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Sample records for acquired human immunodeficiency

  1. Autoimmunity and dysmetabolism of human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

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    Huang, Yan-Mei; Hong, Xue-Zhi; Xu, Jia-Hua; Luo, Jiang-Xi; Mo, Han-You; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2016-06-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains ill-defined by lists of symptoms, infections, tumors, and disorders in metabolism and immunity. Low CD4 cell count, severe loss of body weight, pneumocystis pneumonia, and Kaposi's sarcoma are the major disease indicators. Lines of evidence indicate that patients living with AIDS have both immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. Immunodeficiency is attributed to deficits in the skin- and mucosa-defined innate immunity, CD4 T cells and regulatory T cells, presumably relating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The autoimmunity in AIDS is evident by: (1) overproduction of autoantibodies, (2) impaired response of CD4 cells and CD8 cells, (3) failure of clinical trials of HIV vaccines, and (4) therapeutic benefits of immunosuppression following solid organ transplantation and bone marrow transplantation in patients at risk of AIDS. Autoantibodies are generated in response to antigens such as debris and molecules de novo released from dead cells, infectious agents, and catabolic events. Disturbances in metabolic homeostasis occur at the interface of immunodeficiency and autoimmunity in the development of AIDS. Optimal treatments favor therapeutics targeting on the regulation of metabolism to restore immune homeostasis.

  2. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

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    García-García, Concepción; Castillo-Álvarez, Federico; Azcona-Gutiérrez, José M; Herraiz, María J; Ibarra, Valvanera; Oteo, José A

    2015-05-01

    Neurological complications in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are still common, even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Opportunistic infections, immune reconstitution, the virus itself, antiretroviral drugs and neurocognitive disorders have to be considered when establishing the differential diagnosis. Toxoplasmic encephalitis remains the major cause of space-occupying lesions in the brain of patients with HIV/AIDS; however, spinal cord involvement has been reported infrequently. Here, we review spinal cord toxoplasmosis in HIV infection and illustrate the condition with a recent case from our hospital. We suggest that most patients with HIV/AIDS and myelitis with enhanced spine lesions, multiple brain lesions and positive serology for Toxoplasma gondii should receive immediate empirical treatment for toxoplasmosis, and a biopsy should be performed in those cases without clinical improvement or with deterioration.

  3. Use of etanercept in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients.

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    Ting, Patricia T; Koo, John Y

    2006-06-01

    Etanercept (Enbrel, Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA), a soluble p75 tumor necrosis factor receptor:FC (TNFR:FC) fusion protein for plasma cytokines, specifically tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), is used in the treatment of immune-mediated rheumatic diseases. To our knowledge, the use of etanercept in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is relatively uncommon. The main purpose of this short review is to examine the safety of etanercept in patients with HIV/AIDS. A Medline search was conducted using the keywords etanercept and HIV and/or AIDS for any published articles between 1966 to the present (September 2004). A case report, one case series, and one clinical trial pertained to the use of etanercept in HIV patients. No reports were found on the use of etanercept in AIDS. In addition, two case reports were found documenting the use of infliximab in HIV patients. Preliminary reports indicate that the administration of etanercept does not appear to increase the morbidity or mortality rates in HIV. The inhibition of TNF-alpha may actually improve the symptoms of HIV/AIDS-associated aphthous ulcers, cachexia, dementia, fatigue, and fever, as well as help manage concomitant rheumatic diseases and psoriasis. The use of etanercept shows promise for applications in disease management in patients with HIV/AIDS. Continued research efforts are necessary to establish the long-term safety and efficacy of etanercept and other biologic agents in this patient population.

  4. Science and ethics of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome controversies in Africa.

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    Brewster, David

    2011-09-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in Africa has raised important ethical issues for both researchers and clinicians. The most notorious controversy has been related to the zidovudine (AZT) trials in Africa in the late 1990s, in which the control groups were given a placebo rather than an effective drug to prevent vertical transmission. This raised concerns in the sponsoring country about exploitation of subjects, injustice and an ethical double standard between donor countries and resource-poor settings. However, the real double standard is between clinical practice standards in Western versus African countries, which must be addressed as part of the increasing global inequity of wealth both between countries and also within countries. There are important limitations to ethical declarations, principles and guidelines on their own without contextual ethical reasoning. The focus on research ethics with the HIV epidemic has led to a relative neglect of ethical issues in clinical practice. Although the scientific advances in HIV/AIDS have changed the ethical issues since the 1990s, there has also been progress in the bioethics of HIV/AIDS in terms of ethical review capability by local committees as well as in exposure to ethical issues by clinicians and researchers in Africa. However, serious concerns remain about the overregulation of research by bureaucratic agencies which could discourage African research on specifically African health issues. There is also a need for African academic institutions and researchers to progressively improve their research capacity with the assistance of research funders and donor agencies. © 2011 The Author. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is highly associated with giant idiopathic esophageal ulcers in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients.

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    Lv, Bei; Cheng, Xin; Gao, Jackson; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Liping; Wang, Liwei; Huang, Shaoping; Fan, Zhenyu; Zhang, Renfang; Shen, Yinzhong; Li, Lei; Liu, Baochi; Qi, Tangkai; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Jilin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exists in giant idiopathic esophageal ulcers in the patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). 16 AIDS patients with a primary complaint of epigastric discomfort were examined by gastroscopy. Multiple and giant esophageal ulcers were biopsied and analyzed with pathology staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to determine the potential pathogenic microorganisms, including HIV, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex viruses (HSV). HIV was detected in ulcer samples from 12 out of these 16 patients. Ulcers in 2 patients were infected with CMV and ulcers in another 2 patients were found HSV positive. No obvious cancerous pathological changes were found in these multiple giant esophageal ulcer specimens. HIV may be one of the major causative agents of multiple benign giant esophageal ulcers in AIDS patients.

  6. Behavioral surveillance survey regarding human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among high school and junior college students

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    Bhosale S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: It is necessary to know the baseline knowledge, attitude, and practices about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among young people and the changes in these with intervention to guide prevention efforts. Methods: A cross-sectional pre- and post-survey with health education as a method of intervention was carried out in four different randomly selected schools and junior colleges among the Class IX-XII students of both sex. Instrument developed by the World Health Organization (WHO/UNAIDS in their best practice recommendations was used for data collection. Results: Knowledge about all correct methods was present in 61.23% of the respondents. Knowledge of at least two methods of prevention was present in 70.31% of the respondents. Misconceptions about prevention were that good diet (33.42%, avoiding mosquito bite (49.71% and avoiding public toilets (65.14% could help in the prevention. With intervention, there was an improvement in the knowledge. However, the proportion of students with misconceptions did not come down. Correct knowledge about two methods of prevention also did not reach the WHO recommendation of 90%. Conclusion: It is very difficult to change the attitude and practices by a single health educational intervention and an ongoing behavior change communication is recommended.

  7. The human immunodeficiency virus preventive vaccine research at the French National Agency for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome research

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    Elizabeth Fischer

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS epidemic is of unprecedented gravity and is spreading rapidly, notably in the most disadvantaged regions of the world. The search for a preventive vaccine is thus an absolute priority. For over 10 years the French National Agency for AIDS research (ANRS has been committed to an original program combining basic science and clinical research. The HIV preventive vaccine research program run by the ANRS covers upstream research for the definition of immunogens, animal models, and clinical research to evaluate candidate vaccines. Most researchers in 2004 believe that it should be possible to obtain partial vaccine protection through the induction of a strong and multiepitopic cellular response. Since 1992, the ANRS has set up 15 phases I and II clinical trials in order to evaluate the safety and the capacity of the candidate vaccines for inducing cellular immune responses. The tested candidate vaccines were increasingly complex recombinant canarypox viruses (Alvac containing sequences coding for certain viral proteins, utilized alone or combined with other immunogens (whole or truncated envelope proteins. ANRS has also been developing an original strategy based on the utilization of lipopeptides. These comprise synthetic fragments of viral proteins associated with lipids that facilitate the induction of a cellular immune response. These approaches promptly allowed the assessment of a prime-boost strategy combining a viral vector and lipopeptides.

  8. New clinical and histological patterns of acute disseminated histoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

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    Ollague Sierra, Jose E; Ollague Torres, Jose M

    2013-04-01

    Histoplasmosis has attained increasing relevance in the past 3 decades because of the appearance of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In most immunocompetent persons, the infection is asymptomatic or can produce a respiratory condition with symptoms and radiological images similar to those observed in pulmonary tuberculosis; in non-HIV+ immunocompromised patients, it can cause respiratory symptoms or evolve into a disseminated infection. The same can occur in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. We have observed a series of HIV+ patients with AIDS who presented with cutaneous histoplasmosis and in whom the clinical and histopathological features were highly unusual, including variable mucocutaneous lesions that were difficult to diagnose clinically. These patients displayed unusual, previously undescribed, histological patterns, including lichenoid pattern, nodular pseudomyxoid pattern, pyogenic granuloma-like pattern, perifollicular pattern, and superficial (S), mid (M), and deep perivascular dermatitis; and more commonly encountered patterns, such as histiocytic lobular panniculitis and focal nodular dermatitis. The novel histopathological patterns of cutaneous involvement by histoplasmosis seen in these patients resembled other common inflammatory and infectious conditions and required a high level of suspicion and the application of special stains for organisms for confirmation. These new, clinical, and histological findings do not seem to be commonly encountered in HIV- patients infected with the fungus but seem to be displayed most prominently in HIV+ patients with AIDS.

  9. Depression among people living with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Benin City, Nigeria: a comparative study.

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    Chikezie, U E; Otakpor, A N; Kuteyi, O B; James, B O

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a common co-morbidity among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) (PLWHAs). It is associated with poor treatment adherence and higher mortality rates. Few reports have, however, emanated from developing countries where socioeconomic factors may confound this association. We conducted a cross-sectional comparative study of PLWHAs and apparently healthy staff of three LGA's. The depression module of the Schedule for the Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to diagnose depression and depression symptom severity, respectively. Depression was commonly co-morbid among individuals with HIV/AIDS. It was five times more common in PLWHAs than in apparently healthy populations (29.3% vs. 7.3%, OR: 5.25, 95% CI: 2.50-11.76). A similar trend was observed for depression symptom severity. Among PLWHAs, depression was significantly more likely among females (OR: 7.91, 95% CI: 1.83-71.00, P 3 years (OR: 7.90, P risk. Depression was commonly co-morbid among PLWHAs studied. Clinicians should be aware of risk factors for depression among PLWHAs in order to improve treatment outcomes.

  10. Consensus on context-specific strategies for reducing the stigma of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Zambézia Province, Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Mukolo, Abraham; Torres, Isabel; Bechtel, Ruth M.; Sidat, Mohsin; Vergara, Alfredo E.

    2014-01-01

    Stigma has been implicated in poor outcomes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) care. Reducing stigma is important for HIV prevention and long-term treatment success. Although stigma reduction interventions are conducted in Mozambique, little is known about the current nature of stigma and the efficacy and effectiveness of stigma reduction initiatives. We describe action research to generate consensus on critical characteristics of HIV stigma and an...

  11. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus knowledge, attitudes, and practices, and use of healthcare services among rural migrants: a cross-sectional study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying; Cochran, Christopher; Xu, Peng; Shen, Jay J; Zeng, Gang; Xu, Yanjun; Sun, Mei; Li, Chengyue; Li, Xiaohong; Chang, Fengshui; Lu, Jun; Hao, Mo; Lu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Background Today’s rapid growth of migrant populations has been a major contributor to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, relatively few studies have focused on HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice among rural-to-urban migrants in China. This cross-sectional study was to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perceptions, including knowledge about reducing high-risk sex. Methods Two-phase stratified cluster sampling was...

  12. Gastric and Peritoneal Involvement of Human Herpes Virus 8 Related Kaposi Sarcoma in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

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    Nuno Ribeiro Ferreira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma (KS is one of the most frequent neoplastic diseases in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. The authors report the case of a 40-year-old male with ascites, peripheral edema and peritoneal carcinomatosis secondary to a gastric KS related to human herpes virus type 8 (HHV-8. The patient had severe immunodeficiency, with a TCD4+ count of 86 cells/µl and newly diagnosed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. His clinical condition rapidly deteriorated, with multiorgan failure, and he died without the possibility of initiating antiretroviral therapy or chemotherapy. To the authors’ knowledge, carcinomatosis is a rare feature in KS.

  13. Human papillomavirus-associated cancers as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defining illnesses

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    Shohreh Shahabi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control currently report cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal and some head and neck cancers as human papillomavirus (HPV-associated cancers. Only cervical cancer is listed amongst acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS defining illnesses. All of these cancers may represent progression of the immunocompromised state with the inability to eradicate viral infection. This study reports the case of a 27-year old HIV positive female presenting with a persistent right vulvar exophytic lesion. High-risk HPV analysis and immunostaining for P16 were both positive. A biopsy of the lesion revealed invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The patient underwent neoadjuvant radiation and chemotherapy followed by a radical vulvectomy. During treatment, her CD4 T-lymphocyte count decreased to 120 advancing her condition from HIV to AIDS. This case suggests that all HPV-associated cancers should be included as AIDS defining illnesses.

  14. [The incidence of oral candidiasis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from Yunnan, China].

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    Wen, Yan; Li, Chengwen; Pei, Junhaoxiang; Bai, Jinsong; Yang, Xianghong; Duan, Kaiwen

    2014-08-01

    To assess the incidence of oral candidiasis and its influencing factors in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). An oral examination was conducted in the 1 566 HIV/AIDS patients in the Third Hospital of Kunming from March 2008 to September 2012 (M/F: 1 062/504, age range: 0.2 to 84.0 years old). The HIV viral load (HIV- RNA) and peripheral blood CD4 count were respectively analyzed by Bayer Q340 fluorescence signal surveying instrument (bDNA method) and flow cytometry analysis. The information on usage of highly active anti-retroviral (HAART) drugs and transmission of HIV were obtained through questionnaires. The incidence of oral candidiasis in patients with different HIV-RNA levels and CD4 count and the use of HAART was analyzed and compared. The total incidence of oral candidosis was 31.0% (486/1 566) and there was no difference in sex. The oral lesions were presented by three types, psudomembranous candidosis (PC), erythematous candidosis (EC) and angular cheilitis (AC), and the morbidity was 13.9% (217/1 566), 17.0% (267/1 566) and 4.9% (77/1 566), respectively. The average level of CD4 count in psudomembranous candidosis, erythematous candidosis and angular cheilitis [81.0 (146.0), 74.0 (152.0) and 69.0 (121.5) cell/µl] showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). The incidence of oral candidiasis in non-HAART and HAART subjects were 36.3% (402/1 107) and 18.3% (84/459), respectively (P = 0.000). The CD4 count and absolute counts of HIV viral load in oral candidiasis patients and non-oral candidiasis patients had significant difference (Z = -10.261, P = 0.000 and Z = -4.762, P = 0.000). The morbidity of oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients in Yunnan Province was high, including PC, EC and AC and hyperplastic candidosis was not detected. The incidence was related to the degree of immune suppression and HIV viral load.

  15. Chest radiography patterns in 75 adolescents with vertically-acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, S.R.; Copley, S.J.; Barker, R.D.; Elston, C.M.; Miller, R.F.; Wells, A.U.; Munyati, S.; Nathoo, K.; Corbett, E.L.; Ferrand, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate lung disease on chest radiography (CR), the relative frequency of CR abnormalities, and their clinical correlates in adolescents with vertically-acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Materials and methods: CRs of 75 patients [59 inpatients (33 males; mean age 13.7 ± 2.3 years) and 16 outpatients (eight males; mean age 14.1 ± 2.1 years)] were retrospectively reviewed by three independent observers. The overall extent of disease (to the nearest 5%), its distribution, and the proportional extents (totalling 100%) of different radiographic patterns (including ring/tramline opacities and consolidation) were quantified. CR features and clinical data were compared. Results: CRs were abnormal in 51/75 (68%) with 'extensive' disease in 38/51 (74%). Ring/tramline opacities and consolidation predominated (i.e., proportional extent >50%) in 26 and 21 patients, respectively. Consolidation was significantly more common in patients hospitalized primarily for a respiratory illness than patients hospitalized for a non-respiratory illness or in outpatients (p 2 for trend); by contrast, ring/tramline opacities did not differ in prevalence across the groups. On stepwise logistic regression, predominant consolidation was associated with progressive dyspnoea [odds ratio (OR) 5.60; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.60, 20.1; p < 0.01] and was associated with a primary respiratory cause for hospital admission (OR: 22.0; CI: 2.7, 181.1; p < 0.005). Ring/tramline opacities were equally prevalent in patients with and without chronic symptoms and in those admitted to hospital with respiratory and non-respiratory illness. Conclusion: In HIV-infected adolescents, evaluated in secondary practice, CR abnormalities are prevalent. The presence of ring/tramline opacities, believed to reflect chronic airway disease, is not linked chronic respiratory symptoms.

  16. Chest radiography patterns in 75 adolescents with vertically-acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, S.R., E-mail: sujal.desai@nhs.ne [King' s College London, King' s Health Partners, Department of Radiology, King' s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Copley, S.J. [Department of Radiology, Hammersmith Hospital (United Kingdom); Barker, R.D.; Elston, C.M. [King' s College London, King' s Health Partners, Department of Respiratory Medicine, King' s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Miller, R.F. [Research Department of Infection and Public Health, Division of Population Health, University College London (United Kingdom); Clinical Research Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Wells, A.U. [The Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Munyati, S. [Biomedical Research and Training Institute, Samora Machel Avenue (Zimbabwe); Nathoo, K. [Department of Paediatrics, University of Zimbabwe (Zimbabwe); Harare Central Hospital, Lobengula Road, Harare (Zimbabwe); Corbett, E.L.; Ferrand, R.A. [Clinical Research Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Biomedical Research and Training Institute, Samora Machel Avenue (Zimbabwe)

    2011-03-15

    Aim: To evaluate lung disease on chest radiography (CR), the relative frequency of CR abnormalities, and their clinical correlates in adolescents with vertically-acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Materials and methods: CRs of 75 patients [59 inpatients (33 males; mean age 13.7 {+-} 2.3 years) and 16 outpatients (eight males; mean age 14.1 {+-} 2.1 years)] were retrospectively reviewed by three independent observers. The overall extent of disease (to the nearest 5%), its distribution, and the proportional extents (totalling 100%) of different radiographic patterns (including ring/tramline opacities and consolidation) were quantified. CR features and clinical data were compared. Results: CRs were abnormal in 51/75 (68%) with 'extensive' disease in 38/51 (74%). Ring/tramline opacities and consolidation predominated (i.e., proportional extent >50%) in 26 and 21 patients, respectively. Consolidation was significantly more common in patients hospitalized primarily for a respiratory illness than patients hospitalized for a non-respiratory illness or in outpatients (p < 0.005, {chi}{sup 2} for trend); by contrast, ring/tramline opacities did not differ in prevalence across the groups. On stepwise logistic regression, predominant consolidation was associated with progressive dyspnoea [odds ratio (OR) 5.60; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.60, 20.1; p < 0.01] and was associated with a primary respiratory cause for hospital admission (OR: 22.0; CI: 2.7, 181.1; p < 0.005). Ring/tramline opacities were equally prevalent in patients with and without chronic symptoms and in those admitted to hospital with respiratory and non-respiratory illness. Conclusion: In HIV-infected adolescents, evaluated in secondary practice, CR abnormalities are prevalent. The presence of ring/tramline opacities, believed to reflect chronic airway disease, is not linked chronic respiratory symptoms.

  17. Production of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated retrovirus in human and nonhuman cells transfected with an infectious molecular clone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, A.; Gendelman, H.E.; Koenig, S.; Folks, T.; Willey, R.; Rabson, A.; Martin, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors considered an infectious molecular clone of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated retrovirus. Upon transfection, this clone directed the production of infectious virus particles in a wide variety of cells in addition to human T4 cells. The progeny, infectious virions, were synthesized in mouse, mink, monkey, and several human non-T cell lines, indicating the absence of any intracellular obstacle to viral RNA or protein production or assembly. During the course of these studies, a human colon carcinoma cell line, exquisitely sensitive to DNA transfection, was identified

  18. Management of a rare presentation of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome patient.

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    Priya, D; Sudharshan, S; Biswas, Jyotirmay

    2017-05-01

    Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH), a multisystem autoimmune bilateral panuveitis with systemic manifestations, is uncommon in immunocompromised patients such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome (AIDS). We report a rare presentation of VKH in a 45-year-old HIV-positive female on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) who presented with a history of recurrent panuveitis. A diagnosis of probable VKH was made based on ocular and systemic signs and symptoms. She was treated with topical and systemic steroids with close monitoring of CD4 counts and viral loads. After inflammation control, complicated cataract was managed surgically under perioperative steroid cover. VKH in HIV/AIDS has not been reported earlier. This case shows that significant inflammation can be seen even in HIV/AIDS patients on HAART with VKH in spite of moderate CD4 counts. Management is a challenge considering the systemic risks with long-term use of steroids.

  19. Avian Influenza: Potential Impact on Sub-Saharan Military Populations with High Rates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feldman, Robert L; Nickell, Kent

    2007-01-01

    ...)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. With the arrival of avian influenza in Africa, the potential exists that some of those soldiers might also become infected with H5N1, the virus responsible for the disease...

  20. Presentation and outcome amongst older Singaporeans living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS): does age alone drive excess mortality?

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    Huggan, Paul J; Foo, Rui Min; Olszyna, Dariusz; Chew, Nicholas S; Smitasen, Nares; Mukhopadhyay, Amartya; Archuleta, Sophia

    2012-12-01

    There is little detailed information on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) amongst older adults in Singapore. A retrospective study of 121 consecutive referrals of patients presenting for HIV care was conducted. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were collected. A prognostic model derived from the North American Veterans' Affairs Cohort Study (VACS) was used to estimate prognosis. The median age at presentation was 43 (range, 18 to 76). Thirty-eight patients (31%) were aged 50 or older and 106 patients (88%) were male. Older patients were more likely to be of Chinese ethnicity (P = 0.035), married (P = 0.0001), unemployed or retired (P = 0.0001), and to have acquired their infection heterosexually (P = 0.0002). The majority of patients in both groups were symptomatic at presentation. Eighty-one (67%) had CD4 counts less than 200 at baseline with no observable differences in HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA) or clinical stage based on age. Non-Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) morbidity was observed more frequently amongst older patients. The estimated prognosis of patients differed significantly based on age. Using the VACS Index and comparing younger patients with those aged 50 and above, mean 5 year mortality estimates were 25% and 50% respectively (P HIV/AIDS cases and present with more non-AIDS morbidity. This confers a poor prognosis despite comparable findings with younger patients in terms of clinical stage, AIDS-defining illness, CD4 count and HIV viral load.

  1. Behaviors Influencing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission in the Context of Positive Prevention among People Living with HIV/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Iran: A Qualitative Study

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    Seyed Ramin Radfar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying factors, which influence health behaviors is critical to designing appropriate and effective preventive programs. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission is highly related to people behaviors and understanding factors influencing healthy behaviors among Iranian people living with HIVs (PLHIVs/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is very important to tailor an effective response to HIV/AIDS epidemic. Methods: This study was conducted as a qualitative study by methods of focus group discussion and in-depth interview in six provinces of Iran with 64 PLHIVs to determine factors influence engagement in positive prevention. Results: Knowledge and education, feelings of responsibility and positive prevention practices were identified as the primary domains of engagement. These domains were found to be influenced by feelings of ostracism and frustration, poverty, barriers to disclosure of HIV status, access to and utilization of drug abuse treatment services and antiretroviral therapy, adherence to treatment, age, religiousness, sex work, singleness, and incarceration. Conclusions: Designing new interventions and updating current interventions directed toward the aforementioned factors should be addressed by responsible Iranian authorities in order to have a national effective response on the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

  2. Is human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome decreasing among Brazilian injection drug users? Recent findings and how to interpret them

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    Francisco I Bastos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review findings from Brazilian settings where the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS epidemic among injection drug users (IDUs seems to be decreasing, highlighting recent findings from Rio de Janeiro and discussing methodological alternatives. Former analyses using serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion have shown that HIV incidence has been low in IDUs recruited by two different surveys carried out in Rio, where low injection frequencies and infection rates have been found among new injectors. The proportion of AIDS cases among IDUs in Rio has been fairly modest, compared to São Paulo and especially to the southernmost states. Notwithstanding, the interpretation of findings from serial surveys constitutes a challenge, magnified in the assessment of HIV spread among IDUs due to the dynamic nature of the drug scenes and limitations of sampling strategies targeting hard-to-reach populations. Assessment of epidemic trends may profit from the triangulation of data, but cannot avert biases associated with sampling errors. Efforts should be made to triangulate data from different sources, besides exploring specific studies from different perspectives. In an attempt to further assess the observed trends, we carried out original analyses using data from Brazilian AIDS databank.

  3. The Role of Faith-Based Organizations in the Education, Support, and Services for Persons Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

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    Stephens, Teresa M

    2018-03-01

    Faith-based organizations are in a unique position to provide resilience-enhancing efforts for persons living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS. Many persons living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS report having a strong faith or religious affiliation, with a large percentage attending church services on a regular basis. Faith-based organizations can use these factors to reach out to these individuals and effectively promote health, well-being, education, and support. Faith-based organizations can contribute to the reduction of stigma and isolation for persons living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Knowledge and attitude about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among higher secondary school students of Jaipur city: A cross-sectional study

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    Pankaj Chaudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: India is estimated to have the third highest number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infections in the world with about 20.89 lakh people currently living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Inadequate knowledge, negative attitudes, and ignorance among the school students are major hindrances to prevent the spread of HIV. Aim: To assess the knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDS among the higher secondary school students of Jaipur city. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study comprising 613 higher secondary school students (male = 390, female = 223 from Jaipur city were included in the study. The city was divided into 4 zones and one school from each zone was selected randomly. A questionnaire assessing the knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDS was distributed among the senior school students. Pilot study was done among 50 students to test the validity of the questionnaire. Results: All the students (100% in our sample knew what is AIDS. About 96.2% of the students knew that AIDS is not a simple disease, the correct knowledge about the modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS was nearly 85.6% and about 94% of students would not leave the school if there was an AIDS student in their class. Eighty-four percent of students believed that students with AIDS should not go to special schools and about 95.8% students believed that HIV individuals must be supported, treated, and helped. Conclusion: The students had satisfactory knowledge about HIV/AIDS and their attitude toward this group of people was good. There is need and opportunity to provide factual and precise knowledge on HIV/AIDS for school students. There should also be a drive to increase education and awareness about HIV/AIDS in educational institutes.

  5. Food Security in Households of People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study in a Subdivision of Darjeeling District, West Bengal

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    Pallabi Dasgupta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS adversely impacts food security in households of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA. Little research has focused on food insecurity among PLWHA in India. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of and factors relating to food security in households of PLWHA in the Siliguri subdivision of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 173 PLWHA residing in Siliguri and registered at the Anti-retroviral Therapy Centre of North Bengal Medical College & Hospital. Data was collected at the household level with interviews of PLWHA using a food security survey instrument. We analyzed the associations using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of household food security among the participants was 50.9% (88/173. Five years or more of schooling, higher socioeconomic class and males were found to be significantly associated with a higher likelihood of food security. A later stage of the disease and the presence of other family members with HIV/AIDS were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of food security. The major coping strategies to deal with food insecurity in the acute phase HIV infection included borrowing money (56.1%, followed by spousal support, loans from microfinance institutions, banks, or money lenders, borrowing food, or selling agricultural products. Conclusions: The present study revealed that only about half of households with PLWHA were food secure. Prior interventions relating to periods of food and economic crisis as well as strategies for sustaining food security and economic status are needed in this area.

  6. Estimation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients in Manipur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh H

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To estimate and stratify CD4 + and CD8 + T-lymphocyte levels in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected (asymptomatic and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients (symptomatic and correlate the clinical features of the patients with CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte level. Methods : Between April 2002 and September 2003, a total of 415 HIV seropositive adult patients (297 males and 118 females attending Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS hospitals were tested for CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes by fluorescent activated cell sorter (FACS counter (Becton Dickinson. Symptomatic patients were diagnosed as per NACO clinical case definition. Results : Ranges of 0-50, 51-100, 101-200, 201-300, 301-400, 401-500 and above 500 CD4+ T-lymphocyte per microlitre were seen in 68, 52, 101, 73, 47, 31 and 43 patients respectively whereas CD8+ T-lymphocyte ranges of 0-300, 301-600, 601-900, 901-1500, 1501-2000, 2001-3500 per microlitre were seen in 29, 84, 92, 145, 40 and 25 patients respectively. One hundred and fifty patients were asymptomatic and 265 were symptomatic. CD4/CD8 ratio in asymptomatics and symptomatics were 0.13-1.69 and 0.01-0.93 respectively. Tuberculosis and candidiasis occurred in CD4+ T-lymphocyte categories between 0-400 cells per mL in symptomatics. However, cryptosporidiosis, toxoplasmosis, herpes zoster, cryptococcal meningitis, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, penicilliosis and cytomegalovirus retinitis were seen in patients having CD4+ T-lymphocyte less than 200 per mL. Conclusions : CD4+ T-lymphocyte was decreased in both asymptomatic and symptomatic HIV patients, The decrease was greater in symptomatics while CD8+ T-lymphocyte was increased in both except advanced stage symptomatics. CD4:CD8 ratio was reversed in both groups. Opportunistic infections correlated with different CD4+ T-lymphocyte categories.

  7. The socioeconomic impact of human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immune deficiency syndrome in India and its relevance to eye care

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy GVS

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is aptly called the modern day ′plague′ and has the potential to decimate people in the productive age group. On the other hand, the increasing life expectancy in developing countries spirals age-related blindness. One therefore reduces economic productivity while the other increases economic dependency. Both lead to increased expenditure of households though in different proportions. Human immunodeficiency virus and blindness are bot...

  8. Relationship between current level of immunodeficiency and non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reekie, Joanne; Kosa, Csaba; Engsig, Frederik

    2010-01-01

    In the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) era, non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining malignancies account for more morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients than AIDS-defining malignancies. However, conflicting data have been reported...

  9. A controlled study of funding for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome as resource capacity building in the health system in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Donald S; Zeng, Wu; Amico, Peter; Rwiyereka, Angelique K; Avila-Figueroa, Carlos

    2012-05-01

    Because human inmmunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) receives more donor funding globally than that for all other diseases combined, some critics allege this support undermines general health care. This empirical study evaluates the impact of HIV/AIDS funding on the primary health care system in Rwanda. Using a quasi-experimental design, we randomly selected 25 rural health centers (HCs) that started comprehensive HIV/AIDS services from 2002 through 2006 as the intervention group. Matched HCs with no HIV/AIDS services formed the control group. The analysis compared growth in inputs and services between intervention and control HCs with a difference-in-difference analysis in a random-effects model. Intervention HCs performed better than control HCs in most services (seven of nine), although only one of these improvements (Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination) reached or approached statistical significance. In conclusion, this six-year controlled study found no adverse effects of the expansion of HIV/AIDS services on non-HIV services among rural health centers in Rwanda.

  10. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus knowledge, attitudes, and practices, and use of healthcare services among rural migrants: a cross-sectional study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Cochran, Christopher; Xu, Peng; Shen, Jay J; Zeng, Gang; Xu, Yanjun; Sun, Mei; Li, Chengyue; Li, Xiaohong; Chang, Fengshui; Lu, Jun; Hao, Mo; Lu, Fan

    2014-02-13

    Today's rapid growth of migrant populations has been a major contributor to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, relatively few studies have focused on HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice among rural-to-urban migrants in China. This cross-sectional study was to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perceptions, including knowledge about reducing high-risk sex. Two-phase stratified cluster sampling was applied and 2,753 rural migrants participated in this study. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was conducted in Guangdong and Sichuan provinces in 2007. Descriptive analysis was used to present the essential characteristics of the respondents. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression models were performed to examine the associations between identified demographic factors and high-risk sex, sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms, and access to HIV screening services among the seven types of workers. 58.6% of participants were knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS transmission, but approximately 90% had a negative attitude towards the AIDS patients, and that 6.2% had engaged in high-risk sex in the past 12 months. Logistic regression analysis revealed sex, marital status, income, migration and work experience to be associated with high-risk sex. Among the 13.9% of workers who reported having STD symptoms, risk factors that were identified included female gender, high monthly income, being married, daily laborer or entertainment worker, frequent migration, and length of work experience. Only 3% of migrant workers received voluntary free HIV screening, which was positively associated with monthly income and workplace. HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and practices among rural migrants in China remain a thorny health issue, and use of healthcare services needs to be improved. Low levels of education and knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS among housekeepers and migrant day laborers result in

  11. Do Students Eventually Get to Publish their Research Findings? The Case of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Research in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munung, Ns; Vidal, L; Ouwe-Missi-Oukem-Boyer, O

    2014-05-01

    Scientific publication is commonly used to communicate research findings and in most academic/research settings, to evaluate the potential of a researcher and for recruitment and promotion. It has also been said that researchers have the duty to make public, the findings of their research. As a result, researchers are encouraged to share their research findings with the scientific world through peer review publications. In this study, we looked at the characteristics and publication rate of theses that documented studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Cameroon. TO CHECK IF A THESIS RESULTED IN A PUBLICATION, WE SEARCHED: A database of publications on HIV in Cameroon, African Journals Online, PubMed and Google scholar. For each publication we recorded if the student was an author, the position of the student in the author listing, the journal and where the journal was indexed. We also looked at the impact factor of the journals. One hundred and thirty theses/dissertations were included in the study, 74.6% (97/130) were written as part of a medical degree (MD), 23.8% (31/130) a postgraduate (PG) degree and 1.5% (2/130) for a Doctorate/PhD. On a whole, 13.9% (18/130) of the theses resulted in at least one publication in a scientific journal with a total of 22 journal articles, giving a mean publication rate of 0.17 article/thesis, 86.4% (11/22) were indexed on PubMed, 9.1% (2/22) on African Journals Online and 4.6% (1/22) on Google scholar. One PG thesis led to two book chapters. The student was the first author in 22.7% (5/22) of the articles and not an author in 9.1% (2/22) of the articles. Student supervisor was an author in all the articles. This study reveals that most students in Cameroon failed to transform their theses/dissertations to scientific publications. This indicates an urgent need to sensitize students on the importance of presenting their research findings in scientific meetings and peer reviewed journals

  12. Epidemiology and clinical parameters of adult human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome at the initiation of antiretroviral therapy in South eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleje, Gu; Ele, Pu; Okocha, Ec; Iloduba, Uc

    2014-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has continued to ravage the teeming populations in Nigeria, with disastrous consequences. Despite many studies and progress on HIV/AIDS in Africa, the data on the status of the patients at the commencement of therapy is lacking. The aim of this study is to determine the demographic, clinical and some laboratory features of adult HIV/AIDS patients, seen at the commencement of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, south-east Nigeria between July 2002 and October 2004. The study was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Adult patients living with HIV/AIDS were studied using an interview administered questionnaire. Data was analyzed using Epi Info 2008 version 3.5.1. A total of 400 respondents participated in this study. The mean age was 36.8 (8.8) years. Almost 60% patients were married and the HIV concordance rate was 53.3% (136/255). Nearly 30% of the families had at least one child positive for HIV. The most common associated risky behavior was injection administered in patent medicine stores 74.5%(302/400) and the most common clinical symptom was respiratory. Of the 400 patients recruited in this study, 19 (4.8%) were lost to follow-up on the 6 months' visit, giving a follow-up rate of 95.2% (381/400). There was statistically significant difference in the mean body weight (P = 0.02), mean total white blood cell count (P < 0.001) and mean CD4(+) count (P < 0.001) at presentation and after 6 months of ART therapy. HIV/AIDS patients present late and body weight, CD4(+) count and total white blood cell count seemed to recover quickly on commencement of ART. The prevalence of concordance among couples and mother to child transmission rates tended to be high. Administration of injectable at patent medicine stores and multiple sexual partners are the most significant risk factors.

  13. Contribution of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic to de novo presentations of heart disease in the Heart of Soweto Study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Karen; Carrington, Melinda J; Becker, Anthony; Thienemann, Friedrich; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Stewart, Simon

    2012-04-01

    The contemporary impact of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic on heart disease in South Africa (>5 million people affected) is unknown. The Heart of Soweto Study provides a unique opportunity to identify the contribution of cardiac manifestations of this epidemic to de novo presentations of heart disease in an urban African community in epidemiological transition. Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital services the >1 million people living in Soweto, South Africa. A prospective, clinical registry captured data from all de novo cases of heart disease presenting to the Cardiology Unit during 2006-08. We describe all cases where HIV/AIDS was concurrently diagnosed. Overall, 518 of 5328 de novo cases of heart disease were identified as HIV-positive (9.7%) with 54% of these prescribed highly active anti-retroviral therapies on presentation. Women (62%) and Africans (97%) predominated with women being significantly younger than men 38 ± 13 vs. 42 ± 13 years (P = 0.002). The most common primary diagnosis attributable to HIV/AIDS was HIV-related cardiomyopathy (196 cases, 38%); being prescribed more anti-retroviral therapy (127/196 vs. 147/322; odds ratio 2.85, 95% confidence interval 1.81-3.88) with higher viral loads [median 110 000 (inter-quartile range 26 000-510 000) vs. 19 000 (3200-87 000); P = 0.018] and a lower CD4 count [median 180 (71-315) vs. 211 (96-391); P = 0.019] than the rest. An additional 128 cases (25%) were diagnosed with pericarditis/pericardial effusion with a range of other concurrent diagnoses evident, including 42 cases (8.1%) of HIV-related pulmonary arterial hypertension. Only 14 of all 581 cases of coronary artery disease (CAD) (2.4%, mean age 41 ± 13 years) were confirmed HIV-positive. Cardiac manifestations of HIV/AIDS identified within this cohort were relatively infrequent. While HIV-related cardiomyopathy and pericardial disease remain important targets for early detection and treatment in

  14. Radiological pulmonary manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchiori, Edson; Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves de; Ossa, Alfonso Jaramillo

    1999-01-01

    In this article are reviewed the principal radiologic manifestations of inflammatory and tumoral diseases the compromise the lungs of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In the group of inflammatory diseases the radiologic aspects of pneumocystosis, cytomegalovirus disease, cryptococcosis, tuberculosis and bacterial pneumonias are emphasized. In the neoplasic diseases' group the aspects of lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma are specially presented. (author)

  15. Risky sexual behaviour and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS among healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Khamisa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa is known to have one of the highest prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS globally, with one in seven healthcare workers being HIV-positive. An HIV-positive healthcare workforce is less equipped to respond to the increasing spread of the epidemic. Objectives: Assessment of the factors contributing to high HIV prevalence rates among healthcare workers is important in planning the development of human resources. This review sought to identify and understand predominant risky sexual behaviours among healthcare workers in HIV and AIDS-affected countries. Methods: This study reviewed articles focusing on sexual behaviour among healthcare workers. Major health science databases (e.g. ProQuest, Cochrane, PubMed and CINAHL were searched for combinations of keywords including ‘healthcare workers’, ‘risky sexual behaviour’ and ‘HIV and AIDS’. Articles from a range of countries met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Findings of the study revealed three main contributing factors: unprotected sex, multiple sex partners and sexual violence. Sexual violence emerged as the dominant risk factor in the majority of the studies. Most research was conducted in developed countries where the HIV infection rate is much lower than it is in developing countries. Conclusion: More research needs to be conducted in developing countries and appropriate strategies should be implemented to reduce sexual violence among healthcare workers. Appropriate procedures on reporting sexual violence coupled with education on HIV and AIDS as well as influencing attitudes and belief systems could assist in reducing the spread of HIV and AIDS within the healthcare workforce while minimising the effect on patient care.

  16. Risky sexual behaviour and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) among healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamisa, Natasha; Mokgobi, Maboe

    2018-01-01

    South Africa is known to have one of the highest prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) globally, with one in seven healthcare workers being HIV-positive. An HIV-positive healthcare workforce is less equipped to respond to the increasing spread of the epidemic. Assessment of the factors contributing to high HIV prevalence rates among healthcare workers is important in planning the development of human resources. This review sought to identify and understand predominant risky sexual behaviours among healthcare workers in HIV and AIDS-affected countries. This study reviewed articles focusing on sexual behaviour among healthcare workers. Major health science databases (e.g. ProQuest, Cochrane, PubMed and CINAHL) were searched for combinations of keywords including 'healthcare workers', 'risky sexual behaviour' and 'HIV and AIDS'. Articles from a range of countries met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Findings of the study revealed three main contributing factors: unprotected sex, multiple sex partners and sexual violence. Sexual violence emerged as the dominant risk factor in the majority of the studies. Most research was conducted in developed countries where the HIV infection rate is much lower than it is in developing countries. More research needs to be conducted in developing countries and appropriate strategies should be implemented to reduce sexual violence among healthcare workers. Appropriate procedures on reporting sexual violence coupled with education on HIV and AIDS as well as influencing attitudes and belief systems could assist in reducing the spread of HIV and AIDS within the healthcare workforce while minimising the effect on patient care.

  17. The socioeconomic impact of human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immune deficiency syndrome in India and its relevance to eye care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Gvs

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is aptly called the modern day 'plague' and has the potential to decimate people in the productive age group. On the other hand, the increasing life expectancy in developing countries spirals age-related blindness. One therefore reduces economic productivity while the other increases economic dependency. Both lead to increased expenditure of households though in different proportions. Human immunodeficiency virus and blindness are both associated with discrimination, stigma and long-term consequences. They impact the socioeconomic fabric of the affected individuals, communities and countries. The loss in productivity and the cost of support to the affected individuals are seen in both. Each is a potent problem on its own but together they spell disaster in geometric proportions rather than a simple additive effect. Strategies need to be evolved to provide solace and improve the quality of life of an HIV-positive blind individual.

  18. The socioeconomic impact of human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immune deficiency syndrome in India and its relevance to eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy GVS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is aptly called the modern day ′plague′ and has the potential to decimate people in the productive age group. On the other hand, the increasing life expectancy in developing countries spirals age-related blindness. One therefore reduces economic productivity while the other increases economic dependency. Both lead to increased expenditure of households though in different proportions. Human immunodeficiency virus and blindness are both associated with discrimination, stigma and long-term consequences. They impact the socioeconomic fabric of the affected individuals, communities and countries. The loss in productivity and the cost of support to the affected individuals are seen in both. Each is a potent problem on its own but together they spell disaster in geometric proportions rather than a simple additive effect. Strategies need to be evolved to provide solace and improve the quality of life of an HIV-positive blind individual.

  19. Radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunoassay of antibodies to the core protein (P24) of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV III). [Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neurath, A R; Strick, N; Sproul, P

    1985-05-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic viruses designated HTLV III or LAV are considered to represent the causative agents of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Therefore a simple direct RIA or ELISA method for antibodies to distinct epitopes of HTLV III/LAV structural components would be of great value. The authors describe RIA and ELISA assays which obviate the need for purified virus or virus proteins, do not utilize infected cells and thus do not diminish the source for continuous production of viral antigens and are specific for a major core protein of HTLV III/LAV.

  20. Correlation between Lymphocyte CD4 Count, Treatment Duration, Opportunistic Infection and Cognitive Function in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV-AIDS) Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, Fasihah Irfani; Rambe, Aldy Safruddin; Fitri, Aida

    2018-04-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is an epidemic worldwide, despite the marked benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ARV) in reducing severe HIV-associated dementia. A milder form of neurocognitive disorders are still prevalent and remain a challenge. This study aimed to determine the correlation between plasma cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) lymphocyte, duration of ARV treatment, opportunistic infections, and cognitive function in HIV-AIDS patients. A cross-sectional study involving 85 HIV-AIDS patients was conducted at Adam Malik General Hospital Medan, Indonesia. All subjects were subjected to physical, neurologic examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Indonesian Version (MoCA-INA) to assess cognitive function and measurement of lymphocyte CD4 counts. Out of the 85 subjects evaluated, the proportion concerning sexes include 52 males (61.2 %) and 33 females (38.8%). The mean age was 38.53 ± 9.77 years old. There was a significant correlation between CD4 lymphocyte counts and MoCA-INA score (r = 0.271, p = 0.012), but there was no significant correlation between duration of ARV treatment and MoCA-INA score. There was also no difference in MoCA-INA score based on the presence of opportunistic infection. Lymphocyte CD4 count was independently correlated with cognitive function in HIV-AIDS patients.

  1. Ocular Manifestations of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Shin; Sun, Hae Jung; Kim, Tae Hyong; Kang, Kui Dong; Lee, Sung Jin

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the patterns and risk factors of the ocular manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and their correlation with CD4+ count in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This retrospective study examined 127 AIDS patients who presented to Soonchunhyang University Hospital. Data were collected from patient interviews, clinical examinations, and laboratory investigations. Ophthalmologic examinations included the best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, anterior segment and adnexal examination, and dilated fundus examination. Of the 127 patients with AIDS, 118 were on HAART and 9 were not. The mean CD4+ count was 266.7 ± 209.1 cells/µL. There were ocular manifestations in 61 patients (48.0%). The incidence of anterior segment manifestations was higher than posterior segment manifestations at 28.3% and 19.7%, respectively. The mean CD4+ count was significantly (p AIDS. In this study, anterior segment and external ocular manifestations occurred more frequently than posterior segment manifestations. Also, the mean CD4+ count was significantly lower in patients with posterior segment ocular manifestations versus anterior segment ocular manifestations. We found that CD4+ count and age >35 years were independent risk factors for developing ocular manifestations.

  2. Bronchogenic carcinoma in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siciliano, Antonio Alexandre de Oliveira; Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves de; Marchiori, Edson

    1999-01-01

    The authors report two cases of bronchogenic carcinoma in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The first patient, a ee-year-old male, developed a left hilar adenocarcinoma, with spleen and bilateral adrenal metastases. The disease progressed unfavourably, resulting in the patient's death in less than a month. The second patient, a 47-year-old male, developed a large mass in the left upper lobe, with invasion of the thoracic wall and destruction of adjacent ribs. The histopathologic study revealed a non-oat-cell carcinoma. Both patients received palliative treatment since diagnosis was established late in the course of the disease. Recent studies suggest an association between bronchogenic carcinoma and human immunodeficiency virus infection. However, an actual increase in the prevalence of bronchogenic carcinoma in HIV-positive patients remains controversial. (author)

  3. Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Severe Peripheral Artery Disease in a 20-Year-Old with Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purva Sharma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection confers an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, including acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Patients with perinatally acquired HIV may be at increased risk due to the viral infection itself and exposure to HAART in utero or as part of treatment. A 20-year-old female with transplacentally acquired HIV infection presented with symptoms of transient aphasia, headache, palpitations, and blurry vision. She was admitted for hypertensive emergency with blood pressure 203/100 mmHg. Within a few hours, she complained of typical chest pain, and ECG showed marked ST depression. Troponin I levels escalated from 0.115 to 10.8. She underwent coronary angiogram showing 95% stenosis of the right coronary artery (RCA and severe peripheral arterial disease including total occlusion of both common iliacs and 95% infrarenal aortic stenosis with collateral circulation. She underwent successful percutaneous intervention with a drug-eluting stent to the mid-RCA. Patients with HIV are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Of these, coronary artery disease is one of the most critical complications of HIV. Perinatally acquired HIV infection can be a high-risk factor for cardiovascular disease. A high degree of suspicion is warranted in such patients, especially if they are noncompliant to their ART.

  4. Oral manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and their correlation to cluster of differentiation lymphocyte count in population of North-East India in highly active antiretroviral therapy era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarat Kumar Nayak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection which manifests as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is a disease involving the defects of the T-lymphocyte arm of the immune system. Certain laboratory parameters such as the cluster of differentiation (CD4 count and clinical parameters have long been used as markers of disease progression. In industrialized countries, many studies show a highly correlation between the incidence of oral lesions and immunosuppression and hence, can be used as a marker of immunosuppression. This might not be applicable to a developing country like India. In this study, efforts have been made to supplement the present knowledge on various aspects of oral manifestations in HIV patients in the Indian subcontinent. Aims: To correlate the oral manifestations in HIV/AIDS patients to the level of circulating CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and their effect in anti-retroviral therapy (ART. Subjects and Methods: A total of 104 HIV positive patients were examined for oral lesions. The CD4 count estimated on the same day by fluorescent activated cell sort count machine was then correlated with various oral lesions. Results: Oral manifestations appeared when CD4 count decreased below 500 cells/mm3. Moreover, oral lesions found at different stages showed very strong correlation to their respective CD4 count. Furthermore, there was considerable decline in the incidence of oral manifestations in patients undergoing highly active ART. Conclusions: Oral manifestations are highly predictive markers of severe immune deterioration and disease progression in HIV patients.

  5. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and its ocular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Narsing

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus infection is the first major pandemic of the 20th century. At present, almost 10 million people are known to be infected with this virus, and it is estimated that by the year 2000, approximately 40 million people will be infected. Transmission of this deadly infection is predominantly by sexual contact. Individuals infected with this virus pass through several predictable stages with progressive decrease in circulating CD4+ T cells. During the advanced stage, these patients develop various opportunistic infections or malignancies, or both. It is this advanced stage that was first recognized as AIDS, which has a 100% mortality rate. The opportunistic organisms that can involve the eye in patients with AIDS include cytomegalovirus, herpes zoster, Toxoplasma gondii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, Pneumocystis carinii, Histoplasma capsulatum, Candida, and others. Intraocular lesions from these agents often represent disseminated infections. Visual morbidity occurs secondary to retinitis due to cytomegalovirus, herpes zoster, or Toxoplasma gondii. Anti-viral agents such as ganciclovir or foscarnet are effective against cytomegalovirus infection. The role of the ophthalmologist in the diagnosis and management of AIDS is becoming increasingly important. Not only does the eye reflect systemic disease, but ocular involvement may often precede systemic manifestations. In the AIDS patient, the ophthalmologist thus has an opportunity to make not only a slight-saving, but also life-saving diagnosis of disseminated opportunistic infections.

  6. Inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies underlying tuberculosis in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Bustamante, Jacinta; El-Baghdadi, Jamila; Camcioglu, Yildiz; Parvaneh, Nima; Azbaoui, Safaa El; Agader, Aomar; Hassani, Amal; Hafidi, Naima El; Mrani, Nidal Alaoui; Jouhadi, Zineb; Ailal, Fatima; Najib, Jilali; Reisli, Ismail; Zamani, Adil; Yosunkaya, Sebnem; Gulle-Girit, Saniye; Yildiran, Alisan; Cipe, Funda Erol; Torun, Selda Hancerli; Metin, Ayse; Atikan, Basak Yildiz; Hatipoglu, Nevin; Aydogmus, Cigdem; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Dogu, Figen; Karaca, Neslihan; Aksu, Guzide; Kutukculer, Necil; Keser-Emiroglu, Melike; Somer, Ayper; Tanir, Gonul; Aytekin, Caner; Adimi, Parisa; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Mamishi, Setareh; Bousfiha, Aziz; Sanal, Ozden; Mansouri, Davood; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and a few related mycobacteria, is a devastating disease, killing more than a million individuals per year worldwide. However, its pathogenesis remains largely elusive, as only a small proportion of infected individuals develop clinical disease either during primary infection or during reactivation from latency or secondary infection. Subacute, hematogenous, and extrapulmonary disease tends to be more frequent in infants, children, and teenagers than in adults. Life-threatening primary TB of childhood can result from known acquired or inherited immunodeficiencies, although the vast majority of cases remain unexplained. We review here the conditions conferring a predisposition to childhood clinical diseases caused by mycobacteria, including not only M.tb but also weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as BCG vaccines and environmental mycobacteria. Infections with weakly virulent mycobacteria are much rarer than TB, but the inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies underlying these infections are much better known. Their study has also provided genetic and immunological insights into childhood TB, as illustrated by the discovery of single-gene inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlying severe cases of TB. Novel findings are expected from ongoing and future human genetic studies of childhood TB in countries that combine a high proportion of consanguineous marriages, a high incidence of TB, and an excellent clinical care, such as Iran, Morocco, and Turkey. PMID:25703555

  7. Knowledge, attitude, and behavioral practices pertaining to human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome among secondary school adolescents in makurdi, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Agbecha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents knowledge with their safe practices pertaining to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has a critical impact on the prevention of contracting and spreading HIV. Reports have shown that adolescents in the general setting engage in activities that enhance the spread of the virus. Aim: The study assessed school adolescent's HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS knowledge, with its impact on their behaviors and attitudes regarding the infection. Materials and Methods: Two hundred randomly selected adolescent students from 10 different schools in the city metropolis were involved in the cross-sectional study. Primary data were collected using a validated self-administered questionnaire on students HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA, and safe practices preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS. Results: The study observed that majority of the students had good knowledge about HIV/AIDS, had good attitude toward PLWHA, and engaged in safe practices that prevent the spread of HIV. The sources of HIV/AIDS information were hospital, school, home, electronic, and print media. The study also found that HIV/AIDS knowledge instilled good attitudes and behavioral practices in the students. Conclusion: The study shows that school sex education, as well as health promotion campaigns through media platforms, could impact positively on the knowledge, attitude, and behavioral practices of adolescents in curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS.

  8. High Mortality and Coinfection in a Prospective Cohort of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Patients with Histoplasmosis in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samayoa, Blanca; Roy, Monika; Cleveland, Angela Ahlquist; Medina, Narda; Lau-Bonilla, Dalia; Scheel, Christina M; Gomez, Beatriz L; Chiller, Tom; Arathoon, Eduardo

    2017-07-01

    Histoplasmosis is one of the most common and deadly opportunistic infections among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Latin America, but due to limited diagnostic capacity in this region, few data on the burden and clinical characteristics of this disease exist. Between 2005 and 2009, we enrolled patients ≥ 18 years of age with suspected histoplasmosis at a hospital-based HIV clinic in Guatemala City. A case of suspected histoplasmosis was defined as a person presenting with at least three of five clinical or radiologic criteria. A confirmed case of histoplasmosis was defined as a person with a positive culture or urine antigen test for Histoplasma capsulatum . Demographic and clinical data were also collected and analyzed. Of 263 enrolled as suspected cases of histoplasmosis, 101 (38.4%) were confirmed cases. Median time to diagnosis was 15 days after presentation (interquartile range [IQR] = 5-23). Crude overall mortality was 43.6%; median survival time was 19 days (IQR = 4-69). Mycobacterial infection was diagnosed in 70 (26.6%) cases; 26 (25.7%) histoplasmosis cases were coinfected with mycobacteria. High mortality and short survival time after initial symptoms were observed in patients with histoplasmosis. Mycobacterial coinfection diagnoses were frequent, highlighting the importance of pursuing diagnoses for both diseases.

  9. Effect of traditional Chinese medicine for treating human immunodeficiency virus infections and acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Boosting immune and alleviating symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wen; Wang, Jian; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    To respond to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in China, the integration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has important implications in health outcomes, especially in China where the use of TCM is widespread. The National Free TCM Pilot Program for HIV Infected People began in 5 provinces (Henan, Hebei, Anhui, Hubei, and Guangdong) in 2004, and quickly scaled up to 19 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China including some places with high prevalence, 26,276 adults have been treated thus far. Usually, people with HIV infection seek TCM for four main reasons: to enhance immune function, to treat symptoms, to improve quality of life, and to reduce side effects related to medications. Evidences from randomized controlled clinical trials suggested some beneficial effects of use of traditional Chinese herbal medicine for HIV infections and AIDS. More proofs from large, well-designed, rigorous trials is needed to give firm support. Challenges include interaction between herbs and antiretroviral drugs, stigma and discrimination. The Free TCM Program has made considerable progress in providing the necessary alternative care and treatment for HIV-infected people in China, and has strong government support for continued improvement and expansion, establishing and improving a work mechanism integrating Chinese and Western medicines.

  10. The correlation between perceived social support and illness uncertainty in people with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosa Sajjadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Illness uncertainty is a source of a chronic and pervasive psychological stress for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS (PLWH, and largely affects their quality of life and the ability to cope with the disease. Based on the uncertainty in illness theory, the social support is one of the illness uncertainty antecedents, and influences the level of uncertainty perceived by patients. Aim: To examine uncertainty in PLWH and its correlation with social support in Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional correlational study was conducted with 80 PLWH presenting to AIDS Research Center, Tehran, Iran in 2013. The data collected using illness uncertainty and social support inventories were analyzed through Pearson′s correlation coefficient, Spearman′s correlation coefficient, and regression analysis. Results: The results showed a high level of illness uncertainty in PLWH and a negative significant correlation between perceived social support and illness uncertainty ( P = 0.01, r = -0.29. Conclusion: Uncertainty is a serious aspect of illness experience in Iranian PLWH. Providing adequate, structured information to patients as well as opportunities to discuss their concerns with other PLWH and receive emotional support from their health care providers may be worthwhile.

