WorldWideScience

Sample records for acoustically induced vibration

  1. Acoustically Induced Vibration of Structures: Reverberant Vs. Direct Acoustic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; O'Connell, Michael R.; Tsoi, Wan B.

    2009-01-01

    Large reverberant chambers have been used for several decades in the aerospace industry to test larger structures such as solar arrays and reflectors to qualify and to detect faults in the design and fabrication of spacecraft and satellites. In the past decade some companies have begun using direct near field acoustic testing, employing speakers, for qualifying larger structures. A limited test data set obtained from recent acoustic tests of the same hardware exposed to both direct and reverberant acoustic field testing has indicated some differences in the resulting structural responses. In reverberant acoustic testing, higher vibration responses were observed at lower frequencies when compared with the direct acoustic testing. In the case of direct near field acoustic testing higher vibration responses appeared to occur at higher frequencies as well. In reverberant chamber testing and direct acoustic testing, standing acoustic modes of the reverberant chamber or the speakers and spacecraft parallel surfaces can strongly couple with the fundamental structural modes of the test hardware. In this paper data from recent acoustic testing of flight hardware, that yielded evidence of acoustic standing wave coupling with structural responses, are discussed in some detail. Convincing evidence of the acoustic standing wave/structural coupling phenomenon will be discussed, citing observations from acoustic testing of a simple aluminum plate. The implications of such acoustic coupling to testing of sensitive flight hardware will be discussed. The results discussed in this paper reveal issues with over or under testing of flight hardware that could pose unanticipated structural and flight qualification issues. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the structural modal coupling with standing acoustic waves that has been observed in both methods of acoustic testing. This study will assist the community to choose an appropriate testing method and test setup in

  2. Flow-induced and acoustically induced vibration experience in operating gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halvers, L.J.

    1977-03-01

    An overview has been presented of flow-induced and acoustically induced vibration failures that occurred in the past in gas-cooled graphite-moderated reactors, and the importance of this experience for the Gas-Cooled Fast-Breeder Reactor (GCFR) project has been assessed. Until now only failures in CO 2 -cooled reactors have been found. No problems with helium-cooled reactors have been encountered so far. It is shown that most of the failures occurred because flow-induced and acoustically induced dynamic loads were underestimated, while at the same time not enough was known about the influence of environmental parameters on material behavior. All problems encountered were solved. The comparison of the influence of the gas properties on acoustically induced and flow-induced vibration phenomena shows that the interaction between reactor design and the thermodynamic properties of the primary coolant precludes a general preference for either carbon dioxide or helium. The acoustic characteristics of CO 2 and He systems are different, but the difference in dynamic loadings due to the use of one rather than the other remains difficult to predict. A slight preference for helium seems, however, to be justified

  3. Signal analysis of acoustic and flow-induced vibrations of BWR main steam line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Paredes, G., E-mail: gepe@xanum.uam.mx [División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, México, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Prieto-Guerrero, A. [División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, México, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Núñez-Carrera, A. [Comisión Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Doctor Barragán 779, Col. Narvarte, México, D.F. 03020 (Mexico); Vázquez-Rodríguez, A. [División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, México, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Centeno-Pérez, J. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas Unidad Profesional “Adolfo López Mateos”, Av. IPN, s/n, México, D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Espinosa-Martínez, E.-G. [Departamento de Sistemas Energéticos, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); and others

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Acoustic and flow-induced vibrations of BWR are analyzed. • BWR performance after extended power uprate is considered. • Effect of acoustic side branches (ASB) is analyzed. • The ASB represents a reduction in the acoustic loads to the steam dryer. • Methodology developed for simultaneous analyzing the signals in the MSL. - Abstract: The aim of this work is the signal analysis of acoustic waves due to phenomenon known as singing in Safety Relief Valves (SRV) of the main steam lines (MSL) in a typical BWR5. The acoustic resonance in SRV standpipes and fluctuating pressure is propagated from SRV to the dryer through the MSL. The signals are analyzed with a novel method based on the Multivariate Empirical Mode Decomposition (M-EMD). The M-EMD algorithm has the potential to find common oscillatory modes (IMF) within multivariate data. Based on this fact, we implement the M-EMD technique to find the oscillatory mode in BWR considering the measurements obtained collected by the strain gauges located around the MSL. These IMF, analyzed simultaneously in time, allow obtaining an estimation of the effects of the multiple-SRV in the MSL. Two scenarios are analyzed: the first is the signal obtained before the installation of the acoustic dampers (ASB), and the second, the signal obtained after installation. The results show the effectiveness of the ASB to damp the strong resonances when the steam flow increases, which represents an important reduction in the acoustic loads to the steam dryer.

  4. Signal analysis of acoustic and flow-induced vibrations of BWR main steam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa-Paredes, G.; Prieto-Guerrero, A.; Núñez-Carrera, A.; Vázquez-Rodríguez, A.; Centeno-Pérez, J.; Espinosa-Martínez, E.-G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Acoustic and flow-induced vibrations of BWR are analyzed. • BWR performance after extended power uprate is considered. • Effect of acoustic side branches (ASB) is analyzed. • The ASB represents a reduction in the acoustic loads to the steam dryer. • Methodology developed for simultaneous analyzing the signals in the MSL. - Abstract: The aim of this work is the signal analysis of acoustic waves due to phenomenon known as singing in Safety Relief Valves (SRV) of the main steam lines (MSL) in a typical BWR5. The acoustic resonance in SRV standpipes and fluctuating pressure is propagated from SRV to the dryer through the MSL. The signals are analyzed with a novel method based on the Multivariate Empirical Mode Decomposition (M-EMD). The M-EMD algorithm has the potential to find common oscillatory modes (IMF) within multivariate data. Based on this fact, we implement the M-EMD technique to find the oscillatory mode in BWR considering the measurements obtained collected by the strain gauges located around the MSL. These IMF, analyzed simultaneously in time, allow obtaining an estimation of the effects of the multiple-SRV in the MSL. Two scenarios are analyzed: the first is the signal obtained before the installation of the acoustic dampers (ASB), and the second, the signal obtained after installation. The results show the effectiveness of the ASB to damp the strong resonances when the steam flow increases, which represents an important reduction in the acoustic loads to the steam dryer.

  5. International Conference on Acoustics and Vibration

    CERN Document Server

    Chaari, Fakher; Walha, Lasaad; Abdennadher, Moez; Abbes, Mohamed; Haddar, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    The book provides readers with a snapshot of recent research and industrial trends in field of industrial acoustics and vibration. Each chapter, accepted after a rigorous peer-review process, reports on a selected, original piece of work presented and discussed at International Conference on Acoustics and Vibration (ICAV2016), which was organized by the Tunisian Association of Industrial Acoustics and Vibration (ATAVI) and held March 21-23, in Hammamet, Tunisia. The contributions, mainly written by north African authors, covers advances in both theory and practice in a variety of subfields, such as: smart materials and structures; fluid-structure interaction; structural acoustics as well as computational vibro-acoustics and numerical methods. Further topics include: engines control, noise identification, robust design, flow-induced vibration and many others.This book provides a valuable resource for both academics and professionals dealing with diverse issues in applied mechanics. By combining advanced theori...

