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Sample records for acquired developmental brain

  1. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

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    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  2. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images

  3. Time dysperception perspective for acquired brain injury

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    Federica ePiras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distortions of time perception are presented by a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we survey timing abilities in clinical populations with acquired brain injuries in key cerebral areas recently implicated in human studies of timing. We purposely analyzed the complex relationship between cognitive and contextual factors involved in time estimation, as to characterize the correlation between timed and other cognitive behaviors in each group. We assume that interval timing is a solid construct to study cognitive dysfunctions following brain injury, as timing performance is a sensitive metric of information processing, while temporal cognition has the potential of influencing a wide range of cognitive processes. Moreover, temporal performance is a sensitive assay of damage to the underlying neural substrate after a brain insult. Further research in neurological and psychiatric patients will definitively answer the question of whether time distortions are manifestations of cognitive and behavioral symptoms of brain damage and definitively clarify their mechanisms.

  4. Serotonergic Hyperactivity as a Potential Factor in Developmental, Acquired and Drug-Induced Synesthesia

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    Berit eBrogaard

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Though synesthesia research has seen a huge growth in recent decades, and tremendous progress has been made in terms of understanding the mechanism and cause of synesthesia, we are still left mostly in the dark when it comes to the mechanistic commonalities (if any among developmental, acquired and drug-induced synesthesia. We know that many forms of synesthesia involve aberrant structural or functional brain connectivity. Proposed mechanisms include direct projection and disinhibited feedback mechanisms, in which information from two otherwise structurally or functionally separate brain regions mix. We also know that synesthesia sometimes runs in families. However, it is unclear what causes its onset. Studies of psychedelic drugs, such as psilocybin, LSD and mescaline, reveal that exposure to these drugs can induce synesthesia. One neurotransmitter suspected to be central to the perceptual changes is serotonin. Excessive serotonin in the brain may cause many of the characteristics of psychedelic intoxication. Excessive serotonin levels may also play a role in synesthesia acquired after brain injury. In brain injury sudden cell death floods local brain regions with serotonin and glutamate. This neurotransmitter flooding could perhaps result in unusual feature binding. Finally, developmental synesthesia that occurs in individuals with autism may be a result of alterations in the serotonergic system, leading to a blockage of regular gating mechanisms. I conclude on these grounds that one commonality among at least some cases of acquired, developmental and drug-induced synesthesia may be the presence of excessive levels of serotonin, which increases the excitability and connectedness of sensory brain regions.

  5. Towards Developmental Connectomics of the Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Miao eCao; Hao eHuang; Yun ePeng; Qi eDong; Yong eHe

    2016-01-01

    Imaging connectomics based on graph theory has become an effective and unique methodological framework for studying structural and functional connectivity patterns of the developing brain. Normal brain development is characterized by continuous and significant network evolution throughout infancy, childhood and adolescence, following specific maturational patterns. Disruption of these normal changes is associated with neuropsychiatric developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders...

  6. Brain Imaging Studies of Developmental Stuttering.

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    Ingham, Roger J.

    2001-01-01

    A review of research on brain imaging of developmental stuttering concludes that findings increasingly point to a failure of normal temporal lobe activation during speech that may either contribute to (or is the result of) a breakdown in the sequencing of processing among premotor regions implicated in phonologic planning. (Contains references.)…

  7. Towards Developmental Connectomics of the Human Brain

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    Miao eCao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Imaging connectomics based on graph theory has become an effective and unique methodological framework for studying structural and functional connectivity patterns of the developing brain. Normal brain development is characterized by continuous and significant network evolution throughout infancy, childhood and adolescence, following specific maturational patterns. Disruption of these normal changes is associated with neuropsychiatric developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In this review, we focused on the recent progresses regarding typical and atypical development of human brain networks from birth to early adulthood, using a connectomic approach. Specifically, by the time of birth, structural networks already exhibit adult-like organization, with global efficient small-world and modular structures, as well as hub regions and rich-clubs acting as communication backbones. During development, the structure networks are fine-tuned, with increased global integration and robustness and decreased local segregation, as well as the strengthening of the hubs. In parallel, functional networks undergo more dramatic changes during maturation, with both increased integration and segregation during development, as brain hubs shift from primary regions to high order functioning regions, and the organization of modules transitions from a local anatomical emphasis to a more distributed architecture. These findings suggest that structural networks develop earlier than functional networks; meanwhile functional networks demonstrate more dramatic maturational changes with the evolution of structural networks serving as the anatomical backbone. In this review, we also highlighted topologically disorganized characteristics in structural and functional brain networks in several major developmental neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and

  8. Toward Developmental Connectomics of the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Miao; Huang, Hao; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Imaging connectomics based on graph theory has become an effective and unique methodological framework for studying structural and functional connectivity patterns of the developing brain. Normal brain development is characterized by continuous and significant network evolution throughout infancy, childhood, and adolescence, following specific maturational patterns. Disruption of these normal changes is associated with neuropsychiatric developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In this review, we focused on the recent progresses regarding typical and atypical development of human brain networks from birth to early adulthood, using a connectomic approach. Specifically, by the time of birth, structural networks already exhibit adult-like organization, with global efficient small-world and modular structures, as well as hub regions and rich-clubs acting as communication backbones. During development, the structure networks are fine-tuned, with increased global integration and robustness and decreased local segregation, as well as the strengthening of the hubs. In parallel, functional networks undergo more dramatic changes during maturation, with both increased integration and segregation during development, as brain hubs shift from primary regions to high order functioning regions, and the organization of modules transitions from a local anatomical emphasis to a more distributed architecture. These findings suggest that structural networks develop earlier than functional networks; meanwhile functional networks demonstrate more dramatic maturational changes with the evolution of structural networks serving as the anatomical backbone. In this review, we also highlighted topologically disorganized characteristics in structural and functional brain networks in several major developmental neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and developmental

  9. Developmental modes and developmental mechanisms can channel brain evolution

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    Christine J Charvet

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Anseriform birds (ducks and geese as well as parrots and songbirds have evolved a disproportionately enlarged telencephalon compared with many other birds. However, parrots and songbirds differ from anseriform birds in their mode of development. Whereas ducks and geese are precocial (e.g., hatchlings feed on their own, parrots and songbirds are altricial (e.g., hatchlings are fed by their parents. We here consider how developmental modes may limit and facilitate specific changes in the mechanisms of brain development. We suggest that altriciality facilitates the evolution of telencephalic expansion by delaying telencephalic neurogenesis. We further hypothesize that delays in telencephalic neurogenesis generate delays in telencephalic maturation, which in turn foster neural adaptations that facilitate learning. Specifically, we propose that delaying telencephalic neurogenesis was a prerequisite for the evolution of neural circuits that allow parrots and songbirds to produce learned vocalizations. Overall, we argue that developmental modes have influenced how some lineages of birds increased the size of their telencephalon and that this, in turn, has influenced subsequent changes in brain circuits and behavior.

  10. Developmental Modes and Developmental Mechanisms can Channel Brain Evolution.

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    Charvet, Christine J; Striedter, Georg F

    2011-01-01

    Anseriform birds (ducks and geese) as well as parrots and songbirds have evolved a disproportionately enlarged telencephalon compared with many other birds. However, parrots and songbirds differ from anseriform birds in their mode of development. Whereas ducks and geese are precocial (e.g., hatchlings feed on their own), parrots and songbirds are altricial (e.g., hatchlings are fed by their parents). We here consider how developmental modes may limit and facilitate specific changes in the mechanisms of brain development. We suggest that altriciality facilitates the evolution of telencephalic expansion by delaying telencephalic neurogenesis. We further hypothesize that delays in telencephalic neurogenesis generate delays in telencephalic maturation, which in turn foster neural adaptations that facilitate learning. Specifically, we propose that delaying telencephalic neurogenesis was a prerequisite for the evolution of neural circuits that allow parrots and songbirds to produce learned vocalizations. Overall, we argue that developmental modes have influenced how some lineages of birds increased the size of their telencephalon and that this, in turn, has influenced subsequent changes in brain circuits and behavior.

  11. Psychotherapy after acquired brain injury: Is less more?

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    Rudi Coetzer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the challenges and dilemmas facing psychotherapists working with neurological patients, and in particular those who work in the context of under-resourced brain injury rehabilitation healthcare systems. Through the subjective process of reflective practice integral to clinical supervision, the author attempts to identify five core aspects of psychotherapy intended to augment post-acute long- term rehabilitation programmes and interventions after acquired brain injury.

  12. A common left occipito-temporal dysfunction in developmental dyslexia and acquired letter-by-letter reading?

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    Fabio Richlan

    Full Text Available We used fMRI to examine functional brain abnormalities of German-speaking dyslexics who suffer from slow effortful reading but not from a reading accuracy problem. Similar to acquired cases of letter-by-letter reading, the developmental cases exhibited an abnormal strong effect of length (i.e., number of letters on response time for words and pseudowords.Corresponding to lesions of left occipito-temporal (OT regions in acquired cases, we found a dysfunction of this region in our developmental cases who failed to exhibit responsiveness of left OT regions to the length of words and pseudowords. This abnormality in the left OT cortex was accompanied by absent responsiveness to increased sublexical reading demands in phonological inferior frontal gyrus (IFG regions. Interestingly, there was no abnormality in the left superior temporal cortex which--corresponding to the onological deficit explanation--is considered to be the prime locus of the reading difficulties of developmental dyslexia cases.The present functional imaging results suggest that developmental dyslexia similar to acquired letter-by-letter reading is due to a primary dysfunction of left OT regions.

  13. Cognitive rehabilitation in children with acquired brain injuries

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    Hagberg-van't Hooft, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    Deficits in attention, memory and executive functions are the most common cognitive dysfunctions after acquired brain injuries (ABI) and may have a major negative influence on academic and social adjustment. Neuropsychological measures can assess these dysfunctions and shortcomings in academic and social life, but there is a great need for new efficacious cognitive treatment programmes. The main aims of this thesis were to evaluate the direct and maintained effects of a ...

  14. Early neurovascular uncoupling in the brain during community acquired pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Rosengarten, Bernhard; Krekel, Dennis; Kuhnert, Stefan; Schulz, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sepsis leads to microcirculatory dysfunction and therefore a disturbed neurovascular coupling in the brain. To investigate if the dysfunction is also present in less severe inflammatory diseases we studied the neurovascular coupling in patients suffering from community acquired pneumonia. Methods Patients were investigated in the acute phase of pneumonia and after recovery. The neurovascular coupling was investigated with a simultaneous electroencephalogram (EEG)-Doppler techniqu...

  15. Developmental venous anomaly in the newborn brain

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    Horsch, S. [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch, Department of Neonatology, Berlin (Germany); Govaert, P. [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Cowan, F.M. [Hammersmith Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Benders, M.J.N.L.; Groenendaal, F.; Vries, L.S. de [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Lequin, M.H. [Erasmus MC/Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Saliou, G. [University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    2014-07-15

    Cerebral developmental venous anomaly (DVA) is considered a benign anatomical variant of parenchymal venous drainage; it is the most common vascular malformation seen in the adult brain. Despite its assumed congenital origin, little is known about DVA in the neonatal brain. We report here the first cohort study of 14 neonates with DVA. Fourteen infants (seven preterm) with DVA diagnosed neonatally using cranial ultrasound (cUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from three tertiary neonatal units over 14 years are reviewed. DVA was first detected on cUS in 6 and on MRI in 8 of the 14 infants. The cUS appearances of DVA showed a focal fairly uniform area of increased echogenicity, often (86 %) adjacent to the lateral ventricle and located in the frontal lobe (58 %). Blood flow in the dilated collector vein detected by Doppler ultrasound (US) varied between cases (venous flow pattern in ten and arterialized in four). The appearance on conventional MRI was similar to findings in adults. Serial imaging showed a fairly constant appearance to the DVAs in some cases while others varied considerably regarding anatomical extent and flow velocity. This case series underlines that a neonatal diagnosis of DVA is possible with carefully performed cUS and MRI and that DVA tends to be an incidental finding with a diverse spectrum of imaging appearances. Serial imaging suggests that some DVAs undergo dynamic changes during the neonatal period and early infancy; this may contribute to why diagnosis is rare at this age. (orig.)

  16. Interventions based on the multiple connections model of reading for developmental dyslexia and acquired deep dyslexia.

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    Berninger, V W; Lester, K; Sohlberg, M M; Mateer, C

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with intervention strategies for developmental and acquired dyslexia. In Study 1 two alternative strategies for developmental surface dyslexia (dysfunctional connection between the whole word orthographic code and the phonetic or name code) were compared. In both the initial study and replication study, a modification of the selective reminding technique was superior to a traditional multisensory technique in beginning readers, presumably because it facilitated word finding or prelexical access to a phonetic code. In Study 2 an adolescent with acquired deep dyslexia (dysfunctional connection between letter and phonemic codes) who had had his angular gyrus (site of grapheme-phoneme correspondence) surgically removed, recovered reading function after a four-month phonemic analysis training program. Further research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of theory-based intervention strategies in children with developmental reading disorders unrelated to focal lesions and in adults with acquired reading disorders related to focal lesions. PMID:14589528

  17. Microglia and Inflammation: Impact on Developmental Brain Injuries

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    Chew, Li-Jin; Takanohashi, Asako; Bell, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Inflammation during the perinatal period has become a recognized risk factor for developmental brain injuries over the past decade or more. To fully understand the relationship between inflammation and brain development, a comprehensive knowledge about the immune system within the brain is essential. Microglia are resident immune cells within the…

  18. Brain MR imaging in children with psychomotor developmental delay

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    Hirai, Toshinori; Korogi, Yukunori; Sakamoto, Yuji; Furusawa, Mitsuhiro; Hamatake, Satoshi; Takahashi, Mutsumasa (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-06-01

    Fifty-two patients with developmental delay of unknown cause underwent MR imaging of the brain. Their ages ranged from 5 months to 22 years, with a mean of 2.2 years. Thirty-seven (71%) had positive MR findings, including nine with congenital malformation, nine with atrophy, six with white matter lesion, five with delayed myelination, five with atrophy and delayed myelination, two with acquired injury of corpus callosum, and one with ulegyria. Congenital malformations obtained included holoprosencephaly, polymicrogyria, dysgenesis of corpus callosum, hypoplasia of cerebellum, and tuberous sclerosis. Abnormal MR findings were frequently observed both in the children with neurologic physical findings and in generally retarded children, while in the children with suspected autism, MR imaging did not demonstrate any abnormalities. Of 24 patients with epilepsy, abnormal MR findings were obtained in 17 patients (71%). The frequency of white matter lesion and atrophy was slightly higher in the patients with epilepsy. However, no significant correlations were found between MR findings and the presence of epilepsy. Also, no significant correlations were obtained between MR findings and the degree of developmental quotient (DQ). Severely injured cases did not necessarily show abnormal findings on MRI. (author).

  19. Brain MR imaging in children with psychomotor developmental delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-two patients with developmental delay of unknown cause underwent MR imaging of the brain. Their ages ranged from 5 months to 22 years, with a mean of 2.2 years. Thirty-seven (71%) had positive MR findings, including nine with congenital malformation, nine with atrophy, six with white matter lesion, five with delayed myelination, five with atrophy and delayed myelination, two with acquired injury of corpus callosum, and one with ulegyria. Congenital malformations obtained included holoprosencephaly, polymicrogyria, dysgenesis of corpus callosum, hypoplasia of cerebellum, and tuberous sclerosis. Abnormal MR findings were frequently observed both in the children with neurologic physical findings and in generally retarded children, while in the children with suspected autism, MR imaging did not demonstrate any abnormalities. Of 24 patients with epilepsy, abnormal MR findings were obtained in 17 patients (71%). The frequency of white matter lesion and atrophy was slightly higher in the patients with epilepsy. However, no significant correlations were found between MR findings and the presence of epilepsy. Also, no significant correlations were obtained between MR findings and the degree of developmental quotient (DQ). Severely injured cases did not necessarily show abnormal findings on MRI. (author)

  20. Gesture Based Educational Software for Children with Acquired Brain Injuries

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    Er. Zainab Pirani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available " GESBI” is gesture based audio visual teaching tool designed to help children with acquired brain injuries, providing hours of entertainment in a play-and-learn environment while introducing the foundation skills in basic arithmetic, spelling, reading and solving puzzles. These children communicate with the computer via gestures based on my previous research paper “KONCERN- Hand Gesture Recognition for Physically Impaired” in which gestures are captured by camera and processed without the need of wearing any sensor based gloves etc.

  1. Radionuclide brain imaging in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

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    Costa, D.C.; Gacinovic, S.; Miller, R.F. [London University College Medical School, Middlesex Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-09-01

    Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) may produce a variety of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms and signs. CNS involvement in patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) includes AIDS dementia complex or HIV-1 associated cognitive/motor complex (widely known as HIV encephalopathy), progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML), opportunistic infections such as Toxoplasma gondii, TB, Cryptococcus and infiltration by non-Hodgkin`s B cell lymphoma. High resolution structural imaging investigations, either X-ray Computed Tomography (CT scan) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have contributed to the understanding and definition of cerebral damage caused by HIV encephalopathy. Atrophy and mainly high signal scattered white matter abnormalities are commonly seen with MRI. PML produces focal white matter high signal abnormalities due to multiple foci of demyelination. However, using structural imaging techniques there are no reliable parameters to distinguish focal lesions due to opportunistic infection (Toxoplasma gondii abscess) from neoplasm (lymphoma infiltration). It is studied the use of radionuclide brain imaging techniques in the investigation of HIV infected patients. Brain perfusion Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPET), neuroreceptor and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies are reviewed. Greater emphasis is put on the potential of some radiopharmaceuticals, considered to be brain tumour markers, to distinguish intracerebral lymphoma infiltration from Toxoplasma infection. SPET with {sup 201}Tl using quantification (tumour to non-tumour radioactivity ratios) appears a very promising technique to identify intracerebral lymphoma.

  2. Radionuclide brain imaging in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) may produce a variety of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms and signs. CNS involvement in patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) includes AIDS dementia complex or HIV-1 associated cognitive/motor complex (widely known as HIV encephalopathy), progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML), opportunistic infections such as Toxoplasma gondii, TB, Cryptococcus and infiltration by non-Hodgkin's B cell lymphoma. High resolution structural imaging investigations, either X-ray Computed Tomography (CT scan) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have contributed to the understanding and definition of cerebral damage caused by HIV encephalopathy. Atrophy and mainly high signal scattered white matter abnormalities are commonly seen with MRI. PML produces focal white matter high signal abnormalities due to multiple foci of demyelination. However, using structural imaging techniques there are no reliable parameters to distinguish focal lesions due to opportunistic infection (Toxoplasma gondii abscess) from neoplasm (lymphoma infiltration). It is studied the use of radionuclide brain imaging techniques in the investigation of HIV infected patients. Brain perfusion Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPET), neuroreceptor and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies are reviewed. Greater emphasis is put on the potential of some radiopharmaceuticals, considered to be brain tumour markers, to distinguish intracerebral lymphoma infiltration from Toxoplasma infection. SPET with 201Tl using quantification (tumour to non-tumour radioactivity ratios) appears a very promising technique to identify intracerebral lymphoma

  3. Developmental Modes and Developmental Mechanisms can Channel Brain Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Charvet, Christine J.; Georg F Striedter

    2011-01-01

    Anseriform birds (ducks and geese) as well as parrots and songbirds have evolved a disproportionately enlarged telencephalon compared with many other birds. However, parrots and songbirds differ from anseriform birds in their mode of development. Whereas ducks and geese are precocial (e.g., hatchlings feed on their own), parrots and songbirds are altricial (e.g., hatchlings are fed by their parents). We here consider how developmental modes may limit and facilitate specific changes in the mec...

  4. Music Therapy, Acquired Brain Injury and Interpersonal Communication Competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) often affects physical, cognitive and psychological aspects of a person's functioning (Bateman, et al., 2010). Psychosocial problems associated with ABI may be the major challenge facing the rehabilitation process (Morton & Wehman, 1995) Consequently, interventions...... that music is a useful tool to stimulate interaction since musical interaction can be engaged at almost any cognitive and physical level and still be meaningful (Baker & Tamplin, 2006; Gilbertson, 2005; Hald, 2011). In addition, music therapy researchers specialising in ABI have found that: - Music therapy...... is a powerful means to improve communication, general behavior, and musical behavior (Purdie, Hamilton & Baldwin, 1997). - Music therapy can increase emotional stability, clarify thoughts, stimulate spontaneous interaction, and increase motivation and cooperation (Nayak, Wheeler, Shiflett & Agostinelli, 2000...

  5. Induction of Autoimmunity to Brain Antigens by Developmental Mercury Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yubin; Gao, Donghong; Bolivar, Valerie J.; Lawrence, David A.

    2010-01-01

    A.SW mice, which are known to be prone to mercury (Hg)-induced immune nephritis, were assessed for their ability to develop autoimmunity to brain antigens after developmental exposure to Hg. Maternal drinking water containing subclinical doses of 1.25μM methyl Hg (MeHg) or 50μM Hg chloride (HgCl2) were used to evaluate developmental (exposure from gestational day 8 to postnatal day 21) induction of immune responses to brain antigens. Only HgCl2 induced autoantibody production; the HgCl2-expos...

  6. Reorganization of Functional Connectivity as a Correlate of Cognitive Recovery in Acquired Brain Injury

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    Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Paul, Nuria; Ordonez, Victoria E.; Demuynck, Olivier; Bajo, Ricardo; Campo, Pablo; Bilbao, Alvaro; Ortiz, Tomas; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestu, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive processes require a functional interaction between specialized multiple, local and remote brain regions. Although these interactions can be strongly altered by an acquired brain injury, brain plasticity allows network reorganization to be principally responsible for recovery. The present work evaluates the impact of brain injury on…

  7. Language and Brain: Neuropsychological Aspects of Developmental Reading Disability.

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    Pirozzolo, Francis J.

    1981-01-01

    An examination of the neuropsychology of written language is provided. An historical review of language disorders is presented to provide a framework for understanding the brain mechanisms underlying the reading process. Recent neuropsychological studies of developmental reading disability are discussed. Two distinct forms of the disorder are…

  8. Acquired Brain Injury Club at a Community College: Opportunities for Support, Involvement, and Leadership

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    Chinn, Nancy Resendes

    2009-01-01

    College students with acquired brain injuries face unique challenges. The likelihood of individuals with acquired brain injury experiencing isolation, lack of social support, and diminished self-esteem, along with cognitive impairments, is well documented in the literature. This article presents an overview of a community college's club for…

  9. Domiciliary therapy during inpatient rehabilitation treatment for patients with an acquired brain injury : A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, AM; Spikman, JM; Wijbrandi, Wilma

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to assess the feasibility of additional domiciliary treatment for patients with an acquired brain injury while they are still inpatients at a rehabilitation centre. This cohort study included 22 patients with an acquired brain injury (mainly stroke) and with moderate to severe neur

  10. Principles of surgical treatment of congenital, developmental and acquired female breast asymmetries

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    Novaković Marijan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. There is a natural asymmetry in normal female brests. When the difference in the shape, size or position of the breast and nipple-areola complex is visible, surgical correction is the only treatment option and presents one of the greatest challenges for a plastic surgeon. Based on the Nahai classification presented in details, the aim of the study was to present the possibilities of plastic surgery to correct primary (congenital, secondary (developmental and tertiary (acquired brest asymmetries. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of female breast asymmetry surgeries performed in the Clinic for Plastic Surgery and Burns, Military Medical Academy (MMA, Belgrade over the last seven years (January 2002 - January 2009. Results. During the above mentioned period, 82 female patients, 18 - 65 years of age, underwent surgery for breast asymmetry. The most frequent asymmetries were developmental, 'pubertal' (n = 43; acquired asymmetries as a consequence of tumor surgery were found in the other 22 patients, while 7 patients were diagnosed with primary asymmetries such as congenital chest-wall asymmetry (Sy. Poland, accessory and tuberous breasts. All patients underwent preoperative ultrasound examination, while hormone status was determined in those with developmental, 'pubertal' asymmetries. The selection of surgical procedure for correction of breast asymmetry depended upon clinical examination findings and patient's wish relating to the shape and size of the breasts. The most of breast asymmetries were corrected by a combination of surgical procedures including primary and secondary reconstruction, reduction, suspension or augmentation mammoplasty. Having combined different surgical procedures, we managed to achieve satisfactory results. The hypertrophic scar formation after reduction mamoplasty was seen in some cases, however, they caused no significant patient's discomfort. Conclusion. Application of plastic, reconstructive

  11. Acquired brain injury services in the Republic of Ireland: experiences and perceptions of families and professionals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, Garret L

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to highlight the experiences and perceptions of rehabilitation services among families of people with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) and among professionals working in ABI rehabilitation services in Ireland.

  12. Social cognition and brain morphology: implications for developmental brain dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David W; Lazar, Steven M; Boomer, K B; Mitchel, Aaron D; Michael, Andrew M; Moore, Gregory J

    2015-06-01

    The social-cognitive deficits associated with several neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders have been linked to structural and functional brain anomalies. Given the recent appreciation for quantitative approaches to behavior, in this study we examined the brain-behavior links in social cognition in healthy young adults from a quantitative approach. Twenty-two participants were administered quantitative measures of social cognition, including the social responsiveness scale (SRS), the empathizing questionnaire (EQ) and the systemizing questionnaire (SQ). Participants underwent a structural, 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedure that yielded both volumetric (voxel count) and asymmetry indices. Model fitting with backward elimination revealed that a combination of cortical, limbic and striatal regions accounted for significant variance in social behavior and cognitive styles that are typically associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Specifically, as caudate and amygdala volumes deviate from the typical R > L asymmetry, and cortical gray matter becomes more R > L asymmetrical, overall SRS and Emotion Recognition scores increase. Social Avoidance was explained by a combination of cortical gray matter, pallidum (rightward asymmetry) and caudate (deviation from rightward asymmetry). Rightward asymmetry of the pallidum was the sole predictor of Interpersonal Relationships and Repetitive Mannerisms. Increased D-scores on the EQ-SQ, an indication of greater systemizing relative to empathizing, was also explained by deviation from the typical R > L asymmetry of the caudate.These findings extend the brain-behavior links observed in neurodevelopmental disorders to the normal distribution of traits in a healthy sample. PMID:24788335

  13. Students with Acquired Brain Injury: A Legal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive and current synthesis of the legislation, regulations, policy interpretations, and case law concerning students with traumatic and nontraumatic brain injury from pre-K to grade 12. The primary focus is the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, but the scope extends to other applicable legal bases. The…

  14. Reconceptualizing functional brain connectivity in autism from a developmental perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucina Q Uddin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available While there is almost universal agreement amongst researchers that autism is associated with alterations in brain connectivity, the precise nature of these alterations continues to be debated. Theoretical and empirical work is beginning to reveal that autism is associated with a complex functional phenotype characterized by both hypo- and hyper-connectivity of large-scale brain systems. It is not yet understood why such conflicting patterns of brain connectivity are observed across different studies, and the factors contributing to these heterogeneous findings have not been identified. Develoopmental changes in functional connectivity have received inadequate attention to date. We propose that discrepancies between findings of autism related hypo-connectivity and hyper-connectivity might be reconciled by taking developmental changes into account. We review neuroimaging studies of autism, with an emphasis on functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of intrinsic functional connectivity in children, adolescents and adults. The consistent pattern emerging across several studies is that while intrinsic functional connectivity in adolescents and adults with autism is generally reduced compared with age-matched controls, functional connectivity in younger children with the disorder appears to be increased. We suggest that by placing recent empirical findings within a developmental framework, and explicitly characterizing age and pubertal stage in future work, it may be possible to resolve conflicting findings of hypo- and hyper-connectivity in the extant literature and arrive at a more comprehensive understanding of the neurobiology of autism.

  15. Management of developmental speech and language disorders. Part 2: acquired conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Anne

    2016-03-01

    Many children who present with these acquired impairments of communication have a clear preceding event such as an acquired brain injury from a road traffic accident. Children often respond differently in this situation to adult presentations. They may have a period of mutism when the prognosis might look poor and yet they subsequently make rapid progress and recover speech. They have greater potential for neural plasticity and language recovery, although they often have persisting difficulties in oral and written language. Alternatively, there may be a presentation with a paroxysmal event such as a seizure or a period of depressed consciousness, and the unusual behaviour that may accompany dysphasia and dysarthria may be misinterpreted in the child, whereas for the adult with the more common 'stroke-like' presentation, it would be immediately considered. Rarely the aphasia/dysphasia may itself be the paroxysmal event where actually recognising that the child's disrupted communication is the basis of any observed behaviours can be the greater challenge.

  16. Management of developmental speech and language disorders. Part 2: acquired conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Anne

    2016-03-01

    Many children who present with these acquired impairments of communication have a clear preceding event such as an acquired brain injury from a road traffic accident. Children often respond differently in this situation to adult presentations. They may have a period of mutism when the prognosis might look poor and yet they subsequently make rapid progress and recover speech. They have greater potential for neural plasticity and language recovery, although they often have persisting difficulties in oral and written language. Alternatively, there may be a presentation with a paroxysmal event such as a seizure or a period of depressed consciousness, and the unusual behaviour that may accompany dysphasia and dysarthria may be misinterpreted in the child, whereas for the adult with the more common 'stroke-like' presentation, it would be immediately considered. Rarely the aphasia/dysphasia may itself be the paroxysmal event where actually recognising that the child's disrupted communication is the basis of any observed behaviours can be the greater challenge. PMID:25990500

  17. Neuropsychology of colour vision: Studies in patients with acquired brain damage, healthy participants, and cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, T.C.W.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, we studied the neuropsychology of low-level sensory and higher-order visual perception in healthy participants, patients with acquired deficits in visual perception, and a man with a selective developmental deficit in colour processing. In neuropsychological literature, sensory diso

  18. I am many: the reconstruction of self following acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelech, Jan M; Desjardins, Michel

    2011-01-01

    In this article we examine the construction of self following acquired brain injury from an experience-centered perspective. Life history and semistructured interview transcripts collected from four brain injury survivors were analyzed using thematic, syntactic, and deep structure analysis. Though notions of the "lost" or "shattered" self have dominated discussions of personhood in the acquired brain injury literature, we argue that this perspective is a crude representation of the postinjury experience of self, and that aspects of stability, recovery, transcendence, and moral growth are also involved in this process. We highlight the intersubjective nature of the self, and present the processes of delegitimation, invalidation, negotiation, and resistance as crucial aspects of the postinjury construction of personhood. We explore the implications of this complex process of construction of self for grief and bereavement theories, clinical practice, and professional discourse in the area of acquired brain injury.

  19. Developmental origins of brain disorders: roles for dopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli M Money

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, such as dopamine, participate in a wide range of behavioral and cognitive functions in the adult brain, including movement, cognition, and reward. Dopamine-mediated signaling plays a fundamental neurodevelopmental role in forebrain differentiation and circuit formation. These developmental effects, such as modulation of neuronal migration and dendritic growth, occur before synaptogenesis and demonstrate novel roles for dopaminergic signaling beyond neuromodulation at the synapse. Pharmacologic and genetic disruptions demonstrate that these effects are brain region- and receptor subtype-specific. For example, the striatum and frontal cortex exhibit abnormal neuronal structure and function following prenatal disruption of dopamine receptor signaling. Alterations in these processes are implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders, and emerging studies of neurodevelopmental disruptions may shed light on the pathophysiology of abnormal neuronal circuitry in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  20. Botulinum toxin in the management of sialorrhoea in acquired brain injury

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, A

    2016-06-01

    Sialorrhoea as a consequence of severe acquired brain injury can significantly negatively impact on quality of life. Medications used in its management have many side effects which can cause problems in the severely disabled. Botulinum toxin is an effective treatment of sialorrhoea in a number of neurological conditions but may also have a role to play in the management of sialorrhoea following severe ABI. We report on 4 cases of sialorrhoea following acquired brain injury causing a variety of problems, whose parotid glands were injected with Botulinum toxin type A (Dysport) 50mu each, under ultrasound guidance. All cases had a clinically and statistically significant reduction in drooling as measured by the teacher drooling scale (p=0.005) and carers Visual Analogue Scale (p=0.012). There were no side effects reported. Botulinum toxin is an effective treatment for sialorrhoea associated with acquired brain injury.

  1. Capitalizing on Basic Brain Processes in Developmental Algebra--Part One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughbaum, Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    Basic brain function is not a mystery. Given that neuroscientists understand the brain's basic functioning processes, one wonders what their research suggests to teachers of developmental algebra. What if we knew how to teach so as to improve understanding of the algebra taught to developmental algebra students? What if we knew how the brain…

  2. Life satisfaction questionnaire (Lisat-9) : reliability and validity for patients with acquired brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Anne M.; Reneman, Michiel F.; Stewart, Roy E.; Balk, Gerlof A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and discriminant validity of the Dutch version of the life satisfaction questionnaire (Lisat-9 DV) to assess patients with an acquired brain injury. The reliability study used a test-retest design, and the validity study used a cross-sectional d

  3. Reliability of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument for Children and Youth with Acquired Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Trishna; Pfeifer, Megan; Banerjee-Guenette, Priyanka; Hunter, Theresa; Ito, Julia; Salbach, Nancy M.; Wright, Virginia; Levac, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate reliability and feasibility of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument (MLSRI) in children with acquired brain injury (ABI). The MLSRI quantifies the extent to which motor learning strategies (MLS) are used within physiotherapy (PT) interventions. Methods: PT sessions conducted by ABI team physiotherapists with a…

  4. Determinants of participation of youth with acquired brain injury : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloet, A.J. (Arend) de; Gijzen, Rianne; Braga, Lucia W.; Schoones, Jan W.; Vliet Vlieland, Thea; Meesters, Jorit J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Participation is considerably restricted in children and adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI) as compared to their healthy peers. This systematic review aims to identify which factors are associated with participation in children and adolescents with ABI. Methods: A systematic se

  5. The Effects of Exercise on Cognitive Recovery after Acquired Brain Injury in Animal Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wogensen, Elise; Rytter, Hana Malá; Mogensen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to review the current status of exercise as a tool to promote cognitive rehabilitation after acquired brain injury (ABI) in animal model-based research. Searches were conducted on the PubMed, Scopus, and psycINFO databases in February 2014. Search strings used...

  6. Computer- and Suggestion-based Cognitive Rehabilitation following Acquired Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeløv, Jonas Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is an empirical investigation into two cost-effective treatment options for patients with acquired brain injury. Based on an experiment and a review, I argue that in general computer-based cognitive rehabilitation, as it is currently practiced, has virtually no effect on untrained tas...

  7. Prognostic factors of return to work after acquired brain injury: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. van Velzen; C.A.M. van Bennekom; M.J.A. Edelaar; J.K. Sluiter; M.H.W. Frings-Dresen

    2009-01-01

    Primary objective: To provide insight into the prognostic and non-prognostic factors of return to work (RTW) in people with traumatic and non-traumatic acquired brain injury (ABI) who were working before injury. Methods: A systematic literature search (1992-2008) was performed, including terms for A

  8. How many people return to work after acquired brain injury?: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. van Velzen; C.A.M. van Bennekom; M.J.A. Edelaar; J.K. Sluiter; M.H.W. Frings-Dresen

    2009-01-01

    Primary objective: To investigate how many people return to work (RTW) after acquiring brain injury (ABI) due to traumatic or non-traumatic causes. Secondary objectives were to investigate the differences in outcome between traumatic and non-traumatic causes, the development of RTW over time and whe

  9. Assessment of fitness to drive after acquired brain injury: The role of neuropsychological tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Annette

    It is a well established fact that Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) can affect fitness to drive. Some cognitive functions have been emphasized as particular important when driving e.g. attention, reaction time, visual perception, and executive functioning. Research attempts have been made in order to ...

  10. Training of attention and memory deficits in children with acquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen Sjö, Nina; Spellerberg, Stine Marie; Weidner, Susanne;

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study concerns cognitive rehabilitation of children with acquired brain injury (ABI). Aim: The aim is threefold; to determine (1) whether the Amsterdam Memory and Attention Training for Children (AMAT-C) programme for children with ABI can be integrated in the child’s school, (2) whether...

  11. Where Have They All Gone?: Classroom Attention Patterns after Acquired Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Siân A.

    2016-01-01

    Certain groups of pupils who have sustained an Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) have a different pattern of attention within the classroom which interferes with learning and social interactions. The delineation of these groups is suggested. By looking in detail at the classroom behaviour of eight pupils, a common account for classroom behaviour…

  12. Constraint-induced movement therapy for children with acquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristina Schmidt; Pallesen, Hanne; Kristensen, Hanne Kaae

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 125–137 Danish children with acquired brain injury (ABI) require rehabilitation annually, 30–40 of these at a highly specialized level. Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) has shown significant effects in increasing function in children with cerebral palsy. More knowledge of how...

  13. Randomized trial of two swallowing assessment approaches in patients with acquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, Annette; Nielsen, Lars Hedemann; Sjölund, Bengt H.

    2014-01-01

    trial. SETTING: Specialized, national neurorehabilitation centre. SUBJECTS: Adult patients with acquired brain injury. Six hundred and seventy-nine patients were assessed for eligibility and 138 were randomly allocated between June 2009 and April 2011. INTERVENTIONS: Assessment by Facial-Oral Tract...

  14. Intelligent speed adaptation as an assistive device for drivers with acquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarborg, Brith; Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk; Agerholm, Niels;

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) was tested as an assistive device for drivers with an acquired brain injury (ABI). The study was part of the “Pay as You Speed” project (PAYS) and used the same equipment and technology as the main study (Lahrmann et al., in press-a, in press-b). Two drivers...

  15. Behavioral Treatment for Pathological Gambling in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guercio, John M.; Johnson, Taylor; Dixon, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation examined a behavior-analytic clinical treatment package designed to reduce the pathological gambling of 3 individuals with acquired brain injury. A prior history of pathological gambling of each patient was assessed via caregiver report, psychological testing, and direct observation of gambling behavior. Using an 8-week…

  16. The Classical Classroom: Enhancing Learning for Pupils with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Sian A.; Skidmore, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to draw parallels between different approaches to classroom instruction and two contrasting musical styles and to examine how pupils with Acquired Brain Injuries (ABI) might fare in each. A polyphonic classroom is defined as one where an awareness of multiple layers of meaning are encouraged to enhance the learning opportunities,…

  17. USING DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT TO DECREASE ACADEMIC RESPONSE LATENCIES OF AN ADOLESCENT WITH ACQUIRED BRAIN INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Heinicke, Megan R; Carr, James E; Mozzoni, Michael P

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of contingency-specifying rules and a token economy to decrease the latency to comply with academic instructions by a 16-year-old girl with acquired brain injury. Results showed that treatment was successful in reducing academic response latencies. These results replicate previous research in which differential reinforcement was used to decrease slow responding to academic tasks.

  18. Using Differential Reinforcement to Decrease Academic Response Latencies of an Adolescent with Acquired Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Megan R.; Carr, James E.; Mozzoni, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of contingency-specifying rules and a token economy to decrease the latency to comply with academic instructions by a 16-year-old girl with acquired brain injury. Results showed that treatment was successful in reducing academic response latencies. These results replicate previous research in which…

  19. Patients with severe acquired brain injury show increased arousal in tilt-table training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riberholt, Christian G; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Mehlsen, Jesper;

    2013-01-01

    Patients with severe acquired brain injury (ABI) are often mobilised using a tilt-table. Complications such as orthostatic intolerance have been reported. The primary objective of this study was to investigate if using a tilt-table was feasible for mobilising patients with severe ABI admitted...

  20. A Danish national strategy for treatment and rehabilitation after acquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase W

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the establishment of a Danish national strategy for treatment and rehabilitation of acquired brain injury, particularly traumatic brain injury, in 1997. The vision was to create a system of tax-financed continuous treatment, restoration of function, and outpatient...... rehabilitation. Recommendations and their fulfillment are described. Focus is on the establishment and function of early intensive interdisciplinary rehabilitation after severe traumatic brain injury, centralized as 2 units since the year 2000, each with half the country as uptake area, corresponding...... to populations of around 2.5 million. Advantages gained by this centralization are increased focus on brain injury so that everybody gets specialized rehabilitation, regardless of the prognosis, the introduction of a database for severe brain injuries with unified measures of function and outcome...

  1. Acquired-resistance of bevacizumab treatment for radiation brain necrosis: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dayong; Bian, Jianliang; Chang, Joe Y.; Yuan, Zhiyong; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The case study reported on acquired bevacizumab resistance in one patient receiving re-treatment with bevacizumab following radiation brain necrosis progression after bevacizumab was discontinued. This case offers novel and additional insight for bevacizumab treatment. Low-dose bevacizumab is effective for radiation brain necrosis, and radiation brain necrosis may progress after bevacizumab discontinuation, whereas too many cycles of bevacizumab treatment may induce drug-resistance and re-treatment failure following the progression. Therefore, more rational administration for radiation brain necrosis with bevacizumab may include three aspects: short-course treatment, timely discontinuation upon obtaining satisfactory effects (to prevent long-term medication associated resistance) and re-treatment after brain necrosis progression. PMID:26933810

  2. An Actor-Partner Interdependence Model of Acquired Brain Injury Patient Impairments and Caregiver Psychosocial Functioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrin, Paul B; Norup, Anne; Caracuel, Alfonso;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to use actor-partner interdependence modeling (APIM) to examine the simultaneous effects of both acquired brain injury (ABI) patient and caregiver ratings of patient impairments on both patient and caregiver ratings of caregiver psychosocial dysfunction. M...... are patients' views of their own impairments, pointing to caregivers' interpretations of their patients' impairments as a primary target for cognitive behavioral interventions.......OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to use actor-partner interdependence modeling (APIM) to examine the simultaneous effects of both acquired brain injury (ABI) patient and caregiver ratings of patient impairments on both patient and caregiver ratings of caregiver psychosocial dysfunction....... METHOD: A sample of 968 individuals with ABI and their caregivers (n = 1,936) from 4 countries completed the European Brain Injury Questionnaire, a measure of ABI impairments and caregiver psychosocial functioning in the context of providing care for the person with ABI. RESULTS: An APIM with all...

  3. Radiation-induced apoptosis and developmental disturbance of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inouye, Minoru [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    1995-03-01

    The developing mammalian brain is highly susceptible to ionizing radiation. A significant increase in small head size and mental retardation has been noted in prenatally exposed survivors of the atomic bombing, with the highest risk in those exposed during 8-15 weeks after fertilization. This stage corresponds to day 13 of pregnancy for mice and day 15 for rats in terms of brain development. The initial damage produced by radiation at this stage is cell death in the ventricular zone (VZ) of the brain mantle, the radiosensitive germinal cell population. During histogenesis of the cerebellum the external granular layer (EGL) is also radiosensitive. Although extensive cell death results in microcephaly and histological abnormlity, both VZ and EGL have an ability to recover from a considerable cell loss and form the normal structure of the central nervous system. The number of cell deaths to induce tissue abnormalities in adult brain rises in the range of 15-25% of the germinal cell population; and the threshold doses are about 0.3 Gy for cerebral defects and 1 Gy for cerebellar anomalies in both mice and rats. A similar threshold level is suggested in human cases in induction of mental retardation. Radiation-induced cell death in the VZ and EGL has been revealed as apoptosis, by the nuclear and cytoplasmic condensation, transglutaminase activation, required macromolecular synthesis, and internucleosomal DNA cleavage. Apoptosis of the germinal cell is assumed to eliminate acquired genetic damage. Once an abnormality in DNA has been induced and fixed in a germinal cell, it would be greatly amplified during future proliferation. These cells would commit suicide when injured for replacement by healthy cells, rather than undertake DNA repair. In fact they show very slow repair of cellular damage. Thus the high sensitivity of undifferentiated neural cells to the lethal effect of radiation may constitute a biological defense mechanism. (author) 69 refs.

  4. Developmental venous anomalies: appearance on whole-brain CT digital subtraction angiography and CT perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Eric H. [Advanced Medical Imaging and Genetics (Amigenics), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Touro University Nevada College of Osteopathic Medicine, Henderson, NV (United States); University of Nevada Las Vegas, Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 453037, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Amigenics, Inc, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Roach, Cayce J. [Advanced Medical Imaging and Genetics (Amigenics), Las Vegas, NV (United States); University of Nevada Las Vegas, School of Life Sciences, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ringdahl, Erik N. [University of Nevada Las Vegas, Department of Psychology, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Wynn, Brad L. [Family Medicine Spokane, Spokane, WA (United States); DeChancie, Sean M.; Mann, Nathan D. [Touro University Nevada College of Osteopathic Medicine, Henderson, NV (United States); Diamond, Alan S. [CHW Nevada Imaging Company, Nevada Imaging Centers, Spring Valley, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Orrison, William W. [Touro University Nevada College of Osteopathic Medicine, Henderson, NV (United States); University of Nevada Las Vegas, Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 453037, Las Vegas, NV (United States); CHW Nevada Imaging Company, Nevada Imaging Centers, Spring Valley, Las Vegas, NV (United States); University of Nevada School of Medicine, Department of Medical Education, Reno, NV (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Developmental venous anomalies (DVA) consist of dilated intramedullary veins that converge into a large collecting vein. The appearance of these anomalies was evaluated on whole-brain computed tomography (CT) digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and CT perfusion (CTP) studies. CT data sets of ten anonymized patients were retrospectively analyzed. Five patients had evidence of DVA and five age- and sex-matched controls were without known neurovascular abnormalities. CT angiograms, CT arterial-venous views, 4-D CT DSA and CTP maps were acquired on a dynamic volume imaging protocol on a 320-detector row CT scanner. Whole-brain CTP parameters were evaluated for cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), time to peak (TTP), mean transit time (MTT), and delay. DSA was utilized to visualize DVA anatomy. Radiation dose was recorded from the scanner console. Increased CTP values were present in the DVA relative to the unaffected contralateral hemisphere of 48%, 32%, and 26%; and for the control group with matched hemispheric comparisons of 2%, -10%, and 9% for CBF, CBV, and MTT, respectively. Average effective radiation dose was 4.4 mSv. Whole-brain DSA and CTP imaging can demonstrate a characteristic appearance of altered DVA hemodynamic parameters and capture the anomalies in superior cortices of the cerebrum and the cerebellum. Future research may identify the rare subsets of patients at increased risk of adverse outcomes secondary to the altered hemodynamics to facilitate tailored imaging surveillance and application of appropriate preventive therapeutic measures. (orig.)

  5. Developmental venous anomalies: appearance on whole-brain CT digital subtraction angiography and CT perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developmental venous anomalies (DVA) consist of dilated intramedullary veins that converge into a large collecting vein. The appearance of these anomalies was evaluated on whole-brain computed tomography (CT) digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and CT perfusion (CTP) studies. CT data sets of ten anonymized patients were retrospectively analyzed. Five patients had evidence of DVA and five age- and sex-matched controls were without known neurovascular abnormalities. CT angiograms, CT arterial-venous views, 4-D CT DSA and CTP maps were acquired on a dynamic volume imaging protocol on a 320-detector row CT scanner. Whole-brain CTP parameters were evaluated for cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), time to peak (TTP), mean transit time (MTT), and delay. DSA was utilized to visualize DVA anatomy. Radiation dose was recorded from the scanner console. Increased CTP values were present in the DVA relative to the unaffected contralateral hemisphere of 48%, 32%, and 26%; and for the control group with matched hemispheric comparisons of 2%, -10%, and 9% for CBF, CBV, and MTT, respectively. Average effective radiation dose was 4.4 mSv. Whole-brain DSA and CTP imaging can demonstrate a characteristic appearance of altered DVA hemodynamic parameters and capture the anomalies in superior cortices of the cerebrum and the cerebellum. Future research may identify the rare subsets of patients at increased risk of adverse outcomes secondary to the altered hemodynamics to facilitate tailored imaging surveillance and application of appropriate preventive therapeutic measures. (orig.)

