent predictor of survival and a major presenting symptom. Congenital exposure to HIV-1 is a risk factor for growth delay in both infected and non-infected infants. Nutritional intervention after 6 months of age appears to be largely ineffective. A meta analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials of infant formulae supplemented with Bifidobacterium lactis showed that weight gain was significantly greater in infants who received B. lactis compared to

  2. Laugier-Hunziker syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ramakant S; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S; Hosmani, Jagadish V

    2012-05-01

    Laugier-Hunziker syndrome is a rare acquired disorder characterized by diffuse hyperpigmentation of the oral mucosa and longitudinal melanonychia in adults. They appear as macular lesions less than 5 mm in diameter. Laugier-Hunziker syndrome is considered to be a benign disease with no systemic manifestation or malignant potential. Therefore, it is important to rule out other mucocutaneous pigmentary disorders that do require medical management. Prompt clinical recognition also averts the need for excessive and invasive procedures and treatments. In India, the reported cases of this syndrome are very few. We provide a review of literature on Laugier-Hunziker syndrome with its differential diagnosis.

  3. The Italian Network of Primary Immunodeficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessro Plebani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary immunodeficiencies are rare diseases, characterized by an increased susceptibility to infections. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are critical for reducing morbidity and mortality. Given the rarity of these diseases, the awareness of these disorders by physicians is often insufficient, leading to delayed diagnosis and inappropriate treatment which are the major causes of severe long term complications. In an attempt to address and resolve these problems an Italian Network on primary immunodeficiencies has been established with the aim to increase the awareness of these disorders among physicians and to provide the best clinical assistance to all patients on the national territory.

  4. Pulmonary Manifestations of Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos eJesenak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary immunodeficiencies (PID are inherited disorders which one or several components of immune system are decreased or missing or of non-appropriate function. These diseases affect the development, function or morphology of the immune system. The group of primary immunodeficiencies comprises more than 200 different disorders and syndromes and the number of newly recognized and revealed deficiencies is still increasing. Their clinical presentation and complications depends on the type of defects and there is a great variability in the relationship between genotypes and phenotypes. A variation of clinical presentation across various age categories is also presented and children could widely differ from adult patients with PID. Respiratory symptoms and complications present a significant cause of morbidity and also mortality amongst patients suffering from different forms of PIDs and they are observed both in children and adults. They can affect primarily either upper airways (e.g. sinusitis, otitis media or lower respiratory tract (e.g. pneumonia, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, interstitial lung diseases. The complications from lower respiratory tract are usually considered to be more important and also more specific for PIDs and they determinate patients’ prognosis. The spectrum of the causal pathogens usually demonstrates typical pattern characteristic for each PID category. The respiratory signs of PIDs can be divided into infectious (upper and lower respiratory tract infections and complications and non-infectious (interstitial lung diseases, bronchial abnormalities – especially bronchiectasis, malignancies, benign lymphoproliferation. Early diagnosis and appropriate therapy can prevent or at least slow down the development and course of respiratory complications of PIDs.

  5. Translocations (5;17) and (7;17) in patients with de novo or therapy-related myelodysplastic syndromes or acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. A possible association with acquired pseudo-Pelger-Hut anomaly and small vacuolated granulocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve patients [two with de novo myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), four with secondary MDS, five with de novo acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL), one with secondary ANLL] showed a 17p deletion resulting from translocations involving 17p: t(5;17)(p11;p11) in four cases, t(7;17)(p11;p11) in six cases, complex (5;17)(q23;p12) translocation with dicentric chromosome in one case, and t(17;?)(p11-12;?) in the remaining patient. All these structural anomalies were observed in hypodiploid clones associated with total or partial monosomy of chromosomes 5 and 7 (12 cases), monosomy 12 (five cases), monosomy 3 (four cases), and monosomy 4 (three cases). Median survival was only 3.3 months (range 3 days to 8 months). Striking features were observed in bone marrow mature granulocytes: all but one case had a pseudo-Pelger-Hut anomaly in a significant number of granulocytes, and eight patients had granulocytes with reduced size and clear cytoplasmic vacuoles. Careful cytological review of 51 patients with MDS or ANLL and various cytogenetic anomalies was performed for comparison: vacuolated granulocytes were a very uncommon finding. On the other hand, eight patients had a pseudo-Pelger-Hut anomaly, which correlated significantly with total monosomy 17 in these patients. A possible correlation between cytological anomalies and cytogenetic data is discussed, and the role of 17p in the nuclear segmentation of granulocytes is stressed

  6. Anemia and survival in human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Mocroft, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    The prospective, multicenter cohort study EuroSIDA has previously reported on predictors and outcomes of anemia in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. In a Cox proportional-hazards model with serial measures of CD4+ cell count, plasma viral load, and degrees of anemia fitted...

  7. The Prevalence of Different Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission Routes and Knowledge about AIDS in Infected People with HIV in Sirjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Behzadpour

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The immune system of Patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS is weekend because of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, and they become vulnerable to several opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens and different carcinomas. IV drug abuse, sexual contact, occupational transmission, blood transfusion and maternal-fetal transmission are well known transmission routes for HIV infection. This study was under taken to investigate the prevalence of HIV transmission routs in the HIV infected population of Sirjan, and their knowledge about the disease, in order to plan better preventive strategies. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was planned. During a 6-month period in 2010, all of the HIV infected people in Sirjan (old and new cases who had a file at the consultation center for high risk behavior, completed a valid and reliable questionnaire. Results: The definite route of transmission was not clear in any of the patients because they had more than one suspicious route. Injected drug abusers were the most common (88.4% followed by those who got tattoos (79.1%, invasive therapeutic procedures, dentistry, surgery and endoscopy (56.1%, high risk sexual behavior (62.8%, bloodletting (9.3%, injuries in the barbershop (9.3% and blood transfusion (2.3%. Conclusion: All of the HIV infected cases in Sirjan were involved with several high risk behaviors, but the major route of transmission, similar to other parts of the country was injected drug abuse. Educational programs for prevention of AIDS should be followed seriously and special attention should be paid to groups with multiple high risk behaviors.

  8. Change in Body Compositions in Female Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-related Lipodystrophy Syndrome%女性人类免疫缺陷病毒相关脂肪营养不良综合征患者体成分变化特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚金朋; 余卫; 李太生; 罗玲; 林强; 田均平; 畅银娟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the changes of body composition in females patients with human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV)-related lipodystrophy (LD) syndrome (HIV-LD). Methods Totally 25 female patients who were treated in our hospital from January 2002 to December 2009 were divided into LD group and non-LD group based on the existence of LD. All these patients were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy ( HAART). In addition, 12 healthy women were set as the controls. Total and regional body composition were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry in all three groups. Results The fat mass ( FM) was correlated negatively with the duration of HAART (r = -0. 431, P =0. 029). Multiple linear regression analysis showed thatFM had positive correlation with weight and negative correlation with lean mass ( LM ) ( r = - 0. 973 , P = 0. 000). Total, trunk and leg FM were significantly lower in ID patients than that in controls (P 0. 05). Conclusions The peripheral and central FM and bone mineral contents remarkably decrease in female patients with HIV-LD. However, HIV-LD patients tend to have higher LM than non-LD patients.%目的 分析女性人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)感染相关脂肪营养不良(LD)综合征患者体成分变化特点.方法 选取2002年1月至2009年12月在我院接受高效抗逆转录病毒治疗的成年女性HIV感染患者25例,根据临床是否出现脂肪营养障碍将患者分为LD组与非LD组.12例健康体检者为对照组.行双能X线骨密度测量仪测量并分析LD组、非LD组及对照组体成分的变化.结果 25例HIV感染患者的全身脂肪量与高效抗逆转录病毒治疗时间呈负相关(r= -0.431,P=0.029).脂肪量与体重和肌量有线性回归关系,其中与肌量呈负相关(r= -0.973,P=0.000).除上肢外,LD组全身和局部脂肪量均显著低于对照组(P<0.05).除上肢外,全身和局部骨矿量在LD组和对照组间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),且腰椎骨密度在两组间

  9. [Differential diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and community-acquired pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deĭkina, O N; Mishin, V Iu; Demikhova, O V

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to enhance the efficiency of differential diagnosis of pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis. A hundred and fifty-nine adult patients were examined. These included 78 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 81 with community-acquired p neumonia. The clinical features of infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 48) and mild community-acquired pneumonia (n = 51) were compared. The course of caseous pneumonia (n = 30) was compared with that of moderate and severe community-acquired pneumonia (n = 30). Significant differences in the manifestations of the intoxication and bronchopulmonary syndrome were not found in patients with community-acquired pneumonia and infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Physical studies showed that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, moist rale (54.9%) and crepitation (11.8%) were prevalent, but in those with infiltrative tuberculosis rale was absent in 60.4% of cases and the pattern of respiration was unchanged in 79.2%. Chest X-ray studies indicated that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, lower lobar inflammatory changes were predominant in 62.8% of cases whereas in those with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis the process was mainly bilateral (43.8%) with the presence of destructive changes (83.3%) and bronchogenic dissemination (66.7%). In patients with caseous pneumonia, the intoxication syndrome was more significant than in those with severe community-acquired pneumonia. Chest X-ray studies demonstrated that in patients with caseous pneumonia, specific changes were bilateral with the involvement of 2 lobes or more, with destruction and bronchogenic dissemination while in those with community-acquired pneumonia, the pulmonary processes were predominantly bilateral (76.6%) at the lower lobar site (36.7%).