  6. Nonlinear vibration and radiation from a panel with transition to chaos induced by acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestrello, Lucio; Frendi, Abdelkader; Brown, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamic response of an aircraft panel forced at resonance and off-resonance by plane acoustic waves at normal incidence is investigated experimentally and numerically. Linear, nonlinear (period doubling) and chaotic responses are obtained by increasing the sound pressure level of the excitation. The response time history is sensitive to the input level and to the frequency of excitation. The change in response behavior is due to a change in input conditions, triggered either naturally or by modulation of the bandwidth of the incident waves. Off-resonance, bifurcation is diffused and difficult to maintain, thus the panel response drifts into a linear behavior. The acoustic pressure emanated by the panel is either linear or nonlinear as is the vibration response. The nonlinear effects accumulate during the propagation with distance. Results are also obtained on the control of the panel response using damping tape on aluminum panel and using a graphite epoxy panel having the same size and weight. Good agreement is obtained between the experimental and numerical results.

  7. PIV measurements of acoustic and flow-induced vibration in main stream lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanrong; Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Systems with closed side-branches are liable to an excitation of sound, as called cavity tone. In this study, flow-induced acoustic resonances of piping systems containing closed side-branches were investigated experimentally. The present investigation on the coaxial closed side-branches is the first rudimentary study to measure the pressure at the downstream side opening of the cavity by microphone and to visualize the fluid flow in the cross-section by using PIV. High-time-resolved PIV has a possibility to analyze the velocity field and the relation between sound propagation and flow field. The fluid flows at different points in the cavity interact with some phase differences and the relation can be clarified. (author)

  8. Acoustic and vibrational tests of effects induced on building by the demolition of the 'Ponte del Barco' Firenze - Toscana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stragapede, Francesco; Biannucci, Roberto; Pascini, Lando Umberto; Leonasi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    For demolition of Ponte del Barco, the Torrente Mugnone overpass at the Parco delle Cascine of Firenze, were checked up entities in the field of energy and vibrational noise produced during activities on sensitive lens, considering the building located near the structure being demolished. The vibrations to the building have been checked with reference to noise thresholds of disturbance to the person (UNI 9614) and resentment/damage to the building (UNI 9 9 16). Evaluation of transient vibration actions on the building were examined during the demolition of the structure, carried out using excavator CAT 320 D LN equipped with concrete crusher, and handling stages of demolition material using excavator ZAX 2 40 Hitachi equipped with a shovel. The tests were conducted with Symphonie type level meter (class 1 REF. EN60651/94 and EN60804/9 4) and oriented velocimeters n. 4 recording stations using GEOBOX of Sara Electr. Instr. The noise level was compared with the acoustic limits of the area and the intensity of vibration induced on sensitive building was related to thresholds of disturbance to the person and damage to structures, ensuring that in the course of the demolition operations were the conditions of security of operators in the area and the absence of damage to the buildings. Based on the findings from the analysis, the acoustic activity of demolition of the Bridge in Florence took place within the acoustic limits of exemption of localization activities (class IV – area of intense human activity). The exceeded the thresholds of vibrational disturbance to the person was checked, in reference UNI 9614; the exceeded the thresholds for structural damage was not checked, in reference to UNI 9916. The attendance of the necessary staff for testing acoustic and vibrational did not affect any sensitive subject even in the presence of the excess of noise and vibration thresholds of disturbance to the person.

  9. Prediction and control of acoustically induced vibrations of high-precision equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozen, N.B.

    2007-01-01

    With the accuracy of metrology frame applications entering the nanometer-range, the necessity arises to tackle all types of disturbances. In the process of estimating the relative importance of the different types of disturbances on the machine accuracy, also called dynamic error budgeting, acoustic

  10. Experimental study of acoustic vibration in BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Kosuke; Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the power uprate of Boiling Water Reactors have been conducted at several existing power plants as a way to improve plant economy. In one of the power uprated plants (117.8% uprates) in the United States, the steam dryer breakages due to fatigue fracture occurred. It is conceivable that the increased steam flow passing through the branches caused a self-induced vibration with the propagation of sound wave into the steam-dome. The resonance among the structure, flow and the pressure fluctuation resulted in the breakages. To understand the basic mechanism of the resonance, previous researches were done by a point measurement of the pressure and by a phase averaged measurement of the flow, while it was difficult to detect the interaction among them by the conventional method. In this study, Dynamic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) System was applied to investigate the effect of sound on natural convection and forced convection. Dynamic PIV system is the newest entrant to the field of fluid flow measurement. Its paramount advantage is the instantaneous global evaluation of conditions over plane extended across the whole velocity field. Also, to evaluate the coupling between the acoustic wave and structure (simulated as tuning fork vibrator in this experiment), in the resonance frequency of tuning fork vibrator, fluid behavior and the motion of tuning fork vibrator are measured simultaneously. (author)

  11. Impact of flow induced vibration acoustic loads on the design of the Laguna Verde Unit 2 steam dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, D. R.; Wellstein, L. F.; Theuret, R. C.; Han, Y.; Rajakumar, C.; Amador C, C.; Sosa F, W.

    2015-09-01

    Industry experience with Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) has shown that increasing the steam flow through the main steam lines (MSLs) to implement an extended power up rate (EPU) may lead to amplified acoustic loads on the steam dryer, which may negatively affect the structural integrity of the component. The source of these acoustic loads has been found to be acoustic resonance of the side branches on the MSLs, specifically, coupling of the vortex shedding frequency and natural acoustic frequency of safety relief valves (SRVs). The resonance that results from this coupling can contribute significant acoustic energy into the MSL system, which may propagate upstream into the reactor pressure vessel steam dome and drive structural vibration of steam dryer components. This can lead to high-cycle fatigue issues. Lock-in between the vortex shedding frequency and SRV natural frequency, as well as the ability for acoustic energy to propagate into the MSL system, are a function of many things, including the plant operating conditions, geometry of the MSL/SRV junction, and placement of SRVs with respect to each other on the MSLs. Comision Federal de Electricidad and Westinghouse designed, fabricated, and installed acoustic side branches (ASBs) on the MSLs which effectively act in the system as an energy absorber, where the acoustic standing wave generated in the side-branch is absorbed and dissipated inside the ASB. These ASBs have been very successful in reducing the amount of acoustic energy which propagates into the steam dome. In addition, modifications to the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant Unit 2 steam dryer have been completed to reduce the stress levels in critical locations in the dryer. The objective of this paper is to describe the acoustic side branch concept and the design iterative processes that were undertaken at Laguna Verde Unit 2 to achieve a steam dryer design that meets the guidelines of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Boiler and Pressure