  6. Challenges in understanding the epidemiology of acquired brain injury in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakannan, Suresh Kumar; Gudlavalleti, Aashrai S V; Murthy Gudlavalleti, Venkata S; Goenka, Shifalika; Kuper, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    An acquired brain injury (ABI) is an injury to the brain, which is not hereditary, congenital, degenerative, or induced by birth trauma. In India, rapid urbanization, economic growth and changes in lifestyle have led to a tremendous increase in the incidence of ABI, so much so that it is being referred to as a 'silent epidemic'. Unlike developed countries, there is no well-established system for collecting and managing information on various diseases in India. Thus it is a daunting task to obtain reliable information about acquired brain injury. In the course of conducting a systematic review on the epidemiology of ABI in India, we recognized several challenges which hampered our effort. Inadequate case definition, lack of centralized reporting mechanisms, lack of population based studies, absence of standardized survey protocols and inadequate mortality statistics are some of the major obstacles. Following a standard case definition, linking multiple hospital-based registries, initiating a state or nationwide population-based registry, conducting population-based studies that are methodologically robust and introducing centralized, standard reporting mechanisms for ABI, are some of the strategies that could help facilitate a thorough investigation into the epidemiology and understanding of ABI. This may help improve policies on prevention and management of acquired brain injury in India. PMID:25745314

  7. Challenges in understanding the epidemiology of acquired brain injury in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar Kamalakannan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An acquired brain injury (ABI is an injury to the brain, which is not hereditary, congenital, degenerative, or induced by birth trauma. In India, rapid urbanization, economic growth and changes in lifestyle have led to a tremendous increase in the incidence of ABI, so much so that it is being referred to as a ′silent epidemic′. Unlike developed countries, there is no well-established system for collecting and managing information on various diseases in India. Thus it is a daunting task to obtain reliable information about acquired brain injury. In the course of conducting a systematic review on the epidemiology of ABI in India, we recognized several challenges which hampered our effort. Inadequate case definition, lack of centralized reporting mechanisms, lack of population based studies, absence of standardized survey protocols and inadequate mortality statistics are some of the major obstacles. Following a standard case definition, linking multiple hospital-based registries, initiating a state or nationwide population-based registry, conducting population-based studies that are methodologically robust and introducing centralized, standard reporting mechanisms for ABI, are some of the strategies that could help facilitate a thorough investigation into the epidemiology and understanding of ABI. This may help improve policies on prevention and management of acquired brain injury in India.

  8. A Primer on Brain Imaging in Developmental Psychopathology: What Is It Good For?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Daniel S.

    2006-01-01

    This primer introduces a Special Section on brain imaging, which includes a commentary and 10 data papers presenting applications of brain imaging to questions on developmental psychopathology. This primer serves two purposes. First, the article summarizes the strength and weaknesses of various brain-imaging techniques typically employed in…

  9. Patients with severe acquired brain injury show increased arousal in tilt-table training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riberholt, Christian Gunge; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Mehlsen, Jesper;

    2013-01-01

    Patients with severe acquired brain injury (ABI) are often mobilised using a tilt-table. Complications such as orthostatic intolerance have been reported. The primary objective of this study was to investigate if using a tilt-table was feasible for mobilising patients with severe ABI admitted...... for sub-acute rehabilitation. We also investigated change in arousal, treatment duration before termination due to orthostatic reactions and change in muscle tone....

  10. Balloon Analogue Risk Task to assess decision-making in Acquired Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Areny Balagueró; Mercè Jodar Vicente; Alberto García Molina; Josep María Tormos; Teresa Roig Rovira

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although impairment in decision-making is a frequent consequence of frontal lobe injury, few instruments evaluate decision-making in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). Most are difficult to use and require a well-preserved ability of complex verbal comprehension and executive functions. We propose the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) as an alternative instrument to evaluate decision-making in ABI. Material and Methods: Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and Iowa Gambling...

  11. Distinct neuropsychological correlates of cognitive, behavioural and affective apathy sub-domains in acquired brain injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Progress eNjomboro; Shoumitro eDeb

    2014-01-01

    Apathy has a high prevalence and a significant contribution to treatment and rehabilitation outcomes in acquired brain damage. Research on the disorder’s neuropsychological correlates has produced mixed results. While the mixed picture may be due to the use of varied assessment tools on different patient populations, it’s also the case that most studies treat apathy as a unitary syndrome. This is in spite of evidence that apathy is a multifaceted and multidimensional syndrome. This study inve...

  12. Developmental Hypothyroidism Alters Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Expression in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe developmental thyroid hormone (TH) insufficiency results in alterations in brain structure/function and lasting behavioral impairments. Environmental toxicants reduce circulating levels of TH, but the disruption is modest and the doseresponse relationships of TH and neuro...

  13. Developmental origins of mosaic brain evolution: Morphometric analysis of the developing zebra finch brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Christine J; Striedter, Georg F

    2009-05-10

    In adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), the telencephalon occupies 64% of the entire brain. This fraction is similar to what is seen in parrots, but many other birds possess a significantly smaller telencephalon. The aim of the present study was to determine the developmental time course and cellular basis of telencephalic enlargement in zebra finches, and then to compare these findings with what is known about telencephalic enlargement in other birds. To this end we estimated the volumes of all major brain regions from serial sections in embryonic and post-hatching zebra finches. We also labeled proliferating cells with antibodies against proliferating cell nuclear antigen and phosphorylated histone H3. An important finding to emerge from this work is that the telencephalon of zebra finches at hatching contains a thick proliferative subventricular zone (SVZ) that extends from the subpallium into the dorsal pallium. The data also show that the onset and offset of telencephalic neurogenesis are both delayed in zebra finches relative to quail (Galliformes). This delay in neurogenesis, in conjunction with the expanded SVZ, probably accounts for most of the telencephalic enlargement in passerines such as the zebra finch. In addition, passerines enlarged their telencephalon by decreasing the proportional size of their midbrain tectum. Because the presumptive tectum is proportionally smaller in zebra finches than quail before neurogenesis begins, this difference in tectum size cannot be due to evolutionary alterations in neurogenesis timing. Collectively these findings indicate that several different developmental mechanisms underlie the evolution of a large telencephalon in passerines.

  14. Tackling the 'dyslexia paradox': reading brain and behavior for early markers of developmental dyslexiax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Gaab, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is an unexplained inability to acquire accurate or fluent reading that affects approximately 5-17% of children. Dyslexia is associated with structural and functional alterations in various brain regions that support reading. Neuroimaging studies in infants and pre-reading children suggest that these alterations predate reading instruction and reading failure, supporting the hypothesis that variant function in dyslexia susceptibility genes lead to atypical neural migration and/or axonal growth during early, most likely in utero, brain development. Yet, dyslexia is typically not diagnosed until a child has failed to learn to read as expected (usually in second grade or later). There is emerging evidence that neuroimaging measures, when combined with key behavioral measures, can enhance the accuracy of identification of dyslexia risk in pre-reading children but its sensitivity, specificity, and cost-efficiency is still unclear. Early identification of dyslexia risk carries important implications for dyslexia remediation and the amelioration of the psychosocial consequences commonly associated with reading failure.

  15. Neurosurgical targets for compulsivity: what can we learn from acquired brain lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figee, Martijn; Wielaard, Ilse; Mazaheri, Ali; Denys, Damiaan

    2013-03-01

    Treatment efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and other neurosurgical techniques in refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is greatly dependent on the targeting of relevant brain regions. Over the years, several case reports have been published on either the emergence or resolution of obsessive-compulsive symptoms due to neurological lesions. These reports can potentially serve as an important source of insight into the neuroanatomy of compulsivity and have implications for targets of DBS. For this purpose, we have reviewed all published case reports of patients with acquired or resolved obsessive-compulsive symptoms after brain lesions. We found a total of 37 case reports describing 71 patients with acquired and 6 with resolved obsessive-compulsive symptoms as a result of hemorrhaging, infarctions or removal of tumors. Behavioral symptoms following brain lesions consisted of typical obsessive-compulsive symptoms, but also symptoms within the compulsivity spectrum. These data suggests that lesions in the cortico-striato-thalamic circuit, parietal and temporal cortex, cerebellum and brainstem may induce compulsivity. Moreover, the resolution of obsessive-compulsive symptoms has been reported following lesions in the putamen, internal capsule and fronto-parietal lobe. These case reports provide strong evidence supporting the rationale for DBS in the ventral striatum and internal capsule for treatment of compulsivity and reveal the putamen and fronto-parietal cortex as promising new targets. PMID:23313647

  16. Focal perinatal acquired brain injury - a sonographic study of the course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of a perinatal acquired focal brain lesion is reported, and the process of resorption and healing demonstrated by ultrasound. Within four weeks a cortical area of increased echogenicity was resorbed. After two months, the resulting porencephalic cyst had been transformed into glial tissue of very high echogenicity. The neurologic development of two children with such glial focus was good. These cases demonstrate that porencephalic cysts are not always the final state after resorption of a focal brain lesion. They are no reliable prognostic indicator of poor neurological outcome. Traumatic and complicated delivery, asphyxia and coagulopathy are conditions which have been found several times in connection with a focal brain lesion. In contrast to periventricular injury, prematurity does not seem to be a factor of higher risk. (orig.)

  17. Words and Maps: Developmental Changes in Mental Models of Spatial Information Acquired from Descriptions and Depictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttal, David H.; Fisher, Joan A.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2006-01-01

    People acquire spatial information from many sources, including maps, verbal descriptions, and navigating in the environment. The different sources present spatial information in different ways. For example, maps can show many spatial relations simultaneously, but in a description, each spatial relation must be presented sequentially. The present…

  18. Developmental Apoptosis Mediates Entry and Positioning of Microglia in the Zebrafish Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casano, Alessandra Maria; Albert, Marvin; Peri, Francesca

    2016-07-26

    In the brain, neurons that fail to assemble into functional circuits are eliminated. Their clearance depends on microglia, immune cells that colonize the CNS during embryogenesis. Despite the importance of these cells in development and disease, the mechanisms that target and position microglia within the brain are unclear. Here we show that, in zebrafish, attraction of microglia into the brain exploits differences in developmental neuronal apoptosis and that these provide a mechanism for microglial distribution. Reducing neuronal cell death results in fewer microglia, whereas increased apoptosis enhances brain colonization, resulting in more microglia at later stages. Interestingly, attraction into the brain depends on nucleotide signaling, the same signaling system used to guide microglia toward brain injuries. Finally, this work uncovers a cell-non-autonomous role for developmental apoptosis. Classically considered a wasteful process, programmed cell death is exploited here to configure the immune-neuronal interface of the brain. PMID:27425604

  19. Developmentally-Dynamic Murine Brain Proteomes and Phosphoproteomes Revealed by Quantitative Proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Doubleday

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental processes are governed by a diverse suite of signaling pathways employing reversible phosphorylation. Recent advances in large-scale phosphoproteomic methodologies have made possible the identification and quantification of hundreds to thousands of phosphorylation sites from primary tissues. Towards a global characterization of proteomic changes across brain development, we present the results of a large-scale quantitative mass spectrometry study comparing embryonic, newborn and adult murine brain. Using anti-phosphotyrosine immuno-affinity chromatography and strong cation exchange (SCX chromatography, coupled to immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC, we identified and quantified over 1,750 phosphorylation sites and over 1,300 proteins between three developmental states. Bioinformatic analyses highlight functions associated with the identified proteins and phosphoproteins and their enrichment at distinct developmental stages. These results serve as a primary reference resource and reveal dynamic developmental profiles of proteins and phosphoproteins from the developing murine brain.

  20. Pilot study: Computer-based virtual anatomical interactivity for rehabilitation of individuals with chronic acquired brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    C. Douglas Simmons, PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA; Sajay Arthanat, PhD, OTR/L, ATP; Vincent J. Macri, BA, MA

    2014-01-01

    Deficiencies in upper-limb motor function and executive functioning can compromise an affected individual’s ability to complete everyday activities. Impaired motor and executive functioning therefore pose a risk to increasing numbers of veterans who have been diagnosed with acquired brain injury. This article reports on changes in upper-limb motor function and executive functioning of 12 adult participants with chronic acquired brain injury using a novel, computer-based, motor and cognitive r...

  1. Outcomes of a multicomponent intervention on occupational performance in persons with unilateral acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas Hoyas, E; Pedrero Pérez, E J; Águila Maturana, A M; Rojo Mota, G; Martínez Piédrola, R; Pérez de Heredia Torres, M

    2016-01-01

    Complications after unilateral acquired brain injury (ABI) can affect various areas of expertise causing (depending on the location of the lesion) impairment in occupational performance. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the concepts of occupational performance and functional independence, both before and after a multicomponent intervention including occupational therapy, in persons with unilateral brain damage. This was a longitudinal quasi-experimental pretest post-test study in a sample of 58 patients with unilateral brain injury (28 with traumatic brain injury and 30 with ischemic stroke). The patients' level of independence was measured using the short version of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. We also measured quality of performance using the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills. The findings of this study showed that patients with injury in the right hemisphere improved more than those with left hemisphere damage (pintervention, except in the area of motor skills. More research is needed on the specific techniques that might address such skills. PMID:27358224

  2. The globularization hypothesis of the language-ready brain as a developmental frame for prosodic bootstrapping theories of language acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritz eIrurtzun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent research Boeckx & Benítez-Burraco (2014a,b have advanced the hypothesis that our species-specific language-ready brain should be understood as the outcome of developmental changes that occurred in our species after the split from Neanderthals-Denisovans, which resulted in a more globular braincase configuration in comparison to our closest relatives, who had elongated endocasts. According to these authors, the development of a globular brain is an essential ingredient for the language faculty and in particular, it is the centrality occupied by the thalamus in a globular brain that allows its modulatory or regulatory role, essential for syntactico-semantic computations. Their hypothesis is that the syntactico-semantic capacities arise in humans as a consequence of a process of globularization, which significantly takes place postnatally (cf. Neubauer et al. (2010. In this paper, I show that Boeckx & Benítez-Burraco’s hypothesis makes an interesting developmental prediction regarding the path of language acquisition: it teases apart the onset of phonological acquisition and the onset of syntactic acquisition (the latter starting significantly later, after globularization. I argue that this hypothesis provides a developmental rationale for the prosodic bootstrapping hypothesis of language acquisition (cf. i.a. Gleitman & Wanner (1982; Mehler et al. (1988, et seq.; Gervain & Werker (2013, which claim that prosodic cues are employed for syntactic parsing. The literature converges in the observation that a large amount of such prosodic cues (in particular, rhythmic cues are already acquired before the completion of the globularization phase, which paves the way for the premises of prosodic bootstrapping hypothesis, allowing babies to have a rich knowledge of the prosody of their target language before they can start parsing the primary linguistic data syntactically.

  3. The "Globularization Hypothesis" of the Language-ready Brain as a Developmental Frame for Prosodic Bootstrapping Theories of Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irurtzun, Aritz

    2015-01-01

    In recent research (Boeckx and Benítez-Burraco, 2014a,b) have advanced the hypothesis that our species-specific language-ready brain should be understood as the outcome of developmental changes that occurred in our species after the split from Neanderthals-Denisovans, which resulted in a more globular braincase configuration in comparison to our closest relatives, who had elongated endocasts. According to these authors, the development of a globular brain is an essential ingredient for the language faculty and in particular, it is the centrality occupied by the thalamus in a globular brain that allows its modulatory or regulatory role, essential for syntactico-semantic computations. Their hypothesis is that the syntactico-semantic capacities arise in humans as a consequence of a process of globularization, which significantly takes place postnatally (cf. Neubauer et al., 2010). In this paper, I show that Boeckx and Benítez-Burraco's hypothesis makes an interesting developmental prediction regarding the path of language acquisition: it teases apart the onset of phonological acquisition and the onset of syntactic acquisition (the latter starting significantly later, after globularization). I argue that this hypothesis provides a developmental rationale for the prosodic bootstrapping hypothesis of language acquisition (cf. i.a. Gleitman and Wanner, 1982; Mehler et al., 1988, et seq.; Gervain and Werker, 2013), which claim that prosodic cues are employed for syntactic parsing. The literature converges in the observation that a large amount of such prosodic cues (in particular, rhythmic cues) are already acquired before the completion of the globularization phase, which paves the way for the premises of the prosodic bootstrapping hypothesis, allowing babies to have a rich knowledge of the prosody of their target language before they can start parsing the primary linguistic data syntactically.

  4. A quantitative study of brain perfusion patterns of 99mTc-ECD SPECT in children with developmental disabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between developmental disabilities and brain perfusion patterns. We performed technetium-99m-ethylcysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in 30 children with neurological disorders using the Patlak plot method. In children without developmental disabilities, the distribution of regional cortical perfusion evolved in relation to brain maturation. At one month of age, there was a predominant uptake in the perirolandic cortex. Radionuclide uptake in both the parietal and occipital cortices became evident by three months. Uptake in the temporal and frontal cortex increased by 6 and 11 months, respectively. Brain perfusion showed a pattern similar to that of adults by two years of age at the latest. In children with developmental disabilities, developmental changes of brain perfusion were delayed compared to normally developing children. Brain SPECT is a useful tool to assess the brain maturation in children with developmental disabilities. (author)

  5. Immune endocrinological evaluation in patients with severe vascular acquired brain injuries: therapeutical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, Angelo Paolo; Terlizzi, Annamaria; Annamaria, Terlizzi; Megna, Marisa; Marisa, Megna; Megna, Gianfranco; Gianfranco, Megna; Damiani, Sabino; Sabino, Damiani

    2013-06-01

    It is known that in severe acquired brain injuries there is process of neuroinflammation, with the activation of a local and general stress response. In our study we considered six patients with disorders of consciousness (five in vegetative state and one in minimal consciousness state) in subacute phase, which had both a clinical assessment and a functional imaging (fMRI): in all these patients we analised blood levels of osteopontin (OPN), a cytokin involved in neuroinflammation but also in neurorepair with a still discussed role. Besides we studied the lymphocyte subsets and blood levels of some hormones (ADH, ACTH, PRL, GH, TSH, fT3, fT4). We found a positive correlation between the levels of serum osteopontin (higher than normal in all subjects) and the severity of the brain injury, especially for prognosis: actually, the patient with the lowest level has emerged from minimal consciousness state, while the one with the highest level has died a few days after the evaluation. The lymphocyte subset was altered, with a general increase of CD4+/CD3+ ratio, but without a so strict correlation with clinical severity; the only hormone with a significant increase in the worse patients was prolactin. In fMRI we detected some responses to visual and acoustic stimuli also in vegetative states, which had no clinical response to this kind of stimulation but generally have had a better prognosis. So we conclude that osteopontin could be a good marker of neuroinflammation and relate to a worse prognosis of brain injuries; the lymphocyte alterations in these disorders are not clear, but we suspect an unbalance of CD4 towards Th2; PRL is the best endocrinological marker of brain injury severity; fMRI surely plays an important role in the detection of subclinical responses and in prognostic stratification, that is still to define with more studies and statistical analysis.

  6. A Principled Relation between Reading and Naming in Acquired and Developmental Anomia: Surface Dyslexia Following Impairment in the Phonological Output Lexicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvion, Aviah; Friedmann, Naama

    2016-01-01

    Lexical retrieval and reading aloud are often viewed as two separate processes. However, they are not completely separate—they share components. This study assessed the effect of an impairment in a shared component, the phonological output lexicon, on lexical retrieval and on reading aloud. Because the phonological output lexicon is part of the lexical route for reading, individuals with an impairment in this lexicon may be forced to read aloud via the sublexical route and therefore show a reading pattern that is typical of surface dyslexia. To examine the effect of phonological output lexicon deficit on reading, we tested the reading of 16 Hebrew-speaking individuals with phonological output lexicon anomia, eight with acquired anomia following brain damage and eight with developmental anomia. We established that they had a phonological output lexicon deficit according to the types of errors and the effects on their naming in a picture naming task, and excluded other deficit loci in the lexical retrieval process according to a line of tests assessing their picture and word comprehension, word and non-word repetition, and phonological working memory. After we have established that the participants have a phonological output lexicon deficit, we tested their reading. To assess their reading and type of reading impairment, we tested their reading aloud, lexical decision, and written word comprehension. We found that all of the participants with phonological output lexicon impairment showed, in addition to anomia, also the typical surface dyslexia errors in reading aloud of irregular words, words with ambiguous conversion to phonemes, and potentiophones (words like “now” that, when read via the sublexical route, can be sounded out as another word, “know”). Importantly, the participants performed normally on pseudohomophone lexical decision and on homophone/potentiophone reading comprehension, indicating spared orthographic input lexicon and spared access to it

  7. A principled relation between reading and naming in acquired and developmental anomia: Surface dyslexia following impairment in the phonological output lexicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naama eFriedmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lexical retrieval and reading aloud are often viewed as two separate processes. However, they are not completely separate--they share components.This study assessed the effect of an impairment in a shared component, the phonological output lexicon,on lexical retrieval and on reading aloud. Because the phonological output lexicon is part of the lexical route for reading, individuals with an impairment in this lexicon may be forced to read aloud via the sublexical route and therefore show a reading pattern that is typical of surface dyslexia.To examine the effect of phonological output lexicon deficit on reading, we tested the reading of 16 Hebrew-speaking individuals with phonological output lexicon anomia, 8 with acquired anomia following brain damage and 8 with developmental-anomia.We established that they had a phonological output lexicon deficit according to the types of errors and the effects on their naming in a picture naming task, and excluded other deficit loci in the lexical retrieval process according to a line of tests assessing their picture and word comprehension, word and nonword repetition, and phonological working memory.After we have established that the participants have a phonological output lexicon deficit, we tested their reading. To assess their reading and type of reading impairment, we tested their reading aloud, lexical decision, and written word comprehension.We found that all of the participants with phonological output lexicon impairment showed, in addition to anomia, also the typical surface dyslexia errors in reading aloud of irregular words,words with ambiguous conversion to phonemes,and potentiophones (words like now that, when read via the sublexical-route,can be sounded out as another word, know. Importantly, all the participants performed flawlessly on pseudohomophone lexical-decision and on homophone/potentiophone reading comprehension, indicating spared orthographic-input-lexicon and spared access to it and

  8. A Principled Relation between Reading and Naming in Acquired and Developmental Anomia: Surface Dyslexia Following Impairment in the Phonological Output Lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvion, Aviah; Friedmann, Naama

    2016-01-01

    Lexical retrieval and reading aloud are often viewed as two separate processes. However, they are not completely separate-they share components. This study assessed the effect of an impairment in a shared component, the phonological output lexicon, on lexical retrieval and on reading aloud. Because the phonological output lexicon is part of the lexical route for reading, individuals with an impairment in this lexicon may be forced to read aloud via the sublexical route and therefore show a reading pattern that is typical of surface dyslexia. To examine the effect of phonological output lexicon deficit on reading, we tested the reading of 16 Hebrew-speaking individuals with phonological output lexicon anomia, eight with acquired anomia following brain damage and eight with developmental anomia. We established that they had a phonological output lexicon deficit according to the types of errors and the effects on their naming in a picture naming task, and excluded other deficit loci in the lexical retrieval process according to a line of tests assessing their picture and word comprehension, word and non-word repetition, and phonological working memory. After we have established that the participants have a phonological output lexicon deficit, we tested their reading. To assess their reading and type of reading impairment, we tested their reading aloud, lexical decision, and written word comprehension. We found that all of the participants with phonological output lexicon impairment showed, in addition to anomia, also the typical surface dyslexia errors in reading aloud of irregular words, words with ambiguous conversion to phonemes, and potentiophones (words like "now" that, when read via the sublexical route, can be sounded out as another word, "know"). Importantly, the participants performed normally on pseudohomophone lexical decision and on homophone/potentiophone reading comprehension, indicating spared orthographic input lexicon and spared access to it and from

  9. A Principled Relation between Reading and Naming in Acquired and Developmental Anomia: Surface Dyslexia Following Impairment in the Phonological Output Lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvion, Aviah; Friedmann, Naama

    2016-01-01

    Lexical retrieval and reading aloud are often viewed as two separate processes. However, they are not completely separate-they share components. This study assessed the effect of an impairment in a shared component, the phonological output lexicon, on lexical retrieval and on reading aloud. Because the phonological output lexicon is part of the lexical route for reading, individuals with an impairment in this lexicon may be forced to read aloud via the sublexical route and therefore show a reading pattern that is typical of surface dyslexia. To examine the effect of phonological output lexicon deficit on reading, we tested the reading of 16 Hebrew-speaking individuals with phonological output lexicon anomia, eight with acquired anomia following brain damage and eight with developmental anomia. We established that they had a phonological output lexicon deficit according to the types of errors and the effects on their naming in a picture naming task, and excluded other deficit loci in the lexical retrieval process according to a line of tests assessing their picture and word comprehension, word and non-word repetition, and phonological working memory. After we have established that the participants have a phonological output lexicon deficit, we tested their reading. To assess their reading and type of reading impairment, we tested their reading aloud, lexical decision, and written word comprehension. We found that all of the participants with phonological output lexicon impairment showed, in addition to anomia, also the typical surface dyslexia errors in reading aloud of irregular words, words with ambiguous conversion to phonemes, and potentiophones (words like "now" that, when read via the sublexical route, can be sounded out as another word, "know"). Importantly, the participants performed normally on pseudohomophone lexical decision and on homophone/potentiophone reading comprehension, indicating spared orthographic input lexicon and spared access to it and from

  10. Further validation of the Motivation for Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation Questionnaire (MOT-Q) in patients with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosman, Hileen; van Heugten, Caroline M; Winkens, Ieke; Smeets, Sanne M J; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A

    2016-01-01

    The Motivation for Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation Questionnaire (MOT-Q) evaluates motivation for rehabilitation in four subscales: Interest in rehabilitation, Lack of anger, Lack of denial, and Reliance on professional help. The objective of this study was to further validate the MOT-Q in 122 inpatients and 92 outpatients with acquired brain injury (ABI). The main measures were motivation for rehabilitation (MOT-Q), self-awareness (Patient Competency Rating Scale), and treatment motivation (Visual Analogue Scale). The MOT-Q showed adequate feasibility in terms of few items with missing responses and few undecided responses. We found no floor or ceiling effects, and significant item-total MOT-Q correlations for 29 of 31 items. Internal consistency was good for the MOT-Q total and acceptable to good for the subscales. The MOT-Q scores were significantly intercorrelated except for the subscales Lack of denial and Reliance on professional help in the inpatient group. The MOT-Q total and subscales were significantly associated with treatment motivation. The Lack of denial subscale showed no significant association with treatment motivation and no to moderate significant associations with self-awareness. In conclusion, the overall MOT-Q is a valid instrument to assess motivation for rehabilitation in patients with ABI. Further research is needed to examine the validity of the subscales.

  11. BRAIN MYELINATION IN PREVALENT NEUROPSYCHIATRIC DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS: PRIMARY AND COMORBID ADDICTION

    OpenAIRE

    Bartzokis, George

    2005-01-01

    Current concepts of addiction focus on neuronal neurocircuitry and neurotransmitters and are largely based on animal model data, but the human brain is unique in its high myelin content and extended developmental (myelination) phase that continues until middle age. The biology of our exceptional myelination process and factors that influence it have been synthesized into a recently published myelin model of human brain evolution and normal development that cuts across the current symptom-base...

  12. Global and regional cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI) of developmental human brain with quantification of short-range association tracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Minhui; Jeon, Tina; Mishra, Virendra; Du, Haixiao; Wang, Yu; Peng, Yun; Huang, Hao

    2016-03-01

    From early childhood to adulthood, synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning continuously reshape the structural architecture and neural connection in developmental human brains. Disturbance of the precisely balanced strengthening of certain axons and pruning of others may cause mental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. To characterize this balance, we proposed a novel measurement based on cortical parcellation and diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography, a cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI). To evaluate the spatiotemporal sensitivity of CCMI as a potential biomarker, dMRI and T1 weighted datasets of 21 healthy subjects 2-25 years were acquired. Brain cortex was parcellated into 68 gyral labels using T1 weighted images, then transformed into dMRI space to serve as the seed region of interest for dMRI-based tractography. Cortico-cortical association fibers initiated from each gyrus were categorized into long- and short-range ones, based on the other end of fiber terminating in non-adjacent or adjacent gyri of the seed gyrus, respectively. The regional CCMI was defined as the ratio between number of short-range association tracts and that of all association tracts traced from one of 68 parcellated gyri. The developmental trajectory of the whole brain CCMI follows a quadratic model with initial decreases from 2 to 16 years followed by later increases after 16 years. Regional CCMI is heterogeneous among different cortical gyri with CCMI dropping to the lowest value earlier in primary somatosensory cortex and visual cortex while later in the prefrontal cortex. The proposed CCMI may serve as sensitive biomarker for brain development under normal or pathological conditions.

  13. Posttraumatic growth following acquired brain injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Louise Kinsella

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The idea that acquired brain injury (ABI caused by stroke, haemorrhage, infection or traumatic insult to the brain can result in posttraumatic growth (PTG for individuals is increasingly attracting psychological attention. However PTG also attracts controversy as a result of ambiguous empirical findings. The extent that demographic variables, injury factors, subjective beliefs, and psychological health are associated with PTG following ABI is not clear. Consequently, this systematic review and meta-analysis explores the correlates of variables within these four broad areas and PTG. From a total of 744 published studies addressing PTG in people with ABI, eight studies met inclusion criteria for detailed examination. Meta-analysis of these studies indicated that growth was related to employment, longer education, subjective beliefs about change post-injury, relationship status, older age, longer time since injury, and lower levels of depression. Results from homogeneity analyses indicated significant inter-study heterogeneity across variables. There is general support for the idea that people with ABI can experience growth, and that various demographics, injury-related variables, subjective beliefs and psychological health are related to growth. The contribution of social integration and the forming of new identities post-ABI to the experience of PTG is explored. These meta-analytic findings are however constrained by methodological limitations prevalent in the literature. Clinical and research implications are discussed with specific reference to community and collective factors that enable PTG.

  14. Novel insights into the rehabilitation of memory post acquired brain injury: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauriane eSpreij

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acquired Brain Injury (ABI frequently results in memory impairment, causing significant disabilities in daily life and is therefore a critical target for cognitive rehabilitation. Current understanding of brain plasticity has led to novel insights in remediation-oriented approaches for the rehabilitation of memory deficits. We will describe 3 of these approaches that have emerged in the last decade: Virtual Reality (VR training, Computer-Based Cognitive Retraining (CBCR and Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation (NBS and evaluate its effectiveness. Methods: A systematic literature search was completed for intervention studies about improving the memory function after ABI. Information concerning study content and reported effectiveness were extracted. Quality of the studies and methods were evaluated. Results: A total of 786 studies were identified, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. Three studies were found representing the VR technique, 7 studies representing CBCR and 5 studies NBS. All 3 studies found a significant improvement of the memory function after VR-based training, however these studies are considered preliminary. All 7 studies have shown that CBCR can be effective in improving memory function in individuals with ABI. Four studies of the 5 did not found significant improvement of the memory function after the use of NBS in ABI patients. Conclusion: On the basis of this review, CBCR is considered the most promising novel approach of the last decade, because of the positive results in improving memory function post ABI. The number of studies representing VR were limited and the methodological quality low, therefore the results should be considered preliminary. The studies representing NBS did not found evidence for the use of NBS in improving memory function

  15. Social Outcomes in Childhood Brain Disorder: A Heuristic Integration of Social Neuroscience and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Bigler, Erin D.; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer…

  16. The Developmental Brain Disorders Database (DBDB): a curated neurogenetics knowledge base with clinical and research applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaa, Ghayda M; Millen, Kathleen J; Barkovich, A James; Dobyns, William B; Paciorkowski, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    The number of single genes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders has increased dramatically over the past decade. The identification of causative genes for these disorders is important to clinical outcome as it allows for accurate assessment of prognosis, genetic counseling, delineation of natural history, inclusion in clinical trials, and in some cases determines therapy. Clinicians face the challenge of correctly identifying neurodevelopmental phenotypes, recognizing syndromes, and prioritizing the best candidate genes for testing. However, there is no central repository of definitions for many phenotypes, leading to errors of diagnosis. Additionally, there is no system of levels of evidence linking genes to phenotypes, making it difficult for clinicians to know which genes are most strongly associated with a given condition. We have developed the Developmental Brain Disorders Database (DBDB: https://www.dbdb.urmc.rochester.edu/home), a publicly available, online-curated repository of genes, phenotypes, and syndromes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. DBDB contains the first referenced ontology of developmental brain phenotypes, and uses a novel system of levels of evidence for gene-phenotype associations. It is intended to assist clinicians in arriving at the correct diagnosis, select the most appropriate genetic test for that phenotype, and improve the care of patients with developmental brain disorders. For researchers interested in the discovery of novel genes for developmental brain disorders, DBDB provides a well-curated source of important genes against which research sequencing results can be compared. Finally, DBDB allows novel observations about the landscape of the neurogenetics knowledge base.

  17. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SUBPLATE FOR EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENTAL PLASTICITY OF THE HUMAN BRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILOS eJUDAS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The human life-history is characterized by long development and introduction of new developmental stages, such as childhood and adolescence. The developing brain had important role in these life-history changes because it is expensive tissue which uses up to 80% of resting metabolic rate in the newborn and continues to use almost 50% of it during the first 5 postnatal years. Our hominid ancestors managed to lift-up metabolic constraints to increase in brain size by several interrelated ecological, behavioral and social adaptations, such as dietary change, invention of cooking, creation of family-bonded reproductive units, and life-history changes. This opened new vistas for the developing brain, because it became possible to metabolically support transient patterns of brain organization as well as developmental brain plasticity for much longer period and with much greater number of neurons and connectivity combinations in comparison to apes. This included the shaping of cortical connections through the interaction with infant's social environment, which probably enhanced typically human evolution of language, cognition and self-awareness. In this review, we propose that the transient subplate zone and its postnatal remnant (interstitial neurons of the gyral white matter probably served as the main playground for evolution of these developmental shifts, and describe various features that makes human subplate uniquely positioned to have such a role in comparison with other primates.

  18. Developmental changes of glutamate acid decarboxylase 67 in mouse brain after hypoxia ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fa-Lin XU; Chang-Lian ZHU; Xiao-Yang WANG

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the developmental changes of glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 ( GAD-67, a GABA synthetic enzyme) in normal and hypoxic ischemic (HI) brain. Methods C57/BL6 mice on postnatal day (P) 5, 9, 21and 60, corresponding developmentally to premature, term, juvenile and adult human brain were investigated by using both Western blot and immunohistochemistry methods either in normal condition or after hypoxic ischemic insult. Results The immunoreactivity of GAD67 was up regulated with brain development and significant difference was seen between mature (P21, P60) and immature (P5, P9) brain. GAD67 immunoreactivity decreased in the ipsilateral hemisphere in all the ages after hypoxia ischemia (HI) insult, but, significant decrease was only seen in the immature brain. Double labeling of GAD67 and cell death marker, TUNEL, in the cortex at 8h post-HI in the P9 mice showed that (15.6 ±7.0)%TUNEL positive cells were GAD67 positive which was higher than that of P60 mice. Conclusion These data suggest that GABAergic neurons in immature brain were more vulnerable to HI insult than that of mature brain.

  19. The Immune System and Developmental Programming of Brain and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bilbo, Staci D; Schwarz, Jaclyn M.

    2012-01-01

    The brain, endocrine, and immune systems are inextricably linked. Immune molecules have a powerful impact on neuroendocrine function, including hormone-behavior interactions, during health as well as sickness. Similarly, alterations in hormones, such as during stress, can powerfully impact immune function or reactivity. These functional shifts are evolved, adaptive responses that organize changes in behavior and mobilize immune resources, but can also lead to pathology or exacerbate disease i...

  20. The Effects of Exercise on Cognitive Recovery after Acquired Brain Injury in Animal Models: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Elise Wogensen; Hana Malá; Jesper Mogensen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to review the current status of exercise as a tool to promote cognitive rehabilitation after acquired brain injury (ABI) in animal model-based research. Searches were conducted on the PubMed, Scopus, and psycINFO databases in February 2014. Search strings used were: exercise (and) animal model (or) rodent (or) rat (and) traumatic brain injury (or) cerebral ischemia (or) brain irradiation. Studies were selected if they were (1) in English, (2) used adult a...

  1. Caregiver wellbeing: an examination of the coping-appraisel process of caring for individuals with an acquired brain injury

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-12-09

    Objective: Previous literature has demonstrated empirical support for a stress process model of caregiving (Chronister & Chan, 2006). This study examined whether a coping–appraisal stress model helps in our understanding of the experience of caregiving for people with an acquired brain injury.\\r\

  2. Comprehensive oral-health assessment of individuals with acquired brain-injury in neuro-rehabilitation setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Spin-Neto, Rubens; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk

    2016-01-01

    PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To perform a detailed clinical oral health assessment and oral-health-related social and behavioural aspect assessment in individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI). RESEARCH DESIGN: Prospective observational study. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Thirteen individuals with ABI were r...

  3. Social communication features in children following moderate to severe acquired brain injury: a cross-sectional pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breau, Lynn M; Clark, Brenda; Scott, Ori; Wilkes, Courtney; Reynolds, Shawn; Ricci, Florencia; Sonnenberg, Lyn; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Rashid, Marghalara; Goez, Helly R

    2015-04-01

    We compared the social communication deficits of children with moderate to severe acquired brain injury or autism spectrum disorder, while accounting for the role of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Parents of 20 children aged 6 to 10 years (10 acquired brain injury; 10 autism spectrum disorder) completed the Social Communication Questionnaire, and Conners 3 Parent Short. A multivariate analysis of covariance revealed significant differences between groups in Social Communication Questionnaire restricted repetitive behavior scores, but not reciprocal social interaction or social communication. Multiple linear regressions indicated diagnosis did not predict reciprocal social interaction or social communication scores and that Conners 3 Parent Short Form hyperactivity scores were the strongest predictor of Social Communication Questionnaire reciprocal social interaction scores after accounting for age and Intelligence Quotient. The lack of difference in social communication deficits between groups may help in understanding the pathophysiology underlying the behavioral consequences of acquired brain injury. The link between hyperactivity and reciprocal interaction suggests that targeting hyperactivity may improve social outcomes in children following acquired brain injury.

  4. Evaluation of a Reading Comprehension Strategy Package to Improve Reading Comprehension of Adult College Students with Acquired Brain Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Gina G.

    2013-01-01

    Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI.…

  5. Usual and Virtual Reality Video Game-Based Physiotherapy for Children and Youth with Acquired Brain Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levac, Danielle; Miller, Patricia; Missiuna, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how therapists promote learning of functional motor skills for children with acquired brain injuries. This study explores physiotherapists' description of these interventions in comparison to virtual reality (VR) video game-based therapy. Six physiotherapists employed at a children's rehabilitation center participated in…

  6. Dutch Multifactor Fatigue Scale : A New Scale to Measure the Different Aspects of Fatigue After Acquired Brain Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser-Keizer, Annemarie C.; Hogenkamp, Antoinette; Westerhof-Evers, Herma J.; Egberink, Iris J. L.; Spikman, Jacoba M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To develop the Dutch Multifactor Fatigue Scale (DMFS), a new scale to assess the nature and impact of fatigue and coping with fatigue in the chronic phase after acquired brain injury (ABI) and to analyze the psychometric properties of this scale in a mixed group of patients with ABI. Des

  7. Expressive Art for the Social and Community Integration of Adolescents with Acquired Brain Injuries: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Anita; Keightley, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents with acquired brain injuries suffer from social and community withdrawal that result in isolation from their peer groups. The review highlights the evidence of effectiveness of expressive art interventions in the form of theatre for populations with difficulties in physical, emotional, cognitive, or social functioning. A systematic…

  8. How Can Educational Psychologists Support the Reintegration of Children with an Acquired Brain Injury upon Their Return to School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Heather; Howe, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the process of reintegration into school for children with an acquired brain injury (ABI) and considers the role of the educational psychologist (EP) in supporting these children. Interviews were conducted with a range of professionals in two specialist settings: a specialist rehabilitation centre and a children's hospital with…

  9. Investigating therapists’ intention to use serious games for acquired brain injury cognitive rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohammed Elaklouk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquired brain injury is one cause of long-term disability. Serious games can assist in cognitive rehabilitation. However, therapists’ perception and feedback will determine game adoption. The objective of this study is to investigate therapists’ intention to use serious games for cognitive rehabilitation and identify underlying factors that may affect their acceptance. The respondents are 41 therapists who evaluated a “Ship Game” prototype. Data were collected using survey questionnaire and interview. A seven-point Likert scale was used for items in the questionnaire ranging from (1 “strongly disagree” to (7 “strongly agree”. Results indicate that the game is easy to use (Mean = 5.83, useful (Mean = 5.62, and enjoyable (Mean = 5.90. However intention to use is slightly low (Mean = 4.60. Significant factors that can affect therapists’ intention to use the game were gathered from interviews. Game-based intervention should reflect therapists’ needs in order to achieve various rehabilitation goals, providing suitable and meaningful training. Hence, facilities to tailor the game to the patient’s ability, needs and constraints are important factors that can increase therapists’ intention to use and help to deliver game experience that can motivate patients to undergo the practices needed. Moreover, therapists’ supervision, database functionality and quantitative measures regarding a patient’s progress also represent crucial factors.

  10. Music evoked autobiographical memory after severe acquired brain injury: preliminary findings from a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, A; Samson, S

    2014-01-01

    Music evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) have been characterised in the healthy population, but not, to date, in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). Our aim was to investigate music compared with verbal evoked autobiographical memories. Five patients with severe ABI and matched controls completed the experimental music (MEAM) task (a written questionnaire) while listening to 50 "Number 1 Songs of the Year" (from 1960 to 2010). Patients also completed the Autobiographical Memory Interview (AMI) and a standard neuropsychological assessment. With the exception of Case 5, who reported no MEAMs and no autobiographical incidents on the AMI and who also had impaired pitch perception, the range of frequency and type of MEAMs in patients was broadly in keeping with their matched controls. The relative preservation of MEAMs in four cases was particularly noteworthy given their impaired verbal and/or visual anterograde memory, and in three cases, autobiographical memory impairment. The majority of MEAMs in both cases and matched controls were of a person/people or a period of life. In three patients music was more efficient at evoking autobiographical memories than the AMI verbal prompts. This is the first study of MEAMs after ABI. The findings suggest that music is an effective stimulus for eliciting autobiographical memories, and may be beneficial in the rehabilitation of autobiographical amnesia, but only in patients without a fundamental deficit in autobiographical recall memory and intact pitch perception.

  11. Balloon Analogue Risk Task to assess decision-making in Acquired Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Areny Balagueró

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although impairment in decision-making is a frequent consequence of frontal lobe injury, few instruments evaluate decision-making in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI. Most are difficult to use and require a well-preserved ability of complex verbal comprehension and executive functions. We propose the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART as an alternative instrument to evaluate decision-making in ABI. Material and Methods: Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART and Iowa Gambling Task (IGT were administered to a clinical group of 30 patients with ABI and to a control group of 30 healthy participants; comparative study to assess possible differences in the results obtained; analysis to determine a possible correlation between the two tests between groups. Results: The results showed that BART is a sensitive instrument to detect differences in performance between a control group and a group of patients with ABI, p < .001, 95 % CI =537.21-1575.46, but do not correlate with IGT, p = .524, rab.c = ‒.134. Conclusions: Although IGT and BART were both designed to assess decision-making, the results obtained in our study show that the scores obtained by patients with ABI on both tests do not correlate. This clearly proves that IGT and BART measure different aspects of decision-making.

  12. Satisfaction with Cognitive Rehabilitation Delivered via the Internet in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Bergquist

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the level of satisfaction with cognitive rehabilitation delivered via the Internet in persons with moderate to severe acquired brain injury (ABI. Fifteen adults with moderate to severe ABI were randomized to 30 days of Internet-based active treatment (AT or to a wait list (WL group, and crossed over to the opposite condition after 30 sessions. Both caregivers and participants were assessed at three time points during the study. This study focused on participant satisfaction with receiving treatment in this manner. Though the results of this study showed no significant treatment effect, the vast majority of participants (>87% were satisfied with treatment. Treatment satisfaction accounted for 25% of additional variance in predicting lower family ratings of mood difficulties after final assessment (p<.03. Greater satisfaction with treatment was positively correlated with greater employment rate after treatment (r=.63, p=.02, as well as lower family ratings of memory and mood difficulties after final assessment (r=-.59, p=.03; r=-.58, p=.03,. Results suggest that treatment satisfaction in persons with ABI is related to less activity limitations, and maintaining employment after cognitive rehabilitation delivered via the Internet.  

  13. Developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency and brain development: A role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for normal brain development. Even subclinical hypothyroidism experienced in utero can result in neuropsychological deficits in children despite normal thyroid status at birth. Neurotrophins have been implicated in a host of brain cellular func...

  14. Developmental Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency Reduces Expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in Adults But Not in Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin critical for many developmental and physiological aspects of CNS function. Severe hypothyroidism in the early neonatal period results in developmental and cognitive impairments and reductions in mRNA and protein expressio...

  15. Evolutionary and developmental implications of asymmetric brain folding in a large primate pedigree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Elizabeth G; Rogers, Jeffrey; Cheverud, James M

    2016-03-01

    Bilateral symmetry is a fundamental property of the vertebrate central nervous system. Local deviations from symmetry provide various types of information about the development, evolution, and function of elements within the CNS, especially the cerebral hemispheres. Here, we quantify the pattern and extent of asymmetry in cortical folding within the cerebrum of Papio baboons and assess the evolutionary and developmental implications of the findings. Analyses of directional asymmetry show a population-level trend in length measurements indicating that baboons are genetically predisposed to be asymmetrical, with the right side longer than the left in the anterior cerebrum while the left side is longer than the right posteriorly. We also find a corresponding bias to display a right frontal petalia (overgrowth of the anterior pole of the cerebral cortex on the right side). By quantifying fluctuating asymmetry, we assess canalization of brain features and the susceptibility of the baboon brain to developmental perturbations. We find that features are differentially canalized depending on their ontogenetic timing. We further deduce that development of the two hemispheres is to some degree independent. This independence has important implications for the evolution of cerebral hemispheres and their separate specialization. Asymmetry is a major feature of primate brains and is characteristic of both brain structure and function. PMID:26813679

  16. In the Groove: An Evaluation to Explore a Joint Music Therapy and Occupational Therapy Intervention for Children with Acquired Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Twyford; Samantha Watters

    2016-01-01

    An acquired brain injury in children disrupts brain development and neural pathways, which may have serious implications on occupational role performance. Assessment and management of children with neurological disorders is complex and treatment requires the engagement of a multidisciplinary team. Increasing evidence indicates that both occupational therapists and music therapists work effectively towards similar goals with children with acquired brain injury. This evaluation investigated the...