  10. [Differential diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and community-acquired pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deĭkina, O N; Mishin, V Iu; Demikhova, O V

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to enhance the efficiency of differential diagnosis of pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis. A hundred and fifty-nine adult patients were examined. These included 78 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 81 with community-acquired p neumonia. The clinical features of infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 48) and mild community-acquired pneumonia (n = 51) were compared. The course of caseous pneumonia (n = 30) was compared with that of moderate and severe community-acquired pneumonia (n = 30). Significant differences in the manifestations of the intoxication and bronchopulmonary syndrome were not found in patients with community-acquired pneumonia and infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Physical studies showed that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, moist rale (54.9%) and crepitation (11.8%) were prevalent, but in those with infiltrative tuberculosis rale was absent in 60.4% of cases and the pattern of respiration was unchanged in 79.2%. Chest X-ray studies indicated that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, lower lobar inflammatory changes were predominant in 62.8% of cases whereas in those with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis the process was mainly bilateral (43.8%) with the presence of destructive changes (83.3%) and bronchogenic dissemination (66.7%). In patients with caseous pneumonia, the intoxication syndrome was more significant than in those with severe community-acquired pneumonia. Chest X-ray studies demonstrated that in patients with caseous pneumonia, specific changes were bilateral with the involvement of 2 lobes or more, with destruction and bronchogenic dissemination while in those with community-acquired pneumonia, the pulmonary processes were predominantly bilateral (76.6%) at the lower lobar site (36.7%). PMID:17338353

  11. Detecção do provírus da Imunodeficiência Felina em gatos domésticos pela técnica de Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Detection of feline immunodeficiency provirus in domestic cats by polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ferrary Caldas

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A infecção de gatos domésticos pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina (FIV é um dos modelos mais promissores para o estudo da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV que causa a Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida (AIDS. O FIV causa, em gatos, uma enfermidade similar àquela observada em pacientes com AIDS, sobretudo no que diz respeito ao aumento da susceptibilidade a infecções oportunistas. No presente estudo, utilizou-se a Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR, com o objetivo de detectar o provírus do FIV em gatos com sinais clínicos de imunodeficiência. O fragmento de DNA escolhido como alvo para amplificação situa-se no gene gag do lentivírus felino, o qual é conservado entre as diferentes amostras do vírus. O DNA utilizado foi extraído a partir de amostras de sangue e de tecidos de animais com suspeita clínica de imunodeficiência. Das 40 amostras analisadas, 15 foram positivas, das quais 4 foram submetidas à hibridização, confirmando a especificidade dos fragmentos amplificados. Esses resultados demonstram a presença do FIV na população de gatos domésticos do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV infection of domestic cats is one of the most promising animal models for the infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Infected cats may develop a disease similar to that observed in AIDS patients, with increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. In this study we used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect proviral DNA of feline immunodeficiency virus on the blood and tissue samples from cats with a clinical diagnosis of immunodeficiency. The PCR primers were used to amplify the gag gene, which is conserved among different isolates. From 40 samples analyzed, 15 were positive and 4 of them were submitted to hybridization to confirm the specificity of the amplified fragments. These results confirm the

  12. A rare complication of Ramsey Hunt Syndrome: Sınus vein thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiz Ahmedov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ramsay-Hunt Syndrome (RHS is a rare affection characterized by peripheral facial paralysis (PFP, skin eruption in the auricular canal and cochleovestibular symptoms. It is produced by varicella-zoster virus(VZV reactivation at the geniculate ganglia. In elderly and immunocompromised individuals, the virus may reactivate to produce shingles (zoster. After zoster resolves, many elderly patients experience postherpetic neuralgia. Uncommonly, VZV can spread to large cerebral arteries to cause a spectrum of large-vessel vascular damage, ranging from vasculopathy to vasculitis, with stroke. In immunocompromised individuals, especially those with cancer or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, deeper tissue penetration of the virus may occur (as compared with immunocompetent individuals, with resultant myelitis, small-vessel vasculopathy, ventriculitis, and meningoencephalitis. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis of cerebrospinal fluid remains the mainstay for diagnosing the neurologic complications of VZV during life. We report a case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome complicated with cerebral venous thrombosis. Patient received treatment with acyclovir and anticoagulation. Early treatment with acyclovir therapy and anticoagulation could improve the recovery rate of facial nerve palsy and sinus vein thrombosis.

  13. Acquired hepatocerebral degeneration: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Xing Chen; Ping Wang; Sen-Xiang Yan; You-Ming Li; Chao-Hui Yu; Ling-Ling Jiang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Acquired hepatocerebral degeneration (AHD) is an exceptional type of hepatic encephalopathies (HE). It is characterized by neuropsychiatric and extrapyramidal symptomathology similar to that seen in hepatolenticular degeneration (Wilson's disease). In this paper, we report a case of AHD with unusual presenting features.METHODS: A 28-year-old man with AHD was described and the literature was reviewed.RESULTS: The man had a history of HBV-related liver cirrhosis. He was admitted to our hospital with apathy,dysarthria, mild consciousness impairment and extrapyramidal symptoms after hematemesis. By review of the literature,cases with AHD often did not present consciousness impairment. So our case was once diagnosed incorrectly as Wilson's disease.CONCLUSION: AHD is a rare syndrome and its variable clinical manifestations make it difficult to be diagnosed.But we believe that extensive examination and thorough understanding of the disease are beneficial to a correct diagnosis. Moreover, biocoene is effective in treating the case.

  14. Acquired Localized Hypertrichosis Induced by Rivastigmine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Imbernón-Moya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrichosis is the excessive hair growth in any area of the skin surface. Acquired localized hypertrichosis may be secondary to multiple causes and there is a secondary form due to several drugs, which is usually reversible with discontinuation of the causative agent. Rivastigmine is a reversible and competitive inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase used for symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer dementia and Parkinson’s disease. It has an adequate safety profile and cutaneous side effects are unusual. Irritant contact dermatitis, allergic dermatitis, baboon syndrome, and cutaneous rash due to rivastigmine have been reported. We report on a Caucasian 80-year-old male with personal history of Alzheimer’s disease. The patient started therapy with oral rivastigmine one month prior to clinical presentation of localized hypertrichosis on both forearms. Norgalanthamine has been shown to promote hair growth activity via the proliferation of dermal papilla. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can induce hair growth.

  15. Primary Immuno-deficiencies (PID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Ghaffari1

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 6 June, 2009 ; Accepted 22 July, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Primary immune-deficiencies (PID are associated with a wide range of clinical disorders along with variable symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate and improve our knowledge regarding PID from patients that were referred to Booali Sina Hospital.Materials and methods: We evaluated all of PID`s that were referred to Booali Sina Hospital from their data records. Demography, clinical and laboratory data were recorded and then analyzed.Results: In the duration of 3 years, we had 10 patients with PID (7 males and 3 females. Of these cases, 5 had hum oral (50%, 1case had phagocytic (10%, 3 cases had cellular (30% and 1 case had hyper IgE syndrome (10%. Many of them had respiratory and otitis media infections, while a few patients had adenitis, gastroenteritis, liver abscesses, bleedings and malignancy.Conclusion: PID is a diverse disorder that involves different immune systems. Knowledge from patient’s clinical symptoms and consideration in their differential diagnosis can be helpful in early diagnosis and an effective treatment.J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(70: 76-80 (Persian

  16. Burden among caregivers of children living with human immunodeficiency virus in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Chand Chauhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to wider access to and free antiretroviral therapy (ART program, the number of children dying due to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-related causes has declined and the nature and duration of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS caregiving has also dramatically altered. The care of children living with HIV/AIDS (CLHA places a significant additional burden on the caregivers. Aims: This study was conducted to assess the perceived burden among caregivers of children living with HIV in North India. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study among 156 CLHA-caregiver dyads in North India was conducted from June 2010 to May 2011. Data were collected by using a pretested structured interview schedule. The caregiver burden was measured with a 36-item scale adapted from Burden Assessment Schedule of Schizophrenia Research Foundation (BASS. Child characteristics, caregiver characteristics, caregiving burden, the knowledge of caregivers, and issues related to health care, nutrition, education, and psychological aspects were studied. Results: Caregivers had a mean age of 35.9 ± 10.2 years. Women accounted for over three-fourth (76.9% of the caregivers. Nearly two-third of them (65.4% reported as living with HIV. The mean caregiver burden score was 68.7 ± 2.9. A majority of the caregivers reported either low or moderate burden. Standardized percentage score was high in the domains of physical and mental health, external support, patients′ behavior, and caregivers′ strategy and seemed to be comparatively less in the other domains such as support of the patient and taking responsibility. Conclusions: Caring of children is a universal practice but there is a need of special care for children living with HIV. The majority of caregivers who were usually the mothers perceived the burden and need to be assisted in caring for the child. Stigma and discrimination with HIV infection further increased the burden as

  17. Recurrent stroke as a presenting feature of acquired partial lipodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namburi R Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired partial lipodystrophy (PL (Barraquer-Simons syndrome is a rare condition with onset in childhood, and it is characterized by progressive loss of subcutaneous fat in a cephalocaudal fashion. This report describes a case of acquired PL in a 16-year-old girl, who had progressive loss of facial fat since 3 years. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, anticardiolipin antibody, primary hypothyroidism, diabetes, and dyslipidemia may antedate the development of complications such as cerebrovascular stroke and cardiovascular disease. The girl had developed recurrent left hemiparesis, and withdrawn from school due to poor performance.