  12. Impact of flow induced vibration acoustic loads on the design of the Laguna Verde Unit 2 steam dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, D. R.; Wellstein, L. F.; Theuret, R. C.; Han, Y.; Rajakumar, C. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States); Amador C, C.; Sosa F, W., E-mail: forsytdr@westinghouse.com [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Km 42.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, 91680 Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Industry experience with Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) has shown that increasing the steam flow through the main steam lines (MSLs) to implement an extended power up rate (EPU) may lead to amplified acoustic loads on the steam dryer, which may negatively affect the structural integrity of the component. The source of these acoustic loads has been found to be acoustic resonance of the side branches on the MSLs, specifically, coupling of the vortex shedding frequency and natural acoustic frequency of safety relief valves (SRVs). The resonance that results from this coupling can contribute significant acoustic energy into the MSL system, which may propagate upstream into the reactor pressure vessel steam dome and drive structural vibration of steam dryer components. This can lead to high-cycle fatigue issues. Lock-in between the vortex shedding frequency and SRV natural frequency, as well as the ability for acoustic energy to propagate into the MSL system, are a function of many things, including the plant operating conditions, geometry of the MSL/SRV junction, and placement of SRVs with respect to each other on the MSLs. Comision Federal de Electricidad and Westinghouse designed, fabricated, and installed acoustic side branches (ASBs) on the MSLs which effectively act in the system as an energy absorber, where the acoustic standing wave generated in the side-branch is absorbed and dissipated inside the ASB. These ASBs have been very successful in reducing the amount of acoustic energy which propagates into the steam dome. In addition, modifications to the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant Unit 2 steam dryer have been completed to reduce the stress levels in critical locations in the dryer. The objective of this paper is to describe the acoustic side branch concept and the design iterative processes that were undertaken at Laguna Verde Unit 2 to achieve a steam dryer design that meets the guidelines of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Boiler and Pressure

  13. Damage diagnostic of localized impact erosion by measuring acoustic vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2004-01-01

    High power spallation targets for neutron sources are being developed in the world. Mercury target will be installed at the material and life science facility in J-PARC, which will promote innovative science. The mercury target is subject to the pressure wave caused by the proton bombarding mercury. The pressure wave propagation induces the cavitation in mercury that imposes localized impact erosion damage on the target vessel. The impact erosion is a critical issue to decide the lifetime of the target. The electric Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine, MIMTM, was developed to produce the localized impact erosion damage and evaluate the damage formation. Acoustic vibration measurement was carried out to investigate the correlation between the erosion damage and the damage potential derived from acoustic vibration. It was confirmed that the damage potential related with acoustic vibration is useful to predict the damage due to the localized impact erosion and to diagnose the structural integrity. (author)

  14. Flow induced vibrations of piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, R.J.; Axisa, F.

    1977-01-01

    In order to design the supports of piping systems, estimations of the vibrations induced by the fluid conveyed through the pipes are generally needed. For that purpose it is necessary to calculate the model parameters of liquid containing pipes. In most computer codes, fluid effects are accounted for just by adding the fluid mass to the structure. This may lead to serious errors. This paper presents a method to take into account these effects, by solving a coupled mechanical-acoustical problem: the computer code TEDEL of the C.E.A /D.E.M.T. System, based on the finite-elements method, has been extended to calculate simultaneously the pressure fluctuations in the fluid and the vibrations of the pipe. By this way the mechanical-acoustical coupled eigenmodes of any piping system can be obtained. These eigenmodes are used to determine the response of the system to various sources. Equations have been written in the hypohesis that acoustical wave lengths remain large compared to the diameter of the pipe. The method has been checked by an experiment performed on the GASCOGNE loop at D.E.M.T. The piping system under test consists of a tube with four elbows. The circuit is ended at each extremity by a large vessel which performs acoustical isolation by generating modes for the pressure. Excitation of the circuit is caused by a valve located near the downstream vessel. This provides an efficient localised broad band acoustical source. The comparison between the test results and the calculations has shown that the low frequency resonant characteristics of the pipe and the vibrational amplitude at various flow-rates can be correctly predicted

  15. PIV measurements of acoustic flow-induced vibration in a rectangular channel with co-axial side branches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanrong; Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji

    2010-01-01

    Systems with closed side-branches are liable to an excitation of sound, as called cavity tone. In this study, flow-induced acoustic resonances of piping systems containing closed side-branches were investigated experimentally. The present investigation on the coaxial closed side-branches is the first rudimentary study to measure the pressure at the downstream side opening of the cavity by microphone and to visualize the fluid flow in the cross-section by using PIV. High-time-resolved PIV has a possibility to analyze the velocity field and the relation between sound propagation and flow field. The fluid flows at different points in the cavity interact with some phase differences and the relation can be clarified. (author)

  16. Flow induced vibrations of piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, R.J.; Axisa, F.

    1977-01-01

    In order to design the supports of piping systems, estimations of the vibrations induced by the fluid conveyed through the pipes are generally needed. For that purpose it is necessary to calculate the model parameters of liquid containing pipes. In most computer codes, fluid effects are accounted for just by adding the fuid mass to the structure. This may lead to serious errors.- Inertial effects from the fluid are not correctly evaluated especially in the case of bended or of non-uniform section pipes. Fluid boundary conditions are simply ignored. - In many practical problems fluid compressibility cannot be negelcted, even in the low frequencies domain which corresponds to efficient excitation by turbulent sources of the flow. This paper presents a method to take into account these efects, by solving a coupled mechanical acoustical problem: the computer code TEDEL of the C.E.A./D.E.M.T. System, based on the finite-elements method, has been extended to calculate simultaneously the pressure fluctuations in the fluid and the vibrations of the pipe. (Auth.)

  17. Materials for Damping Ambient Acoustic and Vibration Signals, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long-term exposure to even relatively low levels of acoustic and vibration signals has been shown to be potentially harmful to humans. A new class of piezoelectric...

  18. Vertical vibration and shape oscillation of acoustically levitated water drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Yan, N.; Wei, B.

    2014-01-01

    We present the vertical harmonic vibration of levitated water drops within ultrasound field. The restoring force to maintain such a vibration mode is provided by the resultant force of acoustic radiation force and drop gravity. Experiments reveal that the vibration frequency increases with the aspect ratio for drops with the same volume, which agrees with the theoretical prediction for those cases of nearly equiaxed drops. During the vertical vibration, the floating drops undergo the second order shape oscillation. The shape oscillation frequency is determined to be twice the vibration frequency.

  19. Vertical vibration and shape oscillation of acoustically levitated water drops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Yan, N.; Wei, B., E-mail: bbwei@nwpu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2014-09-08

    We present the vertical harmonic vibration of levitated water drops within ultrasound field. The restoring force to maintain such a vibration mode is provided by the resultant force of acoustic radiation force and drop gravity. Experiments reveal that the vibration frequency increases with the aspect ratio for drops with the same volume, which agrees with the theoretical prediction for those cases of nearly equiaxed drops. During the vertical vibration, the floating drops undergo the second order shape oscillation. The shape oscillation frequency is determined to be twice the vibration frequency.