  17. Fetal functional brain age assessed from universal developmental indices obtained from neuro-vegetative activity patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hoyer

    Full Text Available Fetal brain development involves the development of the neuro-vegetative (autonomic control that is mediated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS. Disturbances of the fetal brain development have implications for diseases in later postnatal life. In that context, the fetal functional brain age can be altered. Universal principles of developmental biology applied to patterns of autonomic control may allow a functional age assessment. The work aims at the development of a fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS based on heart rate patterns. We analysed n = 113 recordings in quiet sleep, n = 286 in active sleep, and n = 29 in active awakeness from normals. We estimated fABAS from magnetocardiographic recordings (21.4-40.3 weeks of gestation preclassified in quiet sleep (n = 113, 63 females and active sleep (n = 286, 145 females state by cross-validated multivariate linear regression models in a cross-sectional study. According to universal system developmental principles, we included indices that address increasing fluctuation range, increasing complexity, and pattern formation (skewness, power spectral ratio VLF/LF, pNN5. The resulting models constituted fABAS. fABAS explained 66/63% (coefficient of determination R(2 of training and validation set of the variance by age in quiet, while 51/50% in active sleep. By means of a logistic regression model using fluctuation range and fetal age, quiet and active sleep were automatically reclassified (94.3/93.1% correct classifications. We did not find relevant gender differences. We conclude that functional brain age can be assessed based on universal developmental indices obtained from autonomic control patterns. fABAS reflect normal complex functional brain maturation. The presented normative data are supplemented by an explorative study of 19 fetuses compromised by intrauterine growth restriction. We observed a shift in the state distribution towards active awakeness. The lower WGA

  18. Voxel-based statistical analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with permanent vegetative state after acquired brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Wook Kim; Hyoung Seop Kim; Young-Sil An; Sang Hee Im

    2010-01-01

    Background Permanent vegetative state is defined as the impaired level of consciousness longer than 12 months after traumatic causes and 3 months after non-traumatic causes of brain injury. Although many studies assessed the cerebral metabolism in patients with acute and persistent vegetative state after brain injury, few studies investigated the cerebral metabolism in patients with permanent vegetative state. In this study, we performed the voxel-based analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism and investigated the relationship between regional cerebral glucose metabolism and the severity of impaired consciousness in patients with permanent vegetative state after acquired brain injury.Methods We compared the regional cerebral glucose metabolism as demonstrated by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography from 12 patients with permanent vegetative state after acquired brain injury with those from 12 control subjects. Additionally, covariance analysis was performed to identify regions where decreased changes in regional cerebral glucose metabolism significantly correlated with a decrease of level of consciousness measured by JFK-coma recovery scare. Statistical analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping.Results Compared with controls, patients with permanent vegetative state demonstrated decreased cerebral glucose metabolism in the left precuneus, both posterior cingulate cortices, the left superior parietal lobule (Pcorrected <0.001), and increased cerebral glucose metabolism in the both cerebellum and the right supramarginal cortices (Pcorrected <0.001). In the covariance analysis, a decrease in the level of consciousness was significantly correlated with decreased cerebral glucose metabolism in the both posterior cingulate cortices (Puncorrected <0.005).Conclusion Our findings suggest that the posteromedial parietal cortex, which are part of neural network for consciousness, may be relevant structure for pathophysiological mechanism

  19. Cross-talk between the fat body and brain regulates insect developmental arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Hua; Lu, Yu-Xuan; Denlinger, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Developmental arrest, a critical component of the life cycle in animals as diverse as nematodes (dauer state), insects (diapause), and vertebrates (hibernation), results in dramatic depression of the metabolic rate and a profound extension in longevity. Although many details of the hormonal systems controlling developmental arrest are well-known, we know little about the interactions between metabolic events and the hormones controlling the arrested state. Here, we show that diapause is regulated by an interplay between blood-borne metabolites and regulatory centers within the brain. Gene expression in the fat body, the insect equivalent of the liver, is strongly suppressed during diapause, resulting in low levels of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) intermediates circulating within the blood, and at diapause termination, the fat body becomes activated, releasing an abundance of TCA intermediates that act on the brain to stimulate synthesis of regulatory peptides that prompt production of the insect growth hormone ecdysone. This model is supported by our success in breaking diapause by injecting a mixture of TCA intermediates and upstream metabolites. The results underscore the importance of cross-talk between the brain and fat body as a regulator of diapause and suggest that the TCA cycle may be a checkpoint for regulating different forms of animal dormancy. PMID:22912402

  20. Standing between Two Worlds in Harlem: A Developmental Psychopathology Perspective of Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ezer; Mellins, Claude Ann; Ng, Warren Yiu Kee; Robinson, Lisa-Gaye; Abrams, Elaine J.

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal HIV infection in the US continues to evolve from a fatal pediatric illness to a chronic medical condition of childhood and adolescence. Although navigating this period is influenced by multi-leveled deprivations commonly experienced by low-income minority families, HIV alters the timing and experience of developmental milestones for many…

  1. Cognitive behavioural therapy skills in children who have sustained an acquired brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Ingham, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood brain injury can result in cognitive, behavioural, and psychological difficulties. It is reported that many children who have suffered a brain injury experience the same level of emotional distress as children seen in mental health services. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) has been shown to be an effective intervention for a range of psychological disorders that arise during childhood, yet to date there is little evidence to suggest whether this is a beneficial therapy...

  2. Resting-State and Task-Based Functional Brain Connectivity in Developmental Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurz, Matthias; Wimmer, Heinz; Richlan, Fabio; Ludersdorfer, Philipp; Klackl, Johannes; Kronbichler, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Reading requires the interaction between multiple cognitive processes situated in distant brain areas. This makes the study of functional brain connectivity highly relevant for understanding developmental dyslexia. We used seed-voxel correlation mapping to analyse connectivity in a left-hemispheric network for task-based and resting-state fMRI data. Our main finding was reduced connectivity in dyslexic readers between left posterior temporal areas (fusiform, inferior temporal, middle temporal, superior temporal) and the left inferior frontal gyrus. Reduced connectivity in these networks was consistently present for 2 reading-related tasks and for the resting state, showing a permanent disruption which is also present in the absence of explicit task demands and potential group differences in performance. Furthermore, we found that connectivity between multiple reading-related areas and areas of the default mode network, in particular the precuneus, was stronger in dyslexic compared with nonimpaired readers.

  3. HUMANICS 1. A feasibility study to create a home internet based telehealth product to supplement acquired brain injury therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Tony

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the project was to produce a unique, cost effective, and user-friendly computer based telehealth system product which had longevity and the ability to be integrated modularly into a future internet-based health care communication provision. This was conceptualised as an aid to home-based...... self-training through motivated creativity via manipulation of a digital multimedia game form. The system was to be a supplementary tool for therapists. The targeted group was adults with acquired brain injury. This paper details the first phase of the product feasibility....

  4. Current Evidence for Developmental, Structural, and Functional Brain Defects following Prenatal Radiation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Verreet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation is omnipresent. We are continuously exposed to natural (e.g., radon and cosmic and man-made radiation sources, including those from industry but especially from the medical sector. The increasing use of medical radiation modalities, in particular those employing low-dose radiation such as CT scans, raises concerns regarding the effects of cumulative exposure doses and the inappropriate utilization of these imaging techniques. One of the major goals in the radioprotection field is to better understand the potential health risk posed to the unborn child after radiation exposure to the pregnant mother, of which the first convincing evidence came from epidemiological studies on in utero exposed atomic bomb survivors. In the following years, animal models have proven to be an essential tool to further characterize brain developmental defects and consequent functional deficits. However, the identification of a possible dose threshold is far from complete and a sound link between early defects and persistent anomalies has not yet been established. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on brain developmental and persistent defects resulting from in utero radiation exposure and addresses the many questions that still remain to be answered.

  5. Current Evidence for Developmental, Structural, and Functional Brain Defects following Prenatal Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verreet, Tine; Quintens, Roel; Baatout, Sarah; Benotmane, Mohammed A.

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is omnipresent. We are continuously exposed to natural (e.g., radon and cosmic) and man-made radiation sources, including those from industry but especially from the medical sector. The increasing use of medical radiation modalities, in particular those employing low-dose radiation such as CT scans, raises concerns regarding the effects of cumulative exposure doses and the inappropriate utilization of these imaging techniques. One of the major goals in the radioprotection field is to better understand the potential health risk posed to the unborn child after radiation exposure to the pregnant mother, of which the first convincing evidence came from epidemiological studies on in utero exposed atomic bomb survivors. In the following years, animal models have proven to be an essential tool to further characterize brain developmental defects and consequent functional deficits. However, the identification of a possible dose threshold is far from complete and a sound link between early defects and persistent anomalies has not yet been established. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on brain developmental and persistent defects resulting from in utero radiation exposure and addresses the many questions that still remain to be answered. PMID:27382490

  6. Current Evidence for Developmental, Structural, and Functional Brain Defects following Prenatal Radiation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verreet, Tine; Verslegers, Mieke; Quintens, Roel; Baatout, Sarah; Benotmane, Mohammed A

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is omnipresent. We are continuously exposed to natural (e.g., radon and cosmic) and man-made radiation sources, including those from industry but especially from the medical sector. The increasing use of medical radiation modalities, in particular those employing low-dose radiation such as CT scans, raises concerns regarding the effects of cumulative exposure doses and the inappropriate utilization of these imaging techniques. One of the major goals in the radioprotection field is to better understand the potential health risk posed to the unborn child after radiation exposure to the pregnant mother, of which the first convincing evidence came from epidemiological studies on in utero exposed atomic bomb survivors. In the following years, animal models have proven to be an essential tool to further characterize brain developmental defects and consequent functional deficits. However, the identification of a possible dose threshold is far from complete and a sound link between early defects and persistent anomalies has not yet been established. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on brain developmental and persistent defects resulting from in utero radiation exposure and addresses the many questions that still remain to be answered. PMID:27382490

  7. Validation of the Vertical Heterophoria Symptom Questionnaire (VHS-Q) In Patients with Balance Problems and Binocular Visual Dysfunction after Acquired Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schow, Trine; Teasdale, Thomas William; Arendt Rasmussen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Trine Schow, Thomas William Teasdale and Morten Arendt Rasmussen Validation of the Vertical Heterophoria Symptom Questionnaire (VHS-Q) In Patients with Balance Problems and Binocular Visual Dysfunction after Acquired Brain Injury. SOJ Psychology (in Press)......Trine Schow, Thomas William Teasdale and Morten Arendt Rasmussen Validation of the Vertical Heterophoria Symptom Questionnaire (VHS-Q) In Patients with Balance Problems and Binocular Visual Dysfunction after Acquired Brain Injury. SOJ Psychology (in Press)...

  8. Pilot study: Computer-based virtual anatomical interactivity for rehabilitation of individuals with chronic acquired brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Douglas Simmons, PhD, OTR/L, FAOTA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in upper-limb motor function and executive functioning can compromise an affected individual’s ability to complete everyday activities. Impaired motor and executive functioning therefore pose a risk to increasing numbers of veterans who have been diagnosed with acquired brain injury. This article reports on changes in upper-limb motor function and executive functioning of 12 adult participants with chronic acquired brain injury using a novel, computer-based, motor and cognitive rehabilitation program called PreMotor Exercise Games (PEGs. Manual muscle, goniometric range of motion, and dynamometer assessments were used to determine motor functioning while the Executive Function Performance Test measured cognitive functioning. A three-level repeated measures design was conducted to determine changes pre- and postintervention. Participants demonstrated significant improvement in shoulder (p = 0.01 and wrist (p = 0.01 range of motion and clinically relevant improvement for elbow range of motion. Participants demonstrated clinically relevant improvement in shoulder, elbow, and wrist strength. Finally, participants demonstrated significant improvement in executive functioning (p < 0.05. Using PEGs as a modality for both motor and cognitive intervention is a potentially beneficial adjunct to rehabilitation and warrants further study.

  9. The International Society for Developmental Psychobiology Annual Meeting Symposium: Impact of Early Life Experiences on Brain and Behavioral Development

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Regina; Wilson, Donald A.; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K.; Meyer, Urs; Richter-levin, Gal; Avi, Avital; Michael, Tsoory; Gruss, Michael; Bock, Jörg; Helmeke, Carina; Braun, Katharina

    2006-01-01

    Decades of research in the area of developmental psychobiology have shown that early life experience alters behavioral and brain development, which canalizes development to suit different environments. Recent methodological advances have begun to identify the mechanisms by which early life experiences cause these diverse adult outcomes. Here we present four different research programs that demonstrate the intricacies of early environmental influences on behavioral and brain development in bot...

  10. Altered Recruitment of the Attention Network Is Associated with Disability and Cognitive Impairment in Pediatric Patients with Acquired Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Strazzer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed abnormalities of brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI activity during a sustained attention task (Conners’ Continuous Performance Test (CCPT in 20 right-handed pediatric acquired brain injury (ABI patients versus 7 right-handed age-matched healthy controls, and we estimated the correlation of such abnormalities with clinical and cognitive deficits. Patients underwent the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM evaluations. During fMRI, patients and controls activated regions of the attention network. Compared to controls, ABI patients experienced a decreased average fMRI recruitment of the left cerebellum and a decreased deactivation of the left anterior cingulate cortex. With increasing task demand, compared to controls, ABI patients had an impaired ability to increase the recruitment of several posterior regions of the attention network. They also experienced a greater activation of frontal regions, which was correlated with worse performance on FIM, WISC, and fMRI CCPT. Such abnormal brain recruitment was significantly influenced by the type of lesion (focal versus diffuse axonal injury and time elapsed from the event. Pediatric ABI patients experienced an inability to optimize attention network recruitment, especially when task difficulty was increased, which likely contributes to their clinical and cognitive deficits.

  11. 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT imaging in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In order to investigate the changes of regional cerebral blood flow(rCBF) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndromes (AIDS), 99mTc-ECDbrain SPECT imaging was performed in 5 patients with AIDS and 16 sex and agematched normal controls, and the rCBF percentages compared to the cerebellum werecalculated using a semi-quantitative processing software. Hypoperfusions in the rightand left frontal, temporal, porietal lobe, basal ganglia and left thalamus were seen in1 patient with dementia. Hypoperfusions in the right and left frontal and temporallobe were seen in 4 asymptomatic patients. The rCBF in the right and left frontal.temporal, porietal lobe, basal ganglia and thalamus, front and pons were decreasedsignificantly in patients with AIDS than those of the control subjects (p <0.005). Itis concluded that there exists reduced cortico-subcortical rCBF in AIDS patients.``

  12. A designated centre for people with disabilities, operated by Acquired Brain Injury Ireland, Offaly

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roche, Richard Ap

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Repeated rehearsal is one method by which verbal material may be transferred from short- to long-term memory. We hypothesised that extended engagement of memory structures through prolonged rehearsal would result in enhanced efficacy of recall and also of brain structures implicated in new learning. Twenty-four normal participants aged 55-70 (mean = 60.1) engaged in six weeks of rote learning, during which they learned 500 words per week every week (prose, poetry etc.). An extensive battery of memory tests was administered on three occasions, each six weeks apart. In addition, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was used to measure metabolite levels in seven voxels of interest (VOIs) (including hippocampus) before and after learning. RESULTS: Results indicate a facilitation of new learning that was evident six weeks after rote learning ceased. This facilitation occurred for verbal\\/episodic material only, and was mirrored by a metabolic change in left posterior hippocampus, specifically an increase in NAA\\/(Cr+Cho) ratio. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that repeated activation of memory structures facilitates anamnesis and may promote neuronal plasticity in the ageing brain, and that compliance is a key factor in such facilitation as the effect was confined to those who engaged fully with the training.

  13. A Heme Oxygenase-1 Transducer Model of Degenerative and Developmental Brain Disorders

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    Hyman M. Schipper

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is a 32 kDa protein which catalyzes the breakdown of heme to free iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin. The Hmox1 promoter contains numerous consensus sequences that render the gene exquisitely sensitive to induction by diverse pro-oxidant and inflammatory stimuli. In “stressed” astroglia, HO-1 hyperactivity promotes mitochondrial iron sequestration and macroautophagy and may thereby contribute to the pathological iron deposition and bioenergetic failure documented in Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease and certain neurodevelopmental conditions. Glial HO-1 expression may also impact neuroplasticity and cell survival by modulating brain sterol metabolism and the proteasomal degradation of neurotoxic proteins. The glial HO-1 response may represent a pivotal transducer of noxious environmental and endogenous stressors into patterns of neural damage and repair characteristic of many human degenerative and developmental CNS disorders.

  14. The Contribution of Novel Brain Imaging Techniques to Understanding the Neurobiology of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothelf, Doron; Furfaro, Joyce A.; Penniman, Lauren C.; Glover, Gary H.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2005-01-01

    Studying the biological mechanisms underlying mental retardation and developmental disabilities (MR/DD) is a very complex task. This is due to the wide heterogeneity of etiologies and pathways that lead to MR/DD. Breakthroughs in genetics and molecular biology and the development of sophisticated brain imaging techniques during the last decades…

  15. Promoting social plasticity in developmental disorders with non-invasive brain stimulation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggio, Paulo S; Asthana, Manish K; Costa, Thiago L; Valasek, Cláudia A; Osório, Ana A C

    2015-01-01

    Being socially connected directly impacts our basic needs and survival. People with deficits in social cognition might exhibit abnormal behaviors and face many challenges in our highly social-dependent world. These challenges and limitations are associated with a substantial economical and subjective impact. As many conditions where social cognition is affected are highly prevalent, more treatments have to be developed. Based on recent research, we review studies where non-invasive neuromodulatory techniques have been used to promote Social Plasticity in developmental disorders. We focused on three populations where non-invasive brain stimulation seems to be a promising approach in inducing social plasticity: Schizophrenia, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Williams Syndrome (WS). There are still very few studies directly evaluating the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the social cognition of these populations. However, when considering the promising preliminary evidences presented in this review and the limited amount of clinical interventions available for treating social cognition deficits in these populations today, it is clear that the social neuroscientist arsenal may profit from non-invasive brain stimulation techniques for rehabilitation and promotion of social plasticity. PMID:26388712

  16. Promoting social plasticity in developmental disorders with non invasive brain stimulation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Boggio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Being socially connected directly impacts our basic needs and survival. People with deficits in social cognition might exhibit abnormal behaviors and face many challenges in our highly social-dependent world. These challenges and limitations are associated with a substantial economical and subjective impact. As many conditions where social cognition is affected are highly prevalent, more treatments have to be developed. Based on recent research, we review studies where noninvasive neuromodulatory techniques have been used to promote Social Plasticity in developmental disorders. We focused on three populations where non-invasive brain stimulation seems to be a promising approach in inducing social plasticity: Schizophrenia, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD and Williams Syndrome (WS. There are still very few studies directly evaluating the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS in the social cognition of these populations. However, when considering the promising preliminary evidences presented in this review and the limited amount of clinical interventions available for treating social cognition deficits in these populations today, it is clear that the social neuroscientist arsenal may profit from non-invasive brain stimulation techniques for rehabilitation and promotion of social plasticity.

  17. Dental management in dysphagia syndrome patients with previously acquired brain damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennio Bramanti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysphagia is defined as difficulty in swallowing food (semi-solid or solid, liquid, or both. Difficulty in swallowing affects approximately 7% of population, with risk incidence increasing with age. There are many disorder conditions predisposing to dysphagia such as mechanical strokes or esophageal diseases even if neurological diseases represent the principal one. Cerebrovascular pathology is today the leading cause of death in developing countries, and it occurs most frequently in individuals who are at least 60 years old. Swallowing disorders related to a stroke event are common occurrences. The incidence ranging is estimated from 18% to 81% in the acute phase and with a prevalence of 12% among such patients. Cerebral, cerebellar, or brain stem strokes can influence swallowing physiology while cerebral lesions can interrupt voluntary control of mastication and bolus transport during the oral phase. Among the most frequent complications of dysphagia are increased mortality and pulmonary risks such as aspiration pneumonia, dehydration, malnutrition, and long-term hospitalization. This review article discusses the epidemiology of dysphagia, the normal swallowing process, pathophysiology, signs and symptoms, diagnostics, and dental management of patients affected.

  18. Impact of a family-focused intervention on self-concept after acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Amber; Ponsford, Jennie; Couchman, Grace

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of a family inclusive intervention on the multidimensional self-concept of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Forty one individuals with TBI and a matched control group completed the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale: Second Edition (TSCS: 2), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), the Family Assessment Device (FAD), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) on two occasions: at immediate contact (pre-group, T1) and post-group (3 months after initial contact, T2). Controls did not attend the intervention. Total scores for the measures, as well as scores on subdomains of self-concept, taken pre- and post-intervention for the TBI sample and at the same time for matched controls were compared between groups using Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA); followed by a series of repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) to determine whether significant changes occurred. Contrary to the main aim, the use of a family-focused intervention did not result in self-concept improvement, either globally or across self-concept domains. Nor did mood or family functioning improve for the TBI sample. Measures remained stable across time for the controls. PMID:23656483

  19. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Acquired Brain Injury Ireland, Cork

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Kara

    2013-01-01

    Geschwind syndrome has been described in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and is characterized by sexual behavioural disorders, hyperreligiosity, hypergraphia, and viscosity. Presented here is a case of a 53-year-old man with clinical findings consistent with Geschwind syndrome in the setting of a known diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder, with no identifiable comorbid illness of temporal lobe epilepsy or frontotemporal dementia. Brain MRI showed bilateral temporal lobe atrophy greater than would be expected for age and more prominent on the left side than the right. It is likely that these structural abnormalities may be related to this patient\\'s clinical presentation of Geschwind syndrome. To our knowledge, this is the first reporting of a case of Geschwind syndrome in the setting of schizoaffective disorder. These symptoms of Geschwind syndrome were present irrespective of mental state status. The report highlights the importance in correct identification of underlying cause and differentiation between Geschwind syndrome and schizoaffective disorder in order to avoid mistreatment and consequent iatrogenic adverse events.

  20. Social cognition and its relationship to functional outcomes in patients with sustained acquired brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubukata S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Shiho Ubukata,1,2 Rumi Tanemura,2 Miho Yoshizumi,1 Genichi Sugihara,1 Toshiya Murai,1 Keita Ueda1 1Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 2Department of Rehabilitation Science, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan Abstract: Deficits in social cognition are common after traumatic brain injury (TBI. However, little is known about how such deficits affect functional outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between social cognition and functional outcomes in patients with TBI. We studied this relationship in 20 patients with TBI over the course of 1 year post-injury. Patients completed neurocognitive assessments and social cognition tasks. The social cognition tasks included an emotion-perception task and three theory of mind tasks: the Faux Pas test, Reading the Mind in the Eyes (Eyes test, and the Moving-Shapes paradigm. The Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique was used to assess functional outcomes. Compared with our database of normal subjects, patients showed impairments in all social cognition tasks. Multiple regression analysis revealed that theory of mind ability as measured by the Eyes test was the best predictor of the cognitive aspects of functional outcomes. The findings of this pilot study suggest that the degree to which a patient can predict what others are thinking is an important measure that can estimate functional outcomes over 1 year following TBI. Keywords: Eyes test, social emotion perception, social function, social participation, theory of mind

  1. Network analysis of human fMRI data suggests modular restructuring after simulated acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Vargas, E; Mitchell, D G V; Greening, S G; Wahl, L M

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiology underlying neurocognitive dysfunction following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), or concussion, is poorly understood. In order to shed light on the effects of TBI at the functional network or modular level, our research groups are engaged in the acquisition and analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data from subjects post-TBI. Complementary to this effort, in this paper we use mathematical and computational techniques to determine how modular structure changes in response to specific mechanisms of injury. In particular, we examine in detail the potential effects of focal contusions, diffuse axonal degeneration and diffuse microlesions, illustrating the extent to which functional modules are preserved or degenerated by each type of injury. One striking prediction of our study is that the left and right hemispheres show a tendency to become functionally separated post-injury, but only in response to diffuse microlesions. We highlight other key differences among the effects of the three modelled injuries and discuss their clinical implications. These results may help delineate the functional mechanisms underlying several of the cognitive sequelae associated with TBI. PMID:26463519

  2. Developmentally Sensitive Interaction Effects of Genes and the Social Environment on Total and Subcortical Brain Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jennifer S; Arias Vásquez, Alejandro; Franke, Barbara; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hartman, Catharina A

    2016-01-01

    Smaller total brain and subcortical volumes have been linked to psychopathology including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Identifying mechanisms underlying these alterations, therefore, is of great importance. We investigated the role of gene-environment interactions (GxE) in interindividual variability of total gray matter (GM), caudate, and putamen volumes. Brain volumes were derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in participants with (N = 312) and without ADHD (N = 437) from N = 402 families (age M = 17.00, SD = 3.60). GxE effects between DAT1, 5-HTT, and DRD4 and social environments (maternal expressed warmth and criticism; positive and deviant peer affiliation) as well as the possible moderating effect of age were examined using linear mixed modeling. We also tested whether findings depended on ADHD severity. Deviant peer affiliation was associated with lower caudate volume. Participants with low deviant peer affiliations had larger total GM volumes with increasing age. Likewise, developmentally sensitive GxE effects were found on total GM and putamen volume. For total GM, differential age effects were found for DAT1 9-repeat and HTTLPR L/L genotypes, depending on the amount of positive peer affiliation. For putamen volume, DRD4 7-repeat carriers and DAT1 10/10 homozygotes showed opposite age relations depending on positive peer affiliation and maternal criticism, respectively. All results were independent of ADHD severity. The presence of differential age-dependent GxE effects might explain the diverse and sometimes opposing results of environmental and genetic effects on brain volumes observed so far. PMID:27218681

  3. Developmentally Sensitive Interaction Effects of Genes and the Social Environment on Total and Subcortical Brain Volumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Richards

    Full Text Available Smaller total brain and subcortical volumes have been linked to psychopathology including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Identifying mechanisms underlying these alterations, therefore, is of great importance. We investigated the role of gene-environment interactions (GxE in interindividual variability of total gray matter (GM, caudate, and putamen volumes. Brain volumes were derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in participants with (N = 312 and without ADHD (N = 437 from N = 402 families (age M = 17.00, SD = 3.60. GxE effects between DAT1, 5-HTT, and DRD4 and social environments (maternal expressed warmth and criticism; positive and deviant peer affiliation as well as the possible moderating effect of age were examined using linear mixed modeling. We also tested whether findings depended on ADHD severity. Deviant peer affiliation was associated with lower caudate volume. Participants with low deviant peer affiliations had larger total GM volumes with increasing age. Likewise, developmentally sensitive GxE effects were found on total GM and putamen volume. For total GM, differential age effects were found for DAT1 9-repeat and HTTLPR L/L genotypes, depending on the amount of positive peer affiliation. For putamen volume, DRD4 7-repeat carriers and DAT1 10/10 homozygotes showed opposite age relations depending on positive peer affiliation and maternal criticism, respectively. All results were independent of ADHD severity. The presence of differential age-dependent GxE effects might explain the diverse and sometimes opposing results of environmental and genetic effects on brain volumes observed so far.

  4. Developmentally Sensitive Interaction Effects of Genes and the Social Environment on Total and Subcortical Brain Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Vásquez, Alejandro; Franke, Barbara; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2016-01-01

    Smaller total brain and subcortical volumes have been linked to psychopathology including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Identifying mechanisms underlying these alterations, therefore, is of great importance. We investigated the role of gene-environment interactions (GxE) in interindividual variability of total gray matter (GM), caudate, and putamen volumes. Brain volumes were derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in participants with (N = 312) and without ADHD (N = 437) from N = 402 families (age M = 17.00, SD = 3.60). GxE effects between DAT1, 5-HTT, and DRD4 and social environments (maternal expressed warmth and criticism; positive and deviant peer affiliation) as well as the possible moderating effect of age were examined using linear mixed modeling. We also tested whether findings depended on ADHD severity. Deviant peer affiliation was associated with lower caudate volume. Participants with low deviant peer affiliations had larger total GM volumes with increasing age. Likewise, developmentally sensitive GxE effects were found on total GM and putamen volume. For total GM, differential age effects were found for DAT1 9-repeat and HTTLPR L/L genotypes, depending on the amount of positive peer affiliation. For putamen volume, DRD4 7-repeat carriers and DAT1 10/10 homozygotes showed opposite age relations depending on positive peer affiliation and maternal criticism, respectively. All results were independent of ADHD severity. The presence of differential age-dependent GxE effects might explain the diverse and sometimes opposing results of environmental and genetic effects on brain volumes observed so far. PMID:27218681

  5. Computerised cognitive training in acquired brain injury: A systematic review of outcomes using the International Classification of Functioning (ICF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmundsdottir, Linda; Longley, Wendy A; Tate, Robyn L

    2016-10-01

    Computerised cognitive training (CCT) is an increasingly popular intervention for people experiencing cognitive symptoms. This systematic review evaluated the evidence for CCT in adults with acquired brain injury (ABI), focusing on how outcome measures used reflect efficacy across components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Database searches were conducted of studies investigating CCT to treat cognitive symptoms in adult ABI. Scientific quality was rated using the PEDro-P and RoBiNT Scales. Ninety-six studies met the criteria. Most studies examined outcomes using measures of mental functions (93/96, 97%); fewer studies included measures of activities/participation (41/96, 43%) or body structures (8/96, 8%). Only 14 studies (15%) provided Level 1 evidence (randomised controlled trials with a PEDro-P score ≥ 6/10), with these studies suggesting strong evidence for CCT improving processing speed in multiple sclerosis (MS) and moderate evidence for improving memory in MS and brain tumour populations. There is a large body of research examining the efficacy of CCT, but relatively few Level 1 studies and evidence is largely limited to body function outcomes. The routine use of outcome measures of activities/participation would provide more meaningful evidence for the efficacy of CCT. The use of body structure outcome measures (e.g., neuroimaging) is a newly emerging area, with potential to increase understanding of mechanisms of action for CCT. PMID:26965034

  6. Inheritance of acquired behaviour adaptations and brain gene expression in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nätt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental challenges may affect both the exposed individuals and their offspring. We investigated possible adaptive aspects of such cross-generation transmissions, and hypothesized that chronic unpredictable food access would cause chickens to show a more conservative feeding strategy and to be more dominant, and that these adaptations would be transmitted to the offspring. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Parents were raised in an unpredictable (UL or in predictable diurnal light rhythm (PL, 12:12 h light:dark. In a foraging test, UL birds pecked more at freely available, rather than at hidden and more attractive food, compared to birds from the PL group. Female offspring of UL birds, raised in predictable light conditions without parental contact, showed a similar foraging behavior, differing from offspring of PL birds. Furthermore, adult offspring of UL birds performed more food pecks in a dominance test, showed a higher preference for high energy food, survived better, and were heavier than offspring of PL parents. Using cDNA microarrays, we found that the differential brain gene expression caused by the challenge was mirrored in the offspring. In particular, several immunoglobulin genes seemed to be affected similarly in both UL parents and their offspring. Estradiol levels were significantly higher in egg yolk from UL birds, suggesting one possible mechanism for these effects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that unpredictable food access caused seemingly adaptive responses in feeding behavior, which may have been transmitted to the offspring by means of epigenetic mechanisms, including regulation of immune genes. This may have prepared the offspring for coping with an unpredictable environment.

  7. In the Groove: An Evaluation to Explore a Joint Music Therapy and Occupational Therapy Intervention for Children with Acquired Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Twyford

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An acquired brain injury in children disrupts brain development and neural pathways, which may have serious implications on occupational role performance. Assessment and management of children with neurological disorders is complex and treatment requires the engagement of a multidisciplinary team. Increasing evidence indicates that both occupational therapists and music therapists work effectively towards similar goals with children with acquired brain injury. This evaluation investigated the effectiveness of a joint music therapy and occupational therapy group in promoting the development of self-regulation skills in children with an acquired brain injury or neurological condition, as part of a pilot project at a regional paediatric hospital in Australia. Six participants, aged five and half to ten years, were recruited through the acquired brain injury and neurology outpatient service at a regional paediatric hospital. Children underwent occupational therapy assessment and were identified to have sensory processing difficulties that negatively impacted on the child’s occupational roles of "friend" and "student." The intervention group, In the Groove, received seven, weekly, one-hour sessions, held for one hour on a weekly basis. Each session involved a variety of joint music therapy and occupational therapy activities, specifically planned to achieve intervention goals. A range of standardised occupational therapy and music therapy outcome measures were used, as well as non-standardised measures. All children received positive outcomes following intervention for at least one outcome measure. The findings indicate that joint music therapy and occupational therapy intervention may provide children with acquired brain injury and neurological impairment opportunities to develop self-regulation skills.

  8. Social competence in pediatric brain tumor survivors: application of a model from social neuroscience and developmental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Matthew C; McCurdy, Mark; Turner, Elise; Kazak, Anne E; Noll, Robert B; Phillips, Peter; Barakat, Lamia P

    2015-03-01

    Pediatric brain tumor (BT) survivors are at risk for psychosocial late effects across many domains of functioning, including neurocognitive and social. The literature on the social competence of pediatric BT survivors is still developing and future research is needed that integrates developmental and cognitive neuroscience research methodologies to identify predictors of survivor social adjustment and interventions to ameliorate problems. This review discusses the current literature on survivor social functioning through a model of social competence in childhood brain disorder and suggests future directions based on this model. Interventions pursuing change in survivor social adjustment should consider targeting social ecological factors.

  9. Long-Term Consequences of Developmental Alcohol Exposure on Brain Structure and Function: Therapeutic Benefits of Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Klintsova, Anna Y.; Gillian F. Hamilton; Karen E. Boschen

    2012-01-01

    Developmental alcohol exposure both early in life and during adolescence can have a devastating impact on normal brain structure and functioning, leading to behavioral and cognitive impairments that persist throughout the lifespan. This review discusses human work as well as animal models used to investigate the effect of alcohol exposure at various time points during development, as well as specific behavioral and neuroanatomical deficits caused by alcohol exposure. Further, cellular and mol...

  10. The impact of acquired brain damage in terms of epidemiology, economics and loss in quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larrañaga Isabel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with acquired brain damage (ABD have suffered a brain lesion that interrupts vital development in the physical, psychological and social spheres. Stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI are the two main causes. The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence and prevalence of ABD in the population of the Basque Country and Navarre in 2008, to calculate the associated cost of the care required and finally to assess the loss in health-related quality of life. Methods On the one hand, a cross-sectional survey was carried out, in order to estimate the incidence of ABD and its consequences in terms of costs and loss in quality of life from the evolution of a sample of patients diagnosed with stroke and TBI. On the other hand, a discrete event simulation model was built that enabled the prevalence of ABD to be estimated. Finally, a calculation was made of the formal and informal costs of ABD in the population of the Basque Country and Navarre (2,750,000 people. Results The cross-sectional study showed that the incidences of ABD caused by stroke and TBI were 61.8 and 12.5 cases per 100,000 per year respectively, while the overall prevalence was 657 cases per 100,000 people. The SF-36 physical and mental component scores were 28.9 and 44.5 respectively. The total economic burden was calculated to be 382.14 million euro per year, distributed between 215.27 and 166.87 of formal and informal burden respectively. The average cost per individual was 21,040 € per year. Conclusions The main conclusion of this study is that ABD has a high impact in both epidemiological and economic terms as well as loss in quality of life. The overall prevalence obtained is equivalent to 0.7% of the total population. The substantial economic burden is distributed nearly evenly between formal and informal costs. Specifically, it was found that the physical dimensions of quality of life are the most severely affected. The prevalence

  11. Is it time to act? The potential of acceptance and commitment therapy for psychological problems following acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Maria; McDonald, Skye

    2011-04-01

    Behaviour therapies have a well-established, useful tradition in psychological treatments and have undergone several major revisions. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and mindfulness-based approaches are considered a third wave of behavioural therapies. Emerging evidence for ACT has demonstrated that this paradigm has promising effectiveness in improving functionality and well-being in a variety of populations that have psychological disturbances and/or medical problems. In this review we first evaluate traditional cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions used to manage psychological problems in distressed individuals who have sustained an acquired brain injury (ABI). We provide an overview of the ACT paradigm and the existent evidence base for this intervention. A rationale is outlined for why ACT-based interventions may have potential utility in assisting distressed individuals who have sustained a mild to moderate ABI to move forward with their lives. We also review emerging evidence that lends preliminary support to the implementation of acceptance and mindfulness-based interventions in the rehabilitation of ABI patient groups. On the basis of existent literature, we recommend that it is an opportune time for forthcoming research to rigorously test the efficacy of ACT-based interventions in facilitating ABI patient groups to re-engage in living a valued and meaningful life, in spite of their neurocognitive and physical limitations. The promising utility of testing the efficacy of the ACT paradigm in the context of multimodal rehabilitation programmes for ABI populations is also addressed.

  12. Can, Want and Try: Parents’ Viewpoints Regarding the Participation of Their Child with an Acquired Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Melanie; Elliott, Catherine; Willis, Claire; Ward, Roslyn; Falkmer, Marita; Falkmer, Torbjӧrn; Gubbay, Anna; Girdler, Sonya

    2016-01-01

    Background Acquired brain injury (ABI) is a leading cause of permanent disability, currently affecting 20,000 Australian children. Community participation is essential for childhood development and enjoyment, yet children with ABI can often experience barriers to participation. The factors which act as barriers and facilitators to community participation for children with an ABI are not well understood. Aim To identify the viewpoints of parents of children with an ABI, regarding the barriers and facilitators most pertinent to community participation for their child. Methods Using Q-method, 41 parents of children with moderate/severe ABI sorted 37 statements regarding barriers and facilitators to community participation. Factor analysis identified three viewpoints. Results This study identified three distinct viewpoints, with the perceived ability to participate decreasing with a stepwise trend from parents who felt their child and family “can” participate in viewpoint one, to “want” in viewpoint two and “try” in viewpoint three. Conclusions Findings indicated good participation outcomes for most children and families, however some families who were motivated to participate experienced significant barriers. The most significant facilitators included child motivation, supportive relationships from immediate family and friends, and supportive community attitudes. The lack of supportive relationships and attitudes was perceived as a fundamental barrier to community participation. Significance This research begins to address the paucity of information regarding those factors that impact upon the participation of children with an ABI in Australia. Findings have implications for therapists, service providers and community organisations. PMID:27367231

  13. A Systematic Review of Hospital-to-School Reintegration Interventions for Children and Youth with Acquired Brain Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Lindsay

    Full Text Available We reviewed the literature on interventions that aimed to improve hospital-to-school reintegration for children and youth with acquired brain injury (ABI. ABI is the leading cause of disability among children and youth. A successful hospital-to-school reintegration process is essential to the rehabilitative process. However, little is known about the effective components of of such interventions.Our research team conducted a systematic review, completing comprehensive searches of seven databases and selected reference lists for relevant articles published in a peer-reviewed journal between 1989 and June 2014. We selected articles for inclusion that report on studies involving: a clinical population with ABI; sample had an average age of 20 years or younger; an intentional structured intervention affecting hospital-to-school transitions or related components; an experimental design; and a statistically evaluated health outcome. Two independent reviewers applied our inclusion criteria, extracted data, and rated study quality. A meta-analysis was not feasible due to the heterogeneity of the studies reported. Of the 6933 articles identified in our initial search, 17 articles (reporting on 350 preadolescents and adolescents, aged 4-19, (average age 11.5 years, SD: 2.21 met our inclusion criteria. They reported on interventions varying in number of sessions (one to 119 and session length (20 minutes to 4 hours. The majority of interventions involved multiple one-to-one sessions conducted by a trained clinician or educator, homework activities, and parental involvement. The interventions were delivered through different settings and media, including hospitals, schools, and online. Although outcomes varied (with effect sizes ranging from small to large, 14 of the articles reported at least one significant improvement in cognitive, social, psychological, or behavioral functioning or knowledge of ABI.Cognitive, behavioral, and problem

  14. Evaluation of use of reading comprehension strategies to improve reading comprehension of adult college students with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Gina G; Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Kirk, Cecilia; Fickas, Stephen; Biancarosa, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI. Despite the rising need, empirical evaluation of reading comprehension interventions for adults with ABI is scarce. This study used a within-subject design to evaluate whether adult college students with ABI with no more than moderate cognitive impairments benefited from using reading comprehension strategies to improve comprehension of expository text. Integrating empirical support from the cognitive rehabilitation and special education literature, the researchers designed a multi-component reading comprehension strategy package. Participants read chapters from an introductory-level college anthropology textbook in two different conditions: strategy and no-strategy. The results indicated that reading comprehension strategy use was associated with recall of more correct information units in immediate and delayed free recall tasks; more efficient recall in the delayed free recall task; and increased accuracy recognising statements from a sentence verification task designed to reflect the local and global coherence of the text. The findings support further research into using reading comprehension strategies as an intervention approach for the adult ABI population. Future research needs include identifying how to match particular reading comprehension strategies to individuals, examining whether reading comprehension performance improves further through the incorporation of systematic training, and evaluating texts from a range of disciplines and genres.

  15. Microstructural callosal abnormalities in normal-appearing brain of children with developmental delay detected with diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Xiao-Qi [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Sun, Yimeng; Illies, Till; Zeumer, Hermann; Fiehler, Jens [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Kruse, Bernd [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Pediatrics, Hamburg (Germany); Lanfermann, Heinrich [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Callosal fibres play an important role in psychomotor and cognitive functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible microstructural abnormalities of the corpus callosum in children with developmental delay, who have normal conventional brain MR imaging results. Seventeen pediatric patients (aged 1-9 years) with developmental delay were studied. Quantitative T2 and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured at the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (CC). Fibre tracking, volumetric determination, as well as fibre density calculations of the CC were also carried out. The results were compared with those of the age-matched healthy subjects. A general elevation of T2 relaxation times (105 ms in patients vs. 95 ms in controls) and reduction of the FA values (0.66 in patients vs. 0.74 in controls) at the genu of the CC were found in patients. Reductions of the fibre numbers (5,464 in patients vs. 8,886 in controls) and volumes (3,415 ml in patients vs. 5,235 ml in controls) of the CC were found only in patients older than 5 years. The study indicates that despite their inconspicuous findings in conventional MRI microstructural brain abnormalities are evident in these pediatric patients suffering from developmental delay. (orig.)

  16. Capitalizing on Basic Brain Processes in Developmental Algebra--Part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughbaum, Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    In Part Three, the author reviews the basic ideas presented in Parts One and Two while arguing why the traditional equation-solving developmental algebra curricula is not a good choice for implementing neural response strategies presented in the first two parts. He continues by showing that the developmental algebra student audience is simply…

  17. Methylmercury and brain development: imprecision and underestimation of developmental neurotoxicity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Herz, Katherine T

    2011-01-01

    Methylmercury is now recognized as an important developmental neurotoxicant, though this insight developed slowly over many decades. Developmental neurotoxicity was first reported in a Swedish case report in 1952, and from a serious outbreak in Minamata, Japan, a few years later. Whereas the infa...

  18. BRAIN AND BLOOD TIN LEVELS IN A DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY STUDY OF DIBUTYLTIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibutyltin (DBT), a widely used plastic stabilizer, is detected in the environment and human tissues. While teratological and developmental effects are known, we could find no published report of DBT effects on the developing nervous system. As part of a developmental neurotoxi...

  19. Fetal liver blood flow distribution: role in human developmental strategy to prioritize fat deposition versus brain development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith M Godfrey

    Full Text Available Among primates, human neonates have the largest brains but also the highest proportion of body fat. If placental nutrient supply is limited, the fetus faces a dilemma: should resources be allocated to brain growth, or to fat deposition for use as a potential postnatal energy reserve? We hypothesised that resolving this dilemma operates at the level of umbilical blood distribution entering the fetal liver. In 381 uncomplicated pregnancies in third trimester, we measured blood flow perfusing the fetal liver, or bypassing it via the ductus venosus to supply the brain and heart using ultrasound techniques. Across the range of fetal growth and independent of the mother's adiposity and parity, greater liver blood flow was associated with greater offspring fat mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, both in the infant at birth (r = 0.43, P<0.001 and at age 4 years (r = 0.16, P = 0.02. In contrast, smaller placentas less able to meet fetal demand for essential nutrients were associated with a brain-sparing flow pattern (r = 0.17, p = 0.02. This flow pattern was also associated with a higher degree of shunting through ductus venosus (P = 0.04. We propose that humans evolved a developmental strategy to prioritize nutrient allocation for prenatal fat deposition when the supply of conditionally essential nutrients requiring hepatic inter-conversion is limited, switching resource allocation to favour the brain if the supply of essential nutrients is limited. Facilitated placental transfer mechanisms for glucose and other nutrients evolved in environments less affluent than those now prevalent in developed populations, and we propose that in circumstances of maternal adiposity and nutrient excess these mechanisms now also lead to prenatal fat deposition. Prenatal developmental influences play important roles in the human propensity to deposit fat.

  20. The behavioral neurogenetics of fragile X syndrome: analyzing gene-brain-behavior relationships in child developmental psychopathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Allan L; Dant, Christopher C

    2003-01-01

    Analyzing gene-brain-behavior linkages in childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, a research approach called "behavioral neurogenetics," has provided new insights into understanding how both genetic and environmental factors contribute to complex variations in typical and atypical human development. Research into etiologically more homogeneous disorders, such as fragile X syndrome, in particular, allows the use of more precise metrics of genetic risk so that we can more fully understand the complex pathophysiology of childhood onset neurodevelopmental disorders. In this paper, we review our laboratory's behavioral neurogenetics research by examining gene-brain-behavior relationships in fragile X syndrome, a single-gene disorder that has become a well-characterized model for studying neurodevelopmental dysfunction in childhood. Specifically, we examine genetic influences, trajectories of cognition and behavior, variation in brain structure and function, and biological and environmental factors that influence developmental and cognitive outcomes of children with fragile X. The converging approaches across these multilevel scientific domains indicate that fragile X, which arises from disruption of a single gene leading to the loss of a specific protein, is associated with a cascade of aberrations in neurodevelopment, resulting in a central nervous system that is suboptimal with respect to structure and function. In turn, structural and functional brain alterations lead to early disruption in emotion, cognition, and behavior in the child with fragile X. The combination of molecular genetics, neuroimaging, and behavioral research have advanced our understanding of the linkages between genetic variables, neurobiological measures, IQ, and behavior. Our research and that of others demonstrates that neurobehavior and neurocognition, genetics, and neuroanatomy are all different views of the same intriguing biological puzzle, a puzzle that today is rapidly emerging into a

  1. The International Society for Developmental Psychobiology annual meeting symposium: Impact of early life experiences on brain and behavioral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Regina; Wilson, Donald A; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K; Meyer, Urs; Richter-Levin, Gal; Avi, Avital; Michael, Tsoory; Gruss, Michael; Bock, Jörg; Helmeke, Carina; Braun, Katharina

    2006-11-01

    Decades of research in the area of developmental psychobiology have shown that early life experience alters behavioral and brain development, which canalizes development to suit different environments. Recent methodological advances have begun to identify the mechanisms by which early life experiences cause these diverse adult outcomes. Here we present four different research programs that demonstrate the intricacies of early environmental influences on behavioral and brain development in both pathological and normal development. First, an animal model of schizophrenia is presented that suggests prenatal immune stimulation influences the postpubertal emergence of psychosis-related behavior in mice. Second, we describe a research program on infant rats that demonstrates how early odor learning has unique characteristics due to the unique functioning of the infant limbic system. Third, we present work on the rodent Octodon degus, which shows that early paternal and/or maternal deprivation alters development of limbic system synaptic density that corresponds to heightened emotionality. Fourth, a juvenile model of stress is presented that suggests this developmental period is important in determining adulthood emotional well being. The approach of each research program is strikingly different, yet all succeed in delineating a specific aspect of early development and its effects on infant and adult outcome that expands our understanding of the developmental impact of infant experiences on emotional and limbic system development. Together, these research programs suggest that the developing organism's developmental trajectory is influenced by environmental factors beginning in the fetus and extending through adolescence, although the specific timing and nature of the environmental influence has unique impact on adult mental health.

  2. Effectiveness of a Very Early Stepping Verticalization Protocol in Severe Acquired Brain Injured Patients: A Randomized Pilot Study in ICU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Sara; Maffia, Sara; Molatore, Katia; Sebastianelli, Luca; Zarucchi, Alessio; Matteri, Diana; Ercoli, Giuseppe; Maestri, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Verticalization was reported to improve the level of arousal and awareness in patients with severe acquired brain injury (ABI) and to be safe in ICU. We evaluated the effectiveness of a very early stepping verticalization protocol on their functional and neurological outcome. Methods Consecutive patients with Vegetative State or Minimally Conscious State were enrolled in ICU on the third day after an ABI. They were randomized to undergo conventional physiotherapy alone or associated to fifteen 30-minute sessions of verticalization, using a tilt table with robotic stepping device. Once stabilized, patients were transferred to our Neurorehabilitation unit for an individualized treatment. Outcome measures (Glasgow Coma Scale, Coma Recovery Scale revised -CRSr-, Disability Rating Scale–DRS- and Levels of Cognitive Functioning) were assessed on the third day from the injury (T0), at ICU discharge (T1) and at Rehab discharge (T2). Between- and within-group comparisons were performed by the Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test, respectively. Results Of the 40 patients enrolled, 31 completed the study without adverse events (15 in the verticalization group and 16 in the conventional physiotherapy). Early verticalization started 12.4±7.3 (mean±SD) days after ABI. The length of stay in ICU was longer for the verticalization group (38.8 ± 15.7 vs 25.1 ± 11.2 days, p = 0.01), while the total length of stay (ICU+Neurorehabilitation) was not significantly different (153.2 ± 59.6 vs 134.0 ± 61.0 days, p = 0.41). All outcome measures significantly improved in both groups after the overall period (T2 vs T0, p<0.001 all), as well as after ICU stay (T1 vs T0, p<0.004 all) and after Neurorehabilitation (T2 vs T1, p<0.004 all). The improvement was significantly better in the experimental group for CRSr (T2-T0 p = 0.033, T1-T0 p = 0.006) and (borderline) for DRS (T2-T0 p = 0.040, T1-T0 p = 0.058). Conclusions A stepping verticalization

  3. Screening for Developmental Neurotoxicants using In Vitro "Brain on a Chip" Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently there are thousands of chemicals in the environment that have not been screened for their potential to cause developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). The use of microelectrode array (MEA) technology allows for simultaneous extracellular measurement of action potential (spike)...