  11. Management of Diabetes Mellitus in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miulescu Rucsandra Dănciulescu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is a human immune system disease characterized by increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, certain cancers and neurological disorders. The syndrome is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV that is transmitted through blood or blood products, sexual contact or contaminated hypodermic needles. Antiretroviral treatment reduces the mortality and the morbidity of HIV infection but is increasingly reported to be associated with increasing reports of metabolic abnormalities. The prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus in patients on antiretroviral therapy is high. Recently, a joint panel of American Diabetes Association (ADA and European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD experts updated the treatment recommendations for type 2 diabetes (T2DM in a consensus statement which provides guidance to health care providers. The ADA and EASD consensus statement concur that intervention in T2DM should be early, intensive, and uncompromisingly focused on maintaining glycemic levels as close as possible to the nondiabetic range. Intensive glucose management has been shown to reduce microvascular complications of diabetes but no significant benefits on cardiovascular diseases. Patients with diabetes have a high risk for cardiovascular disease and the treatment of diabetes should emphasize reduction of the cardiovascular factors risk. The treatment of diabetes mellitus in AIDS patients often involves polypharmacy, which increases the risk of suboptimal adherence

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy

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    Uma Sinha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients.

  13. Eradication of hepatitis C virus and non-liver-related non-acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related events in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Juan; Rodríguez-Castellano, Elena; Carrero, Ana; Von Wichmann, Miguel A; Montero, Marta; Galindo, María J; Mallolas, Josep; Crespo, Manuel; Téllez, María J; Quereda, Carmen; Sanz, José; Barros, Carlos; Tural, Cristina; Santos, Ignacio; Pulido, Federico; Guardiola, Josep M; Rubio, Rafael; Ortega, Enrique; Montes, María L; Jusdado, Juan J; Gaspar, Gabriel; Esteban, Herminia; Bellón, José M; González-García, Juan

    2017-08-01

    We assessed non-liver-related non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related (NLR-NAR) events and mortality in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients treated with interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV), between 2000 and 2008. The censoring date was May 31, 2014. Cox regression analysis was performed to assess the adjusted hazard rate (HR) of overall death in responders and nonresponders. Fine and Gray regression analysis was conducted to determine the adjusted subhazard rate (sHR) of NLR deaths and NLR-NAR events considering death as the competing risk. The NLR-NAR events analyzed included diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, cardiovascular events, NLR-NAR cancer, bone events, and non-AIDS-related infections. The variables for adjustment were age, sex, past AIDS, HIV transmission category, nadir CD4 + T-cell count, antiretroviral therapy, HIV RNA, liver fibrosis, HCV genotype, and exposure to specific anti-HIV drugs. Of the 1,625 patients included, 592 (36%) had a sustained viral response (SVR). After a median 5-year follow-up, SVR was found to be associated with a significant decrease in the hazard of diabetes mellitus (sHR, 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35-0.93; P = 0.024) and decline in the hazard of chronic renal failure close to the threshold of significance (sHR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.17-1.09; P = 0.075). Our data suggest that eradication of HCV in coinfected patients is associated not only with a reduction in the frequency of death, HIV progression, and liver-related events, but also with a reduced hazard of diabetes mellitus and possibly of chronic renal failure. These findings argue for the prescription of HCV therapy in coinfected patients regardless of fibrosis stage. (Hepatology 2017;66:344-356). © 2017 The Authors. Hepatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  14. Radionuclide brain imaging in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, D.C.; Gacinovic, S.; Miller, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) may produce a variety of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms and signs. CNS involvement in patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) includes AIDS dementia complex or HIV-1 associated cognitive/motor complex (widely known as HIV encephalopathy), progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML), opportunistic infections such as Toxoplasma gondii, TB, Cryptococcus and infiltration by non-Hodgkin's B cell lymphoma. High resolution structural imaging investigations, either X-ray Computed Tomography (CT scan) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have contributed to the understanding and definition of cerebral damage caused by HIV encephalopathy. Atrophy and mainly high signal scattered white matter abnormalities are commonly seen with MRI. PML produces focal white matter high signal abnormalities due to multiple foci of demyelination. However, using structural imaging techniques there are no reliable parameters to distinguish focal lesions due to opportunistic infection (Toxoplasma gondii abscess) from neoplasm (lymphoma infiltration). It is studied the use of radionuclide brain imaging techniques in the investigation of HIV infected patients. Brain perfusion Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPET), neuroreceptor and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies are reviewed. Greater emphasis is put on the potential of some radiopharmaceuticals, considered to be brain tumour markers, to distinguish intracerebral lymphoma infiltration from Toxoplasma infection. SPET with 201 Tl using quantification (tumour to non-tumour radioactivity ratios) appears a very promising technique to identify intracerebral lymphoma

  15. Knowledge and attitude of Indian clinical dental students towards the dental treatment of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Marya, Charu Mohan; Sharma, Nilima; Mohanty, Vikrant; Marwah, Mohita; Oberoi, Avneet

    2014-12-01

    Oral health care of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a growing area of concern. Information on HIV- and AIDS-related knowledge among dental students provides a crucial foundation for efforts aimed at developing an appropriate dental curriculum on HIV and AIDS. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of Indian clinical dental students towards the treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS and perceived sources of information regarding HIV-related issues. Data were collected from clinical dental students (third year, fourth year and internship) from three dental institutions in Delhi National Capital Region (NCR). The questions assessed the knowledge and attitude towards treatment of patients with HIV and the perceived source of information related to HIV. The willingness to treat HIV-positive patients among dental students was 67.0%, and 74.20% were confident of treating a patient with HIV/AIDS. The potential problems in rendering treatment to these patients were effect on the attitude of other patients (49.90%) and staff fears (52.50%). The correct knowledge regarding the infection-control practice (barrier technique) was found among only 15.50% of respondents. The respondents had sufficient knowledge regarding the oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS. There was no correlation between the knowledge and attitude score, demonstrating a gap between knowledge and attitude among dental students regarding treatment of HIV-infected patients. Appropriate knowledge has to be delivered through the dental education curriculum, which can instil confidence in students about their ability to manage HIV-positive patients. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  16. Knowledge, attitude, and perception of disease among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome: A study from a tertiary care center in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mahajan, Vikram K; Chauahn, Pushpinder S; Mehta, Karainder S; Rawat, Ritu; Shiny, T N

    2016-01-01

    Although modification of behavioral practices among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-affected patients is important in decreasing HIV disease transmission, the knowledge, attitude, and perception studies about HIV infection rarely include persons living with HIV/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS). To assess knowledge, attitude, and perceptions of persons living with HIV/AIDS for the disease and other epidemiological aspects. One-hundred and fifty consecutive persons living with HIV/AIDS were enrolled for this questionnaire-based cross-sectional, descriptive study. These 150 patients comprised 93 men and 57 women, aged between 14 and 78 (mean 37.13) years. The majority, 112 (74.67%) patients were between 20 and 50 years of age and 116 (77.3%) patients were either illiterate or high-school dropouts. Drivers, laborers, and self-employed comprised 69 (74.2%) patients among affected males. Only 129 (86%) respondents had heard about HIV/AIDS and knew about its heterosexual transmission. Ninety-eight (65.3%) respondents were aware of disease transmission from infected blood or needle pricks. Interestingly, 106 (70.7%) respondents were aware of the importance of using condom in preventing disease transmission. Television/radio was the most common sources of information for 135 (90%) patients. Nearly, 69% respondents disfavored disclosing their disease to friends/colleagues fearing stigmatization. Information, education, and communication activities are imperative to educate persons living with HIV/AIDS about life-long nature of the disease, modes of its transmission, and significance of preventive measures to bridge the gaps in their knowledge. While improvement in individual economic status, education, and health services remains highly desirable, mass media can play a pivotal role in creating awareness among masses.

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome vulnerability of men who have sex with men in a border area of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibakar Haldar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studying level of living, awareness about sexually transmitted infections (STIs including human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS and sex behavior of men who have sex with men (MSMs is prerequisite for control of increasing AIDS among them in India. Objective: To assess sociodemographics, awareness about STIs including AIDS, and find out the pattern of high risk sex behavior of MSM. Methodology: Cross-sectional survey was undertaken in May, 2012 among MSMs catered by T I program via Nongovernmental Organization "Madhya Banglar Sangram" in Murshidabad District. 62 MSMs were included from five cruising spots sampled randomly out of fourteen such. Information was collected via interview and focused group discussions (FGD using questionnaire and FGD guide. Blood samples were examined for VDRL reactivity. Results: Median age was 25 years and sexual debut at 13.67 ± 4.29 years. 87% respondents were residing in parental house, 20% was married, 40% had low education, 80.33% had additional jobs but 54% reported poor income. About 56% respondents knew "what is AIDS" and its spread via anal sex, mother to child transmission, needle sharing, sex worker, and blood transfusion reported by 52.46, 50.82, 47.54, 45.90, and 34.43%, respectively. More than 2/3rd, about 40 and 34.43% MSMs played "anal and oral receptive," "anal insertive" and "oral insertive" role. About 33% used condom regularly. Majority knew main symptoms of STIs. About 2/3rd reported discrimination by neighbors. Blood examination showed 6.45% VDRL reactivity. Conclusion: Reducing vulnerability of MSMs to HIV/AIDS requires holistic programs.

  18. Clinical characteristics of abnormal savda syndrome type in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients: A cross-sectional investigation in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peierdun, Mi-ji-ti; Liu, Wen-xian; Renaguli, Ai-ze-zi; Nurmuhammat, Amat; Li, Xiao-chun; Gulibaier, Ka-ha-er; Ainivaer, Wu-la-mu; Halmurat, Upur

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the distribution of abnormal hilit syndromes in traditional Uighur medicine (TUM) among human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients, and to find out the clinical characteristics of abnormal savda syndrome type HIV/AIDS patients. Between June and July in 2012, 307 eligible HIV/AIDS patients from in-patient department and out-patient clinics of Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region the Sixth People's Hospital in Urumqi were investigated. TUM syndrome differentiation was performed by a senior TUM physician. Each participant completed a Sign and Symptom Check-List for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS (SSC-HIV) questionnaire. Depression was evaluated by using Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression Questionnaire. Blood specimen was collected from each participant to test the levels of blood chemicals. Of 307 HIV/AIDS patients, 189 (61.6%) were abnormal savda syndrome type, 118 (38.4%) were non-abnormal-savda syndrome type. Mean CD4 counts of abnormal savda syndrome type patients was (227.61±192.93) cells/µL, and the prevalence of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated cystatin C were 49.7%, 28.6%, and 44.7%, which were significantly higher than those in the non-abnormal-savda syndrome type patients (26.3%, 16.0% and 25.0%,PHIV/AIDS-related symptoms such as fatigue (42.3%), back aches (40.7%), lack of appetite (33.9%), night sweats (31.7%) were more common among abnormal savda syndrome patients (PHIV/AIDS patients, and they present a more sever clinical manifestation.

  19. Hepatitis B and C Sero-prevalence in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Izmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri ATALAY

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Infections caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV represent a significant health problem. Co-infection with these viral agents is not uncommon as a result of the similar transmission routes. Our study was planned to investigate the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections in HIV/Acquired Immune Deficiency syndrome (AIDS patients followed up at our institution. Materials and Methods: In this study conducted in the Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology at Izmir Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, medical records of patients followed at the HIV/AIDS outpatient clinic between August 2002 and December 2014 were evaluated. Demographic data, main route of HIV transmission, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, anti-hepatitis B core (HBc immunoglobulin G (IgG, anti-HBs and anti-HCV results were evaluated. Results: A total of 157 treatment-naïve patients who were followed up at our HIV/AIDS outpatient clinic were included in this study. Four patients (2.6%, had HBsAg positivity. Anti-HBc IgG and anti-HBs positivity were detected in 34% and 28.4% of the patients, respectively. No patients had anti-HCV positivity. Conclusion: The prevalence of HBsAg in HIV-positive individuals was found to be similar to that in other population-based studies in our country. Absence of anti-HCV positivity suggests that hepatitis C infection is not a major health problem in this population.

  20. Progressive multifocal leukoence-phalopathy presenting as homonymous hemianopia in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive patient who was referred for retinal evaluation to rule out ophthalmic manifestations of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS. She complained of some disturbance in vision in both eyes. Fundus examination showed no abnormality. Perimetry, done to rule out optic nerve pathology, showed a left homonymous hemianopia. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI scan showed features of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML. She had no other neurological symptoms or signs.

  1. Progressive multifocal leukoence--phalopathy presenting as homonymous hemianopia in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Amit; Bandivdekar, Karishma; Ramchandani, Suresh; Ramchandani, Sushama

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive patient who was referred for retinal evaluation to rule out ophthalmic manifestations of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). She complained of some disturbance in vision in both eyes. Fundus examination showed no abnormality. Perimetry, done to rule out optic nerve pathology, showed a left homonymous hemianopia. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan showed features of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML). She had no other neurological symptoms or signs.

  2. Toxicity of oral radiotherapy in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.S.; Fried, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Although radiotherapy is a standard form of management of head and neck tumors, treatment of the oral cavity in patients who have the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome has produced unacceptable toxicity. Five such patients are described as a warning of enhanced toxicity of oral radiotherapy in this patient population

  3. Hemorrhagic abscess in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado-Naranjo, I.; Lopez-Trigo, J.; Ferrandiz, A.; Cervello, A.; Navarro, V.

    1989-01-01

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis is frequent among patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The common computed tomography appearance of this complication is multiple low density area with ring enhancement. We describe a very rare picture of cerebral toxoplasmosis, this is multiple hemorrhagic toxoplasmic abscess. (orig.)

  4. Cerebral involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krestin, G.P.; Juergens, R.; Steinbrich, W.; Diederich, N.; Koeln Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Involvement of the central nervous system in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is usually due to opportunistic infections; these frequently offer a difficult differential diagnostic problem. Imaging methods play an important part in the elucidation of symptoms. CT and MR findings were analysed in 13 patients with AIDS and neurological symptoms. Some infections of the central nervous system (encephalitis of unknown aetiology, cytomegalic encephalitis, meningitis) may show cerebral atrophy or even no morphological changes. Toxoplasmosis and PML are the most common opportunistic infections typical changes on CT and MR may lead to diagnosis. MR offers advantages compared with CT in its higher sensitivity for the demonstration even of small lesions. (orig.) [de

  5. An Increased Risk of Osteoporosis during Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annapoorna, N; Rao, G Venkateswara; Reddy, N S; Rambabu, P; Rao, K R S Samabasiva

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by decreased bone mineral density and mechanistic imbalances of bone tissue that may result in reduced skeletal strength and an enhanced susceptibility to fractures. Osteoporosis in its most common form affects the elderly (both sexes) and all racial groups of human beings. Multiple environmental risk factors like acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are believed to be one of the causes of osteoporosis. Recently a high incidence of osteoporosis has been observed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals. The etiology of this occurrence in HIV infections is controversial. This problem seems to be more frequent in patients receiving potent antiretroviral therapy. In AIDS, the main suggested risk factors for the development of osteoporosis are use of protease inhibitors, longer duration of HIV infection, lower body weight before antiretroviral therapy, high viral load. Variations in serum parameters like osteocalcin, c-telopeptide, levels of elements like Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, concentration of vitamin-D metabolites, lactate levels, bicarbonate concentrations, amount of alkaline phosphatase are demonstrated in the course of development of osteoporosis. OPG/RANKL/RANK system is final mediator of bone remodeling. Bone mineral density (BMD) test is of added value to assess the risk of osteoporosis in patients infected with AIDS. The biochemical markers also aid in this assessment. Clinical management mostly follows the lines of treatment of osteoporosis and osteopenia.

  6. Neurologic manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus infection in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epstein, L. G.; Sharer, L. R.; Oleske, J. M.; Connor, E. M.; Goudsmit, J.; Bagdon, L.; Robert-Guroff, M.; Koenigsberger, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the neurologic manifestations of 36 children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this cohort, in 16 of 21 children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), three of 12 children with AIDS-related complex, and one of three asymptomatic seropositive

  7. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome associated with blood-product transfusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jett, J.R.; Kuritsky, J.N.; Katzmann, J.A.; Homburger, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    A 53-year-old white man had fever, malaise, and dyspnea on exertion. His chest roentgenogram was normal, but pulmonary function tests showed impaired diffusion capacity and a gallium scan showed marked uptake in the lungs. Results of an open-lung biopsy documented Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Immunologic test results were consistent with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The patient denied having homosexual contact or using intravenous drugs. Twenty-nine months before the diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia was made, the patient had had 16 transfusions of whole blood, platelets, and fresh-frozen plasma during coronary artery bypass surgery at another medical center. This patient is not a member of any currently recognized high-risk group and is believed to have contracted the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from blood and blood-product transfusions

  8. Cerebral computed tomography in men with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, B.; Boesen, F.; Gerstoft, J.; Nielsen, J.O.; Praestholm, J.; Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen; Hvidovre Hospital; Hvidovre Hospital; Hvidovre Hospital

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral CT scannings were performed in 19 homosexual men with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Nearly half of them (9 patients) had cortical atrophy. Three patients with toxoplasmosis had cerebral pathology, in two of them with ring enhancement while the third had an ill-defined nonspecific lesion with slight heterogeneous enhancement without ring formation. Two patients with multifocal leucoencephalopathy and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, respectively, presented non-enhancing, low attenuating lesions at CT. (orig.)

  9. Serodiagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H; Andersen, L P

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to the established role of Helicobacter pylori gastritis in gastritis and duodenal ulcer in general, conflicting results have been reported in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The seroprevalence during early HIV...

  10. Severe Dermatophytosis and Acquired or Innate Immunodeficiency: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Rouzaud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi responsible for benign and common forms of infection worldwide. However, they can lead to rare and severe diseases in immunocompromised patients. Severe forms include extensive and/or invasive dermatophytosis, i.e., deep dermatophytosis and Majocchi’s granuloma. They are reported in immunocompromised hosts with primary (autosomal recessive CARD9 deficiency or acquired (solid organ transplantation, autoimmune diseases requiring immunosuppressive treatments, HIV infection immunodeficiencies. The clinical manifestations of the infection are not specific. Lymph node and organ involvement may also occur. Diagnosis requires both mycological and histological findings. There is no consensus on treatment. Systemic antifungal agents such as terbinafine and azoles (itraconazole or posaconazole are effective. However, long-term outcome and treatment management depend on the site and extent of the infection and the nature of the underlying immunodeficiency.

  11. Coinfection of Leishmania guyanensis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: Report of a Case of Disseminated Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvopina, Manuel; Aguirre, Cristina; Cevallos, William; Castillo, Alberto; Abbasi, Ibrahim; Warburg, Alon

    2017-01-01

    Reported herein is the first case of Leishmania–human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection in Ecuador. In Ecuador, HIV infections overlap endemic areas of leishmaniasis. Immunosuppression is a well-established risk factor for developing severe disease. This is a severe case of a 32-year-old man presenting with disseminated pleomorphic ulcers, papules, and cutaneous plaque-like lesions over his whole body. Numerous amastigotes were observed in both skin scrapings and biopsies. The sequence of the cytochrome b gene confirmed the presence of Leishmania guyanensis. The patient was treated but failed to respond to meglumine antimoniate and amphotericin B. Six months later, the patient died due to bacterial septic shock. PMID:28193741

  12. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted infections among health care providers in Lahore, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is a global problem of extraordinary dimensions and has so far resulted in nearly 25 million deaths worldwide. Health care providers (HCPs) are considered to play a pivotal role in the provision of preventive and curative services to individuals suffering from HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections. Pakistan, which was previously categorised as having a low-prevalence, high-risk HIV epidemic, is now facing a concentrated HIV epidemic among its most at-risk populations such as injecting drug users. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and reported practices relating to HIV/AIDS and STIs among private and public sector health care providers providing clinical services in areas where women sell sex. This was an exploratory quantitative study, where a structured questionnaire was administered in face-to-face interviews with 200 HCPs from the public and private sectors. Knowledge about AIDS and correct diagnosis of STIs were defined as according to the national guidelines of NACP. Pearson's chi-square analysis was performed to test associations between predictors and level of knowledge of STIs in each group separately. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to indicate predicting factors for correct management of STIs. Forty-five percent of the HCPs had correct knowledge about the transmission and prevention of HIV, whereas 21% had seen a patient with advanced HIV infection, only two HCPs had been trained to manage such cases and 82% were not aware of syndromic management of STIs. Only 10% could cite the 'correct treatment' of gonorrhoea, syphilis and vaginal discharge. The odds of having the 'correct knowledge' of diagnosing gonorrhoea and syphilis were 2.1 (CI 95%, 1.2-3.8) if the HCP was a female medical doctor working in public sector. Further intensive training is needed to improve the ability of relevant HCPs to correctly diagnose and effectively treat patients

  13. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and lymphoma in patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laviopierre, A.M.; Lawler, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis now constitutes a relatively frequent central nervous system (CNS) complication of AIDS, primary CNS lymphoma being far less common. CT scanning using the double-dose delayed (D-D-D) scan technique has proved an effective way of helping in the diagnosis of these complications. 16 patients with CNS complications of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are described. All patients were male homosexuals. The most common demonstrable lesion in the parenchyma was toxoplasmosis, which produced an area of focal oedema, usually containing a central zone of nodular or ring-shaped enhancement. Cerebral atrophy was also a common finding. One patient had diffuse peri-ventricular lymphomatous infiltration, and a further two patients had both cerebral toxoplasmosis and lymphoma. A delayed double dose contrast examination appears to be the most accurate method of outlining the total extent of CNS disease in these patients. 11 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  14. 78 FR 29755 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0473] Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cure... an opportunity for public comment on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Patient-Focused Drug...

  15. 78 FR 46969 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0473] Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cure... for the notice of public meeting entitled ``Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Patient-Focused Drug...

  16. Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Starting ART early—before symptoms appear—greatly reduces the risk of developing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, the final stage of HIV infection), having AIDS-related complications, or dying of ...

  17. Otologic manifestations in child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rezende, Carlos E. B.; Rodrigues, Rubens E. C.; Haddad, Leonardo; Yoshimura, Ricardo; Rapoport, Priscila B.

    2004-01-01

    As manifestações otológicas são particularmente comuns em crianças portadoras do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana (HIV). A disacusia nestes pacientes pode ser condutiva, principalmente decorrente de otite média ou sensorioneural, pela ação direta do vírus ou pela ação de drogas anti-retrovirais. Neste trabalho, relatamos o caso de uma criança de 10 anos de idade, portadora de HIV, com disacusia e revisamos a literatura.Patients infected with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often present wi...

  18. Opportunistic Neurologic Infections in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarillo, Fritzie; O'Keefe, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) especially in the resource-limited regions of the world. Diagnosis of these infections may be challenging because findings on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and brain imaging are nonspecific. While brain biopsy provides a definitive diagnosis, it is an invasive procedure associated with a relatively low mortality rate, thus less invasive modalities have been studied in recent years. Diagnosis, therefore, can be established based on a combination of a compatible clinical syndrome, radiologic and CSF findings, and understanding of the role of HIV in these infections. The most common CNS opportunistic infections are AIDS-defining conditions; thus, treatment of these infections in combination with HAART has greatly improved survival.

  19. Computed tomography of the lungs in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartelius, H.; Gaub, J.; Jensen, L.I.; Jensen, J.; Faber, V.; Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen

    1988-01-01

    Computed tomography of the chest was performed on 42 occasions as part of the diagnostic work-up in 26 homosexual men with, or suspected of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In 17 cases both the chest radiographs and the lung scans were abnormal, and bronchoscopy and/or lung biopsy established an etiologic diagnosis in the majority of these cases. In 9 cases CT of the lungs revealed unequivocal interstitial infiltration in the presence of a normal chest radiography, and subsequently and etiologic agent was demonstrated in all these cases. In 9 cases, patients with symptoms indicative of pulmonary infection had both a normal chest radiograph and a normal lung scan, and in none of these cases did the clinical course or additional diagnostic procedures indicate the presence of current opportunistic lung infection. CT of the lungs seems to identify accurately those patients with severe HIV-related diseases in whom invasive diagnostic procedures such as bronchoalveolar lavage and/or lung biopsy should be done. (orig.)

  20. [Primary Intracranial Malignant Lymphoma Associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome(AIDS):A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaka, Yasufumi; Otani, Naoki; Nishida, Sho; Fujii, Kazuya; Ueno, Hideaki; Tomura, Satoshi; Tomiyama, Arata; Osada, Hideo; Wada, Kojiro; Maeda, Takuya; Mori, Kentaro

    2017-11-01

    The spread of human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)infection may result in an increased likelihood of surgery in patients with HIV infection. We treated a patient with intracranial malignant lymphoma associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(AIDS)caused by HIV infection. The recommendations of the countermeasure manual for AIDS were followed. Only surgical staff without finger injury or inflammation were permitted to be involved in the operation. All staff were dressed in a waterproof, full-body surgical gown, and wore double gloves, double foot covers, and an N95 mask. The surgery could be performed safely with such infection control measures. Histological examination revealed a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The patient was referred to the Division of Infectious Diseases and Respiratory Medicine for chemotherapy.

  1. Self-care of elderly people after the diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Graciela Machado de; Leite, Marinês Tambara; Hildebrandt, Leila Mariza; Oliveski, Cinthia Cristina; Beuter, Margrid

    2018-01-01

    to characterize the seropositive elderly for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in their socio-demographic aspects; to understand how the elderly take care of themselves from the diagnosis of HIV/AIDS. Qualitative, descriptive, exploratory research conducted at a Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center with 10 elderly people receiving treatment for HIV/AIDS. The data were analyzed according to the content analysis. Data show the elderly people's lack of knowledge about HIV/AIDS transmission, the experience of being elderly and having HIV/AIDS, caring for oneself and life after diagnosis of HIV/AIDS in their daily lives. Final considerations: The diagnosis of HIV/AIDS seropositivity in the elderly generates a blend of feelings and fears that lead to food changes, adherence to treatment and the renunciation of daily and social habits, manifested as ways of self-care.

  2. Treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with Chinese medicine in China: opportunity, advancement and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Bin; Wang, Xin; Liu, Hui-Juan; Jin, Yan-Tao; Guo, Hui-Jun; Jiang, Zi-Qiang; Li, Zhen; Xu, Li-Ran

    2013-08-01

    Chinese medicine (CM) has been used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for 30 years and the demonstrated therapeutic effects of CM, such as reducing plasma HIV viral load, increasing CD4(+)T cell counts, promoting immunity reconstitution, ameliorating symptoms and signs, improving the health related quality of life (HRQOL) and counteracting against the effects of anti-retroviral drugs, were summarized and reviewed in this article. The authors point out that it had been a good opportunity to use CM for the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS in the past and also there are huge challenges ahead for CM research and clinicians to discover more effective CM and its underlying mechanisms for treatment of AIDS.

  3. Treatment of infectious complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furio, M M; Wordell, C J

    1985-01-01

    The infectious complications of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are discussed, and the conventional and nonconventional therapies used for these infections are reviewed. The infections most commonly encountered in patients with AIDS are Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (58%), Candida esophagitis (31%), toxoplasmosis (21%), cytomegalovirus infections (15%), and herpes-simplex virus infections (12%). Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is the most common life-threatening process in these patients. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) is considered the drug of choice for its treatment. Oral candidiasis often indicates the progression to AIDS in the high-risk populations of homosexual or bisexual men, intravenous drug abusers, and individuals with hemophilia. Nystatin suspension is commonly used to treat oral candidiasis, while Candida esophagitis demands systemic therapy with ketoconazole. Toxoplasmosis most commonly manifests itself in patients with AIDS as a cerebral mass lesion. The recommended therapy includes sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine. AIDS patients frequently experience protozoal invasion of the intestinal tract with Giardia lamblia, Isospora belli, and Cryptosporidium muris. Various drugs have been tried for these infections, including quinacrine hydrochloride, metronidazole, TMP-SMZ, and spiramycin. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections commonly involve the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, eyes, brain, and nervous system. Attempts to treat these disseminated CMV infections with antiviral agents, including acyclovir, have not been successful. However, acyclovir has been found beneficial in the treatment of herpes-simplex virus infections. Multiple infectious complications may occur in patients with AIDS as a result of the cellular-immune deficiency associated with this disease. Until more research is done with AIDS patients, therapy must be based on the data available from the treatment of these infections in immunosuppressed patients without AIDS.

  4. Orbital manifestations in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodhi, Punita Kumari

    2014-01-01

    The orbital manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(AIDS) are uncommon. To provide a review of orbital manifestations of AIDS, the predisposing factors, investigations, treatment and outcome. Meticulous and systematic literature search of Pubmed to identify manuscripts describing orbital manifestations of AIDS was done and the articles were reviewed.The keywords used in the search were “orbit and AIDS”, “HIV positive and orbit”,“orbit manifestations in AIDS”, “orbital disease and AIDS” and “orbital infections and AIDS”. The orbital involvement in AIDS may present with opportunistic infections from organisms like fungi, viruses, bacteria and protozoa or with malignancies like Kaposi’s sarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, smooth muscle cell tumors and lymphoma.The predisposing factors for orbital involvement in AIDS are low CD4+ cell count and the immunosuppressive states like diabetes, diabetic ketoacidosis, intravenous drug abuse and neutropenia. A patient may present with fever, headache, nausea, vomiting,decreased vision, ocular pain, and, in cases of mass formation, there is periorbital swelling, axial proptosis, globe displacement and swollen optic disc. Radiologically,mass formation, orbital bony destruction, and spread of disease to contiguous structures including the central nervous system may be seen. The medical management includes therapy for infection and HIV-1 protease inhibitors (highly active antiretroviral therapy)to suppress HIV-1 replication. For tumors, radical surgery including debulking followed by postoperative radiotherapy is generally needed. Orbital involvements with AIDS in any form, infective or malignancy, causes significant morbidity and mortality and should be diagnosed and managed as early as possible.

  5. Implantation of cultured thymic fragments in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danner, S. A.; Schuurman, H. J.; Lange, J. M.; Gmelig Meyling, F. H.; Schellekens, P. T.; Huber, J.; Kater, L.

    1986-01-01

    Cultured thymic fragments were implanted in one patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related complex (ARC) and in eight AIDS patients with opportunistic infections (OIs, four patients), Kaposi's sarcoma (KS, two patients), or both (two patients). Thereafter, objective clinical

  6. Ethnopharmacology of human immunodeficiency virus in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2006-10-02

    Oct 2, 2006 ... This mini-review takes a look at the evaluations of South African medicinal plants to determine ... Key words: Human immunodeficiency virus, Medicinal plants, South Africa. ... The greatest degree of antiviral activity against.

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in tuberculosis patients in Addis ... METHODS: A cross-sectional survey whereby blood sample was collected ... of co-infection appeared to have increased compared to previous studies, 6.6%, ...

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus and menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanapathipillai, Rupa; Hickey, Martha; Giles, Michelle

    2013-09-01

    This article aims to review currently available evidence for women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and menopause and to propose clinical management algorithms. Key studies addressing HIV and menopause have been reviewed, specifically age of menopause onset in HIV-infected women, frequency of menopausal symptoms, comorbidities associated with HIV and aging (including cardiovascular disease and bone disease), treatment of menopausal symptoms, and prevention of comorbidities in HIV-infected women. Studies suggest an earlier onset of menopause in HIV-infected women, with increased frequency of symptoms. Cardiovascular disease risk may be increased in this population, with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and chronic inflammation associated with HIV, contributing to increased risk. Chronic inflammation and cART have been independently implicated in bone disease. No published data have assessed the safety and efficacy of hormone therapy in relation to symptoms of menopause, cardiovascular risk, and bone disease among HIV-infected women. Few studies on menopause have been conducted in HIV-infected women compared with HIV-uninfected women. Many questions regarding age of menopause onset, frequency of menopausal symptoms and associated complications such as bone disease and cardiovascular disease, and efficacy of treatment among HIV-infected women remain. The incidence and severity of some of these factors may be increased in the setting of HIV and cART.

  9. Kaposi sarcoma related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: hepatic findings on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Daniel Nobrega da; Viana, Publio Cesar Cavalcante; Maciel, Rosangela Pereira; Rocha, Manoel de Souza; Gebrim, Eloisa Maria Mello Santiago [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Inst. de Radiologia]. E-mail: dnobrega@gmail.com

    2008-03-15

    Kaposi sarcoma is a neoplasm associated with immunosuppressive conditions, and involving blood and lymphatic vessels. It is the most frequent intrahepatic neoplasm in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrate multiple small nodules, prominence and contrast-enhancement of periportal branches due to the presence of the neoplastic tissue. The authors report a case of a 47-year-old male patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome presenting disseminated Kaposi sarcoma. (author)

  10. The biology of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Donald P

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this article is to review the basic biology of infection with HIV-1 and the development of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The discussion will include epidemiology, general description of the retroviruses, pathogenesis of the immune deficiency, clinical consequences, treatment, and treatment outcomes. Aspects of the infection that affect protein and energy balance will be identified.

  11. Pediatric patient with systemic lupus erythematosus & congenital acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: An unusual case and a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaee Fariba

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The coexistence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in patients with congenital human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is rare. This is a case report of a child diagnosed with SLE at nine years of age. She initially did well on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, hydroxychloroquine, and steroids. She then discontinued her anti-lupus medications and was lost to follow-up. At 13 years of age, her lupus symptoms had resolved and she presented with intermittent fevers, cachexia, myalgias, arthralgias, and respiratory symptoms. Through subsequent investigations, the patient was ultimately diagnosed with congenitally acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS.

  12. Esofagites em pacientes com síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida: estudo histológico e imunoistoquímico Esophagitis in patients with acquired human immunodeficiency syndrome: an histological and immunohistochemistry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Aguiar Vidal

    2007-12-01

    citomegalovírus, respectivamente. O emprego da técnica de imunoistoquímica auxilia no diagnóstico das esofagites virais e torna possível detectar o citomegalovírus em esôfagos normais à endoscopia e/ou ao exame histopatológico.BACKGROUND: Almost all patients with acquired immunodeficiency virus syndrome will have gastrointestinal symptoms during the course of their illness. The high prevalence and complications of esophagitis are well documented. AIM: Graduate esophagitis; identify microorganisms like Candida sp, cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus and mycobacteria; identify by immunohistochemical staining viral agents cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus I, herpesvirus II, Epstein-Barr Virus, human papilloma virus and human immunodeficiency virus; verify how immunohistochemistry changes the profile of esophagitis; verify the association between the histological and endoscopical findings; verify the relevance of the number of fragments studied in the characterization of the histological agents. METHODS: We studied retrospectively esophageal biopsies in 227 patients with acquired immunodeficiency virus syndrome using hematoxylin and eosin, PAS (periodic acid of Schiff, Groccott and Ziehl-Nielsen stains and immunoperoxidase stains to detect opportunistic agents. Endoscopic aspects were studied. RESULTS: The non-specific esophagitis grade III, in the inferior third of the esophagus, was the most frequent type. Candida sp was the most frequent agent, followed by viruses cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus and mycobacteria. The presence of plaque and ulceration suggested the diagnosis of esophageal candidiasis and cytomegalovirus esophagitis. Immunohistochemical allowed the characterization of cytomegalovirus and of herpesvirus in those cases where other techniques could not achieve it, furthermore the cytomegalovirus was also found in histological normal cases, making the use of this technique advisable in routine diagnosis. The herpesvirus I was not found isolated but associated to

  13. Saúde auditiva, o vírus da imunodeficiência humana e a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida: uma revisão Hearing health, the human immunodeficiency virus and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Catalani Morata

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: a Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida (SIDA/AIDS é causada pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana (VIH/HIV, e resulta numa imunidade reduzida, o que torna o indivíduo mais susceptível a doenças e infecções oportunistas. Com o avanço da doença as estruturas do sistema auditivo central podem ser comprometidas pela ação direta do vírus ou decorrente de infecções secundárias e neoplasias. O portador do HIV/AIDS pode também se tornar mais vulnerável a outras patologias do ouvido. OBJETIVO: o objetivo desta revisão foi exploratório, visando identificar os possíveis pontos de interseção entre distúrbios auditivos e a Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida. Realizou-se uma revisão da literatura sobre a saúde auditiva dos portadores de HIV/AIDS e foi discutido o impacto potencial de patologias auditivas na qualidade de vida. CONCLUSÃO: a literatura sugere que várias possiveis associações existam entre os distúrbios auditivos e a Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida e o Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana. Profissionais de saúde, inclusive aqueles dos serviços públicos no Brasil, deveriam examinar a necessidade de iniciativas de saúde auditiva dirigida aos portadores de HIV/AIDS para prevenir patologias auditivas ou reduzir seu impacto na qualidade de vida.BACKGROUND: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (or Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or AIDS is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV and results in reduced immunity, leaving affected individuals more susceptible to illness and opportunistic infections. As the disease progresses, structures within the central auditory system can be affected either by the direct action of the virus or as a consequence of secondary infections. Other areas of the auditory system may also be more vulnerable to pathology in people living with HIV or AIDS. PURPOSE: the goal of this review was exploratory, to identify possible points of intersection between auditory

  14. Pathology of Penicillium marneffei. An emerging acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C R; McGinnis, M R

    1997-08-01

    To summarize current knowledge regarding the opportunistic dimorphic fungal pathogen Penicillium marneffei. Clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, mycology, histopathology, diagnostic serology, in vitro antifungal agent susceptibility testing, and therapy are discussed for human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals primarily living in Southeast Asia. Critical evaluation of peer-reviewed publications located through an electronic literature database search, supplemented by unpublished observations, were used to prepare this report. Studies were selected based on either the fungal name Penicillium marneffei, penicilliosis, penicilliosis marneffei, or a combination of these. Articles were reviewed with appropriate data being abstracted and then synthesized into the review. Differential diagnostic criteria for tissue diagnosis and laboratory identification of the fungus are detailed. The usefulness of mycoserology and antifungal therapy are evaluated. Penicillium marneffei is an emerging pathogen, primarily among patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome residing in Southeast Asia. Although infection caused by P marneffei is endemic to this portion of the world, cases are being diagnosed and treated involving individuals who have traveled to this region. Penicilliosis marneffei can clinically resemble tuberculosis, molluscum contagiosum, cryptococcosis, and histoplasmosis. The successful treatment of P marneffei infection is dependent on its rapid and accurate diagnosis.

  15. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to determine the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among blood donors at Bolga-tanga Regional Hospital, Ghana by blood group type, sex and age and also determining the asso-ciation, if any, in the occurrence of the ...

  16. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in human immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study assessed the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori antibodies among Iranian patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It also examines whether anti H. pylori seroprevalence was associated with the severity of the HIV infection or the antiretroviral treatment. Material and Methods: ...

  17. Exposure to Human Immunodeficiency Disease. What Precautions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic is more pronounced in sub-Saharan Africa. The ever-increasing prevalence of HIV infection and the continued improvement in clinical management has increased the likelihood of these patients being managed by healthcare workers. The aim of the review ...

  18. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Seropositivity In African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A seroprevalence study of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in new patients attending the eye clinic of LAUTECH Teaching Hospital in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria showed that twenty-nine patients 2.7%) were positive to HIV1. No patient was positive to HIV 2. There were 21 males (72.4%) and 8 females ...

  19. Post exposure prophylaxis against human immunodeficiency virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the level of awareness, knowledge and practice of human immunodeficiency virus post exposure prophylaxis (HIV PEP) among paediatricians in Nigeria. Methodology: The study was a cross sectional questionnairebased survey conducted among paediatrcians that attended the Paediatric ...

  20. Post exposure prophylaxis against human immunodeficiency virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-23

    Nov 23, 2015 ... Abstract: Objective: To deter- mine the level of awareness, knowledge and practice of human immunodeficiency virus post ex- posure prophylaxis (HIV PEP) among paediatricians in Nigeria. Methodology: The study was a cross sectional questionnaire- based survey conducted among paediatrcians that ...

  1. Mitochondrial dysfunction and human immunodeficiency virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the pharmacological treatment thereof have both been shown to affect mitochondrial function in a number of tissues, and each may cause specific organ pathology through specific mitochondrial pathways. HIV has been shown to kill various tissue cells by activation of ...

  2. Comparative periodontal status of human immunodeficiency virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There are diverse reports on the prevalence and severity of chronic periodontitis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive persons. Few studies have been carried out in developing countries in Sub.Saharan Africa. This study was aimed at comparing the prevalence and severity of chronic periodontitis of ...

  3. Transurethral prostatectomy in human immunodeficiency virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 63-year old man was admitted to our Hospital with urethral catheter in situ and having failed medical therapy, he opted for transurethral prostatectomy (TURP) which was done without any post-operative complication. He was known to be afflicted with human immunodeficiency virus and on treatment for 3 years. He also ...

  4. Nigerian dental technology students and human immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The rehabilitative dental care is important for maintaining adequate nutrition, guarding against wasting syndrome and malnutrition among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)‑infected individuals. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the Nigerian dental technology students' knowledge and ...

  5. Transurethral prostatectomy in human immunodeficiency virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is increasing world-wide and highly active antiretroviral treatment ... Hospital with urethral catheter in situ and having failed medical therapy, he opted for transurethral ... endoscopic visualization of operation field, the .... percutaneous exposure: Centers for Disease Control and.

  6. Epithelioid angiomatosis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: morphology and differential diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walford, N.; van der Wouw, P. A.; Das, P. K.; ten Velden, J. J.; Hulsebosch, H. J.

    1990-01-01

    A rare vascular proliferation found as a skin lesion in patients suffering from the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and sometimes referred to as epithelioid angiomatosis is believed to be a manifestation of infection by the cat scratch bacillus or a related organism. We describe the histological

  7. Changing patterns of Kaposi's sarcoma in Danish acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with complete follow-up. The Danish Study Group for HIV Infection (DASHI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Melbye, M; Pedersen, C

    1995-01-01

    The objective was to study changes in the occurrence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-related Kaposi's sarcoma and the association with degree of immunodeficiency over time. Danish patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) diagnosed between 1979 and 1990 (n = 687) were followed...... the proportion of patients who died with Kaposi's sarcoma remained constant over time. Furthermore, the CD4 cell count at time of AIDS for patients diagnosed with Kaposi's sarcoma has declined in recent years. A CD4 cell count liter at the time of AIDS diagnosis predicted an increased risk...

  8. Rapidly progressive periodontal disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hezaim, K.A.; Javed, F.; Askar, A.; Rasheed, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Severe periodontal inflammation with generalized dental plaque accumulation, spontaneous and severe gingival bleeding, fungal infection, and inter dental papillae necrosis are presented in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Bite-wing radiographs revealed a generalized horizontal alveolar bone loss of 7-8 millimetres in both arches. Erythematous patches were noted on the gingival mucosa in both jaws. DNA testing was performed to identify the periodontopathogens. The patient had no signs or symptoms of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This case-report presents the massive periodontal destruction that occurred in a patient infected with HIV. Therefore, it is highly recommended that patients infected with HIV should be regularly monitored to aid in early detection and to provide proper management of periodontal inflammatory conditions to minimize its destruction. (author)

  9. Malignant syphilis with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiby Rajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant syphilis or Lues maligna, commonly reported in the pre-antibiotic era, has now seen a resurgence with the advent of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Immunosuppression and sexual promiscuity set the stage for this deadly association of HIV and Treponema pallidum that can manifest atypically and can prove to cause diagnostic problems. We report one such case in a 30-year-old female who responded favorably to treatment with penicillin.

  10. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is Done • What Happens If HIV Is Diagnosed • Pregnant Women and HIV Testing • For More Information • Glossary Testing for Human ... cdc.gov/hiv/policies/law/states/index.html. Pregnant Women and HIV Testing If you are pregnant, you will be ...

  11. The Puzzling Role of CXCR4 in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Vicenzi, Pietro Liò, Guido Poli

    2013-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is the etiological agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a disease highly lethal in the absence of combination antiretroviral therapy. HIV infects CD4+ cells of the immune system (T cells, monocyte-macrophages and dendritic cells) via interaction with a universal primary receptor, the CD4 molecule, followed by a mandatory interaction with a second receptor (co-receptor) belonging to the chemokine receptor family. Apart from som...

  12. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) secondary to disseminated histoplasmosis in the setting of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanad, Samuel; Cerk, Brendan; Ramirez, Veronica

    2018-06-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare and aggressive disease involving immune system over-activation leading to hemophagocytosis. HLH requires early diagnosis and prompt treatment initiation, especially in patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). We present a case of a middle-aged male with AIDS and renal failure, who developed HLH secondary to disseminated histoplasmosis. Etoposide chemotherapy as recommended by the HLH 2004 Guidelines was deferred and treatment focused instead on anti-fungal therapy. Anti-retroviral therapy followed thereafter.

  13. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a patient with no known risk factors: a pathological study.

    OpenAIRE

    Burt, A D; Scott, G; Shiach, C R; Isles, C G

    1984-01-01

    We present the pathological findings in a case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in a patient with no known risk factor. Postmortem examination showed klebsiella lung abscess, generalised cytomegalovirus infection, cerebral toxoplasmosis, and a primary cerebral lymphoma. An additional feature was the presence of dilatation of the intrahepatic large bile ducts in association with an atypical distribution of cytomegalovirus. The relation between this case and previously reported case...

  14. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a patient with no known risk factors: a pathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, A D; Scott, G; Shiach, C R; Isles, C G

    1984-04-01

    We present the pathological findings in a case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in a patient with no known risk factor. Postmortem examination showed klebsiella lung abscess, generalised cytomegalovirus infection, cerebral toxoplasmosis, and a primary cerebral lymphoma. An additional feature was the presence of dilatation of the intrahepatic large bile ducts in association with an atypical distribution of cytomegalovirus. The relation between this case and previously reported cases of AIDS is discussed.

  15. Radiological pulmonary manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; Manifestacoes radiologicas pulmonares da sindrome da imunodeficiencia adquirida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson; Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves de; Ossa, Alfonso Jaramillo [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    1999-06-01

    In this article are reviewed the principal radiologic manifestations of inflammatory and tumoral diseases the compromise the lungs of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In the group of inflammatory diseases the radiologic aspects of pneumocystosis, cytomegalovirus disease, cryptococcosis, tuberculosis and bacterial pneumonias are emphasized. In the neoplasic diseases' group the aspects of lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma are specially presented. (author)

  16. Thyroid hormone levels in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related complex.

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, W W; Kaptein, E M

    1989-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction and thyroid gland cytomegalovirus inclusions have been described in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex (ARC). We evaluated 80 patients with AIDS or ARC for the frequency of hypothalamic-pituitary or thyroid gland failure and altered serum thyroid hormone levels due to nonthyroidal disorders. One patient had subclinical hypothyroidism. Of these patients, 60% had low free triiodothyronine (T3) index values and ...

  17. Family and other social factors contributing to differences in human immunodeficiency virus infection between South Africa and Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ginneken, J.K.S.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to draw attention to the importance of social, cultural, economic and political factors as causes of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in South Africa by comparing the current situation in this country with

  18. Anemia and survival in human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Mocroft, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    The prospective, multicenter cohort study EuroSIDA has previously reported on predictors and outcomes of anemia in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. In a Cox proportional-hazards model with serial measures of CD4+ cell count, plasma viral load, and degrees of anemia fitted...... as time-dependent variables, the relative hazard of death increased markedly for patients with anemia versus no anemia. A clinical scoring system was developed and validated for patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy using the most recent laboratory measures. Mild and severe anemia were...... independently (Panemia. The mechanisms underlying why hemoglobin is such a strong prognostic...

  19. Pneumothorax in human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibes Kumar Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumothorax occurs more frequently in people with Human immunodeficiency virus infection in comparison with the general population. In most cases it is secondary the underlying pulmonary disorder, especially pulmonary infections. Though Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is most common pulmonary infection associated with pneumothorax, other infections, non-infective etiology and iatrogenic causes are also encountered. Pneumothorax in these patients are associated with persistent bronchopleural fistula, prolonged hospital stay, poor success with intercostal tube drain, frequent requirement of surgical intervention and increased mortality. Optimal therapeutic approach in these patients is still not well-defined.

  20. 45 CFR 96.128 - Requirements regarding human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements regarding human immunodeficiency virus. 96.128 Section 96.128 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... human immunodeficiency virus. (a) In the case of a designated State as described in paragraph (b) of...

  1. Expression of human immunodeficiency virus in cerebrospinal fluid of children with progressive encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epstein, L. G.; Goudsmit, J.; Paul, D. A.; Morrison, S. H.; Connor, E. M.; Oleske, J. M.; Holland, B.

    1987-01-01

    The retrovirus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is now designated the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 27 children with HIV infection was assayed for intra-blood-brain barrier (IBBB) synthesis of HIV-specific antibodies and for the presence

  2. Hepatitis C virus infection in the human immunodeficiency virus infected patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Louise Nygaard; Lundbo, Lene Fogt; Benfield, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share the same transmission routes; therefore, coinfection is frequent. An estimated 5-10 million individuals alone in the western world are infected with both viruses. The majority of people acquire HCV by injection drug use and...

  3. Radiological findings in three acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with Rhodococcus equi pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinxin; Tang Xiaoping; Zhang Lieguang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the imaging appearances of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in three patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( AIDS). Methods: Thoracic imaging appearances of' Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in three patients with AIDS were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The chest radiograph showed patchy consolidations and small nodules (n=3), large consolidations with multiple cavitations (n=2). CT showed large lobar or segmental consolidations with multiple cavitations (n=2), patchy consolidations (n=2), bronchiectasis (n=1), multiple small centrilobular nodules (n=2) and tree-in-bud patterns (n=2). Conclusion: The most common radiological findings in AIDS patients with Rhodococcus equi pulmonary infection are large consolidations with multiple cavitations and multiple centrilobular nodules. (authors)

  4. 2',3'-Dideoxycytidine and human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starnes, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    2',3'-Dideoxycytidine (ddCyd) is a candidate for clinical trial in the treatment of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, as a result of its potent inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) replication. The cellular metabolism and cytotoxicity of ddCyd are, as well as the interaction of ddCTP and other nucleotide and pyrophosphate analogs with mammalian DNA polymerases and HIV reverse transcriptase (RT). In addition, some structural and functional characteristics of HIV RT are described. 5 μM ddCyd reduced Molt 4 cell division by 50% during a 48 h continuous exposure; however, a 24 h exposure to 0.5 μM ddCyd reduced clonogenic survival by 50%. [ 14 C]-dThd incorporation into DNA was reduced during exposure to ddCyd. Acid-soluble ddCyd metabolites were ddCMP, ddCDP, and ddCTP. Initial ddCyd phosphorylation was catalyzed primarily by cytoplasmic dCyd kinase, and ddCyd was not a substrate for human Cyd-dCyd deaminase. Metabolism of ddCyd was identical in mock and HIV infected H9 cells

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Megan; Iser, David; Lewin, Sharon R

    2012-03-27

    Liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals encompasses the spectrum from abnormal liver function tests, liver decompensation, with and without evidence of cirrhosis on biopsy, to non-alcoholic liver disease and its more severe form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular cancer. HIV can infect multiple cells in the liver, leading to enhanced intrahepatic apoptosis, activation and fibrosis. HIV can also alter gastro-intestinal tract permeability, leading to increased levels of circulating lipopolysaccharide that may have an impact on liver function. This review focuses on recent changes in the epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical presentation of liver disease in HIV-infected patients, in the absence of co-infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus, with a specific focus on issues relevant to low and middle income countries.

  6. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Evolutionarily Acquires Two Proteins, Vif and Protease, Capable of Antagonizing Feline APOBEC3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Takeuchi, Junko S; Yamada, Eri; Nakano, Yusuke; Misawa, Naoko; Kimura, Yuichi; Ren, Fengrong; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Sato, Kei

    2017-06-01

    The interplay between viral and host proteins has been well studied to elucidate virus-host interactions and their relevance to virulence. Mammalian genes encode apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) proteins, which act as intrinsic restriction factors against lentiviruses. To overcome APOBEC3-mediated antiviral actions, lentiviruses have evolutionarily acquired an accessory protein, viral infectivity factor (Vif), and Vif degrades host APOBEC3 proteins via a ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent pathway. Although the Vif-APOBEC3 interaction and its evolutionary significance, particularly those of primate lentiviruses (including HIV) and primates (including humans), have been well investigated, those of nonprimate lentiviruses and nonprimates are poorly understood. Moreover, the factors that determine lentiviral pathogenicity remain unclear. Here, we focus on feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a pathogenic lentivirus in domestic cats, and the interaction between FIV Vif and feline APOBEC3 in terms of viral virulence and evolution. We reveal the significantly reduced diversity of FIV subtype B compared to that of other subtypes, which may associate with the low pathogenicity of this subtype. We also demonstrate that FIV subtype B Vif is less active with regard to feline APOBEC3 degradation. More intriguingly, we further reveal that FIV protease cleaves feline APOBEC3 in released virions. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that a lentivirus encodes two types of anti-APOBEC3 factors, Vif and viral protease. IMPORTANCE During the history of mammalian evolution, mammals coevolved with retroviruses, including lentiviruses. All pathogenic lentiviruses, excluding equine infectious anemia virus, have acquired the vif gene via evolution to combat APOBEC3 proteins, which are intrinsic restriction factors against exogenous lentiviruses. Here we demonstrate that FIV, a pathogenic lentivirus in domestic cats, antagonizes feline APOBEC3

  7. [Systemic lupus erythematosus masking the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A report on four cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyla, Przemysław; Kucharz, Eugeniusz J

    2012-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic inflammatory disease of connective tissue with an unknown etiology and a rich clinical picture with involvement of multiple organs. Given the rich symptomatology, application of the current classification criteria is associated with a significant risk of attributing symptoms of other pathologies to lupus and/or other connective tissue disease. Inherited and acquired immune deficiencies may sometimes demonstrate a lupus-like clinical symptomatology. In this work we reviewed 4 of cases referred to the Department of Internal Diseases and Rheumatology of the Silesian Medical University in Katowice with suspected or confirmed systemic lupus erythematosus. A positive anti-HIV antibody test led to the diagnosis of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Due to the close similarity of the clinical picture and the presence of antinuclear antibodies in both diseases, the authors postulate that the anti-HIV antibody test should be done routinely in patients with connective tissue diseases.

  8. CCR5 Signal Transduction in Macrophages by Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    Arthos, James; Rubbert, Andrea; Rabin, Ronald L.; Cicala, Claudia; Machado, Elizabeth; Wildt, Kathryne; Hanbach, Meredith; Steenbeke, Tavis D.; Swofford, Ruth; Farber, Joshua M.; Fauci, Anthony S.

    2000-01-01

    The capacity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) envelopes to transduce signals through chemokine coreceptors on macrophages was examined by measuring the ability of recombinant envelope proteins to mobilize intracellular calcium stores. Both HIV and SIV envelopes mobilized calcium via interactions with CCR5. The kinetics of these responses were similar to those observed when macrophages were treated with MIP-1β. Distinct differences in the capacity o...

  9. [Computational prediction of human immunodeficiency resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasova, O A; Filimonov, D A; Poroikov, V V

    2017-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and leads to over one million of deaths annually. Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) is a gold standard in the HIV/AIDS therapy. Nucleoside and non-nucleoside inhibitors of HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) are important component of HAART, but their effect depends on the HIV susceptibility/resistance. HIV resistance mainly occurs due to mutations leading to conformational changes in the three-dimensional structure of HIV RT. The aim of our work was to develop and test a computational method for prediction of HIV resistance associated with the mutations in HIV RT. Earlier we have developed a method for prediction of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) resistance; it is based on the usage of position-specific descriptors. These descriptors are generated using the particular amino acid residue and its position; the position of certain residue is determined in a multiple alignment. The training set consisted of more than 1900 sequences of HIV RT from the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance database; for these HIV RT variants experimental data on their resistance to ten inhibitors are presented. Balanced accuracy of prediction varies from 80% to 99% depending on the method of classification (support vector machine, Naive Bayes, random forest, convolutional neural networks) and the drug, resistance to which is obtained. Maximal balanced accuracy was obtained for prediction of resistance to zidovudine, stavudine, didanosine and efavirenz by the random forest classifier. Average accuracy of prediction is 89%.

  10. Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atessa Pakfetrat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral lesions are among the earliest clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency (HIV infection and are important in early diagnosis and for monitoring the progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral lesions and their relationship with a number of factors in HIV/AIDS patients attending an HIV center.     Methods: A total of 110 HIV-positive patients were examined to investigate the prevalence of oral lesions according to the criteria established by the European Community Clearing House on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection. An independent T-test was used for correlation of oral lesions with CD4+ count and a χ2 test was used for analysis of the relationship of co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV, sexual contact, route of transmission, history of drug abuse, and history of incarceration.   Results: Most of the cases were male patients (82.7%. The mean age across all participants was 36.2±8.1 years. Rampant carries, severe periodontitis and oral candidiasis were the most notable oral lesions. Oral lesions were more prevalent in patients between 26–35 years of age. There was a significant difference between patients with and without pseudomembranous candidiasis and angular cheilitis according to mean level of CD4+.   Conclusion: The most common oral presentations were severe periodontitis, pseudomembranous candidiasis and xerostomia.