  18. Strategies for B-cell receptor repertoire analysis in Primary Immunodeficiencies:From severe combined immunodeficiency to common variable immunodeficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna eIJspeert; Marjolein eWentink; David evan Zessen; Driessen, Gertjan J.; Virgil A.S.H. Dalm; Martin P van Hagen; Ingrid ePico-Knijnenburg; Erik J Simons; van Dongen, Jacques J.M.; Stubbs, Andrew P; Mirjam eVan Der Burg

    2015-01-01

    The antigen receptor repertoires of B and T cells form the basis of the adaptive immune response. The repertoires should be sufficiently diverse to recognize all possible pathogens. However, careful selection is needed to prevent responses to self or harmless antigens. Limited antigen receptor repertoire diversity leads to immunodeficiency, whereas unselected or misdirected repertoires can result in autoimmunity. The antigen receptor repertoire harbors information about abnormalities in many ...

  19. Somatically acquired structural genetic differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magaard Koldby, Kristina; Nygaard, Marianne; Christensen, Kaare;

    2016-01-01

    Structural genetic variants like copy number variants (CNVs) comprise a large part of human genetic variation and may be inherited as well as somatically acquired. Recent studies have reported the presence of somatically acquired structural variants in the human genome and it has been suggested...... with age.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 20 April 2016; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2016.34....

  20. Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases at Reference and High-Specialty Hospitals in the State of Guanajuato, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Guaní-Guerra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In general, primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs are underdiagnosed in most countries. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency and clinical spectrum of PID in the most important tertiary hospitals in our region. Methods. An observational, cross-sectional, with retrospective chart, review study was conducted. A total of 26 patients were included and grouped according to the updated classification of PIDs. Results. PIDs spectra were as follows: predominantly antibody deficiency diseases were the most common category (65.38%, followed by other well-defined immunodeficiency syndromes (11.55%, congenital defects of phagocyte number and/or function (7.69%, complement deficiencies (3.85%, combined T- and B-cell immunodeficiencies (3.85%, and defects in innate immunity (3.85%. The mean time elapsed from the onset of symptoms to the reference and diagnosis by a tertiary hospital was of 4.65 ± 6.95 years. Conclusions. Predominant antibody deficiency disease was the most common group of PIDs, agreeing with international reports. Awareness of underdiagnosis by physicians is crucial for a prompt diagnosis and treatment, which in turn should improve the quality of life among patients with PIDs.

  1. A Case of Good's Syndrome Presenting with Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Arunabha Datta; Tapadar, Sumit Roy; Dhua, Aparup; Dhara, Palash Nandan; Nandi, Saumen; Choudhury, Sabyasachi

    2015-01-01

    Adult onset immunodeficiency associated with thymoma is a rare condition. The combination of hypogammaglobulinemia, reduced number of peripheral B and CD4+ T cells, along with thymoma constitutes Good's syndrome (GS). This immunodeficiency condition is often complicated with opportunistic infection with organisms, like bacteria (Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumonia etc), viruses (Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex etc), fungi and protozoa. We present an unusual case of Good's syndrome with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). A 40-year-old man presented with sputum-positive PTB and was started on anti-tuberculosis treatment. Subsequently, he developed symptoms and findings consistent with thymoma and other components of Good's syndrome. Although patients of Good's syndrome are susceptible to various opportunistic infections, infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncommon. Evidence of recurrent infections or some opportunistic infection in a thymoma patient should trigger a suspicion of Good's syndrome. PMID:27164735

  2. Organising pneumonia in common variable immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujaoude, Ziad; Arya, Rohan; Rafferty, William; Dammert, Pedro

    2013-06-07

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common of the primary immunodeficiency disorders. Pulmonary manifestations are characterised by recurrent rhinosinusitis, respiratory tract infections and bronchiectasis. Less commonly the lung may be affected by lymphoid disorders and sarcoid-like granulomas. Organising pneumonia (OP) is a rare pulmonary manifestation. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman with CVID who presented with fever, dyspnoea and persistent lung infiltrates despite antibiotic therapy. CT of the chest showed bilateral patchy alveolar infiltrates. Pulmonary function tests revealed moderate restriction and reduction in diffusion capacity. Initial bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsies did not yield a diagnosis but surgical lung biopsies identified OP. Significant clinical, radiographic and physiological improvement was achieved after institution of corticosteroid therapy.

  3. Family Physician Perspectives on Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange, Jordan S; Seeborg, Filiz O; Boyle, Marcia; Scalchunes, Christopher; Hernandez-Trujillo, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) include over 250 diverse disorders. The current study assessed management of PID by family practice physicians. The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology Primary Immunodeficiency Committee and the Immune Deficiency Foundation conducted an incentivized mail survey of family practice physician members of the American Medical Association and the American Osteopathic Association in direct patient care. Responses were compared with subspecialist immunologist responses from a similar survey. Surveys were returned by 528 (of 4500 surveys mailed) family practice physicians, of whom 44% reported following ≥1 patient with PID. Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (21%) and chronic granulomatous disease (11%) were most common and were followed by significantly more subspecialist immunologists (P management of PID (4 vs. 79% of subspecialist immunologists, P career. Differences in how family practice physicians and subspecialist immunologists manage patients with PID underscore areas where improved educational and training initiatives may benefit patient care. PMID:27066486

  4. Endemic mycosis complicating human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Sarosi, G. A.; DAvies, S F

    1996-01-01

    Persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus are prone to the development of many fungal diseases. Normal hosts with intact immunity usually recover from infection by these less-invasive fungi. In persons with compromised T-cell-mediated immunity, however, widespread dissemination from a pulmonary focus occurs. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of the three major North American mycoses, histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, and c...

  5. Current Perspectives on Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    M. Eric Gershwin; Arvind Kumar; Teuber, Suzanne S.

    2006-01-01

    Since the original description of X-linked agammaglobulinemia in 1952, the number of independent primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) has expanded to more than 100 entities. By definition, a PID is a genetically determined disorder resulting in enhanced susceptibility to infectious disease. Despite the heritable nature of these diseases, some PIDs are clinically manifested only after prerequisite environmental exposures but they often have associated malignant, allergic, or autoimmune man...

  6. Myasthenic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, M E

    2011-03-01

    The neuromuscular junction is vulnerable to autoimmune attack both at the pre-synaptic nerve terminal and at the post-synaptic muscle membrane. Antibodies directed to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the muscle surface are the cause of myasthenia gravis in the majority of cases. Myasthenia gravis is an acquired condition, characterised by weakness and fatigability of the skeletal muscles. The ocular muscles are commonly affected first, but the disease often generalises. Treatment includes symptom control and immunosuppression. The thymus gland plays an important role in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis and thymectomy is indicated in certain subgroups. Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome is associated with antibodies directed to the voltage-gated calcium channel antibodies at the pre-synaptic nerve terminal. It is an acquired condition and, in some cases, may be paraneoplastic, often secondary to underlying small cell lung carcinoma. Clinical presentation is distinct from myasthenia gravis, with patients often first presenting with lower limb muscle fatigability and autonomic symptoms. Congenital myasthenic syndromes are inherited neuromuscular disorders due to mutations in proteins at the neuromuscular junction. Various phenotypes exist depending on the protein mutation. Treatment is directed towards symptom control and immunosuppression is not indicated. PMID:21365067

  7. Acquired Surface Alexia in Spanish: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreres, Aldo R.; Macarena Martinez Cuitiño; Alicia Olmedo

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a case study of acquired surface alexia in Spanish and discusses the most suitable tests to detect this syndrome in a writing system that is very regular for reading at the segmental and supra-segmental levels. Patient MM has surface alexia characterized by quantitatively good performance in reading words and pseudowords; accurate but slow and syllabic reading of words, nonwords and sentences; good performance in lexical decision tasks including words and nonwords; errors i...

  8. Beals Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Boards & Staff Annual Report & Financials Contact Us Donate Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are ... the syndrome. How does Beals syndrome compare with Marfan syndrome? People with Beals syndrome have many of ...

  9. Nursing care of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome virus positive patients with ectopic pregnancy accepting the second time of surgical treatment%获得性免疫缺陷病毒阳性病人二次宫外孕手术治疗的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯梅; 马晓梅

    2009-01-01

    @@ 自1981年美国首次报道获得性免疫缺陷综合征(AIDS,艾滋病)的病原体获得性免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)以来,随着我国改革开放的推进,出入境人员增多,HIV阳性病人逐年增加.