  4. Integrating Functional Brain Neuroimaging and Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience in Child Psychiatry Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Sweeney, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of cognitive neuroscience and functional brain neuroimaging to understand brain dysfunction in pediatric psychiatric disorders is discussed. Results show that bipolar youths demonstrate impairment in affective and cognitive neural systems and in these two circuits' interface. Implications for the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric…

  5. Neuroprotective effect of developmental docosahexaenoic acid supplement against excitotoxic brain damage in infant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogyes, E; Nyakas, C; Kiliaan, A; Farkas, T; Penke, B; Luiten, PGM; Högyes, E.

    2003-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) composition of neural membranes is a key factor for brain development, in chemical communication of neurons and probably also their survival in response to injury. Viability of cholinergic neurons was tested during brain development following dietary s

  6. Neuroprotective effect of developmental docosahexaenoic acid supplement against excitotoxic brain damage in infant rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogyes, E.; Nyakas, C.; Kiliaan, A.J.; Farkas, T.; Penke, B.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) composition of neural membranes is a key factor for brain development, in chemical communication of neurons and probably also their survival in response to injury. Viability of cholinergic neurons was tested during brain development following dietary s

  7. Internally and externally generated emotions in people with acquired brain injury: preservation of emotional experience after right hemisphere lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Riquelme, Christian E.; Radovic, Darinka; Castro, Osvaldo; Turnbull, Oliver H.

    2015-01-01

    The study of emotional changes after brain injury has contributed enormously to the understanding of the neural basis of emotion. However, little attention has been placed on the methods used to elicit emotional responses in people with brain damage. Of particular interest are subjects with right hemisphere [RH] cortical lesions, who have been described as presenting impairment in emotional processing. In this article, an internal and external mood induction procedure [MIP] was used to trigge...

  8. Internally and externally generated emotions in people with acquired brain injury: Preservation of emotional experience after right hemisphere lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Riquelme, Christian E.; Darinka eRadovic; Osvaldo eCastro; Oliver Hugh Turnbull

    2015-01-01

    The study of emotional changes after brain injury has contributed enormously to the understanding of the neural basis of emotion. However, little attention has been placed on the methods used to elicit emotional responses in people with brain damage. Of particular interest are subjects with right hemisphere [RH] cortical lesions, who have been described as presenting impairment in emotional processing. In this article, an internal and external mood induction procedure [MIP] was used to trigge...

  9. Abnormal Functional Lateralization and Activity of Language Brain Areas in Typical Specific Language Impairment (Developmental Dysphasia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guibert, Clement; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferre, Jean-Christophe; Treguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting…

  10. Psychosis and autism as two developmental windows on a disordered social brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Sophie; Swaab, Hanna; Aleman, Andre

    2008-01-01

    With regard to social-cognitive deficits in autism and psychosis, Crespi & Badcock's (C&B's) theory does not incorporate the developmental context of the disorders. We propose that there is significant overlap in social-cognitive impairments, but that the exact manifestation of social-cognitive defi

  11. ALTERATIONS IN BRAIN PROTEIN KINASE C ISOFORMS FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL MIXTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PCBs have been shown to alter several neurochemical end-points and are implicated in the etiology of some neurological diseases. Recent in vivo studies from our laboratory indicated that developmental exposure to a commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254, caused perturbations in cal...

  12. Wide spectrum of developmental brain disorders from megalencephaly to focal cortical dysplasia and pigmentary mosaicism caused by mutations of MTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovieff, Nadia; Goold, Carleton; Jansen, Laura A.; Menon, Suchithra; Timms, Andrew E.; Conti, Valerio; Biag, Jonathan D.; Adams, Carissa; Boyle, Evan August; Collins, Sarah; Ishak, Gisele; Poliachik, Sandra; Girisha, Katta M.; Yeung, Kit San; Chung, Brian Hon Yin; Rahikkala, Elisa; Gunter, Sonya A.; McDaniel, Sharon S.; Macmurdo, Colleen Forsyth; Bernstein, Jonathan A.; Martin, Beth; Leary, Rebecca; Mahan, Scott; Liu, Shanming; Weaver, Molly; Doerschner, Michael; Jhangiani, Shalini; Muzny, Donna M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Gibbs, Richard A.; Lupski, James R.; Shendure, Jay; Saneto, Russell P.; Novotny, Edward J.; Wilson, Christopher J.; Sellers, William R.; Morrissey, Michael; Hevner, Robert F.; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Guerrini, Renzo; Murphy, Leon O.; Winckler, Wendy; Dobyns, William B.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), hemimegalencephaly (HMEG) and megalencephaly constitute a spectrum of malformations of cortical development with shared neuropathologic features. Collectively, these disorders are associated with significant childhood morbidity and mortality. FCD, in particular, represents the most frequent cause of intractable focal epilepsy in children. Objective To identify the underlying molecular etiology of FCD, HMEG, and diffuse megalencephaly. Design, Setting and Participants We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) on eight children with FCD or HMEG using standard depth (~50-60X) sequencing in peripheral samples (blood, saliva or skin) from the affected child and their parents, and deep (~150-180X) sequencing in affected brain tissue. We used both targeted sequencing and WES to screen a cohort of 93 children with molecularly unexplained diffuse or focal brain overgrowth (42 with FCD-HMEG, and 51 with diffuse megalencephaly). Histopathological and functional assays of PI3K-AKT-MTOR pathway activity in resected brain tissue and cultured neurons were performed to validate mutations. Main Outcomes and Measures Whole exome sequencing and targeted sequencing identified variants associated with this spectrum of developmental brain disorders. Results We identified low-level mosaic mutations of MTOR in brain tissue in four children with FCD type 2a with alternative allele fractions ranging from 0.012–0.086. We also identified intermediate level mosaic mutation of MTOR (p.Thr1977Ile) in three unrelated children with diffuse megalencephaly and pigmentary mosaicism in skin that resembles hypomelanosis of Ito. Finally, we identified a constitutional de novo mutation of MTOR (p.Glu1799Lys) in three unrelated children with diffuse megalencephaly and intellectual disability. Molecular and functional analysis in two children with FCD type 2a from whom multiple affected brain tissue samples were available revealed a gradient of alternate allele

  13. Relationships between neuronal cell adhesion molecule and LHRH neurons in the urodele brain: a developmental immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gianola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Polysialic acid (PSA, a homopolymer attached to neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM is considered a major hallmark of vertebrate cell migration. We studied the distribution of PSA-NCAM by immunohistochemistry, during brain development, in two urodele amphibians, Pleurodeles waltl and the neotenic newt Ambystoma mexicanum. In both species a gradual increase of immunolabelling was observed throughout the brain from developmental stage 30 to stage 52. At the onset of metamorphosis, some differences became evident: in Pleurodeles immunostaining was gradually restricted to the olfactory system while in Ambystoma, PSA-NCAM maintained a more extended distribution (for example throughout the telencephalic walls suggesting, for the brain of this latter species, a rather preserved neuronal plasticity. The aim of the present work was to correlate the above described PSA-NCAMimmunoreactivity (IR with the distribution of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH containing neurons, which represent a well known example of neural elements migrating from the olfactory placode. LHRH-IR, undetectable till stage 30, was later found together with PSA-NCAM-IR in both the olfactory system and septo-hypothalamic areas. Such observations further support a role of PSA in providing a migration route toward the establishment of a part, at least, of the urodele LHRH system. The possible functional meaning of the LHRH-containing neurons localized between dorsal and ventral thalamus of Ambystoma, never reported before in this area, almost devoid of PSANCAM- IR, is discussed.

  14. Developmental and Regional Patterns of GAP-43 Immunoreactivity in a Metamorphosing Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Andrea Megela; Tanyu, Leslie H.; Horowitz, Seth S.; Chapman, Judith A.; Brown, Rebecca A.

    2008-01-01

    Growth-associated protein-43 is typically expressed at high levels in the nervous system during development. In adult animals, its expression is lower, but still observable in brain areas showing structural or functional plasticity. We examined patterns of GAP-43 immunoreactivity in the brain of the bullfrog, an animal whose nervous system undergoes considerable reorganization across metamorphic development and retains a strong capacity for plasticity in adulthood. Immunolabeling was mostly d...

  15. Comparative Developmental Neurotoxicity of Organophosphate Insecticides: Effects on Brain Development Are Separable from Systemic Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Slotkin, Theodore A.; Levin, Edward D.; Seidler, Frederic J

    2006-01-01

    A comparative approach to the differences between systemic toxicity and developmental neurotoxicity of organophosphates is critical to determine the degree to which multiple mechanisms of toxicity carry across different members of this class of insecticides. We contrasted neuritic outgrowth and cholinergic synaptic development in neonatal rats given different organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, parathion) at doses spanning the threshold for impaired growth and viability. Animals were tr...

  16. Long-Term Consequences of Developmental Alcohol Exposure on Brain Structure and Function: Therapeutic Benefits of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian F. Hamilton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Developmental alcohol exposure both early in life and during adolescence can have a devastating impact on normal brain structure and functioning, leading to behavioral and cognitive impairments that persist throughout the lifespan. This review discusses human work as well as animal models used to investigate the effect of alcohol exposure at various time points during development, as well as specific behavioral and neuroanatomical deficits caused by alcohol exposure. Further, cellular and molecular mediators contributing to these alcohol-induced changes are examined, such as neurotrophic factors and apoptotic markers. Next, this review seeks to support the use of aerobic exercise as a potential therapeutic intervention for alcohol-related impairments. To date, few interventions, behavioral or pharmacological, have been proven effective in mitigating some alcohol-related deficits. Exercise is a simple therapy that can be used across species and also across socioeconomic status. It has a profoundly positive influence on many measures of learning and neuroplasticity; in particular, those measures damaged by alcohol exposure. This review discusses current evidence that exercise may mitigate damage caused by developmental alcohol exposure and is a promising therapeutic target for future research and intervention strategies.

  17. Automated data processing of { 1H-decoupled} 13C MR spectra acquired from human brain in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shic, Frederick; Ross, Brian

    2003-06-01

    In clinical 13C infusion studies, broadband excitation of 200 ppm of the human brain yields 13C MR spectra with a time resolution of 2-5 min and generates up to 2000 metabolite peaks over 2 h. We describe a fast, automated, observer-independent technique for processing { 1H-decoupled} 13C spectra. Quantified 13C spectroscopic signals, before and after the administration of [1- 13C]glucose and/or [1- 13C]acetate in human subjects are determined. Stepwise improvements of data processing are illustrated by examples of normal and pathological results. Variation in analysis of individual 13C resonances ranged between 2 and 14%. Using this method it is possible to reliably identify subtle metabolic effects of brain disease including Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy.

  18. Emotion Regulation in the Brain: Conceptual Issues and Directions for Developmental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Marc D.; Stieben, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Emotion regulation cannot be temporally distinguished from emotion in the brain, but activation patterns in prefrontal cortex appear to mediate cognitive control during emotion episodes. Frontal event-related potentials (ERPs) can tap cognitive control hypothetically mediated by the anterior cingulate cortex, and developmentalists have used these…

  19. REVIEW OF A CASE OF CHILD WITH ACQUIRED APHASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana FILIPOVA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Achieved children speech disabilities are manifested at certain level of development of speech from the age of 3 to 12 years. The speech disabilities with children from the age of one to three years have developmental and acquired characteristics. It is well-known when and why the disabilities occurr at acquired aphasia or disphasia.The child with acquired aphasia or disphasia has early brain impairements and a relative improvement happens with adequate treatment and prompt rehabilitation treatment. It is more obvious with children than with adults.This fast and complete rehabilitation happens due to the plastic character of child’s brain and the possibilities for intro-hemisphere and inter-hemisphere reorganization of speech functions in childhood.

  20. GFAPδ expression in glia of the developmental and adolescent mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlyn Mamber

    Full Text Available Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP is the major intermediate filament (IF protein in astrocytes. In the human brain, GFAP isoforms have unique expression patterns, which indicate that they play distinct functional roles. One isoform, GFAPδ, is expressed by proliferative radial glia in the developing human brain. In the adult human, GFAPδ is a marker for neural stem cells. However, it is unknown whether GFAPδ marks the same population of radial glia and astrocytes in the developing mouse brain as it does in the developing human brain. This study characterizes the expression pattern of GFAPδ throughout mouse embryogenesis and into adolescence. Gfapδ transcripts are expressed from E12, but immunohistochemistry shows GFAPδ staining only from E18. This finding suggests a translational uncoupling. GFAPδ expression increases from E18 to P5 and then decreases until its expression plateaus around P25. During development, GFAPδ is expressed by radial glia, as denoted by the co-expression of markers like vimentin and nestin. GFAPδ is also expressed in other astrocytic populations during development. A similar pattern is observed in the adolescent mouse, where GFAPδ marks both neural stem cells and mature astrocytes. Interestingly, the Gfapδ/Gfapα transcript ratio remains stable throughout development as well as in primary astrocyte and neurosphere cultures. These data suggest that all astroglia cells in the developing and adolescent mouse brain express GFAPδ, regardless of their neurogenic capabilities. GFAPδ may be an integral component of all mouse astrocytes, but it is not a specific neural stem cell marker in mice as it is in humans.

  1. The use of MR imaging and spectroscopy of the brain in children investigated for developmental delay: What is the most appropriate imaging strategy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, Paul D. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Batty, Ruth; Raghavan, Ashok; Connolly, Daniel J.A. [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Warren, Daniel; Hart, Anthony [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Sharrard, Mark [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Paediatrics, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Mordekar, Santosh R. [Sheffield Children' s Hospital Trust, Department of Paediatric Neurology, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Developmental delay is a common problem in paediatric practice and many children with developmental delay are referred for MR imaging. Our study was performed as part of a continuing audit process to optimise our MR protocol and case selection. We performed MR imaging and spectroscopy protocol on 157 children with developmental delay. We analysed the effect of these interventions by looking at the overall detection rate of relevant pathology and in particular subgroups of the children. 71% of the children had normal MR imaging, 10% had non-specific findings and 19% had specific abnormalities on MR imaging. The overall risk of having a specific structural abnormality with isolated developmental was 7.5% but if other neurological symptoms/signs were present the risk was 28%. Two children had abnormal spectroscopic findings, one with tuberous sclerosis and the other with absent brain creatine. Case selection for MR imaging is important in children with developmental delay. The best strategies for selecting children for MR are either; not performing MR with developmental delay in one domain only or performing MR with developmental delay in three or four domains or if there are other neurological features. (orig.)

  2. The use of MR imaging and spectroscopy of the brain in children investigated for developmental delay: What is the most appropriate imaging strategy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developmental delay is a common problem in paediatric practice and many children with developmental delay are referred for MR imaging. Our study was performed as part of a continuing audit process to optimise our MR protocol and case selection. We performed MR imaging and spectroscopy protocol on 157 children with developmental delay. We analysed the effect of these interventions by looking at the overall detection rate of relevant pathology and in particular subgroups of the children. 71% of the children had normal MR imaging, 10% had non-specific findings and 19% had specific abnormalities on MR imaging. The overall risk of having a specific structural abnormality with isolated developmental was 7.5% but if other neurological symptoms/signs were present the risk was 28%. Two children had abnormal spectroscopic findings, one with tuberous sclerosis and the other with absent brain creatine. Case selection for MR imaging is important in children with developmental delay. The best strategies for selecting children for MR are either; not performing MR with developmental delay in one domain only or performing MR with developmental delay in three or four domains or if there are other neurological features. (orig.)

  3. Perfusion impairments on brain SPECT in patients with infantile autism and nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders: comparison with MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuroimaging findings of autism has been the subjects of continuing investigation. Because previous study had not demonstrated consistent and specific neuroimaging findings of autism and most studies comprised adults and school-aged children, we performed a retrospective review in search of common functional and structural abnormalities in pre-school aged autistic children using Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI and compared them with age-matched children with nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). 58 children between 3 and 8 years of age infantile autism (n=37) and non-autistic PDD (n=21) were performed Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI. Diagnosis of autism and non-autistic PDD was based on the criteria of DSM-IV and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Of the 37 autistic patients, 32 revealed decreased perfusion of cerebellar hemisphere, followed by hypoperfusion of thalami (n=30), parietal cortex (n=16), temporal cortex (n=12). Of those 21 PDD patients, 14 patients showed hypoperfusion of the thalami and 10 patients showed temporal hypoperfusion. However, cerebellar hemispheric (n=8) and parietal (n=1) hypoperfusion was infrequently seen. All autistic and nonautistic PDD patients had normal MRI scan. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion on brain SPECT showed statistically significant correlation with CARS. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion is significantly frequently noted in autistic patients although they had normal MRI and SPECT may be useful and more sensitive modality in reflecting pathophysiology of autism as evidenced by previous MRI and postmortem studies. Thalamic and temporal hypoperfusion can be seen in both autistic and nonautistic patients and further studies are necessary to determine the significance of the thalamic hypoperfusion

  4. Perfusion impairments on brain SPECT in patients with infantile autism and nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders: comparison with MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Young Hoon; Lee, Jong Doo; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Jeon, Tae Joo; Shin, Yee Jin; Lee, Byung Hee; Shin, Hyung Cheol [College of Medecine, Soonchunhyang Univ., Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    Neuroimaging findings of autism has been the subjects of continuing investigation. Because previous study had not demonstrated consistent and specific neuroimaging findings of autism and most studies comprised adults and school-aged children, we performed a retrospective review in search of common functional and structural abnormalities in pre-school aged autistic children using Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI and compared them with age-matched children with nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). 58 children between 3 and 8 years of age infantile autism (n=37) and non-autistic PDD (n=21) were performed Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI. Diagnosis of autism and non-autistic PDD was based on the criteria of DSM-IV and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Of the 37 autistic patients, 32 revealed decreased perfusion of cerebellar hemisphere, followed by hypoperfusion of thalami (n=30), parietal cortex (n=16), temporal cortex (n=12). Of those 21 PDD patients, 14 patients showed hypoperfusion of the thalami and 10 patients showed temporal hypoperfusion. However, cerebellar hemispheric (n=8) and parietal (n=1) hypoperfusion was infrequently seen. All autistic and nonautistic PDD patients had normal MRI scan. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion on brain SPECT showed statistically significant correlation with CARS. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion is significantly frequently noted in autistic patients although they had normal MRI and SPECT may be useful and more sensitive modality in reflecting pathophysiology of autism as evidenced by previous MRI and postmortem studies. Thalamic and temporal hypoperfusion can be seen in both autistic and nonautistic patients and further studies are necessary to determine the significance of the thalamic hypoperfusion.

  5. Global developmental gene expression and pathway analysis of normal brain development and mouse models of human neuronal migration defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Pramparo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Heterozygous LIS1 mutations are the most common cause of human lissencephaly, a human neuronal migration defect, and DCX mutations are the most common cause of X-linked lissencephaly. LIS1 is part of a protein complex including NDEL1 and 14-3-3ε that regulates dynein motor function and microtubule dynamics, while DCX stabilizes microtubules and cooperates with LIS1 during neuronal migration and neurogenesis. Targeted gene mutations of Lis1, Dcx, Ywhae (coding for 14-3-3ε, and Ndel1 lead to neuronal migration defects in mouse and provide models of human lissencephaly, as well as aid the study of related neuro-developmental diseases. Here we investigated the developing brain of these four mutants and wild-type mice using expression microarrays, bioinformatic analyses, and in vivo/in vitro experiments to address whether mutations in different members of the LIS1 neuronal migration complex lead to similar and/or distinct global gene expression alterations. Consistent with the overall successful development of the mutant brains, unsupervised clustering and co-expression analysis suggested that cell cycle and synaptogenesis genes are similarly expressed and co-regulated in WT and mutant brains in a time-dependent fashion. By contrast, focused co-expression analysis in the Lis1 and Ndel1 mutants uncovered substantial differences in the correlation among pathways. Differential expression analysis revealed that cell cycle, cell adhesion, and cytoskeleton organization pathways are commonly altered in all mutants, while synaptogenesis, cell morphology, and inflammation/immune response are specifically altered in one or more mutants. We found several commonly dysregulated genes located within pathogenic deletion/duplication regions, which represent novel candidates of human mental retardation and neurocognitive disabilities. Our analysis suggests that gene expression and pathway analysis in mouse models of a similar disorder or within a common pathway can

  6. La Dislexia del Desarrollo: Gen, Cerebro y Cognición Developmental Dyslexia: Gen, Brain, and Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto M Galaburda

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La dislexia del desarrollo es un trastorno que se caracteriza por dificultades en el aprendizaje de la lectura. Recientemente se ha podido vincular la dislexia a cuatro distintos genes candidatos de riesgo: DYX1C1, KIAA0319, DCDC2 y ROBO1. Estos cuatro genes participan en el desarrollo cerebral, y anomalías de dicho desarrollo constituyen los elementos conocidos del cuadro biológico que subyace a la dislexia. En animales experimentales, la inducción de anomalías del desarrollo cerebral similares produce problemas en el procesamiento de ciertos sonidos. En humanos, problemas de procesamiento de sonidos semejantes se asocian a un trastorno de aprendizaje de la lectura. Por consiguiente, es posible por primera vez, trazar una trayectoria tentativa entre una característica genética, variaciones del desarrollo del cerebro, y trastornos conductuales y cognitivos asociados a la dislexia.Developmental dyslexia is a disorder characterized by difficulties in reading acquisition. Recently, dyslexia has been related to four different genes which are prone-risk candidates: DYX1C1, KIAA0319, DCDC2, and ROBO1. These four genes participate in brain development, and anomalies in that development comprise the known elements of the biological constellation underlying dyslexia. The induction of similar brain development anomalies in experimental animals produces problems in the processing of certain sounds. In humans, similar sound processing problems are related to a reading acquisition disorder. Consequently, for the first time it is possible to delineate a tentative path between a genetic characteristic, brain development variations, and behavioral and cognitive disorders related to dyslexia.

  7. Unusual development of polyoma virus in the brains of two patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaravilli, F; Ellis, D S; Tovey, G; Harcourt-Webster, J N; Guiloff, R J; Sinclair, E

    1989-01-01

    Two HIV-positive male patients presented with a variety of symptoms including hemiparesis, unsteadiness, progressive loss of vision and poor memory. There were multiple non-enhancing lesions shown by CT scan in the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres. Specimens obtained by burr-hole biopsy showed the features of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML) in both cases. Electron microscopy demonstrated round and rod shaped particles of papovavirus in the nuclei and cytoplasm of oligodendrocytes and in processes of astrocytes where abnormal and florid modes of viral replication were seen. Additional features observed were viral particles suggestive of an enterovirus in Case 1 and, in both specimens, massive membrane proliferation within both nuclei and cytoplasm of infected cells together with the presence of tubuloreticular structures (TRS) in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells. At post-mortem, the brain of patient 2 showed PML and HIV encephalitis. The presence of HIV was confirmed by immunohistochemical methods. We suggest that in AIDS patients the abnormality of the immune system induced by HIV causes abnormal replication patterns of papovavirus in the brain. In addition, these cases confirm the frequent occurrence in AIDS patients of TRS, now considered to be a marker for HIV. PMID:2555730

  8. Internally and externally generated emotions in people with acquired brain injury: Preservation of emotional experience after right hemisphere lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian E Salas Riquelme

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of emotional changes after brain injury has contributed enormously to the understanding of the neural basis of emotion. However, little attention has been placed on the methods used to elicit emotional responses in people with brain damage. Of particular interest are subjects with right hemisphere [RH] cortical lesions, who have been described as presenting impairment in emotional processing. In this article, an internal and external mood induction procedure [MIP] was used to trigger positive and negative emotions, in a sample of 10 participants with RH damage, and 15 healthy controls. Emotional experience was registered by using a self-report questionnaire. As observed in previous studies, internal and external MIPs were equally effective in eliciting the target emotion, but the internal procedure generated higher levels of intensity. Remarkably, participants with RH lesions were equally able to experience both positive and negative affect. The results are discussed in relation to the role of the RH in the capacity to experience negative emotions.

  9. Hospital Acquired Pneumonia is an Independent Predictor of Poor Global Outcome in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury up to 5 Years after Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesinger, Matthew R.; Kumar, Raj G.; Wagner, Amy K.; Puyana, Juan C.; Peitzman, Andrew P.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Sperry, Jason L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Long-term outcomes following traumatic brain injury (TBI) correlate with initial head injury severity and other acute factors. Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is a common complication in TBI. Little information exists regarding the significance of infectious complications on long-term outcomes post-TBI. We sought to characterize risks associated with HAP on outcomes 5 years post-TBI. Methods Ddata from the merger of an institutional trauma registry and the TBI Model Systems outcome data. Individuals with severe head injuries (Abbreviated Injury Scale≥4), who survived to rehabilitation were analyzed. Primary outcome was Glasgow Outcome Scaled-Extended (GOSE) at 1, 2, and 5 years. GOSE was dichotomized into LOW (GOSEPneumonia TBI PMID:25757128

  10. Síndromes disexecutivas do desenvolvimento e adquiridas na prática clínica: três relatos de caso Developmental and acquired dysexecutive syndromes in clinical practice: three case-reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Borges

    2010-01-01

    functions (EFs deficits where despite having normal IQ, all subjects' exhibit significant functional and social impairment. The first case describes a young woman who suffered a TBI and her complaints relates to difficulties in memory for new material, apathy, less persistency and initiative. The second case is about a middle-age woman facing problems since kindergarten and with unsuccessful treatments and no formal diagnosis. In this case, collateral report suggests the presence of planning difficulties, some antisocial behavior, delay gratification aversion, poor activation and time estimation deficits. The last case refers to a middle-age man, evaluated after a severe TBI following a car accident. He presented some behavioral changes, such as disinhibition, lack of persistency and inattentive deficits that occur in a more severe level than presented during his childhood, despite having normal performance in tests of EFs. The evaluation of (developmental or acquired EF deficits might be extremely important for providing adequate therapeutic approach in order to decrease related impairments in everyday activities.

  11. Developmental lead effects on behavior and brain gene expression in male and female BALB/cAnNTac mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasten-Jolly, Jane; Pabello, Nina; Bolivar, Valerie J; Lawrence, David A

    2012-10-01

    Lead (Pb) was one of the first poisons identified, and the developing nervous system is particularly vulnerable to its toxic effects. Relatively low, subclinical doses, of Pb that produce no overt signs of encephalopathy can affect cognitive, emotional, and motor functions. In the present study, the effects of developmental Pb-exposure on behavioral performance and gene expression in BALB/cAnNTac mice were evaluated. Pups were exposed to Pb from gestational-day (gd) 8 to postnatal-day (pnd) 21 and later evaluated in exploratory behavior, rotarod, Morris water maze, and resident-intruder assays as adults. Pb-exposure caused significant alterations in exploratory behavior and water maze performance during the probe trial, but rotarod performance was not affected. Pb-exposed males displayed violent behavior towards their cage mates, but not to a stranger in the resident-intruder assay. Gene expression analysis at pnd21 by microarray and qRT-PCR was performed to provide a molecular link to the behavior changes that were observed. Pb strongly up-regulated gene expression within the signaling pathways of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extra-cellular matrix (ECM) receptor, focal adhesion, and vascular endothelial growth-factor (VEGF), but Pb down-regulated gene expression within the pathways for glycan structures-biosynthesis 1, purine metabolism, and N-glycan biosynthesis. Pb increased transcription of genes for major histocompatibility (MHC) proteins, the chemokine Ccl28, chemokine receptors, IL-7, IL7R, and proteases. The qRT-PCR analysis indicated an increase of gene expression in the whole brain for caspase 1 and NOS2. Analysis of IL-1β, caspase 1, NOS2, Trail, IL-18 and IL-33 gene expression of brain regions indicated that Pb perturbed the inter-regional expression pattern of pro-inflammatory genes. Brain region protein concentrations for IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, showed a significant decrease only within the cortex region. Results indicate

  12. Music-reading deficiencies and the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Cuddy, Lola L.; Sylvie Hébert

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on brain damage and music-reading for the past 25 years. Acquired patterns of selective loss and sparing are described, including both the association and dissociation of music and text reading, and association and dissociation among components of music reading. As well, we suggest that developmental music - reading deficiencies may be isolated in a form analogous to developmental dyslexia for text or congenital amusia for auditory music processing. Finally, ...

  13. Brain hyper-connectivity and operation-specific deficits during arithmetic problem solving in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Chen, Tianwen; Young, Christina B; Geary, David C; Menon, Vinod

    2015-05-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is marked by specific deficits in processing numerical and mathematical information despite normal intelligence (IQ) and reading ability. We examined how brain circuits used by young children with DD to solve simple addition and subtraction problems differ from those used by typically developing (TD) children who were matched on age, IQ, reading ability, and working memory. Children with DD were slower and less accurate during problem solving than TD children, and were especially impaired on their ability to solve subtraction problems. Children with DD showed significantly greater activity in multiple parietal, occipito-temporal and prefrontal cortex regions while solving addition and subtraction problems. Despite poorer performance during subtraction, children with DD showed greater activity in multiple intra-parietal sulcus (IPS) and superior parietal lobule subdivisions in the dorsal posterior parietal cortex as well as fusiform gyrus in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Critically, effective connectivity analyses revealed hyper-connectivity, rather than reduced connectivity, between the IPS and multiple brain systems including the lateral fronto-parietal and default mode networks in children with DD during both addition and subtraction. These findings suggest the IPS and its functional circuits are a major locus of dysfunction during both addition and subtraction problem solving in DD, and that inappropriate task modulation and hyper-connectivity, rather than under-engagement and under-connectivity, are the neural mechanisms underlying problem solving difficulties in children with DD. We discuss our findings in the broader context of multiple levels of analysis and performance issues inherent in neuroimaging studies of typical and atypical development. PMID:25098903

  14. Chronic unpredictable stress decreases expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in mouse ovaries: relationship to oocytes developmental potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Min Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF was originally described in the nervous system but has been shown to be expressed in ovary tissues recently, acting as a paracrine/autocrine regulator required for developments of follicles and oocytes. Although it is generally accepted that chronic stress impairs female reproduction and decreases the expression of BDNF in limbic structures of central nervous system, which contributes to mood disorder. However, it is not known whether chronic stress affects oocytes developments, nor whether it affects expression of BDNF in ovary. METHODS: Mice were randomly assigned into control group, stressed group, BDNF-treated group and BDNF-treated stressed group. The chronic unpredictable mild stress model was used to produce psychosocial stress in mice, and the model was verified by open field test and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity. The methods of immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to detect BDNF protein level and distribution. The number of retrieved oocytes, oocyte maturation, embryo cleavage and the rates of blastocyst formation after parthenogenetic activation were evaluated. RESULTS: Chronic unpredictable stress decreased the BDNF expression in antral follicles, but didn't affect the BDNF expression in primordial, primary and secondary follicles. Chronic unpredictable stress also decreased the number of retrieved oocytes and the rate of blastocyst formation, which was rescued by exogenous BDNF treatment. CONCLUSION: BDNF in mouse ovaries may be related to the decreased number of retrieved oocytes and impaired oocytes developmental potential induced by chronic unpredictable stress.

  15. Early (N170/M170 face-sensitivity despite right lateral occipital brain damage in acquired prosopagnosia

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    Esther eAlonso Prieto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared to objects, pictures of faces elicit a larger early electromagnetic response at occipito-temporal sites on the human scalp, with an onset of 130 ms and a peak at about 170 ms. This N170 face effect is larger in the right than the left hemisphere and has been associated with the early categorization of the stimulus as a face. Here we tested whether this effect can be observed in the absence of some of the visual areas showing a preferential response to faces as typically identified in neuroimaging. Event related potentials were recorded in response to faces, cars and their phase-scrambled versions in a well-known brain-damaged case of prosopagnosia (PS. Despite the patient’s right inferior occipital gyrus lesion encompassing the most posterior cortical area showing preferential response to faces (occipital face area, OFA, we identified an early face-sensitive component over the right occipito-temporal hemisphere of the patient that was identified as the N170. A second experiment supported this conclusion, showing the typical N170 increase of latency and amplitude in response to inverted faces. In contrast, there was no N170 in the left hemisphere, where PS has a lesion to the middle fusiform gyrus and shows no evidence of face-preferential response in neuroimaging (no left fusiform face area, or lFFA. These results were replicated by a magneto-encephalographic (MEG investigation of the patient, disclosing a M170 component only in the right hemisphere. These observations indicate that face preferential activation in the inferior occipital cortex is not necessary to elicit early visual responses associated with face perception (N170/M170 on the human scalp. These results further suggest that when the right inferior occipital cortex is damaged, the integrity of the middle fusiform gyrus and/or the superior temporal sulcus – two areas showing face preferential responses in the patient’s right hemisphere - might be necessary to generate

  16. Care of Adults With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kyle Bradford; Wilson, Benjamin; Weedon, Dean; Bilder, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) manifest in various forms and severities, and patients with TBIs can have multiple physical and psychological comorbidities. The physician should be prepared to assess effects of the injury and associated comorbidities, and provide needed social support. Common comorbidities include cognitive changes; epilepsy; chronic pain; headache; sleep disorders; neuroendocrine disorders; dizziness and balance issues; substance abuse; depression and anxiety; dementia; and behavioral disturbances, such as aggression. Early severity and cognitive assessment after TBI is key. For patients with mild TBIs, short-term management focuses on cognitive rest, symptom management, and gradual return to regular activities. Short-term management of patients with moderate to severe TBI often requires intensive care unit admission, early psychological consultation, and use of mannitol and probiotics. Long-term care includes monitoring and managing of the physical, behavioral, emotional, and psychological comorbidities that commonly occur in patients with TBIs. Assisting patients in accessing community and government resources can be crucial for improving their independence and quality of life. PMID:26669213

  17. Analyzing collaboration networks and developmental patterns of nano-enabled drug delivery (NEDD) for brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Ma, Jing; Porter, Alan L; Kwon, Seokbeom; Zhu, Donghua

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of new and emerging science & technologies (NESTs) brings unprecedented challenges, but also opportunities. In this paper, we use bibliometric and social network analyses, at country, institution, and individual levels, to explore the patterns of scientific networking for a key nano area - nano-enabled drug delivery (NEDD). NEDD has successfully been used clinically to modulate drug release and to target particular diseased tissues. The data for this research come from a global compilation of research publication information on NEDD directed at brain cancer. We derive a family of indicators that address multiple facets of research collaboration and knowledge transfer patterns. Results show that: (1) international cooperation is increasing, but networking characteristics change over time; (2) highly productive institutions also lead in influence, as measured by citation to their work, with American institutes leading; (3) research collaboration is dominated by local relationships, with interesting information available from authorship patterns that go well beyond journal impact factors. Results offer useful technical intelligence to help researchers identify potential collaborators and to help inform R&D management and science & innovation policy for such nanotechnologies.

  18. Analyzing collaboration networks and developmental patterns of nano-enabled drug delivery (NEDD for brain cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of new and emerging science & technologies (NESTs brings unprecedented challenges, but also opportunities. In this paper, we use bibliometric and social network analyses, at country, institution, and individual levels, to explore the patterns of scientific networking for a key nano area – nano-enabled drug delivery (NEDD. NEDD has successfully been used clinically to modulate drug release and to target particular diseased tissues. The data for this research come from a global compilation of research publication information on NEDD directed at brain cancer. We derive a family of indicators that address multiple facets of research collaboration and knowledge transfer patterns. Results show that: (1 international cooperation is increasing, but networking characteristics change over time; (2 highly productive institutions also lead in influence, as measured by citation to their work, with American institutes leading; (3 research collaboration is dominated by local relationships, with interesting information available from authorship patterns that go well beyond journal impact factors. Results offer useful technical intelligence to help researchers identify potential collaborators and to help inform R&D management and science & innovation policy for such nanotechnologies.

  19. Neuro-developmental outcome at 18 months in premature infants with diffuse excessive high signal intensity on MR imaging of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Anthony [Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Neonatology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); University of Sheffield, Department of Academic Radiology, Sheffield, South Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Whitby, Elspeth; Paley, Martyn [University of Sheffield, Department of Academic Radiology, Sheffield, South Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Stuart; Smith, Michael [Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Neonatology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Alladi, Sathya [Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Child Development, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) may represent damage to the white matter in preterm infants, but may be best studied alongside quantitative markers. Limited published data exists on its neuro-developmental implications. The purpose of this study was to assess whether preterm children with DEHSI at term-corrected age have abnormal neuro-developmental outcome. This was a prospective observational study of 67 preterm infants with MRI of the brain around term-equivalent age, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Images were reported as being normal, overtly abnormal or to show DEHSI. A single observer placed six regions of interest in the periventricular white matter and calculated the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC). DEHSI was defined as (1) high signal on T2-weighted images alone, (2) high signal with raised ADC values or (3) raised ADC values independent of visual appearances. The neuro-development was assessed around 18 months' corrected age using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (3rd Edition). Standard t tests compared outcome scores between imaging groups. No statistically significant difference in neuro-developmental outcome scores was seen between participants with normal MRI and DEHSI, regardless of which definition was used. Preterm children with DEHSI have similar neuro-developmental outcome to those with normal brain MRI, even if the definition includes objective markers alongside visual appearances. (orig.)

  20. Neuro-developmental outcome at 18 months in premature infants with diffuse excessive high signal intensity on MR imaging of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) may represent damage to the white matter in preterm infants, but may be best studied alongside quantitative markers. Limited published data exists on its neuro-developmental implications. The purpose of this study was to assess whether preterm children with DEHSI at term-corrected age have abnormal neuro-developmental outcome. This was a prospective observational study of 67 preterm infants with MRI of the brain around term-equivalent age, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Images were reported as being normal, overtly abnormal or to show DEHSI. A single observer placed six regions of interest in the periventricular white matter and calculated the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC). DEHSI was defined as (1) high signal on T2-weighted images alone, (2) high signal with raised ADC values or (3) raised ADC values independent of visual appearances. The neuro-development was assessed around 18 months' corrected age using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (3rd Edition). Standard t tests compared outcome scores between imaging groups. No statistically significant difference in neuro-developmental outcome scores was seen between participants with normal MRI and DEHSI, regardless of which definition was used. Preterm children with DEHSI have similar neuro-developmental outcome to those with normal brain MRI, even if the definition includes objective markers alongside visual appearances. (orig.)

  1. Comparative Developmental Neurotoxicity of Organophosphates In Vivo: Transcriptional Responses of Pathways for Brain Cell Development, Cell Signaling, Cytotoxicity and Neurotransmitter Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Slotkin, Theodore A.; Seidler, Frederic J

    2007-01-01

    Organophosphates affect mammalian brain development through a variety of mechanisms beyond their shared property of cholinesterase inhibition. We used microarrays to characterize similarities and differences in transcriptional responses to chlorpyrifos and diazinon, assessing defined gene groupings for the pathways known to be associated with the mechanisms and/or outcomes of chlorpyrifos-induced developmental neurotoxicity. We exposed neonatal rats to daily doses of chlorpyrifos (1 mg/kg) or...

  2. General anaesthetics do not impair developmental expression of the KCC2 potassium-chloride cotransporter in neonatal rats during the brain growth spurt

    KAUST Repository

    Lacoh, Claudia Marvine

    2013-03-26

    BackgroundThe developmental transition from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated neurotransmission is primarily mediated by an increase in the amount of the potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2 during early postnatal life. However, it is not known whether early neuronal activity plays a modulatory role in the expression of total KCC2 mRNA and protein in the immature brain. As general anaesthetics are powerful modulators of neuronal activity, the purpose of this study was to explore how these drugs affect KCC2 expression during the brain growth spurt.MethodsWistar rat pups were exposed to either a single dose or 6 h of midazolam, propofol, or ketamine anaesthesia at postnatal days 0, 5, 10, or 15. KCC2 expression was assessed using immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, or quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis up to 3 days post-exposure in the medial prefrontal cortex.ResultsThere was a progressive and steep increase in the expression of KCC2 between birth and 2 weeks of age. Exposure to midazolam, propofol, or ketamine up to 6 h at any investigated stages of the brain growth spurt did not influence the expression of this cotransporter protein.ConclusionI.V. general anaesthetics do not seem to influence developmental expression of KCC2 during the brain growth spurt. © 2013 © The Author [2013].

  3. Evaluation of the quality of picture in studies of sect brain acquired with various collimators; Evaluacion de la calidad de imagen en estudios de spect cerebral adquiridos con distintos colimadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran Velasco, V.; Prieto Azcarete, E.; Barbes Fernandez, B.; Sancho rodriguez, L.; Ribelles Segura, M. J.; Richter echevarria, J. A.; Arbizu Lostao, J.; Marti-Climent, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    On the practice clinic , the performance of the systems SPECT depends on in large measurement of the quality of image. The goal of East study was evaluate how affect the parameters of reconstruction of studies SPECT of perfusion brain acquired with a collimator of holes parallel (LEHR) and other of holes in fan (Fan-Beam). (Author)

  4. What are the barriers and facilitators to goal-setting during rehabilitation for stroke and other acquired brain injuries? A systematic review and meta-synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Sarah E; Tyson, Sarah F; Kirk, Susan; Parsons, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify the barriers and facilitators to goal-setting during rehabilitation for stroke and other acquired brain injuries. Data sources: AMED, Proquest, CINAHL and MEDLINE. Review methods: Two reviewers independently screened, extracted data and assessed study quality using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool and undertook thematic content analysis for papers examining the barriers and facilitators to goal-setting during stroke/neurological rehabilitation (any design). Last searches were completed in May 2016. Results: Nine qualitative papers were selected, involving 202 participants in total: 88 patients, 89 health care professionals and 25 relatives of participating patients. Main barriers were: Differences in staff and patients perspectives of goal-setting; patient-related barriers; staff-related barriers, and organisational level barriers. Main facilitators were: individually tailored goal-setting processes, strategies to promote communication and understanding, and strategies to avoid disappointment and unrealistic goals. In addition, patients’ and staff’s knowledge, experience, skill, and engagement with goal-setting could be either a barrier (if these aspects were absent) or a facilitator (if they were present). Conclusion: The main barriers and facilitators to goal-setting during stroke rehabilitation have been identified. They suggest that current methods of goal-setting during inpatient/early stage stroke or neurological rehabilitation are not fit for purpose. PMID:27496701

  5. EXTENDING THE ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGY-AIDED PROGRAMS TO SUPPORT LEISURE AND COMMUNICATION IN PEOPLE WITH ACQUIRED BRAIN INJURY AND EXTENSIVE MULTIPLE DISABILITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; D'amico, Fiora; Quaranta, Sara; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; Colonna, Fabio

    2015-10-01

    Intervention programs for people with acquired brain injury and extensive motor and communication impairment need to be diversified according to their characteristics and environment. These two studies assessed two technology-aided programs for supporting leisure (i.e., access to songs and videos) and communication (i.e., expressing needs and feelings and making requests) in six of those people. The three people participating in Study 1 did not possess speech but were able to understand spoken and written sentences. Their program presented leisure and communication options through written phrases appearing on the computer screen. The three people participating in Study 2 did not possess any speech and were unable to understand spoken or written language. Their program presented leisure and communication options through pictorial images. All participants relied on a simple microswitch response to enter the options and activate songs, videos, and communication messages. The data showed that the participants of both studies learned to use the program available to them and to engage in leisure and communication independently. The importance of using programs adapted to the participants and their environment was discussed. PMID:26445152

  6. Evaluating the usability of a single UK community acquired brain injury (ABI) rehabilitation service website: implications for research methodology and website design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Gavin; Groom, Christina

    2010-04-01

    Information provision is an important resource for those living with acquired brain injury (ABI) and their families. Web-based health information services are now common additions to health service provision. Ideally, they should be easy to use and provide useful, relevant and accurate information. ABI injuries do not affect individuals in the same way, and survivors can have a wide range of abilities and impairments. Therefore, any informational resource intended for this group should take account of their needs and help to compensate for their limitations. This pilot study recruited a group of individuals with ABI (of a median Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale rating of "lower moderate disability") who were clients of a UK National Health Service rehabilitation service and asked them to assess a specialised website provided by that service and hosted by their employing Primary Care Trust organisation. Participants completed a practical task and then gave their opinions on various aspects of website design, and content. They were also asked to suggest improvements and recommend additions. Overall the results were favourable. However, improvements in the legibility, layout and writing style were identified. There were also requests to add more information on the existing topics and add additional topics. The discussion also evaluates the utility of the methodology and the implications of the results for others considering constructing their own website.

  7. Gait rehabilitation with a high tech platform based on virtual reality conveys improvements in walking ability of children suffering from acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, E; Beretta, E; Diella, E; Panzeri, D; Maghini, C; Turconi, A C; Strazzer, S; Reni, G

    2015-01-01

    The Gait Real-time Analysis Interactive Lab (GRAIL) is an instrumented multi-sensor platform based on immersive virtual reality for gait training and rehabilitation. Few studies have been included GRAIL to evaluate gait patterns in normal and disabled people and to improve gait in adults, while at our knowledge no evidence on its use for the rehabilitation of children is available. In this study, 4 children suffering from acquired brain injury (ABI) underwent a 5 session treatment with GRAIL, to improve walking and balance ability in engaging VR environments. The first and the last sessions were partially dedicated to gait evaluation. Results are promising: improvements were recorded at the ankle level, selectively at the affected side, and at the pelvic level, while small changes were measured at the hip and knee joints, which were already comparable to healthy subjects. All these changes also conveyed advances in the symmetry of the walking pattern. In the next future, a longer intervention will be proposed and more children will be enrolled to strongly prove the effectiveness of GRAIL in the rehabilitation of children with ABI.

  8. Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  9. Music-reading deficiencies and the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola L. Cuddy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature on brain damage and music-reading for the past 25 years. Acquired patterns of selective loss and sparing are described, including both the association and dissociation of music and text reading, and association and dissociation among components of music reading. As well, we suggest that developmental music - reading deficiencies may be isolated in a form analogous to developmental dyslexia for text or congenital amusia for auditory music processing. Finally, we propose that the results of brain damage studies can contribute to the development of a model of normal music reading.

  10. Acquired Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen; Halse, Karianne

    2013-01-01

    Acquired Techniques - a Leap into the Archive, at Aarhus School of Architecture. In collaboration with Karianne Halse, James Martin and Mika K. Friis. Following the footsteps of past travelers this is a journey into tools and techniques of the architectural process. The workshop will focus upon...