  20. Band Width of Acoustic Resonance Frequency Relatively Natural Frequency of Fuel Rod Vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, Konstantin Nicolaevich; Moukhine, V.S.; Novikov, K.S.; Galivets, E.Yu. [MPEI - TU, 14, Krasnokazarmennaya str., Moscow, 111250 (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    In flow induced vibrations the fluid flow is the energy source that causes vibration. Acoustic resonance in piping may lead to severe problems due to over-stressing of components or significant losses of efficiency. Steady oscillatory flow in NPP primary loop can be induced by the pulsating flow introduced by reactor circulating pump or may be set up by self-excitation. Dynamic forces generated by the turbulent flow of coolant in reactor cores cause fuel rods (FR) and fuel assembly (FA) to vibrate. Flow-induced FR and FA vibrations can generally be broken into three groups: large amplitude 'resonance type' vibrations, which can cause immediate rod failure or severe damage to the rod and its support structure, middle amplitude 'within bandwidth of resonance frequency type' vibrations responsible for more gradual wear and fatigue at the contact surface between the fuel cladding and rod support and small amplitude vibrations, 'out of bandwidth of resonance frequency type' responsible for permissible wear and fatigue at the contact surface between the fuel cladding and rod support. Ultimately, these vibration types can result in a cladding breach, and therefore must be accounted for in the thermal hydraulic design of FR and FA and reactor internals. In paper the technique of definition of quality factor (Q) of acoustic contour of the coolant is presented. The value of Q defines a range of frequencies of acoustic fluctuations of the coolant within which the resonance of oscillations of the structure and the coolant is realized. Method of evaluation of so called band width (BW) of acoustic resonance frequency is worked out and presented in the paper. BW characterises the range of the frequency of coolant pressure oscillations within which the frequency of coolant pressure oscillations matches the fuel assembly's natural frequency of vibration (its resonance frequency). Paper show the way of detuning acoustic resonance from natural

  1. Automatic acoustic and vibration monitoring system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tothmatyas, Istvan; Illenyi, Andras; Kiss, Jozsef; Komaromi, Tibor; Nagy, Istvan; Olchvary, Geza

    1990-01-01

    A diagnostic system for nuclear power plant monitoring is described. Acoustic and vibration diagnostics can be applied to monitor various reactor components and auxiliary equipment including primary circuit machinery, leak detection, integrity of reactor vessel, loose parts monitoring. A noise diagnostic system has been developed for the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, to supervise the vibration state of primary circuit machinery. An automatic data acquisition and processing system is described for digitalizing and analysing diagnostic signals. (R.P.) 3 figs

  2. Understanding acoustics an experimentalist’s view of acoustics and vibration

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, Steven L

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides a unified approach to acoustics and vibration suitable for use in advanced undergraduate and first-year graduate courses on vibration and fluids. The book includes thorough treatment of vibration of harmonic oscillators, coupled oscillators, isotropic elasticity, and waves in solids including the use of resonance techniques for determination of elastic moduli. Drawing on 35 years of experience teaching introductory graduate acoustics at the Naval Postgraduate School and Penn State, the author presents a hydrodynamic approach to the acoustics of sound in fluids that provides a uniform methodology for analysis of lumped-element systems and wave propagation that can incorporate attenuation mechanisms and complex media. This view provides a consistent and reliable approach that can be extended with confidence to more complex fluids and future applications. Understanding Acoustics opens with a mathematical introduction that includes graphing and statistical uncertainty, followed by five chap...

  3. Man-Induced Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    1994-01-01

    work has been done on the measurement of the exact load functions and related reponse analysis. A recent work using a spectral description has been performed by Per-Erik Erikson and includes a good literature survey. Bachmann and Ammann give a good overview of vibrations caused by human activity. Other...

  4. Measurement of food texture by an acoustic vibration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Naoki; Taniwaki, Mitsuru; Iwatani, Shin-ichiro; Akimoto, Hidemi

    2011-09-01

    Food texture was measured by a new acoustic vibration method. A piezoelectric sensor sandwiched between a probe and piston was inserted into a food sample by delivery of silicon oil to a cylinder by a pump. Vibration emitted from the food sample on insertion of the probe was monitored by voltage outputs of the sensor. The voltage signals were passed through 19 half octave bands to calculate texture index for each band. The texture index was defined as vibration energy of the probe caused by the food rupture and/or breakage per unit time.

  5. Flow induced vibration in shell and tube heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soper, B.M.H.

    1981-01-01

    Assessing heat exchanger designs, from the standpoint of flow induced vibration, is becoming increasingly important as shell side flow velocities are increased in a quest for better thermal performance. This paper reviews the state of the art concerning the main sources of vibration excitation, i.e. vortex shedding resonance, turbulent buffeting, fluidelastic instability and acoustic resonance, as well as the structural dynamics of the tubes. It is concluded that there are many areas which require further investigation but there are sufficient data available at present to design, with reasonable confidence, units that will be free from flow induced vibration. Topics which are considered to be key areas for further work are listed

  6. Numerical Simulation of Airfoil Vibrations Induced by Turbulent Flow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feistauer, M.; Horáček, Jaromír; Sváček, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2015), s. 146-188 ISSN 1815-2406 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/11/0207 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : fluid-structure interaction * flow induced vibrations * turbulence models * finite element method Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.778, year: 2015

  7. Development of monitoring system using acoustic emission for detection of helium gas leakage for primary cooling system and flow-induced vibration for heat transfer tube of heat exchangers for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Furusawa, Takayuki; Shinozaki, Masayuki; Satoh, Yoshiyuki; Yanagibashi, Minoru

    1998-10-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) uses helium gas for its primary coolant, whose leakage inside reactor containment vessel is considered in design of the HTTR. It is necessary to detect leakage of helium gas at an early stage so that total amount of the leakage should be as small as possible. On the other hand, heat transfer tubes of heat exchangers of the HTTR are designed not to vibrate at normal operation, but the flow-induced vibration is to be monitored to provide against an emergency. Thus monitoring system of acoustic emission for detection of primary coolant leakage and vibration of heat transfer tubes was developed and applied to the HTTR. Before the application to the HTTR, leakage detection test was performed using 1/4 scaled model of outer tube of primary concentric hot gas duct. Result of the test covers detectable minimum leakage rate and effect of difference in gas, pressure, shape of leakage path and distance from the leaking point. Detectable minimum leakage rate was about 5 Ncc/sec. The monitoring system is promising in leakage detection, though countermeasure to noise is to be needed after the HTTR starts operating. (author)

  8. Free-vibration acoustic resonance of a nonlinear elastic bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarumi, Ryuichi; Oshita, Yoshihito

    2011-02-01

    Free-vibration acoustic resonance of a one-dimensional nonlinear elastic bar was investigated by direct analysis in the calculus of variations. The Lagrangian density of the bar includes a cubic term of the deformation gradient, which is responsible for both geometric and constitutive nonlinearities. By expanding the deformation function into a complex Fourier series, we derived the action integral in an analytic form and evaluated its stationary conditions numerically with the Ritz method for the first three resonant vibration modes. This revealed that the bar shows the following prominent nonlinear features: (i) amplitude dependence of the resonance frequency; (ii) symmetry breaking in the vibration pattern; and (iii) excitation of the high-frequency mode around nodal-like points. Stability of the resonant vibrations was also addressed in terms of a convex condition on the strain energy density.