  10. Study on Short - Term Adverse Effects of Highly Activity Antiretroviral Therapy in Children with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome%高效抗反转录病毒治疗艾滋病患儿近期不良反应71例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李在村; 赵燕; 窦智慧; 于兰; 黄晓婕; 李海英; 吴昊; 张福杰

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)感染者或艾滋病(AIDS)患儿接受联合高效抗反转录病毒治疗(HAART)不良反应的发生情况.方法 71例经酶联免疫法初筛、Western blot法确诊HIV感染、以前未接受过HAART的儿童入选本前赡性队列研究.男49例(69.0%),女22例(31.0%);平均年龄9.2(2~16)岁.其中46例接受齐多夫定(AZT)加拉米夫定(3TC)加奈韦拉平(NVP)治疗,25例接受司他夫定(d4T)加3TC加NVP治疗,记录治疗开始6个月内的不良反应(包括恶心、呕吐、腹泻、腹痛等消化道症状,中性粒细胞、Hb 下降,转氨酶升高,皮疹,血淀粉酶升高等)发生率,并比较2种治疗方案的不良反应.结果 主要不良反应发生情况如下:消化道症状(包括恶心、呕吐、腹泻、腹痛)52例(73.2%)、Hb下降30例(42.3%)、中性粒细胞下降12例(16.9%)、ALT升高15例(21.1%)、皮疹10例(10.4%)和血清淀粉酶升高6例(8.5%),多为轻到中度.Hb下降的发生率AZT加3TC加NVP组(56.5%)显著高于d4T加3TC加NVP组(16.0%)(P=0.001).6例因不良反应而更改治疗方案,其中3例因AZT引起贫血改用d4T,1例因皮疹、2例因ALX升高将NVP改为依非韦仑(EFV).无患者因不良反应而停止HAART.结论 儿童AIDS的HAART近期不良反应较少,程度较轻,耐受性良好.AZT较d4T的骨髓抑制作用明显.实用儿科临床杂志,2009,24(10):780-782

  11. Diagnósticos de enfermagem em portadores da Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida Diagnósticos de enfermería em portadores del Sindrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida Nursing diagnoses for patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myria Ribeiro da Silva

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar os diagnósticos de enfermagem mais freqüentes segundo a taxonomia II da NANDA em pacientes adultos portadores de HIV/aids e verificar com que freqüência as características definidoras, os fatores relacionados e de risco deram suporte para a elaboração destes. O levantamento dos dados foi realizado pelos pesquisadores nos 60 pacientes internados com HIV/aids e depois feita a verificação se os requisitos propostos pela NANDA para realização dos DE eram adequados. Foram selecionados 13 dos 38 diagnósticos com freqüência igual ou superior a 80%. Os resultados indicaram concordância e adequações para identificação. Porém, novos estudos serão necessários tanto para confirmação dos achados, assim como trazer novos conhecimentos ao assunto e estimular a pesquisa nesta população de pacientes.Los objetivos del estudio fuerón identificar los diagnósticos de enfermería según la taxonomia de Nanda en pacientes adultos portadores de HIV/Sida y observar con que frecuencia las caracteristicas que son definidas por los factores relacionados pelos investigadores en los 60 pacientes internados con VIH/SIDA y despúes hecha la verificación de los requisitos propuestos en Nanda para realización de los diagnósticos de la enfermeria que eran adequados. Fuerón relacionados 13 de los 38 diagnósticos con frecuencia igual al superior de 80%. Los resultados indican concordancia y sentido para identificar. Pues nuevos estudios fuerón necesarios tanto para a confirmación de los hallazgos asin como traer nuevos conhecimentos sobre el asunto y estimular a investigación neste grupo de pacientes.This study aims at identifying the most frequent nursing diagnoses, according to the NANDA's taxonomy II in adult patients of HIV/AIDS and to check how often the defining characteristics, the related factors and the risk factors provided support for their development. Data survey was conducted by researchers in the 60 patients admitted with HIV/aids, followed by the finding out whether the NANDA's proposed requirements to develop the Nursing Diagnoses were appropriate. From the 38 diagnoses, 13 diagnoses were chosen with a frequency equal or higher than 80%. Results pointed to agreement and appropriateness for identification. But new studies will be necessary either to acknowledge the findings and bring new knowledge to the topic as well, besides encouraging research with this patients' population.

  12. Pneumonia complicada por pneumatocele gigante em criança com síndrome da imunodeficência adquirida: importância da fisioterapia respiratória Pneumonia complicated by a giant pneumatocele in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: importance of chest physiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Regina M. de Paula; Melissa Pinto Gurgel; Luciana Macchiaverni; Fabíola Meister Pereira; Maria Ângela G. de O. Ribeiro; Camila Isabel S. Santos

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Descrever os efeitos do tratamento fisioterapêutico na prevenção de complicações respiratórias de uma criança com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida, que apresentava pneumatocele gigante. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Criança com oito anos de idade, do sexo feminino, encaminhada para acompanhamento fisioterapêutico em hospital universitário devido a quadro de hipersecreção pulmonar, histórico de pneumonias e presença de pneumatocele gigante. A conduta fisioterapêutica incluiu técnicas de h...

  13. Identificação de agentes infecciosos pulmonares em autópsias de pacientes com a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida Identification of infectious agents in the lungs in autopsies of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanivia Aparecida de Lima Pereira

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available As afecções pulmonares são freqüentes em indivíduos infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana. Neste trabalho, procurou-se identificar através de histoquímica e imunohistoquímica, agentes infecciosos nos pulmões de indivíduos portadores da síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (SIDA, autopsiados entre março de 1990 e julho de 2000 na FMTM. Fragmentos de pulmão de 40 indivíduos com SIDA autopsiados foram analisados histologicamente. Foram identificados agentes infecciosos em 34 (85% casos dos 40 analisados, sendo que bactérias foram encontradas em 22 (55% casos. Entre os agentes fúngicos o Pneumocystis carinii foi encontrado em oito (19,1% casos; Cryptococcus sp em quatro (9,5%, Histoplasma sp em dois (4,8% e Candida sp em um (2,4% caso. Detectou-se também associação entre Pneumocystis carinii, Citomegalovirus e Cryptococcus sp; CMV e Toxoplasma gondii. Em cinco casos, Candida sp, CMV e Pneumocystis carinii estiveram associados a bactérias. Entre as infecções não bacterianas, os fungos foram os agentes infecciosos mais isolados dos pulmões em autópsias de indivíduos com SIDA, sendo o Pneumocystis carinii o mais freqüente.Lung diseases are frequently observed in individuals infected with HIV. The aim of this study was to identify infectious agents in the lungs in the autopsied individuals with AIDS performed between march 1990 and july 2000 at the school of medicine (Uberaba- Brazil, using histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. Analysis was made on lungs obtained from 40 individuals with AIDS. Infectious agents were observed in 34 (85% cases of the 40 analyzed. Regarding fungis, Pneumocystis carinii was found in 8 (19.1%cases; Cryptococcus sp in 4 (9.5%cases, Histoplasma sp in 2 (4.8%cases and Candida sp in 1 (2.4%case. Association of Pneumocystis carinii, Citomegalovirus and Cryptococcus sp, was observed in one case, and in another, the association of CMV, and Toxoplasma gondii. There were 5 cases with Candida sp, CMV and Pneumocystis carinii associated with bacteria. In conclusion, this study shows that following bacterial agents fungi were the second most common infectious agents in post mortem examination of the lungs from patients with AIDS, being Pneumocystis carinii the most prevalent.

  14. Psychiatric morbidity in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV patients is being studied all over the world. There is paucity of Indian literature particularly in asymptomatic HIV individuals. Aim: The aim of the following study is to establish the prevalence and the determinants of psychiatric morbidity in asymptomatic HIV patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess psychiatric morbidity as per ICD-10 dacryocystorhinostomy criteria in 100 consecutive asymptomatic seropositive HIV patients and an equal number of age, sex, education, economic and marital status matched HIV seronegative control. All subjects were assessed with the general health questionnaire (GHQ, mini mental status examination, hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS and sensation seeking scale (SSS and the scores were analyzed statistically. Results: Asymptomatic HIV positive patients had significantly higher GHQ caseness and depression but not anxiety on HADS as compared to HIV seronegative controls. On SSS asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects showed significant higher scores in thrill and adventure seeking, experience seeking and boredom susceptibility as compared to controls. HIV seropositive patients had significantly higher incidence of total psychiatric morbidity. Among the individual disorders, alcohol dependence syndrome, sexual dysfunction and adjustment disorder were significantly increased compared with HIV seronegative controls. Conclusion: Psychiatric morbidity is higher in asymptomatic HIV patients when compared to HIV seronegative controls. Among the individual disorders, alcohol dependence syndrome, sexual dysfunction and adjustment disorder were significantly increased compared with HIV seronegative controls. High sensation seeking and substance abuse found in HIV seropositive patients may play a vital role in engaging in high-risk behavior resulting in this dreaded illness.

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Brazilian subtype B variant showed an increasing avidity of the anti-V3 antibodies over time compared to the subtype B US/European strain in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casseb Jorge

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian variant of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 subtype B, (serotype B"-GWGR, has a tryptophan replacing the proline in position 328 the HIV-1 envelope. A longer median time period from infection to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS for serotype B (B"-GWGR infected subjects compared to the B-GPGR US/European strain was reported. In a cohort study, in São Paulo city, 10 B"-GWGR patients had a statistically significant increased avidity of the anti-V3 antibodies, from 79% ± 33% to 85% ± 75%, versus from 48% ± 59% to 32% ± 17% for the 10 B-GPGR subjects (p = 0.02. The T CD4+ cells showed a mean increase of + 0.45 cells/month for the B-GPGR subjects and for B"-GWGR the slope was + 1.24 cells/month (p = 0.06, for 62 and 55 months of follow up, respectively. RNA plasma viral load decreased from 3.98 ± 1.75 to 2.16 ± 1.54 log10 in the B"-GWGR group while B-GPGR patients showed one log10 reduction in viral load from 4.09 ± 0.38 to 3.17 ± 1.47 log10 over time (p = 0.23, with a decreasing slope of 0.0042 ± log10,/month and 0.0080 ± log10/month, for B-GPGR and B"-GWGR patients, respectively (p = 0.53. Neither group presented any AIDS defining events during the study, according to Center for Diseases Control criteria. Although the sample size is small, these results may indicate that differences in the pathogenicity of the 2 HIV-1 B serotypes which co-circulate in Brazil may be correlated to the avidity of anti-V3 antibodies.