  11. Acquired blepharoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, HJGH

    1996-01-01

    A review is given of the aetiology and possible treatment of acquired (non-congenital) blepharoptosis, which is a common but not specific sign of neurological disease: The diagnostic categories of upper eyelid drooping are scheduled as (a) pseudo-ptosis due to a local process or overactivity of eye

  12. Acquired amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Camilla N; Golden, Hannah L; Warren, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in the cognitive neuroscience of music suggest that a further review of the topic of amusia is timely. In this chapter, we first consider previous taxonomies of amusia and propose a fresh framework for understanding the amusias, essentially as disorders of cognitive information processing. We critically review current cognitive and neuroanatomic findings in the published literature on amusia. We assess the extent to which the clinical and neuropsychologic evidence in amusia can be reconciled; both with the information-processing framework we propose, and with the picture of the brain organization of music and language processing emerging from cognitive neuroscience and functional neuroimaging studies. The balance of evidence suggests that the amusias can be understood as disorders of musical object cognition targeting separable levels of an information-processing hierarchy and underpinned by specific brain network dysfunction. The neuroanatomic associations of the amusias show substantial overlap with brain networks that process speech; however, this convergence leaves scope for separable brain mechanisms based on altered connectivity and dynamics across culprit networks. The study of the amusias contributes to an increasingly complex picture of the musical brain that transcends any simple dichotomy between music and speech or other complex sounds. PMID:25726293

  13. What is developmental dyspraxia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, D

    1995-12-01

    The idea of developmental dyspraxia has been discussed in the research literature for almost 100 years. However, there continues to be a lack of consensus regarding both the definition and description of this disorder. This paper presents a neuropsychologically based operational definition of developmental dyspraxia that emphasizes that developmental dyspraxia is a disorder of gesture. Research that has investigated the development of praxis is discussed. Further, different types of gestural disorders displayed by children and different mechanisms that underlie developmental dyspraxia are compared to and contrasted with adult acquired apraxia. The impact of perceptual-motor, language, and cognitive impairments on children's gestural development and the possible associations between these developmental disorders and developmental dyspraxia are also examined. Also, the relationship among limb, orofacial, and verbal dyspraxia is discussed. Finally, problems that exist in the neuropsychological assessment of developmental dyspraxia are discussed and recommendations concerning what should be included in such an assessment are presented. PMID:8838385

  14. Expression of the Ly-6 family proteins Lynx1 and Ly6H in the rat brain is compartmentalized, cell-type specific, and developmentally regulated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Cinar, Betül; Jensen, Majbrit Myrup;

    2014-01-01

    The Ly-6 superfamily of proteins, which affects diverse processes in the immune system, has attracted renewed attention due to the ability of some Ly-6 proteins to bind to and modulate the function of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). However, there is a scarcity of knowledge...... regarding the distribution and developmental regulation of these proteins in the brain. We use protein cross-linking and synaptosomal fractions to demonstrate that the Ly-6 proteins Lynx1 and Ly6H are membrane-bound proteins in the brain, which are present on the cell surface and localize to synaptic...... demonstrate that Lynx1 and Ly6H are expressed in cultured neurons, but not cultured micro- or astroglial cultures. In addition, Lynx1, but not Ly6H was detected in the CSF. Finally, we show that the Ly-6 proteins Lynx1, Lynx2, Ly6H, and PSCA, display distinct expression patterns during postnatal development...

  15. Developmental exposure to PBDE 99 and PCB affects estrogen sensitivity of target genes in rat brain regions and female sexual behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtensteiger, W.; Faass, O.; Ceccatelli, R.; Schlumpf, M. [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Pharmacology and Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    We recently reported effects of PBDE99 (2,2',4,4'5-pentabromoBDE) on sexual differentiation processes in rat reproductive organs and central nervous system. These studies were prompted by reports on an increase of PBDE levels in human milk, an indicator of the body burden of pregnant women and of potential exposure of the nursing infant, during the last decade. Even higher human adipose tissue and milk levels were reported for North America. PBDE99 is present in human and animal samples and exhibits developmental neurotoxicity in mice. The developing brain is subject to the organizing action of estradiol locally formed from circulating testosterone, and thus represents a target for endocrine active chemicals. One molecular mechanism by which chemicals may interfere with sexual brain differentiation, may be a change in the expression of sex hormone (estrogen)-regulated genes. Such effects may manifest themselves in mRNA expression levels, or in the sensitivity of the genes to estrogen. In order to detect alterations of the latter, more subtle parameter, we have conducted experiments in developmentally chemical-exposed rat offspring that were gonadectomized in adulthood and injected with a challenge dose of estradiol. Effects of PBDE99 were compared with those of a commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254, which had previously been found to influence sexual brain differentiation. We analyzed the expression of estrogen-regulated genes in ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and medial preoptic area (MPO), two brain regions that are part of a network involved in the integration of environmental cues, sexual behavior and gonadal function. Since prominent changes were observed in VMH which is particularly important for female sexual behavior, the study was completed by a behavioral analysis.

  16. Developmental Time Course of Estradiol, Testosterone, and Dihydrotestosterone Levels in Discrete Regions of Male and Female Rat Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Konkle, Anne T. M.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    The prevailing view of sexual differentiation of mammalian brain is that androgen synthesized in the fetal and neonatal testis and aromatized centrally during a perinatal sensitive period is the sole source of brain estradiol and the primary determinant of sex differences. Subregions of the diencephalon are among the most sexually dimorphic in the brain, and there are well-established sex differences in the amount of testosterone and estradiol measured in the hypothalamus and preoptic area du...

  17. Dokazi za pristope in metode delovne terapije v poklicni rehabilitaciji oseb s pridobljeno možgansko poškodbo: Evidence for occupational therapy approaches and methods in vocational rehabilitation of persons after acquired brain injury:

    OpenAIRE

    Švajger, Andreja; Zupančič, Polonca

    2012-01-01

    Background: In vocational rehabilitation, occupational therapists are daily faced with the challenges of deciding on methods of working with persons with acquired brain injury (ABI). To make these decisions, they need evidence about the effectiveness of different approaches and methods. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review. The selection of literature was based on weighing best evidence from different types of studies, accessed mostly over electronic data bases (Medline, PEDro...

  18. Effectiveness of a Wii balance board-based system (eBaViR for balance rehabilitation: a pilot randomized clinical trial in patients with acquired brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcañiz Mariano

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acquired brain injury (ABI is the main cause of death and disability among young adults. In most cases, survivors can experience balance instability, resulting in functional impairments that are associated with diminished health-related quality of life. Traditional rehabilitation therapy may be tedious. This can reduce motivation and adherence to the treatment and thus provide a limited benefit to patients with balance disorders. We present eBaViR (easy Balance Virtual Rehabilitation, a system based on the Nintendo® Wii Balance Board® (WBB, which has been designed by clinical therapists to improve standing balance in patients with ABI through motivational and adaptative exercises. We hypothesize that eBaViR, is feasible, safe and potentially effective in enhancing standing balance. Methods In this contribution, we present a randomized and controlled single blinded study to assess the influence of a WBB-based virtual rehabilitation system on balance rehabilitation with ABI hemiparetic patients. This study describes the eBaViR system and evaluates its effectiveness considering 20 one-hour-sessions of virtual reality rehabilitation (n = 9 versus standard rehabilitation (n = 8. Effectiveness was evaluated by means of traditional static and dynamic balance scales. Results The final sample consisted of 11 men and 6 women. Mean ± SD age was 47.3 ± 17.8 and mean ± SD chronicity was 570.9 ± 313.2 days. Patients using eBaViR had a significant improvement in static balance (p = 0.011 in Berg Balance Scale and p = 0.011 in Anterior Reaches Test compared to patients who underwent traditional therapy. Regarding dynamic balance, the results showed significant improvement over time in all these measures, but no significant group effect or group-by-time interaction was detected for any of them, which suggests that both groups improved in the same way. There were no serious adverse events during treatment in either group. Conclusions The

  19. Developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin L; Pennington, Bruce F

    2015-01-01

    This review uses a levels-of-analysis framework to summarize the current understanding of developmental dyslexia's etiology, brain bases, neuropsychology, and social context. Dyslexia is caused by multiple genetic and environmental risk factors as well as their interplay. Several candidate genes have been identified in the past decade. At the brain level, dyslexia is associated with aberrant structure and function, particularly in left hemisphere reading/language networks. The neurocognitive influences on dyslexia are also multifactorial and involve phonological processing deficits as well as weaknesses in other oral language skills and processing speed. We address contextual issues such as how dyslexia manifests across languages and social classes as well as what treatments are best supported. Throughout the review, we highlight exciting new research that cuts across levels of analysis. Such work promises eventually to provide a comprehensive explanation of the disorder as well as its prevention and remediation.

  20. Developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin L; Pennington, Bruce F

    2015-01-01

    This review uses a levels-of-analysis framework to summarize the current understanding of developmental dyslexia's etiology, brain bases, neuropsychology, and social context. Dyslexia is caused by multiple genetic and environmental risk factors as well as their interplay. Several candidate genes have been identified in the past decade. At the brain level, dyslexia is associated with aberrant structure and function, particularly in left hemisphere reading/language networks. The neurocognitive influences on dyslexia are also multifactorial and involve phonological processing deficits as well as weaknesses in other oral language skills and processing speed. We address contextual issues such as how dyslexia manifests across languages and social classes as well as what treatments are best supported. Throughout the review, we highlight exciting new research that cuts across levels of analysis. Such work promises eventually to provide a comprehensive explanation of the disorder as well as its prevention and remediation. PMID:25594880

  1. Developmental changes in category-specific brain responses to numbers and letters in a working memory task

    OpenAIRE

    Libertus, Melissa E.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2008-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have identified a common network of brain regions involving the prefrontal and parietal cortices across a variety of working memory (WM) tasks. However, previous studies have also reported category-specific dissociations of activation within this network. In this study, we investigated the development of category-specific activation in a WM task with digits, letters, and faces. Eight-year-old children and adults performed a 2-back WM task while their brain activity was me...

  2. GABA and Glutamate Pathways Are Spatially and Developmentally Affected in the Brain of Mecp2-Deficient Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Rita El-Khoury; Nicolas Panayotis; Valérie Matagne; Adeline Ghata; Laurent Villard; Jean-Christophe Roux

    2014-01-01

    Proper brain functioning requires a fine-tuning between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, a balance maintained through the regulation and release of glutamate and GABA. Rett syndrome (RTT) is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene affecting the postnatal brain development. Dysfunctions in the GABAergic and glutamatergic systems have been implicated in the neuropathology of RTT and a disruption of the balance between excitation a...

  3. Functional and Developmental Identification of a Molecular Subtype of Brain Serotonergic Neuron Specialized to Regulate Breathing Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael D. Brust

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Serotonergic neurons modulate behavioral and physiological responses from aggression and anxiety to breathing and thermoregulation. Disorders involving serotonin (5HT dysregulation are commensurately heterogeneous and numerous. We hypothesized that this breadth in functionality derives in part from a developmentally determined substructure of distinct subtypes of 5HT neurons each specialized to modulate specific behaviors. By manipulating developmentally defined subgroups one by one chemogenetically, we find that the Egr2-Pet1 subgroup is specialized to drive increased ventilation in response to carbon dioxide elevation and acidosis. Furthermore, this subtype exhibits intrinsic chemosensitivity and modality-specific projections—increasing firing during hypercapnic acidosis and selectively projecting to respiratory chemosensory but not motor centers, respectively. These findings show that serotonergic regulation of the respiratory chemoreflex is mediated by a specialized molecular subtype of 5HT neuron harboring unique physiological, biophysical, and hodological properties specified developmentally and demonstrate that the serotonergic system contains specialized modules contributing to its collective functional breadth.

  4. Study on dose-response relationship between prenatal exposure to 137Cs γ-ray and the developmental retardation of brain in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developmental retardation of brain in rats induced by prenatal exposure to 137Cs γ-rays had observed by measuring the five indexes reflecting changes in structure, function and biochemical substance of central nervous system. The results showed that when dose accumulatively absorbed by the offsprings was 0.07-2.7 Gy, with increase in the dose their cerebral weight was lightened, the cerebral ordinate length was reduced, the development of swimming function was delayed, the contents of eight kinds of free amino acids in the cerebrum were increased, the number of pyramidal cells in cerebral cortex was decreased as well as the relationship between percentages of the changes in the five indexes and logarithm absorbed doses (Gy) give a good fit to liner regression equation Y = A + BlgD

  5. Visual and SPM analysis of regional cerebral perfusion with Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in patients with developmental language disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Joon Kee; Lee, Myung Hoon; Joh, Chul Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam; Oh, Eun Young [College of Medicine, Univ. of Ajou, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Developmental language disorder (DLD) refers to inadequate language acquisition at the expected age in children with otherwise normal development. However, language delay can be observed in patients with other developmental disoder (ODD). We, therefore, evaluated regional cerebral perfusion pattern in patients with DLD and ODD by means of visual and SPM analysis. Twelve patients, who underwent Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT within 3 weeks of their first visit, were included in the study. Psychological and language tests classified the patients into 2 groups ; 6 with DLD (3-7 yr, 5 male and I female) and 6 with ODD (2-6 yr, 6 male). Visual analysis for regional cerebral perfusion was done in each patient. SPM with 7 controls (age=7) was performed to evaluate difference between 2 groups using t-test. P value of less than 0.005 was considered to be significant. All patients had significant language delay for their age (9 month 3.5 yr). Among 6 patients with ODD, 4 had pervasive developmental disorder, 1 mental retardation and 1 attachment disorder. Visual analysis revealed significant perfusion decrease in only 1 patient with DLD and 2 with ODD ; the regions were left parieto-temporal cortex, both frontal and cerebellar cortices, and right temporal cortex respectively. Nine of 12 patients showed normal perfusion. SPM demonstrated perfusion decrease in left inferior frontal cortex and left superior parietal cortex (Wernicke's area) in patients with DLD, while, in patients with ODD, perfusion decrease was mostly located in the right hemisphere (lateral frontoorbital gyrus, occipitotemporal gyrus, cuneus and cerebellum). Corpus callosum showed no significant perfusion abnormality in both groups. Regional cerebral perfusion of patients with DLD, which was mainly located in the speech area, is quite different from that of ODD-patients with language delay. While SPM successfully revealed this difference in perfusion pattern, visual analysis had limited value.

  6. Pericentric inversion of chromosome 11 (p14.3q21) associated with developmental delays, hypopigmented skin lesions and abnormal brain MRI findings - a new case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachor, D.A.; Lofton, M. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We report 3 year old male, referred for evaluation of developmental delays. Pregnancy was complicated by oligohydramnios, proteinuria and prematurity. Medical history revealed: bilateral inguinal hernia, small scrotal sac, undescended testes, developmental delays and behavioral problems. The child had: microcephaly, facial dysmorphic features, single palmar creases, hypopigmented skin lesions of variable size, intermittent exotropia and small retracted testes. Neurological examination was normal. Cognitive level was at the average range with mild delay in his adaptive behavior. Expressive language delays and severe articulation disorder were noted, as well as clumsiness, poor control and precision of gross and fine motor skills. Chromosomal analysis of peripheral leukocytes indicated that one of the number 11 chromosomes had undergone a pericentric inversion with breakpoints on the short (p) arm at band p14.3 and the long (q) arm at band q21. An MRI of the brain showed mild delay in myelinization pattern of white matter. Chromosome 11 inversion in other sites was associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and several malignancies. To our knowledge this is the first description of inv(11)(p14.3q21) that is associated with microcephaly, dysmorphic features, hypopigmented skin lesions and speech delay. This inversion may disrupt the expression of the involved genes. However, additional cases with the same cytogenetic anomaly are needed to explore the phenotypic significance of this disorder.

  7. Developmental disorders of the brain can be caused by PCBs; low doses of hydroxy-PCBs disrupt thyroid hormone-dependent dendrite formation from Purkinje neurons in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Y.; Kimura-Kuroda, J. [Tokyo Metropol. Inst. for Neuroscience, Tokyo (Japan); Nagata, I. [CREST/ JST, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Exposure to some environmental chemicals during the perinatal period causes developmental disorders of the brain. Cognitive impairment and hyperactivity in infants were reported in Taiwan, known as Yu-cheng incidents caused by the accidental contamination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Together with recent experimental data, Kuroda proposes a hypothesis that spatio-temporal disruptions of developing neuronal circuits by PCB exposure can cause the comobidity of learning disorders (LD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autsm with the co-exposure to other environmental chemicals. PCBs and hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) have similar chemical structures to thyroid hormones (TH), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). TH deficiency in the perinatal period causes cretinism children with severe cognitive and mental retardation. In primate model, Rice demonstrates that postnatal exposure to PCBs can dramatically influence later behavioral function. Epidemiological studies also indicate the possible developmental neurotoxicity of PCBs accumulated in human bodies. However, the precise underlying mechanisms and which types of PCB or OH-PCB with such effects have yet to be elucidated. It is important to establish a simple, reproducible, and sensitive in vitro assay for determining the effects of PCBs and OH-PCBs on the development of the central nervous system. Recently Iwasaki et al. established a reporter assay system and disclosed that low doses of PCBs potentially interfere TH-dependent gene expressions. This is the first demonstration that PCBs and OH-PCBs directly affect TH-receptor (TR)-mediated gene expressions crucial to the brain development, through unique mechanism. We also have demonstrated TH-dependent development of Purkinje neurons in vitro using a serum-free chemically defined medium. The degree of dendritic development of Purkinje cells is TH dose-dependent and exhibits high sensitivity in the pM order. Therefore, in the present study

  8. MRI Diagnosis of Developmental Venous Abnormality in Brain%脑发育性静脉异常的MRI诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文贵

    2008-01-01

    脑发育性静脉异常(developmental venous anomaly,DVA),是一种组织学上完全由静脉成分构成的脑血管畸形,MRI应用于临床以来,该病的报道逐渐增多。本文分析7例DVA的MRI平扫和增强检查表现,探讨MRI对DVA的诊断价值。

  9. GABA and glutamate pathways are spatially and developmentally affected in the brain of Mecp2-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita El-Khoury

    Full Text Available Proper brain functioning requires a fine-tuning between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, a balance maintained through the regulation and release of glutamate and GABA. Rett syndrome (RTT is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2 gene affecting the postnatal brain development. Dysfunctions in the GABAergic and glutamatergic systems have been implicated in the neuropathology of RTT and a disruption of the balance between excitation and inhibition, together with a perturbation of the electrophysiological properties of GABA and glutamate neurons, were reported in the brain of the Mecp2-deficient mouse. However, to date, the extent and the nature of the GABA/glutamate deficit affecting the Mecp2-deficient mouse brain are unclear. In order to better characterize these deficits, we simultaneously analyzed the GABA and glutamate levels in Mecp2-deficient mice at 2 different ages (P35 and P55 and in several brain areas. We used a multilevel approach including the quantification of GABA and glutamate levels, as well as the quantification of the mRNA and protein expression levels of key genes involved in the GABAergic and glutamatergic pathways. Our results show that Mecp2-deficient mice displayed regional- and age-dependent variations in the GABA pathway and, to a lesser extent, in the glutamate pathway. The implication of the GABA pathway in the RTT neuropathology was further confirmed using an in vivo treatment with a GABA reuptake inhibitor that significantly improved the lifespan of Mecp2-deficient mice. Our results confirm that RTT mouse present a deficit in the GABAergic pathway and suggest that GABAergic modulators could be interesting therapeutic agents for this severe neurological disorder.

  10. Epigenetic Influences on Brain Development and Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Fagiolini, Michela; Jensen, Catherine L.; Champagne, Frances A.

    2009-01-01

    A fine interplay exists between sensory experience and innate genetic programs leading to the sculpting of neuronal circuits during early brain development. Recent evidence suggests that the dynamic regulation of gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms is at the interface between environmental stimuli and long-lasting molecular, cellular and complex behavioral phenotypes acquired during periods of developmental plasticity. Understanding these mechanisms may give insight into the formati...

  11. Chronic Unpredictable Stress Decreases Expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in Mouse Ovaries: Relationship to Oocytes Developmental Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Min Wu; Mei-Hong Hu; Xian-Hong Tong; Hui Han; Ni Shen; Ren-Tao Jin; Wei Wang; Gui-Xiang Zhou; Guo-Ping He; Yu-Sheng Liu

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) was originally described in the nervous system but has been shown to be expressed in ovary tissues recently, acting as a paracrine/autocrine regulator required for developments of follicles and oocytes. Although it is generally accepted that chronic stress impairs female reproduction and decreases the expression of BDNF in limbic structures of central nervous system, which contributes to mood disorder. However, it is not known whether chroni...

  12. RNA Sequence Analysis of Human Huntington Disease Brain Reveals an Extensive Increase in Inflammatory and Developmental Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Labadorf, Adam; Hoss, Andrew G.; Lagomarsino, Valentina; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Hadzi, Tiffany C.; Bregu, Joli; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Gusella, James F.; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Akbarian, Schahram; Weng, Zhiping; Myers, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    Huntington’s Disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Transcriptional dysregulation in the human HD brain has been documented but is incompletely understood. Here we present a genome-wide analysis of mRNA expression in human prefrontal cortex from 20 HD and 49 neuropathologically normal controls using next generation high-throughput sequencing. Surprisingly, 19% (5,480) of the 28,087 confident...

  13. Conserved developmental expression of Fezf in chordates and Drosophila and the origin of the Zona Limitans Intrathalamica (ZLI) brain organizer

    OpenAIRE

    Irimia Manuel; Piñeiro Cristina; Maeso Ignacio; Gómez-Skarmeta José; Casares Fernando; Garcia-Fernàndez Jordi

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The zona limitans intrathalamica (ZLI) and the isthmus organizer (IsO) are two major secondary organizers of vertebrate brain development. These organizers are located at the interface of the expression domains of key patterning genes (Fezf-Irx and Otx-Gbx, respectively). To gain insights into the evolutionary origin of the ZLI, we studied Fezf in bilaterians. Results In this paper, we identified a conserved sequence motif (Fezf box) in all bilaterians. We report the expre...

  14. Introduction to the special issue: Substance use and the adolescent brain: Developmental impacts, interventions, and longitudinal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Luciana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health problem, particularly given the negative brain and behavioral consequences that often occur during and following acute intoxication. Negative outcomes appear to be especially pronounced when substance use is initiated in the early adolescent years, perhaps due to neural adaptations that increase risk for substance use disorders into adulthood. Recent models to explain these epidemiological trends have focused on brain-based vulnerabilities to use as well as neurodevelopmental aberrations associated with initiation of use in substance naïve samples or through the description of case-control differences between heavy users and controls. Within this research, adolescent alcohol and marijuana users have shown relative decreases in regional gray matter volumes, substance-specific alterations in white matter volumes, deviations in microstructural integrity in white matter tracts that regulate communication between subcortical areas and higher level regulatory control regions, and deficits in functional connectivity. How these brain anomalies map onto other types of youth risk behavior and later vulnerabilities represent major questions for continued research. This special issue addresses these compelling and timely questions by introducing new methodologies, empirical relationships, and perspectives from major leaders in this field.

  15. Introduction to the special issue: Substance use and the adolescent brain: Developmental impacts, interventions, and longitudinal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciana, Monica; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W

    2015-12-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health problem, particularly given the negative brain and behavioral consequences that often occur during and following acute intoxication. Negative outcomes appear to be especially pronounced when substance use is initiated in the early adolescent years, perhaps due to neural adaptations that increase risk for substance use disorders into adulthood. Recent models to explain these epidemiological trends have focused on brain-based vulnerabilities to use as well as neurodevelopmental aberrations associated with initiation of use in substance naïve samples or through the description of case-control differences between heavy users and controls. Within this research, adolescent alcohol and marijuana users have shown relative decreases in regional gray matter volumes, substance-specific alterations in white matter volumes, deviations in microstructural integrity in white matter tracts that regulate communication between subcortical areas and higher level regulatory control regions, and deficits in functional connectivity. How these brain anomalies map onto other types of youth risk behavior and later vulnerabilities represent major questions for continued research. This special issue addresses these compelling and timely questions by introducing new methodologies, empirical relationships, and perspectives from major leaders in this field. PMID:26589541

  16. Developmental Dyspraxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Developmental Dyspraxia Information Page Synonym(s): Dyspraxia Table of Contents (click ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Developmental Dyspraxia? Developmental dyspraxia is a disorder characterized by an ...

  17. Sexually dimorphic gene regulation in brain as a target for endocrine disrupters: Developmental exposure of rats to 4-methylbenzylidene camphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developing neuroendocrine brain represents a potential target for endocrine active chemicals. The UV filter 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) exhibits estrogenic activity, but also interferes with the thyroid axis. We investigated effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to 4-MBC in the same rat offspring at brain and reproductive organ levels. 4-MBC (7, 24, 47 mg/kg/day) was administered in chow to the parent generation before mating, during gestation and lactation, and to the offspring until adulthood. mRNA of estrogen target genes involved in control of sexual behavior and gonadal functions was measured by real-time RT-PCR in ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) and medial preoptic area (MPO) of adult offspring. 4-MBC exposure affected mRNA levels of ER alpha, progesterone receptor (PR), preproenkephalin (PPE) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in a sex- and region-specific manner. In order to assess possible changes in sensitivity of target genes to estrogens, offspring were gonadectomized on day 70, injected with estradiol (E2, 10 or 50 μg/kg s.c.) or vehicle on day 84, and sacrificed 6 h later. The acute induction of PR mRNA, and repression (at 6 h) of PPE mRNA by E2 was enhanced by 4-MBC in male and female VMH and female MPO, whereas male MPO exhibited reduced responsiveness of both genes. Steroid receptor coactivator SRC-1 mRNA levels were increased in female VMH and MPO. The data indicate profound sex- and region-specific alterations in the regulation of estrogen target genes at brain level. Effect patterns in baseline and E2-induced gene expression differ from those in uterus and prostate

  18. Cognitive reserve and preinjury educational attainment: effects on outcome of community-based rehabilitation for longer-term individuals with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, Dónal G; Walsh, R Stephen; Richards, Helen L

    2016-09-01

    The cognitive reserve hypothesis has been proposed to account for the mismatch between brain pathology and its clinical expression. The aim of the current research was to explore, in a longitudinal data set, the effects of level of educational attainment before brain injury (cognitive reserve) and clinical factors on the level of rehabilitation-induced changes in disability and community integration. Participants in receipt of postacute rehabilitation were assessed at induction to the service and again at between 14 and 18 months of follow-up while still in service on changes in aspects of their abilities, adjustment and participation (Mayo Portland Adaptability Indices) and community integration (Community Integration Questionnaire). Controlling for type and severity of injury, age at onset of injury and duration of time since injury, participants with higher previous educational attainment showed significantly greater changes over the course of rehabilitation on adjustment to their injury and participation, but not on abilities, or community integration following postacute rehabilitation. Level of education would appear to be an important element of cognitive reserve in brain injury that serves to aid responses to postacute rehabilitation in terms of an individual's adjustment to disability and participation. PMID:27171606

  19. Conserved developmental expression of Fezf in chordates and Drosophila and the origin of the Zona Limitans Intrathalamica (ZLI brain organizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irimia Manuel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The zona limitans intrathalamica (ZLI and the isthmus organizer (IsO are two major secondary organizers of vertebrate brain development. These organizers are located at the interface of the expression domains of key patterning genes (Fezf-Irx and Otx-Gbx, respectively. To gain insights into the evolutionary origin of the ZLI, we studied Fezf in bilaterians. Results In this paper, we identified a conserved sequence motif (Fezf box in all bilaterians. We report the expression pattern of Fezf in amphioxus and Drosophila and compare it with those of Gbx, Otx and Irx. We found that the relative expression patterns of these genes in vertebrates are fully conserved in amphioxus and flies, indicating that the genetic subdivisions defining the location of both secondary organizers in early vertebrate brain development were probably present in the last common ancestor of extant bilaterians. However, in contrast to vertebrates, we found that Irx-defective flies do not show an affected Fezf expression pattern. Conclusions The absence of expression of the corresponding morphogens from cells at these conserved genetic boundaries in invertebrates suggests that the organizing properties might have evolved specifically in the vertebrate lineage by the recruitment of key morphogens to these conserved genetic locations.

  20. The Brain Mechanism of Developmental Dyslexia:Evidences From The Brain Image%发展性阅读障碍的脑机制——来自脑成像研究的证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨炀; 毕鸿燕; 王久菊

    2009-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a specific learning disability. The cerebral mechanism of development dyslexia is an important topic that has fascinated many researchers. With the introduction of brain imaging in studies of cerebral mechanism of development dyslexia, many achievements have been made. Studies of developmental dyslexia structure image found that development dyslexia showed brain structure abnormal in the parietotemporal region, occipitotemporal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and cerebellum et al, manifesting either in one specific area or by the asymmetry of one area; the functional image studies revealed that development dyslexia showed activity abnormal in most regions that proved to display structure abnormality; studies of brain functional connectivity demonstrates that the abnormality of development dyslexia happened not only in the connection between front-back part in one cerebral hemisphere, but also in the connection between the two hemispheres. In addition, some studies indicate Chinese development dyslexia has different brain mechanisms compared to that of alphabetic languages. These findings provide valuable insight for future developmental cerebral mechanisms research and for the expansion of Chinese development dyslexia research.%发展性阅读障碍是一种特殊的学习障碍,发展性阅读障碍的脑机制一直是研究者们关心的一个重要问题.随着脑成像技术的应用,人们在发展性阅读障碍的脑机制研究方面取得了重大进展.脑结构研究发现,发展性阅读障碍者在颞-顶叶、颢.枕叶、额下回、小脑等区域都存在一定的脑结构异常,这些脑结构异常要么表现在某个脑区的结构上,要么表现某个脑区结构的左右不对称性上.脑功能研究发现,发展性阅读障碍者出现脑结构异常的区域也大多表现出脑功能的异常.脑功能连接的研究发现,发展性阅读障碍者脑功能连接的异常不仅涉及到同侧脑区前后部分

  1. Utilidad de un programa de rehabilitación neuropsicológica de la memoria en daño cerebral adquirido (Usefulness of a Program of Neuropsychological Rehabilitation of Memory in Acquired Brain Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José De los Reyes-Aragón

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este estudio evaluó la utilidad de un programa de rehabilitación cognitiva y funcional de memoria para pacientes con daño cerebral adquirido. Diez participantes con deterioro cognitivo leve o moderado participaron en el estudio, cinco de ellos asistieron durante cuatro meses a un programa semanal de rehabilitación, mientras que los otros cinco no recibieron intervención neuropsicológica. Los resultados mostraron que el grupo de rehabilitación mejoró la puntuación en la Escala de Memoria de Wechsler III. De igual forma, se encontró que la puntuación en la escala de fallos de memoria de la vida diaria solo mejoró en el grupo que recibió rehabilitación. Los resultados sugieren que el programa de rehabilitación de la memoria resulta útil en el tratamiento de las secuelas tanto cognitivas como funcionales resultantes del daño cerebral adquirido. ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the usefulness of a cognitive and functional rehabilitation of memory program for patients with acquired brain injury. Ten participants with mild- to -moderate cognitive impairment participated in the study; five of them for four months attended a weekly rehabilitation program, while the other five did not receive any neuropsychological intervention. The results showed that the rehabilitation group improved the score in the Wechsler III Memory Scale. Similarly, it was found that the score on the memory scale of failure of the daily life only improved in the group that received rehabilitation. The results suggest that memory rehabilitation program is useful in the treatment of both cognitive and functional sequels resulting from acquired brain damage.

  2. [Community-based rehabilitation and outpatient care for patients with acquired brain injury and chronic neurological disability in Germany: continuing support for social participation and re-integration in the neurological care system?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuther, P; Hendrich, A; Kringler, W; Vespo, E

    2012-12-01

    In Germany a number of patients who are suffering from acquired brain injury and chronic neurological disability are either undersupplied or exposed to inappropriate care in their social environment. The number of these patients is increasing due to the changes in the procedures of care and due to demographic factors. While acute medical care and early rehabilitative treatment is accessible throughout the German health care system the necessary multimodal and competent care is rare or absent in the social participative sites such as life and occupational environments of the patients. The complex impairment of the brain, the central organ for sensorial, executive and other cognitive functions of human beings, renders the affected patient an exception in the system of medical and social care - this has only inadequately been considered in the past. The authors explain the necessity to disclose the status of a "human-with acquired-brain damage (Mensch-mit-erworbener-Hirnschädigung, MeH)" explicitly as severely disabled. The paper recommends a number of structural and procedural elements that have proven to overcome the insufficient or inappropriate support in integrating the patients suffering from acquired brain injury and chronic neurological disability in their social environment as well as for a demand-focused support with sustainable rehabilitative and ambulant follow-up procedures. Comparisons with other developed health care systems and international guidelines show that with organizing of early-supported-discharge, community-ambulation, shared-care and community-based-rehabilitation these problems have long since been identified elsewhere. Community-based and resident-oriented concepts have already been systematically implemented. In order to achieve the necessary support for the individual patient, a nation-wide development is necessary in Germany to perform the principles of the German social code and the principles of the Convention on the Rights of

  3. A developmental approach to homology and brain evolution Un enfoque embriológico a la homología y la evolución cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO ABOITIZ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although homology is central to evolutionary interpretations, establishing it has become a highly disputed issue in some instances. Here I argüe for a developmental understanding of evolution, where modifications of the developmental programs are a key source of evolutionary novelty. Although this perspective is not new, in comparative neurobiology it has remained controversial. Specifically, the evolutionary origin of the mammalian neocortex has been a particularly debated point. I propose a perspective that could help reconcile a long standing controversy: either the mammalian neocortex corresponds as a whole to the dorsal hemisphere of reptiles and birds, or alternatively its lateral aspect corresponds to the lateral cerebral hemisphere and is partly homologous to the dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR, a brain mass that receives the bulk of sensory input in reptiles and birds. Genetic and embryonic evidence strongly favor a dorsal origin for the whole neocortex, while the DVR derives from the lateral hemisphere. Nevertheless, the phylogenetically new elements of both the neocortex and the avian DVR derive largely from intermediate progenitor cells located in the embryonic subventricular zone (SVZ, a zone of late proliferating activity located deep to the ventral, the lateral and the dorsal hemisphere. I suggest that, despite originating in different embryonic regions (lateral vs. dorsal hemisphere, the evolutionary new cellular elements in both the avian brain and in the mammalian neocortex derive from the activation of a similar genetic pathway, possibly activated by the gene Pax-6, that induces the late proliferation of embryonic neural progenitors. This pathway can be ancestral to amniotes, reflecting genetic homology. In mammals and birds independently, this precursor proliferative activity differentiated into an SVZ, recruiting neuronal precursors from different parts of the cerebral hemisphere in each group, to contribute to brain

  4. Ontogenetic Shape Change in the Chicken Brain: Implications for Paleontology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichiro Kawabe

    Full Text Available Paleontologists have investigated brain morphology of extinct birds with little information on post-hatching changes in avian brain morphology. Without the knowledge of ontogenesis, assessing brain morphology in fossil taxa could lead to misinterpretation of the phylogeny or neurosensory development of extinct species. Hence, it is imperative to determine how avian brain morphology changes during post-hatching growth. In this study, chicken brain shape was compared at various developmental stages using three-dimensional (3D geometric morphometric analysis and the growth rate of brain regions was evaluated to explore post-hatching morphological changes. Microscopic MRI (μMRI was used to acquire in vivo data from living and post-mortem chicken brains. The telencephalon rotates caudoventrally during growth. This change in shape leads to a relative caudodorsal rotation of the cerebellum and myelencephalon. In addition, all brain regions elongate rostrocaudally and this leads to a more slender brain shape. The growth rates of each brain region were constant and the slopes from the growth formula were parallel. The dominant pattern of ontogenetic shape change corresponded with interspecific shape changes due to increasing brain size. That is, the interspecific and ontogenetic changes in brain shape due to increased size have similar patterns. Although the shape of the brain and each brain region changed considerably, the volume ratio of each brain region did not change. This suggests that the brain can change its shape after completing functional differentiation of the brain regions. Moreover, these results show that consideration of ontogenetic changes in brain shape is necessary for an accurate assessment of brain morphology in paleontological studies.

  5. Pre- and Post-Natal Stress Programming: Developmental Exposure to Glucocorticoids Causes Long-Term Brain-Region Specific Changes to Transcriptome in the Precocial Japanese Quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, V; Herzyk, P; Robinson, J; Spencer, K A

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to stress during early development can permanently influence an individual's physiology and behaviour, and affect its subsequent health. The extent to which elevated glucocorticoids cause such long-term 'programming' remains largely untested. In the present study, using the Japanese quail as our study species, we independently manipulated exposure to corticosterone during pre- and/or post-natal development and investigated the subsequent effects on global gene expression profiles within the hippocampus and hypothalamus upon achieving adulthood. Our results showed that the changes in transcriptome profiles in response to corticosterone exposure clearly differed between the hippocampus and the hypothalamus. We also showed that these effects depended on the developmental timing of exposure and identified brain-region specific gene expression patterns that were either: (i) similarly altered by corticosterone regardless of the developmental stage in which hormonal exposure occurred or (ii) specifically and uniquely altered by either pre-natal or post-natal exposure to corticosterone. Corticosterone-treated birds showed alterations in networks of genes that included known markers of the programming actions of early-life adversity (e.g. brain-derived neurotrophic factor and mineralocorticoid receptor within the hippocampus; corticotrophin-releasing hormone and serotonin receptors in the hypothalamus). Altogether, for the first time, these findings provide experimental support for the hypothesis that exposure to elevated glucocorticoids during development may be a key hormonal signalling pathway through which the long-term phenotypic effects associated with early-life adversity emerge and potentially persist throughout the lifespan. These data also highlight that stressors might have different long-lasting impacts on the brain transcriptome depending on the developmental stage in which they are experienced; more work is now required to relate these mechanisms to

  6. Acquired agraphia caused by focal brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S W; Saver, J; Tranel, D; Damasio, H

    1993-03-01

    Motor and linguistic aspects of writing were evaluated in 31 subjects with focal damage in 1 of 3 regions of the left hemisphere: (1) dorsolateral frontal lobe sparing primary motor cortex (group FL), (2) parietal lobe (group PL), or (3) temporal lobe (group TL). A standard procedure was used to evaluate writing for grapheme formation, spatial arrangement, spelling, word selection, grammar, and perseveration. It was predicted that agraphia would be observed in all 3 groups, and that the most severe impairments would be associated with frontal lobe damage, particularly in aspects of writing dependent on sequencing (grapheme formation, spelling, and grammar). It was found that agraphia was common in all groups, particularly in the acute epoch, and that all groups showed considerable recovery of writing by the chronic epoch. Few differences were found between groups. However, the FL group was impaired on spelling and grammar relative to the PL group in the acute epoch and impaired on grammar relative to the TL group in the chronic epoch. The findings are consistent with the notion that writing relies on a distributed neuroanatomical network, which acts in concert to link fragments of visuomotor activity with component linguistic elements.

  7. Monitoring Agitated Behavior After acquired Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadal, Lena; Mortensen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbaek

    2015-01-01

    behavior was registered with the Agitated Behavior Scale (ABS). The nurse or therapist allocated the individual patient assessed ABS during each shift. Intensity of agitated behavior was tested using exact test. A within-subject shift effect was analyzed with repeated-measure ANOVA. Findings: The onset...

  8. A developmental approach to homology and brain evolution Un enfoque embriológico a la homología y la evolución cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    FRANCISCO ABOITIZ

    2010-01-01

    Although homology is central to evolutionary interpretations, establishing it has become a highly disputed issue in some instances. Here I argüe for a developmental understanding of evolution, where modifications of the developmental programs are a key source of evolutionary novelty. Although this perspective is not new, in comparative neurobiology it has remained controversial. Specifically, the evolutionary origin of the mammalian neocortex has been a particularly debated point. I propose a...

  9. Modeling developmental transitions in adaptive resonance theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.J. Raijmakers; P.C.M. Molenaar

    2004-01-01

    Neural networks are applied to a theoretical subject in developmental psychology: modeling developmental transitions. Two issues that are involved will be discussed: discontinuities and acquiring qualitatively new knowledge. We will argue that by the appearance of a bifurcation, a neural network can

  10. Arguments from Developmental Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind - getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged 'philosophy of development.' PMID:27242648

  11. Arguments from Developmental Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eStöckle-Schobel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorising about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind – getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories.Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasising the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasising the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged ‘philosophy of development’.

  12. Arguments from Developmental Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind - getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged 'philosophy of development.'

  13. Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration Performance in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Griffin P.; Barchard, Kimberly A.; Bello, Danielle T.; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Ringdahl, Erik; Mayfield, Joan; Allen, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of visuoconstructional abilities is a common part of clinical neuropsychological assessment, and the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI; K. E. Beery & N. A. Beery, 2004) is often used for this purpose. However, few studies have examined its psychometric properties when used to assess children and…

  14. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tends to be more serious than other lung infections because: People in the hospital are often very sick and cannot fight off ... prevent pneumonia. Most hospitals have programs to prevent hospital-acquired infections.

  15. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  16. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  17. Developmental cholinotoxicants: nicotine and chlorpyrifos.

    OpenAIRE

    Slotkin, T A

    1999-01-01

    The stimulation of cholinergic receptors in target cells during a critical developmental period provides signals that influence cell replication and differentiation. Accordingly, environmental agents that promote cholinergic activity evoke neurodevelopmental damage because of the inappropriate timing or intensity of stimulation. Nicotine evokes mitotic arrest in brain cells possessing high concentrations of nicotinic cholinergic receptors. In addition, the cholinergic overstimulation programs...

  18. A postal survey of data in general practice on the prevalence of Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) in patients aged 18-65 in one county in the west of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Finnerty, Fionnuala

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Very little is known about the prevalence of acquired brain injury (ABI) in Ireland. ABI prevalence has previously been obtained from Belgian general practitioners using a postal survey. We attempted to ascertain the prevalence of ABI in County Mayo through a postal survey of all general practitioners in the county.The specific objectives of this project were to:1. identify whether general practitioners are a. aware of patients with ABI aged 18-65 in their practices b. able to provide prevalence data on ABI in patients aged 18-65 c. able to provide data on age, gender and patient diagnosis 2. analyse prevalence of ABI from any available data from general practitioners. METHODS: A pilot postal survey was performed initially in order to assess the feasibility of the study. It was established that general practitioners did have the necessary information required to complete the questionnaire. A main postal survey was then undertaken. A postal questionnaire was administered to all general practices in County Mayo in the west of Ireland (n = 59). The response rate was 32.2% (n = 19). RESULTS: General practitioners who replied on behalf of their practice could provide data on patient age, gender and diagnosis. In the nineteen practices, there were 57 patients with ABI. The age-specific prevalence of ABI in the area surveyed was estimated at 183.7 per 100,000. The mean patient population per practice was 2,833 (SD = 950). There were found to be significantly more patients with ABI in rural areas than urban areas (p = 0.006). There were also significant differences in the ages of patients in the different ABI categories. Patients whose ABI was of traumatic origin were significantly younger than those patients with ABI of haemorrhagic origin (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Although this is a small-scale study, we have ascertained that general practitioners do have data on patients with ABI. Also, some prevalence data now exist where none was available before. These can

  19. Nbn and atm cooperate in a tissue and developmental stage-specific manner to prevent double strand breaks and apoptosis in developing brain and eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo M G Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Nibrin (NBN or NBS1 and ATM are key factors for DNA Double Strand Break (DSB signaling and repair. Mutations in NBN or ATM result in Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome and Ataxia telangiectasia. These syndromes share common features such as radiosensitivity, neurological developmental defects and cancer predisposition. However, the functional synergy of Nbn and Atm in different tissues and developmental stages is not yet understood. Here, we show in vivo consequences of conditional inactivation of both genes in neural stem/progenitor cells using Nestin-Cre mice. Genetic inactivation of Atm in the central nervous system of Nbn-deficient mice led to reduced life span and increased DSBs, resulting in increased apoptosis during neural development. Surprisingly, the increase of DSBs and apoptosis was found only in few tissues including cerebellum, ganglionic eminences and lens. In sharp contrast, we showed that apoptosis associated with Nbn deletion was prevented by simultaneous inactivation of Atm in developing retina. Therefore, we propose that Nbn and Atm collaborate to prevent DSB accumulation and apoptosis during development in a tissue- and developmental stage-specific manner.

  20. Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Landrigan, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    the known causes for this rise in prevalence. In 2006, we did a systematic review and identified five industrial chemicals as developmental neurotoxicants: lead, methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, arsenic, and toluene. Since 2006, epidemiological studies have documented six additional developmental...... neurotoxicants-manganese, fluoride, chlorpyrifos, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, tetrachloroethylene, and the polybrominated diphenyl ethers. We postulate that even more neurotoxicants remain undiscovered. To control the pandemic of developmental neurotoxicity, we propose a global prevention strategy. Untested...... chemicals should not be presumed to be safe to brain development, and chemicals in existing use and all new chemicals must therefore be tested for developmental neurotoxicity. To coordinate these efforts and to accelerate translation of science into prevention, we propose the urgent formation of a new...

  1. Fueling and imaging brain activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald A Dienel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic signals are used for imaging and spectroscopic studies of brain function and disease and to elucidate the cellular basis of neuroenergetics. The major fuel for activated neurons and the models for neuron–astrocyte interactions have been controversial because discordant results are obtained in different experimental systems, some of which do not correspond to adult brain. In rats, the infrastructure to support the high energetic demands of adult brain is acquired during postnatal development and matures after weaning. The brain's capacity to supply and metabolize glucose and oxygen exceeds demand over a wide range of rates, and the hyperaemic response to functional activation is rapid. Oxidative metabolism provides most ATP, but glycolysis is frequently preferentially up-regulated during activation. Underestimation of glucose utilization rates with labelled glucose arises from increased lactate production, lactate diffusion via transporters and astrocytic gap junctions, and lactate release to blood and perivascular drainage. Increased pentose shunt pathway flux also causes label loss from C1 of glucose. Glucose analogues are used to assay cellular activities, but interpretation of results is uncertain due to insufficient characterization of transport and phosphorylation kinetics. Brain activation in subjects with low blood-lactate levels causes a brain-to-blood lactate gradient, with rapid lactate release. In contrast, lactate flooding of brain during physical activity or infusion provides an opportunistic, supplemental fuel. Available evidence indicates that lactate shuttling coupled to its local oxidation during activation is a small fraction of glucose oxidation. Developmental, experimental, and physiological context is critical for interpretation of metabolic studies in terms of theoretical models.

  2. Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge; Kristensen, Tage Søndergaard;

    2003-01-01

    Human Deveoplment and Working Life - Work for Welfare explores whether the development of human resources at company level can improve individuals' quality of life, companies' possibilities of development, and welfare and democracy in society. Chapter two discuss the concept "developmental work...

  3. Watching the fetal brain at 'rest'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpf, V; Kasprian, G; Brugger, P C; Prayer, D

    2012-02-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has allowed insights into the spatiotemporal distribution of human brain networks. According to the neurophysiological property of the fetal brain to generate spontaneous activity, we aimed to determine the feasibility of investigating the maturation of intrinsic networks, beginning at gestational week 20 in healthy human fetuses by combining resting-state fMRI and an analytical approach, independent component analysis (ICA). In this study, functional images of 16 fetuses with morphologically normal brain development, from 20 to 36 gestational weeks of age, were acquired on a 1.5T unit (Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands) using single-shot, gradient-recalled echo-planar imaging. After preprocessing (motion correction, brain extraction), images were analyzed using single-subject ICA. We visualized a bilateral occipital network and medial and lateral prefrontal activity pattern that involved the future Brodmann areas 9-11. Furthermore, there was one either predominantly right (3/7 cases) or left (4/7 cases) hemispheric lateralized network that involved the superior temporal cortical regions (Brodmann areas 22 and 39). Frequency oscillations were in the range of 0.01-0.06Hz for all networks. This study shows that resting-state networks (RSNs) are shaped and are detectable in utero. Further investigations of resting-state measurements in the fetus may therefore allow developmental brain activity monitoring and may provide insights into early brain function. PMID:22044604

  4. Trib3 is developmentally and nutritionally regulated in the brain but is dispensable for spatial memory, fear conditioning and sensing of amino acid-imbalanced diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiit Örd

    Full Text Available Tribbles homolog 3 (TRIB3 is a mammalian pseudokinase that is induced in neuronal cell cultures in response to cell death-inducing stresses, including neurotrophic factor deprivation. TRIB3 is an inhibitor of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4, the central transcriptional regulator in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α phosphorylation pathway that is involved in the cellular stress response and behavioral processes. In this article, we study the expression of Trib3 in the mouse brain, characterize the brain morphology of mice with a genetic ablation of Trib3 and investigate whether Trib3 deficiency alters eIF2α-dependent cognitive abilities. Our data show that the consumption of a leucine-deficient diet induces Trib3 expression in the anterior piriform cortex, the brain region responsible for detecting essential amino acid intake imbalance. However, the aversive response to leucine-devoid diet does not differ in Trib3 knockout and wild type mice. Trib3 deletion also does not affect long-term spatial memory and reversal learning in the Morris water maze and auditory or contextual fear conditioning. During embryonic development, Trib3 expression increases in the brain and persists in the early postnatal stadium. Neuroanatomical characterization of mice lacking Trib3 revealed enlarged lateral ventricles. Thus, although the absence of Trib3 does not alter the eIF2α pathway-dependent cognitive functions of several areas of the brain, including the hippocampus, amygdala and anterior piriform cortex, Trib3 may serve a role in other central nervous system processes and molecular pathways.