  11. Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atessa Pakfetrat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral lesions are among the earliest clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency (HIV infection and are important in early diagnosis and for monitoring the progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral lesions and their relationship with a number of factors in HIV/AIDS patients attending an HIV center.     Methods: A total of 110 HIV-positive patients were examined to investigate the prevalence of oral lesions according to the criteria established by the European Community Clearing House on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection. An independent T-test was used for correlation of oral lesions with CD4+ count and a χ2 test was used for analysis of the relationship of co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV, sexual contact, route of transmission, history of drug abuse, and history of incarceration.   Results: Most of the cases were male patients (82.7%. The mean age across all participants was 36.2±8.1 years. Rampant carries, severe periodontitis and oral candidiasis were the most notable oral lesions. Oral lesions were more prevalent in patients between 26–35 years of age. There was a significant difference between patients with and without pseudomembranous candidiasis and angular cheilitis according to mean level of CD4+.   Conclusion: The most common oral presentations were severe periodontitis, pseudomembranous candidiasis and xerostomia. 

  12. [The use of growth hormone to treat endocrine-metabolic disturbances in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinola-Castro, Angela Maria; Siviero-Miachon, Adriana A; da Silva, Marcos Tadeu Nolasco; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2008-07-01

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (Aids) was initially related to HIV-associated wasting syndrome, and its metabolic disturbances to altered body composition. After Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) was started, malnutrition has declined and HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome has emerged as an important metabolic disorder. Aids is also characterized by hormonal disturbances, principally in growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF-1) axis. The use of recombinant human GH (hrGH) was formerly indicated to treat wasting syndrome, in order to increase lean body mass. Even though the use of hrGH in lipodystrophy syndrome has been considered, the decrease in insulin sensitivity is a limitation for its use, which has not been officially approved yet. Diversity in therapeutic regimen is another limitation to its use in Aids patients. The present study has reviewed the main HIV-related endocrine-metabolic disorders as well as the use of hrGH in such conditions.

  13. Capturing public interest toward new tools for controlling human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection exploiting data from Google Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahroum, Naim; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Brigo, Francesco; Waknin, Roy; Sharif, Kassem; Mahagna, Hussein; Amital, Howard; Watad, Abdulla

    2018-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus vaccination and pre-exposure prophylaxis represent two different emerging preventive tools. Google Trends was used to assess the public interest toward these tools in terms of digital activities. Worldwide web searches concerning the human immunodeficiency virus vaccine represented 0.34 percent, 0.03 percent, and 46.97 percent of human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome treatment-related Google Trends queries, respectively. Concerning temporal trends, digital activities were shown to increase from 0 percent as of 1 January 2004 percent to 46 percent as of 8 October 2017 with two spikes observed in May and July 2012, coinciding with the US Food and Drug Administration approval. Bursts in search number and volume were recorded as human immunodeficiency virus vaccine trials emerged. This search topic has decreased in the past decade in parallel to the increase in Truvada-related topics. Concentrated searches were noticed among African countries with high human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome prevalence. Stakeholders should take advantage of public interest especially in preventive medicine in high disease burden countries.

  14. MR findings of central nervous system involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient : a report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hye Suk; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Byeong Hee; Jeong, Sun Yang

    1996-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) manifestations in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients are an early and common feature. The spectrum of AIDS-related CNS diseases are encephalitis caused by the human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) itself, opportunistic infection, infarct and malignancy. We experienced two cases of CNS involvement in AIDS and they were serologically diagnosed as HIV encephalitis and CNS toxoplasmosis, respectively. In the case of the HIV encephalitis patient, brain MRI showed a non-enhancing lesion with high signal intensity on T2WI and low signal on T1WI and there was no mass effect on the right frontal lobe, periventricular white matter, splenium of the corpus callosum or bilateral basal ganglia. In the other case of CNS toxoplasmosis, MR showed multiple nodular and rim enhanced mass lesions in the right basal ganglia, thalamus and periventricular white matter, which were of low signal intensity on T1WI and of high intensity on T2WI. We thus report the related MRI findings

  15. Research on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Malawi: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Malawi: the Johns Hopkins University- Ministry of Health (JHU-MOH) project. TE Taha, JK Canner, AM Wangel, JD Chiphangwi, NG Liomba, PG Miotti, GA Dallabetta, AJ Saah ...

  16. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Arikan

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in women of child-bearing age continue to increase both internationally and in Canada. The care of HIV-infected pregnant women is complex, and multiple issues must be addressed, including the current and future health of the woman, minimization of the risk of maternal-infant HIV transmission, and maintenance of the well-being of the fetus and neonate. Vertical transmission of HIV can occur in utero, intrapartum and postpartum, but current evidence suggests that the majority of transmission occurs toward end of term, or during labour and delivery. Several maternal and obstetrical factors influence transmission rates, which can be reduced by optimal medical and obstetrical care. Zidovudine therapy has been demonstrated to reduce maternal-infant transmission significantly, but several issues, including the short and long term safety of antiretrovirals and the optimal use of combination antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy, remain to be defined. It is essential that health care workers providing care to these women fully understand the natural history of HIV disease in pregnancy, the factors that affect vertical transmission and the management issues during pregnancy. Close collaboration among a multidisciplinary team of knowledgeable health professionals and, most importantly, the woman herself can improve both maternal and infant outcomes.

  17. Aging, human immunodeficiency virus, and bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim C Mansky

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Kim C ManskyDivision of Orthodontics, Department of Developmental and Surgical Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has had a profound impact on improving the long-term prognosis for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. HAART has been available for close to two decades, and now a significant number of patients with access to HAART are over the age of 50 years. Many clinical studies have indicated that HIV infection, as well as components of HAART, can increase the risk in these individuals to a variety of noninfectious complications, including a risk to bone health. There is a significant need for detailed mechanistic analysis of the aging, HIV-infected population regarding the risk of HIV infection and therapy in order to maintain bone health. Insights from basic mechanistic studies will help to shed light on the role of HIV infection and the components of HAART that impact bone health, and will help in identifying preventative countermeasures, particularly for individuals 50 years of age and older.Keywords: osteopenia, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, bisphosphonates, tenofovir, osteoimmunology

  18. Bone paracoccidioidomycosis associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: evaluation by radiological methods - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Lucimara; Hara, Monica Hiromi; Sabedotti, Ismail Fernando; Montandon, Cristiano; Torriani, Martin; Nanni, Livio

    1999-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a chronic granulomatous disease, caused by the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis fungus. This disease involves primarily the lungs, although disseminated forms may occur. Bone involvement is rare, and is associated to systemic disease or may present as a focal lesion. An association between paracoccidioidomycosis and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first established in 1989. There are only a few reports on this association, and none of them was the fungus isolated from bone lesions. This is the first case report on the paracoccidioidomycosis-AIDS association in which bone lesions demonstrated infection by P. brasiliensis. The authors propose the inclusion of paracoccidioidomycosis in the differential diagnosis of lytic bone lesions in patients with AIDS and discuss the role of radiological diagnostic in this case. (author)

  19. Immunological studies in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Functional studies of lymphocyte subpopulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Ødum, Niels; Platz, P

    1985-01-01

    The lymphocyte transformation response in vitro to mitogens (phytohaemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and pokeweed mitogen) and antigens (purified protein derivative and tetanus) was studied in three patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), three patients with pre-AIDS, and six healthy...... controls before and after depletion of T4- or T8-positive cells. In controls, T8-depleted lymphocytes responded as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) when monocytes were added, whereas T4-depleted cells gave about 50% of this response to mitogens and no response at all to antigens....... No evidence of suppression was seen when various mixtures of T4- and T8-depleted cells were made. In particular, there was a virtually linear relationship between the percentage of T8-depleted cells and the response to antigens. The PBMC of all AIDS and pre-AIDS patients had very low or absent responses...

  20. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - correlation of high-resolution computed tomography and anatomopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchiori, Edson; Moreira, Luiza Beatriz; Capone, Domenico; Moraes, Heleno Pinto de; Pereira, Cyntia Inez Guedes Soares

    2001-01-01

    We present the main findings observed on the high-resolution computed tomography examinations of 15 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. The high-resolution computed tomography and autopsy findings of 5 patients were also compared. The most frequently observed high-resolution computed tomography patterns were ground-glass attenuation, consolidation areas, crazy-paving pattern and cysts. Nodules and intralobular reticulation were less frequently observed. Ground-glass attenuation and consolidation areas corresponded to alveolar filling with inflammatory exudate. Thickening of the interlobular septa was due to cell infiltration and edema. One patient presented interlobular reticulation, and the pathology study revealed alveolar septa thickening due to cell infiltration and fibrosis. Nodules observed in one of the patients corresponded to a patchy intra alveolar accumulation of microorganisms and inflammatory cells forming a 'granulomatous' pattern. (author)

  1. Toxoplasmosis of spinal cord in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient presenting as paraparesis: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin R Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although brain has been the most common site for toxoplasma infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients, involvement of spinal cord by toxoplasma has been rarely found. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis can present as acute onset weakness in both lower limbs associated with sensory and bladder dysfunction. A presumptive diagnosis can be made in patients with CD4 count <100/mm 3 based on a positive serum Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies, no recent prophylaxis against toxoplasmosis, intramedullary ring enhancing lesion in spinal cord supported by similar lesions in brain parenchyma. Institutions of antitoxoplasma treatment in such patients result in prompt clinical response and therefore avoiding the need of unnecessary invasive diagnostic tests. Here, we report a case of toxoplasmic myelitis in immunocompromised patient presenting as myelopathy who showed significant clinical improvement after starting antitoxoplasma treatment. Hence toxoplasmic myelitis should be considered in toxoplasma seropositive immunocompromised patients presenting as myelopathy and imaging studies showing ring enhancing intramedullary lesion.

  2. Kaposi sarcoma and lymphadenopathy syndrome: limitations of abdominal CT in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, K.L. Jr.; Federle, M.P.; Abrams, D.I.; Volberding, P.; Lewis, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was performed in 31 patients with Kaposi sarcoma (KS) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), three patients with classic KS, and 12 patients with the newly described lymphadenopathy syndrome (LNS). The frequency, distribution, and appearance of lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly were similar in the AIDS-related KS and LNS groups. Rectal and perirectal disease was identified in 86% of homosexual men studied; rectal KS could not be distinguished from proctitis on CT criteria alone. No CT abnormalities were seen in patients with classic KS. The CT demonstration of retroperitoneal, mesenteric, or pelvic adenopathy or of rectal or perirectal disease in patients with AIDS-related KS is not necessarily indicative of widespread involvement with the disease

  3. Fear of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and fear of other illness in suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Jallinoja, P T; Henriksson, M M

    1994-01-01

    Suicide victims with fear of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other somatic illness were compared for psychosocial and health-related characteristics, triggers and content of fear. Fear of AIDS cases (n = 28), 2% of the 1-year Finnish suicide population (n = 1397), were younger...... and fewer had serious somatic disease (32% vs 64%) compared with cases of fear of other somatic illness. Both groups had more depression, especially major depression (54% and 61% vs 26%), more psychotic disorders (50% and 32% vs 24%) and health care contacts during their final week (61% and 64% vs 36%) than...... other suicides. Suicidal fear of AIDS calls for evaluation of sexual and other risk behaviour, but fear of AIDS was largely generated by the extensive media coverage. Fear of other somatic illness was more diverse in origin and related to illness experiences. Suicidal fear of illness calls...

  4. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Proteins Mimic Human T Cell Receptors Inducing Cross-Reactive Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Root-Bernstein

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV hides from the immune system in part by mimicking host antigens, including human leukocyte antigens. It is demonstrated here that HIV also mimics the V-β-D-J-β of approximately seventy percent of about 600 randomly selected human T cell receptors (TCR. This degree of mimicry is greater than any other human pathogen, commensal or symbiotic organism studied. These data suggest that HIV may be evolving into a commensal organism just as simian immunodeficiency virus has done in some types of monkeys. The gp120 envelope protein, Nef protein and Pol protein are particularly similar to host TCR, camouflaging HIV from the immune system and creating serious barriers to the development of safe HIV vaccines. One consequence of HIV mimicry of host TCR is that antibodies against HIV proteins have a significant probability of recognizing the corresponding TCR as antigenic targets, explaining the widespread observation of lymphocytotoxic autoantibodies in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Quantitative enzyme-linked immunoadsorption assays (ELISA demonstrated that every HIV antibody tested recognized at least one of twelve TCR, and as many as seven, with a binding constant in the 10−8 to 10−9 m range. HIV immunity also affects microbiome tolerance in ways that correlate with susceptibility to specific opportunistic infections.

  5. National Surveillance of Occupational Exposure to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Ricketts

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In September 1985, a prospective study was initiated to monitor the occurrence of occupational exposures to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected blood and body fluids in Canada. This program was coordinated by the Federal Centre for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS (now the Division of HIV/AIDS Epidemiology at the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control. The objective was to determine the risk to workers of acquiring HIV infection as a result of exposure to HIV-infected blood and other body fluids. To be eligible, a worker must have sustained a documented parenteral, mucous membrane or skin contact exposure to blood or body fluids from an HIV-infected person. A baseline specimen was collected within a week of the exposure and then at six weeks, 12 weeks, six months and 12 months. Information concerning the type of exposure, precautions used and post exposure treatment was submitted to the Federal Centre for AIDS on standard data collection forms. All information was anonymous, identified only by a code number. Guidelines for counselling an exposed employee were provided with enrollment material. As of July 29, 1991, 414 employees have been included in the study. Two hundred and thirty-seven of the 414 exposures (57% were needlestick injuries of which 167 (70% were sustained by nurses. Other exposures consisted of open wound contamination, eye splashes, scalpel wounds and skin contact with blood and body fluids. To date, there have been no seroconversions among workers enrolled in the surveillance program.

  6. The Basic Nature of Ethical Problems Experienced by Persons with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Implications for Nursing Ethics Education and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Miriam E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-five persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) described and validated 100 ethical problems that are experienced by people with AIDS from 3 levels of ethical inquiry: descriptive ethics, normative ethics, and metaethics. Findings suggest strategies for improving nursing ethics education. (JOW)

  7. Utility of gallium imaging in the diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, M.C.; Bagwell, S.P.; Masur, H.

    1986-01-01

    Whole body Ga-67 scans revealed increased uptake in lymph nodes accessible for biopsy in three patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) infected by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI). In diagnostically difficult cases where the usual methods for diagnosing MAI are not helpful, Ga-67 studies may be of value

  8. Changing patterns of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neuropathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Francoise

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the evolution of the pathogenic concepts associated with the infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, with emphasis to the pathology of the nervous system. Although the first description of damage to the nervous system in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS only appeared in 1982, the dramatic diffusion of the epidemic worldwide, as well as the invariably rapidly fatal outcome of the disease before the introduction of efficient treatment, generated from the beginning an enormous amount of research and re-thinking on a number of pathogenetic concepts. Less than 25 years after the first autopsy series on AIDS patients were published and the virus responsible for AIDS was identified, satisfactory definition and classification of a number of neuropathological complications of HIV infection have been established. This has led to the establishment of accurate clinical and biological diagnosis of the main neurological complications of the disease, which remain a major cause of disability and death in patients. Clinical and experimental studies have provided essential insight into the pathogenesis of CNS lesions and the natural history of the disorder. The relatively recent introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy in 1995-6 dramatically improved the course of prognosis of HIV disease. However, there remain a number of unsolved pathogenetic issues, the most puzzling of which remains the precise mechanism of neuronal damage underlying the specific HIV-related cognitive disorder (HIV-dementia. In addition, although antiretroviral therapy has changed the course of neurological complications, new issues have emerged, such as the lack of improvement or even paradoxical deterioration of the neurological status in treated patients. Interpretation of these complications remains largely speculative, partly because of the small number of neuropathological studies related to the beneficial consequence of this

  9. Absolute level of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) DNA in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection is not predictive of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Baarle (Debbie); K.C. Wolthers (Katja); E. Hovenkamp (Egbert); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); F. Miedema (Frank); M.H.J. van Oers (Marinus); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractTo study whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load can be used to predict the occurrence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (AIDS-NHL), we determined EBV load longitudinally for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. EBV load in

  10. Absolute level of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection is not predictive of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baarle, Debbie; Wolthers, Katja C.; Hovenkamp, Egbert; Niesters, Hubert G. M.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Miedema, Frank; van Oers, Marinus H. J.

    2002-01-01

    To study whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load can be used to predict the occurrence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (AIDS-NHL), we determined EBV load longitudinally for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. EBV load in peripheral blood

  11. Reproductive aspects and knowledge of family planning among women with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ivana Cristina Vieira de; Cunha, Maria da Conceição Dos Santos Oliveira; Cunha, Gilmara Holanda da; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz

    2017-05-25

    To analyze the reproductive aspects and knowledge of family planning among women with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Cross-sectional and descriptive study carried out from January to December, 2015, in the outpatient care of infectious disease unit in a hospital located in Fortaleza, Ceará. Data were collected through a form applied by interview in a private setting. 102 women participated in the study. Most were aware that they were serologically positive with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during prenatal care (96.1%) and did not intend to have more children (63.7%). Women who were less than 39 years of age, had a higher educational level, and a shorter time of antiretroviral therapy had better chances of having children (p≤0.05). Having a steady partner increased the chance of desiring to have children, while tubal ligation was higher among women that did not receive counseling on family planning. Knowledge of family planning was limited because of lack of assistance provided by health professionals. Analisar aspectos reprodutivos e conhecimento sobre planejamento familiar de mulheres com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (Aids). Estudo transversal, descritivo, realizado de janeiro a dezembro de 2015, no ambulatório de infectologia de um hospital em Fortaleza, Ceará. Os dados foram coletados por meio de formulário, aplicado por entrevista em ambiente privativo. Participaram do estudo 102 mulheres. A maioria delas teve conhecimento da sorologia positiva para vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) durante o pré-natal (96,1%), e estas não pretendiam mais ter filhos (63,7%). Mulheres com idade menor que 39 anos, maior escolaridade e menor tempo de terapia antirretroviral tiveram maiores chances de ter filhos (p≤0,05). Mulheres com idade menor que 39 anos e maior escolaridade tiveram maiores chances de ter informações corretas sobre ter filhos na vigência do HIV (p≤0,05). Ter parceiro fixo aumentou a chance de desejar ter

  12. Gender inequality and domestic violence: implications for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kaye, Dan K

    2004-01-01

    Domestic violence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are problems of great public health worldwide, especially sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing countries. This is due to their far reaching social, economic and public health consequences. The two problems have gender inequality and gender power imbalances as the driving force behind the “epidemics”. HIV infection is mainly acquired through heterosexual relations, which themselves are greatly influenced by socio-cultu...

  13. Kaposi sarcoma of the conjunctiva and eyelids associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuler, J.D.; Holland, G.N.; Miles, S.A.; Miller, B.J.; Grossman, I.

    1989-01-01

    Three studies were performed to assess more accurately the prevalence, natural history, and appropriate treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposi sarcoma involving ocular structures. The first study was a prospective examination of 100 male homosexuals with AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma for signs of ophthalmic involvement. Of the 20 patients who had ophthalmic lesions, 16 had eyelid lesions and seven had conjunctival lesions. In four patients, the ophthalmic lesion was the first, and initially the only, clinically identified manifestation of Kaposi sarcoma. The second study was a retrospective review of all patients with ophthalmic Kaposi sarcoma examined at one institution over a six-year period to determine its natural history and response to therapy. Most lesions were slowly progressive and responded to systemic drug therapy. Six patients were successfully treated with radiation therapy to prevent complications. The third study was a retrospective review of all patients with AIDS-related ophthalmic Kaposi sarcoma treated with local irradiation by one radiation oncologist. Each of 12 patients showed a response to treatment, and ten had a complete resolution of lesions, but recurrences were common. Side effects included skin erythema in six patients and hair loss in one patient. For local treatment of ophthalmic Kaposi sarcoma, irradiation appears to be safe and effective for palliative therapy

  14. Progressive outer retinal necrosis associated with occlusive vasculitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chi Tseng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old man, a case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, received a highly active antiretroviral therapy at the outpatient service for 4 years without regular follow-up. He experienced progressively blurred vision for 6 months and a cutaneous zoster on his back 3 months ago. He was diagnosed with progressive outer retinal necrosis by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism using an aqueous humor sample, which revealed an existence of varicella zoster virus. He was given a combination of systemic, intravitreal antiviral and a highly active antiretroviral therapy. Occlusive vasculitis, an unusual finding for progressive outer retinal necrosis, developed in both eyes 1 week after the secondary intravitreal injection. Unfortunately, his vision deteriorated to no light perception in both eyes within 2 weeks. Progressive outer retinal necrosis is characterized clinically as showing minimal or no inflammation in the aqueous and vitreous humors, absence of retinal vasculitis, and patches of yellowish spots located deep in the retina. Physicians should pay attention to this rare case of progressive outer retinal necrosis associated occlusive vasculitis with very poor prognosis in spite of aggressive treatment.

  15. Reiter's Syndrome associated with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B.N.S. Malta

    Full Text Available The association of Reiter's Syndrome (RS with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS is seldom mentioned in the medical literature. This report illustrates this relationship in a 46 years old male patient suffering from AIDS (CD4+ = 240 cells/mm³, CD8+ = 1,301 cells/mm³ and viral load = 330,000 copies/ml, pulmonary tuberculosis (positive catarrhal bacilluscopy, and RS. The diagnosis of RS was based on the combination of dermatological and articular alterations. The patient's cutaneous lesions were characterized by exfoliation and the formation of crusts located on the face, scalp, genitals, hands, and feet; onychodystrophy with opacity; yellowish coloring; and hyperkeratosis of the nails. Articular lesions led to progressive deformity of phalangeal joints of the hands, and intensive arthralgia, mainly of the larger joints (shoulders, elbows, hips and knees. AIDS treatment was administered with anti-retroviral drugs (zidovudine and didanosine; for tuberculosis (isoniazid, rifampicine, and pyrazinamide; and (prednisone and inometacine for the RS. The patient recovered with the improvement of articular symptoms; however, on the eighth day of treatment, the patient showed significant hemoptysis and hypovolemic shock, and died. The association of RS and HIV infection is reviewed.

  16. CT features of pulmonary mycobacterial disease in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ying; Zhang Zhiyong; Shi Yuxin; Feng Feng

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT features of pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and explore the different CT appearances between AIDS-NTM and AIDS-TB. Methods: CT findings of pulmonary NTM disease in 27 AIDS patients (NTM group) were retrospectively analyzed and compared with that of tuberculosis in 30 AIDS patients (TB group). The results were statistically analyzed using Fisher's exact test. Results: CT findings of NTM appeared significantly more than that of TB as follows: high-density nodules (n = 18 vs 1, P < 0.01), ground-glass opacities (n = 10 vs 0, P < 0.01), fibrotic band (n = 17 vs 3, P < 0.01), bronchiectasis (9 vs 2, P = 0.012). CT findings of NTM appeared significantly less than that of TB as follows: miliary nodules (0 vs 6, P = 0.016), air space consolidations (n = 2 vs 11, P < 0.01), pleural effusion (n = 1 vs 9, P < 0.01). Conclusion: Nodule and fibrotic band accompanied with bronchiectasis were the main CT manifestations of pulmonary NTM disease in AIDS patients, while air space consolidation accompanied with pleural effusion and miliary nodules were the predominate CT findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in AIDS patients. (authors)

  17. Radiation therapy for Kaposi's sarcoma associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebara, Takeshi; Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Maebayashi, Katsuya; Kurosaki, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Kaizu, Toshihide; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Akagi, Kumiko; Masuda, Gota

    2000-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma is frequently found in association with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report on radiotherapy for patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma at Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital. Between April 1991 and May 1997, radiotherapy was given to 11 lesions in eight men with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma to relieve their symptoms. The lesions involved the head and neck region, the legs, and the gastrointestinal tract. Radiotherapy was carried out with 4-MV photon through parallel opposed field or high energy electrons. Total doses ranged from 20 to 38 Gy, with a median of 30 Gy, delivered in 2- to 3-Gy fractions. Four patients were given other treatments prior to the radiotherapy. Acute reaction was evaluated according to the modified acute radiation morbidity scoring criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Radiotherapy had relieved the symptoms in all patients at completion of this therapy. Lesions that involved the hard palate and vocal cords had completely disappeared. The lesions that received radiotherapy were controlled without symptoms until the patients died. Patients who had the head and neck region treated exhibited severe acute mucosal reaction (at a dose of 30 Gy, there was grade 2 morbidity by modified RTOG criteria, in two patients, and grade 3 in three patients) although the radiation therapy was completed for these patients. Radiotherapy promises a favorable outcome for symptom relief in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. (author)

  18. Progressive Outer Retinal Necrosis Combined with Vitreous Hemorrhage in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yong Sung; Lee, Sung Jin; Lee, Sung Ho; Park, Chang Hyun

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To describe an unusual case of rapidly progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) with vitreous hemorrhage in a 41-year-old woman with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), who had retinitis developed from what was probably varicellar-zoster virus combined with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex type 1,2, as proven by the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP). Methods This study is a case report detailing clinical follow-up and an aqueous humor test by PCR-RFLP. Results The deep, white retinal lesions coalesced and progressively expanded in a circumferential manner, with sparing of the perivascular retina. However, retinal and vitreous hemorrhages, unusual findings for PORN, could be noted around the optic nerve. Varicellar-zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes simplex types 1,2 (HSV-1,2) were detected in the aqueous humor by PCR. Conclusions PORN has been described as a variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy, occurring particularly in patients with AIDS. Although the etiologic agent has been reported to be VZV, concurrent or combined etiologic agents can include HSV-1, HSV-2, and CMV in AIDS patients. Therefore, combined antiviral therapy with acyclovir and ganciclovir could be more reasonable as an initial therapy. PMID:17460434

  19. Imaging findings of disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Wenyan; Zhao Zuqi; Zhao Dawei; Jia Cuiyu; Zhang Ruichi; Liu JinXin; Guan Wanhua; Liang Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the imaging findings of disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: X-ray and multi-slice CT (MSCT) data from 33 AIDS patients with disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis confirmed by clinical manifestations and laboratory tests were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Thirty patients underwent initial chest radiography examination, 29 patients showed abnormal appearances, including bilateral disseminations in 21 patients and unilateral multiple disseminations in 8 patients. All patients underwent MSCT examination, 26 patients showed bilateral disseminations and 7 patients showed unilateral multiple disseminations. The abnormal pulmonary appearances included nodule (n = 25), miliary nodule (n = 22), air-space consolidation (n = 22), cavity (n = 11), fibrosis (n = 7), ground-glass opacity (n = 7), pneumatocele (n = 4), calcification (n = 2). There were 20 patients with more than 3 abnormal appearances and 13 patients with one or two abnormal appearances. The extra-pulmonary tuberculosis included pleural effusion (n = 33), lymphadenopathy (n = 30), intestinal tuberculosis (n = 3), splenic tuberculosis (n = 1) and cerebral tuberculosis (n = 1). Conclusion: Disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis should be highly suspected in AIDS patients with diffused nodules, miliary nodules, air-space consolidations or multiple cavities, accompanied with pleural effusion and lymphadenopathy. (authors)

  20. Erythrovirus B19 infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: screening by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Setúbal

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythrovirus B19 infects erythrocytic progenitors, transiently interrupting erythropoiesis. In AIDS patients it causes chronic anemia amenable to treatment. We looked for evidences of B19 infection in stored bone marrow material from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Histological sections were made from stored paraffin blocks from 33 autopsies (39 blocks and 35 biopsies (45 blocks, 30 patients performed from 1988 to 2002. They were examined after hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining, immunohistochemical (IHC, and in situ hybridization. HE revealed intra-nuclear inclusion bodies ("lantern cells" suggesting B19 infection in 19 sections corresponding to 19 of 63 patients examined with this test. Seven of 78 sections subjected to immunohistochemistry were positive, corresponding to 7 of 58 patients examined with this test. Fourteen sections corresponding to 13 of the 20 HE and/or IHC positive patients were subjected to in situ hybridization, with six positives results. Among the 13 patients subjected to the three techniques, only one gave unequivocal positive results in all and was considered a true positive. The frequency of B19 infection (1/63 patients in the material examined can be deemed low.

  1. The imaging appearances of the pulmonary mucormycosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinxin; Tang Xiaoping; Zhang Lieguang; Jiang Songfeng; Chen Bihua; Gan Xinqing; Huang Ruilian; Shi Hongling; Huang Wuzhi; Huang Deyang; Tang Yong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To manifest the imaging appearances of the pulmonary mucormycosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: The radiographic and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) features of the pulmonary, mucormycosis in 13 patients with AIDS were retrospectively analyzed. Results: On radiography, the infiltrative lesions were found in 5 patients, 7 cases had reticular pattern, 4 cases had pleural effusion, 4 cases had enlarged hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes, 3 cases had diffuse milliary lesions, 3 cases had masses, 2 cases had ground-glass shadows, 2 cases had cystic lesions, cavity, pleural thickening, pericardial effusion and focal pneumothorax was presented in 1 case respectively. On HRCT, 7 cases had enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes, 7 cases had interlobular septal thickening, the infiltrative lesion were found in 6 patients, 5 cases had diffuse milliary lesions, 4 cases had pleural effusion, 3 cases had masses, 2 eases had ground-glass shadows, 2 cases had cystic lesions, cavity, pleural thickening, focal bronchiectasis, pericardial effusion and focal pneumothorax was presented in 1 case respectively. Conclusion: The main imaging appearances of the pulmonary mucormycosis in patients with AIDS include diffuse milliary lesion, enlarged hilar and mediastinal lymph node, interlobular septal thickening, infiltrative lesion, pleural effusion and mass. (authors)

  2. Bronchogenic carcinoma in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - report of two cases; Carcinoma broncogenico na sindrome da imunodeficiencia adquirida - relato de dois casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, Antonio Alexandre de Oliveira [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiodiagnostico; Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves de; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    1999-12-01

    The authors report two cases of bronchogenic carcinoma in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The first patient, a ee-year-old male, developed a left hilar adenocarcinoma, with spleen and bilateral adrenal metastases. The disease progressed unfavourably, resulting in the patient's death in less than a month. The second patient, a 47-year-old male, developed a large mass in the left upper lobe, with invasion of the thoracic wall and destruction of adjacent ribs. The histopathologic study revealed a non-oat-cell carcinoma. Both patients received palliative treatment since diagnosis was established late in the course of the disease. Recent studies suggest an association between bronchogenic carcinoma and human immunodeficiency virus infection. However, an actual increase in the prevalence of bronchogenic carcinoma in HIV-positive patients remains controversial. (author)

  3. Cholecystitis in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: ultrasonographic findings in a case of uncommon presentation during childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubi-Palomares, I.; Martinez-Leon, M. I.; Alonso-Usabiaga, I.; Ceres-Ruiz, L.

    2001-01-01

    We present the case of a boy with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in whom ultrasound revealed the presence of a calculous cholecystitis. Abdominal ultrasound was essential in the initial diagnosis and the assessment of the response to treatment. This entity has rarely been reported in the pediatric radiology literature. In our patient, the cholecystitis may have been caused by infection, and the involvement of regional lymphatic obstruction in the pathogenesis is considered. (Author) 14 refs

  4. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related primary cerebral lymphoma: response to irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, V.S.; Wilson, P.C.; Sexton, M.J.; Liew, K.H.

    2000-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related primary cerebral lymphoma (AIDS-PCL) is uncommon. Fourteen cases of presumed AIDS-PCL between 1986 and 1995 were reviewed retrospectively in order to characterize the natural history, and the response to radiotherapy. The median age was 38 years (range 24-65). The median interval between seropositive diagnosis of HIV and AIDS-PCL was 28 months (range 5-113). The median duration of symptoms was 2 weeks (range 0.2-12). At presentation, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS) was PS1 (2/14 patients), PS2 (6/14) and PS3 (6/14). The symptoms and signs were non-specific and depended on the site and extent of cerebral involvement. There was no characteristic pattern of brain imaging in terms of size, number, location or pattern of contrast enhancement of the cerebral lesions. Nine patients received various fractionation-dose schedules (range 8-50 Gy). Complete and partial responses were seen in 2/9 and 3/9 cases, respectively. Clinical stabilization of neurological symptoms was noted in 3/9 cases and disease progression in 1/9. The median survival times (MST) from presentation for irradiated and non-irradiated patients were 9.3 and 2.1 weeks, respectively (range 0.9-43.1). Although patient selection introduced bias, there appears to be a modest improvement in MST for treated patients. The MST with radiotherapy alone remains poor, but radiotherapy may provide palliation. For some selected patients, a prolonged response is possible. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  5. Sero-prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and seven (307) healthy blood donors aged 18 – 55 years were used to determine the sero-prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Yola, Nigeria. The association between donors' age, occupation and marital status and the prevalence of the infections among blood ...

  6. Mathematical Analysis of a Model for Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to present a mathematical model formulated to investigate the dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The disease free equilibrium of the model was found to be locally and globally asymptotically stable. The endemic equilibrium point exists and it was discovered that the ...

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting as a fatal case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJP

    2015-06-25

    Jun 25, 2015 ... original work is properly cited. Human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting as a fatal ... of neurological symptoms by an infection (upper respiratory tract infection or diarrhea), in a smaller proportion of .... cerebrospinal fluid findings of albumino-cytology dissociation.[6]. However, albumino-cytology.

  8. Hepatitis B, C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    BACKGROUND. Nigeria which has one of the world's highest burden of children living with. Sickle cell anaemia is also endemic for hepatitis B, C and the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study set out to determine the prevalence of. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and.

  9. C- Reactive Protein in Tuberculosis and Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and the follow-up therapeutic response to tuberculosis (TB) among patients aged 19-68 years attending out-patient clinics of two hospitals in Abeokuta, Southwestern ...

  10. Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The epidemiology of viral hepatitis and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during pregnancy is of great importance for health planners and program managers. However, few published data on viral hepatitis and HIV are available in Sudan especially during pregnancy. Objectives: The current study was ...

  11. Prevalence of hepatitis C Antibody in Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health problem for Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected population. Both infections share same routes of transmission, and quite often co-exist, with dual infections associated with reciprocal and mutually more rapid progression than either infection alone.

  12. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis remain major infections around the world. In Angola, about 166 000 individuals are living with HIV, representing a prevalence of 1.98% in adults between 15 and 49 years of age. In a 2003 study in Luanda, 4.5% ...

  13. Sexual orientation and risk factors for Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of homosexuality attracts global debate, given that this constitutes risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases. An exploration of socio-cultural, religious and sexual activities of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex sector would inform future Human Immunodeficiency Virus programming.

  14. Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2 and Human Immunodeficiency Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To estimate the seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Type 2 (HSV-2) and its association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections in rural Kilimanjaro Tanzania. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Oria village from March to June 2005 involving all individuals aged 15-44 years ...

  15. Sero-prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and hepatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sero-prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and hepatitis viruses and their correlation with CD4 T-cell lymphocyte counts in pregnant women in the Buea Health District of Cameroon. Rebecca Enow Tanjong, Pride Teyim, Henry Lucien Kamga, Edwin Suh Neba, Theresia Nkuo-Akenji ...

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) genetic diversity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type-1 diversity has an impact on vaccine efficacy and drug resistance. It is important to know the circulating genetic variants and associated drug-resistance mutations in the context of scale up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to ...

  17. Prevalence of Anaemia Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anaemia is the most commonly encountered haematological abnormality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients with estimates climbing as high as 95% depending on clinical settings. The twin effects of HIV infection and anaemia in pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and ...

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity and hepatitis B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: A total of 130 donors comprising 120 commercial donors and 10 voluntary donors were tested for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B surface antigen in Benin city using Immunocomb HIV - 1 and 2 Biospot kit and Quimica Clinica Aplicada direct latex agglutination method respectively.

  19. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection in Cameroon: Investigation of the Genetic Diversity and Virulent ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... DNA sequencing, and bioinformatics tools for sequence management and analysis.

  20. Knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus post-exposure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-05-21

    May 21, 2011 ... Appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis is an integral part of prevention, control and workplace safety. This study was undertaken to assess the level of knowledge of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among doctors in Federal Medical Centre, Gombe, Nigeria.

  1. The Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Agboghoroma et al. HIV Infection Diagnosed in Women in Labour. African Journal of Reproductive Health September 2015; 19 (3):137. ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE. The Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among. Pregnant Women in Labour with Unknown Status and those with. Negative status ...

  2. Awareness and practice of Human Immunodeficiency Virus And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus(HIV) and Hepatitis B Virus(HBV) infections are global viral diseases with various seroprevalence rates in different parts of the world. They share similar modes of transmission and are very important in Transfusion Medicine. Aim/Objective: To determine the level of awareness ...

  3. Reproduction and fertility in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, E.; Prins, J. M.; Jurriaans, S.; Boer, K.; Reiss, P.; Repping, S.; van der Veen, F.

    2007-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) affects mostly men and women in their reproductive years. For those who have access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the course of HIV-1 infection has shifted from a lethal to a chronic disease. As a result of this, many patients with HIV-1

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitus B virus co-infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitus B virus co-infection amog patients in Kano Nigeria. EE Nwokedi, MA Emokpae, AI Dutse. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Medicine Vol. 15(3) July-September 2006: 227-229. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  5. Awareness of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the level of awareness of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among antenatal clients in Nnewi Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study of six hundred consecutive antenatal clients attending the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital and five private ...

  6. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in a rural community of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in a rural community of Plateau State: effective control measures still a nightmare? GTA Jombo, DZ Egah, EB Banwat. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Medicine Vol. 15(1) 2006: 49-52. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  7. Management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adults in resource-limited countries: Challenges and prospects in Nigeria. AG Habib. Abstract. No Abstract. Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine Vol. 3 (1) 2005: pp. 26-32. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  8. Compreendendo o ser familiar de criança com Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/ Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida pelo olhar da complexidade Comprendiendo al familiar de un niño afectado por el Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Humana/Síndrome de la Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida, bajo la perspectiva de la complejidad Understanding the family member of a child affected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, from the perspective of complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Maria Barbosa de Freitas

    2010-10-01

    comprensión que abarca varios factores (biológicos, psicológicos, sociales, espirituales, relacionados con la enfermedad y con el enfermo de una actitud sobre el cuidado que debe ser enfocada en el ser humano - un ser único, complejo y multidimensional.OBJECTIVE: To understand the significance of a family member of a child with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome from the perspective of complexity. METHODS: This is a qualitative and exploratory study; data were collected between July and November 2008, through interviews with five family members of children with AIDS, who were sheltered in an institution of support. RESULTS: The meaning of statements were coded and analyzed, resulting in three categories: experiencing the order, disorder and the organization of a family member of a child with AIDS; dialoguing with the assurance and doubt of disclosing the diagnosis to a child with AIDS; and, facing the limits of unknown, decadence, live and death. CONCLUSION: It was revealed that being a family member and caring for a child with AIDS, is a complex process that requires an understanding of multiple factors (such as: biological, psychological, social, spiritual, and the ones related to the disease and the patient and the attitude of caring focused on the human being - a unique being, complex and multidimensional.

  9. Tracking Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection in the Humanized DRAG Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Jiae Kim; Jiae Kim; Kristina K. Peachman; Kristina K. Peachman; Ousman Jobe; Ousman Jobe; Elaine B. Morrison; Atef Allam; Atef Allam; Linda Jagodzinski; Sofia A. Casares; Mangala Rao

    2017-01-01

    Humanized mice are emerging as an alternative model system to well-established non-human primate (NHP) models for studying human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 biology and pathogenesis. Although both NHP and humanized mice have their own strengths and could never truly reflect the complex human immune system and biology, there are several advantages of using the humanized mice in terms of using primary HIV-1 for infection instead of simian immunodeficiency virus or chimera simian/HIV. Several...

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging: early detection of central nervous system involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotot, P.M.; Sansonetti, P.J.; Levillain, R.; Cabanis, E.A.; Lavayssiere, R.; Sandoz-Tronca, C.

    1988-01-01

    Central Nervous System (CNS) involvement, whether primary by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV - itself, or secondary (toxoplasmosis or lymphoma) is remarkably frequent in AIDS, in 40 to 70% of cases, depending upon the author. In order to study the natural history of this illness, a cohort of 25 asymptomatic seropositive patients have been established. Every 6 months these patients undergo biological and clinical examinations, as well as Magnetic Resonance brain scans. After two examinations at a 6 month's interval, the first results are reported. Out of these 25 cases, 9 present anomalies: One patient with diffuse cerebral atrophy and 8 others with high signal intensity areas on T2 weighted sequences, like those of the Multiple Sclerosis. No relationship could be demonstrated between the existence of these lesions and various criteria such as age, sex, risk factors and T4 cells count. The nature of these lesions is not lear. They certainly indicate early involvement of the CNS after primary infection by the HIV virus. They may either represent scars of the primary infection or early alterations announcing developing encephalopathy [fr

  11. Low prevalence of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis D virus and hepatitis C virus among patients with human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the Brazilian Amazon basin Baixa prevalência do vírus da hepatite B, vírus da hepatite D e vírus da hepatite C entre pacientes com o vírus da imunodeficiência humana ou síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida na Amazônia Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wornei Silva Miranda Braga

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Comorbidities in human immunodeficiency virus infection are of great interest due to their association with unfavorable outcomes and failure of antiretroviral therapy. This study evaluated the prevalence of coinfection by human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis in an endemic area for hepatitis B in the Western Amazon basin. Serological markers for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis D virus were tested in a consecutive sample of all patients referred for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The variables sex, age, origin and exposure category were obtained from medical records and from the sexually transmitted diseases and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome surveillance database. Among 704 subjects, the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B carriage was 6.4% and past infection 40.2%. The presence of hepatitis B was associated with birth in hyperendemic areas of the Amazon basin, male sex and illegal drug use. The overall prevalence of hepatitis C was 5% and was associated with illegal drug use. The prevalence of hepatitis B and C among human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients in the Western Amazon basin was lower than seen elsewhere and is probably associated with the local epidemiology of these viruses and the degree of overlap of their shared risk factors. An opportunity presents itself to evaluate the prevention of hepatitis C through harm reduction policies and hepatitis B through vaccination programs among human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients.Co-morbidades na infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana são de grande interesse devido à associação com desfechos desfavoráveis e falhas na terapia anti-retroviral. Este estudo avalia a prevalência de co-infecção entre o vírus da imunodeficiência humana e hepatites virais, em uma área endêmica de hepatite B, na Amazônia Ocidental. Marcadores

  12. Utilidade da teoria de autocuidado na assistência ao portador do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/ Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida Utilidad de la teoría del autocuidado en la asistencia al portador del Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Humana/Síndrome de la Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida Utility of the self-care theory to assist the bearer of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Maria Moura Barroso

    2010-01-01

    utilidad de la Teoría de Orem para la práctica, investigación, educación y administración.OBJECTIVE: To analyze, within Orem's general theory, the utility of the Self-care Theory to assist patients who carries the Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS, according to the standard model to analyze theories. METHODS: Literature review conducted in the databases LILACS, BDENF and MEDLINE with the keywords: self-care, Orem and HIV/AIDS. It was utilized the Meleis's analysis model of theories, focusing on the component of usefulness. It was identified a study that used Orem's Theory on patients who carries the HIV/AIDS. RESULTS: The theory proved useful to: guide the systematization of nursing care on patients with HIV/AIDS; build assessment and guidance tools; measure the quality of care; verify models; classify patients; and, as an aid to support education. CONCLUSION: The Meleis model allowed to understand the usefulness of Orem's theory into practice, research, education and administration.

  13. Diagnósticos de enfermagem em pacientes com o Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/ Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida em assistência ambulatorial Diagnósticos de enfermería en pacientes con el Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Humana/Síndrome de la Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida en asistencia de ambulatorio Nursing diagnoses in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in outpatient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Holanda da Cunha

    2010-01-01

    identify nursing diagnoses in carriers of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS in outpatient care. METHODS: This is a descriptive study performed through the application of a questionnaire based on the theory of Orem Self-care. The sample consisted of 51 patients treated at the clinic of a public hospital in the city of Fortaleza-CE. RESULTS: 17 nursing diagnoses were identified, highlighting: risk of infection, sexual dysfunction, self-care deficit for food and ineffective management of therapeutic regimen. CONCLUSION: The nursing diagnoses obtained identified the main problems presented by the carriers of HIV/AIDS, verifying deficits in self-care and health education. This study contributes to guide the nursing interventions to be appropriated and targeted to existing needs.

  14. Psychological problems of families and health workers dealing with people infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, M

    1991-03-01

    The psychological problems of the families of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected people, and of the health workers taking care of them, have been addressed in a few empirical studies and in several anecdotal reports and theoretical contributions. Apparently, HIV-1 infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are able to elicit a wide range of emotional reactions, from rejection and refusal to provide care to immersion in the infected person's needs and burnout. Since irrational fears and attitudes play an important role in conditioning these reactions, education may not be sufficient to change behaviour. Counselling sessions and mutual support groups are often the most appropriate contexts where fears and concerns can receive an individually tailored response, and where formal and informal caregivers can be helped to manage stress.

  15. Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Vania López Rodríguez; Emilio Carpio Muñoz; Vicente Fardales Macías; Iralys Benítez Guzmán

    2009-01-01

    Background: The Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease is related with multiple risk factors. Those patients with human immunodeficiency virus have higher risk of presenting this disease and it is usually more serious in these cases. Objective: To describe the prevalence of Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in patients with HIV. Methods: Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study including patients with HIV in Sancti Spiritus province. The occurrence of the disease was determi...

  16. Electrostatic potential of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 and rhesus macaque simian immunodeficiency virus capsid proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna eBozek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from a macaque monkey (SIVmac are assumed to have originated from simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from sooty mangabey (SIVsm. Despite their close similarity in genome structure, HIV-2 and SIVmac show different sensitivities to TRIM5α, a host restriction factor against retroviruses. The replication of HIV-2 strains is potently restricted by rhesus (Rh monkey TRIM5α, while that of SIVmac strain 239 (SIVmac239 is not. Viral capsid protein is the determinant of this differential sensitivity to TRIM5α, as the HIV-2 mutant carrying SIVmac239 capsid protein evaded Rh TRIM5α-mediated restriction. However, the molecular determinants of this restriction mechanism are unknown. Electrostatic potential on the protein-binding site is one of the properties regulating protein-protein interactions. In this study, we investigated the electrostatic potential on the interaction surface of capsid protein of HIV-2 strain GH123 and SIVmac239. Although HIV-2 GH123 and SIVmac239 capsid proteins share more than 87% amino acid identity, we observed a large difference between the two molecules with the HIV-2 GH123 molecule having predominantly positive and SIVmac239 predominantly negative electrostatic potential on the surface of the loop between α-helices 4 and 5 (L4/5. As L4/5 is one of the major determinants of Rh TRIM5α sensitivity of these viruses, the present results suggest that the binding site of the Rh TRIM5α may show complementarity to the HIV-2 GH123 capsid surface charge distribution.

  17. Role of flexible bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage in the diagnosis of pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birriel, J A; Adams, J A; Saldana, M A; Mavunda, K; Goldfinger, S; Vernon, D; Holzman, B; McKey, R M

    1991-06-01

    Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in 16 pediatric patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and deterioration in pulmonary function suggestive of opportunistic infection. In 62% of the patients Pneumocystis carinii was identified. Culture results showed a pure growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa for one patient in addition to the Pneumocystis carinii. Bronchoscopy with lavage was well tolerated, with few complications even among patients with significant tachypnea and hypoxia. Because of its relative safety and effectiveness, this procedure should be considered the first invasive measurement used for evaluation of parenchymal lung disease in this population of patients.

  18. Thyrotoxicosis followed by Hypothyroidism due to Suppurative Thyroiditis Caused by Nocardia brasiliensis in a Patient with Advanced Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teckie, G2; Bhana, S A; Tsitsi, J M L; Shires, R

    2014-03-01

    Acute thyroiditis is an extremely rare complication of nocardiosis. We report a patient with hyperthyroidism due to suppurative thyroiditis caused by Nocardia brasiliensis. A 38-year-old Black male presented with features of thyrotoxicosis, sepsis and airway obstruction. He had no evidence of underlying thyroid disease, but was severely immunocompromised as a result of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. He had previously been diagnosed with pulmonary nocardiosis and also had nocardial abscesses on his anterior chest wall. Investigations revealed thyrotoxicosis, with a FT4 of 43.2 pmol/l and a suppressed TSH Nocardia.

  19. Immediate-early gene region of human cytomegalovirus trans-activates the promoter of human immunodeficiency virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.G.; Kenney, S.C.; Kamine, J.; Pagano, J.S.; Huang, E.S.

    1987-01-01

    Almost all homosexual patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are also actively infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). The authors have hypothesized that an interaction between HCMV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the agent that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, may exist at a molecular level and contribute to the manifestations of HIV infection. In this report, they demonstrate that the immediate-early gene region of HCMV, in particular immediate-early region 2, trans-activates the expression of the bacterial gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase that is fused to the HIV long terminal repeat and carried by plasmid pHIV-CAT. The HCMV immediate-early trans-activator increases the level of mRNA from the plamid pHIV-CAT. The sequences of HIV that are responsive to trans-activation by the HDMV immediate-early region are distinct from HIV sequences that are required for response to the HIV tat. The stimulation of HIV gene expression by HDMV gene functions could enhance the consequences of HIV infection in persons with previous or concurrent HCMV infection

  20. Epidemiological patterns of human immunodeficiency virus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is no doubt that the greatest health problem threatening the human race these times is the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The greatest burden of this scourge is in sub-saharan African. This has undoubtedly increased the incidence of opportunistic infection like herpes simplex virus infection. This study investigated the ...

  1. Human lipodystrophies: genetic and acquired diseases of adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capeau, Jacqueline; Magré, Jocelyne; Caron-Debarle, Martine; Lagathu, Claire; Antoine, Bénédicte; Béréziat, Véronique; Lascols, Olivier; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Vigouroux, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    Human lipodystrophies represent a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by generalized or partial fat loss, with fat hypertrophy in other depots when partial. Insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and diabetes are generally associated, leading to early complications. Genetic forms are uncommon: recessive generalized congenital lipodystrophies result in most cases from mutations in the genes encoding seipin or the 1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate-acyltransferase 2 (AGPAT2). Dominant partial familial lipodystrophies result from mutations in genes encoding the nuclear protein lamin A/C or the adipose transcription factor PPARγ. Importantly, lamin A/C mutations are also responsible for metabolic laminopathies, resembling the metabolic syndrome and progeria, a syndrome of premature aging. A number of lipodystrophic patients remain undiagnosed at the genetic level. Acquired lipodystrophy can be generalized, resembling congenital forms, or partial, as the Barraquer-Simons syndrome, with loss of fat in the upper part of the body contrasting with accumulation in the lower part. Although their aetiology is generally unknown, they could be associated with signs of auto-immunity. The most common forms of lipodystrophies are iatrogenic. In human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, some first generation antiretroviral drugs were strongly related with peripheral lipoatrophy and metabolic alterations. Partial lipodystrophy also characterize patients with endogenous or exogenous long-term corticoid excess. Treatment of fat redistribution can sometimes benefit from plastic surgery. Lipid and glucose alterations are difficult to control leading to early occurrence of diabetic, cardio-vascular and hepatic complications. PMID:20551664

  2. [Origin and evolution of human immunodeficiency viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, Constantin V

    2009-01-01

    After the diagnosis of the AIDS symptoms, in 1981, and after the discovery of the virus that causes AIDS, in 1983, the virologists have formulated different theories about its origin. Some of them involved natural causes, e.g., HIV origin from SIV strains. Other theories go further to the possibility of a deadly man-made virus escaped from laboratories or voluntary spread by some conspirative organisations. At this moment, the scientists limits themselves to search proofs to sustain the zoonotic origin of HIV from SIV and its accomodation to human body conditions.

  3. Endogenous sodium potassium ATPase inhibition related biochemical cascade and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome -Neural regulation of viral replication and immune response to the virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikumar A

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The isoprenoid pathway and its metabolites - digoxin, dolichol and ubiquinone were assessed in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Digoxin is an endogenous regulator of membrane Na+-K+ ATPase secreted by the human hypothalamus. The HMG CoA reductase activity was increased with increased digoxin and dolichol levels and reduced ubiquinone levels in AIDS. Membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity and serum magnesium levels were reduced. The tryptophan catabolites were increased and the tyrosine catabolites were reduced. The glycoconjugate metabolites were increased and lysosomal stability was reduced. There was reduced incorporation of glycoconjugates into membranes and increased membrane cholesterol: phospholipid ratio. Lipid peroxidation products and NO were increased while free radical scavenging enzymes and reduced glutathione were reduced. The role of the isoprenoid pathway related cascade in the pathogenesis of AIDS is discussed.

  4. [Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated to human immunodeficiency virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Gutiérrez, José Luis; Santos-Martínez, Luis Efren; Rodríguez-Silverio, Juan; Baranda-Tovar, Francisco Martín; Rivera-Rosales, Rosa María; Flores-Murrieta, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    From the advent of the highly effective antiretroviral treatment, the life expectancy of patients with human immunodeficiency virus has increased significantly. At present, the causes of death are non-infectious complications. Between them, the pulmonary arterial hypertension has a special importance. It is important early detection to establish the therapeutic, with the objective of preventing a fatal outcome to future. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. 76 FR 58517 - Public Health Service Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ...-2011-0011] Public Health Service Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus... public comment on the draft Public Health Service Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human..., Attn: Public Health Service Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV...

  6. Clinical study of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in domestic cats in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archivaldo Reche Jr.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the magnitude of distribution of feline leukemia virus (FLV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV among domestic cats in São Paulo, 401 animals from both sexes, different ages and breeds, were tested for antibodies (FIV and viral soluble antigens (FLV by means of ELISA (feline leukemia virus antigen / feline immunodeficiency virus antibody - CITE ® - Agrytech Sistems Inc.. Among these animals, 123 were healthy cats and 278 were patients at the Department of Medical Clinics / Veterinary Hospital of Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo due to various diseases eight (6,5% FIV positive cats and two (1,6% FLV positive cats were found among healthy animals in opposition to 39 (14% and 30 (10,8% sick cats regents to FIV and FLV antigens and antibodies, respectively. All animals but one presented single infection. FIV infection was four times more frequent among males when compared to females; nevertheless, no difference was found related to FVL infection. Opportunistic infections as those caused by Hemobartonella felis were the most common baseline disease found among FIV or FLV infected cats. When tumors, were considered the mediastinal lymphoma was the most frequent type found among FVL infected cats. A variety of other diseases was observed, associated to both retroviruses infection. The mean age of FIV infect animals was 4,4 + 3,0 years old and 2,4 ± 1,7 years old FLV infected cats. All infected, symptomatic animals died during the two years of  observation, while all healthy, infected cats survived, allowing the conclusion that period of latency post-infection may be long.

  7. A preliminary report of 99Tcm-ECD brain SPECT imaging in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hao; Tong Yuwei; Luo Jinxiang; Chen Jian; Wu Qiulian

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: 99 Tc m -ECD brain SPECT imaging was performed on 5 patients with AIDS and 16 sex- and age-matched normal controls. The rCBF percentages compared to the cerebellum were calculated using a semi-quantitative processing software. Results: Hypo-perfusions in the right and left frontal, temporal, parietal lobe, basal ganglia and left thalamus were seen in 1 patient with dementia. Hypo-perfusions in the right and left frontal and temporal lobe were seen in 4 patients without dementia. The rCBF in the right and left frontal, temporal, parietal lobe, basal ganglia and thalamus, straight gyri and pons decreased significantly in patients with AIDS than those of the control subjects (P < 0.01). Conclusion: There is reduced cortico-subcortical rCBF in patients with AIDS

  8. Sexually transmitted infections in India: Current status (except human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thappa Devinder

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are more dynamic than other infections prevailing in the community. It is important that such dynamic epidemiological changes in STIs are acknowledged and kept track of in a vast and populous developing country like India, particularly in this HIV era. It is with this aim that the authors have reviewed the relevant literature in STI epidemiology in India during the past 25 years. Admittedly, there has been heterogeneity of data to account for the subcontinental dimension of this country. But a basic pattern in the changing epidemiology is discernible. Like the developed countries, in India too the bacterial STIs like chancroid and gonorrhea are declining, while viral STIs like HPV and herpes genitalis are on an upswing. The overall decline in the prevalence of STIs has to be interpreted with caution, however. This may partially reflect the improved facilities of treatment in the peripheral centres that obviates the need of many patients in attending the STD clinics in the tertiary centres. Also, the improved pharmacotherapy of many of the bacterial STIs may result in partial clearance and non-reporting of many of these infections.

  9. Antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C in patients with human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iorio, Alfonso; Marchesini, Emanuela; Awad, Tahany

    2010-01-01

    Antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C may be less effective if patients are co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).......Antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C may be less effective if patients are co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)....

  10. Disseminated cryptococcosis and fluconazole resistant oral candidiasis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothavade, Rajendra J; Oberai, Chetan M; Valand, Arvind G; Panthaki, Mehroo H

    2010-10-28

    Disseminated cryptococcosis and recurrent oral candidiasis was presented in a-heterosexual AIDS patient. Candida tropicalis (C.tropicalis) was isolated from the oral pseudomembranous plaques and Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) was isolated from maculopapular lesions on body parts (face, hands and chest) and body fluids (urine, expectorated sputum, and cerebrospinal fluid). In vitro drug susceptibility testing on the yeast isolates demonstrated resistance to fluconazole acquired by C. tropicalis which was a suggestive possible root cause of recurrent oral candidiasis in this patient.