  16. The Effect of IVIG on Superoxide Generation in Primary Humoral Immunodeficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Sezgin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary antibody deficiency (common variable immunodeficiency, Hyper IgM, X-linked agammaglobulinemia and selective Ig A deficiency is a group of heterogeneous diseases characterized by defective antibody production. In primary hypogammaglobulinemias, particularly in patients with common variable immunodeficiency there is an increased generation of reactive oxygen species from monocytes which may be important for both immunopathogenesis and clinical manifestations. The generation of toxic oxygen metabolites may contribute to inflammation and tissue damage associated with phagocytic infiltration, and play role in the pathogenesis of malignancies, autoimmune disorders, acute and chronic pulmonary diseases seen in these patients. In primary immunodeficiencies and functional antibody deficiencies, IVIG act as replacement therapy and several mechanisms of IVIG action have been postulated. In vitro studies with human granulocytes showed stimulation of respiratory burst and promotion of bacterial killing by IVIG. In adult patients with primary humoral immunodeficiency, treated with IVIG showed that IVIG does not affect superoxide generation. We investigated superoxide generation from PMNL in 35 children with hyper IgM syndrome, XLA, CVID and IgA deficiency and 13 healthy children. We also explored the effect of IVIG administration on superoxide generation from granulocytes, white cell count, absolute neutrophil count, absolute lymphocyte count and quantitative CRP levels. There was a substantial increase in superoxide generation from PMNL in patients with XLA, CVID and IgA deficiency. Comparison of the superoxide generation before, 24 hours and one week after IVIG treatment showed no difference. In patients with CVID, quantitative CRP levels before and 24 hours after IVIG revealed significant difference. Other parameters were not changed. It can be concluded that enhanced superoxide generation in patients with XLA, CVID, Ig A deficiency may result from

  17. Viral hepatitis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena P. Pavan

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available From 1992 to 1995 we studied 232 (69% male, 87% Caucasian anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV positive Brazilian patients, through a questionnaire; HIV had been acquired sexually by 50%, from blood by 32%, sexually and/or from blood by 16.4% and by an unknown route by 1.7%. Intravenous drug use was reported by 29%; it was the most important risk factor for HIV transmission. The alanine aminotransferase quotient (qALT was >1 for 40% of the patients, 93.6% had anti-hepatitis A virus antibody, 5.3% presented hepatitis B surface antigen, 44% were anti-hepatitis B core antigen positive and 53.8% were anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV positive. The anti-HCV test showed a significant association with qALT>1. Patients for whom the probable HIV transmission route was blood had a 10.8 times greater risk of being anti-HCV positive than patients infected by other routes. Among 30 patients submitted to liver biopsy, 18 presented chronic hepatitis.

  18. Bilateral optic neuritis in acute human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M; Toft, P.B.; Bernhard, P;

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report a case of acute viral disease accompanied by bilateral optic neuritis with substantial paraclinical evidence that human immunodeficiency virus was the causative agent. METHODS: Clinical and paraclinical examination. Magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Virus and antibody titers...... as well as reverse lymphocytosis were consistent with acute infection by the human immunodeficiency virus-1. CONCLUSIONS: Human immunodeficiency virus infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute optic neuritis...

  19. ABNORMAL FINDINGS IN HAEMOGRAMS OF DACHSHUND PUPPIES: PRESUMPTIVE (IMMUNODEFICIENCY FAMILIAL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Turinelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a litter of seven Dachshund puppies, one subject was stillborn and six presented with diffuse skin infections characterized by dermatitis, abscessation, pustules, crusts and ulcers. Two of the puppies were referred for further evaluation. One male puppy was referred at four months of age and a sister litter mate was referred two months later. A complete blood count, biochemical and histological examination were performed on these puppies to identify the pathologic process. Clinical, biochemical, haematological and histological evaluation of subjects. This report characterizes quantitative and qualitative haematological abnormalities in two puppies that resulted in a diagnosis of dysmyelopoiesis. The existence of a familial immunodeficiency syndrome was speculated. This is the first report of such a syndrome in Dachshund puppies.

  20. Acquiring taste in home economics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbak Larsen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    that the pupils were encouraged to use their senses: listen to things frying, touch the meat to check if it was done and taste the food in the process of seasoning it. But while some children learned what the teachers expected: to produce well tasting food, others learned to cook very salty and hot food...... appreciated by the group of boys, and others again learned to stick with their idiosyncrasies when pressured by the teacher. Conclusions: Children were acquiring taste in the home economic lessons, but not only the kind of tastes that the teacher had planned for. This leads to reflections on the very complex...... process of taste acquiring and to a call for further research into taste acquiring in complex real life contexts as home economics lessons....

  1. And the Winner is - Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Joachim; Rønde, Thomas; Wagner, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    that then commercialize the innovation. To this end we analyze an innovation game between one incumbent and a large number of entrants. In the first stage, firms compete to develop innovations of high quality. They do so by choosing, at equal cost, the success probability of their R&D approach, where a lower probability...... accompanies higher value in case of success—that is, a more radical innovation. In the second stage, successful entrants bid to be acquired by the incumbent. We assume that entrants cannot survive on their own, so being acquired amounts to a prize in a contest. We identify an equilibrium in which...

  2. Barraquer-Simons syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Lene Nyhøj; Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a female patient diagnosed with Barraquer-Simons syndrome, a rare form of acquired partial lipodystrophy characterised by symmetrical loss of adipose tissue from face, neck, upper extremities and the trunk with onset in early childhood. Initial symptoms were seen...

  3. Metabolic cutis laxa syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, M.; Kouwenberg, D.; Gardeitchik, T.; Kornak, U.; Wevers, R.A.; Morava, E.

    2011-01-01

    Cutis laxa is a rare skin disorder characterized by wrinkled, redundant, inelastic and sagging skin due to defective synthesis of elastic fibers and other proteins of the extracellular matrix. Wrinkled, inelastic skin occurs in many cases as an acquired condition. Syndromic forms of cutis laxa, howe

  4. Progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome: a comprehensive review of its clinical presentation, relationship to immune system status, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin

    2000-12-01

    Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome is a form of the Varicella zoster virus (VZV) chorioretinitis found almost exclusively in people with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This destructive infection has an extremely rapid course that may lead to no light perception in affected eyes within days or weeks. Attempts at its treatment have had limited success. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachments often occur after the development of atrophic retinal holes, and silicone oil temponade has been found to be the most successful reattachment procedure. Unfortunately, cataract formation is common after such surgery. PORN needs to be differentiated from acute retinal necrosis (ARN) syndrome, a necrotizing retinitis that can also be caused by VZV. PORN and ARN are found at opposite ends of the spectrum of necrotizing herpetic retinopathies (NHR), where its clinical presentation depends upon immune system status. After a brief case presentation, the distinguishing clinical characteristics of PORN, its differentiation from ARN, attempts at its treatment, the role of the immune system status on its clinical appearance and treatment, and management of complications such as retinal detachment and subsequent cataracts are discussed.

  5. Acquired anhidrosis a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Laxmi

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year -old man was seen for acquired anhidrosis. There was no systemic disease. Vasomotor functions were normal. Biopsy showed normal sweat glands and ducts. Intravenous injection of neostigmine could produce profuse sweating on the face, trunk and arms. The disorder is likely to be due to a peripheral dysautonomia selectively affecting the sudomotor function.

  6. Acquired anhidrosis a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Nair Laxmi; Beena D; Manohar S

    1992-01-01

    A 30-year -old man was seen for acquired anhidrosis. There was no systemic disease. Vasomotor functions were normal. Biopsy showed normal sweat glands and ducts. Intravenous injection of neostigmine could produce profuse sweating on the face, trunk and arms. The disorder is likely to be due to a peripheral dysautonomia selectively affecting the sudomotor function.

  7. CD34+ Stem Cell Selection for Patients Receiving Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation for Non-Malignant Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-10

    Bone Marrow Failure Syndrome; Severe Aplastic Anemia; Severe Congenital Neutropenia; Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia; Diamond-Blackfan Anemia; Schwachman Diamond Syndrome; Primary Immunodeficiency Syndromes; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndromes; Histiocytic Syndrome; Familial Hemophagocytic Lymphocytosis; Lymphohistiocytosis; Macrophage Activation Syndrome; Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH); Hemoglobinopathies; Sickle Cell Disease; Sickle Cell-beta-thalassemia

  8. 78 FR 29755 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... (78 FR 21613), FDA published a document that announced the disease ] areas for meetings in fiscal... Federal Register document for public comment that was published on September 24, 2012 (77 FR 58849), and a... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused...