  5. [Neural mechanism underlying autistic savant and acquired savant syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Keisuke; Kato, Motoichiro

    2008-07-01

    It is well known that the cases with savant syndrome, demonstrate outstanding mental capability despite coexisting severe mental disabilities. In many cases, savant skills are characterized by its domain-specificity, enhanced memory capability, and excessive focus on low-level perceptual processing. In addition, impaired integrative cognitive processing such as social cognition or executive function, restricted interest, and compulsive repetition of the same act are observed in savant individuals. All these are significantly relevant to the behavioral characteristics observed in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). A neurocognitive model of savant syndrome should explain these cognitive features and the juxtaposition of outstanding talents with cognitive disabilities. In recent neuropsychological studies, Miller (1998) reported clinical cases of "acquired savant," i.e., patients who improved or newly acquired an artistic savant-like skill in the early stage of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Although the relationship between an autistic savant and acquired savant remains to be elucidated, the advent of neuroimaging study of ASD and the clarification of FTD patients with savant-like skills may clarify the shared neural mechanisms of both types of talent. In this review, we classified current cognitive models of savant syndrome into the following 3 categories. (1) A hypermnesic model that suggests that savant skills develop from existing or dormant cognitive functions such as memory. However, recent findings obtained through neuropsychological examinations imply that savant individuals solve problems using a strategy that is fairly different from a non-autistic one. (2) A paradoxical functional facilitation model (Kapur, 1996) that offers possible explanations about how pathological states in the brain lead to development of prodigious skills. This model emphasizes the role of reciprocal inhibitory interaction among adjacent or distant cortical regions

  6. Etiopathology of acquired cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabodh Karnik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiopathology of acquired cholesteatoma has undergone numerous changes over the past 150 years. However, certain facts stand out with clarity. The presence of cytokeratins in acquired cholesteatoma, which are akin to those found in the tympanic membrane and external auditory canal, shows that these are probably the site of origin of acquired cholesteatoma. The cholesteatoma sac also shows its greatest growth at its tympanic membrane attachment into the middle ear. Implantations of squamous epithelium due to trauma or surgery could be another originating factor. The basic pathology is the formation of papillary cones from the tympanic membrane or external auditory canal, which progress from microcholesteatoma to frank cholesteatoma with keratin collections. There is an altered matrix metalloproteinase pathway. Tumor necrosis factor activation with altered wound healing process contributes to the collateral destruction of bone. Trisomy and aneuploidy of chromosome 8 predispose to cholesteatoma formation in affected individuals. In this article, we present the etiopathology of acquired cholesteatoma as it stands today.

  7. "Ready to Acquire"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yetton, Philip; Henningsson, Stefan; Bjørn-Andersen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of Danisco (a global food ingredients company) as it followed a growth-by-acquisition business strategy, focusing on how a new CIO built the IT resources to ensure the IT organization was "ready to acquire." We illustrate how these IT capabilities expedited...

  8. The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis Cln8 gene expression is developmentally regulated in mouse brain and up-regulated in the hippocampal kindling model of epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuronen Mervi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs are a group of inherited neurodegenerative disorders characterized by accumulation of autofluorescent material in many tissues, especially in neurons. Mutations in the CLN8 gene, encoding an endoplasmic reticulum (ER transmembrane protein of unknown function, underlie NCL phenotypes in humans and mice. The human phenotype is characterized by epilepsy, progressive psychomotor deterioration and visual loss, while motor neuron degeneration (mnd mice with a Cln8 mutation show progressive motor neuron dysfunction and retinal degeneration. Results We investigated spatial and temporal expression of Cln8 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA using in situ hybridization, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and northern blotting. Cln8 is ubiquitously expressed at low levels in embryonic and adult tissues. In prenatal embryos Cln8 is most prominently expressed in the developing gastrointestinal tract, dorsal root ganglia (DRG and brain. In postnatal brain the highest expression is in the cortex and hippocampus. Expression of Cln8 mRNA in the central nervous system (CNS was also analyzed in the hippocampal electrical kindling model of epilepsy, in which Cln8 expression was rapidly up-regulated in hippocampal pyramidal and granular neurons. Conclusion Expression of Cln8 in the developing and mature brain suggests roles for Cln8 in maturation, differentiation and supporting the survival of different neuronal populations. The relevance of Cln8 up-regulation in hippocampal neurons of kindled mice should be further explored.

  9. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, N. J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    2002-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Ca...

  10. Acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pramod

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired hypertirichosis lanuginose developed rapidly in a patient with no detectable malignancy. Soft, fine, downy hair growth was noticed on the face, ears, limbs and trunk. Bilaterally symmetrical vitiliginous macules were present on the ear and preauricular region. This case is reported because of its rarity, absence of any detectable malignancy and development of vitiligo, which to our knowledge has not been reported earlier.

  11. School Reentry for Children with Acquired Central Nervous Systems Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Joan; Porter, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Onset of acquired central nervous system (CNS) injury during the normal developmental process of childhood can have impact on cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. This alteration of function often necessitates special education programming, modifications, and accommodations in the education setting for successful school reentry. Special…

  12. Neonatal Brain Tissue Classification with Morphological Adaptation and Unified Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eBeare

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the distribution of brain tissue types (tissue classification in neonates is necessary for studying typical and atypical brain development, such as that associated with preterm birth, and may provide biomarkers for neurodevelopmental outcomes. Compared with magnetic resonance images of adults, neonatal images present specific challenges that require the development of specialized, population-specific methods. This paper introduces MANTiS (Morphologically Adaptive Neonatal Tissue Segmentation, which extends the unified segmentation approach to tissue classification implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM software to neonates. MANTiS utilizes a combination of unified segmentation, template adaptation via morphological segmentation tools and topological filtering, to segment the neonatal brain into eight tissue classes: cortical gray matter, white matter, deep nuclear gray matter, cerebellum, brainstem, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, hippocampus and amygdala. We evaluated the performance of MANTiS using two independent datasets. The first dataset, provided by the NeoBrainS12 challenge, consisted of coronal T2-weighted images of preterm infants (born ≤30 weeks’ gestation acquired at 30 weeks’ corrected gestational age (n= 5, coronal T2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks’ corrected gestational age (n= 5 and axial T2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks’ corrected gestational age (n= 5. The second dataset, provided by the Washington University NeuroDevelopmental Research (WUNDeR group, consisted of T2-weighted images of preterm infants (born <30 weeks’ gestation acquired shortly after birth (n= 12, preterm infants acquired at term-equivalent age (n= 12, and healthy term-born infants (born ≥38 weeks’ gestation acquired within the first nine days of life (n= 12. For the NeoBrainS12 dataset, mean Dice scores comparing MANTiS with manual segmentations were all above 0.7, except for

  13. Developmental Scaffolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The concept of scaffolding has wide resonance in several scientific fields. Here we attempt to adopt it for the study of development. In this perspective, the embryo is conceived as an integral whole, comprised of several hierarchical modules as in a recurrent circularity of emerging patterns...... molecular signalling to the complexity of sign recognition proper of a cellular community. In this semiotic perspective, the apparent goal directness of any developmental strategy should no longer be accounted for by a predetermined genetic program, but by the gradual definition of the relationships...

  14. Human temporal bone findings in acquired hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, J; Milroy, C M; Jensen, K D; Parving, A

    1991-11-01

    Histological studies of the auditory organ in patients with acquired hypothyroidism are scarce. Thus the aim of the present study was to examine the temporal bones and the brain in subjects with hypothyroidism. Four temporal bones and two brains from clinically and biochemically hypothyroid subjects were removed and evaluated by light microscopy determine to the morphological changes and deposition of neutral and acid glycosaminoglycans. An audiogram from one of the patients showed a sensorineural hearing loss, which could be ascribed to occupational noise exposure. The study revealed histological changes compatible with age and infectious disease. No accumulation of neutral or acid glycosaminoglycans could be demonstrated in the temporal bones, or in the brains. PMID:1761939

  15. Inside the Adolescent Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Stacy S.

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Jay Giedd says that the main alterations in the adolescent brain are the inverted U-shaped developmental trajectories with late childhood/early teen peaks for gray matter volume among others. Giedd adds that the adolescent brain is vulnerable to substances that artificially modulate dopamine levels since its reward system is in a state of flux.

  16. Acquired von Willebrand Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭涛

    2005-01-01

    @@ Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AvWS) is kind of bleeding disorder with laboratory findings similar to those in congenital yon Willebrand disease (vWD).AvWS doesn's have any personal or family history of bleeding, but is associated with certain diseases or abnormal conditions or drugs. Although AvWS is being stated as a rare disease, it has gained more and more attention during the past years. Not because of the severity of the disease, but it is more common than we thought and most patients don' t have a proper diagnosis.

  17. Acquired epidermolysis bullosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricel Sucar Batista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa is a group of diseases or skin disorders genetically transmitted and it is characterized by the appearance of bullae, ulcers and skin wounds. It usually appears at birth or in the first months of life. This is a case of a 72-year-old female patient who comes to the dermatology department with skin lesions of 6 months of evolution. A skin biopsy was performed, taking a sample for direct and indirect immunofluorescence. Acquired epidermolysis bullosa of unknown etiology was diagnosed. Treatment was started with low-dose colchicine to increase it later, according to the patient’s tolerance and disease progression.

  18. Imaging brain plasticity after trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Kou, Zhifeng; Iraji, Armin

    2014-01-01

    The brain is highly plastic after stroke or epilepsy; however, there is a paucity of brain plasticity investigation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This mini review summarizes the most recent evidence of brain plasticity in human TBI patients from the perspective of advanced magnetic resonance imaging. Similar to other forms of acquired brain injury, TBI patients also demonstrated both structural reorganization as well as functional compensation by the recruitment of other brain regions. ...

  19. What does the brain of children with developmental dyslexia tell us about reading improvement?ERP evidence from an intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eHasko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intervention is key to managing developmental dyslexia (DD, but not all children with DD benefit from treatment. Some children improve (improvers, IMP, whereas others do not improve (non-improvers, NIMP. Neurobiological differences between IMP and NIMP have been suggested, but studies comparing IMP and NIMP in childhood are missing. The present study examined whether ERP patterns change with treatment and differ between IMP and NIMP.We investigated the ERPs of 28 children with DD and 25 control children (CON while performing a phonological lexical decision (PLD task before and after a 6-month intervention. After intervention children with DD were divided into IMP (n=11 and NIMP (n=17. In the PLD–task children were visually presented with words, pseudohomophones, pseudowords and false fonts and had to decide whether the presented stimulus sounded like an existing German word or not. Prior to intervention IMP showed higher N300 amplitudes over fronto-temporal electrodes compared to NIMP and CON and N400 amplitudes were attenuated in both IMP and NIMP compared to CON. After intervention N300 amplitudes of IMP were comparable to those of CON and NIMP. This suggests that the N300, which has been related to phonological access of orthographic stimuli and integration of orthographic and phonological representations, might index a compensatory mechanism or precursor that facilitates reading improvement. The N400, which is thought to reflect grapheme-phoneme conversion or the access to the orthographic lexicon increased in IMP from pre to post and was comparable to CON after intervention. Correlations between N300 amplitudes pre, growth in reading ability and N400 amplitudes post indicated that higher N300 amplitudes might be important for reading improvement and increase in N400 amplitudes. The results suggest that children with DD, showing the same cognitive profile might differ regarding their neuronal profile which could further influence reading

  20. Developmental Dynamics of Rett Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Feldman; Abhishek Banerjee; Mriganka Sur

    2016-01-01

    Rett Syndrome was long considered to be simply a disorder of postnatal development, with phenotypes that manifest only late in development and into adulthood. A variety of recent evidence demonstrates that the phenotypes of Rett Syndrome are present at the earliest stages of brain development, including developmental stages that define neurogenesis, migration, and patterning in addition to stages of synaptic and circuit development and plasticity. These phenotypes arise from the pleotropic ef...

  1. Developmental amnesia: Effect of age at injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargha-Khadem, F.; Salmond, C. H.; Watkins, K. E.; Friston, K. J.; Gadian, D. G.; Mishkin, M.

    2003-01-01

    Hypoxic–ischemic events sustained within the first year of life can result in developmental amnesia, a disorder characterized by markedly impaired episodic memory and relatively preserved semantic memory, in association with medial temporal pathology that appears to be restricted to the hippocampus. Here we compared children who had hypoxic–ischemic events before 1 year of age (early group, n = 6) with others who showed memory problems after suffering hypoxic–ischemic events between the ages of 6 and 14 years (late group, n = 5). Morphometric analyses of the whole brain revealed that, compared with age-matched controls, both groups had bilateral abnormalities in the hippocampus, putamen, and posterior thalamus, as well as in the right retrosplenial cortex. The two groups also showed similar reductions (≈40%) in hippocampal volumes. Neuropsychologically, the only significant differences between the two were on a few tests of immediate memory, where the early group surpassed the late group. The latter measures provided the only clear indication that very early injury can lead to greater functional sparing than injury acquired later in childhood, due perhaps to the greater plasticity of the infant brain. On measures of long-term memory, by contrast, the two groups had highly similar profiles, both showing roughly equivalent preservation of semantic memory combined with marked impairment in episodic memory. It thus appears that, if this selective memory disorder is a special syndrome related to the early occurrence of hypoxia-induced damage, then the effective age at injury for this syndrome extends from birth to puberty. PMID:12904585

  2. Brain Development in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    Although human brain development continues throughout childhood and adolescence, it is a non-linear process both structurally and functionally. Here we review studies of brain development in healthy children from the viewpoint of structure and the perfusion of gray and white matter. Gray matter volume increases and then decreases with age, with the developmental time of the peak volume differing among brain regions in the first and second decades of life. On the other hand, white matter volum...

  3. Acquired Blaschkoid dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired Blaschkoid dermatitis characterised by unilateral relapsing inflammatory disease along the lines of Blaschko. A 40-year-old Indian male presented with unilateral erythematous, itchy grouped papules on the left side of the chest, abdomen, back and left arm of 15 days duration. The eruption stopped abruptly at the midline of the torso, completely sparing the right side of the body. The lesions were arranged in whorls and streaks corresponding to the lines of Blaschko. Skin biopsy showed hyperkeratosis and features suggestive of sub-acute spongiotic dermatitis with lymphocytic infiltrate around the blood vessels in the dermis. Patient was diagnosed as a case of Blaschkoid dermatitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of this condition being reported from India.

  4. Study on the possible association of brain-derived neurotrophic factor polymorphism with the developmental course of symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Olle; Westberg, Lars; Lichtenstein, Paul; Eriksson, Elias; Larsson, Henrik

    2011-11-01

    Several studies have, with conflicting results, investigated the relationship between the Val⁶⁶Met polymorphism in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We assessed longitudinal, quantitative phenotypes of hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention in order to determine whether the Val⁶⁶Met polymorphism is associated with age-specific and/or persistent symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity and/or inattention in a community-based cohort of 1236 Swedish individuals for which ADHD symptom data were collected when the participants were aged 8-9, 13-14 and 16-17 yr. The Met allele was associated with symptoms of ADHD at ages 8-9 and 13-14 yr. A multivariate regression analysis revealed that the observed effect of the Met allele on ADHD symptoms reflects an influence on persistent hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms. The present findings support the hypothesis that BDNF is involved in the pathogenesis of ADHD. The results highlight the importance of distinguishing between hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention, respectively, and demonstrate the value of using a longitudinal approach in genetic studies of ADHD symptoms.

  5. Learning-By-Being-Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo G.; Moreira, Solon; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    In this paper we study post-acquisition integration in terms of R&D team reorganization—i.e., the creation of new teams with both inventors of the acquiring and acquired firms—and assess its impact on knowledge transfer in the period that follows the acquisition. Drawing on social identity and self......-categorization theories, we argue that R&D team reorganization increases the acquired inventors’ use of the prior stock of technological knowledge of the acquiring firm after the acquisition. Furthermore, this effect is enhanced if acquired inventors have higher innovation ability relative to their acquiring peers...... but is weakened for acquired inventors with high preacquisition ingroup collaborative strength. We construct a sample of 3,625 acquired inventors implementing the coarsened exact matching (CEM) technique and empirically test our arguments applying a difference-in-differences setup in a longitudinal data setting...

  6. Developmental Surface Dysgraphia: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Christine M.

    1985-01-01

    Reports a study that compared the spelling performance of a 17-year-old developmental dysgraphic of normal intelligence to that of an acquired dysgraphic. Findings indicate that both make phonologically valid errors and spell regular words better than irregular words. These performances reflect a phonological routine corresponding to that used by…

  7. Intercontrole acquiring by Framatome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Framatome group, as the worldwide leader in nuclear power plant construction, has reinforced his competences in nuclear services thanks to the acquiring of the Intercontrole company, specialized in non-destructive testing in nuclear and industrial environments. After a presentation of the functioning principle and of the safety aspects of a PWR reactor, this press dossier presents in a first part the role of nuclear services and in particular of non-destructive testing in nuclear power plants (in-service inspection, regulatory aspects, testing processes). This part is illustrated with some examples of inspection performed on some components of the primary coolant loop (steam generators, reactor vessel, pressurizer, pipes, primary pumps). A second part presents the technical centres and units of Framatome in charge of performing non-destructive inspections, while a third part describes the industrial policy and strategy of the group in this domain (market of nuclear park maintenance in France, in the USA and worldwide, creation of the 'inspection and control' centre of Framatome). A last part presents the activities of the Intercontrole company and of its daughter companies with some examples of actions realized in the nuclear and natural gas domains. (J.S.)

  8. A prospective study to evaluate a new residential community reintegration programme for severe chronic brain injury: the Brain Integration Programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurtsen, G.J.; Martina, J.D.; Heugten, C.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of a residential community reintegration programme for participants with chronic sequelae of severe acquired brain injury that hamper community functioning. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: Twenty-four participants with acquired brain injury (traumatic

  9. Developmental dyspraxia and developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, M; Möbs, I

    1995-12-01

    This article discusses the role developmental dyspraxia plays in developmental coordination disorder (DCD), based upon a review of literature on apraxia, developmental dyspraxia, and DCD. Apraxia and dyspraxia have often been equated with DCD. However, it is argued that apraxia and dyspraxia primarily refer to the problems of motor sequencing and selection, which not all children with DCD exhibit. The author proposes to distinguish developmental dyspraxia from DCD. Other issues discussed include the assessment, etiology, and treatment of developmental dyspraxia and DCD, and the relationship between DCD and learning disabilities. A research agenda is offered regarding future directions to overcome current limitation. PMID:8866511

  10. An enhanced and sensitive autocrine stimulation by transforming growth factor-alpha is acquired in the brain metastatic variant of a human non-small-cell lung cancer cell line.

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, K.

    1996-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha)-mediated autocrine regulation in human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells NCI-H226 and its brain metastatic variant H226Br were compared. An enhanced TGF-alpha-induced dose-dependent mitogenic responsiveness in H226Br cells was observed. Neutralising antibody that binds TGF-alpha inhibits H226Br cell growth more effectively than NCI-H226 cell growth. Binding assay with 125I-labelled epidermal growth factor (EGF) revealed that H226Br has two t...

  11. An enhanced and sensitive autocrine stimulation by transforming growth factor-alpha is acquired in the brain metastatic variant of a human non-small-cell lung cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, K

    1996-12-01

    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha)-mediated autocrine regulation in human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells NCI-H226 and its brain metastatic variant H226Br were compared. An enhanced TGF-alpha-induced dose-dependent mitogenic responsiveness in H226Br cells was observed. Neutralising antibody that binds TGF-alpha inhibits H226Br cell growth more effectively than NCI-H226 cell growth. Binding assay with 125I-labelled epidermal growth factor (EGF) revealed that H226Br has two types of EGF receptors (EGFRs), whereas the parental cell line, NCI-H226, has only one. H226Br cells contain twice as many EGFRs as H226 cells, as proved by Scatchard analysis and immune kinase assay. Northern analysis indicated that there is more EGFR transcript in H226Br than in NCI-H226, indicating a transcriptional EGFR gene elevation during metastasis progression. The level of accumulated immunoactive TGF-alpha is lower in the conditioned medium of H226Br than in that of NCI-H226. demonstrating down-regulation of TGF-alpha transcript. The accumulated data suggest an elevated and sensitive autocrine modulation by TGF-alpha and EGFR in immortalising the brain metastatic variant cells that were derived from a human NSCLC squamous cell line. PMID:8956792

  12. Developmental Thyroid Hormone Disruption: Prevalence, Environmental Contaminants and Neurodevelopmental Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for growth and development and particularly brain development. There are numerous environmental agents that lead to marginal reductions of circulating TH. Although it is clear that severe developmental hypothyroidism is profoundly detrimental to...

  13. Developmental neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehaene-Lambertz, G. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot (CEA/DSV/DRM), INSERM U562, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    Cognitive capacities, such as language, mathematics, music, etc... are highly developed in humans as compared to animals. Numerous studies have found precursors of these capacities in infants: For example, infants are able to discriminate sentences in different languages (Mehler et al., 1988), distinguish sets of objects based on their numerosity (Feigenson et al., 2002) or recognize known faces (Bushnell, 1982). These abilities are not very different from those of other animals. Monkeys are also able to discriminate two human languages (Ramus et al., 2000), two quantities of items (Hauser et al., 2002), or respond to particular faces (Parr et al., 2000). In a few years, however, children surpass these animals. To explain the development of the cognitive capacities of our species, our approach consists in studying the initial stages of cerebral organization during the first months of life in order to characterize the critical parameters that allow infants to take advantage of their environment to achieve the adults' cognitive sophistication. Thanks to the recent progress of brain imaging, it is now possible to examine cerebral functioning of the very young child in entire security. In our team, we used two complementary methods: event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (f MRI). ERPs, used since numerous years in infants, consist of the recording of the brain electrical activity consecutive to the presentation of a stimulus. By using a careful experimental design, it is possible to infer the succession of processing stages that the stimulus follows and to measure their latency (Dehaene-Lambertz and Dehaene, 1994; Gliga and Dehaene-Lambertz, 2006). High-density ERPs system allows also to record even small topographical differences between conditions and thus to infer that the underlying network s involved in the tested conditions are different. With this method, we have decomposed syllable perception in infants and underscore a

  14. Developmental neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cognitive capacities, such as language, mathematics, music, etc... are highly developed in humans as compared to animals. Numerous studies have found precursors of these capacities in infants: For example, infants are able to discriminate sentences in different languages (Mehler et al., 1988), distinguish sets of objects based on their numerosity (Feigenson et al., 2002) or recognize known faces (Bushnell, 1982). These abilities are not very different from those of other animals. Monkeys are also able to discriminate two human languages (Ramus et al., 2000), two quantities of items (Hauser et al., 2002), or respond to particular faces (Parr et al., 2000). In a few years, however, children surpass these animals. To explain the development of the cognitive capacities of our species, our approach consists in studying the initial stages of cerebral organization during the first months of life in order to characterize the critical parameters that allow infants to take advantage of their environment to achieve the adults' cognitive sophistication. Thanks to the recent progress of brain imaging, it is now possible to examine cerebral functioning of the very young child in entire security. In our team, we used two complementary methods: event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (f MRI). ERPs, used since numerous years in infants, consist of the recording of the brain electrical activity consecutive to the presentation of a stimulus. By using a careful experimental design, it is possible to infer the succession of processing stages that the stimulus follows and to measure their latency (Dehaene-Lambertz and Dehaene, 1994; Gliga and Dehaene-Lambertz, 2006). High-density ERPs system allows also to record even small topographical differences between conditions and thus to infer that the underlying network s involved in the tested conditions are different. With this method, we have decomposed syllable perception in infants and underscore a

  15. Neuropathophysiology of Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillinan, Nidia; Herson, Paco S; Traystman, Richard J

    2016-09-01

    Every year in the United States, millions of individuals incur ischemic brain injury from stroke, cardiac arrest, or traumatic brain injury. These acquired brain injuries can lead to death or long-term neurologic and neuropsychological impairments. The mechanisms of ischemic and traumatic brain injury that lead to these deficiencies result from a complex interplay of interdependent molecular pathways, including excitotoxicity, acidotoxicity, ionic imbalance, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. This article reviews several mechanisms of brain injury and discusses recent developments. Although much is known from animal models of injury, it has been difficult to translate these effects to humans. PMID:27521191

  16. Developmental disorders: what can be learned from cognitive neuropsychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Nickels, Lyndsey; Brock, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of cognitive neuropsychology has been important for informing theories of cognition and describing the nature of acquired cognitive disorders, but its applicability in a developmental context has been questioned. Here, we revisit this issue, asking whether the cognitive neuropsychological approach can be helpful for exploring the nature and causes of developmental disorders and, if so, how. We outline the key features of the cognitive neuropsychological approach, and then consider how some of the major challenges to this approach from a developmental perspective might be met. In doing so, we distinguish between challenges to the methods of cognitive neuropsychology and those facing its deeper conceptual underpinnings. We conclude that the detailed investigation of patterns of both associations and dissociations, and across both developmental and acquired cases, can assist in describing the cognitive deficits within developmental disorders and in delineating possible causal pathways to their acquisition.

  17. Developmental stress impairs performance on an association task in male and female songbirds, but impairs auditory learning in females only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Tara M; Morgan, Amanda; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    In songbirds, early-life environments critically shape song development. Many studies have demonstrated that developmental stress impairs song learning and the development of song-control regions of the brain in males. However, song has evolved through signaller-receiver networks and the effect stress has on the ability to receive auditory signals is equally important, especially for females who use song as an indicator of mate quality. Female song preferences have been the metric used to evaluate how developmental stress affects auditory learning, but preferences are shaped by many non-cognitive factors and preclude the evaluation of auditory learning abilities in males. To determine whether developmental stress specifically affects auditory learning in both sexes, we subjected juvenile European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, to either an ad libitum or an unpredictable food supply treatment from 35 to 115 days of age. In adulthood, we assessed learning of both auditory and visual discrimination tasks. Females reared in the experimental group were slower than females in the control group to acquire a relative frequency auditory task, and slower than their male counterparts to acquire an absolute frequency auditory task. There was no difference in auditory performance between treatment groups for males. However, on the colour association task, birds from the experimental group committed more errors per trial than control birds. There was no correlation in performance across the cognitive tasks. Developmental stress did not affect all cognitive processes equally across the sexes. Our results suggest that the male auditory system may be more robust to developmental stress than that of females. PMID:26238792

  18. Toward a narrower, more pragmatic view of developmental dyspraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Kyle J; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Denckla, Martha B

    2010-01-01

    Apraxia traditionally refers to impaired ability to carry out skilled movements in the absence of fundamental sensorimotor, language, or general cognitive impairment sufficient to preclude them. The child neurology literature includes a much broader and varied usage of the term developmental dyspraxia. It has been used to describe a wide range of motor symptoms, including clumsiness and general coordination difficulties, in various developmental disorders (including autistic spectrum disorders, developmental language disorders, and perinatal stroke). We argue for the need to restrict use of the term developmental dyspraxia to describe impaired performance of skilled gestures, recognizing that, unlike acquired adult-onset apraxia, coexisting sensory and motor problems can also be present. PMID:20032517

  19. Disrupted white matter connectivity underlying developmental dyslexia: A machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zaixu; Xia, Zhichao; Su, Mengmeng; Shu, Hua; Gong, Gaolang

    2016-04-01

    Developmental dyslexia has been hypothesized to result from multiple causes and exhibit multiple manifestations, implying a distributed multidimensional effect on human brain. The disruption of specific white-matter (WM) tracts/regions has been observed in dyslexic children. However, it remains unknown if developmental dyslexia affects the human brain WM in a multidimensional manner. Being a natural tool for evaluating this hypothesis, the multivariate machine learning approach was applied in this study to compare 28 school-aged dyslexic children with 33 age-matched controls. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging were acquired to extract five multitype WM features at a regional level: white matter volume, fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity. A linear support vector machine (LSVM) classifier achieved an accuracy of 83.61% using these MRI features to distinguish dyslexic children from controls. Notably, the most discriminative features that contributed to the classification were primarily associated with WM regions within the putative reading network/system (e.g., the superior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, thalamocortical projections, and corpus callosum), the limbic system (e.g., the cingulum and fornix), and the motor system (e.g., the cerebellar peduncle, corona radiata, and corticospinal tract). These results were well replicated using a logistic regression classifier. These findings provided direct evidence supporting a multidimensional effect of developmental dyslexia on WM connectivity of human brain, and highlighted the involvement of WM tracts/regions beyond the well-recognized reading system in dyslexia. Finally, the discriminating results demonstrated a potential of WM neuroimaging features as imaging markers for identifying dyslexic individuals. PMID:26787263

  20. Developmental Dynamics of Rett Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Feldman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rett Syndrome was long considered to be simply a disorder of postnatal development, with phenotypes that manifest only late in development and into adulthood. A variety of recent evidence demonstrates that the phenotypes of Rett Syndrome are present at the earliest stages of brain development, including developmental stages that define neurogenesis, migration, and patterning in addition to stages of synaptic and circuit development and plasticity. These phenotypes arise from the pleotropic effects of MeCP2, which is expressed very early in neuronal progenitors and continues to be expressed into adulthood. The effects of MeCP2 are mediated by diverse signaling, transcriptional, and epigenetic mechanisms. Attempts to reverse the effects of Rett Syndrome need to take into account the developmental dynamics and temporal impact of MeCP2 loss.

  1. Astrocytes and Developmental White Matter Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ellora; Levison, Steven W.

    2006-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that the astrocytes in the immature periventricular white matter are vulnerable to ischemia and respond to inflammation. Here we provide a synopsis of the articles that have evaluated the causes and consequences of developmental brain injuries to white matter astrocytes as well as the consequences of several…

  2. Developmental dyscalculia is related to visuo-spatial memory and inhibition impairment ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Szucs, Denes; Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Gabriel, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is thought to be a specific impairment of mathematics ability. Currently dominant cognitive neuroscience theories of developmental dyscalculia suggest that it originates from the impairment of the magnitude representation of the human brain, residing in the intraparietal sulcus, or from impaired connections between number symbols and the magnitude representation. However, behavioral research offers several alternative theories for developmental dyscalculia and neuro-...

  3. Developmental reading disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001406.htm Developmental reading disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Developmental reading disorder is a reading disability that occurs when ...

  4. Brain disorders and the biological role of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Camilla N; Downey, Laura E; Warren, Jason D

    2015-03-01

    Despite its evident universality and high social value, the ultimate biological role of music and its connection to brain disorders remain poorly understood. Recent findings from basic neuroscience have shed fresh light on these old problems. New insights provided by clinical neuroscience concerning the effects of brain disorders promise to be particularly valuable in uncovering the underlying cognitive and neural architecture of music and for assessing candidate accounts of the biological role of music. Here we advance a new model of the biological role of music in human evolution and the link to brain disorders, drawing on diverse lines of evidence derived from comparative ethology, cognitive neuropsychology and neuroimaging studies in the normal and the disordered brain. We propose that music evolved from the call signals of our hominid ancestors as a means mentally to rehearse and predict potentially costly, affectively laden social routines in surrogate, coded, low-cost form: essentially, a mechanism for transforming emotional mental states efficiently and adaptively into social signals. This biological role of music has its legacy today in the disordered processing of music and mental states that characterizes certain developmental and acquired clinical syndromes of brain network disintegration.

  5. Trade-offs between acquired and innate immune defenses in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade, Thomas W.; Georgiev, Alexander V.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Immune defenses provide resistance against infectious disease that is critical to survival. But immune defenses are costly, and limited resources allocated to immunity are not available for other physiological or developmental processes. We propose a framework for explaining variation in patterns of investment in two important subsystems of anti-pathogen defense: innate (non-specific) and acquired (specific) immunity. The developmental costs of acquired immunity are high, but the costs of maintenance and activation are relatively low. Innate immunity imposes lower upfront developmental costs, but higher operating costs. Innate defenses are mobilized quickly and are effective against novel pathogens. Acquired responses are less effective against novel exposures, but more effective against secondary exposures due to immunological memory. Based on their distinct profiles of costs and effectiveness, we propose that the balance of investment in innate versus acquired immunity is variable, and that this balance is optimized in response to local ecological conditions early in development. Nutritional abundance, high pathogen exposure and low signals of extrinsic mortality risk during sensitive periods of immune development should all favor relatively higher levels of investment in acquired immunity. Undernutrition, low pathogen exposure, and high mortality risk should favor innate immune defenses. The hypothesis provides a framework for organizing prior empirical research on the impact of developmental environments on innate and acquired immunity, and suggests promising directions for future research in human ecological immunology. PMID:26739325

  6. Trade-offs between acquired and innate immune defenses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade, Thomas W; Georgiev, Alexander V; Kuzawa, Christopher W

    2016-01-01

    Immune defenses provide resistance against infectious disease that is critical to survival. But immune defenses are costly, and limited resources allocated to immunity are not available for other physiological or developmental processes. We propose a framework for explaining variation in patterns of investment in two important subsystems of anti-pathogen defense: innate (non-specific) and acquired (specific) immunity. The developmental costs of acquired immunity are high, but the costs of maintenance and activation are relatively low. Innate immunity imposes lower upfront developmental costs, but higher operating costs. Innate defenses are mobilized quickly and are effective against novel pathogens. Acquired responses are less effective against novel exposures, but more effective against secondary exposures due to immunological memory. Based on their distinct profiles of costs and effectiveness, we propose that the balance of investment in innate versus acquired immunity is variable, and that this balance is optimized in response to local ecological conditions early in development. Nutritional abundance, high pathogen exposure and low signals of extrinsic mortality risk during sensitive periods of immune development should all favor relatively higher levels of investment in acquired immunity. Undernutrition, low pathogen exposure, and high mortality risk should favor innate immune defenses. The hypothesis provides a framework for organizing prior empirical research on the impact of developmental environments on innate and acquired immunity, and suggests promising directions for future research in human ecological immunology. PMID:26739325

  7. Language and the Developing Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliot, Lise

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the centers of language in the brain and the critical period for language acquisition. Explains developmental milestones of language development--receptive language, babbling, short phrases, full sentences--in the context of brain development. Emphasizes parents' role in language development, including talking to the child, dialogic…

  8. Acquired ichthyosis with hoffman's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathyanarayana B

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A middle aged man presented with features of acquired ichthyosis with Hoffman's syndrome. Laboratory tests support hypothyodism. Myoedema and hypertrophy of muscles were present. Patient was previously treated for Pellagra.

  9. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  10. Somatically acquired structural genetic differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magaard Koldby, Kristina; Nygaard, Marianne; Christensen, Kaare;

    2016-01-01

    Structural genetic variants like copy number variants (CNVs) comprise a large part of human genetic variation and may be inherited as well as somatically acquired. Recent studies have reported the presence of somatically acquired structural variants in the human genome and it has been suggested...... with age.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 20 April 2016; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2016.34....

  11. Saguenay Youth Study: A multi-generational approach to studying virtual trajectories of the brain and cardio-metabolic health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paus

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the Saguenay Youth Study (SYS and its parental arm. The overarching goal of this effort is to develop trans-generational models of developmental cascades contributing to the emergence of common chronic disorders, such as depression, addictions, dementia and cardio-metabolic diseases. Over the past 10 years, we have acquired detailed brain and cardio-metabolic phenotypes, and genome-wide genotypes, in 1029 adolescents recruited in a population with a known genetic founder effect. At present, we are extending this dataset to acquire comparable phenotypes and genotypes in the biological parents of these individuals. After providing conceptual background for this work (transactions across time, systems and organs, we describe briefly the tools employed in the adolescent arm of this cohort and highlight some of the initial accomplishments. We then outline in detail the phenotyping protocol used to acquire comparable data in the parents.

  12. Genetic architecture supports mosaic brain evolution and independent brain–body size regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hager, Reinmar; Lu, Lu; Rosen, Glenn D.; Williams, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian brain consists of distinct parts that fulfil different functions. Finlay and Darlington have argued that evolution of the mammalian brain is constrained by developmental programs, suggesting that different brain parts are not free to respond individually to selection and evolve independent of other parts or overall brain size. However, comparisons among mammals with matched brain weights often reveal greater differences in brain part size, arguing against strong developmental co...

  13. Brain Development in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    Although human brain development continues throughout childhood and adolescence, it is a non-linear process both structurally and functionally. Here we review studies of brain development in healthy children from the viewpoint of structure and the perfusion of gray and white matter. Gray matter volume increases and then decreases with age, with the developmental time of the peak volume differing among brain regions in the first and second decades of life. On the other hand, white matter volume increase is mostly linear during those periods. As regards fractional anisotropy, most regions show an exponential trajectory with aging. In addition, cerebral blood flow and gray matter volume are proportional at similar developmental ages. Moreover, we show that several lifestyle choices, such as sleeping habits and breakfast staple, affect gray matter volume in healthy children. There are a number of uninvestigated important issues that require future study. PMID:23166579

  14. Acquiring taste in home economics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbak Larsen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    that the pupils were encouraged to use their senses: listen to things frying, touch the meat to check if it was done and taste the food in the process of seasoning it. But while some children learned what the teachers expected: to produce well tasting food, others learned to cook very salty and hot food...... appreciated by the group of boys, and others again learned to stick with their idiosyncrasies when pressured by the teacher. Conclusions: Children were acquiring taste in the home economic lessons, but not only the kind of tastes that the teacher had planned for. This leads to reflections on the very complex...... process of taste acquiring and to a call for further research into taste acquiring in complex real life contexts as home economics lessons....

  15. Differential entrainment of neuroelectric delta oscillations in developmental dyslexia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fruzsina Soltész

    Full Text Available Oscillatory entrainment to the speech signal is important for language processing, but has not yet been studied in developmental disorders of language. Developmental dyslexia, a difficulty in acquiring efficient reading skills linked to difficulties with phonology (the sound structure of language, has been associated with behavioural entrainment deficits. It has been proposed that the phonological 'deficit' that characterises dyslexia across languages is related to impaired auditory entrainment to speech at lower frequencies via neuroelectric oscillations (<10 Hz, 'temporal sampling theory'. Impaired entrainment to temporal modulations at lower frequencies would affect the recovery of the prosodic and syllabic structure of speech. Here we investigated event-related oscillatory EEG activity and contingent negative variation (CNV to auditory rhythmic tone streams delivered at frequencies within the delta band (2 Hz, 1.5 Hz, relevant to sampling stressed syllables in speech. Given prior behavioural entrainment findings at these rates, we predicted functionally atypical entrainment of delta oscillations in dyslexia. Participants performed a rhythmic expectancy task, detecting occasional white noise targets interspersed with tones occurring regularly at rates of 2 Hz or 1.5 Hz. Both groups showed significant entrainment of delta oscillations to the rhythmic stimulus stream, however the strength of inter-trial delta phase coherence (ITC, 'phase locking' and the CNV were both significantly weaker in dyslexics, suggestive of weaker entrainment and less preparatory brain activity. Both ITC strength and CNV amplitude were significantly related to individual differences in language processing and reading. Additionally, the instantaneous phase of prestimulus delta oscillation predicted behavioural responding (response time for control participants only.

  16. Postnatal toxic and acquired disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Amour, Dave; Dallaire, Renee; Dulac, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    To develop and function optimally, the brain requires a balanced environment of electrolytes, amino acids, neurotransmitters, and metabolic substrates. As a consequence, organ dysfunction has the potential to induce brain disorders and toxic-metabolic encephalopathies, particularly when occurring during early stages of cerebral maturation. Induced toxicity of three different organ systems that are commonly associated with brain complications are discussed. First, thyroid hormone deficiency caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors (e.g., environmental toxins) may induce severe adverse effects on child neurological development from reversible impairments to permanent mental retardation. Second, inadequate removal of wastes due to chronic renal failure leads to the accumulation of endogenous toxins that are harmful to brain function. In uremic pediatric patients, the brain becomes more vulnerable to exogenous substances such as aluminum, which can induce aluminum encephalopathy. Following surgical procedures, neurological troubles including focal defects and severe epileptic seizures may result from hypertensive encephalopathy combined with toxicity of immunomodulating substances, or from the delayed consequences of cardiovascular defect. Taken together, this illustrates that organ disorders clearly have an impact on child brain function in various ways.

  17. Connectionist neuropsychology: uncovering ultimate causes of acquired dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollams, Anna M

    2014-01-01

    Acquired dyslexia offers a unique window on to the nature of the cognitive and neural architecture supporting skilled reading. This paper provides an integrative overview of recent empirical and computational work on acquired dyslexia within the context of the primary systems framework as implemented in connectionist neuropsychological models. This view proposes that damage to general visual, phonological or semantic processing abilities are the root causes of different forms of acquired dyslexia. Recent case-series behavioural evidence concerning pure alexia, phonological dyslexia and surface dyslexia that supports this perspective is presented. Lesion simulations of these findings within connectionist models of reading demonstrate the viability of this approach. The commitment of such models to learnt representations allows them to capture key aspects of performance in each type of acquired dyslexia, particularly the associated non-reading deficits, the role of relearning and the influence of individual differences in the premorbid state of the reading system. Identification of these factors not only advances our understanding of acquired dyslexia and the mechanisms of normal reading but they are also relevant to the complex interactions underpinning developmental reading disorders.

  18. And the Winner is - Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Joachim; Rønde, Thomas; Wagner, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    that then commercialize the innovation. To this end we analyze an innovation game between one incumbent and a large number of entrants. In the first stage, firms compete to develop innovations of high quality. They do so by choosing, at equal cost, the success probability of their R&D approach, where a lower probability...... accompanies higher value in case of success—that is, a more radical innovation. In the second stage, successful entrants bid to be acquired by the incumbent. We assume that entrants cannot survive on their own, so being acquired amounts to a prize in a contest. We identify an equilibrium in which...

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging quality and volumes of brain structures from live and postmortem imaging of California sea lions with clinical signs of domoic acid toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montie, Eric W; Wheeler, Elizabeth; Pussini, Nicola; Battey, Thomas W K; Barakos, Jerome; Dennison, Sophie; Colegrove, Kathleen; Gulland, Frances

    2010-09-17

    Our goal in this study was to compare magnetic resonance images and volumes of brain structures obtained alive versus postmortem of California sea lions Zalophus californianus exhibiting clinical signs of domoic acid (DA) toxicosis and those exhibiting normal behavior. Proton density-(PD) and T2-weighted images of postmortem-intact brains, up to 48 h after death, provided similar quality to images acquired from live sea lions. Volumes of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) of the cerebral hemispheres were similar to volumes calculated from images acquired when the sea lions were alive. However, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes decreased due to leakage. Hippocampal volumes from postmortem-intact images were useful for diagnosing unilateral and bilateral atrophy, consequences of DA toxicosis. These volumes were similar to the volumes in the live sea lion studies, up to 48 h postmortem. Imaging formalin-fixed brains provided some information on brain structure; however, images of the hippocampus and surrounding structures were of poorer quality compared to the images acquired alive and postmortem-intact. Despite these issues, volumes of cerebral GM and WM, as well as the hippocampus, were similar to volumes calculated from images of live sea lions and sufficient to diagnose hippocampal atrophy. Thus, postmortem MRI scanning (either intact or formalin-fixed) with volumetric analysis can be used to investigate the acute, chronic and possible developmental effects of DA on the brain of California sea lions.

  20. Acquired prosopagnosia: structural basis and processing impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Thompson, Jodie; Pancaroglu, Raika; Barton, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models propose a hierarchy of parallel processing stages in face perception, and functional neuroimaging shows a network of regions involved in face processing. Reflecting this, acquired prosopagnosia is not a single entity but a family of disorders with different anatomic lesions and different functional deficits. One classic distinction is between an apperceptive variant, in which there is impaired perception of facial structure, and an associative/amnestic variant, in which perception is relatively intact, with subsequent problems matching perception to facial memories, because of either disconnection or loss of those memories. These disorders also have to be distinguished from people-specific amnesia, a multimodal impairment, and prosop-anomia, in which familiarity with faces is preserved but access to names is disrupted. These different disorders can be conceived as specific deficits at different processing stages in cognitive models, and suggests that these functional stages may have distinct neuroanatomic substrates. It remains to be seen whether a similar anatomic and functional variability is present in developmental prosopagnosia.

  1. Acquired anhidrosis a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Laxmi

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year -old man was seen for acquired anhidrosis. There was no systemic disease. Vasomotor functions were normal. Biopsy showed normal sweat glands and ducts. Intravenous injection of neostigmine could produce profuse sweating on the face, trunk and arms. The disorder is likely to be due to a peripheral dysautonomia selectively affecting the sudomotor function.

  2. Acquired anhidrosis a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Nair Laxmi; Beena D; Manohar S

    1992-01-01

    A 30-year -old man was seen for acquired anhidrosis. There was no systemic disease. Vasomotor functions were normal. Biopsy showed normal sweat glands and ducts. Intravenous injection of neostigmine could produce profuse sweating on the face, trunk and arms. The disorder is likely to be due to a peripheral dysautonomia selectively affecting the sudomotor function.

  3. Difficulties in swallowing and eating following acquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Annette

    Apopleksi og traumatisk hjerneskade er de største årsager til erhvervet hjerneskade. Der var i 2009 ca. 12.500 indlæggelsesforløb pga. apopleksi og ca. 9.500 indlæggelsesforløb pga. traumatisk hjerneskade i Danmark. Mange af disse patienter har behov for rehabilitering. I Danmark udvikles og spec...

  4. A comprehensive transcriptional map of primate brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Trygve E; Miller, Jeremy A; Ding, Song-Lin; Sunkin, Susan M; Smith, Kimberly A; Ng, Lydia; Szafer, Aaron; Dalley, Rachel A; Royall, Joshua J; Lemon, Tracy; Shapouri, Sheila; Aiona, Kaylynn; Arnold, James; Bennett, Jeffrey L; Bertagnolli, Darren; Bickley, Kristopher; Boe, Andrew; Brouner, Krissy; Butler, Stephanie; Byrnes, Emi; Caldejon, Shiella; Carey, Anita; Cate, Shelby; Chapin, Mike; Chen, Jefferey; Dee, Nick; Desta, Tsega; Dolbeare, Tim A; Dotson, Nadia; Ebbert, Amanda; Fulfs, Erich; Gee, Garrett; Gilbert, Terri L; Goldy, Jeff; Gourley, Lindsey; Gregor, Ben; Gu, Guangyu; Hall, Jon; Haradon, Zeb; Haynor, David R; Hejazinia, Nika; Hoerder-Suabedissen, Anna; Howard, Robert; Jochim, Jay; Kinnunen, Marty; Kriedberg, Ali; Kuan, Chihchau L; Lau, Christopher; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Felix; Luong, Lon; Mastan, Naveed; May, Ryan; Melchor, Jose; Mosqueda, Nerick; Mott, Erika; Ngo, Kiet; Nyhus, Julie; Oldre, Aaron; Olson, Eric; Parente, Jody; Parker, Patrick D; Parry, Sheana; Pendergraft, Julie; Potekhina, Lydia; Reding, Melissa; Riley, Zackery L; Roberts, Tyson; Rogers, Brandon; Roll, Kate; Rosen, David; Sandman, David; Sarreal, Melaine; Shapovalova, Nadiya; Shi, Shu; Sjoquist, Nathan; Sodt, Andy J; Townsend, Robbie; Velasquez, Lissette; Wagley, Udi; Wakeman, Wayne B; White, Cassandra; Bennett, Crissa; Wu, Jennifer; Young, Rob; Youngstrom, Brian L; Wohnoutka, Paul; Gibbs, Richard A; Rogers, Jeffrey; Hohmann, John G; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Hevner, Robert F; Molnár, Zoltán; Phillips, John W; Dang, Chinh; Jones, Allan R; Amaral, David G; Bernard, Amy; Lein, Ed S

    2016-07-21

    The transcriptional underpinnings of brain development remain poorly understood, particularly in humans and closely related non-human primates. We describe a high-resolution transcriptional atlas of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) brain development that combines dense temporal sampling of prenatal and postnatal periods with fine anatomical division of cortical and subcortical regions associated with human neuropsychiatric disease. Gene expression changes more rapidly before birth, both in progenitor cells and maturing neurons. Cortical layers and areas acquire adult-like molecular profiles surprisingly late in postnatal development. Disparate cell populations exhibit distinct developmental timing of gene expression, but also unexpected synchrony of processes underlying neural circuit construction including cell projection and adhesion. Candidate risk genes for neurodevelopmental disorders including primary microcephaly, autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, and schizophrenia show disease-specific spatiotemporal enrichment within developing neocortex. Human developmental expression trajectories are more similar to monkey than rodent, although approximately 9% of genes show human-specific regulation with evidence for prolonged maturation or neoteny compared to monkey. PMID:27409810

  5. Imaging brain plasticity after trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifeng Kou; Armin Iraji

    2014-01-01

    The brain is highly plastic after stroke or epilepsy;however, there is a paucity of brain plasticity investigation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This mini review summarizes the most recent evidence of brain plasticity in human TBI patients from the perspective of advanced magnetic resonance imaging. Similar to other forms of acquired brain injury, TBI patients also demonstrat-ed both structural reorganization as well as functional compensation by the recruitment of other brain regions. However, the large scale brain network alterations after TBI are still unknown, and the ifeld is still short of proper means on how to guide the choice of TBI rehabilitation or treat-ment plan to promote brain plasticity. The authors also point out the new direction of brain plas-ticity investigation.