  9. The effects of acoustic vibration on fibroblast cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Taybia; Murphy, Mark F; Lilley, Francis; Burton, David R; Bezombes, Frederic

    2016-12-01

    Cells are known to interact and respond to external mechanical cues and recent work has shown that application of mechanical stimulation, delivered via acoustic vibration, can be used to control complex cell behaviours. Fibroblast cells are known to respond to physical cues generated in the extracellular matrix and it is thought that such cues are important regulators of the wound healing process. Many conditions are associated with poor wound healing, so there is need for treatments/interventions, which can help accelerate the wound healing process. The primary aim of this research was to investigate the effects of mechanical stimulation upon the migratory and morphological properties of two different fibroblast cells namely; human lung fibroblast cells (LL24) and subcutaneous areolar/adipose mouse fibroblast cells (L929). Using a speaker-based system, the effects of mechanical stimulation (0-1600Hz for 5min) on the mean cell migration distance (μm) and actin organisation was investigated. The results show that 100Hz acoustic vibration enhanced cell migration for both cell lines whereas acoustic vibration above 100Hz was found to decrease cell migration in a frequency dependent manner. Mechanical stimulation was also found to promote changes to the morphology of both cell lines, particularly the formation of lamellipodia and filopodia. Overall lamellipodia was the most prominent actin structure displayed by the lung cell (LL24), whereas filopodia was the most prominent actin feature displayed by the fibroblast derived from subcutaneous areolar/adipose tissue. Mechanical stimulation at all the frequencies used here was found not to affect cell viability. These results suggest that low-frequency acoustic vibration may be used as a tool to manipulate the mechanosensitivity of cells to promote cell migration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Customized shaping of vibration modes by acoustic metamaterial synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiawen; Li, Shilong; Tang, J.

    2018-04-01

    Acoustic metamaterials have attractive potential in elastic wave guiding and attenuation over specific frequency ranges. The vast majority of related investigations are on transient waves. In this research we focus on stationary wave manipulation, i.e., shaping of vibration modes. Periodically arranged piezoelectric transducers shunted with inductive circuits are integrated to a beam structure to form a finite-length metamaterial beam. We demonstrate for the first time that, under a given operating frequency of interest, we can facilitate a metamaterial design such that this frequency becomes a natural frequency of the integrated system. Moreover, the vibration mode corresponding to this natural frequency can be customized and shaped to realize tailored/localized response distribution. This is fundamentally different from previous practices of utilizing geometry modification and/or feedback control to achieve mode tailoring. The metamaterial design is built upon the combinatorial effects of the bandgap feature and the effective resonant cavity feature, both attributed to the dynamic characteristics of the metamaterial beam. Analytical investigations based on unit-cell dynamics and modal analysis of the metamaterial beam are presented to reveal the underlying mechanism. Case illustrations are validated by finite element analyses. Owing to the online tunability of circuitry integrated, the proposed mode shaping technique can be online adjusted to fit specific requirements. The customized shaping of vibration modes by acoustic metamaterial synthesis has potential applications in vibration suppression, sensing enhancement and energy harvesting.

  11. Vibration and Acoustic Testing for Mars Micromission Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Dennis L.; Scharton, Terry D.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the Mars Micromission program being managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for NASA is to develop a common spacecraft that can carry telecommunications equipment and a variety of science payloads for exploration of Mars. The spacecraft will be capable of carrying robot landers and rovers, cameras, probes, balloons, gliders or aircraft, and telecommunications equipment to Mars at much lower cost than recent NASA Mars missions. The lightweight spacecraft (about 220 Kg mass) will be launched in a cooperative venture with CNES as a TWIN auxiliary payload on the Ariane 5 launch vehicle. Two or more Mars Micromission launches are planned for each Mars launch opportunity, which occur every 26 months. The Mars launch window for the first mission is November 1, 2002 through April 2003, which is planned to be a Mars airplane technology demonstration mission to coincide with the 100 year anniversary of the Kittyhawk flight. Several subsequent launches will create a telecommunications network orbiting Mars, which will provide for continuous communication with lenders and rovers on the Martian surface. Dedicated science payload flights to Mars are slated to start in 2005. This new cheaper and faster approach to Mars exploration calls for innovative approaches to the qualification of the Mars Micromission spacecraft for the Ariane 5 launch vibration and acoustic environments. JPL has in recent years implemented new approaches to spacecraft testing that may be effectively applied to the Mars Micromission. These include 1) force limited vibration testing, 2) combined loads, vibration and modal testing, and 3) direct acoustic testing. JPL has performed nearly 200 force limited vibration tests in the past 9 years; several of the tests were on spacecraft and large instruments, including the Cassini and Deep Space One spacecraft. Force limiting, which measures and limits the spacecraft base reaction force using triaxial force gages sandwiched between the

  12. Laser method of acoustical emission control from vibrating surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyka, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    For limitation of the noise in environment, the necessity occurs of determining and location of sources of sounds emitted from surfaces of many machines and devices, assuring in effect the possibility of suitable constructional changes implementation, targeted at decreasing of their nuisance. In the paper, the results of tests and calculations are presented for plane surface sources emitting acoustic waves. The tests were realized with the use of scanning laser vibrometer which enabled remote registration and the spectral analysis of the surfaces vibrations. The known hybrid digital method developed for determination of sound wave emission from such surfaces divided into small finite elements was slightly modified by distinguishing the phase correlations between such vibrating elements. The final method being developed may find use in wide range of applications for different forms of vibrations of plane surfaces.

  13. Surface Acoustic Wave Vibration Sensors for Measuring Aircraft Flutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William C.; Moore, Jason P.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Under NASA's Advanced Air Vehicles Program the Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) Project is investigating flutter effects on aeroelastic wings. To support that work a new method for measuring vibrations due to flutter has been developed. The method employs low power Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors. To demonstrate the ability of the SAW sensor to detect flutter vibrations the sensors were attached to a Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite panel which was vibrated at six frequencies from 1Hz to 50Hz. The SAW data was compared to accelerometer data and was found to resemble sine waves and match each other closely. The SAW module design and results from the tests are presented here.