  9. 78 FR 46969 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... of May 21, 2013 (78 FR 29755). In that notice, FDA requested public comment regarding patients... INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of May 21, 2013 (78 FR 29755), FDA announced the notice of... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused...

  10. Primary immunodeficiencies in childhood: when to Suspect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lequerica-Segrera Pedro Luis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary Immunodeficiencies are not rare diseases. Primary care and specialist physiciansare likely to see patients with these diseases in their practice. Lack of understandingof primary immunodeficiencies and delay in diagnosis are associated with increasedmortality and morbidity of patients. Primary immunodeficiencies should be suspectedin any child with increased susceptibility to infections. Although many children developfrequent respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections, without have an underlyingimmune disorder, children with dysfunction of the immune system develop severe,persistent infections despite adequate conventional treatment and require laboratoryassessment.RESUMEN:Las inmunodeficiencias primarias no son enfermedades raras. En el ejercicio profesionalde los médicos generales y especialistas, estas patologías se presentarán con másfrecuencia de la esperada. El desconocimiento del tema y el retraso en el diagnósticoson las principales causas de morbi-mortalidad de los pacientes. La susceptibilidada infecciones es una de las características clínicas que debe hacer sospechar de laexistencia de una posible inmunodeficiencia primaria. En la infancia, donde sepresentan infecciones respiratorias y gastrointestinales con frecuencia, sin que existaun trastorno inmune subyacente, puede ser particularmente difícil saber cuándo seestá ante un patrón de infecciones normal y cuándo ante un síndrome de infecciónrecurrente anormal. Si las infecciones son severas, de duración prolongada, presentancomplicaciones graves y tienen una pobre respuesta al tratamiento, se deberían realizarmás estudios y descartar una inmunodeficiencia primaria.

  11. Anemia and survival in human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Mocroft, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    The prospective, multicenter cohort study EuroSIDA has previously reported on predictors and outcomes of anemia in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. In a Cox proportional-hazards model with serial measures of CD4+ cell count, plasma viral load, and degrees of anemia fitted...... as time-dependent variables, the relative hazard of death increased markedly for patients with anemia versus no anemia. A clinical scoring system was developed and validated for patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy using the most recent laboratory measures. Mild and severe anemia were...... independently (Panemia. The mechanisms underlying why hemoglobin is such a strong prognostic...

  12. Lipid management in human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myerson, Merle

    2015-05-01

    The development and use of antiretroviral medications to treat patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has dramatically changed the course of this disease from one that was fatal to a chronic and more manageable condition. Recommendations and guidelines for the general population are presented in this review with suggestions as to how they may be applied to this patient population. Issues for which there is little or no information available are noted to highlight the many gaps in our knowledge regarding diagnosis and management of dyslipidemia for patients living with HIV.

  13. [Innate immunity primary immunodeficiencies and infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchamp, M; Miot, C; Bustamante, J C; Picard, C

    2016-07-01

    The diagnosis of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) is important for the early and adaptive care of patients and their families. Among the various known PIDs, a number of them concern the innate immune system, which involve a set of cells and mechanisms involved in the host defense by a nonspecific and fast response. The majority of patients with innate immunity defects have a predisposition to one isolated type of infection (bacterial, viral, or fungal), dependent on the genetic defect involved. This article describes the different PIDs involving innate immunity and the immunological investigations allowing for their diagnosis. PMID:27266636

  14. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Risky Sexual Behavior and Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall H. Medoff

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: incidence of abortion in the United States has steadily declined since 1990. The question is why? Approach: This study, using multiple linear regression, examines whether womens unprotected sexual activity is deterred by the risk of contracting AIDS as reflected in decreased abortion rates. Results: The empirical evidence consistently finds that the prevalence of AIDS reduces the risky (unprotected) sexual activity of women of childbearing ages 15-44 as reflected in their a...

  15. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Risky Sexual Behavior and Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall H. Medoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: incidence of abortion in the United States has steadily declined since 1990. The question is why? Approach: This study, using multiple linear regression, examines whether women’s unprotected sexual activity is deterred by the risk of contracting AIDS as reflected in decreased abortion rates. Results: The empirical evidence consistently finds that the prevalence of AIDS reduces the risky (unprotected sexual activity of women of childbearing ages 15-44 as reflected in their abortion rates. The empirical results remain robust for the abortion rates of teens ages 15-17 and for teens ages 15-19. Conclusion: The empirical results suggest that the behavioral modification induced by the prevalence of AIDS accounted for 21% of the decrease in abortion rates over the time period 1992-2005.

  16. Laugier-Hunziker syndrome - Case report*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalosevic, Jovan; Zivanovic, Dubravka; Skiljevic, Dusan; Medenica, Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    Laugier-Hunziker syndrome is a rare, acquired disorder characterized by lenticular hyperpigmentation of the oral mucosa and longitudinal melanonychia. We present the case of a 63-year-old female with progressive, asymptomatic hyperpigmentation of buccal mucosa and a 7-year history of hyperpigmentation in several fingernails. Laugier-Hunziker syndrome was diagnosed based on the clinical features presented, dermoscopic findings and exclusion of underlying systemic diseases. Laugier-Hunziker syndrome is regarded as a diagnosis of exclusion. By identifying Laugier-Hunziker syndrome, other, more severe syndromes associated with hyperpigmentations can be excluded, namely Addison’s disease and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. PMID:26312723

  17. Laugier-Hunziker syndrome--Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalosevic, Jovan; Zivanovic, Dubravka; Skiljevic, Dusan; Medenica, Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    Laugier-Hunziker syndrome is a rare, acquired disorder characterized by lenticular hyperpigmentation of the oral mucosa and longitudinal melanonychia. We present the case of a 63-year-old female with progressive, asymptomatic hyperpigmentation of buccal mucosa and a 7-year history of hyperpigmentation in several fingernails. Laugier-Hunziker syndrome was diagnosed based on the clinical features presented, dermoscopic findings and exclusion of underlying systemic diseases. Laugier-Hunziker syndrome is regarded as a diagnosis of exclusion. By identifying Laugier-Hunziker syndrome, other, more severe syndromes associated with hyperpigmentations can be excluded, namely Addison's disease and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.

  18. A novel acquired cryptic three-way translocation t(2;11;5)(p21.3;q13.5;q23.2) with a submicroscopic deletion at 11p14.3 in an adult with hypereosinophilic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Eigil

    2015-08-01

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a clinically and pathologically heterogeneous disease entity. It is characterized by persistent eosinophilia and organ damage after excluding other causes. Clonal eosinophilia is distinguished from idiopathic eosinophilia by the presence of histologic, cytogenetic, or molecular evidence of an underlying malignancy. There are two distinct subcategories of clonal eosinophilia: chronic eosinophilic leukemia, not otherwise specified and myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophilia and mutations involving platelet-derived growth factor receptor α/β or fibroblast growth factor receptor 1. More than 50% of HES are without knowledge of underlying pathogenic molecular pathways. Here we examined a HES patient by oligo-based aCGH analysis and molecular cytogenetic methods. Examination for the common eosinophilia-related cytogenetic abnormalities involving the genes PDGFRA, PDGFRB, and FGFR1 together with BCR-ABL fusion gene was negative. Cytogenetic analysis and multi-color FISH analysis revealed a novel cryptic three-way translocation t(2;11;5)(p21.3;q13.5;q23.2). By oaCGH analysis we could not find any copy number changes related to the cytogenetic breakpoints but instead detected a 0.9Mb submicroscopic deletion at 11p14.3. The deleted region involved the 5'-upstream sequences and exons 1-4 of the LUZP2 gene, which encodes a leucine zipper protein. Analysis of surrogate germ-line cells revealed a normal result showing that the detected chromosomal aberrations were acquired. This is the first report on a HES patient associated with a novel complex three-way translocation t(2;11;5)(p21.3;q13.5;q23.2) and a submicroscopic deletion in chromosome band 11p14.3. The study also demonstrates the benefits of oligo-based aCGH analysis in detecting hidden disease related chromosomal abnormalities. The present findings provide additional clues to unravel important molecular pathways in HES to obtain the full spectrum of acquired chromosomal and

  19. Clinical, laboratory and molecular signs of immunodeficiency in patients with partial oculo-cutaneous albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotta, Laura; Parolini, Silvia; Prandini, Alberto; Tabellini, Giovanna; Antolini, Maddalena; Kingsmore, Stephen F; Badolato, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    Hypopigmentation disorders that are associated with immunodeficiency feature both partial albinism of hair, skin and eyes together with leukocyte defects. These disorders include Chediak Higashi (CHS), Griscelli (GS), Hermansky-Pudlak (HPS) and MAPBP-interacting protein deficiency syndromes. These are heterogeneous autosomal recessive conditions in which the causal genes encode proteins with specific roles in the biogenesis, function and trafficking of secretory lysosomes. In certain specialized cells, these organelles serve as a storage compartment. Impaired secretion of specific effector proteins from that intracellular compartment affects biological activities. In particular, these intracellular granules are essential constituents of melanocytes, platelets, granulocytes, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. Thus, abnormalities affect pigmentation, primary hemostasis, blood cell counts and lymphocyte cytotoxic activity against microbial pathogens. Among eight genetically distinct types of HPS, only type 2 is characterized by immunodeficiency. Recently, a new subtype, HPS9, was defined in patients presenting with immunodeficiency and oculocutaneous albinism, associated with mutations in the pallidin-encoding gene, PLDN.Hypopigmentation together with recurrent childhood bacterial or viral infections suggests syndromic albinism. T and NK cell cytotoxicity are generally impaired in patients with these disorders. Specific clinical and biochemical phenotypes can allow differential diagnoses among these disorders before molecular testing. Ocular symptoms, including nystagmus, that are usually evident at birth, are common in patients with HPS2 or CHS. Albinism with short stature is unique to MAPBP-interacting protein (MAPBPIP) deficiency, while hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) mainly suggests a diagnosis of CHS or GS type 2 (GS2). Neurological disease is a long-term complication of CHS, but is uncommon in other syndromic albinism. Chronic