  11. Risk Factors for Sexual Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhommerig, Joost W.; Lambers, Femke A. E.; Schinkel, Janke; Geskus, Ronald B.; Arends, Joop E.; van de Laar, Thijs J. W.; Lauw, Fanny N.; Brinkman, Kees; Gras, Luuk; Rijnders, Bart J. A.; van der Meer, Jan T. M.; Prins, Maria; Molenkamp, R.; Mutschelknauss, M.; Nobel, H. E.; Reesink, H. W.; van der Valk, M.; van den Berk, G. E. L.; Brinkman, K.; Kwa, D.; van der Meche, N.; Toonen, A.; Vos, D.; van Broekhuizen, M.; Lauw, F. N.; Mulder, J. W.; Arends, J. E.; van Kessel, A.; de Kroon, I.; Boonstra, A.; van der Ende, M. E.; Hullegie, S.; Rijnders, B. J. A.; van de laar, T. J. W.; Gras, L.; Smit, C.; van der Veldt, W.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Since 2000, incidence of sexually acquired hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infection has increased among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). To date, few case-control and cohort studies evaluating HCV transmission risk factors were conducted in this

  12. Mechanisms of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 RNA packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Na; Nikolaitchik, Olga A; Dilley, Kari A

    2011-01-01

    do not support the cis-packaging hypothesis but instead indicate that trans packaging is the major mechanism of HIV-2 RNA packaging. To further characterize the mechanisms of HIV-2 RNA packaging, we visualized HIV-2 RNA in individual particles by using fluorescent protein-tagged RNA-binding proteins......Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) has been reported to have a distinct RNA packaging mechanism, referred to as cis packaging, in which Gag proteins package the RNA from which they were translated. We examined the progeny generated from dually infected cell lines that contain two HIV-2...... proviruses, one with a wild-type gag/gag-pol and the other with a mutant gag that cannot express functional Gag/Gag-Pol. Viral titers and RNA analyses revealed that mutant viral RNAs can be packaged at efficiencies comparable to that of viral RNA from which wild-type Gag/Gag-Pol is translated. These results...

  13. Prospective evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, M.J.D.; Berger, J.R.; Quencer, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a prospective longitudinal study of individuals who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive, cranial MR imaging was performed on 89 HIV-seropositive patients and correlated with clinical data. MR results were asymptomatics: MR images normal-58, abnormal-16; myelopathics: normal-seven, abnormal-four; encephalopathics: normal-three, abnormal-two. In asymptomatics, neurologic examination was positive in all with positive MR results but positive in only some with negative MR results. The authors concluded that MR imaging can show indirect evidence of HIV infection early in the disease, but abnormalities will be minor and seen only in the minority (21%) of symptomatics; these minor abnormalities may antedate clinical symptoms but not signs; an increase in severity of clinical disease correlates with increasingly severe atrophy and demyelination; and in some seropositives, whether asymptomatic or symptomatic, MR results remain normal

  14. Hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus and metabolic syndrome: interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Donald P

    2009-03-01

    Significant concerns have been raised about the metabolic effects of antiretroviral medication, including the classic triad of dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance (IR) and characteristic alterations in fat distribution (lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy). Co-infection with hepatitis C appears to exacerbate IR, reduce serum lipids and induce prothrombotic changes in the treated human immunodeficiency virus patient. The effects of co-infection are complex. While combination antiretroviral therapy has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events through promotion of dyslipidaemia, IR and fat redistribution, co-infection exacerbates IR while reducing serum lipids. Co-infection also promotes a prothrombotic state characterized by endothelial dysfunction and platelet activation, which may enhance risk for cardiovascular disease. Consideration must be given to selection of appropriate treatment regimens and timing of therapy in co-infected patients to minimize metabolic derangements and, ultimately, reduce cardiovascular risk.

  15. Sexual Assault: A Report on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Postexposure Prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. Griffith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this report is to describe an urban county hospital human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection prevention protocol offering prophylactic combination antiretroviral medications to female victims of sexual assault. A retrospective chart review was conducted from June, 2007 through June, 2008 of 151 women who were prescribed antiretroviral prophylaxis by protocol. All women receiving HIV prophylaxis initially screened HIV seronegative. Of the 58 women who reported taking any HIV prophylaxis, 36 (62% were HIV screened at 12 and/or 24 weeks and none had HIV seroconverted. Although the initiation of an HIV post exposure prophylaxis protocol for sexual assault in a county hospital population is feasible, patient follow-up for counseling and HIV serostatus evaluation is an identified barrier

  16. Pulmonary disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, J D; Orholm, Marianne; Lundgren, B

    1989-01-01

    cause pulmonary disease alone or in combination. Bilateral interstitial infiltrates are the most frequent chest x-ray abnormality and are most frequently caused by infection with Pneumocystis carinii. Cytomegalovirus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis and pulmonary Kaposi......Pulmonary disease is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). All parts of the hospital system are expected to be involved in the diagnosis and treatment of HIV infected patients in the coming years. Many different processes......'s sarcoma are the most important parts of the differential diagnosis. An aggressive approach to the diagnosis of pulmonary disease in this patient population is indicated in order to provide optimal care and assess new therapies....

  17. Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Against Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güle ÇINAR

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, there were 2.1 million new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV cases reported worldwide in 2015, which shows that siginificant work needs to be done to prevent the transmission of HIV. Research to date has focused mainly on high-risk men who have sex with men, but many women around the world are also at a high risk for HIV transmissions. In studies conducted, the incidence of HIV infection in high-risk individuals decreases over 90% when high-risk individuals use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PreP HIV, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC safely. Current data and studies on pre-exposure prophylaxis were discussed in this review.

  18. Cellular radiosensitivity in human severe-combined-immunodeficiency (SCID) syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sproston, Anthony R.M.; West, Catharine M.L.; Hendry, Jolyon H.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the work was to establish to what extent a variety of human severe-combined-immunodeficiency (SCID) disorders are associated with in vitro cellular hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation. Materials and methods: A study was made of fibroblast strains established from individuals with adenosine deaminase deficiency, T(-)B(-) SCID, Omenn's syndrome and a SCID heterozygote. For comparison, an assessment was also made of the radiosensitivity of a series of fibroblast strains derived from: normal donors, a patient with ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) and an A-T heterozygote. Radiosensitivity was determined using a clonogenic assay following both high (HDR) and low (LDR) dose-rate irradiation. Results: Following HDR irradiation, the fibroblast strains derived from the different human SCID disorders displayed a wide range of radiosensitivity: the adenosine deaminase deficiency cells were similar in radiosensitivity to normal fibroblasts, T(-)B(-) cells were as hypersensitive to radiation as A-T cells and the Omenn's syndrome cells showed intermediate radiosensitivity. However, whereas all four normal cell strains studied showed significant LDR sparing, none of the SCID fibroblasts did. Conclusions: These data indicate that human SCID is variable in terms of radiosensitivity depending on the particular defect. In addition, the lack of LDR sparing of radiation-induced damage suggests the involvement of some form(s) of DNA repair defect in all the human SCID syndromes

  19. Kidney Disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-seropositive Patients: Absence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-associated Nephropathy was a Characteristic Feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, J; Ganiger, V; Prakash, S; Sivasankar, M; Sunder, S; Singh, U

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can cause a broad spectrum of renal diseases. However, there is paucity of Indian data on the patterns of renal lesions in HIV-seropositive patients. The aim of the present study was to delineate the spectrum of renal lesions in HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. In this prospective study, all HIV-positive patients of both genders aged >18 years were screened for renal disease. Patients with proteinuria of more than 1 g/24 h were subjected to renal biopsy. A total of 293 HIV-positive patients were screened; of these, 136 (46.4%) patients found to have renal involvement. Dipstick-positive proteinuria of 1+ or more was observed in 112 (38.2%) patients, and 16 (14.2%) patients had proteinuria of more than 1 g/24 h. Renal biopsy in 14 cases revealed glomerulonephritis (GN) in 12 (85.7%) (isolated GN in 4 [28.5%] and GN mixed with chronic TIN in 8 [57.1%]) patients. These include mesangioproliferative GN in 5 (35.7%), membranoproliferative GN in 2 (14.2%), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in 2 (14.2%), diffuse proliferative GN in 2 (14.2%), and diabetic nephropathy in 1 (7.1%) patients. Chronic interstitial nephritis was noted in 10 (71.42%) (superimposed on GN in 8 [57.1%], isolated in 2 [14.2%]) patients. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis was seen in 3 (24.1%) cases. GN and chronic interstitial nephritis were noted in 85.7% and 71.42% of patients, respectively, mostly superimposed on each other. Mesangioproliferative GN was the most common glomerular lesion, but classical HIV-associated nephropathy was not observed.

  20. Bicyclams, selective antagonists of the human chemokine receptor CXCR4, potently inhibit feline immunodeficiency virus replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Egberink, H.F.; Clercq, E. de; Vliet, A.L.W. van; Balzarini, J.; Bridger, G.J.; Henson, G.; Schols, D.

    1999-01-01

    Bicyclams are low-molecular-weight anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agents that have been shown to act as potent and selective CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) antagonists. Here, we demonstrate that bicyclams are potent inhibitors of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) replication when

  1. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of young, college student blood donors about Human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Anju; Sonker, Atul; Chaudhary, Rajendra K

    2014-01-01

    Young people, who tend to be healthy, idealistic, and motivated, are an excellent pool of potential voluntary unpaid blood donors. Recruiting and retaining young blood donors improves the long term safety and sufficiency of a country's blood supply. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) should play an important role in prevention of disease transmission. This study was a questionnaire based survey, conducted to explore the levels of knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about HIV in young college student blood donors. The results showed that the proportion of participants with comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission was lesser than expected. Increase in education level and male gender was found to be significantly associated with high HIV-related knowledge. The responses on the different aspects of HIV-related attitude were also varied and there is still stigma associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) even in the educated groups. There was a spectrum of myths and misperceptions emphasizing the need of education that recognizes the social context of attitude towards HIV. Results from this study may contribute to the development of appropriate educational and training material for this group of donors which in turn, may assist in achieving the elusive goal of safe blood supply in future.

  2. [Vaccine for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)--relevance of these days].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiskonis, Alvydas; Pukenyte, Evelina

    2005-01-01

    Since 1980 more than 25 million people have died from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which results from infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Number of new cases increases very threateningly. One and the most effective method to stop the progress of epidemic is the development of the vaccine for HIV. There is the presentation of the first stage of the vaccine for HIV testing (structure, methodology), which is now on trial in St. Pierre hospital, Brussels University. HIV characteristics which inflame the process of the vaccine development, historical facts and facts about vaccines on trial in these days are reviewed in this article. More than 10,000 volunteers have been participating in various clinical trials since 1987. The development of the vaccine is a very difficult, long-terming (about 8-10 years) and costly process. The process of the vaccine testing is very difficult in developing countries where the infection spreads the most rapidly. Available data confirm that the vaccine must be multi-componential, inducing cellular, humoral immunity against various subtypes of HIV. The vaccine cannot protect fully but the changes of the natural infection course could decrease virulence, distance the stage of AIDS, and retard the spread of the epidemic.

  3. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of young, college student blood donors about Human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Dubey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Young people, who tend to be healthy, idealistic, and motivated, are an excellent pool of potential voluntary unpaid blood donors. Recruiting and retaining young blood donors improves the long term safety and sufficiency of a country′s blood supply. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV should play an important role in prevention of disease transmission. Materials and Methods: This study was a questionnaire based survey, conducted to explore the levels of knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about HIV in young college student blood donors. Results: The results showed that the proportion of participants with comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission was lesser than expected. Increase in education level and male gender was found to be significantly associated with high HIV-related knowledge. The responses on the different aspects of HIV-related attitude were also varied and there is still stigma associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS even in the educated groups. Discussion: There was a spectrum of myths and misperceptions emphasizing the need of education that recognizes the social context of attitude towards HIV. Results from this study may contribute to the development of appropriate educational and training material for this group of donors which in turn, may assist in achieving the elusive goal of safe blood supply in future.

  4. Projection of human immunodeficiency virus among high-risk groups in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Md Nazrul Islam; Shitan, Mahendran

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) presents a serious healthcare threat to young individuals in Malaysia and worldwide. This study aimed to identify trends in HIV-related risk behaviors among recognized high-risk groups and to estimate HIV transmission up to the year 2015. Data and necessary information were obtained from the Ministry of Health Malaysia, published reports from the World Health Organization and United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS, and other articles. The Estimation and Projection Package was used to estimate HIV transmission. The results of the present study revealed that within the high-risk groups, intravenous drug users (IDUs) had the highest prevalence rate of HIV transmission, followed by patients with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), female sex workers (SWs), and men who have sex with men (MSM). Within these at-risk populations, patients with STIs have the highest prevalence of HIV, followed by IDUs, MSM, and SWs. If the transmission rate continues to increase, the situation will worsen; therefore, there is an urgent need for a comprehensive prevention program to control HIV transmission in Malaysia.

  5. Targeting cysteine residues of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease by reactive free radical species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, A; Sehajpal, P K; Ogiste, J S; Lander, H M

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a naturally occurring free radical with many functions. The oxidized form of NO, the nitrosonium ion, reacts with the thiol group of cysteine residues resulting in their modification to S-nitrosothiols. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease (HIV-PR) has two cysteine residues that are conserved amongst different viral isolates found in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In an active dimer, these residues are located near the surface of the protease. We have found that treatment of HIV-PR with different NO congeners results in loss of its proteolytic activity and simultaneous formation of S-nitrosothiols. Sodium nitroprusside inhibited HIV-PR up to 70% and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine completely inhibited the protease within 5 min of treatment. The pattern of inhibition by NO donors is comparable to its inhibition by N-acetyl pepstatin. Using electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, we identified the modification of HIV-PR by NO as that of S-nitrosation. Our findings point towards a possible role of NO in mediating resistance to HIV-1 infection.

  6. [Cerebral infarction and intracranial aneurysm related to the reactivation of varicella zoster virus in a Japanese acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Chiharu; Okada, Kazumasa; Ohnari, Norihiro; Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi

    2013-01-01

    A 35-years-old right-handed man admitted to our hospital with a worsening of dysarthria, left facial palsy and left hemiparesis for 2 days. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was diagnosed when he was 28 years old. At that time, he also was treated for syphilis. After highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) was introduced at the age of 35 years old, serum level of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was not detected, but the number of CD4+ T cells was still less than 200/μl. He had no risk factors of atherosclerosis including hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia. He had neither coagulation abnormality nor autoimmune disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed acute ischemic infarction spreading from the right corona radiate to the right internal capsule without contrast enhancement. Stenosis and occlusion of intracranial arteries were not detected by MR angiography. Although argatroban and edaravone were administered, his neurological deficits were worsened to be difficult to walk independently. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination showed a mild mononuclear pleocytosis (16/μl). Oligoclonal band was positive. The titer of anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) IgG antibodies was increased, that indicated VZV reactivation in the central nervous system (CNS), although VZV DNA PCR was not detected. Therefore, acyclovir (750 mg/day for 2 weeks) and valaciclovir (3,000 mg/day for 1 month) were administered in addition to stroke therapy. He recovered to be able to walk independently 2 month after the admission.Angiography uncovered a saccular aneurysm of 3 mm at the end of branch artery of right anterior cerebral artery, Heubner artery, 28 days after the admission. We speculated that VZV vasculopathy caused by VZV reactivation in CNS was involved in the pathomechanism of cerebral infarction rather than HIV vasculopathy in the case.

  7. Clinical, endoscopic and prognostic aspects of primary gastric non-hodgkin's lymphoma associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosamar Eulira Fontes Rezende

    Full Text Available Primary gastric non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL is a co-morbidity that can be observed during the clinical course of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. We evaluated the prevalence, clinical-evolutive aspects and form of endoscopic presentation of primary gastric NHL associated with AIDS. Two hundred and forty-three HIV patients were submitted to upper digestive endoscopy, with evaluation of clinical, endoscopic and histological data. A CD4 count was made by flow cytometry and viral load was determined in a branched-DNA assay. Six cases (five men; mean age: 37 years; range: 29-46 years of primary gastric NHL were detected. The median CD4 count was 140 cells/mm³ and the median viral load was 40,313 copies/mL. Upper digestive endoscopy revealed polypoid (in four patients ulcero-infiltrative (two patients and ulcerated (two patients lesions and combined polypoid and ulcerated lesions (two patients. Histology of the gastric lesions demonstrated B cell NHL (four patients and T cell NHL (two patients. Five of the six patients died of complications related to gastric NHL. We concluded that primary gastric NHL is an important cause of mortality associated with AIDS.

  8. Pulmonary cryptococcosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients: Comparison of imaging characteristics among RA, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and immunocompetent patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagawa, Noriyo; Sakai, Fumikazu; Takemura, Tamiko; Ishikawa, Satoru; Takaki, Yasunobu; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Kamata, Noriko

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The imaging characteristics of cryptococcosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were analyzed by comparing them with those of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and immunocompetent patients, and the imaging findings were correlated with pathological findings. Methods: Two radiologists retrospectively compared the computed tomographic (CT) findings of 35 episodes of pulmonary cryptococcosis in 31 patients with 3 kinds of underlying states (10 RA, 12 AIDS, 13 immunocompetent), focusing on the nature, number, and distribution of lesions. The pathological findings of 18 patients (8 RA, 2 AIDS, 8 immunocompetent) were analyzed by two pathologists, and then correlated with imaging findings. Results: The frequencies of consolidation and ground glass attenuation (GGA) were significantly higher, and the frequency of peripheral distribution was significantly lower in the RA group than in the immunocompetent group. Peripheral distribution was less common and generalized distribution was more frequent in the RA group than in the AIDS group. The pathological findings of the AIDS and immunocompetent groups reflected their immune status: There was lack of a granuloma reaction in the AIDS group, and a complete granuloma reaction in the immunocompetent group, while the findings of the RA group varied, including a complete granuloma reaction, a loose granuloma reaction and a hyper-immune reaction. Cases with the last two pathologic findings were symptomatic and showed generalized or central distribution on CT. Conclusion: Cryptococcosis in the RA group showed characteristic radiological and pathological findings compared with the other 2 groups

  9. Pulmonary cryptococcosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients: Comparison of imaging characteristics among RA, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and immunocompetent patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagawa, Noriyo, E-mail: noriyo_yana@ybb.ne.jp [Departments of Radiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital, 3-8-22, Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan); Sakai, Fumikazu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka-shi, Saitama 350-1298 (Japan); Takemura, Tamiko [Department of Pathology, Japanese Red Cross Medical Center, 4-1-22 Hiroo, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8935 (Japan); Ishikawa, Satoru [Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Hospital Organization Chiba-East-Hospital, 673 Nitona-cho, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 260-8712 (Japan); Takaki, Yasunobu [Departments of Radiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital, 3-8-22, Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan); Hishima, Tsunekazu [Department of Pathology, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital, 3-8-22, Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan); Kamata, Noriko [Departments of Radiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital, 3-8-22, Honkomagome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8677 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: The imaging characteristics of cryptococcosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were analyzed by comparing them with those of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and immunocompetent patients, and the imaging findings were correlated with pathological findings. Methods: Two radiologists retrospectively compared the computed tomographic (CT) findings of 35 episodes of pulmonary cryptococcosis in 31 patients with 3 kinds of underlying states (10 RA, 12 AIDS, 13 immunocompetent), focusing on the nature, number, and distribution of lesions. The pathological findings of 18 patients (8 RA, 2 AIDS, 8 immunocompetent) were analyzed by two pathologists, and then correlated with imaging findings. Results: The frequencies of consolidation and ground glass attenuation (GGA) were significantly higher, and the frequency of peripheral distribution was significantly lower in the RA group than in the immunocompetent group. Peripheral distribution was less common and generalized distribution was more frequent in the RA group than in the AIDS group. The pathological findings of the AIDS and immunocompetent groups reflected their immune status: There was lack of a granuloma reaction in the AIDS group, and a complete granuloma reaction in the immunocompetent group, while the findings of the RA group varied, including a complete granuloma reaction, a loose granuloma reaction and a hyper-immune reaction. Cases with the last two pathologic findings were symptomatic and showed generalized or central distribution on CT. Conclusion: Cryptococcosis in the RA group showed characteristic radiological and pathological findings compared with the other 2 groups.

  10. High rate of mutation K103N causing resistance to nevirapine in Indian children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehgal S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In north India the number of paediatric cases with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is on the rise. Most drug combinations used for treatment of AIDS incorporate nevirapine, resistance to which develops very fast if given singly or because of unplanned interruptions. This paper investigates presence of mutations at codon 103 and codon 215 of the HIV pol gene causing resistance to nevirapine and zidovudine (AZT respectively in 25 children with AIDS. Mutations T215Y and K103N were detected by a nested cum amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS PCR and the results were confirmed by direct sequencing in five randomly selected cases. Nineteen patients had received nevirapine containing regimen and six were drug naive. Mutation K103N was observed in 56% (14/25 of the children while mutation T215Y was found in none. Two of the six drug naοve children also showed K103N mutation. Thus, Indian children drug naοve or treated with nevirapine containing regimens show a high rate of mutation conferring resistance to nevirapine which calls for a judicious use of nevirapine both in antenatal and postnatal setting.

  11. Radiation therapy for Kaposi's sarcoma associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebara, Takeshi [Municipal Kanbara General Hospital, Fujikawa, Shizuoka (Japan); Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Maebayashi, Katsuya; Kurosaki, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Kaizu, Toshihide; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Akagi, Kumiko; Masuda, Gota

    2000-12-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma is frequently found in association with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report on radiotherapy for patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma at Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital. Between April 1991 and May 1997, radiotherapy was given to 11 lesions in eight men with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma to relieve their symptoms. The lesions involved the head and neck region, the legs, and the gastrointestinal tract. Radiotherapy was carried out with 4-MV photon through parallel opposed field or high energy electrons. Total doses ranged from 20 to 38 Gy, with a median of 30 Gy, delivered in 2- to 3-Gy fractions. Four patients were given other treatments prior to the radiotherapy. Acute reaction was evaluated according to the modified acute radiation morbidity scoring criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Radiotherapy had relieved the symptoms in all patients at completion of this therapy. Lesions that involved the hard palate and vocal cords had completely disappeared. The lesions that received radiotherapy were controlled without symptoms until the patients died. Patients who had the head and neck region treated exhibited severe acute mucosal reaction (at a dose of 30 Gy, there was grade 2 morbidity by modified RTOG criteria, in two patients, and grade 3 in three patients) although the radiation therapy was completed for these patients. Radiotherapy promises a favorable outcome for symptom relief in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. (author)

  12. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in South East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R

    1999-01-01

    This article reports on the prevalence of AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Southeast Asia. The spread of HIV infection in this region has been predicted to be worse than that of Africa. The high-prevalence countries are Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar, where prevalence rates in the population at risk (15-49 year olds) are up to 2%; while low prevalence countries with rates of 0.1% include the Philippines, Indonesia, Laos, Brunei, and Singapore. Heterosexual transmission in Southeast Asia is the main mode of spread of HIV. Another route is through migration, rural-to-urban or international migration of people seeking jobs; with concurrent loneliness and anonymity, they become vulnerable to STDs and HIV infection. Intravenous drug use poses an increasing risk of transmission. The unavailability of data in some countries makes it difficult to evaluate the extent of the epidemic or if there's an impending epidemic. There are a number of caveats to the data compilation from various countries. These include the following: under-reporting of cases; underdiagnosis; missed diagnosis; and differences in the time of data collection. It is clear that poverty, illiteracy, and poor access to educational information in most countries in this region facilitate the rapid spread of HIV. These coupled with lack of primary health care services, and in most instances, enormously high cost of drugs make the pain and suffering due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic a human disaster far worse than the ravages of war.

  13. Association between human immunodeficiency virus infection and arterial stiffness in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilder, Justin S.; Idris, Nikmah S.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Bots, Michiel L.; Cheung, Michael M H; Burgner, David; Kurniati, Nia; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M

    2017-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and adverse cardiovascular outcome in adults. Early recognition of changes in vascular properties might prove essential in cardiovascular prevention in HIV-infected patients. We investigated the

  14. Candida nivariensis isolated from an Indonesian human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient suffering from oropharyngeal candidiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuningsih, Retno; SahBandar, Ivo N.; Theelen, Bart; Hagen, Ferry; Poot, Ge; Meis, Jacques F.; Rozalyani, Anna; Sjam, Ridhawati; Widodo, Djoko; Djauzi, Samsuridjal; Boekhout, Teun

    Candida nivariensis was isolated from an Indonesian human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient who suffered from oropharyngeal candidiasis and was identified with molecular tools. Our isolate demonstrated low MICs to amphotericin B, flucytosine, posaconazole, caspofungin, and isavueonazole and

  15. Candida nivariensis isolated from an Indonesian human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient suffering from oropharyngeal candidiasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuningsih, R.; SahBandar, IN; Theelen, B.; Hagen, F.; Poot, G.; Meis, J.F.; Rozalyani, A.; Sjam, R.; Widodo, D.; Djauzi, S.; Boekhout, T.

    2008-01-01

    Candida nivariensis was isolated from an Indonesian human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient who suffered from oropharyngeal candidiasis and was identified with molecular tools. Our isolate demonstrated low MICs to amphotericin B, flucytosine, posaconazole, caspofungin, and isavuconazole and

  16. Trichomonas vaginalis infection and human immunodeficiency virus acquisition in African women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, Barbara; Kwok, Cynthia; Pierre-Louis, Bosny; Rinaldi, Anne; Salata, Robert A.; Chen, Pai-Lien; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Mmiro, Francis; Mugerwa, Roy; Chipato, Tsungai; Morrison, Charles S.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Trichomoniasis vaginalis is the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide, with a particularly high prevalence in regions of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endemicity. However, its impact as a cofactor for HIV acquisition is poorly understood. Methods.

  17. Quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, M K; Kuhn, L; West, J; Semrau, K; Decker, D; Thea, D M; Aldrovandi, G M

    2003-06-01

    The distribution and stability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in breast milk (BM) components remain largely unknown. Inhibitory effects, if any, of BM on HIV RNA and DNA PCR amplification are poorly understood. We have addressed these issues by using virus-spiked BM samples from HIV-negative women. BM samples from HIV-negative women were spiked with HIV-1 virions or cells containing a single integrated copy of HIV DNA (8E5/LAV). After incubation under different experimental conditions, viral RNA was detected by the Roche Amplicor UltraSensitive assay in whole-milk, skim milk, and lipid fractions. We found excellent correlation between HIV-1 input copy and recovery in whole milk (r = 0.965, P milk (r = 0.972, P 0.982). The effects of incubation duration and temperature and repeated freeze-thaw cycles on HIV RNA recovery were analyzed. HIV RNA levels were remarkably stable in whole milk after three freeze-thaw cycles and for up to 30 h at room temperature. Our findings improve the understanding of the dynamics of HIV detection in BM and the conditions for BM sample collection, storage, and processing.

  18. [Discrimination and homophobia associated to the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Núñez, Emanuel; Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline Elizabeth; Ruiz-Larios, José Arturo; Sucilla-Pérez, Héctor; García-Cerde, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    To describe a political mapping on discrimination and homophobia associated to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the context of public institutions in Mexico. The political mapping was conducted in six Mexican states. Stakeholders who were involved in HIV actions from public and private sectors were included. Semistructured interviews were applied to explore homophobia and discrimination associated with HIV. Information was systematized using the Policy Maker software, which is a good support for analyzing health policies. Discriminatory and homophobic practices in the public domain occurred, damaging people´s integrity via insults, derision and hate crimes. Most stakeholders expressed a supportive position to prevent discrimination and homophobia and some of them had great influence on policy-making decisions. It was found that state policy frameworks are less specific in addressing these issues. Homophobia and discrimination associated to HIV are still considered problematic in Mexico. Homophobia is a very sensitive issue that requires further attention. Also, an actual execution of governmental authority requires greater enforcement of laws against discrimination and homophobia.

  19. MRI in human immunodeficiency virus-associated cerebral vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkefeld, J.; Lanfermann, H.

    2000-01-01

    Cerebral ischaemia caused by inflammatory vasculopathies has been described as complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Imaging studies have shown ischaemic lesions and changes of the vascular lumen, but did not allow demonstration of abnormalities within the vessel wall itself. Two HIV-infected men presented with symptoms of a transient ischaemic attack. Initial MRI of the first showed no infarct; in the second two small lacunar lesions were detected. In both cases, multiplanar 3-mm slice contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images showed aneurysmal dilatation, with thickening and contrast enhancement of the wall of the internal carotid and middle cerebral (MCA) arteries. These findings were interpreted as indicating cerebral vasculitis. In the first patient the vasculopathy progressed to carotid artery occlusion, and he developed an infarct in the MCA territory, but then remained neurologically stable. In the second patient varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection was the probable cause of vasculitis. The clinical deficits and vasculitic MRI changes regressed with antiviral and immunosuppressive therapy. (orig.)

  20. MRI in human immunodeficiency virus-associated cerebral vasculitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkefeld, J.; Lanfermann, H. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Enzensberger, W. [Klinik fuer Neurologie, Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Cerebral ischaemia caused by inflammatory vasculopathies has been described as complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Imaging studies have shown ischaemic lesions and changes of the vascular lumen, but did not allow demonstration of abnormalities within the vessel wall itself. Two HIV-infected men presented with symptoms of a transient ischaemic attack. Initial MRI of the first showed no infarct; in the second two small lacunar lesions were detected. In both cases, multiplanar 3-mm slice contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images showed aneurysmal dilatation, with thickening and contrast enhancement of the wall of the internal carotid and middle cerebral (MCA) arteries. These findings were interpreted as indicating cerebral vasculitis. In the first patient the vasculopathy progressed to carotid artery occlusion, and he developed an infarct in the MCA territory, but then remained neurologically stable. In the second patient varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection was the probable cause of vasculitis. The clinical deficits and vasculitic MRI changes regressed with antiviral and immunosuppressive therapy. (orig.)

  1. Global Considerations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylance, Jamie; Meghji, Jamilah; Miller, Robert F; Ferrand, Rashida A

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory tract infection, particularly tuberculosis, is a major cause of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in a dramatic increase in survival, although coverage of HIV treatment remains low in many parts of the world. There is a concurrent growing burden of chronic noninfectious respiratory disease as a result of increased survival. Many risk factors associated with the development of respiratory disease, such as cigarette smoking and intravenous drug use, are overrepresented among people living with HIV. In addition, there is emerging evidence that HIV infection may directly cause or accelerate the course of chronic lung disease. This review summarizes the clinical spectrum and epidemiology of respiratory tract infections and noninfectious pulmonary pathologies, and factors that explain the global variation in HIV-associated respiratory disease. The potential for enhancing diagnoses of noninfective chronic conditions through the use of clinical algorithms is discussed. We also consider issues in assessment and management of HIV-related respiratory disease in view of the increasing global scale up of ART. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Absence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus in Peruvian prostitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golenbock, D T; Guerra, J; Pfister, J; Golubjatnikov, R; Tejada, A; Abugattas, J; Kemper, R; Maki, D G

    1988-12-01

    We serologically tested 140 female prostitutes (mean age, 30 years) from the port city of Callao, Peru, for evidence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Chlamydia trachomatis, Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex viruses (HSV) I and II, and hepatitis B virus. The women had worked as prostitutes for an average of 5 years; one-fourth serviced foreign visitors exclusively, mainly sailors. Only 4 women used condoms, and only 1 woman gave a history of parenteral narcotic abuse, although 53% were regularly exposed to unsterile needles outside the medical setting for injections of vitamins, antibiotics, or steroids; another 29% are thought to probably use unsterile needles. None of the 140 prostitutes screened was seropositive for HIV, despite a very high prevalence of antibody to T. pallidum (24%), C. trachomatis (97%), HSV I and II (100%), and hepatitis B (51%); 5% were HbsAg positive. These data indicate that HIV has not yet been introduced into female prostitutes in the Peruvian port city. We believe that widespread use of unsterile needles in developing countries, such as Peru, represents a serious health threat and will amplify the spread of HIV, once introduced.

  3. Management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Advanced Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Meredith; Justice, Amy C.; Lampiris, Harry W.; Valcour, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Importance Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients treated with antiretroviral therapy now have increased life expectancy and develop chronic illnesses that are often seen in older HIV-negative patients. Objective To address emerging issues related to aging with HIV. Screening older adults for HIV, diagnosis of concomitant diseases, management of multiple comorbid medical illnesses, social isolation, polypharmacy, and factors associated with end-of-life care are reviewed. Evidence Acquisition Published guidelines and consensus statements were reviewed. PubMed and PsycINFO were searched between January 2000 and February 2013. Articles not appearing in the search that were referenced by reviewed articles were also evaluated. Findings The population of older HIV-positive patients is rapidly expanding. It is estimated that by 2015 one-half of the individuals in the United States with HIV will be older than age 50. Older HIV-infected patients are prone to having similar chronic diseases as their HIV-negative counterparts, as well as illnesses associated with co-infections. Medical treatments associated with these conditions, when added to an antiretroviral regimen, increase risk for polypharmacy. Care of aging HIV-infected patients involves a need to balance a number of concurrent comorbid medical conditions. Conclusions and Relevance HIV is no longer a fatal disease. Management of multiple comorbid diseases is a common feature associated with longer life expectancy in HIV-positive patients. There is a need to better understand how to optimize the care of these patients. PMID:23549585

  4. Bacteremia por Rhodococcus equi em paciente com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida: relato de caso Bacteremia due to Rhodococcus equi in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Secchi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhodococcus equi é um importante agente de infecções zoonóticas, podendo causar sérias infecções em humanos, principalmente em pacientes imunocomprometidos. Neste estudo, nós relatamos o caso de uma bacteremia fatal devido a Rhodococcus equi em paciente com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (HIV positivo.Rhodococcus equi is an important agent for zoonotic infections, and may cause serious infections in humans, especially immunocompromised patients. In this study, a case of fatal bacteremia due to Rhodococcus equi in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV positive is reported.

  5. Changes in mortality related to human immunodeficiency virus infection: comparative analysis of inpatient deaths in 1995 and in 1999-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mamta K; Skiest, Daniel J; Cloud, Jeff W; Jain, Charu L; Burns, Dennis; Berggren, Ruth E

    2003-04-15

    We conducted a retrospective chart review of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients who died in 1995 and in 1999-2000. We found an increase in the proportion of patients who died from an illness that was not related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Although there was a decrease in the prevalence of AIDS-defining illnesses, >85% of patients died with CD4 counts of 50% of HIV-infected patients who died were not receiving HAART. AIDS-defining illnesses continue to be a major cause of mortality in the HAART era in populations where access to care and adherence to HAART is limited.

  6. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Use of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, J.; Becker, N.; DelRowe, J.; Davis, L.

    1990-01-01

    A patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is presented. The patient had a localized lesion on his scalp. Evaluation for systemic lymphoma was negative. A biopsy specimen showed superficial and deep dermal infiltrates of pleomorphic lymphocytes. Immunohistochemistry was consistent with T-cell lymphoma. The patient was treated successfully with local irradiation. He remained free of further systemic and cutaneous recurrences of the lymphoma until he died 8 months after treatment of pneumonia. This case is the first to our knowledge to describe a localized CTCL in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)

  7. X-ray and CT findings of soft tissue and bone infections secondary to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Songfeng; Liu Jinxin; Chen Bihua; Zhang Lieguang; Gan Qingxin; Huang Deyang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To summarize X-ray and CT findings of soft tissue and bone infections secondary to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: The data of X-ray and CT findings of soft tissue and bone infections in 18 patients with AIDS were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results: Of 18 patients with AIDS, the CT features of soft tissue demonstrated that subcutaneous patchy high density in 1 case which considered as cellulitis, round low density lesions with ring enhancement in 6 cases which considered as soft tissue abscesses, heterogeneous density lesions with peripheral enhancement in 1 case which considered as pyomyositis. Of 18 patients with AIDS, septic arthritis was found in 4 cases involving knee lesion in 3 cases and hip lesion. In the 4 case, the X-ray films showed bony destruction in 2 cases and the CT showed bone destruction in 3 cases and arthroedema in 4 cases. Of 18 patients with AIDS, osteomyelitis was found in 9 cases of which tuberculosis was considered in. 8 cases and vertebral involvement in 6 cases. In the 9 cases, the X-ray films and CT displayed bony destruction, hyperostosis, small sequestra, and intervertebral space narrowing. Of 18 patients with AIDS, costal lesions were found in 3 cases in which the CT showed expandable bony destruction. Of 18 patients with AIDS, ilium and sacroiliac joint lesions were found in 1 case in which the X-ray films and CT showed bony destruction, sequestra, and joint widening. Of 18 patients with AIDS, chronic pyogenic osteomyelitis of femur was found in 1 case in which the X-ray films showed bony destruction, hyperostosis osteosclerosis, and periosteal reaction. Conclusion: The X-ray and CT features of soft tissue and bone infections secondary to AIDS are characterized. The X-ray and CT are useful tools to early diagnose soft tissue and bone infections secondary to AIDS. (authors)

  8. A Clinical Study of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Associated Penicillium Marneffei Infection from a Non-Endemic Area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinding; Gui, Xien; Cao, Qian; Yang, Rongrong; Yan, Yajun; Deng, Liping; Lio, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of penicilliosis among the patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in non-endemic areas of China, and then to discuss its incubation period and the diagnostic performance of serum galactomannan test for penicilliosis. Medical records and travel histories of penicilliosis patients in Zhongnan hospital from January 2006 to December 2013, and the interval from when the patients left the endemic area to the onset of the disease was analyzed. Serum galactomannan levels of penicilliosis patients and AIDS patients with fever were measured by the Platelia Aspergillus Enzyme Immunoassay Kit. A total of 47 AIDS-associated penicilliosis were confirmed by fungal culture, which accounted for 4.8% of 981 AIDS-related admissions. The sensitivity and specificity of serum galactomannan test for penicilliosis were 95.8% (23/24) and 90.9% (30/33), respectively, (cutoff index = 1.0). Two independent predictors for early mortality (death within 12 weeks) of the patients (21.3%, 10/47) were a delayed diagnosis and no treatment with antifungal therapy. Among 14 patients who became ill after leaving endemic areas, ten patients presented with the onset symptoms within 12 months (from 11 days to 360 days). We found a patient living with asymptomatic P. marneffei fungemia who had not received any antifungal therapy until 18 months' follow up. The co-infection of P. marneffei and HIV was not uncommon in the non-endemic areas of penicilliosis in China. There exists a latent form of infection for P. marneffei. The incubation period of penicilliosis may be quite different from one patient to another. In AIDS patients, the serum galactomannan test has utility for the diagnosis of penicilliosis. When patients with penicilliosis/AIDS were diagnosed early and treated with standardized antifungal therapy and combined antiretroviral therapy, their prognosis improved.

  9. Dogma disputed: potential endemic heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S

    1992-06-01

    The concept of tertiary sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been central to government efforts to communicate notions of risk to heterosexuals in Australia. Data on heterosexually transmitted acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and HIV for Australia are reviewed with emphasis given to the probability of misclassification bias in the heterosexually acquired and 'other/undetermined' categories. Tertiary cases are almost certainly rare in Australia, with little evidence of any increase in their incidence since the first cases were recorded. Three factors (low probability of exposure, the infectivity of HIV and a comparatively low rate of sexual partner change) make it improbable that Australian heterosexuals with no risk factors will experience endemic HIV infection, with a caveat to this conclusion lying in the potential of Australian sex tourism to Southeast Asia for introducing HIV into the Australian heterosexual population. Four hegemonic factors which have acted to suppress any serious debate of the notion that HIV in Australia is unlikely to become endemic among heterosexuals are discussed: the political 'democratization' of risk inspired by concerns that gay men should not be further vilified as a victim group; the preventive imperative; a reluctance among health educators to question the very foundations of the message they are employed to deliver; and a reluctance to curtail 'Trojan horse' benefits to sexually transmissible disease prevention engendered by HIV education promoting safe sex messages.

  10. Hepatitis C virus infection in the human immunodeficiency virus infected patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Louise Nygaard; Lundbo, Lene Fogt; Benfield, Thomas

    2014-09-14

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share the same transmission routes; therefore, coinfection is frequent. An estimated 5-10 million individuals alone in the western world are infected with both viruses. The majority of people acquire HCV by injection drug use and, to a lesser extent, through blood transfusion and blood products. Recently, there has been an increase in HCV infections among men who have sex with men. In the context of effective antiretroviral treatment, liver-related deaths are now more common than Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome-related deaths among HIV-HCV coinfected individuals. Morbidity and mortality rates from chronic HCV infection will increase because the infection incidence peaked in the mid-1980s and because liver disease progresses slowly and is clinically silent to cirrhosis and end-stage-liver disease over a 15-20 year time period for 15%-20% of chronically infected individuals. HCV treatment has rapidly changed with the development of new direct-acting antiviral agents; therefore, cure rates have greatly improved because the new treatment regimens target different parts of the HCV life cycle. In this review, we focus on the epidemiology, diagnosis and the natural course of HCV as well as current and future strategies for HCV therapy in the context of HIV-HCV coinfection in the western world.

  11. Psychiatric morbidity in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus patients

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    V S Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV patients is being studied all over the world. There is paucity of Indian literature particularly in asymptomatic HIV individuals. Aim: The aim of the following study is to establish the prevalence and the determinants of psychiatric morbidity in asymptomatic HIV patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess psychiatric morbidity as per ICD-10 dacryocystorhinostomy criteria in 100 consecutive asymptomatic seropositive HIV patients and an equal number of age, sex, education, economic and marital status matched HIV seronegative control. All subjects were assessed with the general health questionnaire (GHQ, mini mental status examination, hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS and sensation seeking scale (SSS and the scores were analyzed statistically. Results: Asymptomatic HIV positive patients had significantly higher GHQ caseness and depression but not anxiety on HADS as compared to HIV seronegative controls. On SSS asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects showed significant higher scores in thrill and adventure seeking, experience seeking and boredom susceptibility as compared to controls. HIV seropositive patients had significantly higher incidence of total psychiatric morbidity. Among the individual disorders, alcohol dependence syndrome, sexual dysfunction and adjustment disorder were significantly increased compared with HIV seronegative controls. Conclusion: Psychiatric morbidity is higher in asymptomatic HIV patients when compared to HIV seronegative controls. Among the individual disorders, alcohol dependence syndrome, sexual dysfunction and adjustment disorder were significantly increased compared with HIV seronegative controls. High sensation seeking and substance abuse found in HIV seropositive patients may play a vital role in engaging in high-risk behavior resulting in this dreaded illness.

  12. Measuring domestic violence in human immunodeficiency virus-positive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikar, Seema; Verma, Ak; Bhatti, Vk; Shatabdi, S

    2012-04-01

    Violence affects the lives of millions of women worldwide, in all socioeconomic classes. Violence and the fear of violence are emerging as important risk factor contributing to the vulnerability to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection for women. The objective of the present cross sectional study is to compare the experiences of domestic violence between HIV-positive and HIV-negative married women seeking treatment in a tertiary care hospital. The study is conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Pune on a randomly selected 150 married women (75 HIV-positive and 75 HIV-negative). Informed consent was obtained from all the women and also a trained counsellor was present during the process of data collection. The data was collected by interview method by taking precautions as laid down in the World Health Organization's ethical and safety recommendations for research on domestic violence and using modified conflict tactics scale (CTS). The definition of violence followed is as per the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1993. The percentage of women reporting domestic violence is 44.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 36.84-52.68). The proportion of physical, emotional and sexual violence reported is 38% (95% CI = 30.49-45.96), 24% (95% CI = 17.67-31.31), and 14.7% (95% CI = 9.66-21.02), respectively. The odds of reporting violence of all forms is significantly higher among HIV-positive women than among HIV-negative women (P<0.05). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression is carried out to examine the possible predictors of domestic violence. The findings suggest high proportion of HIV-positive women report violence then HIV-negative women which must be addressed through multilevel prevention approaches.

  13. Metabolic syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients

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    Sarita Bajaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives : To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive patients. Prevalence of MetS was compared in patients who were not on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART to patients who were on HAART. Materials and Methods: Seventy HIV positive cases were studied. Pregnant and lactating women, patients on drugs other than HAART known to cause metabolic abnormalities and those having diabetes or hypertension were excluded. Cases were evaluated for MetS by using National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel-III. Results: 47 cases were on HAART and 23 cases were not on HAART. Fasting Blood Glucose ≥100 mg/dl was present in 28.6% cases, out of whom 27.7% were on HAART and 30.4% were not on HAART (P = 0.8089. 12.9% cases had BP ≥130/≥85 mm Hg, out of whom 14.9% were on HAART and 8.7% were not on HAART (P = 0.4666. 42.9% cases had TG ≥150 mg/dl, out of whom 44.7% were on HAART and 39.1% were not on HAART (P = 0.6894. HDL cholesterol was low (males <40 mg/dl, females <50 mg/dl in 50% cases, out of whom 55.3% were on HAART and 39.1% were not on HAART (P = 0.2035. Conclusions: Prevalence of MetS was 20%. Majority of patients had only one component of MetS (32.9%. Low HDL was present in 50%, followed by raised triglycerides in 42.9%. Waist circumference was not increased in any of the patients. There was no statistically significant difference between those on HAART and those not on HAART in distribution of risk factors and individual components of MetS.

  14. Induction of human immunodeficiency virus neutralizing antibodies using fusion complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipeto, Donato; Matucci, Andrea; Ripamonti, Chiara; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Rossolillo, Paola; Turci, Marco; Sartoris, Silvia; Tridente, Giuseppe; Bertazzoni, Umberto

    2006-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infects cells by membrane fusion that is mediated by the envelope proteins gp120/gp41 and the cellular receptors CD4 and CCR5. During this process, some conserved viral epitopes are temporarily exposed and may induce a neutralizing antibody response when fixed in the fusogenic conformation. These transient structures are conserved and may be effective antigens for use in an anti-HIV-1 vaccine. In this study we tested different conditions of preparation of fusion complexes inducing neutralizing antibodies against both R5 and X4 tropic HIV-1 strains. Cell lines expressing HIV-1 gp120/gp41 and CD4-CCR5 were prepared and conditions for producing fusion complexes were tested. Complexes produced at different temperature and fixative combinations were used to immunize mice. Results indicated that (a) fusion complexes prepared at either 21 degrees C, 30 degrees C or 37 degrees C were immunogenic and induced neutralizing antibodies against both R5 and X4 HIV-1 heterologous isolates; (b) after extensive purification of antibodies there was no cytotoxic effect; (c) complexes prepared at 37 degrees C were more immunogenic and induced higher titers of neutralizing antibodies than complexes prepared at either 21 degrees C or 30 degrees C; (d) the fixative used did not affect the titer of neutralizing antibodies except for glutaraldehyde which was ineffective; (e) the neutralizing activity was retained after CD4-CCR5 antibody removal. The production of higher titers of neutralizing antibody with fusion complexes prepared at 37 degrees C, as compared to lower temperatures, may be related to the induction of antibodies against many different conformation intermediates that subsequently act synergistically at different steps in the fusion process.

  15. Cryptococcus sp abdominal infection in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency under secondary prophylaxis with fluconazole; Infeccao abdominal por Cryptococcus sp em paciente com imunodeficiencia adquirida em uso de profilaxia secundaria com fluconazol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutinho, Rosane Luiza; Zarehdinne, Monica [Infectologia do Hospital Eduardo de Menezes Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Peixoto, Arley; Tardieu Junior, Jose [Medicina da Faculdade de Saude e Ecologia Humana - FASEH, Vespasiano, MG (Brazil); Pedroso, Enio Roberto Pietra [Departamento de Clinica Medica da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    This paper reports on a Cryptococcus sp infection relapse in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency three years after the first episode, when her T CD4+ lymphocyte count was high and she was making regular use of antiretroviral drugs. (author)

  16. Viral gene products and replication of the human immunodeficiency type 1 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, C D; Park, J; Wakefield, J K

    1994-05-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic represents a modern-day plague that has not only resulted in a tragic loss of people from a wide spectrum of society but has reshaped our viewpoints regarding health care, the treatment of infectious diseases, and social issues regarding sexual behavior. There is little doubt now that the cause of the disease AIDS is a virus known as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The HIV virus is a member of a large family of viruses termed retroviruses, which have as a hallmark the capacity to convert their RNA genome into a DNA form that then undergoes a process of integration into the host cell chromosome, followed by the expression of the viral genome and translation of viral proteins in the infected cell. This review describes the organization of the HIV-1 viral genome, the expression of viral proteins, as well as the functions of the accessory viral proteins in HIV replication. The replication of the viral genome is divided into two phases, the early phase and the late phase. The early phase consists of the interaction of the virus with the cell surface receptor (CD4 molecule in most cases), the uncoating and conversion of the viral RNA genome into a DNA form, and the integration into the host cell chromosome. The late phase consists of the expression of the viral proteins from the integrated viral genome, the translation of viral proteins, and the assembly and release of the virus. Points in the HIV-1 life cycle that are targets for therapeutic intervention are also discussed.

  17. The puzzling role of CXCR4 in human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicenzi, Elisa; Liò, Pietro; Poli, Guido

    2013-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is the etiological agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a disease highly lethal in the absence of combination antiretroviral therapy. HIV infects CD4(+) cells of the immune system (T cells, monocyte-macrophages and dendritic cells) via interaction with a universal primary receptor, the CD4 molecule, followed by a mandatory interaction with a second receptor (co-receptor) belonging to the chemokine receptor family. Apart from some rare cases, two chemokine receptors have been evolutionarily selected to accomplish this need for HIV-1: CCR5 and CXCR4. Yet, usage of these two receptors appears to be neither casual nor simply explained by their levels of cell surface expression. While CCR5 use is the universal rule at the start of every infection regardless of the transmission route (blood-related, sexual or mother to child), CXCR4 utilization emerges later in disease coinciding with the immunological deficient phase of infection. Moreover, in most instances CXCR4 use as viral entry co-receptor is associated with maintenance of CCR5 use. Since antiviral agents preventing CCR5 utilization by the virus are already in use, while others targeting either CCR5 or CXCR4 (or both) are under investigation, understanding the biological correlates of this "asymmetrical" utilization of HIV entry co-receptors bears relevance for the clinical choice of which therapeutics should be administered to infected individuals. We will here summarize the basic knowledge and the hypotheses underlying the puzzling and yet unequivocal role of CXCR4 in HIV-1 infection.

  18. Evidence for a Euro-American origin of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katner, H P; Pankey, G A

    1987-10-01

    Recent reports of the nonspecificity of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test in African populations, significant genomic differences between simian T-cell lymphotropic virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the early appearance of clinical acquired immunodeficiency syndroME (AIDS) in the US and Europe are powerful arguments against the assumption that AIDS originated in Africa. The authors postulate that HIV infection has been endemic in the Euro-American population at least since the beginning of the 20th century and that sociocultural changes led to the introduction of the virus into Africa. A search of the literature reveals 28 cases of disseminated Kaposi's sarcoma in the pre-epidemic 1902-66 period. In none of these cases are notations made on intravenous drug abuse, homosexuality, or other risk factors for AIDS. The majority of cases involved men, however. It is pointed out that, in a population where the incidence of a virus such as HIV is low, the number of sexual partners is limited, and intravenous drug abuse is nonexistent, an infection with as long a latency period as HIV may not only be expressed sporadically, but would probably not be recognized as a transmissible infection. On the other hand, the significant changes in these social factors that occurred as a result of the sexual revolution of the late 1960s and early 1970s would be expected to increase the spread of infection and clinical disease so that recognition would be achieved. During the past decade, there have been marked increases in the number of sexually transmitted infections in the homosexual male population. The efficiency of anal intercourse as a mode of transmission probably accounts for the fact that HIV infection first expressed itself in this population.

  19. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in newly diagnosed patients with Human immunodeficiency virus in Ilorin, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayokunle, Dada Samuel; Olusegun, Olanrewaju Timothy; Ademola, Aderibigbe; Adindu, Chijioke; Olaitan, Rafiu Mojeed; Oladimeji, Ajayi Akande

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) the causative agent of Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an important cause of renal diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. There is paucity of studies on the burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among patients with HIV/AIDS in the North-Central zone of Nigeria. This is a cross-sectional study of 227 newly-diagnosed, antiretroviral naïve patients with HIV/AIDS seen at the HIV clinic of the Medical Out-patient Department (MOPD) of University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH). They were matched with 108 control group. Laboratory investigations were performed for the participants. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 30 mg/g. There were 100 (44%) males among the patients and 47 (43.5%) among the control group. The mean ages of the patients and controls were 40.3 ± 10.3 years and 41.8 ± 9.5 years respectively. CKD was observed in 108 (47.6%) among the patients and 18 (16.7%) of the controls (p = 0.01). The median CD4 T-cell count was significantly lower in patients with CKD. Ninety-three (41.0%) of the patients had dipstick proteinuria of > 2 +. The median albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) was significantly higher among the HIV-positive patients (272.3 mg/g) compared with the HIV-negative controls (27.22 mg/g) p = 0.01. The CD4 T-cell count correlates positively with eGFR (r = 0.463, p = 0.001) and negatively with ACR (r = -0.806, p = 0.001). CKD is very common among patients with HIV/AIDS in Ilorin. Screening and early intervention for CKD should be part of the protocols in the management of these patients.

  20. Nonadherence with pediatric human immunodeficiency virus therapy as medical neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gretchen M; Wheeler, J Gary; Tucker, Nancy C; Hackler, Chris; Young, Karen; Maples, Holly D; Darville, Toni

    2004-09-01

    To examine the results of an interventionist approach applied to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children for whom caregiver nonadherence was suspected as the cause of treatment failure. The medical records of a cohort of 16 perinatally HIV-infected children whose care was managed at the Arkansas Children's Hospital Pediatric HIV Clinic for an uninterrupted period of >or=3 years were reviewed through July 2003. Data collected included date of birth, dates of and explanations for clinic visits and hospitalizations, dates of laboratory evaluations, CD4(+) T cell percentages, plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, antiretroviral medications, viral resistance tests (eg, phenotype and genotype), and physician-initiated interventions to enhance adherence to the medication regimen. A stepwise interventionist approach was undertaken when patients continued to demonstrate high viral loads, despite documented viral sensitivity to the medication regimen and caregivers' insistence that medications were being administered regularly. Step 1 was prescribing a home health nurse referral, step 2 was administering directly observed therapy (DOT) while the patient was hospitalized for 4 days, and step 3 was submitting a physician-initiated medical neglect report to the Arkansas Department of Human Services. The results for 6 patients for whom this stepwise approach was initiated are reported. Home health nurse referrals failed to result in sustained improvements in adherence in all 6 cases. Viral load assays performed before and after DOT provided an objective measure of the effect of adherence, with 12 hospitalizations resulting in a mean +/- SD decrease in HIV RNA levels of 1.09 +/- 0.5 log(10) copies per mL, with a range of 0.6 to 2.1 log(10) copies per mL. Four families responded to DOT hospitalization, and sustained decreases in the respective patients' viral loads were noted. In 2 cases, medical neglect reports were submitted when DOT did not result in improved adherence. These

  1. Manifestações reumáticas da síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS Rheumatic manifestations of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Siqueira-Batista

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes síndromes reumáticas e fenômenos auto-imunes já foram associados à infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV, quer pela maior freqüência de adoecimento, quer pela maior gravidade. Ademais, em muitos casos, sintomas e sinais da doença reumática estão presentes na abertura do quadro de infecção pelo HIV (como na síndrome de soroconversão ou da síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS. O reconhecimento deste horizonte é da maior importância para a prática do reumatologista, tornando-se altamente necessário ampliar a familiaridade com estes conceitos. Revisitar as interseções reumatológicas da infecção pelo HIV - enfatizando-se situações como as espondiloartropatias soronegativas, as artralgias, as artrites infecciosas, fibromialgia, miopatias, vasculites, síndrome linfocítica infiltrante difusa, lúpus eritematoso sistêmico e fenômenos auto-imunes - é, pois, o objetivo do presente artigo.Different rheumatic syndromes and auto-immune phenomena have already been associated with the infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, either by the higher frequency of the disease or by the greater severity. Furthermore, in many cases, symptoms and signs of rheumatic disease are present at the beginning of the infection condition by HIV (as in the serum conversion or the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS. Recognition of these possibilities is of fundamental importance to the rheumatologist practice and is necessary to have familiarity with these concepts. Revisiting the rheumatologic intersections of the infection by HIV - emphasizing situations such as seronegative spondyloarthropathies, arthralgia, infectitious arthritis, fibromyalgia, myopathy, vasculitis, difuse infiltranting lymphocytic syndrome systemic lupus erythematous and auto-immune phenomena - is then, the aim of the present article.