  14. Visualization investigation of acoustic and flow-induced vibration in main stream lines using a high-time-resolved PIV technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanrong; Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Systems with closed side-branches are liable to an excitation of sound, as called cavity tone. It may occur in pipe branches leading to safety valves or to boiler relief valves. The outbreak mechanism of the cavity tone has been known by phase-averaged measurement in previous researches, while the relation between sound propagation and flow field is still unclear due to the difficulty of detecting instantaneous velocity field. High-time-resolved PIV has a possibility to analyze the velocity field and the relation mentioned above. In this study, flow-induced acoustic resonance of piping system containing closed side-branches was investigated experimentally. A high-time-resolved PIV technique was applied to measure a gas-flow in a cavity. Air flow containing oil mist as tracer particles was measured using a high frequency pulse laser and a high speed camera. The present investigation on the coaxial closed side-branches is the first rudimentary study to visualize the fluid flow two-dimensionally in the cross-section by using PIV and to measure the pressure at the downstream side opening of the cavity by microphone. The fluid flows at different points in the cavity interact with some phase differences and the relation was clarified. (author)

  15. CRBRP flow induced vibration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novendstern, E H [Westinghouse Advanced Reactor Division, Madison, PA (United States); Grochowski, F A; Yang, T M [General Electric Co., Fast Breeder Reactor Department, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Ryan, J A; Mulcahy, T M

    1977-12-01

    The program to assure the structural adequacy of Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBRP) components during its planned 30 years of operation is described. The program includes (1) an assessment of reactor components relative to their susceptibility to FIV, (2) designing to minimize component excitation due to Fluid induced vibrations (FIV), (3) scale model tests to measure structural response during simulated operating conditions and (4) preoperational tests. An overview of the CRBRP test program is described. Additionally, details of scale model testing of reactor internals and the steam generator is described in more detail. (author)

  16. Acoustic Pressure Waves in Vibrating 3-D Laminated Beam-Plate Enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Osheku

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of structural vibration on the propagation of acoustic pressure waves through a cantilevered 3-D laminated beam-plate enclosure is investigated analytically. For this problem, a set of well-posed partial differential equations governing the vibroacoustic wave interaction phenomenon are formulated and matched for the various vibrating boundary surfaces. By employing integral transforms, a closed form analytical expression is computed suitable for vibroacoustic modeling, design analysis, and general aerospace defensive applications. The closed-form expression takes the form of a kernel of polynomials for acoustic pressure waves showing the influence of linear interface pressure variation across the axes of vibrating boundary surfaces. Simulated results demonstrate how the mode shapes and the associated natural frequencies can be easily computed. It is shown in this paper that acoustic pressure waves propagation are dynamically stable through laminated enclosures with progressive decrement in interfacial pressure distribution under the influence of high excitation frequencies irrespective of whether the induced flow is subsonic, sonic , supersonic, or hypersonic. Hence, in practice, dynamic stability of hypersonic aircrafts or jet airplanes can be further enhanced by replacing their noise transmission systems with laminated enclosures.

  17. Acoustic monitoring of a ball sinking in vibrated granular sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wildenberg, Siet; Léopoldès, Julien; Tourin, Arnaud; Jia, Xiaoping

    2017-06-01

    We develop an ultrasound probing to investigate the dynamics of a high density ball sinking in 3D opaque dense granular suspensions under horizontal weak vibrations. We show that the motion of the ball in these horizontally vibrated glass bead packings saturated by water is consistent with the frictional rheology. The extracted stress-strain relation evidences an evolution of flow behaviour from frictional creep to inertial regimes. Our main finding is that weak external vibration primarily affects the yield stress and controls the depth of sinking via vibration-induced sliding at the grain contact. Also, we observe that the extracted rheological parameters depend on the size of the probing ball, suggesting thus a non-local rheology.

  18. 14th International Conference on Acoustics and Vibration of Mechanical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Marinca, Vasile

    2018-01-01

    This book is a collection of papers presented at Acoustics and Vibration of Mechanical Structures 2017 – AVMS 2017 – highlighting the current trends and state-of-the-art developments in the field. It covers a broad range of topics, such as noise and vibration control, noise and vibration generation and propagation, the effects of noise and vibration, condition monitoring and vibration testing, modeling, prediction and simulation of noise and vibration, environmental and occupational noise and vibration, noise and vibration attenuators, as well as biomechanics and bioacoustics. The book also presents analytical, numerical and experimental techniques for evaluating linear and non-linear noise and vibration problems (including strong nonlinearity). It is primarily intended for academics, researchers and professionals, as well as PhD students in various fields of the acoustics and vibration of mechanical structures.

  19. Acoustic and Vibration Control for an Underwater Structure under Mechanical Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Jian Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic and vibration control for an underwater structure under mechanical excitation has been investigated by using negative feedback control algorithm. The underwater structure is modeled with cylindrical shells, conical shells, and circular bulkheads, of which the motion equations are built with the variational approach, respectively. Acoustic property is analyzed by the Helmholtz integration formulation with boundary element method. Based on negative feedback control algorithm, a control loop with a coupling use of piezoelectric sensor and actuator is built, and accordingly some numerical examples are carried out on active control of structural vibration and acoustic response. Effects of geometrical and material parameters on acoustic and vibration properties are investigated and discussed.

  20. Piezoelectric Shunt Vibration Damping of F-15 Panel under High Acoustic Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Yau; Turner, Travis L.; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2000-01-01

    At last year's SPIE symposium, we reported results of an experiment on structural vibration damping of an F-15 underbelly panel using piezoelectric shunting with five bonded PZT transducers. The panel vibration was induced with an acoustic speaker at an overall sound pressure level (OASPL) of about 90 dB. Amplitude reductions of 13.45 and 10.72 dB were achieved for the first and second modes, respectively, using single- and multiple-mode shunting. It is the purpose of this investigation to extend the passive piezoelectric shunt-damping technique to control structural vibration induced at higher acoustic excitation levels, and to examine the controllability and survivability of the bonded PZT transducers at these high levels. The shunting experiment was performed with the Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) at the NASA Langley Research Center using the same F-15 underbelly panel. The TAFA is a progressive wave tube facility. The panel was mounted in one wall of the TAFA test section using a specially designed mounting fixture such that the panel was subjected to grazing-incidence acoustic excitation. Five PZT transducers were used with two shunt circuits designed to control the first and second modes of the structure between 200 and 400 Hz. We first determined the values of the shunt inductance and resistance at an OASPL of 130 dB. These values were maintained while we gradually increased the OASPL from 130 to 154 dB in 6-dB steps. During each increment, the frequency response function between accelerometers on the panel and the acoustic excitation measured by microphones, before and after shunting, were recorded. Good response reduction was observed up to the 148dB level. The experiment was stopped at 154 dB due to wire breakage from vibration at a transducer wire joint. The PZT transducers, however, were still bonded well on the panel and survived at this high dB level. We also observed shifting of the frequency peaks toward lower frequency when the OASPL

  1. New algorithm for controlling electric arc furnaces using their vibrational and acoustic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherednichenko, V. S.; Bikeev, R. A.; Serikov, V. A.; Rechkalov, A. V.; Cherednichenko, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    The processes occurring in arc discharges are analyzed as the sources of acoustic radiation in an electric arc furnace (EAF). Acoustic vibrations are shown to transform into mechanical vibrations in the furnace laboratory. The shielding of the acoustic energy fluxes onto water-cooled wall panels by a charge is experimentally studied. It is shown that the rate of charge melting and the depth of submergence of arc discharges in the slag and metal melt can be monitored by measuring the vibrational characteristics of furnaces and using them in a universal industrial process-control system, which was developed for EAFs.