  20. Gene Therapy for RAG-deficient Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Pike (Karin)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractSevere combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a rare class of primary, inherited, immunodeficiency causing infants to suffer from persistent diarrhea, opportunistic infections and a failure to thrive. RAG proteins play a crucial role in the initiation of V(D)J recombination of immun

  1. Transcatheter treatment of Lutembacher syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Xiang-qian; ZHOU Sheng-hua; ZHOU Tao; QI Shu-shan; FANG Zhen-fei; LV Xiao-ling

    2005-01-01

    @@ Lutembacher syndrome, a combination of congenital atrial septal defect (ASD) complicated by acquired mitral stenosis,1 has been traditionally treated by open-heart surgery.2 With the introduction of transcatheter closure of ASD3 and percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty,4 then Lutembacher syndrome can be treated percutaneously. Percutaneous management of Lutembacher syndrome can obviate the morbidity and mortality associated with cardiac surgery, the psychological trauma of a thoracotomy scar and the possibility of repeat thoracotomy for mitral restenosis. So the technique may be ideal for treatment of Lutembacher syndrome.

  2. Auriculotemporal Syndrome (Frey Syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motz, Kevin M; Kim, Young J

    2016-04-01

    Frey syndrome is a common sequela of parotidectomy, and although it is not frequently manifested clinically, it can cause significant morbidity for those affected. Frey syndrome results from synkinetic autonomic reinnervation by transected postganglionic parasympathetic nerve fiber within the parotid gland to the overlying sweat glands of the skin. Many surgical techniques have been proposed to prevent the development of Frey syndrome. For those who develop clinical symptoms of Frey syndrome, objective testing can be performed with a Minor starch-iodine test. Some of the current methods to prevent and treat symptomatic Frey syndrome are reviewed. PMID:26902982

  3. Renal alterations in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats: a natural model of lentivirus-induced renal disease changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Alessandro; Tozon, Natasa; Guidi, Grazia; Pistello, Mauro

    2012-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy. PMID:23170163

  4. Renal Alterations in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV-Infected Cats: A Natural Model of Lentivirus-Induced Renal Disease Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Pistello

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy.

  5. Cogema acquires TOTAL's uranium assets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 28, France's nuclear fuel cycle conglomerate Cogema and petroleum group TOTAL announced a plan in which Cogema will assume ownership of TOTAL's uranium assets worldwide, and as part of the deal, each firm will acquire shares of the other. On June 2, the agreement will be submitted to shareholders and, assuming it is approved, will go into effect this year. The agreement calls for TOTAL to acquire a 10.8-percent share in Cogema, thus becoming its first private sector shareholder, by underwriting a reserve capital increase of FF1.5 billion (approximately US$283 million). In return, Cogema will pay FF2.52 billion for approximately 4.3 percent of TOTAL, as part of a reserve capital increase totalling FF4.07 billion

  6. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL: one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE. Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis.

  7. CNOOC Acquires Oversea Assets Successfully

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Senlin

    2006-01-01

    @@ After last year CNOOC's bidding for buy the US energy company Unocal Corp lost out to the Chevron Corporation, it conducted the crossing-border asset-acquirement again in the beginning of this year. On Jan. 9, 2006,CNOOC Ltd signed a definitive agreement with Nigeria South Atlantic Petroleum Limited (SAPETRO) to acquire a 45 % working interest in an offshore oil developing license OML 130 in Nigeria for US$2.268 billion cash. The purchase will be funded by the internal capital resources of CNOOC Ltd. In which, US$1.75 billion will pay for buying SAPETRO, and the remaining cash will be used to pay for the early operation cost.

  8. Combined Immunodeficiency Associated with DOCK8 Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Davis, Jeremiah C.; Lamborn, Ian T.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Jing, Huie; Favreau, Amanda J.; Matthews, Helen F.; Davis, Joie; Turner, Maria L.; Uzel, Gulbu; Holland, Steven M.; Su, Helen C.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recurrent sinopulmonary and cutaneous viral infections with elevated serum levels of IgE are features of some variants of combined immunodeficiency. The genetic causes of these variants are unknown. METHODS We collected longitudinal clinical data on 11 patients from eight families who had recurrent sinopulmonary and cutaneous viral infections. We performed comparative genomic hybridization arrays and targeted gene sequencing. Variants with predicted loss-of-expression mutations were confirmed by means of a quantitative reverse-transcriptase –polymerase-chain-reaction assay and immunoblotting. We evaluated the number and function of lymphocytes with the use of in vitro assays and flow cytometry. RESULTS Patients had recurrent otitis media, sinusitis, and pneumonias; recurrent Staphylococcus aureus skin infections with otitis externa; recurrent, severe herpes simplex virus or herpes zoster infections; extensive and persistent infections with molluscum contagiosum; and human papillomavirus infections. Most patients had severe atopy with anaphylaxis; several had squamous-cell carcinomas, and one had T-cell lymphoma –leukemia. Elevated serum IgE levels, hypereosinophilia, low numbers of T cells and B cells, low serum IgM levels, and variable IgG antibody responses were common. Expansion in vitro of activated CD8 T cells was impaired. Novel homozygous or compound heterozygous deletions and point mutations in the gene encoding the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 protein (DOCK8) led to the absence of DOCK8 protein in lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS Autosomal recessive DOCK8 deficiency is associated with a novel variant of combined immunodeficiency. PMID:19776401

  9. Family physician perspectives on primary immunodeficiency diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan eOrange

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID include over 250 diverse disorders. The current study assessed management of PID by family practice physicians. The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology Primary Immunodeficiency Committee and the Immune Deficiency Foundation conducted an incentivized mail survey of family practice physician members of the American Medical Association and the American Osteopathic Association in direct patient care. Responses were compared with subspecialist immunologist responses from a similar survey. Surveys were returned by 528 (of 4500 surveys mailed family practice physicians, of whom 44% reported following ≥1 patient with a PID. Selective immunoglobulin A (IgA, deficiency (21%, and chronic granulomatous disease (11% were most common and were followed by significantly more subspecialist immunologists (P<.0001. Use of intravenously administered Ig, and live viral vaccinations across PID was significantly different (P<.0001. Few family practice physicians were aware of professional guidelines for diagnosis and management of PID (4% vs. 79% of subspecialist immunologists, P<.0001. Family practice physicians will likely encounter patients with a PID diagnoses during their career. Differences in how family practice physicians and subspecialist immunologists manage patients with PID underscore areas where improved educational and training initiatives may benefit patient care.

  10. Chromosomal Instability and Molecular Defects in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, Tomer; Akov, Shira; Bohndorf, Martina; Mlody, Barbara; Adjaye, James; Benvenisty, Nissim; Goldberg, Michal

    2016-08-30

    Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) results from the absence of the NBS1 protein, responsible for detection of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). NBS is characterized by microcephaly, growth retardation, immunodeficiency, and cancer predisposition. Here, we show successful reprogramming of NBS fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (NBS-iPSCs). Our data suggest a strong selection for karyotypically normal fibroblasts to go through the reprogramming process. NBS-iPSCs then acquire numerous chromosomal aberrations and show a delayed response to DSB induction. Furthermore, NBS-iPSCs display slower growth, mitotic inhibition, a reduced apoptotic response to stress, and abnormal cell-cycle-related gene expression. Importantly, NBS neural progenitor cells (NBS-NPCs) show downregulation of neural developmental genes, which seems to be mediated by P53. Our results demonstrate the importance of NBS1 in early human development, shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying this severe syndrome, and further expand our knowledge of the genomic stress cells experience during the reprogramming process. PMID:27545893

  11. Infectious and Immunologic Phenotype of MECP2 Duplication Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Michael; Kölsch, Uwe; Krüger, Renate; Unterwalder, Nadine; Hameister, Karin; Kaiser, Fabian Marc; Vignoli, Aglaia; Rossi, Rainer; Botella, Maria Pilar; Budisteanu, Magdalena; Rosello, Monica; Orellana, Carmen; Tejada, Maria Isabel; Papuc, Sorina Mihaela; Patat, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    MECP2 (methyl CpG binding protein 2) duplication causes syndromic intellectual disability. Patients often suffer from life-threatening infections, suggesting an additional immunodeficiency. We describe for the first time the detailed infectious and immunological phenotype of MECP2 duplication syndrome. 17/27 analyzed patients suffered from pneumonia, 5/27 from at least one episode of sepsis. Encapsulated bacteria (S.pneumoniae, H.influenzae) were frequently isolated. T-cell immunity showed no...