  6. Imaging brain plasticity after trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Zhifeng; Iraji, Armin

    2014-01-01

    The brain is highly plastic after stroke or epilepsy; however, there is a paucity of brain plasticity investigation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This mini review summarizes the most recent evidence of brain plasticity in human TBI patients from the perspective of advanced magnetic resonance imaging. Similar to other forms of acquired brain injury, TBI patients also demonstrated both structural reorganization as well as functional compensation by the recruitment of other brain regions. However, the large scale brain network alterations after TBI are still unknown, and the field is still short of proper means on how to guide the choice of TBI rehabilitation or treatment plan to promote brain plasticity. The authors also point out the new direction of brain plasticity investigation. PMID:25206874

  7. Functional neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia: the role of orthographic depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eRichlan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Orthographic depth (i.e., the complexity, consistency, or transparency of grapheme-phoneme correspondences in written alphabetic language plays an important role in the acquisition of reading skills. Correspondingly, developmental dyslexia is characterized by different behavioral manifestations across languages varying in orthographic depth. This review focuses on the question of whether these different behavioral manifestations are associated with different functional neuroanatomical manifestations. It provides a review and critique of cross-linguistic brain imaging studies of developmental dyslexia. In addition, it includes an analysis of state-of-the-art functional neuroanatomical models of developmental dyslexia together with orthography-specific predictions derived from these models. These predictions should be tested in future brain imaging studies of typical and atypical reading in order to refine the current neurobiological understanding of developmental dyslexia, especially with respect to orthography-specific and universal aspects.

  8. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  9. Cogema acquires TOTAL's uranium assets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 28, France's nuclear fuel cycle conglomerate Cogema and petroleum group TOTAL announced a plan in which Cogema will assume ownership of TOTAL's uranium assets worldwide, and as part of the deal, each firm will acquire shares of the other. On June 2, the agreement will be submitted to shareholders and, assuming it is approved, will go into effect this year. The agreement calls for TOTAL to acquire a 10.8-percent share in Cogema, thus becoming its first private sector shareholder, by underwriting a reserve capital increase of FF1.5 billion (approximately US$283 million). In return, Cogema will pay FF2.52 billion for approximately 4.3 percent of TOTAL, as part of a reserve capital increase totalling FF4.07 billion

  10. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL: one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE. Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis.

  11. CNOOC Acquires Oversea Assets Successfully

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Senlin

    2006-01-01

    @@ After last year CNOOC's bidding for buy the US energy company Unocal Corp lost out to the Chevron Corporation, it conducted the crossing-border asset-acquirement again in the beginning of this year. On Jan. 9, 2006,CNOOC Ltd signed a definitive agreement with Nigeria South Atlantic Petroleum Limited (SAPETRO) to acquire a 45 % working interest in an offshore oil developing license OML 130 in Nigeria for US$2.268 billion cash. The purchase will be funded by the internal capital resources of CNOOC Ltd. In which, US$1.75 billion will pay for buying SAPETRO, and the remaining cash will be used to pay for the early operation cost.

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  15. Acquired causes of intestinal malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, F

    2016-04-01

    This review focuses on the acquired causes, diagnosis, and treatment of intestinal malabsorption. Intestinal absorption is a complex process that depends on many variables, including the digestion of nutrients within the intestinal lumen, the absorptive surface of the small intestine, the membrane transport systems, and the epithelial absorptive enzymes. Acquired causes of malabsorption are classified by focussing on the three phases of digestion and absorption: 1) luminal/digestive phase, 2) mucosal/absorptive phase, and 3) transport phase. Most acquired diseases affect the luminal/digestive phase. These include short bowel syndrome, extensive small bowel inflammation, motility disorders, and deficiencies of digestive enzymes or bile salts. Diagnosis depends on symptoms, physical examination, and blood and stool tests. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of malabsorption. Further testing should be based on the specific clinical context and the suspected underlying disease. Therapy is directed at nutritional support by enteral or parenteral feeding and screening for and supplementation of deficiencies in vitamins and minerals. Early enteral feeding is important for intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome. Medicinal treatment options for diarrhoea in malabsorption include loperamide, codeine, cholestyramine, or antibiotics. PMID:27086886

  16. Action observation and acquired motor skills: An fMRI study with expert dancers

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo-Merino, B.; Glaser, D.E.; Grezes, J.; Passingham, R. E.; Haggard, P

    2005-01-01

    When we observe someone performing an action, do our brains simulate making that action? Acquired motor skills offer a unique way to test this question, since people differ widely in the actions they have learned to perform. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study differences in brain activity between watching an action that one has learned to do and an action that one has not, in order to assess whether the brain processes of action observation are modulated by the expertise a...

  17. 颅脑外伤术后医院获得性肺炎危险因素分析及防治措施%Analysis of the risk factors and preventive measurement for hospital acquired pneumonia for postoperative severe traumatic brain injury patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉玲

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk factors and preventive measurement of hospital acquired pneumonia(HAP) for severe traumatic brain injury patients after surgery. Methods A total of 406 cases of patients operated for severe traumatic brain injury from Oct 2004 to Sep 2007 were retrospectively analyzed, and the risk factors were summarized. Results Fifty - one out of 57 cases of patients with HAP were satisfactorily cured, the other 6 cases dead. The risk factors prone to HAP were operative anesthesia, respiratory machine application, long hospitalization, respiratory tract incision, examination, mis - inspiration, reflec-ted high hoed suger level, antibacterial use, polluted air condition etc. Conclusion Enhancing consciousness of infection can-troll, reinforcing sickroom management, keeping air condition sterilized, strictly complying with asepsis operative rules, using antibacterial correctly are significant measures to prevent HAP.%目的 探讨颅脑外伤术后医院获得性肺炎危险因素及防治措施.方法 收集我院2004年10月至2007年9月颅脑外伤术后住院患者406例,对发生医院获得性肺炎的危险因素进行回顾性分析.结果 57例医院获得性肺炎患者经积极治疗,51例治疗效果满意,死亡6例.造成医院获得性肺炎的危险因素有手术麻醉方式、接受机械通气、住院时间长、气管切开、昏迷、误吸、应激性高血糖、抗菌药物应用、空气环境污染等.结论 增强感染控制意识,加强病房管理,做好空气消毒,严格无菌操作规程,合理应用抗菌药物是预防医院获得性肺炎的重要措施.

  18. [DEVELOPMENTAL CARE IN THE NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT ACCORDING TO NEWBORN INDIVIDUALIZED DEVELOPMENTAL CARE AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (NIDCAP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Dalia; Litmanovitz, Ita

    2016-01-01

    During hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), the brain of the preterm infant undergoes a particularly vulnerable and sensitive period of development. Brain development might be negatively influenced by direct injury as well as by complications of prematurity. Over the past few years, stress has come to be increasingly recognized as a potential risk factor. The NICU environment contains numerous stress factors due to maternal deprivation and over-stimulation, such as light, sound and pain, which conflict with the brain's developmental requirements. Developmental care is a caregiving approach that addresses the early developmental needs of the preterm infant as an integral component of quality neonatal care. NIDCAP (Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program) is a comprehensive program that aims to reduce environmental stress, to support the infant's neuro-behavioral maturation and organization, and to promote early parent-infant relationships. The implementation of developmental care based on NIDCAP principles is a gradual, in-depth systems change process, which affects all aspects of care in the NICU. This review describes the theoretical basis of the NIDCAP approach, summarizes the scientific evidence and addresses some of the implications of the transition from a traditional to a developmental care NICU.

  19. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

  20. Pneumonia acquired in the Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Caridad Fragoso Marchante

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A bibliographical revision of the main aspects in the diagnosis and treatment of the patients suffering from pneumonia acquired in the community is carried out. Microorganisms responsible for this type of pneumonia are mention in this paper as well as the available diagnostic methods for germs isolation. Different guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of this disease published by several medical societies and scientific institutions are analyzed by means of a review of the stratification index of the patients used in each of them. Aspects related to the duration of the treatment and the possible causes associated with the unfavorable evolution are stated.

  1. Knowledge transfer - Acquiring implicit knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many organisations have recognised the problem of experts taking home a huge amount of specific knowledge, which they have gathered in their department, when they leave. The successor is capable only of acquiring explicit expertise because implicit experiences are not documented and therefore no more available. That is why we have started this pilot study in order to try to conserve the above mentioned tacit and implicit knowledge and to make it available to other colleagues. Using a semi-standardised interview we elicit tacit knowledge from the expert and summarise it in a report. This interview-guideline forms the basis of in-depth investigation for implicit knowledge. (author)

  2. Adolescent cocaine exposure causes enduring macroscale changes in mouse brain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Anne L; Lerch, Jason P; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Friedel, Miriam; Sled, John G; Fletcher, Paul J; Josselyn, Sheena A; Frankland, Paul W

    2013-01-30

    Cocaine dependence is associated with abnormalities in brain structure in humans. However, it is unclear whether these differences in brain structure predispose an individual to drug use or are a result of cocaine's action on the brain. This study investigates the impact of chronic cocaine exposure on brain structure and drug-related behavior in mice. Specifically, mice received daily cocaine or saline injections for 20 d during two developmental time periods: adolescence (27-46 d old) and young adulthood (60-79 d old). Following 30 d of abstinence, either fixed brain T2 weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired on a 7 T scanner at 32 μm isotropic voxel dimensions or mice were assessed for sensitization to the locomotor stimulant effects of cocaine. Three automated techniques (deformation-based morphometry, striatum shape analysis, and cortical thickness assessment) were used to identify population differences in brain structure in cocaine-exposed versus saline-exposed mice. We found that cocaine induced changes in brain structure, and these were most pronounced in mice exposed to cocaine during adolescence. Many of these changes occurred in brain regions previously implicated in addiction including the nucleus accumbens, striatum, insular cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and medial forebrain bundle. Furthermore, exposure to the same cocaine regimen caused sensitization to the locomotor stimulant effects of cocaine, and these effects were again more pronounced in mice exposed to cocaine during adolescence. These results suggest that altered brain structure following 1 month of abstinence may contribute to these persistent drug-related behaviors, and identify cocaine exposure as the cause of these morphological changes. PMID:23365219

  3. Predictive Coding Strategies for Developmental Neurorobotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Cheol ePark

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, predictive coding strategies have been proposed as a possible way of how the brain might make sense of the truly overwhelming amount of sensory data available to the brain at any given moment of time. Instead of the raw data, the brain is hypothesized to guide its actions by assigning causal believes to the observed error between what it expected to happen, and what actually happens. In this paper we present a potpourri of developmental neurorobotics experiments in which minimalist prediction-error based encoding strategies are utilize to elucidate the emergence of infant-like behavior in humanoid robotic platforms. Our approaches will be first naively Piagian, then move onto more Vygotskian ideas. More specifically, we will investigate how simple forms of infant learning such as motor sequence generation, object permanence, and imitation learning may arise if minimizing prediction errors are used as objective functions.

  4. Brain herniation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  5. Pruritic acquired nevus of Ota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenan, S; Strueven, V; Saxer, N; Laffitte, E; Kaya, G; Krischer, J; Hafezi, F; Le Gal, F-A

    2013-01-01

    Nevus of Ota is a unilateral, asymptomatic cutaneous and mucosal hyperpigmentation of the face that is congenital or may appear during childhood. We present a case of symptomatic acquired nevus of Ota in an adult, associated with intense pruritus, not described in the literature so far. A 32-year-old woman presented with brownish mottled macules which appeared on her face progressively over 8 days, following the distribution of the first and second divisions of the left trigeminal nerve and partially covering the iris and sclera of the left eye. She reported an intense pruritus in this area. We performed a biopsy on the left forehead, which confirmed the diagnosis of nevus of Ota. Specific stains and immunohistochemistry revealed increased numbers of mast cells. Ophthalmological tests showed acute acquired melanocytosis of the left iris and sclera. The origin of the nevus is still unclear. Several hypotheses suggest a reactivation of melanocytes during their migration from the neural crest. The pruritus reported in our patient may be explained by the increased quantity of mast cells observed in the lesion and/or neuronal stimulation of the ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the fifth cranial nerve.

  6. Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ultimately cure this and similar disorders. NIH Patient Recruitment for Pervasive Developmental Disorders Clinical Trials At NIH ... 1055 (TTY) National Institute of Child Health and Human Information Resource Center P.O. Box 3006 Rockville, MD 20847 ...

  7. Facts about Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do if you’re concerned » Developmental Monitoring and Screening A child’s growth and development are followed through ... to prevent illness. Some health conditions, such as asthma, gastrointestinal symptoms, eczema and skin allergies, and migraine ...

  8. In vivo models of cortical acquired epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvette, Sylvain; Soltani, Sara; Seigneur, Josée; Timofeev, Igor

    2016-02-15

    The neocortex is the site of origin of several forms of acquired epilepsy. Here we provide a brief review of experimental models that were recently developed to study neocortical epileptogenesis as well as some major results obtained with these methods. Most of neocortical seizures appear to be nocturnal and it is known that neuronal activities reveal high levels of synchrony during slow-wave sleep. Therefore, we start the review with a description of mechanisms of neuronal synchronization and major forms of synchronized normal and pathological activities. Then, we describe three experimental models of seizures and epileptogenesis: ketamine-xylazine anesthesia as feline seizure triggered factor, cortical undercut as cortical penetrating wound model and neocortical kindling. Besides specific technical details describing these models we also provide major features of pathological brain activities recorded during epileptogenesis and seizures. The most common feature of all models of neocortical epileptogenesis is the increased duration of network silent states that up-regulates neuronal excitability and eventually leads to epilepsy.

  9. ASPHYXIA AND DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME IN HIGH RISK INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina DUKOVSKA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Asphyxia is a risk factor that is very often related to neuro-developmental issues in high risk infants and equally affects preterm and term infants, however its outcome on the developed brain differs from the outcome on the preterm brain.In preterm infants, asphyxia usually exerts a hemorrhagic or ischaemic event and periventricular leukomalacia.In term infants, asphyxia leads to cerebral edema and atrophy of the brain, which may later lead to hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE.The number of term infants with HIE who have survived is lower than those of preterm infants, while the percentage of term infants with HIE who have neuro-developmental issues is higher. Preemies face more problems in their motor development as a result of the brain damage, while term infants suffer from encephalopathy and their cognitive abilities are more affected.We have conducted a study about the effects that asphyxia has on the developmental outcomes in high risk infants. In our study, we did a longitudinal developmental follow-up of 30 high risk infants and an evaluation of their developmental outcome using the Griffiths Mental Development Scales, from the 4th month of life until the end of the 36th month. First, we found that high risk infants had a much lower developmental outcome than the control group during the trial. Finally, we found that asphyxia makes a difference in the developmental outcome of preterm infants without asphyxia who have a very low birth weight, the preterm infants with asphyxia, and the term infants with HIE-II.

  10. Towards Deep Developmental Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Sigaud, Olivier; Droniou, Alain

    2016-01-01

    International audience Deep learning techniques are having an undeniable impact on general pattern recognition issues. In this paper, from a developmental robotics perspective, we scrutinize deep learning techniques under the light of their capability to construct a hierarchy of meaningful multimodal representations from the raw sensors of robots. These investigations reveal the differences between the methodological constraints of pattern recognition and those of developmental robotics. I...

  11. The impact of developmental timing for stress and recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Gee, Dylan G.; Casey, B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Stress can have lasting effects on the brain and behavior. Delineating the impact of stress on the developing brain is fundamental for understanding mechanisms through which stress induces persistent effects on behavior that can lead to psychopathology. The growing field of translational developmental neuroscience has revealed a significant role of the timing of stress on risk, resilience, and neuroplasticity. Studies of stress across species have provided essential insight into the mechanism...

  12. Comparative developmental psychology: how is human cognitive development unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Wobber, Victoria; Hughes, Kelly; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-04-29

    The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In the current article, we review recent work using this comparative developmental approach to study non-human primate cognition. We argue that comparative data on the pace and pattern of cognitive development across species can address major theoretical questions in both psychology and biology. In particular, such integrative research will allow stronger biological inferences about the function of developmental change, and will be critical in addressing how humans come to acquire species-unique cognitive abilities.

  13. Mild Developmental Hypothyroidism and Trace Fear Conditioning: Role of Gender and Shock Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodent models of developmental thyroid hormone (TH) deficiency aptly reflect the deleterious effects of severe TH deficiencies on brain structure and function in humans. However, the impact of moderate TH insufficiencies on neurodevelopmental outcomes has proven more difficult to...

  14. Pseudomona pseudomallei community acquired pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first published case report en Colombia about pseudomona pseudomallei community acquired pneumonia. This uncommon pathogen is from the epidemiological standpoint a very important one and medical community should be aware to look after it in those patients where no other etiological pathogen is recovered. A brief summary about epidemiology is showed, emphasizing those regions where it can be found. Likewise, comments about the differential diagnosis are important since it should be considered in those patients where tuberculosis is suspected. This is particularly representative for countries with high tuberculosis rates. Furthermore, a microbiological review is shown, emphasizing on isolation techniques, descriptions about therapeutics and other regarding treatment issues according international standards. Finally; a description about the clinical picture, laboratory findings, treatment and evolution of the case reported are shown for discussion

  15. Lymphoma in acquired generalized lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebecca J; Chan, Jean L; Jaffe, Elaine S; Cochran, Elaine; DePaoli, Alex M; Gautier, Jean-Francois; Goujard, Cecile; Vigouroux, Corinne; Gorden, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Acquired generalized lipodystrophy (AGL) is a rare disease thought to result from autoimmune destruction of adipose tissue. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) has been reported in two AGL patients. We report five additional cases of lymphoma in AGL, and analyze the role of underlying autoimmunity and recombinant human leptin (metreleptin) replacement in lymphoma development. Three patients developed lymphoma during metreleptin treatment (two PTCL and one ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma), and two developed lymphomas (mycosis fungoides and Burkitt lymphoma) without metreleptin. AGL is associated with high risk for lymphoma, especially PTCL. Autoimmunity likely contributes to this risk. Lymphoma developed with or without metreleptin, suggesting metreleptin does not directly cause lymphoma development; a theoretical role of metreleptin in lymphoma progression remains possible. For most patients with AGL and severe metabolic complications, the proven benefits of metreleptin on metabolic disease will likely outweigh theoretical risks of metreleptin in lymphoma development or progression.

  16. Complement's participation in acquired immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Leslie, Robert Graham Quinton

    2002-01-01

    B cell receptor for antigen (BCR), a complex composed of the iC3b/C3d fragment-binding complement type 2 receptor (CR2, CD21) and its signaling element CD19 and the IgG-binding receptor FcgammaRIIb (CD32). The positive or negative outcome of signaling through this triad is determined by the context...... in which antigen is seen, be it alone or in association with natural or induced antibodies and/or C3-complement fragments. The aim of this review is to describe the present status of our understanding of complement's participation in acquired immunity and the regulation of autoimmune responses.......The preliminary evidence for the involvement of complement in promoting primary humoral responses dates back over a quarter of a century. However, it is only in the course of the past decade or so that the detailed mechanisms underlying complement's influence have been characterized in depth. It is...

  17. Evolutionary Perspectives on Language and Brain Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Terrence W.

    2000-01-01

    This review discusses how general principles of brain development have contributed to both human brain plasticity and the acquisition of the human capacity for speech. Specifically, the role played by plastic developmental processes in the evolution and development of articulate control over vocalization in speech is examined. (Contains…

  18. Acquired vulval lymphangiectases mimicking genital warts

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Rajeev; Tomar Sudarshan; Chandra Mithilesh

    2002-01-01

    Acquired lymphangiectasia can sometimes occur on the vulva and cause diagnostic difficulties especially if they have a warty appearance. We report a case of acquired vulva I lymphangiectasia which mimicked genital warts.

  19. Acquired vulval lymphangiectases mimicking genital warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rajeev

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired lymphangiectasia can sometimes occur on the vulva and cause diagnostic difficulties especially if they have a warty appearance. We report a case of acquired vulva I lymphangiectasia which mimicked genital warts.

  20. 12 CFR 583.1 - Acquire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.1 Acquire. The term acquire means to acquire, directly or indirectly, ownership or control through an acquisition of shares, an acquisition of assets or assumption of liabilities, a merger or consolidation, or any similar transaction....

  1. Radiological findings in autistic and developmentally delayed children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, M.; Grond, J. van der; Durston, S.; Nievelstein, R.J.; Witkamp, T.; Daalen, E. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Engeland, H.V.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of brain abnormalities in a group of young children with developmental disorders, specifically including children that came to the attention of a child psychiatrist before the age of 3 years. METHODS: Forty-five children participated in a

  2. Infections Acquired in the Garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Cheston B; Cunha, Burke A

    2015-10-01

    Gardening is a wonderful pastime, and the garden is a very peaceful place to enjoy one's vacation. However, the garden may be a treacherous place for very young or compromised hosts when one takes into account the infectious potential residing in the soil, as well as the insect vectors on plants and animals. Even normal hosts may acquire a variety of infections from the soil, animals, or animal-related insect bites. The location of the garden, its natural animal and insect inhabitants, and the characteristics of the soil play a part in determining its infectious potential. The most important factor making the garden an infectious and dangerous place is the number and interaction of animals, whether they are pets or wild, that temporarily use the garden for part of their daily activities. The clinician should always ask about garden exposure, which will help in eliminating the diagnostic possibilities for the patient. The diagnostic approach is to use epidemiological principles in concert with clinical clues, which together should suggest a reasonable list of diagnostic possibilities. Organ involvement and specific laboratory tests help further narrow the differential diagnosis and determine the specific tests necessary to make a definitive diagnosis. PMID:26542044

  3. Analysis of brain patterns using temporal measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgopoulos, Apostolos

    2015-08-11

    A set of brain data representing a time series of neurophysiologic activity acquired by spatially distributed sensors arranged to detect neural signaling of a brain (such as by the use of magnetoencephalography) is obtained. The set of brain data is processed to obtain a dynamic brain model based on a set of statistically-independent temporal measures, such as partial cross correlations, among groupings of different time series within the set of brain data. The dynamic brain model represents interactions between neural populations of the brain occurring close in time, such as with zero lag, for example. The dynamic brain model can be analyzed to obtain the neurophysiologic assessment of the brain. Data processing techniques may be used to assess structural or neurochemical brain pathologies.

  4. Clinicopathological associations of acquired erythroblastopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Gursel; Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Yasar, Hatime Arzu; Eliacik, Eylem; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin; Demiroglu, Haluk; Sayinalp, Nilgun; Aksu, Salih; Etgul, Sezgin; Aslan, Tuncay; Goker, Hakan; Ozcebe, Osman Ilhami; Buyukasik, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acquired erythroblastopenia (AE) is a rare clinical situation. It is characterized by the reduction of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow together with the low reticulocyte counts in the peripheral blood. Background: Main secondary causes of AE are drugs, Parvovirus B19 and other infectious reasons, lymphoid and myeloid neoplasia, autoimmune diseases, thymoma and pregnancy. The aim of this study is to assess the frequencies and clinical associations of AE via analyzing 12340 bone marrow samples in a retrospective manner. Material and method: Bone marrow aspirations which were obtained from patients who applied to Hacettepe University Hematology Clinic between 2002 and 2013, were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Thirty four erythroblastopenia cases were found. Patients ranged in age from 16 to 80 years with a median of 38 years. Fifteen patients were men (44%) and nineteen were women (56%). In these patients, detected causes of erythroblastopenia were MDS, idiopathic pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), parvovirus infection, post chemotherapy aplasia, plasma proliferative diseases, copper deficiency due to secondary amyloidosis, fever of unknown origin, hemophagocytic syndrome, enteric fever and legionella pneumonia. We found that between those reasons the most common causes of erythroblastopenia are MDS (17.7%) and idiopathic PRCA (17.7%). Discussion: As a result, erythroblastopenia in the bone marrow may be an early sign of MDS. In those AE cases possibility of being MDS must be kept in mind as it can be mistaken for PRCA. Conclusion: To conclude, in adults MDS without excess blast is one of the most common causes of erythroblastopenia in clinical practice and in case of erythroblastopenia the presence of MDS should be investigated. PMID:26885236

  5. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Statements of Smaller Reporting Companies § 210.8-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired....

  6. The Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge

    2001-01-01

    AbstractIn the nineties, the concept of the developmental work (DW) has become a significant point of orientation for the actors on Danish labour market. The DW has moved the focus of the labour market from wages and working time towards work and production. For employees, the DW promises...

  7. Developmental paediatric anaesthetic pharmacology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2015-01-01

    Safe and effective drug therapy in neonates, infants and children require detailed knowledge about the ontogeny of drug disposition and action as well how these interact with genetics and co-morbidity of children. Recent advances in developmental pharmacology in children follow the increased...

  8. Microcephaly; Correlation between cerebral CT index and developmental quotient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azuma, Ototaka; Onozaki, Michihiko; Hidano, Fumio; Mizuguchi, Susumu; Kodama, Kimio (Akita Medical Center for Disabled Children, Kawajiri (Japan)); Komatsu, Eiko; Sakemi, Kikuo; Yamashita, Jun; Sawaishi, Ukio

    1991-09-01

    Thirty one children with microcephaly were referred to Akita Medical Center for Disabled Chilren. Of these children, 28 underwent cerebral computed tomography (CT). Cerebral CT indices were examined in relation to developmental quotient and underlying diseases. Mental retardation, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and congenital malformations were associated with microcephaly. The most common abnormal CT finding was the ventricular-brain ratio (92.9%, 26/28). CT indices, including Evans' index, the caudal nuclei ratio, transverse width of the third ventricle, the ventricular/intracranial area ratio, the brain/intracranial area ratio, the basal cistern ratio, width of the cerebral longitudinal fissure, and integrated brain CT index, were all significantly correlated with developmental quotient. (N.K.).

  9. Brain Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain by measuring a electrical brain wave response to Word, phrases, or picture that are presented on computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses electroencephalography (EEG to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject's brain.

  10. Brain Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ravi kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Fingerprinting is a scientific technique to determine whether or not specific information is stored in an individual's brain by measuring a electrical brain wave response to Word, phrases, or picture that are presented on computer screen. Brain Fingerprinting is a controversial forensic science technique that uses electroencephalograph y (EEG to determine whether specific information is stored in a subject's brain

  11. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  12. Referral decision support in patients with subacute brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Asger R; Nielsen, Jørgen F; Jensen, Jim;

    2016-01-01

    support in the RCS-E and the item specific threshold model, when patients with acquired brain injury are to be referred to CSS or DSS as their primary rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Efficient rehabilitation after acquired brain injury requires rehabilitation settings that meet patient...

  13. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...

  14. Impaired Cerebral Autoregulation during Head Up Tilt in Patients with Severe Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riberholt, Christian Gunge; Olesen, Niels Damkjær; Thing, Mira;

    2016-01-01

    acquired brain injury and a low level of consciousness. Fourteen patients with severe acquired brain injury and orthostatic intolerance and fifteen healthy volunteers were enrolled. Blood pressure was evaluated by pulse contour analysis, heart rate and RR-intervals were determined by electrocardiography...... mean velocity and estimated cerebral perfusion pressure. Patients with acquired brain injury presented an increase in mean flow index during head-up tilt indicating impaired autoregulation (P ....1 Hz spectral power in patients compared to healthy controls suggesting baroreflex dysfunction. In conclusion, patients with severe acquired brain injury and orthostatic intolerance during head-up tilt have impaired cerebral autoregulation more than one month after brain injury....

  15. Hematogenous Pasteurella multocida brain abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of hematogenously acquired brain abscess caused by Pasteurella multocida is described. CT scans of the head revealed the lesions in a 67 year old man with mild alcoholic liver disease and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ultrasound examinations of the abdomen and chest and an echocardiogram failed to reveal a source for the abscess. On autopsy examination three encapsulated brain abscesses were found. 34 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  16. The timing of pediatric epilepsy syndromes: what are the developmental triggers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolicchi, Juliann M

    2013-11-01

    Pediatric epilepsy is characterized by multiple epilepsy syndromes with specific developmental triggers. They initiate spontaneously at critical periods of development and can just as spontaneously remit. Accompanying neurocognitive disabilities are often specific to the epileptic syndrome. Infantile or epileptic spasms have a very specific developmental window in the first year of life. Preceding the epilepsy, developmental arrest is common. The neurologic pathways underlying the development of spasms have been identified through PET scans as developmental abnormalities of serotonergic and GABAergic neurotransmitter systems in the brain stem and basal ganglia. Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) and benign centrotemporal epilepsy syndrome (BECTS) are both known genetic epilepsy syndromes; they have a discrete onset in childhood with remission by puberty. In CAE, disturbances of specific calcium channels at key developmental stages lead to aberrant disruption of thalamocortical synchrony. Similarly, a complex interplay between brain development, maturation, and susceptibility genes underlies the seizures and the neurocognitive deficits of BECTS.

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  18. Brain surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  19. Brain Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... others live with symptoms of mental illness every day. They can be moderate, or serious and cause ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the ... distant nerve cells (via axons) to form brain circuits. These circuits control specific body functions such as ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of ...

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  4. Acquired Dyslexia and Dysgraphia in Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wengang Yin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the mappings between orthography and phonology in alphabetic languages are learned, represented and processed has been enhanced by the cognitive neuropsychological investigation of patients with acquired reading and writing disorders. During the past decade, this methodology has been extended to understanding reading and writing in Chinese leading to new insights about language processing, dyslexia and dysgraphia. The aim of this paper is to review reports of patients who have acquired dyslexia and acquired dysgraphia in Chinese and describe the functional architecture of the reading and writing system. Our conclusion is that the unique features of Chinese script will determine the symptoms of acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia in Chinese.

  5. The sex ratio of siblings of individuals with a history of developmental language disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Hauschild, Karen-Marie

    2010-01-01

    '. The objective of this study was to extend previous studies dealing with the extreme male brain theory and to study the sex ratio (proportion of males) in the siblings of 469 individuals with a developmental language disorder (DLD) who were consecutively assessed in the same clinic during a period of 10 years......There is a well documented predominance of males diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders. The influence of sex steroids upon brain development has been suggested to mediate sex differences in developmental psychopathology, and has been epitomized in the 'extreme male brain theory...

  6. Exosomes in developmental signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Ian John; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2016-07-15

    In order to achieve coordinated growth and patterning during development, cells must communicate with one another, sending and receiving signals that regulate their activities. Such developmental signals can be soluble, bound to the extracellular matrix, or tethered to the surface of adjacent cells. Cells can also signal by releasing exosomes - extracellular vesicles containing bioactive molecules such as RNA, DNA and enzymes. Recent work has suggested that exosomes can also carry signalling proteins, including ligands of the Notch receptor and secreted proteins of the Hedgehog and WNT families. Here, we describe the various types of exosomes and their biogenesis. We then survey the experimental strategies used so far to interfere with exosome formation and critically assess the role of exosomes in developmental signalling. PMID:27436038

  7. Age of second language acquisition in multilinguals has an impact on gray matter volume in language-associated brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Anelis; Eppenberger, Leila S; Smieskova, Renata; Borgwardt, Stefan; Kuenzli, Esther; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Nitsch, Cordula; Bendfeldt, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Numerous structural studies have established that experience shapes and reshapes the brain throughout a lifetime. The impact of early development, however, is still a matter of debate. Further clues may come from studying multilinguals who acquired their second language at different ages. We investigated adult multilinguals who spoke three languages fluently, where the third language was learned in classroom settings, not before the age of 9 years. Multilinguals exposed to two languages simultaneously from birth (SiM) were contrasted with multinguals who acquired their first two languages successively (SuM). Whole brain voxel based morphometry revealed that, relative to SuM, SiM have significantly lower gray matter volume in several language-associated cortical areas in both hemispheres: bilaterally in medial and inferior frontal gyrus, in the right medial temporal gyrus and inferior posterior parietal gyrus, as well as in the left inferior temporal gyrus. Thus, as shown by others, successive language learning increases the volume of language-associated cortical areas. In brains exposed early on and simultaneously to more than one language, however, learning of additional languages seems to have less impact. We conclude that - at least with respect to language acquisition - early developmental influences are maintained and have an effect on experience-dependent plasticity well into adulthood.

  8. Age of second language acquisition in multilinguals has an impact on gray matter volume in language-associated brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Anelis; Eppenberger, Leila S; Smieskova, Renata; Borgwardt, Stefan; Kuenzli, Esther; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Nitsch, Cordula; Bendfeldt, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Numerous structural studies have established that experience shapes and reshapes the brain throughout a lifetime. The impact of early development, however, is still a matter of debate. Further clues may come from studying multilinguals who acquired their second language at different ages. We investigated adult multilinguals who spoke three languages fluently, where the third language was learned in classroom settings, not before the age of 9 years. Multilinguals exposed to two languages simultaneously from birth (SiM) were contrasted with multinguals who acquired their first two languages successively (SuM). Whole brain voxel based morphometry revealed that, relative to SuM, SiM have significantly lower gray matter volume in several language-associated cortical areas in both hemispheres: bilaterally in medial and inferior frontal gyrus, in the right medial temporal gyrus and inferior posterior parietal gyrus, as well as in the left inferior temporal gyrus. Thus, as shown by others, successive language learning increases the volume of language-associated cortical areas. In brains exposed early on and simultaneously to more than one language, however, learning of additional languages seems to have less impact. We conclude that - at least with respect to language acquisition - early developmental influences are maintained and have an effect on experience-dependent plasticity well into adulthood. PMID:26106338

  9. Role of developmental factors in hypothalamic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob eBiran

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is a brain region which regulates homeostasis by mediating endocrine, autonomic and behavioral functions. It is comprised of several nuclei containing distinct neuronal populations producing neuropeptides and neurotransmitters that regulate fundamental body functions including temperature and metabolic rate, thirst and hunger, sexual behavior and reproduction, circadian rhythm, and emotional responses. The identity, number and connectivity of these neuronal populations are established during the organism’s development and are of crucial importance for normal hypothalamic function. Studies have suggested that developmental abnormalities in specific hypothalamic circuits can lead to obesity, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression and autism. At the molecular level, the development of the hypothalamus is regulated by transcription factors, secreted growth factors, neuropeptides and their receptors. Recent studies in zebrafish and mouse have demonstrated that some of these molecules maintain their expression in the adult brain and subsequently play a role in the physiological functions that are regulated by hypothalamic neurons. Here, we summarize the involvement of some of the key developmental factors in hypothalamic development and function by focusing on the mouse and zebrafish genetic model organisms.

  10. fNIRS in the developmental sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Teresa; Biondi, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    With the introduction of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) into the experimental setting, developmental scientists have, for the first time, the capacity to investigate the functional activation of the infant brain in awake, engaged participants. The advantages of fNIRS clearly outweigh the limitations, and a description of how this technology is implemented in infant populations is provided. Most fNIRS research falls into one of three content domains: object processing, processing of biologically and socially relevant information, and language development. Within these domains, there are ongoing debates about the origins and development of human knowledge, making early neuroimaging particularly advantageous. The use of fNIRS has allowed investigators to begin to identify the localization of early object, social, and linguistic knowledge in the immature brain and the ways in which this changes with time and experience. In addition, there is a small but growing body of research that provides insight into the neural mechanisms that support and facilitate learning during the first year of life. At the same time, as with any emerging field, there are limitations to the conclusions that can be drawn on the basis of current findings. We offer suggestions as to how to optimize the use of this technology to answer questions of theoretical and practical importance to developmental scientists. PMID:26263229

  11. fNIRS in the developmental sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Teresa; Biondi, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) into the experimental setting, developmental scientists have, for the first time, the capacity to investigate the functional activation of the infant brain in awake, engaged participants. The advantages of fNIRS clearly outweigh the limitations, and a description of how this technology is implemented in infant populations is provided. Most fNIRS research falls into one of three content domains: object processing, processing of biologically and socially relevant information, and language development. Within these domains, there are ongoing debates about the origins and development of human knowledge, making early neuroimaging particularly advantageous. The use of fNIRS has allowed investigators to begin to identify the localization of early object, social, and linguistic knowledge in the immature brain and the ways in which this changes with time and experience. In addition, there is a small but growing body of research that provides insight into the neural mechanisms that support and facilitate learning during the first year of life. At the same time, as with any emerging field, there are limitations to the conclusions that can be drawn on the basis of current findings. We offer suggestions as to how to optimize the use of this technology to answer questions of theoretical and practical importance to developmental scientists. PMID:26263229

  12. Role of developmental factors in hypothalamic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biran, Jakob; Tahor, Maayan; Wircer, Einav; Levkowitz, Gil

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamus is a brain region which regulates homeostasis by mediating endocrine, autonomic and behavioral functions. It is comprised of several nuclei containing distinct neuronal populations producing neuropeptides and neurotransmitters that regulate fundamental body functions including temperature and metabolic rate, thirst and hunger, sexual behavior and reproduction, circadian rhythm, and emotional responses. The identity, number and connectivity of these neuronal populations are established during the organism's development and are of crucial importance for normal hypothalamic function. Studies have suggested that developmental abnormalities in specific hypothalamic circuits can lead to obesity, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression and autism. At the molecular level, the development of the hypothalamus is regulated by transcription factors (TF), secreted growth factors, neuropeptides and their receptors. Recent studies in zebrafish and mouse have demonstrated that some of these molecules maintain their expression in the adult brain and subsequently play a role in the physiological functions that are regulated by hypothalamic neurons. Here, we summarize the involvement of some of the key developmental factors in hypothalamic development and function by focusing on the mouse and zebrafish genetic model organisms. PMID:25954163

  13. Linking pathways in the developing and aging brain with neurodegeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.G. Kovacs; H. Adle-Biassett; I. Milenkovic; S. Cipriani; J. van Scheppingen; E. Aronica

    2014-01-01

    The molecular and cellular mechanisms, which coordinate the critical stages of brain development to reach a normal structural organization with appropriate networks, are progressively being elucidated. Experimental and clinical studies provide evidence of the occurrence of developmental alterations

  14. Acquired Multiple Cysts of the Kidney in Neuroblastoma Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodalbail, Divya G; Apple, Leah Z; Meyers, Kevin E; Ginsberg, Jill P; Kaplan, Bernard S; Bellah, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Cystic kidney disease includes a wide range of hereditary, developmental, and acquired conditions of the kidneys. Some of the inherited causes of cystic kidney disease include autosomal dominant polycystic kidney diseases (caused by mutations in PKD1 or PKD2), autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, tuberous sclerosis complex, von Hippel-Lindau disease, oral-facial-digital syndrome type I, and Hadju-Cheney syndrome. Acquired cystic kidney disease has been reported in patients receiving long-term hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis and in children after liver transplantation. Acute kidney injury can occur in patients with neuroblastoma, usually as a result of thrombotic microangiopathy associated with bone marrow transplantation. End-stage renal disease is described in long-term survivors. However, in this case report, we provide what is to our knowledge the first description of multiple kidney cysts in long-term survivors of stage IV neuroblastoma. None of the 7 patients we describe with neuroblastoma and multiple kidney cysts had a family history of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Also, all lacked stigmata of tuberous sclerosis complex, von Hippel-Lindau disease, or Hadju-Cheney syndrome. Two patients progressed to end-stage renal disease; in addition, one of them developed an oncocytoid renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27016049

  15. The developmental origins of fairness: the knowledge-behavior gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Peter R; McAuliffe, Katherine; Warneken, Felix

    2014-11-01

    Recent research in developmental psychology shows that children understand several principles of fairness by 3 years of age, much earlier than previously believed. However, children's knowledge of fairness does not always align with their behavior, and immediate self-interest alone cannot explain this gap. In this forum paper, we consider two factors that influence the relation between fairness knowledge and behavior: relative advantage and how rewards are acquired.

  16. Brain iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Torben

    2002-11-01

    transferrin were, however, restricted to areas situated in close proximity to the ventricular and pial surfaces. In particular, transferrin injected into the ventricles was never observed in regions distant from the CSF. It was concluded that choroid plexus-derived transferrin is not likely to play a significant role for binding and transporting iron in the brain interstitium. Transferrin secretion from oligodendrocytes probably plays the key role in this process. In the third part of the thesis, the uptake of iron by neurons devoid of projections beyond the blood-brain barrier and glia is addressed. Given the fact that the demonstration of plasma proteins in brain sections can be hampered by several methodological factors, a mapping of the cellular distribution of transferrin in the brain was performed employing extensive use of tissue-processing and staining protocols. In order to aid in the understanding of cellular iron uptake in the intact brain, attempts were made to identify iron, transferrin, and transferrin receptors at the light microscopic level. Consistent with the widespread distribution of transferrin receptors in neurons, the ligand transferrin was also found in neurons throughout the CNS. When examined at high resolution, transferrin was found to be distributed to the cytoplasm of neurons, exhibiting a dotted appearance, which is probably consistent with a distribution in the endosomallysosomal system. In contrast to the consistent presence of transferrin receptors on neurons, it was not possible to detect transferrin receptors on glial cells. Related to these observations, the presence of non-transferrin-bound iron in the brain suggests that glial cells may take it up by a mechanism that does not involve the transferrin receptor. The widespread distribution of ferritin in glial cells clearly indicates that the glial cells acquire iron. Dietary iron-overload did not change the distribution of transferrin receptors or ferritin in the brain. By contrast, iron

  17. MRI of brain disease in veterinary patients part 1: Basic principles and congenital brain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Silke; Adams, William H

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly being used in the diagnosis of central nervous system disorders in veterinary patients and is quickly becoming the imaging modality of choice in evaluation of brain and intracranial disease. This article provides an overview of the basic principles of MRI, a description of sequences and their applications in brain imaging, and an approach to interpretation of brain MRI. A detailed discussion of imaging findings in general intracranial disorders including hydrocephalus, vasogenic edema, brain herniation, and seizure-associated changes, and the MR diagnosis of congenital brain disorders is provided. MRI evaluation of acquired brain disorders is described in a second companion article.

  18. And the Winner is – Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Joachim; Rønde, Thomas; Wagner, Marcus

    value in case of success—that is, a more radical innovation. In the second stage, successful entrants bid to be acquired by the incumbent. We assume that entrants cannot survive on their own, so being acquired amounts to a ‘prize’ in a contest. We identify an equilibrium in which the incumbent chooses...

  19. Acquired Zinc Deficiency in an Adult Female

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanan Saritha; Divya Gupta; Laxmisha Chandrashekar; Devinder M Thappa; Nachiappa G Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Acrodermatitis enteropathica is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of zinc absorption. Acquired cases are reported occasionally in patients with eating disorders or Crohn′s disease. We report a 24-year-old housewife with acquired isolated severe zinc deficiency with no other comorbidities to highlight the rare occurrence of isolated nutritional zinc deficiency in an otherwise normal patient.

  20. Cognitive and psychopathological sequelae of pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, M H; Anderson, V

    2013-01-01

    Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent cause of acquired disability in childhood and can have a serious impact on development across the lifespan. The consequences of early TBI vary according to injury severity, with severe injuries usually resulting in more serious physical, cognitive and behavioral sequelae. Both clinical and research reports document residual deficits in a range of skills, including intellectual function, attention, memory, learning, and executive function. In addition, recent investigations suggest that early brain injury also affects psychological and social development and that problems in these domains may increase in the long term postinjury. Together, these deficits affect children's ability to function effectively at school, in the home, and in their social environment, resulting in impaired acquisition of knowledge, psychological and social problems, and overall reduced quality of life. Ultimately, recovery from childhood TBI depends on a range of complex biological, developmental, and psychosocial factors making prognosis difficult to predict. This chapter will detail the cognitive (intellectual, attentional, mnesic, executive, educational, and vocational) and psychopathological (behavioral, adaptive, psychological, social) sequelae of childhood TBI with a particular focus on postinjury recovery patterns in the acute, short-, and long-term phases, as well as into adulthood. PMID:23622301

  1. Modeling Pediatric Brain Trauma: Piglet Model of Controlled Cortical Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Jennifer C Munoz; Keeley, Kristen; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Dodge, Carter P

    2016-01-01

    The brain has different responses to traumatic injury as a function of its developmental stage. As a model of injury to the immature brain, the piglet shares numerous similarities in regards to morphology and neurodevelopmental sequence compared to humans. This chapter describes a piglet scaled focal contusion model of traumatic brain injury that accounts for the changes in mass and morphology of the brain as it matures, facilitating the study of age-dependent differences in response to a comparable mechanical trauma.

  2. Genetic causes of congenital brain malformations in epilepsy patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Rikke Steensbjerre

    2008-01-01

    The search for genetic causes of congenital brain malformations, severe epilepsy and mental retardation plays an important role in neuropediatrics and neurology. Disclosure of the aetiology of the intellectual disabilities, seizures and the underlying brain malformation may be of psychological...... genes for developmental brain defects. The overall aim of the present study has been to identify new candidate genes or predisposing factors involved in congenital brain malformations in epilepsy patients....

  3. A Cognitive Neuropsychological Approach to the Assessment and Remediation of Acquired Dysgraphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardell, Elizabeth A.; Chenery, Helen J.

    1999-01-01

    Used a cognitive neuropsychological approach to investigate a case of acquired dysgraphia in an adult who had sustained focal brain damage. The aims of the study were to investigate the usefulness of model-based assessment in identifying the mechanisms responsible for dysgraphia and for designing a treatment program informed by theories of normal…

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Modern research tools and techniques are giving scientists a more detailed understanding of the brain than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of the brain's structure, studies ...

  6. Chernobyl birds have smaller brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Pape Møller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals living in areas contaminated by radioactive material from Chernobyl suffer from increased oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants. Therefore, normal development of the nervous system is jeopardized as reflected by high frequencies of developmental errors, reduced brain size and impaired cognitive abilities in humans. Alternatively, associations between psychological effects and radiation have been attributed to post-traumatic stress in humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Here we used an extensive sample of 550 birds belonging to 48 species to test the prediction that even in the absence of post-traumatic stress, there is a negative association between relative brain size and level of background radiation. We found a negative association between brain size as reflected by external head volume and level of background radiation, independent of structural body size and body mass. The observed reduction in brain size in relation to background radiation amounted to 5% across the range of almost a factor 5,000 in radiation level. Species differed significantly in reduction in brain size with increasing background radiation, and brain size was the only morphological character that showed a negative relationship with radiation. Brain size was significantly smaller in yearlings than in older individuals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Low dose radiation can have significant effects on normal brain development as reflected by brain size and therefore potentially cognitive ability. The fact that brain size was smaller in yearlings than in older individuals implies that there was significant directional selection on brain size with individuals with larger brains experiencing a viability advantage.

  7. The dynamic human brain : Genetic aspects in schizophrenia and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brans, R.G.H.