  2. Flow induced vibrations of piping system (Vibration sources - Mechanical response of the pipes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, R.J.; Axisa, F.; Villard, B.

    1978-01-01

    In order to design the supports of piping system, an estimation of the vibration induced by the fluid conveyed through the pipes are generally needed. For that purpose it is necessary. To evaluate the power spectra of all the main sources generated by the flow. These sources are located at the singular points of the circuit (enlargements, bends, valves, etc. ...). To calculate the modal parameters of fluid containing pipes. This paper presents: a methodical study of the most current singularities. Inter-correlation spectra of local pressure fluctuation downstream from the singularity and correlation spectra of associated acoustical sources have been measured. A theory of noise generation by unsteady flow in internal acoustics has been developed. All these results are very useful for evaluating the source characteristics in most practical pipes. A comparison between the calculation and the results of an experimental test has shown a good agreement

  3. The design and simulation of new downhole vibration device about acoustic oil recovery technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Hou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available More and more oilfields are using acoustic technology to enhance oil recovery. In order to know the mechanism of acoustic oil recovery technology, the sound radiator of a new downhole vibration device is modeled and analyzed. Based on the theoretical background, this paper firstly analyzes the acoustic mechanism for the oil reservoir and then makes a acoustic response analysis on the sound radiator model for frequency and time-domain investigation by using professional acoustic simulation software–LMS Virtual.lab Acoustics, finally calculates the acoustic transmission loss in the downhole oil reservoir. The research reveals that firstly, acoustic waves have influences on the oil & water fluidity in the oil reservoir, the oil pressure gradient and the interfacial tension of capillary; secondly, the acoustic radiation power and sound pressure of field point attain a peak on the natural frequency of the sound radiator; thirdly, with the acoustic impact, the sound pressure of oil reservoir would fluctuate so as to improve the oil recovery ratio; the last but not the least one is both the sound pressure of oil reservoir point and the transmission loss of rock have a positive correlation with the vibration frequency. Therefore, it is of great importance for the research of vibration frequency and structure optimization of sound radiator.

  4. Vibration-Induced Climbing of Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, P.; Eggers, J.; Deegan, R. D.

    2007-10-01

    We report an experimental study of liquid drops moving against gravity, when placed on a vertically vibrating inclined plate, which is partially wetted by the drop. The frequency of vibrations ranges from 30 to 200 Hz, and, above a threshold in vibration acceleration, drops experience an upward motion. We attribute this surprising motion to the deformations of the drop, as a consequence of an up or down symmetry breaking induced by the presence of the substrate. We relate the direction of motion to contact angle measurements. This phenomenon can be used to move a drop along an arbitrary path in a plane, without special surface treatments or localized forcing.

  5. Prediction of induced vibrations in stall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirstrup Petersen, J; Thomsen, K; Aagaard Madsen, H [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The main results from recent research in stall induced vibrations are presented. The focus is on the edgewise blade vibrations, which during the last decade have turned out to be a potential threat against the stable operation of stall regulated wind turbines and a fact, which must be dealt with by the designer. The basic physical explanation for the phenomenon and examples of design precaution, which can be taken, are presented. (au)

  6. Flow induced vibration studies on PFBR control plug components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, V., E-mail: prakash@igcar.gov.in [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India); Kumar, P. Anup; Anandaraj, M.; Thirumalai, M.; Anandbabu, C.; Rajan, K.K. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Flow induced vibration studies on Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor control plug model carried out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Velocity similitude was followed for the study. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Frequencies and amplitude of vibrations of various control plug components measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overall values of vibration are well within permissible limits. - Abstract: The construction of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), a 500 MWe liquid sodium cooled reactor, is in progress at Kalpakkam in India. Control plug (CP) is located right above the core subassemblies in the hot pool. Control plug is an important component as many of the critical reactor parameters are sensed and controlled by the components housed in the control plug assembly. In PFBR primary circuit, components are basically thin walled, slender shells with diameter to thickness ratio ranging from 100 to 650. These components are prone to flow induced vibrations. The existence of free liquid (sodium) surfaces, which is the source of sloshing phenomenon and the operation of primary sodium pump in the primary pool are other potential sources of vibration of reactor components. Control plug is a hollow cylindrical shell structure and provides passages and support for 12 absorber rod drive mechanisms (ARDM) which consists of 9 control and safety rods and 3 diverse safety rods, 210 thermo wells to measure the sodium temperature at the exit of various fuel subassemblies, three failed fuel localization modules (FFLM) and acoustic detectors. It consists of a core cover plate (CCP), which forms the bottom end, two intermediate supports plate, i.e. lower stay plate (LSP) and upper stay plate (USP) and an outer shell. The CCP is located at a distance of 1.3 m from the core top. With such a gap, there will be long free hanging length of the thermocouple sleeves, Delayed neutron detector (DND) sampling tubes and ARDM shroud tubes and hence they are

  7. Structural Design Optimization On Thermally Induced Vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Yuanxian; Chen, Biaosong; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhao, Guozhong

    2002-01-01

    The numerical method of design optimization for structural thermally induced vibration is originally studied in this paper and implemented in application software JIFEX. The direct and adjoint methods of sensitivity analysis for thermal induced vibration coupled with both linear and nonlinear transient heat conduction is firstly proposed. Based on the finite element method, the structural linear dynamics is treated simultaneously with coupled linear and nonlinear transient heat structural linear dynamics is treated simultaneously with coupled linear and nonlinear transient heat conduction. In the thermal analysis model, the nonlinear heat conduction considered is result from the radiation and temperature-dependent materials. The sensitivity analysis of transient linear and nonlinear heat conduction is performed with the precise time integration method. And then, the sensitivity analysis of structural transient dynamics is performed by the Newmark method. Both the direct method and the adjoint method are employed to derive the sensitivity equations of thermal vibration, and there are two adjoint vectors of structure and heat conduction respectively. The coupling effect of heat conduction on thermal vibration in the sensitivity analysis is particularly investigated. With coupling sensitivity analysis, the optimization model is constructed and solved by the sequential linear programming or sequential quadratic programming algorithm. The methods proposed have been implemented in the application software JIFEX of structural design optimization, and numerical examples are given to illustrate the methods and usage of structural design optimization on thermally induced vibration

  8. Acoustic Levitation Transportation of Small Objects Using a Ring-type Vibrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gilles P. L.; Andrade, Marco A. B.; Adamowski, Julio C.; Silva, Eḿílio C. N.