  2. Efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xin; Jiang, Manjun; Zhao, Xiaofang; Liang, Jian

    2014-02-01

    To systematically review the efficacy and safety of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) interventions, compared with control interventions (placebo or conventional Western medical therapy), in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Electronic databases including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Data were searched to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published as of May 2012. Studies were selected according to the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria and then subjected to methodological quality assessment, data extraction, and meta-analysis according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Twelve RCTs involving 881 patients with AIDS were included. Methodological quality assessment showed that two were high-quality, two were moderate-quality, and eight were low-quality. Meta-analysis showed that TCM interventions were associated with significantly reduced plasma viral load compared with placebo [odds ratio OR = 2.46, 95% confidence interval CI (1.02, 5.94); P = 0.04]. However, the reductions in plasma viral load significantly favored conventional Western medical therapy alone over integrated traditional Chinese and Western medical therapy [OR = 0.16, 95% CI (0.05, 0.55); P = 0.004]. Patients receiving TCM interventions had significantly higher CD4+ T lymphocyte counts compared with those on placebo [OR = 2.54, 95% CI (1.40, 4.60); P = 0.002]. In addition, TCM interventions were significantly more likely to have improved clinical symptoms [OR = 2.82, 95% CI (1.85, 4.31); P risk of adverse events (AEs) compared with control interventions [OR = 1.87, 95% CI (0.58, 6.01); P = 0.29]. Current evidence suggests that TCM interventions are significantly more effective than placebo in reducing plasma viral load and increasing CD4+ T lymphocyte count in patients with AIDS. When compared with conventional Western medical therapy, TCM interventions

  3. Prevalence of Oro-Facial Lesions in Human Immunodeficiency Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Oro-facial lesions are among the earliest clinical manifestations of HIV infection. These were commonly observed in HIV infected Nigerian women. Oral candidiasis the most common oral lesion observed in the series may therefore be used as a clinical indicator of early immunodeficiency associated with HIV.

  4. Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase Signaling in Human Natural Killer Cells: New Insights from Primary Immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M. Mace

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Human natural killer (NK cells play a critical role in the control of viral infections and malignancy. Their importance in human health and disease is illustrated by severe viral infections in patients with primary immunodeficiencies that affect NK cell function and/or development. The recent identification of patients with phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K-signaling pathway mutations that can cause primary immunodeficiency provides valuable insight into the role that PI3K signaling plays in human NK cell maturation and lytic function. There is a rich literature that demonstrates a requirement for PI3K in multiple key aspects of NK cell biology, including development/maturation, homing, priming, and function. Here, I briefly review these previous studies and place them in context with recent findings from the study of primary immunodeficiency patients, particularly those with hyperactivating mutations in PI3Kδ signaling.

  5. Topical 5-fluorouracil treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richel, O.; Wieland, U.; de Vries, H. J. C.; Brockmeyer, N. H.; van Noesel, C.; Potthoff, A.; Prins, J. M.; Kreuter, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), a human papillomavirus (HPV) induced potential precursor lesion of anal cancer, is frequent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). So far, only a few prospective studies have been performed on the topical

  6. Immunological studies in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. II. Active suppression or intrinsic defect--investigated by mixing AIDS cells with HLA-DR identical normal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Ødum, Niels; Jakobsen, B K

    1986-01-01

    The lymphocyte transformation responses to mitogens (phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (Con A), and pokeweed mitogen (PWM)), allogeneic cells, and the antigen-purified protein derivative (PPD) were studied in six acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and in six healthy controls...... with the strong mitogens PHA and Con A or with allogeneic cells, but suppression may be involved in the decreased responses in cultures stimulated with PWM or PPD. Addition of supernatants from macrocultures of AIDS cells did not suppress responses of control PBMC. Thus, suppression by any lymphocyte subset...

  7. A Cerebellar Tremor in a Patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Associated with Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jin Kim

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS caused by JC virus infection in oligodendrocytes, especially in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Movement disorders associated with PML are very rare. Here, we report a case of PML in an AIDS patient who presented with a cerebellar tremor, caused by lesions in the cerebellar outflow tract. A cerebellar tremor can be a rare clinical manifestation in patients with PML.

  8. A Cerebellar Tremor in a Patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Associated with Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Jin; Lee, Jae-Jung; Lee, Phil Hyu

    2009-01-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by JC virus infection in oligodendrocytes, especially in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Movement disorders associated with PML are very rare. Here, we report a case of PML in an AIDS patient who presented with a cerebellar tremor, caused by lesions in the cerebellar outflow tract. A cerebellar tremor can be a rare clinical manifestation in patients with PML. PMID:24868366

  9. The breakdown of the cytokine network subsequent to human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Clerici

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The acquired immunodeflciency syndrome (AIDS is a clinically multifaceted disease induced by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. HIV infection results in a complex pattern of immunologic alterations that leads to the development of AIDS in the majority of HIV seropositive (HIV+ individuals. The reduction in CD4 T lymphocyte counts is the hallmark of HIV infection; nevertheless, long before the reduction in CD4 counts reaches critical levels, a series of profound and complex defects that impair the function of CD4 T lymphocytes can be detected. Thus, HIV infection is characterized by quantitative and qualitative defects affecting CD4 T lymphocytes. It was suggested recently that programmed cell death (PCD is an important mechanism leading to CD4 depletion in HIV infection, and that susceptibility of peripheral lymphocytes to PCD is differentially regulated by diverse cytokines. Thus, type 1 cytokines would protect CD4 lymphocytes against PCD, whereas type 2 cytokines would not protect against, and could augment, PCD. We suggest that the qualitative alterations of the immune response provoke the CD4 depletion characteristic of HIV disease via type 2 cytokinemediated augmentation of PCD, and are therefore ultimately responsible for the progression of HIV infection. Finally, we summarize recent data showing that three correlates of disease progression: emergence of HIV strains with syncitium-inducing ability (SI, type 1-to-type 2 cytokine shift, and CD4 depletion, are significantly associated, suggesting a complex interconnected virologic-immunologic pathogenesis of HIV infection.

  10. Unsuspected human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting as immunoglobulin G4-related lymphadenopathy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hsing-Tse; Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Huang, Shun-Chen; Yu, Shan-Fu

    2018-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an immune-mediated condition characterized by infiltration of the involved organs by IgG4-bearing plasma cells. The prevalence of autoimmune diseases, associated with or occurring in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, has been increasing. We describe a 58-year-old man with an undiagnosed HIV infection, which presented as chronic cervical lymphadenopathy with an elevated serum IgG4 and a very high IgE. Histologically, lymph nodes showed expanded sinusoids and burnt-out germinal centers with increased plasmacytic infiltration and collagen fiber deposition. The absolute number of IgG4+ plasma cells and the IgG4+/IgG+ plasma cell ratio was increased. The lymph nodes were enlarged and clinically the patient improved after steroid treatment. Nine months later, he was diagnosed with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, following presentation with a cavitary left lung lesion. Immunohistochemical studies on the previously resected lymph node revealed complete absence of CD4+ T-lymphocytes and increased CD8+ T-lymphocytes. The pathologic findings met the criteria of both HIV infection and IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. Our case demonstrates that further investigations for underlying HIV infection in a case of IgG4-RD are critical, especially when extremely elevated IgE is concomitantly present.

  11. Engaging community businesses in human immunodeficiency virus prevention: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovniak, Liza S; Hovell, Melbourne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; Blumberg, Elaine J; Sipan, Carol L; Batista, Marcia F; Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Mulvihill, Mary M; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2010-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of engaging community businesses in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention. Randomly selected business owners/managers were asked to display discreetly wrapped condoms and brochures, both of which were provided free-of-charge for 3 months. Assessments were conducted at baseline, mid-program, and post-program. Customer feedback was obtained through an online survey. Participants were selected from a San Diego, California neighborhood with a high rate of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Fifty-one business owners/managers who represented 10 retail categories, and 52 customers. Participation rates, descriptive characteristics, number of condoms and brochures distributed, customer feedback, business owners'/managers' program satisfaction, and business owners'/managers' willingness to provide future support for HIV prevention were measured. Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, Fisher's exact, and McNemar's tests were used to analyze data. The 20 business owners/managers (39%) who agreed to distribute condoms and brochures reported fewer years in business and more employees than those who agreed only to distribute brochures (20%) or who refused to participate (41%; p Businesses with more employees and customers distributed more condoms and brochures (p customers supported distributing condoms and brochures in businesses, and 96% of business owners/managers described their program experience as positive. Businesses are willing to distribute condoms and brochures to prevent HIV. Policies to increase business participation in HIV prevention should be developed and tested.

  12. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Patients in Hamadan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramat, Fariba; Majzobi, Mohammad Mehdi; Poorolajal, Jalal; Ghane, Zohreh Zarei; Adabi, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Brucellosis is a systemic disease with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients in Hamadan Province in the west of Iran. Methods A total of 157 HIV-infected patients were screened through standard serological tests, including Wright’s test, Coombs’ Wright test, and 2-mercaptoethanol Brucella agglutination test (2ME test), blood cultures in Castaneda media, and CD4 counting. Data were analyzed using Stata version 11. Results Wright and Coombs’ Wright tests were carried out, and only 5 (3.2%) patients had positive serological results. However, all patients had negative 2ME results, and blood cultures were negative for Brucella spp. Moreover, patients with positive serology and a mean CD4 count of 355.8 ± 203.11 cells/μL had no clinical manifestations of brucellosis, and, and the other patients had a mean CD4 count of 335.55 ± 261.71 cells/μL. Conclusion Results of this study showed that HIV infection is not a predisposing factor of acquiring brucellosis. PMID:28904852

  13. Humoral immune response to the entire human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein made in insect cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusche, J.R.; Lynn, D.L.; Robert-Guroff, M.; Langlois, A.J.; Lyerly, H.K.; Carson, H.; Krohn, K.; Ranki, A.; Gallo, R.C.; Bolognesi, D.P.; Putney, S.D.

    1987-10-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus envelope gene was expressed in insect cells by using a Baculovirus expression vector. The protein has an apparent molecular mass of 160 kDa, appears on the surface of infected insect cells, and does not appear to be cleaved to glycoproteins gp120 and gp41. Goats immunized with the 160-kDa protein have high titers of antibody that neutralizes virus infection as measured by viral gene expression or cell cytolysis. In addition, immune sera can block fusion of human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in culture. Both neutralization and fusion-blocking activities are bound to and eluted from immobilized gp120.

  14. Humoral immune response to the entire human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein made in insect cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusche, J.R.; Lynn, D.L.; Robert-Guroff, M.

    1987-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus envelope gene was expressed in insect cells by using a Baculovirus expression vector. The protein has an apparent molecular mass of 160 kDa, appears on the surface of infected insect cells, and does not appear to be cleaved to glycoproteins gp120 and gp41. Goats immunized with the 160-kDa protein have high titers of antibody that neutralizes virus infection as measured by viral gene expression or cell cytolysis. In addition, immune sera can block fusion of human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in culture. Both neutralization and fusion-blocking activities are bound to and eluted from immobilized gp120

  15. Alteration in pancreatic islet function in human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms behind the defects in insulin production and secretion associated with antihuman immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) therapy and the development of HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) are discussed in this article. Data suggesting insulin resistance on the beta cell...... and defects in first-phase insulin release of HALS patients are presented. Hepatic extraction of insulin, nonglucose insulin secretagogues and insulin-like growth factor release may exert influence on the demand of circulating insulin and on insulin secretion in HIV-infected patients. Finally, the paucity...

  16. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: human immunodeficiency virus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term human immunodeficiency virus 名詞 一...般 * * * * HIV【ウイルス】 HIV エイチアイブイ Thesaurus2015 200906008048023239 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 human immunodeficiency virus

  17. Acceptance of referral for partners by clients testing positive for human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netsanet F

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetene Netsanet,1 Ayalew Dessie21IMA World Health SuddHealth Multi Donor Trust Fund-Basic Package of Health Services Project, Juba, South Sudan; 2United States Agency for International Development, Private Health Sector Program, Abt Associates Inc, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive individuals who do not disclose their HIV status to their partners are more likely to present late for HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS care than those who have disclosed their HIV status to their partners. A major area of challenge with regards to HIV counseling for clients is disclosure of their HIV status to their partners. The main methods of partner notification are patient referral, provider referral, contract referral, and outreach assistance. The emphasis on a plausible and comprehensive partner referral strategy for widespread positive case detection in resource-limited countries needs to be thought out and developed.Methods: A qualitative study was conducted among newly HIV-positive clients to identify partners for notification and acceptance of referral by their partners. Health service providers working in HIV testing and counseling clinics were also provided with semistructured questionnaires in order to assess their view towards partner notification strategies for clients testing positive for HIV.Results: Fifteen newly diagnosed HIV-positive clients were counseled to provide referral slips to their partners. All clients agreed and took the referral card. However, only eight were willing and actually provided the card to their partners. Five of the eight partners of clients who tested HIV-positive and who were provided with referral cards responded to the referral and were tested for HIV. Three were positive and two were negative. Nine of 11 counselors did not agree to requesting partner locator information from HIV-positive clients for contractual referral and/or outreach assistance. The findings

  18. Cardiac abnormalities in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A prospective study with a clinical-pathological correlation in twenty-one adult patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herdy Gesmar Volga Haddad

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To evaluate the cardiac abnormalities and their evolution during the course of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, as well as to correlate clinical and pathological data. METHODS - Twenty-one patients, admitted to the hospital with the diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, were prospectively studied and followed until their death. Age ranged from 19 to 42 years (17 males. ECG and echocardiogram were also obtained every six months. After death, macro- and microscopic examinations were also performed. RESULTS - The most frequent causes of referral to the hospital were: diarrhea or repeated pneumonias, tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis or Kaposi sarcoma. The most frequent findings were acute or chronic pericarditis (42% and dilated cardiomyopathy (19%. Four patients died of cardiac problems: infective endocarditis, pericarditis with pericardial effusion, bacterial myocarditis and infection by Toxoplasma gondii. CONCLUSION - Severe cardiac abnormalities were the cause of death in some patients. In the majority of the patients, a good correlation existed between clinical and anatomical-pathological data. Cardiac evaluation was important to detect early manifestations and treat them accordingly, even in asymptomatic patients.

  19. Epstein-Barr virus-associated primary central nervous system lymphoma in a child with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M M; Delgado, P I; Petito, C K

    1997-12-01

    A 34-month-old black boy who had contracted acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from his mother presented with fever, vomiting, and cough. He was cachectic, hypertonic, and developmentally delayed. A brain computed tomography scan revealed masses in the left frontal horn, subependymal, and periventricular regions; secondary edema; and hydrocephalus. The differential diagnosis was cerebral lymphoma versus toxoplasmosis. The patient had disseminated Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection, lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis, as well as Pseudomonas and Klebsiella pneumonia. He died of respiratory insufficiency 53 days after admission. The autopsy confirmed a primary cerebral B-cell lymphoma, large cell type, which was positive for Epstein-Barr virus, latent phase, by in situ hybridization. Primary central nervous system lymphomas are rare in children, in contrast to adults. To our knowledge, only five well-documented cases of primary cerebral lymphomas in infants and children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome have been reported previously. The current study shows that these childhood lymphomas are associated with and presumably caused by Epstein-Barr virus and thus have a pathogenesis similar to that of primary central nervous system lymphomas in adults.

  20. Identification of a Conserved Interface of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Vifs with Cullin 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qinyong; Zhang, Zeli; Gertzen, Christoph G W; Häussinger, Dieter; Gohlke, Holger; Münk, Carsten

    2018-03-15

    Members of the apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC3 [A3]) family of DNA cytidine deaminases are intrinsic restriction factors against retroviruses. In felids such as the domestic cat ( Felis catus ), the A3 genes encode the A3Z2, A3Z3, and A3Z2Z3 antiviral cytidine deaminases. Only A3Z3 and A3Z2Z3 inhibit viral infectivity factor (Vif)-deficient feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). The FIV Vif protein interacts with Cullin (CUL), Elongin B (ELOB), and Elongin C (ELOC) to form an E3 ubiquitination complex to induce the degradation of feline A3s. However, the functional domains in FIV Vif for the interaction with Cullin are poorly understood. Here, we found that the expression of dominant negative CUL5 prevented the degradation of feline A3s by FIV Vif, while dominant negative CUL2 had no influence on the degradation of A3. In coimmunoprecipitation assays, FIV Vif bound to CUL5 but not CUL2. To identify the CUL5 interaction site in FIV Vif, the conserved amino acids from positions 47 to 160 of FIV Vif were mutated, but these mutations did not impair the binding of Vif to CUL5. By focusing on a potential zinc-binding motif (K175-C161-C184-C187) of FIV Vif, we found a conserved hydrophobic region (174IR175) that is important for the CUL5 interaction. Mutation of this region also impaired the FIV Vif-induced degradation of feline A3s. Based on a structural model of the FIV Vif-CUL5 interaction, the 52LW53 region in CUL5 was identified as mediating binding to FIV Vif. By comparing our results to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vif-CUL5 interaction surface (120IR121, a hydrophobic region that is localized in the zinc-binding motif), we suggest that the CUL5 interaction surface in the diverse HIV-1 and FIV Vifs is evolutionarily conserved, indicating a strong structural constraint. However, the FIV Vif-CUL5 interaction is zinc independent, which contrasts with the zinc dependence of HIV-1 Vif. IMPORTANCE Feline

  1. Fusion as a mediator of cytolysis in mixtures of uninfected CD4+ lymphocytes and cells infected by human immunodeficiency virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoffe, B.; Lewis, D.E.; Petrie, B.L.; Noonan, C.A.; Melnick, J.L.; Hollinger, F.B.

    1987-01-01

    The authors describe an unusual type of cytopathology in which uninfected CD4 + (helper/inducer) cells (cells expressing the human leukocyte antigen CD4) interact with cells persistently infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Prior antigenic stimulation was not required, since CD4 + cells taken either from healthy persons without anti-HIV antibodies or from individuals with anti-HIV antibodies were capable in inducing cytolysis. Neither CD8 + (suppressor/cytotoxic) nor CD16 + (natural killer) cells mediated the reaction. Light microscopic and autoradiographic studies revealed that, prior to cytolysis, multinucleated giant cells were formed from fusions between HIV-infected cells and large numbers of uninfected CD4 + lymphocytes. These data may explain the paradox that exists in vivo in which a dramatic depletion of CD4 + lymphocytes occurs in the presence of a small number of HIV-infected CD4 + cells. These new insights into the pathogenesis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) may lead to future therapeutic strategies

  2. Enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-DNA vaccine potency through incorporation of T-helper 1 molecular adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calarota, Sandra A; Weiner, David B

    2004-06-01

    It is clear that the development of a safe and effective vaccine for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remains a crucial goal for controlling the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic. At present, it is not clear what arm of the immune response correlates with protection from HIV-1 infection or disease. Therefore, a strong cellular and humoral immune response will likely be needed to control this infection. Among different vaccine alternatives, DNA vaccines appeared more than a decade ago, demonstrating important qualities of inducing both humoral and cellular immune responses in animal models. However, after several years and various clinical studies in humans, supporting the safety of the HIV-DNA vaccine strategies, it has become clear that their potency should be improved. One way to modulate and enhance the immune responses induced by a DNA vaccine is by including genetic adjuvants such as cytokines, chemokines, or T-cell costimulatory molecules as part of the vaccine itself. Particularly, vaccine immunogenicity can be modulated by factors that attract professional antigen-presenting cells, provide additional costimulation, or enhance the uptake of plasmid DNA. This review focuses on developments in the coadministration of molecular adjuvants for the enhancement of HIV-1 DNA-vaccine potency.

  3. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nef Proteins Show Distinct Patterns and Mechanisms of Src Kinase Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Alison L.; Dutartre, Hélène; Allen, Kelly; McPhee, Dale A.; Olive, Daniel; Collette, Yves

    1999-01-01

    The nef gene from human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV) regulates cell function and viral replication, possibly through binding of the nef product to cellular proteins, including Src family tyrosine kinases. We show here that the Nef protein encoded by SIVmac239 interacts with and also activates the human Src kinases Lck and Hck. This is in direct contrast to the inhibitory effect of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) Nef on Lck catalytic activity. Unexpectedly, however, the interaction of SIV Nef with human Lck or Hck is not mediated via its consensus proline motif, which is known to mediate HIV-1 Nef binding to Src homology 3 (SH3) domains, and various experimental analyses failed to show significant interaction of SIV Nef with the SH3 domain of either kinase. Instead, SIV Nef can bind Lck and Hck SH2 domains, and its N-terminal 50 amino acid residues are sufficient for Src kinase binding and activation. Our results provide evidence for multiple mechanisms by which Nef binds to and regulates Src kinases. PMID:10364375

  4. Association between biological properties of human immunodeficiency virus variants and risk for AIDS and AIDS mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tersmette, M.; Lange, J. M.; de Goede, R. E.; de Wolf, F.; Eeftink-Schattenkerk, J. K.; Schellekens, P. T.; Coutinho, R. A.; Huisman, J. G.; Goudsmit, J.; Miedema, F.

    1989-01-01

    49 individuals seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody were studied longitudinally for the relation between in-vitro properties of their sequential HIV isolates and clinical course before and after the development of AIDS. They were classified into three groups according to the

  5. Timing of initiation of antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)--associated tuberculous meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Török, M. Estee; Yen, Nguyen Thi Bich; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Mai, Pham Phuong; Dung, Nguyen Thi; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Bang, Nguyen Duc; Tien, Nguyen Anh; Minh, N. H.; Hien, Nguyen Quang; Thai, Phan Vuong Khac; Dong, Doan The; Anh, Do Thi Tuong; Thoa, Nguyen Thi Cam; Hai, Nguyen Ngoc; Lan, Nguyen Ngoc; Lan, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Quy, Hoang Thi; Dung, Nguyen Huy; Hien, Tran Tinh; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Simmons, Cameron Paul; de Jong, Menno; Wolbers, Marcel; Farrar, Jeremy James

    2011-01-01

    The optimal time to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculous meningitis is unknown. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of immediate versus deferred ART in patients with HIV-associated tuberculous meningitis to

  6. Role of the DIS hairpin in replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, B.; van Wamel, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    The virion-associated genome of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 consists of a noncovalently linked dimer of two identical, unspliced RNA molecules. A hairpin structure within the untranslated leader transcript is postulated to play a role in RNA dimerization through base pairing of the

  7. A riboswitch regulates RNA dimerization and packaging in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, Marcel; Huthoff, Hendrik; Russell, Rodney; Liang, Chen; Berkhout, Ben

    2004-01-01

    The genome of retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1), consists of two identical RNA strands that are packaged as noncovalently linked dimers. The core packaging and dimerization signals are located in the downstream part of the untranslated leader of HIV-1 RNA-the Psi

  8. Mobility and the spread of human immunodeficiency virus into rural areas of West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagarde, E.; Schim van der Loeff, M.; Enel, C.; Holmgren, B.; Dray-Spira, R.; Pison, G.; Piau, J. P.; Delaunay, V.; M'Boup, S.; Ndoye, I.; Coeuret-Pellicer, M.; Whittle, H.; Aaby, P.

    2003-01-01

    In eastern and southern Africa, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic appeared first in urban centres and then spread to rural areas. Its overall prevalence is lower in West Africa, with the highest levels still found in cities. Rural areas are also threatened, however, because of the

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 evolution in vivo tracked by DNA heteroduplex mobility assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delwart, E. L.; Sheppard, H. W.; Walker, B. D.; Goudsmit, J.; Mullins, J. I.

    1994-01-01

    High mutation rates and strong selective pressures imposed on human immunodeficiency viruses in vivo result in the formation of pools of genetic variants known as quasispecies. DNA heteroduplex mobility and tracking analyses were used to monitor the generation of HIV sequence diversity, to estimate

  10. Timing of HAART initiation and clinical outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconverters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsson, Michele; Fusco, Jennifer S.; Cole, Stephen R.; Thomas, James C.; Porter, Kholoud; Kaufman, Jay S.; Davidian, Marie; White, Alice D.; Hartmann, Katherine E.; Eron, Joseph J.; del Amo, Julia; Meyer, Laurence; Bucher, Heiner C.; Chene, Geneviève; Pillay, Deenan; Prins, Maria; Rosinska, Magda; Sabin, Caroline; Touloumi, Giota; Lodi, Sara; Coughlin, Kate; Walker, Sarah; Babiker, Abdel; de Luca, Andrea; Fisher, Martin; Muga, Roberto; Kaldor, John; Kelleher, Tony; Ramacciotti, Tim; Gelgor, Linda; Cooper, David; Smith, Don; Gill, John; Jørgensen, Louise Bruun; Nielsen, Claus; Pedersen, Court; Lutsar, Irja; Dabis, Francois; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Masquelier, Bernard; Costagliola, Dominique; Guiguet, Marguerite; Vanhems, Philippe; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Ghosn, Jade; Boufassa, Faroudy; Hamouda, Osamah; Geskus, Ronald; van der Helm, Jannie; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the clinical benefit of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation vs deferral in a given month in patients with CD4 cell counts less than 800/μL. In this observational cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconverters from CASCADE (Concerted Action on

  11. Serial MR evaluations of human immunodeficiency virus-positive homosexual men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, W.A.; Maravilla, K.R.; Gerlach, R.; Claypool, K.; Coombs, R.; Collier, A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the progression of neurologic and neuropsy chological dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive homosexual men in order to define the natural history of this disease. Markers predictive of disease progression are discussed. Experimental methods and materials are included and results are assessed

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis coinfection in children: challenges in diagnosis and treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Warris, A.; Soolingen, D. van; Groot, R. de; Hermans, P.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    The burden of childhood tuberculosis (TB) is influenced by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and this dangerous synergy affects various aspects of both diseases; from pathogenesis and the epidemiologic profile to clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. HIV-infected

  13. Semen quality remains stable during 96 weeks of untreated human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Elisabeth; Wit, Ferdinand W.; Prins, Jan M.; Reiss, Peter; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate semen parameters during the natural course of asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. DESIGN: A longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: HIV outpatient clinic of the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. PATIENT(S): 55 men infected with

  14. High human immunodeficiency virus incidence in a cohort of Rwandan female sex workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braunstein, Sarah L.; Ingabire, Chantal M.; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Uwizera, Aline Umutoni; Mwamarangwe, Lambert; Ntirushwa, Justin; Nash, Denis; Veldhuijzen, Nienke J.; Nel, Annalene; Vyankandondera, Joseph; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) incidence among female sex workers in Rwanda is a key part of preparing for HIV prevention trials. HIV-negative, nonpregnant female sex workers (N =397) were tested for HIV-1, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy quarterly for 12 months, and

  15. West Nile virus meningitis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pilalas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of West Nile virus lineage 2 in central Macedonia, Greece, in 2010 resulted in large outbreaks for 5 consecutive years. We report a case of viral meningitis in an individual infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1, which preceded the recognition of the outbreak and was confirmed retrospectively as West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease.

  16. Tracking Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection in the Humanized DRAG Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiae; Peachman, Kristina K.; Jobe, Ousman; Morrison, Elaine B.; Allam, Atef; Jagodzinski, Linda; Casares, Sofia A.; Rao, Mangala

    2017-01-01

    Humanized mice are emerging as an alternative model system to well-established non-human primate (NHP) models for studying human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 biology and pathogenesis. Although both NHP and humanized mice have their own strengths and could never truly reflect the complex human immune system and biology, there are several advantages of using the humanized mice in terms of using primary HIV-1 for infection instead of simian immunodeficiency virus or chimera simian/HIV. Several different types of humanized mice have been developed with varying levels of reconstitution of human CD45+ cells. In this study, we utilized humanized Rag1KO.IL2RγcKO.NOD mice expressing HLA class II (DR4) molecule (DRAG mice) infused with HLA-matched hematopoietic stem cells from umbilical cord blood to study early events after HIV-1 infection, since the mucosal tissues of these mice are highly enriched for human lymphocytes and express the receptors and coreceptors needed for HIV-1 entry. We examined the various tissues on days 4, 7, 14, and 21 after an intravaginal administration of a single dose of purified primary HIV-1. Plasma HIV-1 RNA was detected as early as day 7, with 100% of the animals becoming plasma RNA positive by day 21 post-infection. Single cells were isolated from lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen, gut, female reproductive tissue, and brain and analyzed for gag RNA and strong stop DNA by quantitative (RT)-PCR. Our data demonstrated the presence of HIV-1 viral RNA and DNA in all of the tissues examined and that the virus was replication competent and spread rapidly. Bone marrow, gut, and lymph nodes were viral RNA positive by day 4 post-infection, while other tissues and plasma became positive typically between 7 and 14 days post-infection. Interestingly, the brain was the last tissue to become HIV-1 viral RNA and DNA positive by day 21 post-infection. These data support the notion that humanized DRAG mice could serve as an excellent model for studying the

  17. Tracking Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection in the Humanized DRAG Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiae Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Humanized mice are emerging as an alternative model system to well-established non-human primate (NHP models for studying human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 biology and pathogenesis. Although both NHP and humanized mice have their own strengths and could never truly reflect the complex human immune system and biology, there are several advantages of using the humanized mice in terms of using primary HIV-1 for infection instead of simian immunodeficiency virus or chimera simian/HIV. Several different types of humanized mice have been developed with varying levels of reconstitution of human CD45+ cells. In this study, we utilized humanized Rag1KO.IL2RγcKO.NOD mice expressing HLA class II (DR4 molecule (DRAG mice infused with HLA-matched hematopoietic stem cells from umbilical cord blood to study early events after HIV-1 infection, since the mucosal tissues of these mice are highly enriched for human lymphocytes and express the receptors and coreceptors needed for HIV-1 entry. We examined the various tissues on days 4, 7, 14, and 21 after an intravaginal administration of a single dose of purified primary HIV-1. Plasma HIV-1 RNA was detected as early as day 7, with 100% of the animals becoming plasma RNA positive by day 21 post-infection. Single cells were isolated from lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen, gut, female reproductive tissue, and brain and analyzed for gag RNA and strong stop DNA by quantitative (RT-PCR. Our data demonstrated the presence of HIV-1 viral RNA and DNA in all of the tissues examined and that the virus was replication competent and spread rapidly. Bone marrow, gut, and lymph nodes were viral RNA positive by day 4 post-infection, while other tissues and plasma became positive typically between 7 and 14 days post-infection. Interestingly, the brain was the last tissue to become HIV-1 viral RNA and DNA positive by day 21 post-infection. These data support the notion that humanized DRAG mice could serve as an excellent model

  18. Epidemiological studies on viral infections and co-infections : Human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus and human papillomavirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, D.K.

    2018-01-01

    The research described in this thesis aimed to increase our understanding of the incidence, disease progression and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and co-infections in key populations. Chapter 1 contains an overview

  19. Immune reconstitution syndrome in a human immunodeficiency virus infected child due to giardiasis leading to shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Nandy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has been reported in association with tuberculosis, herpes zoster (shingles, Cryptococcus neoformans, Kaposi′s sarcoma, Pneumocystis pneumonia, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex virus, Histoplasma capsulatum, human papillomavirus, and Cytomegalovirus. However, it has never been documented with giardiasis. We present a 7-year-old HIV infected girl who developed diarrhea and shock following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and her stool showed the presence of giardiasis.

  20. Sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, and pregnancy prevention. Combined contraceptive practices among urban African-American early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, B F; Li, X; Galbraith, J; Feigelman, S; Kaljee, L

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the success of efforts to educate youth not only to use prescription contraceptives to avoid pregnancy, but also to use condoms to avoid sexually transmitted diseases, including infection with the human immunodeficiency virus. Longitudinal study of 383 African-American youth aged 9 to 15 years enrolled in a randomized, controlled trial of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk reduction intervention. Data about contraceptive practices were obtained at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months later using a culturally and developmentally appropriate risk assessment tool administered with "talking" computers (Macintosh, Apple Computer Inc, Cupertino, Calif). Approximately three fourths of sexually active youth used some form of contraception in each 6-month round, with almost half of the youth using combinations of contraceptives. Among all youth at baseline and among control youth throughout the study, more than half used condoms and more than two thirds who used oral contraceptives also used condoms. Receipt of an AIDS education intervention was associated with use of more effective contraceptive practices (eg, condoms and another prescription or nonprescription method of birth control). After receiving the intervention, more than 80% of the youth who used oral contraceptives also used condoms. Contraceptive practices showed considerable stability. Knowledge about AIDS was positively associated with use of more effective contraceptive methods. Many youth are using condoms and prescription birth control simultaneously, and these use rates can be increased through AIDS education interventions.

  1. Multidisciplinary baseline assessment of homosexual men with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection. III. Neurologic and neuropsychological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Y; Marder, K; Bell, K; Chen, J; Dooneief, G; Goldstein, S; Mindry, D; Richards, M; Sano, M; Williams, J

    1991-02-01

    We explored the possibility that neurologic and neuropsychological changes constitute the earliest detectable manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Without knowledge of HIV status, we assessed neurologic signs and symptoms and administered a battery of neuropsychological tests to 208 homosexual men, of whom 84 were HIV negative, 49 were HIV positive and asymptomatic, 29 were mildly symptomatic, and 46 had significant medical symptoms but not the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. There was no difference between the HIV-negative and HIV-positive men in the frequency of neurologic signs or of defective or borderline performance on any neuropsychological test. However, HIV-positive men performed slightly but significantly worse than HIV-negative men on tests of verbal memory, executive function, and language. Similar results were obtained when comparisons were limited to HIV-positive medically asymptomatic and HIV-negative men. There was no degradation of neurologic status or neuropsychological performance across stages of HIV severity, but neurologic and neuropsychological summary scores correlated with CD4/CD8 ratios in the HIV-positive group. Ratings of neurologic signs and symptoms correlated with neuropsychological summary scores in the HIV-positive group only. Cognitive complaints were more frequent in the HIV-positive men; they correlated with actual test performance in the HIV-positive but not HIV-negative men. The constellation of subjective and objective neuropsychological and neurologic findings suggests the possibility of a definable syndrome associated with HIV infection in asymptomatic individuals.

  2. Predictive Utility of Brief Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) for human immunodeficiency virus antiretroviral medication nonadherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyles, Lauren Matukaitis; Gordon, Adam J; Sereika, Susan M; Ryan, Christopher M; Erlen, Judith A

    2011-10-01

    Alcohol use negatively affects adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), thus human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) care providers need accurate, efficient assessments of alcohol use. Using existing data from an efficacy trial of 2 cognitive-behavioral ART adherence interventions, the authors sought to determine if results on 2 common alcohol screening tests (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test--Consumption [AUDIT-C] and its binge-related question [AUDIT-3]) predict ART nonadherence. Twenty-seven percent of the sample (n = 308) were positive on the AUDIT-C and 34% were positive on the AUDIT-3. In multivariate analyses, AUDIT-C-positive status predicted ART nonadherence after controlling for race, age, conscientiousness, and self-efficacy (P = .036). Although AUDIT-3-positive status was associated with ART nonadherence in unadjusted analyses, this relationship was not maintained in the final multivariate model. The AUDIT-C shows potential as an indirect screening tool for both at-risk drinking and ART nonadherence, underscoring the relationship between alcohol and chronic disease management.

  3. Localized or Systemic {italic In Vivo} Heat-Inactivation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A Mathematical Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennypacker, Carl R.; Perelson, A.S.; Nys, N.; Nelson, G.; Sessler, D.I.

    1993-12-15

    Temperatures as low as 42 C, maintained for a little as 25 minutes, inactivate {approx}25% of HIV. Furthermore, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected T-cells are more sensitive to heat than healthy lymphocytes and susceptibility increases when the cells are pre-sensitized by exposure to tumor necrosis factor. Thus, induction of a whole-body hyperthermia, or hyperthermia specifically limited to tissues having a high viral load, are potential antiviral therapies for acquired immunodeficiency disease (AIDS). Accordingly, we incorporated therapeutic hyperthermia into an existing mathematical model which evaluates the interaction between HIV and CD4{sup +} T cells. Given the assumptions and limitations of this model, the results indicate that a daily therapy, reducing the population of actively infected cells by 40% or infectious virus by 50%, would effectively reverse the depletion of T cells. In contrast, a daily reduction of 20% of either actively infected cells or infectious virus would have a marginal effect. However, reduction by 20% of both actively infected cells and infectious virus could restore T cell numbers, assuming that permanent damage had not been inflicted on the thymus. Whole-body hyperthermia seems unlikely to be clinically useful, unless it can be induced non-invasively without general anesthesia. In contrast, heating directed specifically to areas of viral concentration may be effective and have a suitable risk/benefit ratio.

  4. A literature review on cardiovascular risk in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: implications for clinical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansueto Gomes Neto

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In recent years, there has been growing concern about an increasing rate of cardiovascular diseases in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, which could be associated with side effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy. It is likely that the metabolic disorders related to anti-human immunodeficiency virus treatment will eventually translate into a increased cardiovascular risk in patients submitted to such regimens. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy are at higher risk of cardiovascular diseases than human immunodeficiency virus infected patients not receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy, or the general population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a computer-based search in representative databases, and also performed manual tracking of citations in selected articles. RESULT: The available evidence suggests an excess risk of cardiovascular events in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons compared to non-human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals. The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy is associated with increased levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein and morphological signs of cardiovascular diseases. Some evidence suggested that human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals on highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens are at increased risk of dyslipidemia, ischemic heart disease, and myocardial infarction, particularly if the highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen contains a protease inhibitor. CONCLUSION: Physicians must weigh the cardiovascular risk against potential benefits when prescribing highly active antiretroviral therapy. Careful cardiac screening is warranted for patients who are being evaluated for, or who are receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens, particularly for those with known underlying cardiovascular risk

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus infection in the United Kingdom: quarterly report 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Up to 31 March 1988, 1429 cases meeting the World Health Organization/Centers for Disease Control (U.S.A.) definition of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) were reported in the U.K. of which 59 were in visitors and 1370 in U.K. residents. In the same period there were 8459 laboratory reports of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody-positive tests. Since 1985 the median interval of 2 months between diagnosis and report of AIDS has not changed. Most patients with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) as an indicator disease when AIDS was diagnosed were homosexual/bisexual males; the proportion in this category has declined. The data support the hypothesis for a co-factor in the aetiology of KS in homosexual/bisexual males and that the effect of this co-factor has progressively weakened. Injecting drugs was a risk factor for 48 patients with AIDS (4%), half of whom were also homosexual/bisexual males, and for 1406 (17%) persons reported as HIV antibody-positive of whom 63 were also homosexual/bisexual males. HIV-infected persons injecting drugs were reported from all parts of the U.K., apart from Northern Ireland, but the cumulative rate per million population in Scotland for such persons was more than six times the rate elsewhere. In the collaborative laboratory study in England, 2.3% of over 3000 persons injecting drugs were HIV antibody-positive; among those who were asymptomatic the prevalence in London was 7.1% compared with 1.3% outside London. By 1987, the incidence rate of acute hepatitis B in persons injecting drugs in England had fallen to less than a third of that for 1985; in Scotland the figure for 1987 was only a quarter of that for 1985. Since the current rate of HIV transmission among persons in the U.K. injecting drugs is unknown, monitoring the prevalence of HIV in this risk group should be intensified.

  6. Impact of Public Safety Policies on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission Dynamics in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sanjay R; Chaillon, Antoine; Gaines, Tommi L; Gonzalez-Zuniga, Patricia E; Stockman, Jamila K; Almanza-Reyes, Horatio; Chavez, Jose Roman; Vera, Alicia; Wagner, Karla D; Patterson, Thomas L; Scott, Brianna; Smith, Davey M; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2018-02-10

    North Tijuana, Mexico is home to many individuals at high risk for transmitting and acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Recently, policy shifts by local government impacted how these individuals were handled by authorities. Here we examined how this affected regional HIV transmission dynamics. HIV pol sequences and associated demographic information were collected from 8 research studies enrolling persons in Tijuana and were used to infer viral transmission patterns. To evaluate the impact of recent policy changes on HIV transmission dynamics, qualitative interviews were performed on a subset of recently infected individuals. Between 2004 and 2016, 288 unique HIV pol sequences were obtained from individuals in Tijuana, including 46.4% from men who have sex with men, 42.1% from individuals reporting transactional sex, and 27.8% from persons who inject drugs (some individuals had >1 risk factor). Forty-two percent of sequences linked to at least 1 other sequence, forming 37 transmission clusters. Thirty-two individuals seroconverted during the observation period, including 8 between April and July 2016. Three of these individuals were putatively linked together. Qualitative interviews suggested changes in policing led individuals to shift locations of residence and injection drug use, leading to increased risk taking (eg, sharing needles). Near real-time molecular epidemiologic analyses identified a cluster of linked transmissions temporally associated with policy shifts. Interviews suggested these shifts may have led to increased risk taking among individuals at high risk for HIV acquisition. With all public policy shifts, downstream impacts need to be carefully considered, as even well-intentioned policies can have major public health consequences. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in Guangdong province of southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the outbreak of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 in Guangdong has been documented for more than a decade, the molecular characteristics of such a regional HIV-1 epidemic remained unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By sequencing of HIV-1 pol/env genes and phylogenetic analysis, we performed a molecular epidemiologic study in a representative subset (n  = 200 of the 508 HIV-1-seropositive individuals followed up at the center for HIV/AIDS care and treatment of Guangzhou Hospital of Infectious Diseases. Of 157 samples (54.1% heterosexual acquired adults, 20.4% needle-sharing drug users, 5.7% receivers of blood transfusion, 1.3% men who have sex with men, and 18.5% remained unknown with successful sequencing for both pol and env genes, 105 (66.9% HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE and 24 (15.3% CRF07_BC, 9 (5.7% B', 5 (3.2% CRF08_BC, 5 (3.2% B, 1 (0.6% C, 3 (1.9% CRF02_AG, and 5 (3.2% inter-region recombinants were identified within pol/env sequences. Thirteen (8.3% samples (3 naïves, 6 and 5 received with antiretroviral treatment [ART] 1-21 weeks and ≥24 weeks respectively showed mutations conferring resistance to nucleoside/nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or protease inhibitors. Among 63 ART-naïve patients, 3 (4.8% showed single or multiple drug resistant mutations. Phylogenetic analysis showed 8 small clusters (2-3 sequences/cluster with only 17 (10.8% sequences involved. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study confirms that sexual transmission with dominant CRF01_AE strain is a major risk for current HIV-1 outbreak in the Guangdong's general population. The transmission with drug-resistant variants is starting to emerge in this region.

  8. MUC1 in human milk blocks transmission of human immunodeficiency virus from dendritic cells to T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeland, E.; Jong, de M.A.W.P.; Nabatov, A.; Kalay, H.; Kooijk, van Y.; Geijtenbeek, T.B.H.

    2009-01-01

    Mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) occurs frequently via breast-feeding. HIV-1 targets DC-SIGN+ dendritic cells (DCs) in mucosal areas that allow efficient transmission of the virus to T cells. Here, we demonstrate that the epithelial mucin MUC1, abundant in milk,

  9. Epitopes of human immunodeficiency virus regulatory proteins tat, nef, and rev are expressed in normal human tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parmentier, H. K.; van Wichen, D. F.; Meyling, F. H.; Goudsmit, J.; Schuurman, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    The expression of regulatory proteins tat, rev, and nef of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) and tat of HIV-2 was studied in frozen sections of lymph nodes from HIV-1-infected individuals, and various tissues from uninfected persons. In HIV-1-positive lymph nodes, monoclonal antibodies to

  10. Human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion presenting with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sloan Derek J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection is associated with a range of neurological conditions. Guillain-Barré syndrome is a rare presentation; acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is the commonest form of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy has occasionally been reported in acute Immunodeficiency Virus infection but little data exists on frequency, management and outcome. Case presentation We describe an episode of Guillain-Barré syndrome presenting as acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in a 30-year-old man testing positive for Immunodeficiency Virus, probably during acute seroconversion. Clinical suspicion was confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid analysis and nerve conduction studies. Rapid clinical deterioration prompted intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and early commencement of highly active anti-retroviral therapy. All symptoms resolved within nine weeks. Conclusion Unusual neurological presentations in previously fit patients are an appropriate indication for Immunodeficiency-Virus testing. Highly active anti-retroviral therapy with adequate penetration of the central nervous system should be considered as an early intervention, alongside conventional therapies such as intravenous immunoglobulin.

  11. Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early gene product trans-activates gene expression from the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenney, S.; Kamine, J.; Markovitz, D.; Fenrick, R.; Pagano, J.

    1988-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients are frequently coinfected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). In this report, the authors demonstrate that an EBV immediate-early gene product, BamHI MLF1, stimulates expression of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene linked to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) promoter. The HIV promoter sequences necessary for trans-activation by EBV do not include the tat-responsive sequences. In addition, in contrast to the other herpesvirus trans-activators previously studied, the EBV BamHI MLF1 gene product appears to function in part by a posttranscriptional mechanism, since it increases pHIV-CAT protein activity more than it increases HIV-CAT mRNA. This ability of an EBV gene product to activate HIV gene expression may have biologic consequences in persons coinfected with both viruses

  12. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Playing Hide-and-Seek: Understanding the TFH Cell Reservoir and Proposing Strategies to Overcome the Follicle Sanctuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yew Ann Leong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infects millions of people worldwide, and new cases continue to emerge. Once infected, the virus cannot be cleared by the immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Combination antiretroviral therapeutic regimen effectively suppresses viral replication and halts disease progression. The treatment, however, does not eliminate the virus-infected cells, and interruption of treatment inevitably leads to viral rebound. The rebound virus originates from a group of virus-infected cells referred to as the cellular reservoir of HIV. Identifying and eliminating the HIV reservoir will prevent viral rebound and cure HIV infection. In this review, we focus on a recently discovered HIV reservoir in a subset of CD4+ T cells called the follicular helper T (TFH cells. We describe the potential mechanisms for the emergence of reservoir in TFH cells, and the strategies to target and eliminate this viral reservoir.

  13. Use of etanercept to treat toxic epidermal necrolysis in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Yi Lee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is an uncommon and severe cutaneous adverse drug reaction that causes disseminated necrosis of epidermal cells and mucocutaneous detachment. Here, we report the case of a 32-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus infection who presented with generalized violaceous macules and blister formation 4 days after the administration of mefenamic acid and amoxicillin for a dental procedure. Additional symptoms included oral ulcers and conjunctivitis. Results of skin biopsy were compatible with Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS. SJS progressed to TEN within 2 days. Etanercept treatment showed a dramatic improvement in the symptoms of mucocutaneous lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the treatment of TEN using etanercept in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient.

  14. History matching of a complex epidemiological model of human immunodeficiency virus transmission by using variance emulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianakis, I; Vernon, I; McCreesh, N; McKinley, T J; Oakley, J E; Nsubuga, R N; Goldstein, M; White, R G

    2017-08-01

    Complex stochastic models are commonplace in epidemiology, but their utility depends on their calibration to empirical data. History matching is a (pre)calibration method that has been applied successfully to complex deterministic models. In this work, we adapt history matching to stochastic models, by emulating the variance in the model outputs, and therefore accounting for its dependence on the model's input values. The method proposed is applied to a real complex epidemiological model of human immunodeficiency virus in Uganda with 22 inputs and 18 outputs, and is found to increase the efficiency of history matching, requiring 70% of the time and 43% fewer simulator evaluations compared with a previous variant of the method. The insight gained into the structure of the human immunodeficiency virus model, and the constraints placed on it, are then discussed.

  15. Use of etanercept to treat toxic epidermal necrolysis in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient

    OpenAIRE

    Yung-Yi Lee; Jui-Hung Ko; Chia-Hung Wei; Wen-Hung Chung

    2013-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is an uncommon and severe cutaneous adverse drug reaction that causes disseminated necrosis of epidermal cells and mucocutaneous detachment. Here, we report the case of a 32-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus infection who presented with generalized violaceous macules and blister formation 4 days after the administration of mefenamic acid and amoxicillin for a dental procedure. Additional symptoms included oral ulcers and conjunctivitis. Results of...

  16. Mucus and Mucins: do they have a role in the inhibition of the human immunodeficiency virus?

    OpenAIRE

    Mall, Anwar Suleman; Habte, Habtom; Mthembu, Yolanda; Peacocke, Julia; de Beer, Corena

    2017-01-01

    Background Mucins are large O-linked glycosylated proteins which give mucus their gel-forming properties. There are indications that mucus and mucins in saliva, breast milk and in the cervical plug inhibit the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in an in vitro assay. Main body of abstract Crude mucus gels form continuous layers on the epithelial surfaces of the major internal tracts of the body and protect these epithelial surfaces against aggressive luminal factors such as hydrochloric acid...

  17. Population Pharmacokinetics of Tenofovir in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients Taking Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Jullien, Vincent; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Rey, Elisabeth; Jaffray, Patrick; Krivine, Anne; Moachon, Laurence; Lillo-Le Louet, Agnès; Lescoat, Anne; Dupin, Nicolas; Salmon, Dominique; Pons, Gérard; Urien, Saïk

    2005-01-01

    The influence of renal function on tenofovir pharmacokinetics was investigated in 193 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients by the use of a population approach performed with the nonlinear mixed effects modeling program NONMEM. Tenofovir pharmacokinetics was well described by a two-compartment open model in which the absorption and the distribution rate constants are equal. Typical population estimates of apparent central distribution volume (Vc/F), peripheral distribution volu...

  18. A Qualitative Study to Inform the Development of a Videogame for Adolescent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Hieftje, Kimberly; Rosenthal, Marjorie S.; Camenga, Deepa R.; Edelman, E. Jennifer; Fiellin, Lynn E.

    2012-01-01

    We used qualitative methods to inform the development of an interactive videogame focused on behavior change to reduce risk and promote human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention in young minority adolescents. Guided by community-partnered research principles, we conducted and analyzed 16 individual interviews and six focus groups with 10–15 year-old boys and girls (36 unique participants) at a neighborhood-based nonprofit organization serving youth from low-resource neighborhoods. Three r...

  19. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of young, college student blood donors about Human immunodeficiency virus

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey, Anju; Sonker, Atul; Chaudhary, Rajendra K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Young people, who tend to be healthy, idealistic, and motivated, are an excellent pool of potential voluntary unpaid blood donors. Recruiting and retaining young blood donors improves the long term safety and sufficiency of a country′s blood supply. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) should play an important role in prevention of disease transmission. Materials and Methods: This study was a questionnaire based survey, conducted to explore t...

  20. Risk of coronary artery disease in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    OpenAIRE

    Vilela, Felippe Dantas; Lorenzo, Andrea Rocha de; Tura, Bernardo Rangel; Ferraiuoli, Giovanna Ianini; Hadlich, Marcelo; Barros, Marcelo Viana de Lima; Lima, Ana Beatriz Ribeiro; Meirelles, Vanderson

    2011-01-01

    Current treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has improved survival and allowed infected patients to develop atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD). Specific strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk in the infected population have not been developed. It is necessary to know the magnitude of cardiovascular risk in this population. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess cardiovascular risk using a well-known clinical score and to investigate coronary artery calcium s...

  1. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections; Strain and Type Variations; Diagnosis and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-26

    Scarlatti et al. 1992 (41) 1 1 Arendrup et al. 1992 (42) SIVsm/monkey 7 0 Zhang et al. manuscript (43) B) Sequential samples: serum collected >6 months...983-990. 1991. 12. Scarlatti , G, Lombardi, V, Plebani, A, Principi, N, Chiara, V, Ferraris, G, Bucceri, A, Feny6, E M, Wigzell, H, Rossi, P, and...envelope glycoprotein gp125 of human immunodeficiency virus type2. Manuscript. M2. Scarlatti , G, Albert, J, Rossi, P, Hodara, V, Biraghi, P, Muggiasca

  2. Curcumin ameliorates hippocampal neuron damage induced by human immunodeficiency virus-1★

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Hongmei; Pan, Rui; Fang, Wenli; Xing, Yanyan; Chen, Dexi; Chen, Xiaobao; Yu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Junbing; Gong, Zheng; Xiong, Guoyin; Dong, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that infection with the gp120 V3 loop can cause human immunodeficiency virus-1 associated neurocognitive disorders. Curcumin has been shown to improve these effects to some degree, but the precise mechanisms remain unknown. The present study analyzed the neuroprotective effect and mechanism of curcumin in relation to hippocampal neurons. Results showed that 1 nmol/L gp120 V3 loop suppressed the growth of synapses. After administration of 1 μmol/L curcumin, syna...

  3. Immunogenic compositions comprising human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mosaic Nef proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos, NM; Perkins, Simon [Los Alamos, NM; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy [Los Alamos, NM; Fischer, William M [Los Alamos, NM; Theiler, James [Los Alamos, NM; Letvin, Norman [Boston, MA; Haynes, Barton F [Durham, NC; Hahn, Beatrice H [Birmingham, AL; Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos, NM; Kuiken, Carla [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-02-21

    The present invention relates to mosaic clade M HIV-1 Nef polypeptides and to compositions comprising same. The polypeptides of the invention are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

  4. Reconstitution of immunodeficient SCID/beige mice with human cells: Applications in preclinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, Mogens; Galvani, Sylvain; Canivet, Cindy; Kamar, Nassim; Boehler, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    Experimental studies of the in vivo behaviour of human cells and tissues have become possible with the development of immunodeficient mice strains. Such mice accept readily allogeneic or xenogeneic grafts, including grafts of human cells or tissues, without rejection. In this review we describe different immunodeficient mouse strains that have been used for reconstitution by human immune cells. We subsequently go through the experience that we and others have had with reconstitution, and mention the adverse effects, in particular xenogeneic graft versus host reactions. The use of haematopoietic stem cells avoids such reactions but the immunological reconstitution may take several months. We then report the use of immunodeficient mice for the study of chronic vascular rejection of human mesenteric arteries due to cellular or humoral alloreaction. We have shown that SCID/beige mice grafted with a human artery at the place of the aorta developed a thickening of the intima of the human artery after 5-6 weeks, when they were reconstituted with spleen cells from another human donor. The thickening is mainly due to a proliferation of smooth muscle cells. The same type of lesion developed if they received injection of antibodies towards HLA class I antigens. The arteries of the mouse did not develop any lesion. The arterial lesions closely resembled those seen after clinical organ transplantation. Mice that received spleen cells from the same human donor developed little or no lesions. An important aspect of this experimental transplantation model is the possibility to test drugs that may be used in clinical transplantation. In recent experiments we have shown that novel immunosuppressive drugs can inhibit the hyperproliferation of smooth muscle cells in vitro. Preclinical testing in reconstituted SCID/beige mice grafted with human arteries will permit the evaluation of the potential use of these drugs to prevent chronic vascular rejection. The model also allows

  5. Direct Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) typing on peripheral blood mononuclear cells: no association between EBV type 2 infection or superinfection and the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baarle, D.; Hovenkamp, E.; Kersten, M. J.; Klein, M. R.; Miedema, F.; van Oers, M. H.

    1999-01-01

    In the literature, a correlation has been suggested between the occurrence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) type 2 infection. To further investigate a possible role for EBV type 2 infection in the development of AIDS-NHL,

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted diseases between the vulnerable populations in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. Z. Trumova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemic continues to expand in Eastern Europe and Central Asia according to UNAIDS data (2012, Geneva. The rate of new HIV infections AIDS – related mortality has increased by 25 % from 2001 to 2009 in Kazakhstan (WHO data, 2012. The number of new HIV infections among newly diagnosed patients attributed to heteroand homosexual contact has been steadily increasing. There is also higher rate of HIV among Injecting Drug Users. There is an increase incidence of co-infections especially sexually transmitted diseases. In fact, comorbid STIs increase patients' susceptibility of acquiring and transmitting HIV (Guenthner PC, Secor WE, Dezzutti CS., 2005; Kissinger P, Amedee A, Clark RA, et al. , 2009. HIV/AIDS shares transmission characteristics with other sexual and blood-borne agents. Higher sexual mixing rates and lack of condom use are conspicuous risk factors (Vermund et al. 2009. However, while all groups are affected by HIV, some are more vulnerable than others: sex workers (SWs, men who have sex with men (MSM, injecting drug users (IDU. All these findings determined to set up the goal of this research. The purpose of the study is еpidemiologic situation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS and related STIs in the Republic of Kazakhstan and in some vulnerable population groups to HIV infection. Materials and methods. To study the dynamics of HIV/STIs in Kazakhstan (cumulatively an analysis of 2012–2013 years statistics was conducted. Testing for HIV/STI of blood samples of the vulnerable groups was carried out in the laboratories of AIDS centers. The algorithm of confirming the diagnosis of HIV infection included a twofold enzyme immunoassay (EIA study of blood samples. Samples with positive results of the first EIA were retested using expert test systems; in case with a positive result of the second EIA a confirmatory test was conducted using a method of HIV-1 Western blot in the reference

  7. From Immunodeficiency to Humanization: The Contribution of Mouse Models to Explore HTLV-1 Leukemogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eléonore Pérès

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The first discovered human retrovirus, Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1, is responsible for an aggressive form of T cell leukemia/lymphoma. Mouse models recapitulating the leukemogenesis process have been helpful for understanding the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of this retroviral-induced disease. This review will focus on the recent advances in the generation of immunodeficient and human hemato-lymphoid system mice with a particular emphasis on the development of mouse models for HTLV-1-mediated pathogenesis, their present limitations and the challenges yet to be addressed.