    2009-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis is to explore the possible mechanisms underlying the individual differences in brain structure and brain structure change in healthy adults and schizophrenia patients. For this purpose, Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans of the brain were acquired in schizophrenia patien

  8. Developmental aspects of ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belle, J. van

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that ADHD is a heterogeneous disorder, both in its clinical presentation (phenotype) and the underlying aetiology. This heterogeneity makes it difficult to identify causal pathways that link the phenotype to brain structure and functioning. In an attempt to go beyond th

  9. Schizotypy From a Developmental Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Debbané, Martin; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2014-01-01

    The schizotypy construct focuses attention on the liability to develop schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, yet traditionally, the schizotypy models have put more emphasis on stress-vulnerability interactions rather than developmental dynamics of emerging risk for psychopathology. Indeed, developmental accounts of this emerging personality trait have rarely been explicitly formulated. In this position article, we wish to convey some of the basic developmental tenets of schizotypy, and how they c...

  10. Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In October 2014, CMS began reducing Medicare payments for subsection (d) hospitals that rank in the worst performing quartile with respect to hospital-acquired...

  11. Enhancing Medicares Hospital Acquired Conditions Policy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The current Medicare policy of non-payment to hospitals for Hospital Acquired Conditions (HAC) seeks to avoid payment for preventable complications identified...

  12. The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: current status.

    OpenAIRE

    Quagliarello, V.

    1982-01-01

    A recently recognized syndrome of acquired immunodeficiency (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-AIDS) has arisen since June 1981. It has received international attention. The clinical spectrum consists of repeated opportunistic infections, rare malignancies, and autoimmune phenomena, occurring in previously healthy adults with no history of an immunologic disorder. The population subset at risk for this syndrome appears to be predominantly homosexual American males and intravenous drug abuser...

  13. Infections acquired in clinical laboratories in Utah.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, J.T.; Orlob, R B; Clayton, J L

    1985-01-01

    We reviewed laboratory-acquired infections occurring in Utah from 1978 through 1982. Written and telephone interviews of supervisors of 1,191 laboratorians revealed an estimated annual incidence of 3 laboratory-acquired infections per 1,000 employees. Infections, in order of frequency, included hepatitis B (clinical cases), shigellosis, pharyngitis, cellulitis, tuberculosis (skin test conversion), conjunctivitis, and non-A, non-B hepatitis. One-half of large laboratories (over 25 employees), ...

  14. Developmental immunotoxicology of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy metal, lead, is a known developmental immunotoxicant that has been shown to produce immune alterations in humans as well as other species. Unlike many compounds that exert adverse immune effects, lead exposure at low to moderate levels does not produce widespread loss of immune cells. In contrast, changes resulting from lead exposure are subtle at the immune cell population level but, nevertheless, can be functionally dramatic. A hallmark of lead-induced immunotoxicity is a pronounced shift in the balance in T helper cell function toward T helper 2 responses at the expense of T helper 1 functions. This bias alters the nature and range of immune responses that can be produced thereby influencing host susceptibility to various diseases. Immunotoxic responses to lead appear to differ across life stages not only quantitatively with regard to dose response, but also qualitatively in terms of the spectrum of immune alterations. Experimental studies in several lab animal species suggest the latter stages of gestation are a period of considerable sensitivity for lead-induced immunotoxicity. This review describes the basic characteristics of lead-induced immunotoxicity emphasizing experimental animal results. It also provides a framework for the consideration of toxicant exposure effects across life stages. The existence of and probable basis for developmental windows of immune hyper-susceptibility are presented. Finally, the potential for lead to serve as a perinatal risk factor for childhood asthma as well as other diseases is considered

  15. Potential developmental neurotoxicity of pesticides used in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pesticides used in agriculture are designed to protect crops against unwanted species, such as weeds, insects, and fungus. Many compounds target the nervous system of insect pests. Because of the similarity in brain biochemistry, such pesticides may also be neurotoxic to humans. Concerns have been raised that the developing brain may be particularly vulnerable to adverse effects of neurotoxic pesticides. Current requirements for safety testing do not include developmental neurotoxicity. We therefore undertook a systematic evaluation of published evidence on neurotoxicity of pesticides in current use, with specific emphasis on risks during early development. Epidemiologic studies show associations with neurodevelopmental deficits, but mainly deal with mixed exposures to pesticides. Laboratory experimental studies using model compounds suggest that many pesticides currently used in Europe – including organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, ethylenebisdithiocarbamates, and chlorophenoxy herbicides – can cause neurodevelopmental toxicity. Adverse effects on brain development can be severe and irreversible. Prevention should therefore be a public health priority. The occurrence of residues in food and other types of human exposures should be prevented with regard to the pesticide groups that are known to be neurotoxic. For other substances, given their widespread use and the unique vulnerability of the developing brain, the general lack of data on developmental neurotoxicity calls for investment in targeted research. While awaiting more definite evidence, existing uncertainties should be considered in light of the need for precautionary action to protect brain development.

  16. Brain imaging and autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilbovicius, M. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot (CEA/DSV/DRM), INSERM CEA 0205, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder with a range of clinical presentations, from mild to severe, referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The most common clinical ASD sign is social interaction impairment, which is associated with verbal and non-verbal communication deficits and stereotyped and obsessive behaviors. Thanks to recent brain imaging studies, scientists are getting a better idea of the neural circuits involved in ASD. Indeed, functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single positron emission tomograph y (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have opened a new perspective to study normal and pathological brain functions. Three independent studies have found anatomical and rest functional temporal abnormalities. These anomalies are localized in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally which are critical for perception of key social stimuli. In addition, functional studies have shown hypo-activation of most areas implicated in social perception (face and voice perception) and social cognition (theory of mind). These data suggest an abnormal functioning of the social brain network. The understanding of such crucial abnormal mechanism may drive the elaboration of new and more adequate social re-educative strategies in autism. (author)

  17. Brain imaging and autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder with a range of clinical presentations, from mild to severe, referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The most common clinical ASD sign is social interaction impairment, which is associated with verbal and non-verbal communication deficits and stereotyped and obsessive behaviors. Thanks to recent brain imaging studies, scientists are getting a better idea of the neural circuits involved in ASD. Indeed, functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single positron emission tomograph y (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have opened a new perspective to study normal and pathological brain functions. Three independent studies have found anatomical and rest functional temporal abnormalities. These anomalies are localized in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally which are critical for perception of key social stimuli. In addition, functional studies have shown hypo-activation of most areas implicated in social perception (face and voice perception) and social cognition (theory of mind). These data suggest an abnormal functioning of the social brain network. The understanding of such crucial abnormal mechanism may drive the elaboration of new and more adequate social re-educative strategies in autism. (author)

  18. Developmental dyslexia: dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eRichlan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review summarizes and integrates findings from recent meta-analyses and original neuroimaging studies on functional brain abnormalities in dyslexic readers. Surprisingly, there is little empirical support for the standard neuroanatomical model of developmental dyslexia, which localizes the primary phonological decoding deficit in left temporo-parietal regions. Rather, recent evidence points to a dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network, which includes occipito-temporal, inferior frontal, and inferior parietal regions.

  19. A critical review of neonicotinoid insecticides for developmental neurotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Sheets, Larry P.; Li, Abby A.; Minnema, Daniel J.; Collier, Richard H.; Creek, Moire R.; Peffer, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A comprehensive review of published and previously unpublished studies was performed to evaluate the neonicotinoid insecticides for evidence of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). These insecticides have favorable safety profiles, due to their preferential affinity for nicotinic receptor (nAChR) subtypes in insects, poor penetration of the mammalian blood–brain barrier, and low application rates. Nevertheless, examination of this issue is warranted, due to their insecticidal mode of a...

  20. Modeling human brain development with cerebral organoids

    OpenAIRE

    Muzio, Luca; Consalez, G. Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    The recent discovery of a new three-dimensional culture system for the derivation of cerebral organoids from human induced pluripotent stem cells provides developmental neurobiologists with the first example of a three-dimensional framework for the study of human brain development. This innovative approach permits the in vitro assembly of a human embryonic brain rudiment that recapitulates the developing human cerebrum. Organoids contain progenitor populations that develop to yield mature cor...

  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

  2. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  3. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions of cells in the body, the results can affect many ... unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function of conducting ...

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Trials — Participants Statistics Help for Mental Illnesses Outreach Research Priorities Funding Labs at NIMH News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The ...

  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... brain may play a role in disorders like schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the ... mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain Regions Just as many neurons ...

  6. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... body, the results can affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How ... cell, and responds to signals from the environment; this all helps the cell maintain its balance with ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the ... inside contents of the cell from its surrounding environment and controls what enters and leaves the cell, ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works ... early brain development. It may also assist in learning and memory. Problems in making or using glutamate ...

  10. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... have been linked to many mental disorders, including autism , obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) , schizophrenia , and depression . Brain ... studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as they grow ...

  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... may help improve treatments for anxiety disorders like phobias or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex ( ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ...

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... body, the results can affect many aspects of life. Scientists are continually learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  13. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... medications could reduce the amount of trial and error and frustration that many people with depression experience ... early brain development, and may also assist in learning and memory. hippocampus —A portion of the brain ...

  14. Brain Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  15. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ... depression experience when starting treatment. Gene Studies Advanced technologies are also making it faster, easier, and more ...

  16. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... mainly involved in controlling movement and aiding the flow of information to the front of the brain, ... the neuron will fire. This enhances the electrical flow among brain cells required for normal function and ...

  17. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental ... and are working to compare that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues ...

  18. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... and epigenetic changes can be passed on to future generations. Further understanding of genes and epigenetics may ... than ever before. Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses ...

  19. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... neurons, the most highly specialized cells of all, conduct messages. Every cell in our bodies contains a ... brain's structure, studies show that brain growth in children with autism appears to peak early. And as ...

  20. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... can be related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the ... healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain ...

  1. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  2. [Developmental Placement.] Collected Research References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, Gail

    Drawing on information and references in the ERIC system, this literature review describes research related to a child's developmental placement. The issues examined include school entrance age; predictive validity, reliability, and features of Gesell School Readiness Assessment; retention; and the effectiveness of developmental placement. A…

  3. Developmental Math: What's the Answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarella, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Developmental mathematics has been under the radar within higher education for some time. The reality is that there are many proven best practices in developmental math. Unfortunately, there are many obstacles that prevent student success. Moreover, the high rates of attrition and failure have led state legislators and college administrators to…

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah ... having trouble coping with the stresses in her life. She began to think of suicide because she ...

  5. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman ... new memories. hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis —A brain-body ... stress. impulse —An electrical communication signal sent between neurons ...

  6. Brain Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  7. Juvenile antioxidant treatment prevents adult deficits in a developmental model of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Cabungcal, Jan Harry; Counotte, Danielle S.; Lewis, Eastman; Tejeda, Hugo A.; Piantadosi, Patrick; Pollock, Cameron; Calhoon, Gwendolyn G.; Sullivan, Elyse; Presgraves, Echo; Kil, Jonathan; Hong, L. Elliot; Cuenod, Michel; Kim Q Do; O'Donnell, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal development can lead to deficits in adult brain function, a trajectory likely underlying adolescent-onset psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia. Developmental manipulations yielding adult deficits in rodents provide an opportunity to explore mechanisms involved in a delayed emergence of anomalies driven by developmental alterations. Here we assessed whether oxidative stress during presymptomatic stages causes adult anomalies in rats with a neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion, ...

  8. An Unusual Developmental Profile of Salla Disease in a Patient with the SallaFIN Mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Paavola, Liisa E.; Remes, Anne M.; Sonninen, Pirkko H.; Vesa V. Kiviniemi; Korhonen, Tapio T.; Kari Majamaa

    2012-01-01

    Salla disease (SD) is a disorder caused by defective storage of free sialic acid and results from mutations in the SLC17A5 gene. Early developmental delay of motor functions, and later cognitive skills, is typical. We describe a developmental profile of an unusual homozygous patient, who harboured the SallaFIN (p.R39C) mutation gene. The study involved neurological examination, neuropsychological investigation, and brain imaging. The neurocognitive findings were atypical in comparison with ot...

  9. The use of repetition suppression paradigms in developmental cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordt, Marisa; Hoehl, Stefanie; Weigelt, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Repetition suppression paradigms allow a more detailed look at brain functioning than classical paradigms and have been applied vigorously in adult cognitive neuroscience. These paradigms are well suited for studies in the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience as they can be applied without collecting a behavioral response and across all age groups. Furthermore, repetition suppression paradigms can be employed in various neuroscience techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). In the present article we review studies using repetition suppression paradigms in developmental cognitive neuroscience covering the age range from infancy to adolescence. Our first goal is to point out characteristics of developmental repetition suppression effects. In doing so, we discuss the relationship of the direction of repetition effects (suppression vs enhancement) with developmental factors, and address the question how the direction of repetition effects might be related to looking-time effects in behavioral infant paradigms, the most prominently used behavioral measure in infant research. To highlight the potential of repetition suppression paradigms, our second goal is to provide an overview on the insights recently obtained by applying repetition paradigms in neurodevelopmental studies, including research on children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We conclude that repetition suppression paradigms are valuable tools for investigating neurodevelopmental processes, while at the same time we highlight the necessity for further studies that disentangle methodological and developmental factors. PMID:27161033

  10. Do Acquirer Capabilities Affect Acquisition Performance? Examining Strategic and Effectiveness Capabilities in Acquirers

    OpenAIRE

    Mudde, Paul A.; Brush, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines acquisition performance from the perspective of acquirer capabilities. It argues that the strategic capabilities underpinning a firm’s competitive strategy can be utilized to create economic value in acquisitions. Acquirers with strong cost leadership capabilities are expected to leverage these capabilities to reduce post-acquisition costs as they integrate acquisition targets. Acquirers with strong differentiation capabilities are expected to utilize their strategic capab...

  11. MK-801诱导的精神分裂症发育模型大鼠脑组织DA,DOPAC,Glu和GABA浓度的变化%Concentration change of DA, DOPAC, Glu and GABA in brain tissues in schizophrenia developmental model rats induced by MK-801

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇; 唐亚梅; 蒲唯丹; 张向晖; 赵靖平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the related neurobiochemical mechanism by comparing the concentration change of dopamine (DA),dihydroxy-phenyl acetic acid (DOPAC),glutamate (Glu),and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain tissues in schizophrenia (SZ) developmental model rats and chronic medication model rats.Methods A total of 60 neonatal male Spragur-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups at the postnatal day 6:an SZ developmental rat model group (subcutaneous injection with MK-801 at the postnatal day 7-10,0.1 mg/kg,Bid),a chronic medication model group (intraperitoneal injection at the postnatal day 47-60,0.2 mg/kg,Qd),and a normal control group (injection with O.9% normal saline during the corresponding periods).DA,DOPAC,Glu,and GABA of the tissue homogenate from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus were examined with Coularray electrochemic detection by high performance liquid chromatogram technique.The utilization rate of DA and Glu was calculated.Results Compared with the normal control group,the concentration of DA and DOPAC in the mPFC and the hippocampus in the SZ developmental model group significantly decreased ( P < 0.05 ),and the GABA concentration and Glu utilization rate in the mPFC also decreased (P < 0.05 ).Compared with the chronic medication model group,the DA concentration of the mPFC in the SZ developmental group decreased ( P < 0.05 ),and the DOPAC concentration and the utility rate of DA in the hippocampus also decreased (P <0.01,P <0.05,respectively).Conclusion The activities of DA,Glu and GABA system decrease in the mPFC and the DA system function reduces in the hippocampus of SZ developmental rats.%目的:通过对MK-801诱导的精神分裂症(schizophrenia,SZ)发育模型大鼠和慢性给药模型大鼠脑组织多巴胺(dopamine,DA)、二羟苯乙酸(dihydroxy-phenyl acetic acid,DOPAC)、谷氨酸盐(glutamate,Glu)和γ-氨基丁酸(γ-aminobutyric acid,GABA)浓度的比较研究,探讨

  12. Developmental origin of lung macrophage diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Serena Y S; Krasnow, Mark A

    2016-04-15

    Macrophages are specialized phagocytic cells, present in all tissues, which engulf and digest pathogens, infected and dying cells, and debris, and can recruit and regulate other immune cells and the inflammatory response and aid in tissue repair. Macrophage subpopulations play distinct roles in these processes and in disease, and are typically recognized by differences in marker expression, immune function, or tissue of residency. Although macrophage subpopulations in the brain have been found to have distinct developmental origins, the extent to which development contributes to macrophage diversity between tissues and within tissues is not well understood. Here, we investigate the development and maintenance of mouse lung macrophages by marker expression patterns, genetic lineage tracing and parabiosis. We show that macrophages populate the lung in three developmental waves, each giving rise to a distinct lineage. These lineages express different markers, reside in different locations, renew in different ways, and show little or no interconversion. Thus, development contributes significantly to lung macrophage diversity and targets each lineage to a different anatomical domain. PMID:26952982

  13. The innate and the acquired: useful clusters or a residual distinction from folk biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Patrick; Mameli, Matteo

    2007-12-01

    The idea of the innate and the acquired is a part of folk-biology but is also used by biologists, psychologists and cognitive scientists in their disciplines. Are they right to do so? Innateness is often defined by appealing to the role of genes in development, to the role of Darwinian evolution in shaping developmental processes, to the non-involvement of learning during development, to developmental robustness, and to modularity. We argue that all such definitions are unsatisfactory. Some are unsatisfactory because they are based on simplistic and empirically outmoded views of development. Others are empirically defensible but are unsatisfactory because they do not capture the full breadth of the use of the term "innate" and, due to this restriction, they can easily lead to inferential mistakes. The definition of acquired behavior has been used with greater sophistication and is generally regarded as being heterogeneous. Nevertheless, in as much as the overall category has been seen in opposition to the innate, it has been an obstacle to a thorough investigation of how behavior develops. We suggest that a useful way forward is to examine whether or not the empirically well-established properties often associated with the concept of innate and the concept of acquired form theoretically useful clusters. This path leads to a much fuller appreciation of the view favored by Gilbert Gottlieb, according to which development involves the continuous interplay of the organism (and its genes) with its environment. PMID:18023000

  14. Sedation and Analgesia in Children with Developmental Disabilities and Neurologic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd J. Kilbaugh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sedation and analgesia performed by the pediatrician and pediatric subspecialists are becoming increasingly common for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in children with developmental disabilities and neurologic disorders (autism, epilepsy, stroke, obstructive hydrocephalus, traumatic brain injury, intracranial hemorrhage, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The overall objectives of this paper are (1 to provide an overview on recent studies that highlight the increased risk for respiratory complications following sedation and analgesia in children with developmental disabilities and neurologic disorders, (2 to provide a better understanding of sedatives and analgesic medications which are commonly used in children with developmental disabilities and neurologic disorders on the central nervous system.

  15. A Developmental Model of Financial Capability: A Framework for Promoting a Successful Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serido, Joyce; Shim, Soyeon; Tang, Chuanyi

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes a developmental model of financial capability to understand the process by which young adults acquire the financial knowledge and behaviors needed to manage full-time adult social roles and responsibilities. The model integrates financial knowledge, financial self-beliefs, financial behavior, and well-being into a single…

  16. Effective Learning and Retention of Braille Letter Tactile Discrimination Skills in Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Maisam; Dorfberger, Shoshi; Karni, Avi

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental dyslexia (DD) may differ from typical readers in aspects other than reading. The notion of a general deficit in the ability to acquire and retain procedural ("how to") knowledge as long-term procedural memory has been proposed. Here, we compared the ability of elementary school children, with and without…

  17. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henik Avishai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Methods Fourteen university students that were diagnosed as suffering from developmental dyscalculia--intelligence and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--and 14 matched controls were tested using the attention networks test - interactions. All participants were given preliminary tests to measure mathematical abilities, reading, attention and intelligence. Results The results revealed deficits in the alerting network--a larger alerting effect--and in the executive function networks--a larger congruity effect in developmental dyscalculia participants. The interaction between the alerting and executive function networks was also modulated by group. In addition, developmental dyscalculia participants were slower to respond in the non-cued conditions. Conclusions These results imply specific attentional deficits in pure developmental dyscalculia. Namely, those with developmental dyscalculia seem to be deficient in the executive function and alertness networks. They suffer from difficulty in recruiting attention, in addition to the deficits in numerical processing.

  18. Using Developmental Theory: When Not to Play Telephone Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Nora Ross

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As a powerful way to help understand the behaviors of people and socialgroupings of all kinds, developmental stage theory attracts attention and use outside ofpurely academic environments. These uses take the form of written materials and manykinds of interventions. The level of accuracy of developmental theory informationgenerated and used outside of academe demonstrates wide variety. This variety isreflected in materials and interventions. The information used in materials andinterventions becomes increasingly distorted as it becomes further removed from originaltheoretical sources. This has major implications for the ethics and expertise issues that areinherent in applied developmental theory. A classification scheme of information-usebehaviors, many of which contribute to distortion processes, is used to code actual casesof creating and disseminating distorted developmental theory information, invoking themetaphor of telephone games. Case evidence indicates that casual, illustrative figures in a2006 book by Wilber were used by others for various serious and theoretical purposes,and resulted in major distortions of developmental theory. Wilber’s figures representproblematic issues and errors, including distortion of theory, if they are used—as theyindeed were—for any purpose more serious than his original purpose. Stemming fromthose issues and errors, a highly distorted picture of cognitive development and a pseudoversionof Commons and Richards’ Model of Hierarchical Complexity theory emerged,telephone game-like, in the cases discussed. Errors were widely propagated on theinternet. Because outside of academe, specialized expertise in developmental theory isdifficult to acquire, the sub-field of applied developmental theory requires not onlyaccurate information but also strong communication ethics to govern behaviors ofinformation providers. Such providers need to protect themselves at the same time theyprotect and inform consumers of

  19. Developmental psychopathology: concepts and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, M; Sroufe, L A

    2000-01-01

    The defining features of developmental psychopathology concepts include attention to the understanding of causal processes, appreciation of the role of developmental mechanisms, and consideration of continuities and discontinuities between normality and psychopathology. Accomplishments with respect to these issues are reviewed in relation to attachment disorders, antisocial behavior, autism, depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and intellectual development. Major research challenges remain in relation to measurement issues, comorbidity, gender differences, cognitive processing, nature-nurture interplay, heterotypic continuity, continuities between normal variations and disorders, developmental programming, and therapeutic mechanisms in effective treatments. PMID:11014739

  20. Immunomodulation in community-acquired pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmelts, H.H.F.

    2013-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common disease with considerable morbidity and mortality, despite effective antibiotic treatment. In this thesis, we showed that the major causative microorganisms in CAP trigger distinct inflammatory response profiles in the host. While an inflammatory respon

  1. Prevention of hospital-acquired hyponatraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunøe, Mathilde; Overgaard-Steensen, C

    2015-01-01

    prevention of hospital-acquired hyponatraemia is an understanding of what determines plasma sodium concentration (P-[Na(+) ]) in the individual patient. P-[Na(+) ] is determined by balances of water and cations according to Edelman. This paper discusses the mechanisms influencing water and cation balances...

  2. In vivo mechanisms of acquired thymic tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, W; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Sayegh, M H;

    1997-01-01

    Injection of antigen into the thymus of adult animals induces specific systemic tolerance, but the mechanisms of acquired thymic tolerance are not well understood. To investigate these mechanisms we used a model of intrathymic injection of ovalbumin (OVA) in BALB/c mice. We show an antigen-specif...

  3. Acquired secondary Grynfeltt's hernia: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumbar hernia is a rare condition whose diagnosis is hardly achieved. The prevalence is higher in elderly men. The present case report describes the case of a male, 78-year-old patient who underwent pleural effusion drainage 17 years before presenting with clinical manifestations and tomographic findings compatible with acquired secondary Grynfeltt's hernia. (author)

  4. Mitral valve repair in acquired dextrocardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmistekawy, Elsayed; Chan, Vincent; Hynes, Mark; Mesana, Thierry

    2015-10-01

    Surgical correction of valvular heart disease in patients with dextrocardia is extremely rare. We report a surgical case of mitral valve repair in a patient with acquired dextrocardia. Successful mitral valve repair was performed through a right lateral thoracotomy. We describe our surgical strategy and summarize the literature.

  5. Severe acquired anaemia in Africa: new concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Boele van Hensbroek; F. Jonker; I. Bates

    2011-01-01

    Severe anaemia is common in Africa. It has a high mortality and particularly affects young children and pregnant women. Recent research provides new insights into the mechanisms and causes of severe acquired anaemia and overturns accepted dogma. Deficiencies of vitamin B12 and vitamin A, but not of

  6. Eye Movement Correlates of Acquired Central Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattka, Kerstin I.; Radach, Ralph; Huber, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Based on recent progress in theory and measurement techniques, the analysis of eye movements has become one of the major methodological tools in experimental reading research. Our work uses this approach to advance the understanding of impaired information processing in acquired central dyslexia of stroke patients with aphasia. Up to now there has…

  7. Speech and Language Developmental Milestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of “brain plasticity”—the ways in which the brain is influenced by health conditions or life experiences—and how it can be used to develop learning strategies that encourage healthy language and speech development in ...

  8. Developmental dyslexia and vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quercia P

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Quercia,1 Léonard Feiss,2 Carine Michel31Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital, Dijon, France; 2Office of Ophthalmology, Beaune, France; 3University of Burgundy, Dijon, INSERM U1093, Cognition, Action et Plasticité Sensorimotrice, Dijon, FranceAbstract: Developmental dyslexia affects almost 10% of school-aged children and represents a significant public health problem. Its etiology is unknown. The consistent presence of phonological difficulties combined with an inability to manipulate language sounds and the grapheme–phoneme conversion is widely acknowledged. Numerous scientific studies have also documented the presence of eye movement anomalies and deficits of perception of low contrast, low spatial frequency, and high frequency temporal visual information in dyslexics. Anomalies of visual attention with short visual attention spans have also been demonstrated in a large number of cases. Spatial orientation is also affected in dyslexics who manifest a preference for spatial attention to the right. This asymmetry may be so pronounced that it leads to a veritable neglect of space on the left side. The evaluation of treatments proposed to dyslexics whether speech or oriented towards the visual anomalies remains fragmentary. The advent of new explanatory theories, notably cerebellar, magnocellular, or proprioceptive, is an incentive for ophthalmologists to enter the world of multimodal cognition given the importance of the eye's visual input.Keywords: reading, ocular motility, dyslexia, neglect, spatial representation

  9. Effects of hexabromocyclododecane(HBCD) on monoamine neurotransmitters contents and monoamine oxidase activity of developmental rat brain%六溴环十二烷对发育期大鼠脑单胺类神经递质质量比及单胺氧化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 冀秀玲; 赵文娟; 殷明; 蒋惠男; 张江

    2012-01-01

    .01). As for the monoamine oxidase, an increase trend can be found with MAO activity in the range of 10 to 100 μg/kg doses and significantly changed at the dose of 100 μg/kg(p <0.05) . When the dose is kept at a level of 300 (μg/kg, the trend is likely to drop, though not enough significantly. DA, NE and 5 ~ HT were found to play a important role in the learning, memory and moods in the rats' brain. Changing the contents of DA, 5 - HT, disorders can be found with the central nervous system with the rats when the developmental HBCD was exposed to the NE and MAO activities. Compared with the dose of 300 μg/kg, severe effects were detected on the neurotransmitters and MAO at a level of 10-100 μg/kg. it indicates that HBCD has the feature of low-dosage and high toxicity to the developmental rat brain. Furthermore, the exposure dosages of 10 - 100 μg/kg can only produce a mirror effect in comparison with the content of HBCD in the real environment. However, HBCD of the environmental exposure levels proves to produce neurotoxicity and have effect on the learning and memory system of the developmental rats. Thus, it can be said that this paper has provided an important reference in the study of the HBCD exposure and its effect on the public health in the environment, especially on children ' s healthy growth.

  10. Effects of erythropoietin on expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tyrosine receptor kinase B after brain injury in mice of different developmental stages%促红细胞生成素对发育期小鼠脑损伤后脑源性神经营养因子和酪氨酸受体激酶B表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金宝; 张育才; 崔云

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨促红细胞生成素(EPO)对鹅膏蕈氨酸(Ibo)致不同发育期小鼠脑损伤后脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)和酪氨酸受体激酶B(Trk B)mRNA及蛋白表达的影响.方法 以120只昆明白小鼠作为实验动物,其中7日龄(P7)、21日龄(P21)和42日龄(P42)小鼠各40只;再将同日龄小鼠随机分为Ibo组(n=15)、Ibo+ EPO组(n=15)和对照组(n=10).Ibo组采用微量注射法向左侧海马注射Ibo 1 μL;Ibo+ EPO组注射Ibo 1 μL后,腹腔注射5 000 U/( kg·d)EPO,连续5d;对照组注射等体积生理盐水.各组小鼠在建模后第5天进行Y-电迷宫测试;Cresyl Violet染色观察海马神经元病理学变化;Real-Time PCR检测海马BDNF mRNA和TAB mRNA的表达;ELISA法检测BDNF和TrkB蛋白的表达.结果 术后Ibo组小鼠寻找安全区的正确率明显低于对照组(P<0.05),而EPO +Ibo组小鼠寻找安全区的正确率明显高于Ibo组(P<0.05).光学显微镜观察结果显示:Ibo组小鼠海马组织神经元发生明显变性和细胞死亡.Ibo+ EPO组和Ibo组海马神经元死亡率明显高于对照组(P<0.05);而Ibo+EPO组损伤较轻.Ibo组和Ibo+ EPO组海马组织BDNF和TrkB的mRNA及蛋白表达量均显著高于对照组(P<0.05);其中,Ibo+ EPO组BDNF和TrkB的mRNA及蛋白表达量均显著高于Ibo组(P<0.05).结论 Ibo致脑损伤时,海马组织BDNF和TrkB mRNA及蛋白表达均明显增强,可能是一种保护性反应.EPO可减轻Ibo所致脑损伤,其机制可能与上调BDNF和TrkB的mRNA及蛋白的表达有关.%Objective To investigate the effects of erythropoietin ( EPO) on expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( BDNF) and tyrosine receptor kinase B ( TrkB) mRNA and protein after brain injury induced by ibotenic acid (Ibo) in mice of different developmental stages. Methods One hundred and twenty KM mice aged 7 d (n = 40), 21 d ( n = 40) and 42 d (n =40) were selected, and those of the same age were randomly divided into Ibo group (n = 15), Ibo + EPO

  11. Brain glycogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Linea Lykke Frimodt; Müller, Margit S; Walls, Anne B;

    2012-01-01

    Glycogen is a complex glucose polymer found in a variety of tissues, including brain, where it is localized primarily in astrocytes. The small quantity found in brain compared to e.g., liver has led to the understanding that brain glycogen is merely used during hypoglycemia or ischemia....... In this review evidence is brought forward highlighting what has been an emerging understanding in brain energy metabolism: that glycogen is more than just a convenient way to store energy for use in emergencies-it is a highly dynamic molecule with versatile implications in brain function, i.e., synaptic...... activity and memory formation. In line with the great spatiotemporal complexity of the brain and thereof derived focus on the basis for ensuring the availability of the right amount of energy at the right time and place, we here encourage a closer look into the molecular and subcellular mechanisms...

  12. The Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (Cimbi) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gitte M.; Jensen, Peter S.; Erritzoe, David;

    2016-01-01

    We here describe a multimodality neuroimaging containing data from healthy volunteers and patients, acquired within the Lundbeck Foundation Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (Cimbi) in Copenhagen, Denmark. The data is of particular relevance for neurobiological research questions...

  13. Applying cognitive neuropsychological principles to the rehabilitation of Spanish readers with acquired dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuetos, Fernando; Centeno, José G

    2009-08-01

    Cognitive neuropsychological models (CNMs) have been useful to generate a theory of aphasia rehabilitation. In contrast to the traditional syndrome approach, CNMs employ cognitive accounts to interpret language disturbances after brain damage. In this article, we apply CNMs to monolingual Spanish and bilingual Spanish-English readers with acquired dyslexia whose first language is Spanish. Although there are many studies of acquired dyslexia (reading errors associated with aphasia), they primarily have focused on English and French readers. Similar investigations on Spanish readers are limited. Unlike the opaque orthographic systems of English and French (inconsistent grapheme-to-phoneme relationships), Spanish has a mostly transparent orthography (regular grapheme-to-phoneme relationships). Thus evaluating and treating dyslexia secondary to brain damage in Spanish readers may involve different strategies from those employed with English and French readers. The increasingly large numbers of Spanish speakers in aphasia rehabilitation worldwide underscore the critical need to develop plausible theoretically grounded clinical strategies to serve these individuals.

  14. Use of High resolution 3D Diffusion tensor imaging to study brain white matter development in live neonatal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu eCai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available High resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI can provide important information on brain development, yet it is challenging in live neonatal rats due to the small size of neonatal brain and motion-sensitive nature of DTI. Imaging in live neonatal rats has clear advantages over fixed brain scans, as longitudinal and functional studies would be feasible to understand neuro-developmental abnormalities. In this study, we developed imaging strategies that can be used to obtain high resolution 3D DTI images in live neonatal rats at postnatal day 5 (PND5 and postnatal day 14 (PND14, using only 3 hours of imaging acquisition time. An optimized 3D DTI pulse sequence and appropriate animal setup to minimize physiological motion artifacts are the keys to successful high resolution 3D DTI imaging. Thus, a 3D RARE DTI sequence with twin navigator echoes was implemented to accelerate imaging acquisition time and minimize motion artifacts. It has been suggested that neonatal mammals possess a unique ability to tolerate mild to moderate hypothermia and hypoxia without long term impact. Thus, we additionally utilized this ability to minimize motion artifacts in MR images by carefully suppressing the respiratory rate to around 15/min for PND5 and 30/min for PND14 using mild to moderate hypothermia. These imaging strategies have been successfully implemented to study how the effect of cocaine exposure in dams might affect brain development in their rat pups. Image quality resulting from this in vivo DTI study was comparable to ex vivo scans. FA values were also similar between the live and fixed brain scans. The capability of acquiring high quality in vivo DTI imaging offers a valuable opportunity to study many neurological disorders in brain development in an authentic living environment.

  15. Developmental Milestones of Early Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Developmental Milestones of ...

  16. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia

    OpenAIRE

    Henik Avishai; Askenazi Sarit

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Methods Fourteen university students that were...

  17. Erythropoietin receptor expression of rat brain at different developmental maturity and the effects of lipopolysaccharide on erythropoietin receptor expression%不同成熟度大鼠脑组织促红细胞生成素受体的表达及脂多糖对其表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭佳佳; 张彦华; 段佳佳; 徐发林

    2014-01-01

    目的探讨不同成熟度大鼠脑组织促红细胞生成素(EPO)受体(EPO-R)的表达及脂多糖(LPS)对不同成熟度大鼠脑组织EPO-R表达的影响。方法2日龄(Postnatal day 2,P2)新生SD大鼠,随机分为A、B两组:A为正常对照组,B为LPS组,分别腹腔注射等容积0.9%氯化钠注射液或0.6 mg/(kg·d)的 LPS,连续应用5天(P2~P6),并续养至12日龄(P12)。A组于P2、P7、P12及B组于P7、P12各时间点随机抽取8只新生大鼠取脑,以矢状缝为标志分为左右半脑,右侧脑用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测脑组织EPO-R蛋白水平,左侧脑用反转录聚合酶链式反应(RT-PCR)检测EPO-R mRNA水平。结果(1)随大鼠成熟度的增加,正常对照组大鼠脑EPO-R蛋白(P2:13.73±2.04、P7:11.01±3.36、P12:10.52±2.35)及EPO-R mRNA(P2:0.44±0.05、P7:0.39±0.03、P12:0.38±0.04)表达下调,P2时表达水平与P7比较,差异有显著性(P0.05);(2)LPS组EPO-R蛋白与EPO-R mRNA表达较正常对照组上调,7日龄时正常对照组与LPS组比较,差异有显著性(P0.05)。结论随大鼠成熟度增加,脑组织EPO-R表达下调;LPS可上调大鼠脑组织EPO-R表达。%ObjectiveTo investigate the Erythropoietin Receptor(EPO-R) expression of rat brain at different developmental maturity and the effects of infection on EPO-R expression.Method Postnatal day 2 (P2) newborn SD rats were randomly divided into 2 groups:Control group(equal volume of saline) and Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group[0.6 mg/(kg·d) LPS].The newborn rats in each group were administered corresponding drugs respectively at the corresponding time by intraperitoneal injection for 5 consecutive days,and continued to raise until P12. Every 8 newborn rats in A groups on P2,P7 and P12 and B group on P7 and P12 were selected randomly , the brains was divided into left and right hemispheres marked by sagittal suture.ELISA method were adopted

  18. Brain injury and severe eating difficulties at admission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Annette; Kaae Kristensen, Hanne

    Objective: The objective of this pilot study was to explore and interpret the way that individuals with acquired brain injury, admitted to inpatient neurorehabilitation with severe eating difficulties, experienced eating nine to fifteen months after discharge. Methods: Four individuals...... with acquired brain injury were interviewed via qualitative semi-structured interviews. An explorative study was conducted to study eating difficulties. Qualitative content analysis was used. Results: Four main themes emerged from the analysis: personal values related to eating, swallowing difficulties, eating...

  19. 29 CFR 1952.351 - Developmental schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.351 Section 1952.351 Labor... (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Arizona § 1952.351 Developmental schedule. The Arizona State plan is developmental. The following is the developmental schedule as provided...

  20. 29 CFR 1952.161 - Developmental schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.161 Section 1952.161 Labor... (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Iowa § 1952.161 Developmental schedule. The Iowa State plan is developmental. The following is the developmental schedule as amended...

  1. 29 CFR 1952.101 - Developmental schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.101 Section 1952.101 Labor... (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Oregon § 1952.101 Developmental schedule. The Oregon plan is developmental. The schedule of developmental steps as described in the plan...

  2. 29 CFR 1952.111 - Developmental schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Developmental schedule. 1952.111 Section 1952.111 Labor... (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE PLANS FOR ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Utah § 1952.111 Developmental schedule. The Utah plan is developmental. The following is the schedule of developmental steps provided by...

  3. Acquired dyslexia in three writing systems: study of a Portuguese-Japanese bilingual aphasic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaha, Mirna Lie Hosogi; de Mattos Pimenta Parente, Maria Alice

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese language is represented by two different codes: syllabic and logographic while Portuguese employs an alphabetic writing system. Studies on bilingual Portuguese-Japanese individuals with acquired dyslexia therefore allow an investigation of the interaction between reading strategies and characteristics of three different writing codes. The aim of this study was to examine the differential impact of an acquired brain lesion on the reading of the logographic, syllabic and alphabetic writing systems of a bilingual Portuguese-Japanese aphasic patient (PF). Results showed impaired reading in the logographic system and when reading irregularly spelled Portuguese words but no effects on reading regular words and nonwords in syllabic and alphabetic writing systems. These dissociations are interpreted according to a multi-route cognitive model of reading assuming selective damage in the lexical route can result in acquired dyslexia across at least three different writing codes.

  4. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Andréa Farias de Melo; Mota Jr., Américo; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaeté; Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common-increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations. PMID:27777479

  5. Processed pseudogenes acquired somatically during cancer development

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Susanna L.; Shlien, Adam; Marshall, John; Pipinikas, Christodoulos P; Martincorena, Inigo; Tubio, Jose M. C.; Li, Yilong; Menzies, Andrew; Mudie, Laura; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Yates, Lucy; Davies, Helen; Bolli, Niccolo; Bignell, Graham R; Tarpey, Patrick S.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer evolves by mutation, with somatic reactivation of retrotransposons being one such mutational process. Germline retrotransposition can cause processed pseudogenes, but whether this occurs somatically has not been evaluated. Here we screen sequencing data from 660 cancer samples for somatically acquired pseudogenes. We find 42 events in 17 samples, especially non-small cell lung cancer (5/27) and colorectal cancer (2/11). Genomic features mirror those of germline LINE element retrotransp...

  6. Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ride, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM), an education activity, allows middle school students to program a digital camera on board the International Space Station to photograph a variety of geographical targets for study in the classroom. Photos are made available on the web for viewing and study by participating schools around the world. Educators use the images for projects involving Earth Science, geography, physics, and social science.

  7. The pathophysiology of acquired premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Serefoglu, Ege C; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2016-08-01

    The second Ad Hoc International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation defined acquired premature ejaculation (PE) as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by a the development of a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in ejaculation latency time in men with previous normal ejaculatory experiences, often to about 3 minutes or less, the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and the presence of negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. The literature contains a diverse range of biological and psychological etiological theories. Acquired PE is commonly due to sexual performance anxiety, psychological or relationship problems, erectile dysfunction (ED), and occasionally prostatitis and hyperthyroidism, consistent with the predominant organic etiology of acquired PE, men with this complaint are usually older, have a higher mean BMI and a greater incidence of comorbid disease including hypertension, sexual desire disorder, diabetes mellitus, chronic prostatitis, and ED compared to lifelong, variable and subjective PE. PMID:27652216

  8. Cellular and molecular introduction to brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangning; Nardelli, Jeannette

    2016-08-01

    Advances in the study of brain development over the last decades, especially recent findings regarding the evolutionary expansion of the human neocortex, and large-scale analyses of the proteome/transcriptome in the human brain, have offered novel insights into the molecular mechanisms guiding neural maturation, and the pathophysiology of multiple forms of neurological disorders. As a preamble to reviews of this issue, we provide an overview of the cellular, molecular and genetic bases of brain development with an emphasis on the major mechanisms associated with landmarks of normal neural development in the embryonic stage and early postnatal life, including neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation, cortical neuronal migration, evolution and folding of the cerebral cortex, synaptogenesis and neural circuit development, gliogenesis and myelination. We will only briefly depict developmental disorders that result from perturbations of these cellular or molecular mechanisms, and the most common perinatal brain injuries that could disturb normal brain development. PMID:26184894

  9. A review of brain circuitries involved in stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eCraig-Mcquaide

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Stuttering has been the subject of much research, nevertheless its aetiology remains incompletely understood. This article presents a critical review of the literature on stuttering, with particular reference to the role of the basal ganglia. Neuroimaging and lesion studies of developmental and acquired stuttering, as well as pharmacological and genetic studies are discussed. Evidence that stuttering of structural and functional changes in the basal ganglia in those who stutter indicates that this motor speech disorder is due, at least in part, to abnormal basal ganglia cues for the initiation and termination of articulatory movements. Studies discussed provide evidence of a dysfunctional hyperdopaminergic state of the thalamocortical pathways underlying speech motor control in stuttering. Evidence that stuttering can improve, worsen or recur following deep brain stimulation (DBS for other indications is presented in order to emphasise the role of basal ganglia in stuttering. Further research is needed to fully elucidate the pathophysiology of this speech disorder, which is associated with significant social isolation.

  10. Fast whole-brain optical tomography capable of automated slice-collection (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Jiang, Tao; Deng, Lei; Long, Beng; Peng, Jie; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Acquiring brain-wide composite information of neuroanatomical and molecular phenotyping is crucial to understand brain functions. However, current whole-brain imaging methods based on mechnical sectioning haven't achieved brain-wide acquisition of both neuroanatomical and molecular phenotyping due to the lack of appropriate whole-brain immunostaining of embedded samples. Here, we present a novel strategy of acquiring brain-wide structural and molecular maps in the same brain, combining whole-brain imaging and subsequent immunostaining of automated-collected slices. We developed a whole-brain imaging system capable of automatically imaging and then collecting imaged tissue slices in order. The system contains three parts: structured illumination microscopy for high-throughput optical sectioning, vibratome for high-precision sectioning and slice-collection device for automated collecting of tissue slices. Through our system, we could acquire a whole-brain dataset of agarose-embedded mouse brain at lateral resolution of 0.33 µm with z-interval sampling of 100 µm in 9 h, and automatically collect the imaged slices in sequence. Subsequently, we performed immunohistochemistry of the collected slices in the routine way. We acquired mouse whole-brain imaging datasets of multiple specific types of neurons, proteins and gene expression profiles. We believe our method could accelerate systematic analysis of brain anatomical structure with specific proteins or genes expression information and understanding how the brain processes information and generates behavior.

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as they grow there are differences in brain development in children who develop bipolar disorder than children who do not. Studies comparing such children to those with normal brain development may help scientists to pinpoint when and where ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PTSD) . Prefrontal cortex (PFC) —Seat of the brain's executive functions, such as judgment, decision making, and problem solving. ... brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as judgment, decision making and problem solving, ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take pictures of ... to slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in understanding ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... little dopamine or problems using dopamine in the thinking and feeling regions of the brain may play ... axis —A brain-body circuit which plays a critical role in the body's response to stress. impulse — ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Imaging Using brain imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnetic fields to take ... to slow or stop them from progressing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another important research tool in ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman who seemed to have it all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she lost interest ...

  17. Experienced emotional burden in caregivers: psychometric properties of the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire in caregivers of brain injured patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurtsen, G.J.; Meijer, R.; Heugten, C.M. van; Martina, J.D.; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the psychometric properties (internal consistency, discriminant validity, and responsiveness) of the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire for Brain Injury measuring emotional burden in caregivers of patients with chronic acquired brain injury. DESIGN: Inception cohort study. SU

  18. Brain peroxisomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompier, D; Vejux, A; Zarrouk, A; Gondcaille, C; Geillon, F; Nury, T; Savary, S; Lizard, G

    2014-03-01

    Peroxisomes are essential organelles in higher eukaryotes as they play a major role in numerous metabolic pathways and redox homeostasis. Some peroxisomal abnormalities, which are often not compatible with life or normal development, were identified in severe demyelinating and neurodegenerative brain diseases. The metabolic roles of peroxisomes, especially in the brain, are described and human brain peroxisomal disorders resulting from a peroxisome biogenesis or a single peroxisomal enzyme defect are listed. The brain abnormalities encountered in these disorders (demyelination, oxidative stress, inflammation, cell death, neuronal migration, differentiation) are described and their pathogenesis are discussed. Finally, the contribution of peroxisomal dysfunctions to the alterations of brain functions during aging and to the development of Alzheimer's disease is considered.

  19. Scale-free brain activity: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Biyu J

    2014-09-01

    Brain activity observed at many spatiotemporal scales exhibits a 1/f-like power spectrum, including neuronal membrane potentials, neural field potentials, noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals. A 1/f-like power spectrum is indicative of arrhythmic brain activity that does not contain a predominant temporal scale (hence, 'scale-free'). This characteristic of scale-free brain activity distinguishes it from brain oscillations. Although scale-free brain activity and brain oscillations coexist, our understanding of the former remains limited. Recent research has shed light on the spatiotemporal organization, functional significance, and potential generative mechanisms of scale-free brain activity, as well as its developmental and clinical relevance. A deeper understanding of this prevalent brain signal should provide new insights into, and analytical tools for, cognitive neuroscience.

  20. Developmental amnesia and its relationship to degree of hippocampal atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, E. B.; Vargha-Khadem, F.; Watkins, K. E.; Lucas, A.; Mishkin, M.; Gadian, D. G.

    2003-01-01

    Two groups of adolescents, one born preterm and one with a diagnosis of developmental amnesia, were compared with age-matched normal controls on measures of hippocampal volume and memory function. Relative to control values, the preterm group values showed a mean bilateral reduction in hippocampal volume of 8–9% (ranging to 23%), whereas the developmental amnesic group values showed a reduction of 40% (ranging from 27% to 56%). Despite equivalent IQ and immediate memory scores in the two study groups, there were marked differences between them on a wide variety of verbal and visual delayed memory tasks. Consistent with their diagnosis, the developmental amnesic group was impaired relative to both other groups on nearly all delayed memory measures. The preterm group, by contrast, was significantly impaired relative to the controls on only a few memory measures, i.e., route following and prospective memory. We suggest that early hippocampal pathology leads to the disabling memory impairments associated with developmental amnesia when the volume of this structure is reduced below normal by ≈20–30% on each side. Whether this is a sufficient condition for the disorder or whether abnormality in other brain regions is also necessary remains to be determined. PMID:14555756