  12. Chediak-Higashi syndrome: brain MRI and MR spectroscopy manifestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lolli, Valentina; Soto Ares, Gustavo; Pruvo, Jean-Pierre [Roger Salengro Hospital, CHRU, Neuroradiology Department, Lille (France); Abou Chahla, Wadih [Jeanne de Flandre Hospital, Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Department, Lille (France); Jissendi-Tchofo, Patrice [University Hospital Saint-Pierre, Radiology Department - Pediatric Neuroradiology Section, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-08-15

    Chediak-Higashi syndrome is a rare inherited metabolic disorder characterized by partial oculocutaneous albinism, immunodeficiency, and neurological dysfunction. We present the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) findings obtained during the accelerated phase of the disorder in an 8-year-old. The brain MRI manifestations at recurrences 15 months and 24 months later are reported as well. (orig.)

  13. Chronic fatigue syndrome--a controlled cross sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, A K; Nielsen, H; Andersen, V;

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To look for signs of immunodeficiencies and/or longstanding infections underlying chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). METHODS. Twenty-one patients fulfilling the Centers for Disease Control criteria for CFS were compared to 21 age and sex matched controls. A number of viral antibodies...

  14. Classification criteria of syndromes by latent variable models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Janne

    2010-01-01

    The thesis has two parts; one clinical part: studying the dimensions of human immunodeficiency virus associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) by latent class models, and a more statistical part: investigating how to predict scores of latent variables so these can be used in subsequent regression...

  15. Integrated bioinformatics analysis of epigenomic and transcriptomic data from ICF syndrome patient's cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gatto, Sole

    2013-01-01

    Immunodeficiency, Centromeric region instability, Facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome (OMIM 242860), is a human autosomic recessive disease due to mutations in the Dnmt3b gene, characterized by inheritance of aberrant patterns of DNA methylation and heterochromatin defects. How mutations in Dnmt3B and the resulting deficiency in DNA methyltransferase activity result mainly in immunodeficiency has not been clarified yet. It is already known that the expression of several genes and microRNAs is der...

  16. Acquired Multiple Cysts of the Kidney in Neuroblastoma Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodalbail, Divya G; Apple, Leah Z; Meyers, Kevin E; Ginsberg, Jill P; Kaplan, Bernard S; Bellah, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Cystic kidney disease includes a wide range of hereditary, developmental, and acquired conditions of the kidneys. Some of the inherited causes of cystic kidney disease include autosomal dominant polycystic kidney diseases (caused by mutations in PKD1 or PKD2), autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, tuberous sclerosis complex, von Hippel-Lindau disease, oral-facial-digital syndrome type I, and Hadju-Cheney syndrome. Acquired cystic kidney disease has been reported in patients receiving long-term hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis and in children after liver transplantation. Acute kidney injury can occur in patients with neuroblastoma, usually as a result of thrombotic microangiopathy associated with bone marrow transplantation. End-stage renal disease is described in long-term survivors. However, in this case report, we provide what is to our knowledge the first description of multiple kidney cysts in long-term survivors of stage IV neuroblastoma. None of the 7 patients we describe with neuroblastoma and multiple kidney cysts had a family history of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Also, all lacked stigmata of tuberous sclerosis complex, von Hippel-Lindau disease, or Hadju-Cheney syndrome. Two patients progressed to end-stage renal disease; in addition, one of them developed an oncocytoid renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27016049

  17. Good syndrome and other causes of cytomegalovirus retinitis in HIV-negative patients-case report and comprehensive review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Kenneth M; Tarasewicz, Dariusz; Weisberg, Laurie J; Cunningham, Emmett T

    2016-12-01

    We describe a 65-year-old Thai woman who developed cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR) in the setting of Good syndrome-a rare, acquired partial immune deficiency caused by thymoma. The patient subsequently developed vitritis with cystoid macular edema (CME) similar to immune recovery uveitis (IRU) despite control of the retinitis with antiviral agents. A comprehensive review of the literature through December, 2014, identified an additional 279 eyes of 208 patients with CMVR in the absence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Including our newly reported case, 9 of the 208 patients (4.3 %) had Good syndrome. Twenty-one of the 208 patients (10.1 %) had CMVR related to intraocular or periocular corticosteroid administration. The remaining 178 patients (85.6 %) acquired CMVR from other causes. Within the subset of patients who did not have Good syndrome or did not acquire CMVR followed by intraocular or periocular corticosteroid administration, there were many other factors contributing to a decline in immune function. The most common included age over 60 years (33.1 %), an underlying malignancy (28.7 %), a systemic autoimmune disorder requiring systemic immunosuppression (19.1 %), organ (15.2 %) or bone marrow (16.3 %) transplantation requiring systemic immunosuppression, and diabetes mellitus (6.1 %). Only 4.5 % of the patients had no identifiable contributor to a decline in immune function. While the clinical features of CMVR are generally similar in HIV-negative and HIV-positive patients, the rates of moderate to severe intraocular inflammation and of occlusive retinal vasculitis appear to be higher in HIV-negative patients. PMID:26809342

  18. Clinical and Immunological Spectrum of Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony David B. Webster

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We have analysed data from 150 patients initially classified as having CVID. About 10% had laboratory abnormalities suggesting known single gene disorders (eg: hyper-IgM syndrome, and in a few a genetic defect has been confirmed. We have attempted to sub-classify the remaining patients by analysis of their circulating lymphocytes. B lymphocyte markers have been used to estimate the numbers of circulating immature and class switched B cells; there is an association between the presence of high relative numbers of immature circulating B cells, splenomegaly and autoimmune disease. About 25% of CVID patients have a moderate CD4+ T lymphopenia, sometimes with a relative expansion of CD8+ T cells. About 30% of CVID patients have persistent relatively high levels of circulating CD8+ T cells binding immunogenic peptides from EBV or CMV. Many of these patients also have high relative numbers of circulating CD8+ perforin positive T cells, and there is evidence that these cells may be responsible for neutropenia or inflammatory bowel disease in some patients. The clinical spectrum of CVID is diverse, with some patients suffering from few infections, and over 50% have evidence of structural lung damage. About 25% of UK patients have chronic inflammation in various organs, particularly the lungs, liver and spleen, often with granulomatous changes. Steroids are used to treat many of the patients with chronic inflammatory complications, although trials are in progress with anti-TNF agents. The incidence of these inflammatory complications is different between countries, being rare in Sweden. Attempts to correlate clinical phenotypes with the laboratory abnormalities described above have been disappointing, suggesting that unknown genetic factors unrelated to the cause of the immunodeficiency determine the complications; attempts to identify some of these factors will be discussed. Finally a provisional scheme to sub classify CVID patients according to

  19. REVIEW OF CONTROL OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION IN NIGERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dami, N; Shehu, N Y; Dami, S; Iroezindu, M O

    2015-01-01

    The global scourge of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is inundating, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and in particular Nigeria which is home to 10% of the world's HIV-infected persons. The target of the millennium development goal 6 is to halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015. HIV control in Nigeria was initially shrouded in denial and apathy. Subsequently, a more pragmatic approach was launched during the tenure of President Olusegun Obasanjo. Several policies were formulated. The national prevalence of HIV witnessed some progressive decline and is currently 4.1%. There is now improvement in both HIV awareness and counselling and testing. Greater access to antiretroviral therapy and other support services have also been witnessed with over 300,000 persons currently on drugs. Notable achievements have been recorded in prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTC). However, with increased access to antiretroviral therapy, antiretroviral drug resistance has become inevitable. Acquired drug resistance is high-82% and transmitted drug resistance ranges between 0.7 and 4.5%. The achievements were largely facilitated by international partnerships which have become more streamlined in recent years. A sustained shift to indigenously sourced financial and manpower resource has become imperative. It is also important to integrate HIV facilities with other existing health care facilities for sustainability and cost-effectiveness. In an attempt to strengthen the national response, President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan launched the President's Comprehensive Response Plan for HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. It is hoped that this well-articulated policy would be well implemented to significantly reverse the epidemic.

  20. Prevalence and clinical and laboratory characteristics of kidney disease in anti-retroviral-naive human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in South-South Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U H Okafor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS about three decades ago, several renal disorders have been reported as common complications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. These renal disorders result from diverse etiologies. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence and clinical and laboratory characteristics of anti-retroviral-naοve HIV-infected patients with impaired kidney disorder in South-South Nigeria. This study was conducted on patients presenting at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City in South-South Nigeria for six months. The patients′ demographic data and clinical, hematological and biochemical parameters were assessed. Their glomerular filtration rate (GFR was calculated and the protein excretion was assessed from the protein- creatinine ratio. Data were analyzed using statistical software program SPSS version 15.0. Threehundred and eighty-three patients with a mean age of 35.39 ± 8.78 years and a male: female ratio of 1:1 were studied; 53.3% had evidence of kidney disorder. The main clinical features in patients with kidney disorder were evidence of fluid retention, urinary symptoms, pallor and encephalopathy. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 115.33 ± 17.17 and 72.33 ± 14.31 mm Hg, respectively. The mean estimated GFR was 52.5 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Patients with kidney disorder had higher proteinuria (P = 0.001, lower mean CD4 cell count and packed cell volume (P = 0.019 and 0.001, respectively. Kidney disorder is a common complication in HIV-infected patients, and they have clinical and laboratory anomalies. Screening of HIV/AIDS patients at the time of diagnosis will facilitate early diagnosis of kidney disorders in them.