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus-associated disruption of mucosal barriers and its role in HIV transmission and pathogenesis of HIV/AIDS disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugizov, Sharof

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Oral, intestinal and genital mucosal epithelia have a barrier function to prevent paracellular penetration by viral, bacterial and other pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV can overcome these barriers by disrupting the tight and adherens junctions of mucosal epithelia. HIV-associated disruption of epithelial junctions may also facilitate paracellular penetration and dissemination of other viral pathogens. This review focuses on possible molecular mechanisms of HIV-associated disruption of mucosal epithelial junctions and its role in HIV transmission and pathogenesis of HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). PMID:27583187

  9. Prevalence of hepatitis C Antibody in Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-25

    Oct 25, 2015 ... Abstract: Background: Hepatitis. C virus (HCV) is a major public health problem for Human Immu- nodeficiency virus (HIV) infected population. Both infections share same routes of transmission, and quite often co-exist, with dual infections associated with recipro- cal and mutually more rapid pro- gression ...

  10. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: A novel frontier in the study of human primary immunodeficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessach, Itai M.; Ordovas-Montanes, Jose; Zhang, Shen-Ying; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Giliani, Silvia; Gennery, Andrew R.; Al-Herz, Waleed; Manos, Philip D.; Schlaeger, Thorsten M.; Park, In-Hyun; Rucci, Francesca; Agarwal, Suneet; Mostoslavsky, Gustavo; Daley, George Q.; Notarangelo, Luigi D.

    2010-01-01

    Background The novel ability to epigenetically reprogram somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells through the exogenous expression of transcription promises to revolutionize the study of human diseases. Objective Here we report on the generation of 25 induced pluripotent stem cell lines from 6 patients with various forms of Primary Immunodeficiencies, affecting adaptive and/or innate immunity. Methods Patients’ dermal fibroblasts were reprogrammed by expression of four transcription factors, OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC using a single excisable polycistronic lentiviral vector. Results Induced pluripotent stem cells derived from patients with primary immunodeficiencies show a stemness profile that is comparable to that observed in human embryonic stem cells. Following in vitro differentiation into embryoid bodies, pluripotency of the patient-derived indiced pluripotent stem cells lines was demonstrated by expression of genes characteristic of each of the three embryonic layers. We have confirmed the patient-specific origin of the induced pluripotent stem cell lines, and ascertained maintenance of karyotypic integrity. Conclusion By providing a limitless source of diseased stem cells that can be differentiated into various cell types in vitro, the repository of induced pluripotent stem cell lines from patients with primary immunodeficiencies represents a unique resource to investigate the pathophysiology of hematopoietic and extra-hematopoietic manifestations of these diseases, and may assist in the development of novel therapeutic approaches based on gene correction. PMID:21185069

  11. Immunogenicity of NYVAC Prime-Protein Boost Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Vaccination and Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Challenge of Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Kevin O; Santra, Sampa; Parks, Robert; Yates, Nicole L; Sutherland, Laura L; Scearce, Richard M; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Bradley, Todd; Goodman, Derrick; Eaton, Amanda; Stanfield-Oakley, Sherry A; Tartaglia, James; Phogat, Sanjay; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Esteban, Mariano; Gomez, Carmen E; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Jacobs, Bertram; Kibler, Karen; Korber, Bette; Montefiori, David C; Ferrari, Guido; Vandergrift, Nathan; Liao, Hua-Xin; Tomaras, Georgia D; Haynes, Barton F

    2018-04-15

    A preventive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine is an essential part of the strategy to eradicate AIDS. A critical question is whether antibodies that do not neutralize primary isolate (tier 2) HIV-1 strains can protect from infection. In this study, we investigated the ability of an attenuated poxvirus vector (NYVAC) prime-envelope gp120 boost to elicit potentially protective antibody responses in a rhesus macaque model of mucosal simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection. NYVAC vector delivery of a group M consensus envelope, trivalent mosaic envelopes, or a natural clade B isolate B.1059 envelope elicited antibodies that mediated neutralization of tier 1 viruses, cellular cytotoxicity, and phagocytosis. None of the macaques made neutralizing antibodies against the tier 2 SHIV SF162P3 used for mucosal challenge. Significant protection from infection was not observed for the three groups of vaccinated macaques compared to unvaccinated macaques, although binding antibody to HIV-1 Env correlated with decreased viremia after challenge. Thus, NYVAC Env prime-gp120 boost vaccination elicited polyfunctional, nonneutralizing antibody responses with minimal protective activity against tier 2 SHIV mucosal challenge. IMPORTANCE The antibody responses that confer protection against HIV-1 infection remain unknown. Polyfunctional antibody responses correlated with time to infection in previous macaque studies. Determining the ability of vaccines to induce these types of responses is critical for understanding how to improve upon the one efficacious human HIV-1 vaccine trial completed thus far. We characterized the antibody responses induced by a NYVAC-protein vaccine and determined the protective capacity of polyfunctional antibody responses in an R5, tier 2 mucosal SHIV infection model. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Neovascular niche for human myeloma cells in immunodeficient mouse bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirono Iriuchishima

    Full Text Available The interaction with bone marrow (BM plays a crucial role in pathophysiological features of multiple myeloma (MM, including cell proliferation, chemoresistance, and bone lesion progression. To characterize the MM-BM interactions, we utilized an in vivo experimental model for human MM in which a GFP-expressing human MM cell line is transplanted into NOG mice (the NOG-hMM model. Transplanted MM cells preferentially engrafted at the metaphyseal region of the BM endosteum and formed a complex with osteoblasts and osteoclasts. A subpopulation of MM cells expressed VE-cadherin after transplantation and formed endothelial-like structures in the BM. CD138(+ myeloma cells in the BM were reduced by p53-dependent apoptosis following administration of the nitrogen mustard derivative bendamustine to mice in the NOG-hMM model. Bendamustine maintained the osteoblast lining on the bone surface and protected extracellular matrix structures. Furthermore, bendamustine suppressed the growth of osteoclasts and mesenchymal cells in the NOG-hMM model. Since VE-cadherin(+ MM cells were chemoresistant, hypoxic, and HIF-2α-positive compared to the VE-cadherin(- population, VE-cadherin induction might depend on the oxygenation status. The NOG-hMM model described here is a useful system to analyze the dynamics of MM pathophysiology, interactions of MM cells with other cellular compartments, and the utility of novel anti-MM therapies.

  13. Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by ionizing radiation in body fluids and serological evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigbee, P.D.; Sarin, P.S.; Humphreys, J.C.; Eubanks, W.G.; Sun, D.; Hocken, D.G.; Thornton, A.; Adams, D.E.; Simic, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    A method to use ionizing radiation to inactivate HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) in human body fluids was studied in an effort to reduce the risk of accidental infection to forensic science laboratory workers. Experiments conducted indicate that an X-ray absorbed dose of 25 krad was required to completely inactivate HIV. This does not alter forensically important constituents such as enzymes and proteins in body fluids. This method of inactivation of HIV cannot be used on body fluids which will be subjected to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) typing

  14. Human immunodeficiencies related to APC/T cell interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinos eKallikourdis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The primary event for initiating adaptive immune responses is the encounter between T lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells (APC in the T cell area of secondary lymphoid organs and the formation of highly organized inter-cellular junctions referred to as the immune synapses. In vivo live-cell imaging of APC-T cell interactions combined to functional studies unveiled that T cell fate is dictated, in large part, by the stability of the initial contact. Immune cell interaction is equally important during delivery of T cell help to B cells and for the killing of target cells by cytotoxic T cells and NK cells. The critical role of contact dynamics and synapse stability on the immune response is well illustrated by human immune deficiencies in which disease pathogenesis is linked to altered adhesion or defective cross-talk between the synaptic partners. Here we will discuss in details the mechanisms of defective APC-T cell communications in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS and in warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, myelokathexis syndrome (WHIM. In addition, we will summarize the evidences pointing to a compromised conjugate formation in WIP deficiency, DOCK8 deficiency and X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome.

  15. Human Papillomavirus Detection from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Colombian Women's Paired Urine and Cervical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Marina; Camargo, Milena; Soto-De Leon, Sara C.; Sanchez, Ricardo; Parra, Diana; Pineda, Andrea C.; Sussmann, Otto; Perez-Prados, Antonio; Patarroyo, Manuel E.; Patarroyo, Manuel A.

    2013-01-01

    Infection, coinfection and type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) distribution was evaluated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women from paired cervical and urine samples. Paired cervical and urine samples (n = 204) were taken from HIV-positive women for identifying HPV-DNA presence by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with three generic primer sets (GP5+/6+, MY09/11 and pU1M/2R). HPV-positive samples were typed for six high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45 and -58) and two low-risk (LR-HPV) (HPV-6/11) types. Agreement between paired sample results and diagnostic performance was evaluated. HPV infection prevalence was 70.6% in cervical and 63.2% in urine samples. HPV-16 was the most prevalent HPV type in both types of sample (66.7% in cervical samples and 62.0% in urine) followed by HPV-31(47.2%) in cervical samples and HPV-58 (35.7%) in urine samples. There was 55.4% coinfection (infection by more than one type of HPV) in cervical samples and 40.2% in urine samples. Abnormal Papanicolau smears were observed in 25.3% of the women, presenting significant association with HPV-DNA being identified in urine samples. There was poor agreement of cervical and urine sample results in generic and type-specific detection of HPV. Urine samples provided the best diagnosis when taking cytological findings as reference. In conclusion including urine samples could be a good strategy for ensuring adherence to screening programs aimed at reducing the impact of cervical cancer, since this sample is easy to obtain and showed good diagnostic performance. PMID:23418581

  16. [Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma: 1. Course during the 20 years of the epidemic. 2. The experience at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán: 1986-2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rivera, E Gabriela; Gómez-Roel, Xóchitl; Villasís-Keever, Angelina

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this presentation is the description of the epidemiologic evolution and changes in natural history of the human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) epidemic itself and its relation with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma (ARL). We have started with the description of the world's state of the HIV epidemic, its features since the first case report in the United States of America in 1981, through the peak of new diagnoses in 1993 until the event that changed the natural history of the disease: the era of the widespread use of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), introduced in 1995 in the world and in 1997 in our country. The widespread introduction of HAART led to dramatic reductions in AIDS related mortality and morbidity throughout the developed world with a marked fall in the incidence of the major opportunistic infections in AIDS. We describe the main risk factors for the development of ARL, and the prognostic factors for survival and response to treatment. There is no clear definition in the literature of the roll that has played the use of HAART in relation to survival and response to treatment in ARL, but there is evidence that the basal count of CD4 cells has increased with HAART, leading to a better survival and response in ARL. The debate regarding this issue is surely affected by factors such as degree of antiretroviral treatment compliance, antiretroviral therapy resistance and chemotherapy heterogeneity. Finally we present the preliminary results of the analysis of our experience in ARL from 1986 to 2003.

  17. Hemichorea-hemiballismus as an initial manifestation in a Moroccan patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and toxoplasma infection: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Rabhi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurologic signs and symptoms may represent the initial presentation of AIDS in 10-30% of patients. Movement disorders may be the result of direct central nervous system infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV or the result of opportunistic infections. We report the case of a 59 years old woman who had hemichorea-hemiballismus subsequently found to be secondary to a cerebral toxoplasmosis infection revealing HIV infection. Movement disorders, headache and nausea were resolved after two weeks of antitoxoplasmic treatment. Brain MRI control showed a marked resolution of cerebral lesion. Occurrence of hemichorea-ballismus in patient without familial history of movement disorders suggests a diagnosis of AIDS and in particular the diagnosis of secondary cerebral toxoplasmosis. Early recognition is important since it is a treatable entity.

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus impairs reverse cholesterol transport from macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Mujawar

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Several steps of HIV-1 replication critically depend on cholesterol. HIV infection is associated with profound changes in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and an increased risk of coronary artery disease. Whereas numerous studies have investigated the role of anti-HIV drugs in lipodystrophy and dyslipidemia, the effects of HIV infection on cellular cholesterol metabolism remain uncharacterized. Here, we demonstrate that HIV-1 impairs ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux from human macrophages, a condition previously shown to be highly atherogenic. In HIV-1-infected cells, this effect was mediated by Nef. Transfection of murine macrophages with Nef impaired cholesterol efflux from these cells. At least two mechanisms were found to be responsible for this phenomenon: first, HIV infection and transfection with Nef induced post-transcriptional down-regulation of ABCA1; and second, Nef caused redistribution of ABCA1 to the plasma membrane and inhibited internalization of apolipoprotein A-I. Binding of Nef to ABCA1 was required for down-regulation and redistribution of ABCA1. HIV-infected and Nef-transfected macrophages accumulated substantial amounts of lipids, thus resembling foam cells. The contribution of HIV-infected macrophages to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis was supported by the presence of HIV-positive foam cells in atherosclerotic plaques of HIV-infected patients. Stimulation of cholesterol efflux from macrophages significantly reduced infectivity of the virions produced by these cells, and this effect correlated with a decreased amount of virion-associated cholesterol, suggesting that impairment of cholesterol efflux is essential to ensure proper cholesterol content in nascent HIV particles. These results reveal a previously unrecognized dysregulation of intracellular lipid metabolism in HIV-infected macrophages and identify Nef and ABCA1 as the key players responsible for this effect. Our findings

  19. Sexual practices and condom usage in a cohort of homosexual men in relation to human immunodeficiency virus status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, B; Swanson, C; Donovan, B; Cooper, D A

    1989-09-18

    Between January 1, and October 31, 1987, 420 homosexual men who participated in a cohort study of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) completed a questionnaire that examined their sexual practices during the previous six months. Of the subjects, 205 (48.8%) men were HIV-seropositive and 215 (51.2%) men were HIV-seronegative. Although there was an appreciable level of condom usage in both groups, 13.5% of the HIV-seronegative men had engaged in unprotected receptive anal intercourse and 6.3% of the HIV-seropositive men had engaged in unprotected insertive anal intercourse. Condom breakage was reported on approximately 6% of occasions by a minority of subjects. Among subjects who were in a relationship with a regular male sexual partner, the most commonly reported sexual practices were deep kissing, mutual masturbation and receptive oral intercourse without ejaculation. No HIV-seronegative man engaged in unprotected receptive and/or insertive anal intercourse, receptive oral intercourse with ejaculation or receptive and/or insertive "fisting" with a regular partner who was HIV-seropositive. No HIV-seropositive man engaged in unprotected insertive anal intercourse to ejaculation with an HIV-seronegative partner, although they did so with partners who were HIV-seropositive or of unknown status. On multivariate analyses the subject's antibody status was found to be associated with receptive anal intercourse with a condom (P = 0.007) and mutual masturbation (P = 0.001), with HIV-seronegative men being more likely to practise either; no significant independent effect was associated with the partner's antibody status. These findings provide important information on the types and levels of sexual practices in a group of homosexual men after the recognition of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in this country.

  20. Functional simian immunodeficiency virus Gag-specific CD8+ intraepithelial lymphocytes in the mucosae of SIVmac251- or simian-human immunodeficiency virus KU2-infected macaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevceva, Liljana; Moniuszko, Marcin; Alvarez, Xavier; Lackner, Andrew A.; Franchini, Genoveffa

    2004-01-01

    The vaginal and rectal mucosae are the first line of cellular immune defense to sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry. Thus, intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) may be important in the immune response to HIV infection. Here we investigated whether functional IELs in mucosal compartments could be visualized by direct staining with a tetrameric complex specific for the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) immunodominant Gag epitope in either separated IEL cells or tissues of macaques infected with SIVmac251. Of the 15 Mamu-A*01-positive macaques studied here, eight were chronically infected with either SIVmac251 or simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) KU2 and the remaining seven were exposed mucosally to SIVmac251 and sacrificed within 48 h to assess the local immune response. Gag-specific CD8+ T-cells were found in separated IELs from the rectum, colon, jejunum, and vagina of most infected animals. Direct staining of tetramers also revealed their presence in intact tissue. These Gag-specific IELs expressed the activation marker CD69 and produced IFN-γ, suggesting an active immune response in this locale

  1. Aspartoacylase Deficiency in the White Matter of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Encephalitis: Novel Mechanism in Axonal Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankar Surendran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartoacylase/aminoacylase II (ASPA/ACY II is mainly synthesized in oligodendrocytes to contribute in myelin synthesis. Although axonal damage is seen in the brain with human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis (HIVE, ASPA contribution in the pathology is not known. Immunostaining study showed that ASPA protein is reduced in the white matter of patients with HIVE compared to the control. Western blot study further confirmed ASPA deficiency in the HIVE brain compared to the control. This paper suggests that HIVE condition affects ASPA to contribute in myelin loss/axonal damage seen in the disease.

  2. Aspects of gastrointestinal immunology and nutrition in human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castello-Branco Luiz RR

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal surfaces have a fundamental participation in many aspects of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection pathogenesis. In Brazilian HIV-1 infected subjects, loss of weight and appetite are among the most debilitating symptoms. In this review we describe a defined mucosal immunogen that has profound but transient effects on HIV viral load, and we suggest that gut associated lymphoid tissue under constant immunostimulation is likely to provide a major contribution to the total levels of HIV. We also show that hypermetabolism appears to play a role in the wasting process in Brazilian patients coinfected with HIV and tuberculosis.

  3. Visceral leishmaniasis with cutaneous lesions in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, M; Maillo, C; Peón, G; Clavel, A; Cuesta, J; Grasa, M P; Carapeto, F J

    1998-07-01

    We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) with cutaneous lesions in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The cutaneous lesions consisted of erythematous papules on the legs. Biopsy of one lesion showed abundant Leishmania amastigotes within epithelial cells of an eccrine sweat gland in the dermis. Leishmania organisms were also found in a blood smear. Rapid and complete clearance of the cutaneous lesions was achieved after antimony therapy. Cutaneous lesions in VL are being reported increasingly frequently in patients with HIV infection and their significance remains in discussion.

  4. Meningitis caused by Rhodotorula rubra in an human immunodeficiency virus infected patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhodotorula spp . are common saprophytes but may be responsible for systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. Meningitis caused by Rhodotorula spp. in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients has been reported only rarely. We present a case of meningitis caused by Rhodotorula rubra in HIV infected patient. The presumptive diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis was made on the basis of India ink preparation, Gram staining and latex agglutination test (LAT for cryptococcal antigen. The final diagnosis was confirmed by isolation of Rhodotorula rubra from cerebrospinal fluid on culture. LAT was considered false positive. Amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine were administered but the patient succumbed to his illness.

  5. Acanthamoeba keratitis in a non-contact lens wearer with human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birgitte Rønde; Kronborg, Gitte

    2003-01-01

    , and was treated with various topical antibiotics and steroids. 13 months after symptom onset the eye was removed owing to serious scarring of cornea and unbearable pain. Microbiological and histopathological examination of the cornea showed Acanthamoeba. In non-contact lens wearers suffering from Acanthamoeba......Acanthamoeba keratitis is potentially blinding and often associated with contact lens wearing. A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patient, a non-contact lens wearer, presented with keratitis. She experienced a protracted course of disease, characterized by exacerbations and remissions...

  6. A case study of human immunodeficiency virus with positive seroconversion to negative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paranthaman Vengadasalam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This case study demonstrates a 36-year-old ex-intravenous drug user (IVDU who had been initially tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV twice using Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA method (Particle agglutination, PA done, but a year later he was tested HIV-negative. The patient was asymptomatic for HIV and T helper cells (CD4 count remained stable throughout this period. In light of this case, there may be a need to retest by molecular methods for high risk category patients who were initially diagnosed HIV-positive, but later showing an unexpected clinical course, such as a rising or stable CD4 titre over the years.

  7. The Importance of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Research for Transgender and Gender-Nonbinary Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianella, Sara; Sonya Haw, J; Blumenthal, Jill; Sullivan, Brooke; Smith, Davey

    2018-04-17

    Transgender and gender-nonbinary (trans/GNB) individuals are disproportionally affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), yet they are not adequately represented in HIV research and often underserved in clinical care. By building on community strengths and addressing structural, psychological and biological challenges, we can improve the engagement of trans/GNB people in research and ultimately improve prevention, testing, and care for this population. Here, we review the current state of the science related to HIV for trans/GNB people and discuss next steps to expand research that aims to improve the lives and well-being of trans/GNB persons.

  8. Dried blood spots, valid screening for viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus in real-life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mössner, Belinda K; Staugaard, Benjamin; Jensen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To detect chronic hepatitis B (CHB), chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in dried blood spot (DBS) and compare these samples to venous blood sampling in real-life. METHODS: We included prospective patients with known viral infections from drug treatment......, but correctly classified 95% of the anti-HCV-positive patients with chronic and past infections. Anti-HBc and anti-HBS showed low sensitivity in DBS (68% and 42%). CONCLUSION: DBS sampling, combined with an automated analysis system, is a feasible screening method to diagnose chronic viral hepatitis and HIV...

  9. A New Face of Cardiac Emergencies: Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Related Cardiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsabedze, Nqoba; Vachiat, Ahmed; Zachariah, Don; Manga, Pravin

    2018-02-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus epidemic is a major health challenge of the twenty-first century as the transition from infectious complications to noncommunicable disease becomes more evident. These patients may present to the emergency department with a variety of cardiovascular diseases, such as acute coronary syndromes, heart failure, pericardial disease, infective endocarditis, venothromboembolism, and other conditions. Increased awareness is needed among health care professionals to enhance adequate identification and promote prompt management of these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gonococcal arthritis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena Corrales, Gabriel; Mora Navas, Laura; Palacios Muñoz, Rosario; García López, Victoria; Márquez Solero, Manuel; Santos González, Jesús

    We report a case of gonococcal arthritis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and review 17 previously published cases; only one patient presented urethritis, and blood cultures were positive in one case. Gonococcal arthritis is rare in HIV-infected patients and is not usually associated with other symptoms. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute arthritis in patients with HIV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  11. Heterosexually acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection in women in Copenhagen: sexual behavior and other risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, E; Kroon, S; Gerstoft, J

    1990-01-01

    antibodies: 35 (31%) were infected by heterosexual contact and 63 (55%) were intravenous drug users. Among the heterosexually transmitted cases 25 (71%) had intercourse with a man from a high risk group and nine women had intercourse with a known HIV antibody positive man without known risk factors. Use......In order to describe the risk pattern including sexual behaviour among HIV-infected women in Copenhagen we studied the charts of all women tested seropositive between January 1985 and August 1988 in the three main hospitals handling HIV/AIDS. One hundred and fifteen women were positive for HIV...

  12. Immune Humanization of Immunodeficient Mice Using Diagnostic Bone Marrow Aspirates from Carcinoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner-Klein, Melanie; Proske, Judith; Werno, Christian; Schneider, Katharina; Hofmann, Hans-Stefan; Rack, Brigitte; Buchholz, Stefan; Ganzer, Roman; Blana, Andreas; Seelbach-Göbel, Birgit; Nitsche, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice, while routinely used in cancer research, preclude studying interactions of immune and cancer cells or, if humanized by allogeneic immune cells, are of limited use for tumor-immunological questions. Here, we explore a novel way to generate cancer models with an autologous humanized immune system. We demonstrate that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from bone marrow aspirates of non-metastasized carcinoma patients, which are taken at specialized centers for diagnostic purposes, can be used to generate a human immune system in NOD-scid IL2rγ(null) (NSG) and HLA-I expressing NSG mice (NSG-HLA-A2/HHD) comprising both, lymphoid and myeloid cell lineages. Using NSG-HLA-A2/HHD mice, we show that responsive and self-tolerant human T cells develop and human antigen presenting cells can activate human T cells. As critical factors we identified the low potential of bone marrow HSPCs to engraft, generally low HSPC numbers in patient-derived bone marrow samples, cryopreservation and routes of cell administration. We provide here an optimized protocol that uses a minimum number of HSPCs, preselects high-quality bone marrow samples defined by the number of initially isolated leukocytes and intra-femoral or intra-venous injection. In conclusion, the use of diagnostic bone marrow aspirates from non-metastasized carcinoma patients for the immunological humanization of immunodeficient mice is feasible and opens the chance for individualized analyses of anti-tumoral T cell responses. PMID:24830425

  13. Immune humanization of immunodeficient mice using diagnostic bone marrow aspirates from carcinoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Werner-Klein

    Full Text Available Tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice, while routinely used in cancer research, preclude studying interactions of immune and cancer cells or, if humanized by allogeneic immune cells, are of limited use for tumor-immunological questions. Here, we explore a novel way to generate cancer models with an autologous humanized immune system. We demonstrate that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs from bone marrow aspirates of non-metastasized carcinoma patients, which are taken at specialized centers for diagnostic purposes, can be used to generate a human immune system in NOD-scid IL2rγ(null (NSG and HLA-I expressing NSG mice (NSG-HLA-A2/HHD comprising both, lymphoid and myeloid cell lineages. Using NSG-HLA-A2/HHD mice, we show that responsive and self-tolerant human T cells develop and human antigen presenting cells can activate human T cells. As critical factors we identified the low potential of bone marrow HSPCs to engraft, generally low HSPC numbers in patient-derived bone marrow samples, cryopreservation and routes of cell administration. We provide here an optimized protocol that uses a minimum number of HSPCs, preselects high-quality bone marrow samples defined by the number of initially isolated leukocytes and intra-femoral or intra-venous injection. In conclusion, the use of diagnostic bone marrow aspirates from non-metastasized carcinoma patients for the immunological humanization of immunodeficient mice is feasible and opens the chance for individualized analyses of anti-tumoral T cell responses.

  14. Cholecystitis in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: ultrasonographic findings in a case of uncommon presentation during childhood; Colecistitis en un nino con sida: hallazgos ecograficos en una forma infrecuente de presentacion en la infancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubi-Palomares, I.; Martinez-Leon, M. I.; Alonso-Usabiaga, I.; Ceres-Ruiz, L. [Hospital Materno Infantil del C.H.U. Carlos Haya. Malaga (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    We present the case of a boy with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in whom ultrasound revealed the presence of acalculous cholecystitis. Abdominal ultrasound was essential in the initial diagnosis and the assessment of the response to treatment. This entity has rarely been reported in the pediatric radiology literature. In our patient, the cholecystitis may have been caused by infection, and the involvement of regional lymphatic obstruction in the pathogenesis is considered. (Author) 14 refs.

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralization epitope with conserved architecture elicits early type-specific antibodies in experimentally infected chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, J.; Debouck, C.; Meloen, R. H.; Smit, L.; Bakker, M.; Asher, D. M.; Wolff, A. V.; Gibbs, C. J.; Gajdusek, D. C.

    1988-01-01

    Chimpanzees are susceptible to infection by divergent strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), none of which cause clinical or immunological abnormalities. Chimpanzees were inoculated with one of four strains of HIV-1: human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type IIIB, lymphadenopathy virus

  16. Epidemiological situation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related mortality in a municipality in northeastern Brazil. A retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luana Rodrigues da; Araújo, Ellen Thallita Hill; Carvalho, Moisés Lopes; Almeida, Camila Aparecida Pinheiro Landim; Oliveira, Adélia Dalva da Silva; Carvalho, Patrícia Maria Gomes de; Rodrigues, Tatyanne Silva; Campelo, Viriato

    2018-01-01

    The number of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related deaths covers different segments of the population differently, making monitoring of this mortality essential. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological situation of AIDS-related mortality in a municipality in the northeastern region of Brazil. Retrospective cross-sectional study based on data from death certificates in the mortality information system of the Health Information Center, Municipal Health Foundation, Brazil. Between 2003 and 2013, we investigated death certificates on which AIDS-related mortality was reported. Sociodemographic data, year, place, type of establishment where death occurred and underlying and associated causes that led to AIDS-related death were described. The Mann-Kendall test was used to verify the growth trend of the standardized mortality rate over the period studied. Among the 1,066 AIDS-related deaths, 69.7% were among men; 47.2% of the individuals were 28-41 years of age, 32.7% had had 4-7 years of schooling, 66.9% were pardos (mixed race), 55.7% were unmarried and 15.3% were housekeepers. Hospitals were the site of 97% of the deaths, and 91% occurred at public hospitals. Respiratory failure was the main cause of death. The prevalence of infectious and parasitic diseases was 99.0%. AIDS-related mortality increased by 160% over the period studied, from 5.5/100,000 inhabitants in 2003 to 14.3/100,000 in 2013. In the Brazilian municipality studied here, AIDS-related mortality was most prevalent among men and young adults of lower socioeconomic level. Over the period studied, the mortality rate increased.

  17. Nocardiose pulmonar em paciente com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida: relato de caso Pulmonary nocardiosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carina Gamboa da Silva

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem um caso de nocardiose pulmonar em um homem de 37 anos de idade com a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida, em tratamento com anti-retrovirais, cujos sintomas de apresentação foram tosse com expectoração, hemoptóicos e emagrecimento progressivo. Foi realizada radiografia do tórax, que demonstrou consolidação no lobo superior do pulmão direito, e tomografia computadorizada do tórax, que evidenciou consolidação pulmonar com áreas escavadas. Diante dos achados radiológicos inespecíficos, foi realizada broncoscopia com lavado broncoalveolar, evidenciando estruturas filamentosas Gram-positivas compatíveis com Nocardia sp. O tratamento utilizado foi sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, com remissão completa do quadro respiratório. Após revisão da literatura, foram discutidos os principais aspectos radiológicos desta doença.The authors describe a case of pulmonary nocardiosis in a 37-year-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in treatment with antiretroviral drugs. Clinical symptoms were productive cough, hemoptysis and progressive weight loss. A chest x-ray film showed a right upper lobe consolidation while the computed tomography demonstrated consolidation and areas of cavitation. The radiologic findings were unspecific. Consequently, a bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, revealing filamentous Gram-positive bacteria (Nocardia sp. Treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resulted in complete remission of the respiratory symptoms. The authors review the literature and discuss the main radiological features of this disease.

  18. Evidence for the Spread of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemic into Low Prevalence Areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    inmune Defllenq Syndrpmes,. Vol. 2. NVo, 6, 1989 524 L. 1. GARDNER, JR. ET AL. prevalence territory. For uniformity, we assigned limits around rate...Conference on AIDS, Washington, D.C., June black males in the intravenous drug abuser popula- 1987. 4. Centers for Disease Control. Coolfont report. A...18. Centers for Disease Control. Acquired immunodeficiency ato and Sally Fuller assured the quality of laboratory test- syndrome in the San -Francisco

  19. Mental health of patients with human immunodeficiency virus in Japan: a comparative analysis of employed and unemployed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omiya, Tomoko; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Shimada, Megumi; Ikeda, Kazuko; Ishiuchi-Ishitani, Seiko; Tsuno, Yoko Sumikawa; Ohira, Katsumi

    2014-01-01

    In developed countries, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has become a chronic disease. The aims of this study were to clarify the physical, social, and psychological factors affecting Japanese HIV patients in a stable condition and to identify factors related to mental health of employed and unemployed HIV patients. The target subjects were people with HIV infection who were treated as outpatients at core hospitals for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatment in Japan. A questionnaire including items from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was sent to each medical facility with a request for participation from the HIV-infected outpatients. Responses from 1199 patients were analyzed. Mental health was reportedly better in the employed patients than in the unemployed patients. The unemployed patients were more likely to have resigned from their jobs because of poor health, to have resigned voluntarily, or to have been unfairly dismissed. Once the patients stopped working because of HIV, returning to work became difficult. In the employed patients, a good workplace environment was strongly related to lower scores on HADS. Higher HADS scores were recorded for employed patients infected with HIV for six years or more. For the unemployed patients, a relationship was observed between strong feelings of stigmatization and HADS scores. Quitting a job because of an experience related to HIV status may be related to feelings of stigmatization.

  20. Toxoplasmosis and Toxocariasis: An Assessment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Comorbidity and Health-Care Costs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Janna M; Rafferty, Ellen; Schwandt, Michael; Zeng, Wu; Farag, Marwa; Jenkins, Emily J

    2016-07-06

    Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara spp. are zoonotic parasites with potentially severe long-term consequences for those infected. We estimated incidence and investigated distribution, risk factors, and costs associated with these parasites by examining hospital discharge abstracts submitted to the Canadian Institute for Health Information (2002-2011). Annual incidence of serious toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis was 0.257 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.254-0.260) and 0.010 (95% CI: 0.007-0.014) cases per 100,000 persons, respectively. Median annual health-care costs per serious case of congenital, adult-acquired, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated toxoplasmosis were $1,971, $763, and $5,744, respectively, with an overall cost of C$1,686,860 annually (2015 Canadian dollars). However, the total economic burden of toxoplasmosis is likely much higher than these direct health-care cost estimates. HIV was reported as a comorbidity in 40% of toxoplasmosis cases and accounted for over half of direct health-care costs associated with clinical toxoplasmosis. A One Health approach, integrating physician and veterinary input, is recommended for increasing public awareness and decreasing the economic burden of these preventable zoonoses. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  1. The Patient Experience of Hemophilia and Human Immunodeficiency Virus: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Kayoko; Tsuchiya, Sayaka

    The objective of this review is to describe and synthesize the experiences and perspectives of illness for patients living with both hemophilia and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Hemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder caused by low concentrations of specific coagulation factors. There are two major types of this condition characterized by deficiencies of factor VIII (hemophilia A) and factor IX (hemophilia B). Bleeding occurs in hemophilia owing to failure of secondary hemostasis. The bleeding tendency is related to the measured concentration of the factor and is classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Severe hemophilia A and B is classified as repeated (as often as weekly) bleeds into joints and muscles. The main treatment is to arrest spontaneous and traumatic bleeds by prophylactic injection of factor concentrates or to prevent injury by restriction of exercise. Most people with severe hemophilia are on therapy at home with intravenous infusion of the relevant missing factor. Joint bleeds are painful, and the build up of blood is irritating to the synovial lining and damages joint tissue, so that adherence to hemophilia therapy is important.Global research in 18 countries reported that compliance with therapy by patients with hemophilia was low with self-injection adherence under 75% with as few as 53-65% of adults complying with therapy. Some of the most frequently cited factors affecting patients' compliance to therapy are as follows; inability to understand potential benefits (75%); denial (67%); interference with life style (62%); and lack of time (42%).The self-injection method of administering coagulation products became popular in the 1970s. In the early 1980s, 1,432 patients with hemophilia in Japan were infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) because of the use of untreated blood products contaminated with the HIV virus. In addition commercial factor concentrates, which are prepared from pools of 2 to 6000 liters of plasma obtained

  2. Neuroradiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Paz, R.; Enzmann, D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses MRI and CT scanning in the evaluation of AIDS patients with neurological symptoms. MRI is the more sensitive of the two techniques but has poor tissue specificity. Contrast enhancement and identification of tissue calcification on CT scans may improve tissue characterization, but a specific etiological diagnosis may not be possible with either MRI or CT scanning; confirmation by biopsy or the response to treatment is often needed. The finding of multiple focal cerebral lesions on MRI and CT scans usually indicates T. gondii infection. Toxoplasmosis may, however, coexist with primary CNS lymphoma or with fungal, mycobacterial, or viral infection. The presence of a solitary focal cerebral lesion, especially on MRI scans, suggests lymphoma or infection with an agent other than T. gondii. Focal cerebral lesions show a variety of complex signal patterns on MRI and enhancement patterns on CT, none of which are specific for a single etiology. Focal lesions on MRI and CT scans are usually associated with focal neurological deficits, but a significant minority of these lesions, especially those seen on MRI scans, may cause only generalized complaints, such as headache and encephalopathy. MRI and CT are both useful for monitoring therapy and show a reduction in the size, number, and enhancement of lesions with successful treatment. The authors conclude that, owing to its greater sensitivity, MRI appears to be more useful for detecting recurrent disease

  3. An in vitro study of antifungal drug susceptibility of Candida species isolated from human immunodeficiency virus seropositive and human immunodeficiency virus seronegative individuals in Lucknow population Uttar Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Mohammad Shafi; Sreedar, Gadiputi; Shukla, Abhilasha; Gupta, Prashant; Rehan, Ahmad Danish; George, Jiji

    2015-01-01

    Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients, starting from asymptomatic colonization to pathogenic forms and gradual colonization of non-albicans in patients with advanced immunosuppression leads to resistance for azole group of antifungal drugs with high rate of morbidity and mortality. To isolate the Candida species and determine of antifungal drug susceptibility against fluconazole, itraconazole, nystatin, amphotericin B, and clotrimazolein HIV seropositive and control individuals, with or without clinical oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC). Includes samples from faucial region of 70 subjects with and without clinical candidiasis in HIV seropositive and controls were aseptically inoculated onto Sabaraud's Dextrose Agar media and yeasts were identified for the specific species by Corn Meal Agar, sugar fermentation and heat tolerance tests. Antifungal drug susceptibility of the isolated species was done against above-mentioned drugs by E-test and disc diffusion method. The commonly isolated species in HIV seropositive and controls were Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis Candida guilliermondii and Candida dubliniensis isolated only in HIV seropositive patients. Susceptibility against selected antifungal drugs was observed more in HIV-negative individuals whereas susceptible dose-dependent and resistance were predominant in HIV-positive patients. Resistance is the major problem in the therapy of OPC, especially in HIV seropositive patients due to aggressive and prolonged use of antifungal agents, therefore, our study emphasizes the need for antifungal drug susceptibility testing whenever antifungal treatment is desired, especially in HIV-infected subjects.

  4. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and Noninfected Persons in a High Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence Region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkenfou, Céline Nguefeu; Tchameni, Sandrine Mboula; Nkenfou, Carine Nguefeu; Djataou, Patrice; Simo, Ulrich Florian; Nkoum, Alexandre Benjamin; Estrin, William

    2017-09-01

    The problem of intestinal parasitic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several coinfecting diseases. Studies have addressed this issue in Cameroon, especially in the low HIV prevalence area. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Adamaoua and to identify associated risk factors. Stool and blood specimens from study participants were screened for intestinal parasites and anti-HIV antibodies, respectively. Of 235 participants, 68 (28.9%) were HIV positive, 38 of them on antiretroviral treatment (ART). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 32.3%. Of 68 PLHIV, 32.3% (22/68) were infected with intestinal parasites, compared with 32.3% (54/167) of the HIV-negative patients. Univariate analysis showed no difference between the prevalence of intestinal parasites among PLHIV and HIV-negative patients ( P = 0.69). ART was not associated with the prevalence of intestinal parasites. Multivariate analysis showed that the quality of water and the personal hygiene were the major risk factors associated to intestinal parasitosis. The level of education was associated with HIV serostatus: the higher the level of education, the lower the risk of being infected with HIV ( P = 0.00). PLHIV and the general population should be screened routinely for intestinal parasites and treated if infected.

  5. Tumor necrosis factor alpha selectively sensitizes human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells to heat and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, G.H.; McHugh, T.; Weber, R.; Goeddel, D.V.

    1991-01-01

    We report here that infection of the human T-cell line HUT-78 with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases its sensitivity to heat and radiation toxicity. A possible explanation for this result may be the reduced expression of manganous superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in HIV-infected cells compared to uninfected cells. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) further sensitizes HIV-infected cells but not uninfected cells to heat and radiation. This is consistent with the ability of TNF-alpha to induce the expression of MnSOD in uninfected but not in HIV-infected cells. HIV-infected HUT-78 cell lines engineered to overexpress MnSOD are more resistant to heat and radiation than HIV-infected cells that do not overexpress MnSOD. However, treatment with TNF-alpha still sensitizes these cells to heat and radiation

  6. Low-dose growth hormone and human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipodystrophy syndrome: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Haugaard, Steen B; Flyvbjerg, A

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment with high doses (2-6 mg day(-1)) of human growth hormone (hGH) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) has been shown to increase concentrations of total insulin-like growth-factor-I (IGF-I) more than twofold greater than......-I and fat distribution. Glucose metabolism was examined by oral glucose tolerance tests and hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamps. RESULTS: Total IGF-I increased twofold (P ....01). Patients reported improvements of lipodystrophy, which was supported by a decreased waist-to-thigh ratio (P = 0.01), and waist-to-hip ratio (P = 0.06). Ratio of peripheral to trunk soft tissue mass increased (P = 0.01, measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans) and a trend towards reduction...

  7. Scheduled transplantation of human umbilical cord blood to severe combined immunodeficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jianqiu; Yang Yunfang; Jin Zhijun; Cai Jianming; Yang Rujun; Xiang Yingsong

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To explore a new method for developing the efficiency of human umbilical cord blood (UCB) cells engraftment, and further understand the growth characteristic of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in vivo. Methods: Sublethally irradiated severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice were transplanted i.v. with UCB cells which had been cryo-preserved at -80 degree C. The human cells in recipient mice were detected by flow cytometry and CFU-GM assay. Results: In contrast to the single transplantation, scheduled engraftment of similar numbers of UCB cells resulted in a proportionally obvious increase in the percentages of CD45 + , CD34 + cells produced in SCID mouse bone marrow (BM). When the donor cells were reduced to 20 percent, an identical reconstitution of both hematopoietic and part of immunologic functions was achieved. Conclusion: Scheduled engraftment improves the repopulating ability of HSC, which would provide a novel way for clinical cord blood engraftment in adult objects

  8. Comparison of Kaposi Sarcoma risk in human immunodeficiency virus-positive adults across 5 continents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohner, Eliane; Bütikofer, Lukas; Schmidlin, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Background: We compared Kaposi sarcoma (KS) risk in adults who started antiretroviral therapy (ART) across the Asia-Pacific, South Africa, Europe, Latin, and North America. Methods: We included cohort data of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive adults who started ART after 1995 within...... KS risk was 6 times higher in men who have sex with men (aHR, 5.95; 95% CI, 5.09-6.96) than in women. Comparing patients with current CD4 cell counts ≥700 cells/μL with those whose counts were ...% in other regions. Conclusions. Despite important ART-related declines in KS incidence, men and women in South Africa and men who have sex with men remain at increased KS risk, likely due to high human herpesvirus 8 coinfection rates. Early ART initiation and maintenance of high CD4 cell counts...

  9. II Brazilian Consensus on the use of human immunoglobulin in patients with primary immunodeficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudouris, Ekaterini Simões; Rego Silva, Almerinda Maria do; Ouricuri, Aluce Loureiro; Grumach, Anete Sevciovic; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz Tavares; Prando, Carolina Cardoso; Kokron, Cristina Maria; Vasconcelos, Dewton de Moraes; Tavares, Fabíola Scancetti; Silva Segundo, Gesmar Rodrigues; Barreto, Irma Cecília; Dorna, Mayra de Barros; Barros, Myrthes Anna; Forte, Wilma Carvalho Neves

    2017-01-01

    In the last few years, new primary immunodeficiencies and genetic defects have been described. Recently, immunoglobulin products with improved compositions and for subcutaneous use have become available in Brazil. In order to guide physicians on the use of human immunoglobulin to treat primary immunodeficiencies, based on a narrative literature review and their professional experience, the members of the Primary Immunodeficiency Group of the Brazilian Society of Allergy and Immunology prepared an updated document of the 1st Brazilian Consensus, published in 2010. The document presents new knowledge about the indications and efficacy of immunoglobulin therapy in primary immunodeficiencies, relevant production-related aspects, mode of use (routes of administration, pharmacokinetics, doses and intervals), adverse events (major, prevention, treatment and reporting), patient monitoring, presentations available and how to have access to this therapeutic resource in Brazil. RESUMO Nos últimos anos, novas imunodeficiências primárias e defeitos genéticos têm sido descritos. Recentemente, produtos de imunoglobulina, com aprimoramento em sua composição e para uso por via subcutânea, tornaram-se disponíveis em nosso meio. Com o objetivo de orientar o médico no uso da imunoglobulina humana para o tratamento das imunodeficiências primárias, os membros do Grupo de Assessoria em Imunodeficiências da Associação Brasileira de Alergia e Imunologia produziram um documento que teve por base uma revisão narrativa da literatura e sua experiência profissional, atualizando o I Consenso Brasileiro publicado em 2010. Apresentam-se novos conhecimentos sobre indicações e eficácia do tratamento com imunoglobulina nas imunodeficiências primárias, aspectos relevantes sobre a produção, forma de utilização (vias de administração, farmacocinética, doses e intervalos), efeitos adversos (principais efeitos, prevenção, tratamento e notificação), monitorização do

  10. [Clinical characteristics of human recombination activating gene 1 mutations in 8 immunodeficiency patients with diverse phenotypes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, G; Wang, W J; Liu, D R; Tao, Z F; Hui, X Y; Hou, J; Sun, J Q; Wang, X C

    2018-03-02

    Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics of 8 immunodeficiency cases caused by human recombination activating gene 1 (RAG1) mutations, and to explore the relationship among genotypes, clinical manifestations and immunophenotypes. Methods: Clinical data were collected and analyzed from patients with RAG1 mutations who visited the Department of Clinical Immunology, Children's Hospital of Fudan University between October 2013 and June 2017. The data included clinical manifestations, immunophenotypes and genotypes. Results: A total of 8 patients were diagnosed with RAG1 deficiency (6 boys and 2 girls). The minimum age of onset was 2 months, and the maximum age was 4 months. The minimum age of diagnosis was 2 months, and the maximum age was 13 years. Four patients had a family history of infant death due to severe infections. Two cases were born to the same consanguineous parents. All cases had recurrent infections, including involvement of respiratory tract (8 cases), digestive tract (6 cases), urinary tract (1 case), and central nervous system (1 case). The pathogens of infection included bacteria, viruses and fungi. Rotavirus was found in 3 cases, cytomegalovirus (CMV) in 5 cases, bacillus Calmette-Guérin adverse reaction in 2 cases (1 of whom had a positive acid-fast smear from lymph node puncture fluid), fungal infection in 3 cases. One case had multiple nodular space-occupying lesions in lungs and abdominal cavity complicated with multiple bone destruction. The peripheral blood lymphocyte counts of all patients ranged between 0.1 ×10(9)/L and 3.3×10(9)/L (median, 0.65×10(9)/L). Eosinophilia was found in 3 cases (range, (0.48-1.69) ×10(9)/L). The patients were classified according to immunophenotype as severe combined immunodeficiency phenotype (4 cases), leaky severe combined immunodeficiency (2 cases), Omenn syndrome (1 case) and combined immunodeficiency (1 case) . Decreased serum IgG levels were found in 3 cases, increased serum IgM levels in

  11. Human Immune System Mice for the Study of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Type 1 Infection of the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evering, Teresa H.; Tsuji, Moriya

    2018-01-01

    Immunodeficient mice transplanted with human cell populations or tissues, also known as human immune system (HIS) mice, have emerged as an important and versatile tool for the in vivo study of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis, treatment, and persistence in various biological compartments. Recent work in HIS mice has demonstrated their ability to recapitulate critical aspects of human immune responses to HIV-1 infection, and such studies have informed our knowledge of HIV-1 persistence and latency in the context of combination antiretroviral therapy. The central nervous system (CNS) is a unique, immunologically privileged compartment susceptible to HIV-1 infection, replication, and immune-mediated damage. The unique, neural, and glia-rich cellular composition of this compartment, as well as the important role of infiltrating cells of the myeloid lineage in HIV-1 seeding and replication makes its study of paramount importance, particularly in the context of HIV-1 cure research. Current work on the replication and persistence of HIV-1 in the CNS, as well as cells of the myeloid lineage thought to be important in HIV-1 infection of this compartment, has been aided by the expanded use of these HIS mouse models. In this review, we describe the major HIS mouse models currently in use for the study of HIV-1 neuropathogenesis, recent insights from the field, limitations of the available models, and promising advances in HIS mouse model development. PMID:29670623

  12. Long-term use of first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy is not associated with carotid artery stiffness in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haohui Zhu

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy currently used in China is not associated with carotid artery stiffness in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with good highly active antiretroviral therapy compliance. Human immunodeficiency virus may play a role in the development of atherosclerosis.

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men treated at a referral hospital for sexually transmitted diseases in the Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Panizza Jalkh

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The high prevalence of C. trachomatis infection among human immunodeficiency virus-infected men highlights that screening human immunodeficiency virus-infected men for C. trachomatis, especially among men having sex with men, is paramount to control the spread of C. trachomatis infection.

  14. Nef Secretion into Extracellular Vesicles or Exosomes Is Conserved across Human and Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P. McNamara

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs or exosomes have been implicated in the pathophysiology of infections and cancer. The negative regulatory factor (Nef encoded by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV plays a critical role in the progression to AIDS and impairs endosomal trafficking. Whether HIV-1 Nef can be loaded into EVs has been the subject of controversy, and nothing is known about the connection between SIV Nef and EVs. We find that both SIV and HIV-1 Nef proteins are present in affinity-purified EVs derived from cultured cells, as well as in EVs from SIV-infected macaques. Nef-positive EVs were functional, i.e., capable of membrane fusion and depositing their content into recipient cells. The EVs were able to transfer Nef into recipient cells. This suggests that Nef readily enters the exosome biogenesis pathway, whereas HIV virions are assembled at the plasma membrane. It suggests a novel mechanism by which lentiviruses can influence uninfected and uninfectable, i.e., CD4-negative, cells.

  15. Prevention interventions for human immunodeficiency virus in drug-using women with a history of partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stockman JK

    2012-02-01

    , men, couples, and social networks. There is also a critical need for the development of culturally tailored combination HIV prevention interventions that not only incorporate evidence-based behavioral and biomedical approaches (eg, microbicides, pre-exposure prophylaxis, female-initiated barrier methods but also take into account the risk environment at the physical, social, economic and political levels. Ultimately, this approach will have a significant impact on reducing HIV infections among drug-using women with histories of partner violence.Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, interventions, drugs, women, partner violence, gender-based inequalities

  16. Risk of oral tongue cancer among immunocompromised transplant recipients and human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tota, Joseph E; Engels, Eric A; Madeleine, Margaret M; Clarke, Christina A; Lynch, Charles F; Ortiz, Ana P; Hernandez, Brenda Y; Chaturvedi, Anil K

    2018-04-12

    Oral tongue cancer incidence has increased among whites in the United States; however, the cause remains unknown. If an infectious agent is implicated, then elevated risk would be expected among immunosuppressed individuals. By using population-based registry linkage information from the US Transplant Cancer Match and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) Cancer Match studies, the authors examined the risk of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) among immunocompromised transplantation recipients and HIV-infected individuals. In addition, the risks of oropharyngeal SCC (strongly related to human papillomavirus infection; modestly affected by immunosuppression), other tobacco/alcohol-related oral cavity SCCs (not thought to be infection/immunosuppression-related), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma of oral cavity/pharynx (strongly related to Epstein-Barr virus; profoundly affected by immunosuppression) were evaluated. Compared with the general population, the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma was strongly increased (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] > 8.0). The risk of all SCCs was modestly and similarly elevated among transplantation recipients (SIR range, 2.2-2.7; P heterogeneity  = .2); whereas, among HIV-infected individuals, the risk of oral tongue SCC was higher compared with the risk of other SCCs (SIR, 3.0 vs 1.7 [for oropharyngeal SCCs] and 2.3 [for other oral cavity SCCs]; P heterogeneity  risk of SCCs was significantly higher among men, older individuals, and whites; and risk increased with the time since transplantation/AIDS onset. The risk of oral tongue SCC was significantly higher among HIV-infected men who have sex with men compared with the average risk in HIV-infected individuals (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 2.0). Similar modest increases in the risk of oral tongue and other oral cavity SCCs do not suggest that an infectious agent or exposure profoundly affected by immunosuppression underlies the

  17. Ser gestante soropositivo para o Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana: uma leitura à luz do Interacionismo Simbólico Ser gestante seropositiva para el Virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana-HIV: una lectura bajo el marco teórico del Interaccionismo Simbólico Being pregnant seropositive and having acquired the human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV: a theoretical interpretation under the Symbolic Interactionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilene Lins de Moura

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o contexto do cotidiano vivido por mulheres grávidas soropositivas para o Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana (HIV, com enfoque na experiência de tornar-se grávida e assumir a gravidez. MÉTODOS: Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista gravada, com 14 gestantes sabidamente soropositivas para o HIV, que vivenciavam o terceiro trimestre de gravidez. O estudo fez uma leitura de dados brutos sobre expectativas e ações de gestantes soropositivas para o HIV, à luz do Interacionismo Simbólico. RESULTADOS: um dos aspectos encontrados mostrou que as mulheres HIV positivo assumem a gravidez, ainda que esta seja inesperada. CONCLUSÕES: os dados são um alerta para os profissionais de enfermagem que devem promover ações educativas para atender às demandas dessa mulher.OBJETIVO: Describir el contexto cotidiano vivido por mujeres embarazadas y seropositivas para el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV, con enfoque en la experiencia de estar embarazada y aceptar ese estado. MÉTODOS: Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de entrevista grabada, con 14 gestantes sabidamente seropositivas para el HIV, que se encontraban en el tercer trimestre de embarazo. El estudio hizo una lectura de los datos brutos sobre expectativas y acciones de las gestantes seropositivas para el HIV, bajo el marco teórico del Interaccionismo Simbólico. RESULTADOS: Uno de los aspectos encontrados mostró que las mujeres infectadas con Sida aceptan el embarazo, inclusive cuando ocurre inesperadamente. CONCLUSIONES: Los datos sirven de para los profesionales de enfermería para que promuevan acciones educativas que atiendan las necesidades de esas mujeres.OBJECTIVE: To describe the context of everyday life experienced by pregnant women seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, focusing on the experience of becoming pregnant and accepting that condition. METHODS: Data were collected recording interviews with 14 pregnant women known to

  18. Use of a novel chimeric mouse model with a functionally active human immune system to study human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    An, Dong Sung; Poon, Betty; Tsong Fang, Raphael Ho; Weijer, Kees; Blom, Bianca; Spits, Hergen; Chen, Irvin S. Y.; Uittenbogaart, Christel H.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a small-animal model to study human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis in blood and primary and secondary lymphoid organs. Rag2(-/-)gamma(c)(-/-) mice that are neonatally injected with human CD34(+) cells develop a functional human immune system

  19. Human immunodeficiency virus contains an epitope immunoreactive with thymosin α1 and the 30-amino acid synthetic p17 group-specific antigen peptide HGP-30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naylor, P.H.; Naylor, C.W.; Badamchian, M.; Wada, S.; Goldstein, A.L.; Wang, S.S.; Sun, D.K.; Thornton, A.H.; Sarin, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have reported that an antiserum prepared against thymosin α 1 [which shares a region of homology with the p17 protein of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated human immunodeficiency virus] effectively neutralized the AIDs virus and prevented its replication in H9 cells. Using HPLC and immunoblot analysis, they have identified from a clone B, type III human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-IIIB) extracts a protein with a molecular weight of 17,000 that is immunoreactive with thymosin α 1 . In contrast, no immunoreactivity was found in retroviral extracts from a number of nonhuman species including feline, bovine, simian, gibbon, and murine retroviruses. Heterologous antiserum prepared against a 30-amino acid synthetic peptide analogue (HGP-30) does not cross-react with thymosin α 1 but does react specifically with the p17 protein of the AIDS virus in a manner identical to that seen with an HTLV-IIIB p17-specific monoclonal antibody. The demonstration that this synthetic analogue is immunogenic and that antibodies to HGP-30 cross-react not only with synthetic peptide but also with the HTLV-IIIB p17 viral protein provides an additional, and potentially more specific, candidate for development of a synthetic peptide vaccine for AIDS. In addition, the p17 synthetic peptide (HGP-3) may prove to be useful in a diagnostic assay for the detection of AIDS virus infection in seronegative individuals

  20. Epidemiology of infections with intestinal parasites and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among sugar-estate residents in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontanet, A. L.; Sahlu, T.; Rinke de Wit, T.; Messele, T.; Masho, W.; Woldemichael, T.; Yeneneh, H.; Coutinho, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections could play an important role in the progression of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), by further disturbing the immune system whilst it is already engaged in the fight against HIV. HIV and intestinal parasitic infections were investigated in 1239,

  1. Founder virus population related to route of virus transmission: a determinant of intrahost human immunodeficiency virus type 1 evolution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukashov, V. V.; Goudsmit, J.

    1997-01-01

    We and others have shown that in individual human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, the adaptive evolution of HIV-1 is influenced by host immune competence. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that in addition to selective forces operating within the host, transmission bottlenecks

  2. Persistence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype B DNA in dried-blood samples on FTA filter paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chung-Chen; Beck, Ingrid A; Seidel, Kristy D; Frenkel, Lisa M

    2004-08-01

    The stability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) DNA in whole blood collected on filter paper (FTA Card) was evaluated. After >4 years of storage at room temperature in the dark our qualitative assay detected virus at a rate similar to that of our initial test (58 of 60, 97%; P = 0.16), suggesting long-term HIV-1 DNA stability.

  3. Characteristics of primary infection of a European human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clade B isolate in chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, W. M.; Koornstra, W. H.; Dubbes, R. H.; ten Haaft, P. J.; Verstrepen, B. E.; Jhagjhoorsingh, S. S.; Haaksma, A. G.; Niphuis, H.; Laman, J. D.; Norley, S.; Schuitemaker, H.; Goudsmit, J.; Hunsmann, G.; Heeney, J. L.; Wigzell, H.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to select, from a panel of candidate European human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) clade B primary virus isolates, one isolate based on replication properties in chimpanzee peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Secondly, to evaluate the in vivo kinetics of

  4. Release of Virus from Lymphoid Tissue Affects Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Hepatitis C Virus Kinetics in the Blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Viktor; Marée, Athanasius F.M.; Boer, R.J. de

    2000-01-01

    Kinetic parameters of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections have been estimated from plasma virus levels following perturbation of the chronically infected (quasi-) steady state. We extend previous models by also considering the large pool of virus

  5. Virus load in chimpanzees infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1: effect of pre-exposure vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Haaft, P.; Cornelissen, M.; Goudsmit, J.; Koornstra, W.; Dubbes, R.; Niphuis, H.; Peeters, M.; Thiriart, C.; Bruck, C.; Heeney, J. L.

    1995-01-01

    Many reports indicate that a long-term asymptomatic state following human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is associated with a low amount of circulating virus. To evaluate the possible effect of stabilizing a low virus load by non-sterilizing pre-exposure vaccination, a quantitative

  6. Antiretroviral Drugs and Risk of Chronic Alanine Aminotransferase Elevation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Monoinfected Persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovari, Helen; Sabin, Caroline A; Ledergerber, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART) frequently have chronic liver enzyme elevation (cLEE), the underlying cause is often unclear. Methods.  Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) Study participants without ...

  7. Risk assessment of hepatotoxicity among tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS-coinfected patients under tuberculosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Ngouleun

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results showed that human immunodeficiency virus status and alcohol consumption constitutes aggravating factors for the occurrence of hepatic toxicity. In addition, the consumption of antioxidant foods simultaneously with TB drugs help in reducing the hepatotoxic effects of these drugs.

  8. Investigation of immunosuppressive properties of inactivated human immunodeficiency virus and possible neutralization of this effect by some patient sera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Langhoff, E; Lindhardt, B O

    1989-01-01

    suppressive effect has been shown for a lysate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), strain HTLV-IIIB. Here we determined that detergent-disrupted HTLV-IIIB lystate exerted a strong suppressive effect on PHA-stimulated lymphocytes. Preparations of whole virions, a lysate of a local HIV isolate grown on MP-6...

  9. Safety, pharmacokinetics, and antiviral activity of A77003, a C2 symmetry-based human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reedijk, M.; Boucher, C. A.; van Bommel, T.; Ho, D. D.; Tzeng, T. B.; Sereni, D.; Veyssier, P.; Jurriaans, S.; Granneman, R.; Hsu, A.

    1995-01-01

    A77003, an inhibitor of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease, was administered to asymptomatic HIV-1-infected patients in a phase I trial. The drug was given by continuous intravenous infusion at dosages of 0.035, 0.07, 0.14, and 0.28 mg/kg of body weight per h. The drug was

  10. Stabilization of the soluble, cleaved, trimeric form of the envelope glycoprotein complex of human immunodeficiency virus type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Rogier W.; Vesanen, Mika; Schuelke, Norbert; Master, Aditi; Schiffner, Linnea; Kalyanaraman, Roopa; Paluch, Maciej; Berkhout, Ben; Maddon, Paul J.; Olson, William C.; Lu, Min; Moore, John P.

    2002-01-01

    The envelope glycoprotein (Env) complex of human immunodeficiency virus type I has evolved a structure that is minimally immunogenic while retaining its natural function of receptor-mediated virus-cell fusion. The Env complex is trimeric; its six individual subunits (three gp120 and three gp41

  11. Immunological changes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals during HIV-specific protease inhibitor treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, H; Katzenstein, T; Aladdin, H

    1999-01-01

    The present study examines the influence of effective anti-retroviral treatment on immune function, evaluated by a broad array of immunological tests. We followed 12 individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for 6 months after initiation of combination anti-retroviral treatment...

  12. Stoichiometry of monoclonal antibody neutralization of T-cell line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønning, Kristian; Lund, O; Lund, O S

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the stoichiometry of monoclonal antibody (MAb) neutralization of T-cell line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in antibody excess and under equilibrium conditions, we exploited the ability of HIV-1 to generate mixed oligomers when different env genes...

  13. Functional and phenotypic evidence for a selective loss of memory T cells in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-infected men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noesel, C. J.; Gruters, R. A.; Terpstra, F. G.; Schellekens, P. T.; van Lier, R. A.; Miedema, F.

    1990-01-01

    In addition to a well-documented depletion of CD4+ T helper cells in later stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, evidence has been provided for a specific unresponsiveness to triggering either by specific antigen in the context of autologous major histocompatibility molecules (self

  14. Malaria and human immunodeficiency virus infection as risk factors for anemia in infants in Kisumu, western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, Anna M.; Ayisi, John G.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Misore, Ambrose O.; Otieno, Juliana A.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Kager, Piet A.; Steketee, Richard W.; Nahlen, Bernard L.

    2002-01-01

    The role of maternal and pediatric infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and malaria as risk factors for anemia was determined in a birth cohort of infants born to mothers participating in a study of the interaction between placental malaria and HIV infection, in Kisumu, Kenya.

  15. The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus among pregnant women attending a hospital in the Moungo district, Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van dan Meeberg, P. C.; Kooiman, R. C.; Buisman, N. J.; Goudsmit, J.; Lange, J. M.; Bannenberg, A. F.

    1989-01-01

    A seroepidemiological survey conducted from January to May 1986 among 650 pregnant women from mixed rural/urban origin in the Moungo district, Cameroon, revealed a very low prevalence of antibodies to human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV). One subject appeared to be infected with HIV 2. This is

  16. Semen parameters of a semen donor before and after infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1: Case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, E.; Cornelissen, M.; de Vries, J. W.; Lowe, S. H.; Jurriaans, S.; Repping, S.; van der Veen, F.

    2004-01-01

    Semen samples from a donor who seroconverted for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) during the period that he was donating at our clinic were stored before and after infection. Semen analysis was done on all of these samples before cryopreservation. Retrospectively, both qualitative and

  17. Cellular gene expression upon human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of CD4(+)-T-cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Wout, Angélique B.; Lehrman, Ginger K.; Mikheeva, Svetlana A.; O'Keeffe, Gemma C.; Katze, Michael G.; Bumgarner, Roger E.; Geiss, Gary K.; Mullins, James I.

    2003-01-01

    The expression levels of approximately 4,600 cellular RNA transcripts were assessed in CD4(+)-T-cell lines at different times after infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strain BRU (HIV-1(BRU)) using DNA microarrays. We found that several classes of genes were inhibited by HIV-1(BRU)

  18. Liver-related deaths in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: the D:A:D study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Rainer; Sabin, Caroline A.; Friis-Møller, Nina; Reiss, Peter; El-Sadr, Wafaa M.; Kirk, Ole; Dabis, Francois; Law, Matthew G.; Pradier, Christian; de Wit, Stephane; Akerlund, Börje; Calvo, Gonzalo; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Rickenbach, Martin; Ledergerber, Bruno; Phillips, Andrew N.; Lundgren, Jens D.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An increasing proportion of deaths among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons with access to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) are due to complications of liver diseases. METHODS: We investigated the frequency of and risk factors associated with liver-related

  19. Comparison of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tropism profiles in clinical samples by the Trofile and MT-2 assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coakley, Eoin; Reeves, Jacqueline D.; Huang, Wei; Mangas-Ruiz, Marga; Maurer, Irma; Harskamp, Agnes M.; Gupta, Soumi; Lie, Yolanda; Petropoulos, Christos J.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; van 't Wout, Angélique B.

    2009-01-01

    The recent availability of CCR5 antagonists as anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) therapeutics has highlighted the need to accurately identify CXCR4-using variants in patient samples when use of this new drug class is considered. The Trofile assay (Monogram Biosciences) has become the

  20. Rapid disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals with adverse reactions to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, J.; Veugelers, P. J.; Keet, I. P.; van der Ven, A. J. A. M.; Miedema, F.; Lange, J. M.; Coutinho, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the relation between the occurrence of adverse reactions to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) prophylaxis and the subsequent course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a cohort of homosexual men. Adverse reactions to TMP-SMZ were associated with a more rapid

  1. Combined immunodeficiency and Epstein-Barr virus-induced B cell malignancy in humans with inherited CD70 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abolhassani, Hassan; Edwards, Emily S. J.; Ikinciogullari, Aydan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we describe four patients from two unrelated families of different ethnicities with a primary immunodeficiency, predominantly manifesting as susceptibility to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related diseases. Three patients presented with EBV-associated Hodgkin's lymphoma...... is a novel cause of combined immunodeficiency and EBV-associated diseases, reminiscent of inherited CD27 deficiency. Overall, human CD70-CD27 interactions therefore play a nonredundant role in T and B cell-mediated immunity, especially for protection against EBV and humoral immunity....

  2. Novel use of levodopa in human immunodeficiency virus encephalopathy-mediated parkinsonism in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M F Devine

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 36-year-old man with a medical history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection who presented with hypomimia, hypophonia, bradykinesia, rigidity, and freezing of gait. His clinical presentation and magnetic resonance imaging were consistent with HIV encephalopathy with involvement of the bilateral basal ganglia and diffuse leukoencephalopathy. We initiated a trial of carbidopa-levodopa. The dose was escalated to 1050 mg levodopa daily. Amantadine was also started. The patient was closely monitored for behavioral, neurological, or systemic side effects. He tolerated therapy well without adverse effects. The patient's neurological status significantly improved with levodopa, including hypomimia, hypophonia, bradykinesia, and fluidity of gait. This case demonstrates that carbidopa-levodopa can be safely utilized to manage parkinsonism in an adult patient with HIV encephalopathy.

  3. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Continuum of Care in European Union Countries in 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gourlay, Annabelle; Noori, Teymur; Pharris, Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    Background.: The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) has set a "90-90-90" target to curb the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic by 2020, but methods used to assess whether countries have reached this target are not standardized, hindering comparisons. Methods.: Through......% virally suppressed (60% of people living with HIV). Two countries achieved ≥90% for all stages, and more than half had reached ≥90% for at least 1 stage. Conclusions.: European Union countries are nearing the 90-90-90 target. Reducing the proportion undiagnosed remains the greatest barrier to achieving...... this target, suggesting that further efforts are needed to improve HIV testing rates. Standardizing methods to derive comparable continuums of care remains a challenge....

  4. Imaging Appearance of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Encephalitis on the Diffusion Weighted Images: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hun Cheol; Yu, In Kyu; Oh, Keon Se

    2011-01-01

    Imaging finding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalitis contain bilateral, symmetric, patchy, or diffuse increased T2WI signal intensities in the basal ganglia, cerebellum, brainstem, and centrum semiovale. In particular, the centrum semiovale is most commonly involved. Most of the HIV encephalitis cases are accompanied by brain atrophy. No previous study has reported symmetric increased signal intensity at the bilateral centrum semiovale without brain atrophy on diffusion weighted images in HIV encephalitis patients. Here, we report a case of this. We suggest that radiologists should consider the possibility of HIV encephalitis if there are symmetric increases in signal intensity at the bilateral centrum semiovale on diffusion weighted images of patients with a history of HIV infection.

  5. [Tuberculous meningitis with atypical presentation in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M T; Lluch, M; Fernández-Solá, J; Coca, A; Urbano-Márquez, A

    1992-04-11

    A 32 years old male patient is described with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on stage IV C1 and with positive Ag p24 who developed tuberculous meningitis of atypical presentation. A persistent liquoral neutrophilia and low adenosindeaminase values were observed in cerebrospinal fluid of purulent appearance. The patient responded badly to tuberculostatic treatment and died. In the antibiogram carried out resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis was observed to rifampicine and isoniazide, two of the five drugs the patient had received. The peculiarities of the clinical form of presentation similar to purulent bacterian meningitis are discussed, and the possible influence of HIV infection and the antibiotic multiresistance observed in the bad evolution of the tuberculous meningitis which the patient developed.

  6. Acanthamoeba keratitis in a non-contact lens wearer with human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birgitte Rønde; Kronborg, Gitte

    2003-01-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis is potentially blinding and often associated with contact lens wearing. A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patient, a non-contact lens wearer, presented with keratitis. She experienced a protracted course of disease, characterized by exacerbations and remissions......, and was treated with various topical antibiotics and steroids. 13 months after symptom onset the eye was removed owing to serious scarring of cornea and unbearable pain. Microbiological and histopathological examination of the cornea showed Acanthamoeba. In non-contact lens wearers suffering from Acanthamoeba...... keratitis the diagnosis is delayed, pathognomonic features are often not seen and visual outcome is usually poor. There is no known relation between HIV infection and Acanthamoeba keratitis....

  7. Oral Candida spp. colonization in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Moris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Several yeast species of Candida genus can colonize the skin as well as the mucous membrane of the vagina and the digestive tract for short or long periods. Depending on the host's immunological state and the yeast's virulence, colonization can become an infection, invading the colonized tissues and also disseminating. AIDS is characterized by the host's intensive and progressive immunodepression which manifests as diverse symptoms, mainly lesions in the mouth. Oral candidiasis is the most prevalent opportunistic infection in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and is an important indicator of the disease progress and the immunosuppression increase. The factors involved in the equilibrium between Candida spp. and HIV-infected subjects are sometimes contradictory and were evaluated in the present study specially for colonization.

  8. Phenotype Variation in Human Immunodeficiency virus Type 1 Transmission and Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Cavarelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1 infects target cells through interaction with the CD4 molecule and chemokine receptors, mainly CCR5 and CXCR4. Viral isolates can be phenotypically classified based on the co-receptor they utilize to infect target cells. Thus, R5 and X4 virus use respectively CCR5 and CXCR4, whereas R5X4 virus can use either CCR5 or CXCR4. This review describes the central role played by co-receptor expression and usage for HIV-1 cell tropism, transmission and pathogenesis. We discuss various hypotheses proposed to explain the preferential transmission of R5 viruses and the mechanisms driving the change of HIV-1 co-receptor usage in the course of infection. Recent insights in the intrinsic variability of R5 viruses and their role in influencing disease progression in both adults and children are also discussed.

  9. Phenotype variation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission and disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavarelli, Mariangela; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) infects target cells through interaction with the CD4 molecule and chemokine receptors, mainly CCR5 and CXCR4. Viral isolates can be phenotypically classified based on the co-receptor they utilize to infect target cells. Thus, R5 and X4 virus use respectively CCR5 and CXCR4, whereas R5X4 virus can use either CCR5 or CXCR4. This review describes the central role played by co-receptor expression and usage for HIV-1 cell tropism, transmission and pathogenesis. We discuss various hypotheses proposed to explain the preferential transmission of R5 viruses and the mechanisms driving the change of HIV-1 co-receptor usage in the course of infection. Recent insights in the intrinsic variability of R5 viruses and their role in influencing disease progression in both adults and children are also discussed.

  10. Radioimmunodetection of human leukemia with anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibody in severe combined immunodeficiency mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Makoto; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Zheng-Sheng, Yao; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Hosono, Masako N.; Sakahara, Harumi; Imada, Kazunori; Okuma, Minoru; Uchiyama, Takashi; Konishi, Junji

    1995-01-01

    Anti-Tac monoclonal antibody recognizes human interleukin-2 receptor, which is overexpressed in leukemic cells of most adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) patients. To examine the potency of anti-Tac for targeting of ATL, biodistributions of intravenously administered 125 I- and 111 In-labeled anti-Tac were examined in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice inoculated with ATL cells. Significant amounts of radiolabeled anti-Tac were found in the spleen and thymus. The trafficking of ATL cells in SCID mice was detected using 111 In-oxine-labeled ATL cells. These results were coincident with the histologically confirmed infiltration of ATL cells. The radiolabeled anti-Tac seemed potent for targeting of ATL

  11. Escape from Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1 Entry Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol D. Weiss

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV enters cells through a series of molecular interactions between the HIV envelope protein and cellular receptors, thus providing many opportunities to block infection. Entry inhibitors are currently being used in the clinic, and many more are under development. Unfortunately, as is the case for other classes of antiretroviral drugs that target later steps in the viral life cycle, HIV can become resistant to entry inhibitors. In contrast to inhibitors that block viral enzymes in intracellular compartments, entry inhibitors interfere with the function of the highly variable envelope glycoprotein as it continuously adapts to changing immune pressure and available target cells in the extracellular environment. Consequently, pathways and mechanisms of resistance for entry inhibitors are varied and often involve mutations across the envelope gene. This review provides a broad overview of entry inhibitor resistance mechanisms that inform our understanding of HIV entry and the design of new inhibitors and vaccines.

  12. [Practical considerations for high resolution anoscopy in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren-Díaz, Mauricio; Ocampo Hermida, Antonio; González-Carreró Fojón, Joaquín; Alonso-Parada, María; Rodríguez-Girondo, Mar

    2014-12-01

    Anal cancer is uncommon in the general population, however its incidence is increasing significantly in certain risk groups, mainly in men who have sex with men, and particularly those infected with human immunodeficiency virus. High resolution anoscopy technique is currently considered the standard in the diagnosis of anal intraepithelial neoplasia, but at present there is no agreed standard method between health areas. High resolution anoscopy is an affordable technique that can be critical in the screening of anal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, but is not without difficulties. We are currently studying the most effective strategy for managing premalignant anal lesions, and with this article we attempt to encourage other groups interested in reducing the incidence of an increasing neoplasia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. Visceral fat is associated with brain structure independent of human immunodeficiency virus infection status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Jordan E; Popov, Mikhail; Post, Wendy S; Palella, Frank J; Sacktor, Ned; Miller, Eric N; Brown, Todd T; Becker, James T

    2017-06-01

    The combined effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), obesity, and elevated visceral adipose tissue (VAT) on brain structure are unknown. In a cross-sectional analysis of Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) participants, we determined associations between HIV serostatus, adiposity, and brain structure. Men (133 HIV+, 84 HIV-) in the MACS Cardiovascular 2 and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sub-studies with CT-quantified VAT and whole brain MRI measured within 1 year were assessed. Voxel-based morphometry analyzed brain volumes. Men were stratified by elevated (eVAT, ≥100cm 2 ) or "normal" (nVAT, 25 kg/m 2 , smaller gray and white matter volumes, and larger cerebrospinal fluid volume than nVAT men. In multivariate analysis, hypertension, higher adiponectin, higher interleukin-6, age, diabetes mellitus, higher body mass index, and eVAT were associated with brain atrophy (p central nervous system effects may be amplified in this population.

  14. Salicylic acid inhibits UV- and Cis-Pt-induced human immunodeficiency virus expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.; Schreck, S.; South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposure of HeLa cells stably transfected with a human immunodeficiency virus-long terminal repeat-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (HIV-LTR-CAT) construct to UV light-induced expression from the HIV LTR. By culturing the cells with salicylic acid we demonstrated dose-dependent repression of this induced HIV expression. Repression was evident if salicylic acid was administered 2 h before, at the same time as, or up to 6 h after exposure to the DNA-damaging agent. The kinetics were similar for UV- and for cis-Pt-induced HIV expression, and induction was dependent on the UV dose or cis-Pt concentration added to the culture. These results suggest a role for the prostaglandins or the cyclooxygenase pathway or both in HIV induction mediated by DNA-damaging agents

  15. Caregiver experience in preventive treatment for children exposed to Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ramos da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the experience of caregivers of children vertically exposed to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It used Symbolic Interactionism as a theoretical framework. It is a qualitative research with data collection carried out in a reference clinic in a municipality in the state of São Paulo, from November 2012 to August 2013 through semi-structured interviews with 12 mothers and a grandmother. Data were analyzed using the Content Analysis method. The caregivers administered antiretroviral to child to prevent virus infection and perceived good acceptance of medication. The child was considered healthy and waiting for the test results generated suffering. Family support and public health services were highlighted as an aid to go through this route pervaded by prejudice, lack of direction, fear and inability to breastfeed. It was noted that the public health service in the city studied tried to follow the protocol requirements established, however, improvements in the quality of counselling is needed.

  16. Schistosomiasis and infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 in rural Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, Christian; Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama-Gutsire, Rutendo B L

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported that treatment for schistosomiasis in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) attenuated HIV replication as measured by plasma HIV RNA. We investigated systemic inflammation as measured by plasma levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor II...... (sTNF-rII), interleukin-8, (IL-8), and IL-10 during schistosomiasis and HIV co-infection and after schistosomiasis treatment. The cohort was composed of 378 persons who were or were not infected with HIV-1, Schistosoma haematobium, or S. mansoni. Schistosomiasis-infected persons were randomized...... to receive praziquantel (40 mg/kg) at baseline or at the three-month follow-up. sTNF-rII and IL-8 were positively associated with schistosomiasis intensity as measured by circulating anodic antigen (CAA), regardless of HIV status. Interleukin-10 was positively associated with CAA in HIV-negative participants...

  17. Computational drug design strategies applied to the modelling of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucianna Helene Santos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcriptase (RT is a multifunctional enzyme in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 life cycle and represents a primary target for drug discovery efforts against HIV-1 infection. Two classes of RT inhibitors, the nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs and the nonnucleoside transcriptase inhibitors are prominently used in the highly active antiretroviral therapy in combination with other anti-HIV drugs. However, the rapid emergence of drug-resistant viral strains has limited the successful rate of the anti-HIV agents. Computational methods are a significant part of the drug design process and indispensable to study drug resistance. In this review, recent advances in computer-aided drug design for the rational design of new compounds against HIV-1 RT using methods such as molecular docking, molecular dynamics, free energy calculations, quantitative structure-activity relationships, pharmacophore modelling and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity prediction are discussed. Successful applications of these methodologies are also highlighted.

  18. Dermatomyositis with Kaposi’s Sarcoma in a Patient without Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Liang

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The first case of dermatomyositis complicating cutaneous and visceral Kaposi’s sarcoma is presented in a 75-year-old man without human immunodeficiency virus infection. Dermatomyositis preceded a definitive diagnosis of Kaposi’s sarcoma by six months, although in retrospect unrecognized lesions may have presented simultaneously. He was treated with prednisone and azathioprine, thus raising the possibility of the role of immunosuppression in promoting progression of the sarcoma. It is suggested that although the association between dermatomyositis and Kaposi’s sarcoma occurs rarely, dermatomyositis should be considered a paraneoplastic syndrome of Kaposi’s sarcoma. Further, the finding of cutaneous lesions of Kaposi’s sarcoma could predict gastrointestinal involvement when dermatomyositis and Kaposi’s sarcoma occur in the same patient.

  19. Global challenges in human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis coinfection among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Chelsea P; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-11-01

    Syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection disproportionately affects men who have sex with men (MSM), and the rate of coinfection has been increasing over the last decade. HIV and syphilis coinfection is particularly challenging because the infections interact synergistically thereby increasing the risk of acquisition and transmission as well as accelerating disease progression. Areas covered: This paper reviews and summarizes the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, clinical management and prevention of HIV and syphilis coinfection among MSM. Expert commentary: Research does not support a different syphilis treatment for coinfected individuals; however, coinfection may warrant a recommendation for antiretroviral therapy. In order to reverse the epidemic of syphilis and HIV coinfection, there needs to be greater awareness, improved cultural sensitivity among health care providers, improved access to preventative services and increased screening for syphilis and HIV.

  20. Advances in the Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus Co-infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Guofang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are transmitted through the same pathways. Therefore, the incidence of HBV in the HIV-infected population is higher than that in the healthy population, and is more obvious in China given the high HBV prevalence in the country. HIV and HBV co-infection can accelerate the disease process of HBV. Moreover, the incidence of cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease is higher in patients co-infected with HIV and HBV than in patients infected HBV alone. When treating patients co-infected with HIV and HBV for HBV infection alone, care should be taken to avoid the induction of HIV resistance. HBV should be considered during drug selection for anti-retroviral treatment. Furthermore, the effective HBV treatment should be retained if anti-retroviral drugs require changing.

  1. Single-photon emission computed tomography in human immunodeficiency virus encephalopathy: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masdeu, J.C.; Yudd, A.; Van Heertum, R.L.; Grundman, M.; Hriso, E.; O'Connell, R.A.; Luck, D.; Camli, U.; King, L.N.

    1991-01-01

    Depression or psychosis in a previously asymptomatic individual infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be psychogenic, related to brain involvement by the HIV or both. Although prognosis and treatment differ depending on etiology, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are usually unrevealing in early HIV encephalopathy and therefore cannot differentiate it from psychogenic conditions. Thirty of 32 patients (94%) with HIV encephalopathy had single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings that differed from the findings in 15 patients with non-HIV psychoses and 6 controls. SPECT showed multifocal cortical and subcortical areas of hypoperfusion. In 4 cases, cognitive improvement after 6-8 weeks of zidovudine (AZT) therapy was reflected in amelioration of SPECT findings. CT remained unchanged. SPECT may be a useful technique for the evaluation of HIV encephalopathy

  2. [Sepsis, cardiomyopathy and human immunodeficiency virus infection: presentation of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llagunes, J; Arastey, S; Cobo Del Prado, I; Carmona, P; Peña, J J; Mínguez, C

    2014-04-01

    Sepsis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be associated with the appearance of cardiac dysfunction. This is a challenge, both when making the differential diagnosis and determining the proper treatment, as there are numerous risk factors: Myocarditis due to the HIV itself, the presence or absence of highly active antiretroviral therapy, toxic substances, and cardiomyopathy associated with sepsis. The diagnostic and therapeutic approach to an HIV positive patient with septic shock and cardiac dysfunction is described, as well as a brief review of the different causes of cardiomyopathy which may affect this group of patients is also presented. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. IgA vasculitis as a presentation of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandy-García, Anahy M; Santos-Juanes, Jorge; Suarez, Silvia; Caminal-Montero, Luis

    2018-05-15

    IgA vasculitis is a small-vessel vasculitis mediated by immune complexes. In clinical terms, it is characterized by palpable purpura in the lower limbs, joint involvement in the form of arthralgia or arthritis, and gastrointestinal and renal involvement (this will mark a poorer prognosis in adults). Infectious processes, mainly in the upper respiratory tract, are frequently found to be triggers. On the other hand, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes immune dysfunction, which triggers hypergammaglobulinemia and can trigger autoimmune disorders. At times, this can affect the vascular endothelium, giving rise to vasculitic manifestations, although there are few reports in the literature of its role in the presentation of HIV. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Hypertrophic lichen planus as a presenting feature of human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Rashmi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus (LP is a chronic papulosquamous dermatosis in which both skin and mucous membranes may be involved. To date, there have been only five reports of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients with hypertrophic LP. In the present report, we describe a 37-year-old female who presented with widely distributed, hyperpigmented, pruritic scaly lesions involving the face, trunk, and upper and lower extremities for one month. She also had swelling of both lower legs with low grade fever for past one week. She was diagnosed to be a HIV-positive patient who had severe, widespread hypertrophic LP lesions along with acute eruptive lesions of LP. These LP lesions were a presenting feature of HIV infection in our case.

  5. Peginterferon plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C in patients with human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise Lotte; Marchesini, Emanuela; Iorio, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of peginterferon plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: Trials were identified through manual and electronic searches. Randomized trials comparing peginterferon plus ribavirin...... with other antiviral treatments for patients with chronic hepatitis C and HIV were included. The primary outcome measure was virological response at the end of treatment and after > or =6 months (sustained). Intention-to-treat meta-analyses including data on all patients who were randomized were carried out....... RESULTS: Seven randomized trials were eligible for inclusion. The patients included had chronic hepatitis C and stable HIV and were not previously treated with interferon or ribavirin (treatment naive). The mean dosages were 180 or 1.5 microg/kg once weekly for peginterferon and 800 mg daily for ribavirin...

  6. A simple fluorescence based assay for quantification of human immunodeficiency virus particle release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heuser Anke-Mareil

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assembly and release of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV particles from infected cells represent attractive, but not yet exploited targets for antiretroviral therapy. The availability of simple methods to measure the efficiency of these replication steps in tissue culture would facilitate the identification of host factors essential for these processes as well as the screening for lead compounds acting as specific inhibitors of particle formation. We describe here the development of a rapid cell based assay for quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 particle assembly and/or release. Results Using a fluorescently labelled HIV-derivative, which carries an eYFP domain within the main viral structural protein Gag in the complete viral protein context, the release of virus like particles could be monitored by directly measuring the fluorescence intensity of the tissue culture supernatant. Intracellular Gag was quantitated in parallel by direct fluorescence analysis of cell lysates, allowing us to normalize for Gag expression efficiency. The assay was validated by comparison with p24 capsid ELISA measurements, a standard method for quantifying HIV-1 particles. Optimization of conditions allowed the robust detection of particle amounts corresponding to 50 ng p24/ml in medium by fluorescence spectroscopy. Further adaptation to a multi-well format rendered the assay suitable for medium or high throughput screening of siRNA libraries to identify host cell factors involved in late stages of HIV replication, as well as for random screening approaches to search for potential inhibitors of HIV-1 assembly or release. Conclusions The fast and simple fluorescence based quantification of HIV particle release yielded reproducible results which were comparable to the well established ELISA measurements, while in addition allowing the parallel determination of intracellular Gag expression. The protocols described here

  7. Aspartame Intake Relates to Coronary Plaque Burden and Inflammatory Indices in Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Leangelo N; Sanchez, Laura R; Hubbard, Jane; Lee, Hang; Looby, Sara E; Srinivasa, Suman; Zanni, Markella V; Stanley, Takara L; Lo, Janet; Grinspoon, Steven K; Fitch, Kathleen V

    2017-01-01

    Dietary sweeteners may contribute to metabolic dysregulation and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but this has not been assessed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). One hundred twenty-four HIV-infected and 56 non-HIV-infected participants, without history of known coronary artery disease were included. Dietary intake was assessed using a 4-day food record. Coronary plaque was determined using cardiac computed tomography angiography. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected participants had significantly greater intake of dietary sweeteners, including total sugar ( P = .03) and added sugar ( P = .009); intake of aspartame (artificial sweetener) was greater among aspartame consumers with HIV versus non-HIV consumers ( P = .03). Among HIV-infected participants, aspartame intake was significantly associated with coronary plaque ( P = .002) and noncalcified plaque ( P = .007) segments, as well as markers of inflammation/immune activation (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 ), which may contribute to increased atherogenesis. In multivariable regression modeling, aspartame remained an independent predictor of plaque in HIV. In contrast, among non-HIV-infected participants, no sweetener type was shown to relate to plaque characteristics. We demonstrate increased intake of dietary sweeteners and a potential novel association between aspartame intake, plaque burden, and inflammation in HIV. Our data suggest that aspartame may contribute to CVD risk in HIV. Further studies should address potential mechanisms by which aspartame may contribute to increased plaque burden and cardiovascular benefits of dietary strategies targeting aspartame intake in HIV. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  8. Rifampin pharmacokinetics in children, with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection, hospitalized for the management of severe forms of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIlleron Helen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rifampin is a key drug in antituberculosis chemotherapy because it rapidly kills the majority of bacilli in tuberculosis lesions, prevents relapse and thus enables 6-month short-course chemotherapy. Little is known about the pharmacokinetics of rifampin in children. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of rifampin in children with tuberculosis, both human immunodeficiency virus type-1-infected and human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected. Methods Fifty-four children, 21 human immunodeficiency virus-infected and 33 human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected, mean ages 3.73 and 4.05 years (P = 0.68, respectively, admitted to a tuberculosis hospital in Cape Town, South Africa with severe forms of tuberculosis were studied approximately 1 month and 4 months after commencing antituberculosis treatment. Blood specimens for analysis were drawn in the morning, 45 minutes, 1.5, 3.0, 4.0 and 6.0 hours after dosing. Rifampin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. For two sample comparisons of means, the Welch version of the t-test was used; associations between variables were examined by Pearson correlation and by multiple linear regression. Results The children received a mean rifampin dosage of 9.61 mg/kg (6.47 to 15.58 body weight at 1 month and 9.63 mg/kg (4.63 to 17.8 at 4 months after commencing treatment administered as part of a fixed-dose formulation designed for paediatric use. The mean rifampin area under the curve 0 to 6 hours after dosing was 14.9 and 18.1 μg/hour/ml (P = 0.25 1 month after starting treatment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected and human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected children, respectively, and 16.52 and 17.94 μg/hour/ml (P = 0.59 after 4 months of treatment. The mean calculated 2-hour rifampin concentrations in these human immunodeficiency virus-infected and human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected children were 3.9 and 4.8

  9. Effect of Probiotic Bacteria on Microbial Host Defense, Growth, and Immune Function in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Bengmark

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that probiotic administration protects the gut surface and could delay progression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type1 (HIV-1 infection to the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS was proposed in 1995. Over the last five years, new studies have clarified the significance of HIV-1 infection of the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT for subsequent alterations in the microflora and breakdown of the gut mucosal barrier leading to pathogenesis and development of AIDS. Current studies show that loss of gut CD4+ Th17 cells, which differentiate in response to normal microflora, occurs early in HIV-1 disease. Microbial translocation and suppression of the T regulatory (Treg cell response is associated with chronic immune activation and inflammation. Combinations of probiotic bacteria which upregulate Treg activation have shown promise in suppressing pro inflammatory immune response in models of autoimmunity including inflammatory bowel disease and provide a rationale for use of probiotics in HIV-1/AIDS. Disturbance of the microbiota early in HIV-1 infection leads to greater dominance of potential pathogens, reducing levels of bifidobacteria and lactobacillus species and increasing mucosal inflammation. The interaction of chronic or recurrent infections, and immune activation contributes to nutritional deficiencies that have lasting consequences especially in the HIV-1 infected child. While effective anti-retroviral therapy (ART has enhanced survival, wasting is still an independent predictor of survival and a major presenting symptom. Congenital exposure to HIV-1 is a risk factor for growth delay in both infected and non-infected infants. Nutritional intervention after 6 months of age appears to be largely ineffective. A meta analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials of infant formulae supplemented with Bifidobacterium lactis showed that weight gain was significantly greater in infants who received B. lactis compared to

  10. Palatability, adherence and prescribing patterns of antiretroviral drugs for children with human immunodeficiency virus infection in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Daren; Seabrook, Jamie A; Matsui, Doreen M; King, Susan M; Rieder, Michael J; Finkelstein, Yaron

    2011-12-01

    To assess the impact of perceived palatability of antiretroviral drugs on adherence to therapy of children infected by human immunodeficiency virus and on prescribing patterns by their caring physicians. Two arms--retrospective chart review and a cross-sectional survey. Tertiary-care pediatric human immunodeficiency virus clinic during a 17-year period. Children with human immunodeficiency virus infection and physicians actively caring for children with human immunodeficiency virus infection in seven provinces in Canada were surveyed regarding their perception of the palatability of 8-liquid and 15 non-liquid antiretroviral medications and its effect on drug selection. Effect of taste preferences of antiretroviral drugs on adherence to treatment by infected children and on drug selection by their caring physicians. Forty of 119 children (34%) refused at least once to an antiretroviral medication. In 5%, treatment was discontinued because of poor palatability. Ritonavir was the least palatable drug (50% of children; p = 0.01). Ritonavir use (OR 4.80 [95%CI 1.34-17.20]) and male gender (OR 7.25 [95%CI 2.30-22.90]) were independent predictors of drug discontinuation because of poor taste. Physicians also perceived liquid ritonavir as the least palatable (p = 0.01) and the most likely to be discontinued (p = 0.01). However, they commonly prescribed it as first-line therapy (p = 0.06). A third of children infected with human immunodeficiency virus fail to adhere to their treatment because of poor drug taste. Physicians are aware of that, but this does not prevent them from selecting the least palatable drugs as first-line therapy. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. [Practices and perception of risk in human immunodeficiency virus infected males who have sex with other males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Mosteyrín, Sol; del Val Acebrón, María; Fernández de Mosteyrín, Teresa; Fernández Guerrero, Manuel L

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases increases in males who have sex with males (MSM), despite the knowledge on how to prevent them. To determine the mechanisms that are driving this lack of prevention is important to reverse the trend. An anonymous, voluntary and self-reporting questionnaire was completed by HIV+ MSM patients who were seen in a hospital clinic, with the aim of finding out the sexual risk practices and behaviour, as well as their perceptions and assessment as regards this risk. The questionnaire included 58questions, divided into 10sections, to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour as regards HIV. The questionnaires were also given to the physicians, with the aim of exploring their perceptions, attitudes and opinions as regards the situation of the epidemic, prevention, perception of the diseases and the patient, and values in clinical practice. A total of 495 questionnaires from the patients were analysed. Most of them (87%) said they knew how HIV was acquired, and 97% knew how to prevent it, but 69% knew they were in a risk situation, and 43% had little concern of contracting HIV. Almost two-thirds (65%) had sex with ≥2persons on the same day, 47% met on the Internet and 26% had group sex. The same percentage of those surveyed considered that they acted impulsively. They highlighted a lack of information (33%), bad luck (32%), assumed excessive risk (36%), and lake of concern (25%), as the main reasons for acquiring the infection. When confronted with diagnosis 41% of patients answered «I never thought that it would happen to me», and 32% said «I had bad luck». Of the 121 physicians who completed the questionnaire, 24% considered that infection due to HIV/AIDS was out of control in Spain, and 65% responded that there was an image that HIV/AIDS was a controlled disease and of little concern. A large majority (71%) of those surveyed, considered that the increase in new

  12. Vaccinia virus recombinants expressing chimeric proteins of human immunodeficiency virus and gamma interferon are attenuated for nude mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Giavedoni, L D; Jones, L; Gardner, M B; Gibson, H L; Ng, C T; Barr, P J; Yilma, T

    1992-01-01

    We have developed a method for attenuating vaccinia virus recombinants by expressing a fusion protein of a lymphokine and an immunogen. Chimeric genes were constructed that coded for gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and structural proteins of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In this study, we describe the biological and immunological properties of vaccinia virus recombinants expressing chimeric genes of murine or human IFN-gamma with glycoprotein gp120, gag, and a fragment of gp41...

  13. Avaliação nutricional em pacientes infectados pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Adquirida Nutritional assessment in patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Mendes Reis Barbosa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Pacientes infectados com o Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana ou com Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida freqüentemente apresentam desnutrição protéico-energética, com manifestações heterogêneas, as quais dependem do estado de saúde prévio do paciente. O estado nutricional deve ser avaliado e monitorado cuidadosamente para que o plano terapêutico possa ser efetivo. Uma avaliação nutricional abrangente é fundamental; além disso, toda a equipe de profissionais da saúde e os próprios pacientes devem estar atentos para uma ação precoce e integrada.Patients infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus or with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome often present protein-energy malnutrition. The manifestations are heterogeneous and depend on the patient's previous health status. The nutritional status must be assessed and carefully controlled, so that satisfactory results can be achieved and the therapeutic plan can be effective. A complete detailed nutritional assessment is fundamental; besides, the health professional team and the patients themselves need to be aware of the symptoms and the disease progress, in order to take an early and integrated action.

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus testing behaviors among US adults: the roles of individual factors, legislative status, and public health resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ping; Camacho, Fabian; Zurlo, John; Lengerich, Eugene J

    2011-09-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended an "opt-out" human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing strategy in 2006 for all persons aged 13 to 64 years at healthcare settings. We conducted this study to identify individual, health, and policy factors that may be associated with HIV testing in US adults. The 2008 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System data were utilized. Individuals' residency states were classified into 4 categories based on the legislation status to HIV testing laws in 2007 and HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome morbidity. A multivariate logistic regression adjusting for survey designs was performed to examine factors associated with HIV testing. A total of 281,826 adults aged 18 to 64 years answered HIV testing questions in 2008. The proportions of US adults who had ever been tested for HIV increased from 35.9% in 2006 to 39.9% in 2008. HIV testing varied across the individual's characteristics including sociodemographics, access to regular health care, and risk for HIV infection. Compared with residents of "high morbidity-opt out" states, those living in "high morbidity-opt in" states with legislative restrictions for HIV testing had a slightly lower odds of being tested for HIV (adjusted odds ratio = 0.96; 95% confidence interval = 0.92, 1.01). Adults living in "low morbidity" states were significantly less likely to be tested for HIV, regardless of legislative status. To implement routine HIV testing in the general population, the role of public health resources should be emphasized and legislative barriers should be further reduced. Strategies need to be developed to reach people who do not have regular access to health care.

  15. The Prevalence of Different Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission Routes and Knowledge about AIDS in Infected People with HIV in Sirjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Behzadpour

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The immune system of Patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS is weekend because of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, and they become vulnerable to several opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens and different carcinomas. IV drug abuse, sexual contact, occupational transmission, blood transfusion and maternal-fetal transmission are well known transmission routes for HIV infection. This study was under taken to investigate the prevalence of HIV transmission routs in the HIV infected population of Sirjan, and their knowledge about the disease, in order to plan better preventive strategies. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was planned. During a 6-month period in 2010, all of the HIV infected people in Sirjan (old and new cases who had a file at the consultation center for high risk behavior, completed a valid and reliable questionnaire. Results: The definite route of transmission was not clear in any of the patients because they had more than one suspicious route. Injected drug abusers were the most common (88.4% followed by those who got tattoos (79.1%, invasive therapeutic procedures, dentistry, surgery and endoscopy (56.1%, high risk sexual behavior (62.8%, bloodletting (9.3%, injuries in the barbershop (9.3% and blood transfusion (2.3%. Conclusion: All of the HIV infected cases in Sirjan were involved with several high risk behaviors, but the major route of transmission, similar to other parts of the country was injected drug abuse. Educational programs for prevention of AIDS should be followed seriously and special attention should be paid to groups with multiple high risk behaviors.

  16. Use of Condoms among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Nnewi, South East Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udigwe, Go; Mbachu, Ii; Onyegbule, Oa; Oguaka, V

    2014-09-01

    Consistent use of condom provides protection from transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in couples with sero-discordant HIV status. It also protects against acquiring other strains in HIV positive concordant couples. This study evaluated the use of barrier method of contraception among HIV patients. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among pregnant women in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to obtain relevant information from the subjects. Data was analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0 (Chicago, IL, USA, August 2011). A total of 126 HIV positive pregnant women participated in this study. The mean age of the women was 30.4 (5) years while the mean parity was 2.6 (1). All the patients had at least primary education with 63.5% (80/126) having secondary education as the highest educational attainment while 87.3% (110/126) were in monogamous marriage. The partner's HIV status showed that 41.3% (52/126) tested negative to HIV antibodies while 42.8% (54/126) tested positive to HIV antibodies and 15.9% (20/126) do not know partner's HIV status. Only 61.9% (78/126) of the couples use condom during sexual intercourse. Further analysis showed that 26.2% (33/126) use condom consistently except during timed intercourse for conception. There was significant association between type of relationship and use of barrier method of contraception. There was no significant association between sero-discordant couples and highest educational status with use of barrier method of conception. Condom use among HIV positive couples is low and raises great concern on transmission of the virus to partners and babies born to positive mothers.

  17. Superior Efficacy of a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Vaccine Combined with Antiretroviral Prevention in Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Challenged Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grand, Roger; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Dispinseri, Stefania; Gosse, Leslie; Desjardins, Delphine; Shen, Xiaoying; Tolazzi, Monica; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Saidi, Hela; Tomaras, Georgia; Prague, Mélanie; Barnett, Susan W; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Cope, Alethea; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Shattock, Robin J

    2016-06-01

    Although vaccines and antiretroviral (ARV) prevention have demonstrated partial success against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in clinical trials, their combined introduction could provide more potent protection. Furthermore, combination approaches could ameliorate the potential increased risk of infection following vaccination in the absence of protective immunity. We used a nonhuman primate model to determine potential interactions of combining a partially effective ARV microbicide with an envelope-based vaccine. The vaccine alone provided no protection from infection following 12 consecutive low-dose intravaginal challenges with simian-HIV strain SF162P3, with more animals infected compared to naive controls. The microbicide alone provided a 68% reduction in the risk of infection relative to that of the vaccine group and a 45% reduction relative to that of naive controls. The vaccine-microbicide combination provided an 88% reduction in the per-exposure risk of infection relative to the vaccine alone and a 79% reduction relative to that of the controls. Protected animals in the vaccine-microbicide group were challenged a further 12 times in the absence of microbicide and demonstrated a 98% reduction in the risk of infection. A total risk reduction of 91% was observed in this group over 24 exposures (P = 0.004). These important findings suggest that combined implementation of new biomedical prevention strategies may provide significant gains in HIV prevention. There is a pressing need to maximize the impact of new biomedical prevention tools in the face of the 2 million HIV infections that occur each year. Combined implementation of complementary biomedical approaches could create additive or synergistic effects that drive improved reduction of HIV incidence. Therefore, we assessed a combination of an untested vaccine with an ARV-based microbicide in a nonhuman primate vaginal challenge model. The vaccine alone provided no protection (and may have

  18. Seroprevalence of the Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses and Treponema pallidum at the Beijing General Hospital from 2010 to 2014: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxia Xu

    Full Text Available The hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency viruses and Treponema pallidum are important causes of infectious diseases concern to public health.Between 2010 and 2014, we used an automated chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay to detect the hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency viruses as well as Treponema pallidum (the rapid plasma regain test was used in 2010-2011. Positive human immunodeficiency virus tests were confirmed via western blotting.Among 416,130 subjects, the seroprevalences for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and Treponema pallidum were 5.72%, 1.23%, 0.196%, and 0.76%, respectively. Among 671 patients with positive human immunodeficiency virus results, 392 cases were confirmed via western blotting. Hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus infections were more frequent in men (7.78% and 0.26%, respectively than in women (4.45% and 0.021%, respectively. The hepatitis B and C virus seroprevalences decreased from 6.21% and 1.58%, respectively, in 2010, to 5.37% and 0.988%, respectively, in 2014. The human immunodeficiency virus seroprevalence increased from 0.04% in 2010 to 0.17% in 2014, and was elevated in the Infectious Disease (2.65%, Emergency (1.71%, and Dermatology and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (1.12% departments. The specificity of the human immunodeficiency virus screening was 71.4%. The false positive rates for the Treponema pallidum screening tests increased in patients who were 60-70 years old. The co-infection rates for the hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency viruses were 0.47% in hepatitis C virus-positive patients and 7.33% in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients.During 2010-2014, hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus infections were more frequent among men at our institution. Although the seroprevalences of hepatitis B and C viruses decreased, the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection increased (with

  19. Human immunodeficiency virus/human parvovirus B19 co-infection in blood donors and AIDS patients in Sichuan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Miao; Zhu, Jiang; Yin, Huimin; Ke, Ling; Gao, Lei; Pan, Zhihong; Yang, Xiuhua; Li, Wuping

    2012-01-01

    Background Human parvovirus B19 (B19) is a common pathogen which causes a variety of diseases. Persistent B19 infection is related to the degree of host immunodeficiency in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, the existence, loading, virus evolution and distribution of B19 in Chinese HIV-positive patients have not been determined. Materials and methods. We investigated 573 HIV-positive blood donors and AIDS patients in Sichuan, China in the last two decades. Bl9-specific serology and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the prevalence of B19/HIV co-infection. Viral genome fragments were subjected to phylogeny and haplotype analysis. Results B19 genomic DNA was found in 26 of 573 (4.5%) HIV-positive individuals, a higher prevalence than in blood donors. DNA levels ranged from 5.3×102–1.1×105 copies/mL. The seroprevalence of IgG was significantly lower in HIV-positive samples than in HIV-negative blood donors, indicating deficient production of B19-specific IgG in the former. The B19 isolates were genotype-1 subtype B19-1A which formed a monophyletic group; seven distinct haplotypes were discovered with 60% of the B19/HIV co-infected variants sharing one central haplotype. Discussion. This study on the prevalence, phylogeny and distribution of human parvovirus B19 in Sichuan, China, demonstrates the persistence of B19 in the circulation of both immunocompetent and immunocompromised subjects, with implications for blood safety. PMID:22790259

  20. Induction of immunity to human immunodeficiency virus type-1 by vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElrath, M Juliana; Haynes, Barton F

    2010-10-29

    Recent findings have brought optimism that development of a successful human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) vaccine lies within reach. Studies of early events in HIV-1 infection have revealed when and where HIV-1 is potentially vulnerable to vaccine-targeted immune responses. With technical advances in human antibody production, clues about how antibodies recognize HIV-1 envelope proteins have uncovered new targets for immunogen design. A recent vaccine regimen has shown modest efficacy against HIV-1 acquisition. However, inducing long-term T and B cell memory and coping with HIV-1 diversity remain high priorities. Mediators of innate immunity may play pivotal roles in blocking infection and shaping immunity; vaccine strategies to capture these activities are under investigation. Challenges remain in integrating basic, preclinical and clinical research to improve predictions of types of immunity associated with vaccine efficacy, to apply these insights to immunogen design, and to accelerate evaluation of vaccine efficacy in persons at-risk for infection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Natural killer cell biology illuminated by primary immunodeficiency syndromes in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Matthias; Bryceson, Yenan T

    2017-04-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune cytotoxic effector cells well known for their role in antiviral immunity and tumor immunosurveillance. In parts, this knowledge stems from rare inherited immunodeficiency disorders in humans that abrogate NK cell function leading to immune impairments, most notably associated with a high susceptibility to viral infections. Phenotypically, these disorders range from deficiencies selectively affecting NK cells to complex general immune defects that affect NK cells but also other immune cell subsets. Moreover, deficiencies may be associated with reduced NK cell numbers or rather impair specific NK cell effector functions. In recent years, genetic defects underlying the various NK cell deficiencies have been uncovered and have triggered investigative efforts to decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying these disorders. Here we review the associations between inherited human diseases and NK cell development as well as function, with a particular focus on defects in NK cell exocytosis and cytotoxicity. Furthermore we outline how reports of diverse genetic defects have shaped our understanding of NK cell biology. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Serological responses in chimpanzees inoculated with human immunodeficiency virus glycoprotein (gp120) subunit vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, L.O.; Pyle, S.W.; Nara, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    The major envelope glycoprotein of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been purified and was utilized as a prototype vaccine in chimpanzees. The 120,000-dalton glycoprotein (gp120) was purified from membranes of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-IIIB-infected cells and the final preparation contained low levels to no detectable HTLV-IIIB core antigen (p24) and low levels of endotoxin. Chimpanzees inoculated with gp120 responded by developing antibodies that precipitated radiolabeled gp120 and neutralized in vitro infection of HTLV-IIIB. Antibodies to HTLV-IIIB p24 were not detected in the gp120-immunized chimpanzees. Peripheral blood leukocytes from the vaccinated animals were examined for T4 + and T8 + cells, and no decrease in the T4/T8 ratio was found, indicating that immunization with a ligand (gp120) that binds to T4 has not detectable adverse effect on the population of T4 + cells. The only current animal model that can be reproducibly infected with HIV is the chimpanzee. Immunization of chimpanzees with HIV proteins will provide an experimental system for testing the effectiveness of prototype vaccines for preventing HIV infection in vivo

  3. Fangchinoline inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by interfering with gp160 proteolytic processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitao Wan

    Full Text Available The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy has led to a significant reduction in the morbidity and mortality of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. However, the emergence of drug resistance has resulted in the failure of treatments in large numbers of patients and thus necessitates the development of new classes of anti-HIV drugs. In this study, more than 200 plant-derived small-molecule compounds were evaluated in a cell-based HIV-1 antiviral screen, resulting in the identification of a novel HIV-1 inhibitor (fangchinoline. Fangchinoline, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Radix Stephaniae tetrandrae, exhibited antiviral activity against HIV-1 laboratory strains NL4-3, LAI and BaL in MT-4 and PM1 cells with a 50% effective concentration ranging from 0.8 to 1.7 µM. Mechanism-of-action studies showed that fangchinoline did not exhibit measurable antiviral activity in TZM-b1 cells but did inhibit the production of infectious virions in HIV-1 cDNA transfected 293T cells, which suggests that the compound targets a late event in infection cycle. Furthermore, the antiviral effect of fangchinoline seems to be HIV-1 envelope-dependent, as the production of infectious HIV-1 particles packaged with a heterologous envelope, the vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein, was unaffected by fangchinoline. Western blot analysis of HIV envelope proteins expressed in transfected 293T cells and in isolated virions showed that fangchinoline inhibited HIV-1 gp160 processing, resulting in reduced envelope glycoprotein incorporation into nascent virions. Collectively, our results demonstrate that fangchinoline inhibits HIV-1 replication by interfering with gp160 proteolytic processing. Fangchinoline may serve as a starting point for developing a new HIV-1 therapeutic approach.

  4. RF Device for Acquiring Images of the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Todd C.; McGrath, William R.

    2010-01-01

    A safe, non-invasive method for forming images through clothing of large groups of people, in order to search for concealed weapons either made of metal or not, has been developed. A millimeter wavelength scanner designed in a unique, ring-shaped configuration can obtain a full 360 image of the body with a resolution of less than a millimeter in only a few seconds. Millimeter waves readily penetrate normal clothing, but are highly reflected by the human body and concealed objects. Millimeter wave signals are nonionizing and are harmless to human tissues when used at low power levels. The imager (see figure) consists of a thin base that supports a small-diameter vertical post about 7 ft (=2.13 m) tall. Attached to the post is a square-shaped ring 2 in. (=5 cm) wide and 3 ft (=91 cm) on a side. The ring is oriented horizontally, and is supported halfway along one side by a connection to a linear bearing on the vertical post. A planar RF circuit board is mounted to the inside of each side of the ring. Each circuit board contains an array of 30 receivers, one transmitter, and digitization electronics. Each array element has a printed-circuit patch antenna coupled to a pair of mixers by a 90 coupler. The mixers receive a reference local oscillator signal to a subharmonic of the transmitter frequency. A single local oscillator line feeds all 30 receivers on the board. The resulting MHz IF signals are amplified and carried to the edge of the board where they are demodulated and digitized. The transmitted signal is derived from the local oscillator at a frequency offset determined by a crystal oscillator. One antenna centrally located on each side of the square ring provides the source illumination power. The total transmitted power is less than 100 mW, resulting in an exposure level that is completely safe to humans. The output signals from all four circuit boards are fed via serial connection to a data processing computer. The computer processes the approximately 1-MB

  5. Potent neutralizing serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) in human immunodeficiency virus type 2-exposed IgG-seronegative individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lizeng, Q; Nilsson, C; Sourial, S

    2004-01-01

    Links Potent neutralizing serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) in human immunodeficiency virus type 2-exposed IgG-seronegative individuals.Lizeng Q, Nilsson C, Sourial S, Andersson S, Larsen O, Aaby P, Ehnlund M, Bjorling E. Research Center, South Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. The mechanisms behind...... the resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection are still not fully understood. In the present study, we explored the HIV-2-specific humoral serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) immune response in HIV-2-exposed IgG-seronegative (EGSN) individuals. Serum samples from heterosexual EGSN individuals...... and their known HIV-2-infected partners, as well as controls originating from Guinea-Bissau in Africa, were studied. Antibody reactivity to native and recombinant envelope glycoproteins was investigated, and the capacity of purified serum IgA to neutralize HIV-2(SBL6669) was tested. Our results showed that 16...

  6. BIRTH-ORDER, DELIVERY ROUTE, AND CONCORDANCE IN THE TRANSMISSION OF HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS TYPE-1 FROM MOTHERS TO TWINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DULIEGE, AM; AMOS, CI; FELTON, S; BIGGAR, RJ; ZIEGLER, J; CRUIKSHANK, M; LEVY, J; MEATES, MA; GIBB, D; MAYAUX, MJ; TEGLAS, JP; LAURENT, C; BLANCHE, S; ROUZIOUX, C; HELLINGGIESE, G; MATTNER, U; HOEGER, PH; CONLON, T; GRIFFIN, E; DEMARIA, A; BENEDETTO, A; PRINCIPI, N; GIAQUINTO, C; GIANCOMELLI, A; MOK, J; CASABONA, J; FORTUNY, C; URIZ, S; PEREZ, JM; TUSETRUIZ, MC; LEON, P; ELORZA, JFY; CANOSA, C; BRANDLE, B; SEGER, R; NADAL, D; IRION, O; WYLER, CA; DAVIS, P; LALLEMANT, M; LALLEMANTLECOEUR, S; HITIMANA, DG; LEPAGE, P; VANDEPERRE, P; DABIS, F; MARUM, L; NDUGWA, C; TINDYEBWA, D; ACENG, E; MMIRO, F; SUTONGAS, T; OLNESS, K; LAPOINTE, N; RUBINSTEIN, A; BURGE, D; STECHENBERG, BW; COOPER, E; REGAN, AM; SHIPKOWITZ, S; WIZNIA, A; BRUNELL, PA; COURVILLE, T; RUTSTEIN, R; MCINTOSH, K; PETRU, A; OLEARY, M; CHURCH, J; TAYLOR, S; SQUIRES, J; MALLORY, M; YOGEV, R; RAKUSAN, T; PLUMLEY, S; SHELTON, MM; WILFERT, C; LANE, B; ABRAMS, EJ; RANA, S; CHANDAVASU, O; PUVABANDITSIN, S; CHOW, JH; SHAH, K; NACHMAN, S; ONEILL, R; SELWYN, P; SHOENBAUM, E; BARZILAI, A; WARFORD, R; AHERN, L; PAHWA, S; PNUGOTI, N; GARCIATRIAS, DE; BAKSHI, S; LANDESMAN, S; MENDEZ, H; MOROSO, G; MENDEZBAUTISTA, RD; FIKRIG, S; BELMAN, A; KLINE, MW; HANSON, C; EDELSON, P; HINDS, G; VANDYKE, R; CLARK, R; WARA, DW; MANIO, EB; JOHNSON, G; WELLS, L; JOHNSON, JP; ALGER, L; LUZURIAGA, K; MASTRUCCI, T; SUNKUTU, MR; RODRIGUEZ, Z; DOYLE, M; REUBEN, J; BRYSON, Y; DILLON, M; SIMPSON, BJ; ANDIMAN, W; URIBE, P; Klauke, B.

    Background: We evaluated data from prospectively identified twins to understand better the mechanisms and covariates of mother-to-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods: Using data obtained from an international collaboration and multivariate quasilikelihood modeling, we

  7. Template Dimerization Promotes an Acceptor Invasion-Induced Transfer Mechanism during Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Minus-Strand Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Balakrishnan, Mini; Roques, Bernard P.; Fay, Philip J.; Bambara, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    The biochemical mechanism of template switching by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase and the role of template dimerization were examined. Homologous donor-acceptor template pairs derived from the HIV-1 untranslated leader region and containing the wild-type and mutant dimerization initiation sequences (DIS) were used to examine the efficiency and distribution of transfers. Inhibiting donor-acceptor interaction was sufficient to reduce transfers in DIS-containin...

  8. Physician Decisions to Defer Antiretroviral Therapy in Key Populations: Implications for Reducing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Incidence and Mortality in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ferro, Enrico G.; Culbert, Gabriel J.; Wickersham, Jeffrey A.; Marcus, Ruthanne; Steffen, Alana D.; Pauls, Heather A.; Westergaard, Ryan P.; Lee, Christopher K.; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), yet physician attitudes and prescribing behaviors toward members of key risk populations may limit ART access and undermine treatment as prevention strategies. Methods. Physicians in Malaysia (N = 214) who prescribe antiretroviral therapy (ART) responded in an Internet-based survey to hypothetical clinical scenarios of HIV patients, varying by key risk population and...

  9. New sensitive and specific assay for human immunodeficiency virus antibodies using labeled recombinant fusion protein and time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay.

    OpenAIRE

    Siitari, H; Turunen, P; Schrimsher, J; Nunn, M

    1990-01-01

    A new, rapid method for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) was developed. In this assay format, microtitration strips were coated with a recombinant fusion protein, and the same protein was labeled with europium and added into the wells simultaneously with the test specimens. The recombinant fusion protein contained the HIV-1 p24 gag protein sequence that carried an insertion, near the carboxyl terminus, of a 23-am...

  10. Esophago-pleural fistula with multiple esophageal ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Soo Hee; Lee, Young Kyung; Choi, Jae Phil; Son, Jin Sung

    2014-01-01

    Esophagitis is a common complication in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is caused by candidiasis, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, or idiopathic esophagitis with no detectable etiology. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is occasionally combined with esophageal ulcers. We report chest CT findings and clinical manifestation of esophago-pleural fistula with pneumothorax in a HIV infected patient, who was treated for aspiration pneumonia and esophageal ulcers.

  11. Utilization of free dental health care services provided to the perinatally infected human immunodeficiency virus children in Bangalore: Longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Beena Javaregowda Parvathy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Use of Highly active anti-retroviral therapy have increased the life expectancy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients and hence it is imperative that all efforts have to be made by Pediatric dentists to provide a better oral health for these children. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of utilization of free dental treatment provided to these perinatally infected HIV positive children who were previously screened as a part of oral health survey. ...

  12. Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection by the Candidate Microbicide Dapivirine, a Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor▿

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, P.; Harman, S.; Azijn, H.; Armanasco, N.; Manlow, P.; Perumal, D.; de Bethune, M.-P.; Nuttall, J.; Romano, J.; Shattock, R.

    2008-01-01

    Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains the major route of infection worldwide; thus, there is an urgent need for additional prevention strategies, particularly strategies that could be controlled by women, such as topical microbicides. Potential microbicide candidates must be both safe and effective. Using cellular and tissue explant models, we have evaluated the activity of the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) dapivirine as a vaginal micr...

  13. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection: Intraindividual Comparison of Cellular Immune Responses against Two Persistent Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Lauer, Georg M.; Nguyen, Tam N.; Day, Cheryl L.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Flynn, Theresa; McGowan, Katherine; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Lucas, Michaela; Klenerman, Paul; Chung, Raymond T.; Walker, Bruce D.

    2002-01-01

    Both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) lead to chronic infection in a high percentage of persons, and an expanding epidemic of HIV-1-HCV coinfection has recently been identified. These individuals provide an opportunity for simultaneous assessment of immune responses to two viral infections associated with chronic plasma viremia. In this study we analyzed the breadth and magnitude of the CD8+- and CD4+-T-lymphocyte responses in 22 individuals infected wit...

  14. Esophago-pleural fistula with multiple esophageal ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Soo Hee; Lee, Young Kyung; Choi, Jae Phil; Son, Jin Sung [Seoul Medical Center, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Esophagitis is a common complication in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is caused by candidiasis, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, or idiopathic esophagitis with no detectable etiology. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is occasionally combined with esophageal ulcers. We report chest CT findings and clinical manifestation of esophago-pleural fistula with pneumothorax in a HIV infected patient, who was treated for aspiration pneumonia and esophageal ulcers.

  15. Determination of the effectiveness of inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus by Pretoria pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, B S; Webber, L; Mokhondo, K R; Erasmus, D

    2001-12-01

    The risk of transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) via breastfeeding is between 10 and 17 per cent. In resource-poor countries most HIV-infected women cannot afford to formula feed their infants and formula feeding is not desirable in areas of high infant mortality because of loss of the immunological benefits of breastmilk. A method has been devised by which HIV-infected women may express and pasteurize their breastmilk in a domestic setting using inexpensive apparatus and a simple technique. The method, Pretoria Pasteurization has been shown to be reliable under a wide range of conditions and maintains milk between 56 degrees and 62.5 degrees C for between 12 and 15 min. This study was devised to determine whether Pretoria Pasteurization effectively inactivates HIV in human milk. Samples of expressed breastmilk were obtained from a group of HIV-infected lactating women and a group of HIV-negative women. The samples of milk from the HIV-negative women were inoculated with high titres of cell-associated and cell-free HIV. Each sample was divided into a control portion and a study portion. The study portion underwent Pretoria Pasteurization. Control and pasteurized samples were inoculated into lymphocyte co-culture for a period of 35 days. All co-cultures were sampled weekly and analysed by serological and molecular methods for p24 antigen, cell-free HIV RNA and integrated DNA. Viral RNA was detected in the milk of 80 per cent amongst the known HIV-positive women. The mean serum viral load in the group of HIV positive women was 50728 copies/ml and the mean milk viral load was 422000 copies/ml. Evidence of viral replication was shown in 11 of the control specimens. There was no evidence of viral replication in any of the study specimens which had undergone Pretoria Pasteurization. It was concluded that Pretoria Pasteurization effectively inactivates HIV in human milk.

  16. Multiple Restrictions of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Feline Cells▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münk, Carsten; Zielonka, Jörg; Constabel, Hannelore; Kloke, Björn-Philipp; Rengstl, Benjamin; Battenberg, Marion; Bonci, Francesca; Pistello, Mauro; Löchelt, Martin; Cichutek, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    The productive replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) occurs exclusively in defined cells of human or chimpanzee origin, explaining why heterologous animal models for HIV replication, pathogenesis, vaccination, and therapy are not available. This lack of an animal model for HIV-1 studies prompted us to examine the susceptibility of feline cells in order to evaluate the cat (Felis catus) as an animal model for studying HIV-1. Here, we report that feline cell lines harbor multiple restrictions with respect to HIV-1 replication. The feline CD4 receptor does not permit virus infection. Feline T-cell lines MYA-1 and FeT-1C showed postentry restrictions resulting in low HIV-1 luciferase reporter activity and low expression of viral Gag-Pol proteins when pseudotyped vectors were used. Feline fibroblastic CrFK and KE-R cells, expressing human CD4 and CCR5, were very permissive for viral entry and HIV-long terminal repeat-driven expression but failed to support spreading infection. KE-R cells displayed a profound block with respect to release of HIV-1 particles. In contrast, CrFK cells allowed very efficient particle production; however, the CrFK cell-derived HIV-1 particles had low specific infectivity. We subsequently identified feline apolipoprotein B-editing catalytic polypeptide 3 (feAPOBEC3) proteins as active inhibitors of HIV-1 particle infectivity. CrFK cells express at least three different APOBEC3s: APOBEC3C, APOBEC3H, and APOBEC3CH. While the feAPOBEC3C did not significantly inhibit HIV-1, the feAPOBEC3H and feAPOBEC3CH induced G to A hypermutations of the viral cDNA and reduced the infectivity ∼10- to ∼40-fold. PMID:17459941

  17. Primary Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer in the Setting of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Emily A.; Guiou, Michael; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Lau, Derick H.; Stuart, Kerri; Vaughan, Andrew; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Chen, Allen M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze outcomes after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer among a cohort of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods and Materials: The medical records of 12 patients with serologic evidence of HIV who subsequently underwent radiation therapy to a median dose of 68 Gy (range, 64-72 Gy) for newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were reviewed. Six patients (50%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy was used in 6 cases (50%). All patients had a Karnofsky performance status of 80 or 90. Nine patients (75%) were receiving antiretroviral therapies at the time of treatment, and the median CD4 count was 460 (range, 266-800). Toxicity was graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group / European Organization for the Treatment of Cancer toxicity criteria. Results: The 3-year estimates of overall survival and local-regional control were 78% and 92%, respectively. Acute Grade 3+ toxicity occurred in 7 patients (58%), the most common being confluent mucositis (5 patients) and moist skin desquamation (4 patients). Two patients experienced greater than 10% weight loss, and none experienced more than 15% weight loss from baseline. Five patients (42%) experienced treatment breaks in excess of 10 cumulative days, although none required hospitalization. There were no treatment-related fatalities. Conclusions: Radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer seems to be relatively well tolerated among appropriately selected patients with HIV. The observed rates of toxicity were comparable to historical controls without HIV.

  18. Lymphocyte subsets in human immunodeficiency virus-unexposed Brazilian individuals from birth to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel de Moraes-Pinto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic origin, genetics, gender and environmental factors have been shown to influence some immunologic indices, so that development of reference values for populations of different backgrounds may be necessary. We have determined the distribution of lymphocyte subsets in healthy Brazilian individuals from birth to adulthood. Lymphocyte subsets were determined using four-colour cytometry in a cross-sectional study of 463 human immunodeficiency virus-unexposed children and adults from birth through 49 years of age. Lymphocyte subsets varied according to age, as previously observed in other studies. However, total CD4+ T cell numbers were lower than what was described in the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group P1009 (PACTG P1009, which assessed an American population of predominantly African and Hispanic backgrounds until the 12-18 year age range, when values were comparable. Naïve percentages and absolute values of CD8+ T cells, as assessed by CD45RA expression, were also lower than the PACTG P1009 data for all analysed age ranges. CD38 expression on both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was lower than the PACTG P1009 values, with a widening gap between the two studies at older age ranges. Different patterns of cell differentiation seem to occur in different settings and may have characteristic expression within each population.

  19. Otitis media in Brazilian human immunodeficiency virus infected children undergoing antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miziara, I D; Weber, R; Araújo Filho, B Cunha; Pinheiro Neto, C Diógenes

    2007-11-01

    To assess changes in the prevalence of otitis media, associated with the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, in Brazilian human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children. Division of otorhinolaryngology, Hospital das Clínicas, Sao Paulo University Medical School, Brazil. A cohort of 459 HIV-infected children aged below 13 years. The prevalence of otitis media and the serum cluster of differentiation four glycoprotein T lymphocyte count were compared for children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (with protease inhibitors) and those receiving standard antiretroviral therapy (without protease inhibitors). Otitis media was present in 33.1 per cent of the children. Children aged from zero years to five years 11 months receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy had a higher prevalence of acute otitis media (p=0.02) and a lower prevalence of chronic otitis media (p=0.02). Children who were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy had a mean serum cluster of differentiation four glycoprotein T lymphocyte count greater than that of those who were receiving standard antiretroviral therapy (pBrazilian HIV-infected children was associated with a lower prevalence of chronic otitis media.

  20. The role of radiotherapy in the management of cancer patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    Cancer and AIDS are both pandemics: they have an emotional and social impact that goes far beyond the physical disruption they cause. These are usually perceived and addressed as independent disease entities. When these coexist in one patient, however, the appropriate management of the cancer needs to be modified from the standard clinical protocols. New protocols appearing in the radiotherapy literature have been investigative rather than definitive and, with few exceptions, analyse the results of small series of patients. The IAEA has extensive projects in radiation oncology in developing countries. In Africa, there is concern that AIDS related cancers utilise an increasing amount of scarce resources, that they frequently require equipment for the management of superficial tumours, and that inadequate training is available in the management of these cancers. This report developed from the need to address these concerns. An Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) on the Relationship between Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Cancer Management Protocols for Developing Countries was convened in October 1999. A reading of this report will show that considerable amount of further investigation is required to respond authoritatively to many of the management decisions that need be made. It is also evident that the greatest number of patients requiring optimal management protocols live in sub-Saharan Africa - a region where research resources are at a minimum. The IAEA has made available limited funding for a research project in determining the intermediate term effects of radiation therapy on the immune system in AIDS related cervical cancer.

  1. Legal guardians understand how children with the human immunodeficiency virus perceive quality of life and stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydström, Lise-Lott; Wiklander, Maria; Ygge, Britt-Marie; Navér, Lars; Eriksson, Lars E

    2015-09-01

    This aim of this study was to describe how legal guardians assessed health-related quality of life and HIV-related stigma in children with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) compared to the children's own ratings. A cross-sectional nationwide study was performed to compare how 37 children aged from eight to 16 years of age with perinatal HIV, and their legal guardians, assessed the children's health-related quality of life and HIV-related stigma. Data were collected using the 37-item DISABKIDS Chronic Generic Module and a short eight-item version of the HIV stigma scale. Intraclass correlations indicated concordance between the legal guardians' ratings and the children's own ratings of the child's health-related quality of life and HIV-related stigma. There were no statistically significant differences between the ratings of the two groups and gender did not have any impact on the results. Both groups indicated that the children had concerns about being open about their HIV status. The results of this study indicated that legal guardians understood how their children perceived their health-related quality of life and HIV-related stigma. The results also indicated the need for interventions to support both the children and legal guardians when it came to disclosing the child's HIV status. ©2015 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  2. Spatial analysis of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Rolim de Holanda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to analyze the spatial distribution of reported cases of pregnant women infected by the human immunodeficiency virus and to identify the urban areas with greater social vulnerability to the infection among pregnant women.METHOD: ecological study, developed by means of spatial analysis techniques of area data. Secondary data were used from the Brazilian National Disease Notification System for the city of Recife, Pernambuco. Birth data were obtained from the Brazilian Information System on Live Births and socioeconomic data from the 2010 Demographic Census.RESULTS: the presence of spatial self-correlation was verified. Moran's Index was significant for the distribution. Clusters were identified, considered as high-risk areas, located in grouped neighborhoods, with equally high infection rates among pregnant women. A neighborhood located in the Northwest of the city was distinguished, considered in an epidemiological transition phase.CONCLUSION: precarious living conditions, as evidenced by the indicators illiteracy, absence of prenatal care and poverty, were relevant for the risk of vertical HIV transmission, converging to the grouping of cases among disadvantaged regions.

  3. Specific interaction of aurintricarboxylic acid with the human immunodeficiency virus/CD4 cell receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schols, D.; Baba, M.; Pauwels, R.; Desmyter, J.; De Clercq, E.

    1989-01-01

    The triphenylmethane derivative aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA), but not aurin, selectively prevented the binding of OKT4A/Leu-3a monoclonal antibody (mAb) and, to a lesser extent, OKT4 mAb to the CD4 cell receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The effect was seen within 1 min at an ATA concentration of 10 μM in various T4 + cells (MT-4, U-937, peripheral blood lymphocytes, and monocytes). It was dose-dependent and reversible. ATA prevented the attachment of radiolabeled HIV-1 particles to MT-4 cells, which could be expected as the result of its specific binding to the HIV/CD4 receptor. Other HIV inhibitors such as suramin, fuchsin acid, azidothymidine, dextran sulfate, heparin, and pentosan polysulfate did not affect OKT4A/Leu-3a mAb binding to the CD4 receptor, although the sulfated polysaccharides suppressed HIV-1 adsorption to the cells at concentrations required for complete protection against HIV-1 cytopathogenicity. Thus, ATA is a selective marker molecule for the CD4 receptor. ATA also interfered with the staining of membrane-associated HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120 by a mAb against it. These unusual properties of a small molecule of nonimmunological origin may have important implications for the study of CD4/HIV/AIDS pathogenesis and possibly treatment

  4. Economic evaluation, human immunodeficiency virus infection and screening: a review and critical appraisal of economic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibosa-Osadolor, Onome; Roberts, Tracy

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to review, systematically and critically, evidence used to derive estimates of cost-effectiveness of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening. A systematic review was conducted. Searched were three main electronic bibliographic databases from 1993 to 2008 using key words including HIV, mass screening, HAART, economic evaluation, cost-effectiveness analysis, modeling. We included studies of sexually transmitted HIV infection in both sexes, including studies comparing diagnostic testing protocols and partner notification. Outcomes included were cases of HIV infection detected, deterioration to the AIDS state, secondary transmission of HIV, the quality-adjusted life-years/survival, costs, and cost-effectiveness of HIV screening. Eighty-four papers were identified; ten of which were formal economic evaluations, one cost study, three effectiveness studies, and three systematic reviews of HIV prevention programs. The predominant assertion was that HIV screening is cost-effective; methodological problems, such as the preponderance of static models which are inappropriate for infectious diseases, varying perspectives from which the studies were analyzed, and arbitrary threshold incremental cost-effectiveness ratio levels, limited the validity of these findings, and their usefulness in informing health policy decisions. The majority of published economic evaluations are based on inappropriate static models. This flaw renders the results of these studies as inconclusive and the purported cost-effectiveness of HIV screening debatable. The results of this review could form a basis for consideration of further research and analysis by health economists into the cost-effectiveness of HIV screening.

  5. Gestational surrogacy for a human immunodeficiency virus seropositive sperm donor: what are the ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen E

    2003-01-01

    Clinics that provide assisted reproductive technology (ART) are guided by general guidelines set forth by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine and its Ethics Committee and are free to set their own policies within those guidelines. This article presents a case in which a university clinic was presented with a novel request. A same-sex male couple, both positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), asked to use one of the couple's sperm to establish a pregnancy in an unrelated gestational surrogate through in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and embryo transfer. The couple's argument in favor of such a plan was that no documented case of HIV seroconversion had so far occurred in recipients of gametes from HIV-positive donors. Since gestational surrogates routinely accept the risks inherent in pregnancy and childbearing, an informed surrogate should be allowed to accept the risks of such an arrangement. They further argued that if no clinic were willing to provide such services, data regarding seroconversion would never be obtained. The university ethics committee examined the fertility clinic's policies and found the clinic's refusal to provide such services to be completely consistent with its policy that allows providing services to HIV-discordant couples, same-sex couples, and gestational surrogates, but that always acts to protect the surrogate from exposure to infectious risk.

  6. Influence of immune activation and inflammatory response on cardiovascular risk associated with the human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán LM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Luis M Beltrán,1 Alfonso Rubio-Navarro,2 Juan Manuel Amaro-Villalobos,2 Jesús Egido,2–4 Juan García-Puig,1 Juan Antonio Moreno21Metabolic-Vascular Unit, Fundación IdiPAZ-Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain; 2Vascular, Renal, and Diabetes Research Lab, IIS-Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid, Spain; 3Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM, Madrid, Spain; 4Fundación Renal Iñigo Alvarez de Toledo-Instituto Reina Sofía de Investigaciones Nefrológicas (FRIAT-IRSIN, Madrid, SpainAbstract: Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV have an increased cardiovascular risk. Although initially this increased risk was attributed to metabolic alterations associated with antiretroviral treatment, in recent years, the attention has been focused on the HIV disease itself. Inflammation, immune system activation, and endothelial dysfunction facilitated by HIV infection have been identified as key factors in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. In this review, we describe the epidemiology and pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in patients with HIV infection and summarize the latest knowledge on the relationship between traditional and novel inflammatory, immune activation, and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers on the cardiovascular risk associated with HIV infection.Keywords: HIV, cardiovascular disease, immune activation, inflammation, antiretroviral therapy

  7. Exosomes in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I Pathogenesis: Threat or Opportunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin-Yeang Teow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanometre-sized vesicles, also known as exosomes, are derived from endosomes of diverse cell types and present in multiple biological fluids. Depending on their cellular origins, the membrane-bound exosomes packed a variety of functional proteins and RNA species. These microvesicles are secreted into the extracellular space to facilitate intercellular communication. Collective findings demonstrated that exosomes from HIV-infected subjects share many commonalities with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I (HIV-1 particles in terms of proteomics and lipid profiles. These observations postulated that HIV-resembled exosomes may contribute to HIV pathogenesis. Interestingly, recent reports illustrated that exosomes from body fluids could inhibit HIV infection, which then bring up a new paradigm for HIV/AIDS therapy. Accumulative findings suggested that the cellular origin of exosomes may define their effects towards HIV-1. This review summarizes the two distinctive roles of exosomes in regulating HIV pathogenesis. We also highlighted several additional factors that govern the exosomal functions. Deeper understanding on how exosomes promote or abate HIV infection can significantly contribute to the development of new and potent antiviral therapeutic strategy and vaccine designs.

  8. The role of radiotherapy in the management of cancer patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    Cancer and AIDS are both pandemics: they have an emotional and social impact that goes far beyond the physical disruption they cause. These are usually perceived and addressed as independent disease entities. When these coexist in one patient, however, the appropriate management of the cancer needs to be modified from the standard clinical protocols. New protocols appearing in the radiotherapy literature have been investigative rather than definitive and, with few exceptions, analyse the results of small series of patients. The IAEA has extensive projects in radiation oncology in developing countries. In Africa, there is concern that AIDS related cancers utilise an increasing amount of scarce resources, that they frequently require equipment for the management of superficial tumours, and that inadequate training is available in the management of these cancers. This report developed from the need to address these concerns. An Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) on the Relationship between Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Cancer Management Protocols for Developing Countries was convened in October 1999. A reading of this report will show that considerable amount of further investigation is required to respond authoritatively to many of the management decisions that need be made. It is also evident that the greatest number of patients requiring optimal management protocols live in sub-Saharan Africa - a region where research resources are at a minimum. The IAEA has made available limited funding for a research project in determining the intermediate term effects of radiation therapy on the immune system in AIDS related cervical cancer

  9. A Qualitative Study to Inform the Development of a Videogame for Adolescent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Marjorie S.; Camenga, Deepa R.; Edelman, E. Jennifer; Fiellin, Lynn E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We used qualitative methods to inform the development of an interactive videogame focused on behavior change to reduce risk and promote human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention in young minority adolescents. Guided by community-partnered research principles, we conducted and analyzed 16 individual interviews and six focus groups with 10–15 year-old boys and girls (36 unique participants) at a neighborhood-based nonprofit organization serving youth from low-resource neighborhoods. Three recurrent themes lent themselves to translation into a videogame-based intervention. Adolescents reported protective factors and facilitators to engaging in risk behaviors, including (1) their personal ability to balance the tension between individuation and group membership, (2) the presence of stable mentor figures in their life, and (3) the neighborhood in which they live. We used these themes to inform the design of our videogame intervention with the goal that these methods may increase the intervention's efficacy at promoting HIV prevention by making them more tailored and relevant to a specific population. Our qualitative study provides a practical understanding of how important elements identified by minority youth regarding negotiating around risk behaviors can be integrated into a videogame intervention. These findings offer valuable insights to researchers whose goal is to design effective and tailored interventions to affect behavior change. PMID:24078897

  10. Seroprevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among pregnant women in eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Ali Mohammed

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: We conducted a cross-sectional survey to determine the prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among pregnant women attending a major hospital in Kassala state, eastern Sudan. Unlinked anonymous testing of residual blood specimens, which were originally collected for other routine clinical purposes, was performed using rapid immunochromatographic assays. In total, 430 residual blood specimens were consecutively collected over a 6-week period (April–May 2010. Specimens from the antenatal clinic (ANC constituted 50.7% (218/430 of the total whereas specimens from the labour ward accounted for the remaining 49.3% (212/430. The median age of pregnant women was 29 years (range 16–40. The prevalence of HIV-1 infection was 0.23% (1/430 [95% confidence interval = 0.01–1.29%]. The only reactive specimen came from a 20-year-old ANC attendee. We report low HIV prevalence among pregnant women in eastern Sudan but further research is needed to confirm our findings. An integrated framework to diagnose and treat maternal HIV infection should be developed in order to prevent transmission to infants. Keywords: HIV, Prevalence, Pregnancy, Eastern Sudan

  11. Gender Reassignment Surgery in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patients: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Kwun Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that surgery on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients is dangerous and should be avoided due to the possibility of postoperative infection of the patients or HIV occupational transmission to the medical staff. We discuss here the preparations and measures needed to conduct surgery safely on HIV-positive patients, based on our experience. We performed sex reassignment surgery on two HIV-positive patients from January 2013 to January 2015. Both of them were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy and were asymptomatic, with a normal CD4 count (>500 cells/µL. The HIV-RNA was undetectable within the bloodstream. All the staff wore protective clothing, glasses, and three pairs of protective gloves in the operating room because of the possibility of transmission. Prophylactic antibiotics were administered to the patients, and antiviral therapy was performed during their perioperative course. Neither of the patients had postoperative complications, and none of the medical staff experienced accidental exposure. Both patients had satisfactory surgery outcomes without complications. HIV-positive patients can undergo surgery safely without increased risk of postoperative complications or HIV transmission to the staff through the proper use of antibiotics, active antiretroviral therapy, and supplemental protective measures with post-exposure prophylaxis for the staff in case of HIV exposure.

  12. Alopecia areata and vitiligo as primary presentations in a young male with human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old Chinese male consulted with the team regarding his alopecia areata and vitiligo for which previous treatment was ineffective. The patient, a homosexual man, denied having a history of drug abuse and of blood transfusion. No member of his family had vitiligo or alopecia. Laboratory studies revealed that the serum for anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV antibody was positive. The patient′s CD4 lymphocyte count and CD4/CD8 ratio were both strikingly low (20 cells/mL and 0.04, but no other complaints or opportunistic infections were reported. One month after antiretroviral therapy, the patient′s alopecia areata dramatically improved, but no evident improvement in his vitiligo was found. This case is a very rare case of alopecia areata and vitiligo associated with HIV infection that might be attributed to the generation and maintenance of self-reactive CD8+ T-cells due to chronic immune activation with progressive immune exhaustion in HIV infection.

  13. Malignancies and infection due to the human immunodeficiency virus. Are these emerging diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia Ortega, M E

    2018-04-01

    Since the start of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, tumour disease among patients has been significant. The collection of malignancies can be divided primarily into 2 groups: those associated with HIV (all of which are related to viral diseases) and those not associated with HIV (only some of which are associated with viral diseases). The origin of these malignancies is multifactorial, and the main causes that have led to an increase in tumour disease are immunosuppression, coinfection with oncogenic viruses and life prolongation secondary to the use of antiretroviral therapy. Establishing the general characteristics of the undiagnosed AIDS tumours is difficult, mainly because they are a highly heterogeneous group formed by malignancies of a diverse nature. The treatments do not differ from those used in the general population, although the management can be more difficult due to the late diagnosis, drug interactions and associated comorbidities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  14. Aflatoxin-Related Immune Dysfunction in Health and in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease

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    Yi Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Both aflatoxin and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV cause immune suppression and millions of HIV-infected people in developing countries are chronically exposed to aflatoxin in their diets. We investigated the possible interaction of aflatoxin and HIV on immune suppression by comparing immune parameters in 116 HIV positive and 80 aged-matched HIV negative Ghanaians with high (≥0.91 pmol/mg albumin and low (<0.91 pmol/mg albumin aflatoxin B1 albumin adduct (AF-ALB levels. AF-ALB levels and HIV viral load were measured in plasma and the percentages of leukocyte immunophenotypes and cytokine expression were determined using flow cytometry. The cross-sectional comparisons found that (1 among both HIV positive and negative participants, high AF-ALB was associated with lower perforin expression on CD8+ T-cells (P=.012; (2 HIV positive participants with high AF-ALB had significantly lower percentages of CD4+ T regulatory cells (Tregs; P=.009 and naive CD4+ T cells (P=.029 compared to HIV positive participants with low AF-ALB; and (3 HIV positive participants with high AF-ALB had a significantly reduced percentage of B-cells (P=.03 compared to those with low AF-ALB. High AF-ALB appeared to accentuate some HIV associated changes in T-cell phenotypes and in B-cells in HIV positive participants.

  15. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Hodgkin's Lymphoma in South Africa: An Emerging Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosa Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL occurs with increasing frequency in human-immunodeficiency-virus-(HIV- infected individuals. The natural history and behaviour of HIV-HL is different, being more atypical and aggressive. The association between HIV and HL appears to be primarily EBV driven. HAART use does not significantly impact on the incidence of HL. Indeed, the risk of HL has increased in the post-HAART era. However, the advent of HAART has brought renewed hope, allowing standard therapeutic options to be used more optimally, with better treatment outcomes. Despite the renewed optimism, the overall survival of HIV-HL patients remains less favourable than that in HIV-seronegative patients. This is particularly true in sub-Saharan Africa, where there is a significant burden of HIV/AIDS and where more than half the patients are HAART naive at diagnosis of HL. The similarities and differences of a South African cohort of HIV-HL are presented in this paper.

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus-induced pathology favored by cellular transmission and activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.E.; Yoffe, B.; Bosworth, C.G.; Hollinger, F.B.; Rich, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    Epidemiological data suggest that transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) occurs primarily by transference of virally infected cells. However, the efficiency of lytic productive infection induced by HIV after transmission of cell-associated virus vs. free virus is difficult to assess. The present studies compare the extent of depletion of CD4+ (helper/inducer) T cells after mixing uninfected cells with either free HIV or irradiated HIV-infected allogeneic or autologous cells in vitro. Rapid CD4+ cellular depletion occurred only in cultures containing allogeneic infected cells or after addition of a nonspecific T cell activation signal to cultures with autologous infected cells. These in vitro observations strongly support the epidemiological implication that interactions between infected and uninfected cells are the most efficient means of transmission and HIV-induced cytopathology in vivo. They also provide direct support for the concept that immunological stimulation by foreign cells infected with HIV dramatically increases the likelihood of transmission. These in vitro observations suggest a model for the acquisition of HIV in vivo and the role of cellular activation in dissemination of the virus to uninfected cells in an infected individual

  17. Hepatitis B and C virus co-infections in human immunodeficiency virus positive North Indian patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Swati; Singh, Sarman

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -positive patients at a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. METHODS: Serum samples from 451 HIV positive patients were analyzed for HBsAg and HCV antibodies during three years (Jan 2003-Dec 2005). The control group comprised of apparently healthy bone-marrow and renal donors. RESULTS: The study population comprised essentially of heterosexually transmitted HIV infection. The prevalence rate of HBsAg in this population was 5.3% as compared to 1.4% in apparently healthy donors (P < 0.001). Though prevalence of HCV co-infection (2.43%) was lower than HBV in this group of HIV positive patients, the prevalence was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than controls (0.7%). Triple infection of HIV, HBV and HCV was not detected in any patient. CONCLUSION: Our study shows a significantly high prevalence of hepatitis virus infections in HIV infected patients. Hepatitis viruses in HIV may lead to faster progression to liver cirrhosis and a higher risk of antiretroviral therapy induced hepatotoxicity. Therefore, it would be advisable to detect hepatitis virus co-infections in these patients at the earliest. PMID:17106941

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mother-to-child transmission and prevention: successes and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavarelli, M; Scarlatti, G

    2011-12-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimated that an additional 370 000 new human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections occurred in children in 2009, mainly through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Intrapartum transmission contributes to approximately 20-25% of infections, in utero transmission to 5-10% and postnatal transmission to an additional 10-15% of cases. MTCT accounts for only a few hundred infected newborns in those countries in which services are established for voluntary counselling and testing of pregnant women, and a supply of antiretroviral drugs is available throughout pregnancy with recommendations for elective Caesarean section and avoidance of breastfeeding. The single-dose nevirapine regimen has provided the momentum to initiate MTCT programmes in many resource-limited countries; however, regimens using a combination of antiretroviral drugs are needed also to effectively reduce transmission via breastfeeding. 2011 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  19. Spatial analysis of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus among pregnant women1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Holanda, Eliane Rolim; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; Pedrosa, Nathália Lima; Paiva, Simone de Sousa; de Almeida, Rosa Lívia Freitas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to analyze the spatial distribution of reported cases of pregnant women infected by the human immunodeficiency virus and to identify the urban areas with greater social vulnerability to the infection among pregnant women. METHOD: ecological study, developed by means of spatial analysis techniques of area data. Secondary data were used from the Brazilian National Disease Notification System for the city of Recife, Pernambuco. Birth data were obtained from the Brazilian Information System on Live Births and socioeconomic data from the 2010 Demographic Census. RESULTS: the presence of spatial self-correlation was verified. Moran's Index was significant for the distribution. Clusters were identified, considered as high-risk areas, located in grouped neighborhoods, with equally high infection rates among pregnant women. A neighborhood located in the Northwest of the city was distinguished, considered in an epidemiological transition phase. CONCLUSION: precarious living conditions, as evidenced by the indicators illiteracy, absence of prenatal care and poverty, were relevant for the risk of vertical HIV transmission, converging to the grouping of cases among disadvantaged regions. PMID:26155005

  20. [Challenges of lopinavir/ritonavir in the chronicity of human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirrebengoa, Koldo

    2014-11-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased patient survival, which is currently similar to that of the general population in western countries. However, ART is unable to completely restore normal health, given the persistence of chronic immune activation. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become a chronic disease and 50% of patients will soon be older than 50 years. Currently, there is a debate on the possibility of accelerated aging in the HIV-infected population. An overlap has been observed between chronic inflammation, age-related comorbidities, lifestyle, and the long-term toxicity of ART. ART-related toxicity can encourage the development of comorbidities, especially cardiovascular and renal complications, while toxicity-especially that of thymidine analogs-can also contribute to inflammation and aging. Evidence is available on simplification strategies with boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy aiming to avoid or reduce potential or demonstrated toxicity. Currently, studies are underway of dual therapy strategies with lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) with distinct antiretroviral agents. The studies with the largest samples are those with raltegravir and lamivudine. The GARDEL trial has demonstrated that dual therapy with LPV/r plus a generic drug such as lamivudine is non-inferior to triple therapy in treatment- naïve patients. All of the above indicates the response to the challenge posed to LPV/r by the chronic phase of the disease and by the need to reduce costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Antiviral activity against human immunodeficiency virus-1 in vitro by myristoylated-peptide from Heliothis virescens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ourth, Donald D.

    2004-01-01

    An insect antiviral compound was purified from Heliothis virescens larval hemolymph by gel-filtration high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and C-18 reverse-phase HPLC and its structure was determined by mass spectrometry. The antiviral compound is an N-myristoylated-peptide containing six amino acids with calculated molecular weight of 916 Da. The N-terminus contains the fatty acid myristoyl, and the C-terminus contains histidine with two methyl groups giving the histidine a permanent positive charge. The remainder of the compound is essentially non-polar. The structure of the compound corresponds with the 'myristate plus basic' motif expressed by certain viral proteins in their binding to the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane to initiate viral assembly and budding from a host cell. The insect antiviral compound may inhibit viral assembly and/or budding of viruses from host cells that could include the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and herpes simplex virus-1 that use this motif for exit from a host cell. Using the formazan assay, the myristoylated-peptide was effective against HIV-1, with a nine times increase in the viability and protection in vitro of treated CEM-SS cells when compared with infected but untreated control cells

  2. Evaluation of performance of human immunodeficiency virus antigen/antibody combination assays in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Kai; Kao, Cheng-Feng; Lin, Pi-Han; Huang, Hui-Lin; Ho, Shu-Yuan; Wong, Kuo-Chen; Lin, Bo-Chang; Yeh, Chang-Ching; Lee, Chia-Yeh; Kao, Chuan-Liang; Lee, Chun-Nan; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Yang, Jyh-Yuan

    2017-08-01

    The fourth-generation human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) combination assay, which can simultaneously detect the presence of anti-HIV antibody and HIV antigen, has been shown to shorten the window period in HIV diagnosis compared with the third-generation HIV antibody immunoassay. This study was aimed to determine the performance of HIV combination assays in Taiwan, where the HIV-1 seroprevalence is 0.007% and HIV-2 infection has never been reported. Performance of three fourth-generation HIV Ag/Ab combination assays (Dia.Pro, Wantai, and Bio-Rad) and one third-generation HIV Ab immunoassay (AxSYM HIV 1/2 gO) was assessed. A total of 152 specimens, including 86 confirmed HIV-seropositive and 66 HIV-seronegative samples, were used in the study. The sensitivity of four assays varied from 98.8% to 100%, and specificity varied from 98.5% to 100%. Performance of the 75 equivocal samples, the HIV status of which was confirmed later, in terms of negative prediction varied from 81.8% to 87.5%. The Bio-Rad and Dia.Pro assays exhibited higher sensitivity for the detection of p24 antigen among the three fourth-generation HIV combination assays. The three fourth-generation HIV Ag/Ab combination assays exhibited better sensitivity, specificity, and negative prediction than the third-generation HIV Ab immunoassay. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, hepatitis B and C in blood donations in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavenyengwa, Rooyen T; Mukesi, Munyaradzi; Chipare, Israel; Shoombe, Esra

    2014-05-05

    Transfusion Transmissible Infections (TTIs) such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), syphilis, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are infections which are common in some communities in Southern Africa. It is important to screen blood donations for these infections. This is a retrospective study which involved reviewing of previous blood donation records for the year 2012 in Namibia. The records were analyzed to determine the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, Hepatitis B and C among blood donations with regard to gender, age and geographical region of the donors. The findings indicated a significantly low prevalence of HIV, syphilis, HBsAg and anti-Hepatitis C among the blood donations. A low infection rate of 1.3% by any of the four tested TTIs was found among the blood donations given by the donor population in Namibia in 2012. The blood donations given by the donor population in Namibia has a low infection rate with the HIV, syphilis, HBsAg and anti-HCV. A strict screening regime must continue to be used as the infections are still present albeit in small numbers.

  4. Maternal T-Cell Engraftment Interferes With Human Leukocyte Antigen Typing in Severe Combined Immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Duffy, Brian; Bednarski, Jeffrey J; Calhoun, Cecelia; Lay, Lindsay; Rundblad, Barrett; Payton, Jacqueline E; Mohanakumar, Thalachallour

    2016-02-01

    To report the laboratory investigation of a case of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) with maternal T-cell engraftment, focusing on the interference of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing by blood chimerism. HLA typing was performed with three different methods, including sequence-specific primer (SSP), sequence-specific oligonucleotide, and Sanger sequencing on peripheral blood leukocytes and buccal cells, from a 3-month-old boy and peripheral blood leukocytes from his parents. Short tandem repeat (STR) testing was performed in parallel. HLA typing of the patient's peripheral blood leukocytes using the SSP method demonstrated three different alleles for each of the HLA-B and HLA-C loci, with both maternal alleles present at each locus. Typing results from the patient's buccal cells showed a normal pattern of inheritance for paternal and maternal haplotypes. STR enrichment testing of the patient's CD3+ T lymphocytes and CD15+ myeloid cells confirmed maternal T-cell engraftment, while the myeloid cell profile matched the patient's buccal cells. Maternal T-cell engraftment may interfere with HLA typing in patients with SCID. Selection of the appropriate typing methods and specimens is critical for accurate HLA typing and immunologic assessment before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Meningitis caused by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in human immunodeficiency virus seropositive patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradkar, V. P.; Kumar, S.

    2008-01-01

    Rhodotorula species may be responsible for systemic infection in immunocompromised patients. Meningitis by Rhodotorula species in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected persons has been reported previously. We report a case of meningitis caused by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in a 36-year-old HIV seropositive male patient who presented with fever, altered sensorium and features of meningeal irritation i.e. neck rigidity. The Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell counts were high, showing 150 cells/mm3, with 60% lymphocytes and 40% polymorphs, and protein content of 100 mg%; glucose was 60 mg%. The diagnosis was confirmed by culture on Sabouraud's Dextrose agar. The patient was treated successfully with intensive Amphotericin B (1 mg/kg), for two weeks, followed by oral Itraconazole (400 mg daily), for a period of two months. The patient was started on anti retroviral therapy. He did not show any relapse of the symptoms when the last follow up was done six months after the date of discharge. PMID:19893682

  6. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus replication by a dual CCR5/CXCR4 antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Princen, Katrien; Hatse, Sigrid; Vermeire, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    Here we report that the N-pyridinylmethyl cyclam analog AMD3451 has antiviral activity against a wide variety of R5, R5/X4, and X4 strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] ranging from 1.2 to 26.5 microM) in various T-cell lines, CCR5...... at the virus entry stage. AMD3451 dose-dependently inhibited the intracellular Ca(2+) signaling induced by the CXCR4 ligand CXCL12 in T-lymphocytic cells and in CXCR4-transfected cells, as well as the Ca(2+) flux induced by the CCR5 ligands CCL5, CCL3, and CCL4 in CCR5-transfected cells. The compound did...... not interfere with chemokine-induced Ca(2+) signaling through CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR4, CCR6, CCR9, or CXCR3 and did not induce intracellular Ca(2+) signaling by itself at concentrations up to 400 microM. In freshly isolated monocytes, AMD3451 inhibited the Ca(2+) flux induced by CXCL12 and CCL4...

  7. Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors: Accomplices for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Latency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are small chemotactic cytokines that are involved in the regulation of immune cell migration. Multiple functional properties of chemokines, such as pro-inflammation, immune regulation, and promotion of cell growth, angiogenesis, and apoptosis, have been identified in many pathological and physiological contexts. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is characterized by persistent inflammation and immune activation during both acute and chronic phases, and the “cytokine storm” is one of the hallmarks of HIV infection. Along with immune activation after HIV infection, an extensive range of chemokines and other cytokines are elevated, thereby generating the so-called “cytokine storm.” In this review, the effects of the upregulated chemokines and chemokine receptors on the processes of HIV infection are discussed. The objective of this review was to focus on the main chemokines and chemokine receptors that have been found to be associated with HIV infection and latency. Elevated chemokines and chemokine receptors have been shown to play important roles in the HIV life cycle, disease progression, and HIV reservoir establishment. Thus, targeting these chemokines and receptors and the other proteins of related signaling pathways might provide novel therapeutic strategies, and the evidence indicates a promising future regarding the development of a functional cure for HIV.

  8. Spiritual activities as a resistance resource for women with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, R; Moneyham, L; Hennessy, M; Guillory, J; Demi, A; Seals, B

    2000-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the role that spiritual activities play in the adaptational outcomes of women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. To examine the role of spiritual activities as a resource that may reduce the negative effects of disease-related stressors on the adaptational outcomes in HIV-infected women. A theoretically based causal model was tested to examine the role of spiritual activities as a moderator of the impact of HIV-related stressors (functional impairment, work impairment, and HIV-related symptoms) on two stress-related adaptational outcomes (emotional distress and quality of life), using a clinic-based sample of 184 HIV-positive women. Findings indicated that as spiritual activities increased, emotional distress decreased even when adjustments were made for HIV-related stressors. A positive relationship between spiritual activities and quality of life was found, which approached significance. Findings showed that HIV-related stressors have a significant negative effect on both emotional distress and quality of life. The findings support the hypothesis that spiritual activities are an important psychological resource accounting for individual variability in adjustment to the stressors associated with HIV disease.

  9. Poverty and human immunodeficiency virus in children: a view from the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Barend Jacobus; Esser, Monika; Godwin, Sarah; Rabie, Helena; Cotton, Mark Fredric

    2008-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is the region affected worst by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with the most southern countries, including Botswana, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, and South Africa, carrying the highest disease burden. This geographic distribution represents a complex interaction among virological, political, social, cultural, and economic forces. In South Africa the HIV epidemic is seemingly unchecked, with 18% of the adult population infected. Although South Africa is a mid-developed country, there is a large chasm between the wealthy and the poor, with many living in moderate to extreme poverty. Poverty creates conditions that fuel the HIV epidemic while HIV exacerbates the multiple interlinking causes of poverty. Children are the most vulnerable members of society, severely affected by all components of the poverty cycle. Although improved health education and access to care will alleviate many problems, sustainable poverty alleviation should form an essential component of the response to AIDS. The formulation of the United Nations Millennium Developmental Goals is an important step in the right direction, but global and local political commitment is essential for success.

  10. The Great Impostor: Transaminitis Masking the Coinfection of Syphilis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunit Tolia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence of syphilis continues to rise in the United States over the past 15 years. This disease process is classified into stages and may present with a coinfection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. Case Report. We present a case of a 32-year-old African American male who presented with cutaneous manifestations of secondary syphilis and transaminitis. A workup revealed that the transaminitis was secondary to underlying syphilitic hepatitis in the presence of HIV coinfection. The patient had a reactive rapid plasma reagin (RPR of 1 : 64 TU and reactive Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA. Lab findings showed alkaline phosphate (ALP of 648 unit/L, aspartate aminotransferase (AST of 251 unit/L, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT of 409 unit/L. Conclusion. Syphilitic hepatitis is a recognized entity in the medical literature. It is a manifestation of secondary syphilis and it is more commonly seen in coinfected patients with both syphilis and HIV. Therefore, primary care physicians should keep infectious etiologies (e.g., syphilis and HIV in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with unexplained liver dysfunction in a cholestatic pattern.

  11. Vitamin A levels and human immunodeficiency virus load in injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semba, R D; Farzadegan, H; Vlahov, D

    1997-01-01

    Although low plasma vitamin A levels are associated with increased mortality and higher vertical transmission during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, it is unknown whether plasma low vitamin A levels are a marker for circulating HIV load. We conducted a cross-sectional study within a prospective cohort study of injection drug users in order to evaluate the relationship between plasma vitamin A levels and HIV viral load. Plasma vitamin A level was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Infectious viral load was measured by quantitative microculture of serial fivefold dilutions of 10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells. A total of 284 HIV-infected adults (79 women, 205 men) were studied. Plasma vitamin A levels consistent with deficiency were found in 28.9% of adults. A total of 38.0% of women and 25.3% of men had vitamin A deficiency (P < 0.04). The median infectious viral load for the entire study population was 8 infectious units per million cells. No significant relationship between plasma vitamin A levels and infectious viral load was observed in these injection drug users. This study suggests that there is no correlation between HIV viral load and plasma vitamin A levels in injection drug users, and these variables may represent independent risk factors during HIV infection. HIV-infected adult women appear to be at higher risk of developing vitamin A deficiency. PMID:9008289

  12. Clinical Correlates of Diarrhea and Gut Parasites among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Seropositive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Bisong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cluster differentiation 4 (CD4 count estimation, which is not readily available in most resource poor settings in Nigeria, is an important indexdetermining commencement of antiretroviral therapy (ART. It is imperative for physicians who come in contact with these patients in such settings to recognize other parameters to evaluate these patients. The clinical correlates of diarrhea and gut parasites among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-seropositive patients attending our special treatment clinic were studied. Three hundred and forty consenting HIV-positive adult subjects were enrolled. Their stool and blood specimens were collected for a period of three months. Stool samples were analyzed for the presence of diarrhea and gut parasites. The patients were clinically evaluated by physical examination for the presence of pallor, dehydration, oral thrush, wasting lymphadenopathy, dermatitis, skin hyperpigmentation, and finger clubbing. Participants with diarrhea represented 14.1% of the population, while 21.5% harbored one or more parasites. In the subjects with diarrhea, 14.6% harbored gut parasites. The presence of diarrhea was associated with a low CD4 count. Clinically, oral thrush, wasting, and rashes were more reliable predictors of low CD4 count levels; whereas, the presence of pallor, dehydration, wasting, and rashes correlated with the presence of diarrhea. HIV patients presenting with pallor, dehydration, wasting, and rashes should be evaluated for the presence of diarrhea. The clinical variables associated with low CD4 count in this study may guide commencing antiretroviral therapy in resource poor settings.

  13. [Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection: study of 4 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pousada, Guillermo; Baloira, Adolfo; Castro-Añón, Olalla; Valverde, Diana

    2016-04-15

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare and progressive disease that can be inherited as autosomal dominant form. The BMPR2, ACVRL1 and ENG genes are main genes involved in the pathology. PAH associated to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is another rare disease with a low incidence, prevalence and survival. The main objective of this analysis was to study the clinical and molecular characteristics of PAH associated to HIV patients. We present 4 cases of HIV patients who developed PAH and have been treated with ambrisentan. Pathogenic mutations have been identify in analyzed genes in 3 of the four analyzed patients. In addition, these patients present other changes classified as benign after a thorough in silico analysis. We identified some changes in genetic modifiers that predispose to these patients to more severe phenotype. The clinical analysis can help to define monitoring for these patients and the administration of appropriate treatment. These patients also have shown several pathogenic mutations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat responds to T-cell activation signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong-Starksen, S.E.; Luciw, P.A.; Peterlin, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the causative agent of AIDS, infects and kills lymphoid cells bearing the CD4 antigen. In an infected cell, a number of cellular as well as HIV-encoded gene products determine the levels of viral gene expression and HIV replication. Efficient HIV replication occurs in activated T cells. Utilizing transient expression assays, the authors show that gene expression directed by the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) increases in response to T-cell activation signals. The effects of T-cell activation and of the HIV-encoded trans-activator (TAT) are multiplicative. Analysis of mutations and deletions in the HIV LTR reveals that the region responding to T-cell activation signals is located at positions -105 to -80. These sequences are composed of two direct repeats, which are homologous to the core transcriptional enhancer elements in the simian virus 40 genome. The studies reveal that these elements function as the HIV enhancer. By acting directly on the HIV LTR, T-cell activation may play an important role in HIV gene expression and in the activation of latent HIV

  15. Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activity in vitro by oligonucleotides which form intramolecular tetrads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, R F; Ojwang, J; Elbaggari, A; Reyes, G R; Tinder, R; McGrath, M S; Hogan, M E

    1995-01-27

    An oligonucleotide (I100-15) composed of only deoxyguanosine and thymidine was able to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) in culture assay systems. I100-15 did not block virus entry into cells but did reduce viral-specific transcripts. As assessed by NMR and polyacrylamide gel methods, I100-15 appears to form a structure in which two stacked guanosine tetrads are connected by three two-base long loops. Structure/activity experiments indicated that formation of intramolecular guanosine tetrads was necessary to achieve maximum antiviral activity. The single deoxyguanosine nucleotide present in each loop was found to be extremely important for the overall antiviral activity. The toxicity of I100-15 was determined to be well above the 50% effective dose (ED50) in culture which yielded a high therapeutic index (> 100). The addition of a cholesterol moiety to the 3' terminus of I100-15 (I100-23) reduced the ED50 value to less than 50 nM (from 0.12 microM for I100-15) and increased the duration of viral suppression to greater than 21 days (versus 7-10 days for I100-15) after removal of the drug from infected cell cultures. The favorable therapeutic index of such molecules coupled with the prolonged suppression of HIV-1, suggest that such compounds further warrant investigation as potential therapeutic agents.

  16. Intrinsic Stability of Episomal Circles Formed during Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, TheodoreC.; Kieffer, Tara L.; Ruff, Christian T.; Buck, Christopher; Gange, Stephen J.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    The development of surrogate markers capable of detecting residual ongoing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy is an important step in understanding viral dynamics and in developing new treatment strategies. In this study, we evaluated the utility of circular forms of the viral genome for the detection of recent infection of cells by HIV-1. We measured the fate of both one-long terminal repeat (1-LTR) and 2-LTR circles following in vitro infection of logarithmically growing CD4+ T cells under conditions in which cell death was not a significant contributing factor. Circular forms of the viral genome were found to be highly stable and to decrease in concentration only as a function of dilution resulting from cell division. We conclude that these DNA circles are not intrinsically unstable in all cell types and suggest that the utility of 2-LTR circle assays in measuring recent HIV-1 infection of susceptible cells in vivo needs to be reevaluated. PMID:11907256

  17. Human Immunodeficiency Viral Infection and Status Epilepticus in United States (2002-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Saqib A; Afzal, Mohammad Rauf; Rodriguez, Gustavo J; Majidi, Shahram; Bundlie, Scott; Hassan, Ameer E; Suri, M Fareed K; Qureshi, Adnan I

    2015-07-01

    To determine the association between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and status epilepticus and compare the outcomes of patients with status epilepticus with or without underlying HIV infection. Patients with primary diagnosis of status epilepticus (cases) and status asthmaticus (controls) were identified from the 2002-2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) which is representative of all admissions in the United States. We performed logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, gender, co-morbid conditions, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), renal failure, alcohol use, and opportunistic infections. We compared the in hospital outcomes among patients admitted with status epilepticus in strata defined by underlying HIV infection. The rate of concurrent status epilepticus and HIV has increased over the last 7 years in hospitalized patients with status epilepticus in United States (0.14%-0.27% pstatus epilepticus (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.8-2.6; pstatus epilepticus patients with underlying HIV infection (17.5% vs. 9.9%, pstatus epilepticus. The proportion of patients admitted with concurrent status epilepticus and HIV infections is increasing and such patients have higher rates of poor discharge outcomes.

  18. Entecavir Exhibits Inhibitory Activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus under Conditions of Reduced Viral Challenge▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pin-Fang; Nowicka-Sans, Beata; Terry, Brian; Zhang, Sharon; Wang, Chunfu; Fan, Li; Dicker, Ira; Gali, Volodymyr; Higley, Helen; Parkin, Neil; Tenney, Daniel; Krystal, Mark; Colonno, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Entecavir (ETV) was developed for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and is globally approved for that indication. Initial preclinical studies indicated that ETV had no significant activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in cultured cell lines at physiologically relevant ETV concentrations, using traditional anti-HIV assays. In response to recent clinical observations of anti-HIV activity of ETV in HIV/HBV-coinfected patients not receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), additional investigative studies were conducted to expand upon earlier results. An extended panel of HIV-1 laboratory and clinical strains and cell types was tested against ETV, along with a comparison of assay methodologies and resistance profiling. These latest studies confirmed that ETV has only weak activity against HIV, using established assay systems. However, a >100-fold enhancement of antiviral activity (equivalent to the antiviral activity of lamivudine) could be obtained when assay conditions were modified to reduce the initial viral challenge. Also, the selection of a M184I virus variant during the passage of HIV-1 at high concentrations of ETV confirmed that ETV can exert inhibitory pressure on the virus. These findings may have a significant impact on how future assays are performed with compounds to be used in patients infected with HIV. These results support the recommendation that ETV therapy should be administered in concert with HAART for HIV/HBV-coinfected patients. PMID:18316521

  19. Management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, K. F.

    2018-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis(MTB). 10.4 million new TB cases will appear in 2015 worldwide. There were an estimated 1.4 million TB deaths in 2015, and an additional 0.4 million deaths resulting from TB disease among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Multidrug- resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR and XDR-TB) are major public health concerns worldwide. 480.000 new cases of MDR-TB will appear in 2015 and an additional 100,000 people with rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) who were also newly eligible for MDR-TB treatment. Their association with HIV infection has contributed to the slowing down of TB incidence decline over the last two decades, therefore representing one important barrier to reach TB elimination. Patients infected with MDR-TB require more expensive treatment regimens than drug-susceptible TB, with poor treatment.Patients with multidrug- resistant tuberculosis do not receive rifampin; drug interactions risk is markedly reduced. However, overlapping toxicities may limit options for co-treatment of HIV and multidrug- resistant tuberculosis.

  20. Awareness of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among antenatal clients in Nnewi Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, C I; Dinwoke, V O; Udigwe, G O

    2014-01-01

    To determine the level of awareness of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among antenatal clients in Nnewi Nigeria. A cross sectional descriptive study of six hundred consecutive antenatal clients attending the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital and five private specialist hospitals (run by Consultant Obstetricians) in Nnewi was conducted over a six-month period (1st September 2008 -28th February 2009). Anonymous, structured, pretested questionnaire designed to assess the awareness of HIV infection was used. The mean age of all the 600 clients was 31.4 (SD 2.8) years, majority were married (94%) and in the third trimester of pregnancy (69%). Most (58%) attended secondary school while 0.83% had no formal education. Only 2% had complete knowledge of the modes of HIV transmission while majority (96.5%) had partial knowledge. There was a statistically significant relationship between level of education and knowledge of HIV (p < 0.00001). HIV test was done on 419 (69.84%); 37 tested positive giving a seroprevalence rate of 8.83%. Among those tested, only 51.55% had counseling before testing. This study showed that the knowledge of HIV among women of child bearing age and the practice of voluntary counseling and testing are still poor in our environment. Improved public enlightenment and training of health workers are urgently needed.