    A new device for noncontact transportation of small solid objects is presented here. Ultrasonic flexural vibrations are generated along the ring shaped vibrator using two Langevin transducers and by using a reflector parallel to the vibrator, small particles are trapped at the nodal points of the resulting acoustic standing wave. The particles are then moved by generating a traveling wave along the vibrator, which can be done by modulating the vibration amplitude of the transducers. The working principle of the traveling wave along the vibrator has been modeled by the superposition of two orthogonal standing waves, and the position of the particles can be predicted by using finite element analysis of the vibrator and the resulting acoustic field. A prototype consisting of a 3 mm thick, 220 mm long, 50 mm wide and 52 mm radius aluminum ring-type vibrator and a reflector of the same length and width was built and small polystyrene spheres have been successfully transported along the straight parts of the vibrator.

  9. Experimental Study on Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting from Vortex-Induced Vibrations and Wake-Induced Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigid circular cylinder with two piezoelectric beams attached on has been tested through vortex-induced vibrations (VIV and wake-induced vibrations (WIV by installing a big cylinder fixed upstream, in order to study the influence of the different flow-induced vibrations (FIV types. The VIV test shows that the output voltage increases with the increases of load resistance; an optimal load resistance exists for the maximum output power. The WIV test shows that the vibration of the small cylinder is controlled by the vortex frequency of the large one. There is an optimal gap of the cylinders that can obtain the maximum output voltage and power. For a same energy harvesting device, WIV has higher power generation capacity; then the piezoelectric output characteristics can be effectively improved.

  10. A novel prediction method of vibration and acoustic radiation for rectangular plate with particle dampers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongqiang; Wu, Chengjun [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2016-03-15

    Particle damping technology is widely used in mechanical and structural systems or civil engineering to reduce vibration and suppress noise as a result of its high efficiency, simplicity and easy implementation, low cost, and energy-saving characteristic without the need for any auxiliary power equipment. Research on particle damping theory has focused on the vibration response of the particle damping structure, but the acoustic radiation of the particle damping structure is rarely investigated. Therefore, a feasible modeling method to predict the vibration response and acoustic radiation of the particle damping structure is desirable to satisfy the actual requirements in industrial practice. In this paper, a novel simulation method based on multiphase flow theory of gas particle by COMSOL multiphysics is developed to study the vibration and acoustic radiation characteristics of a cantilever rectangular plate with Particle dampers (PDs). The frequency response functions and scattered far-field sound pressure level of the plate without and with PDs under forced vibration are predicted, and the predictions agree well with the experimental results. Results demonstrate that the added PDs have a significant effect on vibration damping and noise reduction for the primary structure. The presented work in this paper shows that the theoretical work is valid, which can provide important theoretical guidance for low-noise optimization design of particle damping structure. This model also has an important reference value for the noise control of this kind of structure.

  11. Magnetorheological elastomer vibration isolation of tunable three-dimensional locally resonant acoustic metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenlong; Tong, Jie; Wu, Fugen

    2018-03-01

    Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are used as cladding in three-dimensional locally resonant acoustic metamaterial (LRAM) cores. The metamaterial units are combined into a vibration isolator. Two types of LRAMs, namely, cubic and spherical kernels, are constructed. The finite element method is used to analyze the elastic band structures, transmittances, and vibration modes of the incident elastic waves. Results show that the central position and width of the LRAM elastic bandgap can be controlled by the application of an external magnetic field; furthermore, they can be adjusted by changing the MRE cladding thickness. These methods contribute to the design of metamaterial MRE vibration isolators.

  12. Vortex induced vibrations in gapped restrainted pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, P. de A.A.; Loula, A.F.D.

    1984-01-01

    The vortex induced vibration problem of gapped restrained piping is solved numerically. The model proposed by Skop-Griffin is used to describe the pipe-fluid interaction. The variational formulation is obtained modeling the gapped restraints as non-linear elastic springs. The regularized problem is solved using a finite element discretization for the spatial domain. In the time domain a finite difference discretization is used for the lift coefficient equatin and a Newmark discretization for the equation of motion. (Author) [pt

  13. An acoustic radiator with integrated cavity and active control of surface vibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur; Tajdari, Farnaz

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a method to realize an acoustic source for low frequencies with relatively small thickness. A honeycomb plate structure which is open on one side combines the radiating surface and the major part of the air cavity. The vibration of the plate is controlled with a decentralized

  14. Axial vibrations of brass wind instrument bells and their acoustical influence: Theory and simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Wilfried; Chatziioannou, Vasileios; Moore, Thomas R; Gorman, Britta R; Rokni, Michelle

    2015-06-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that structural vibrations of brass wind instruments can audibly affect the radiated sound. Furthermore, these broadband effects are not explainable by assuming perfect coincidence of the frequency of elliptical structural modes with air column resonances. In this work a mechanism is proposed that has the potential to explain the broadband influences of structural vibrations on acoustical characteristics such as input impedance, transfer function, and radiated sound. The proposed mechanism involves the coupling of axial bell vibrations to the internal air column. The acoustical effects of such axial bell vibrations have been studied by extending an existing transmission line model to include the effects of a parasitic flow into vibrating walls, as well as distributed sound pressure sources due to periodic volume fluctuations in a duct with oscillating boundaries. The magnitude of these influences in typical trumpet bells, as well as in a complete instrument with an unbraced loop, has been studied theoretically. The model results in predictions of input impedance and acoustical transfer function differences that are approximately 1 dB for straight instruments and significantly higher when coiled tubes are involved or when very thin brass is used.

  15. Alleviation of Buffet-Induced Vibration Using Piezoelectric Actuators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgenstern, Shawn D

    2006-01-01

    .... The objective of this research was to determine the most critical natural modes of vibration for the F-16 ventral fin and design piezoelectric actuators capable of reducing buffet-induced ventral fin vibration...

  16. Measurements of Acoustic Properties of Porous and Granular Materials and Application to Vibration Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junhong; Palumbo, Daniel L.

    2004-01-01

    For application of porous and granular materials to vibro-acoustic controls, a finite dynamic strength of the solid component (frame) is an important design factor. The primary goal of this study was to investigate structural vibration damping through this frame wave propagation for various poroelastic materials. A measurement method to investigate the vibration characteristics of the frame was proposed. The measured properties were found to follow closely the characteristics of the viscoelastic materials - the dynamic modulus increased with frequency and the degree of the frequency dependence was determined by its loss factor. The dynamic stiffness of hollow cylindrical beams containing porous and granular materials as damping treatment was measured also. The data were used to extract the damping materials characteristics using the Rayleigh-Ritz method. The results suggested that the acoustic structure interaction between the frame and the structure enhances the dissipation of the vibration energy significantly.

  17. Impact of acoustic airflow on intrasinus drug deposition: New insights into the vibrating mode and the optimal acoustic frequency to enhance the delivery of nebulized antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Lara; Merhie, Amira El; Navarro, Laurent; Prévôt, Nathalie; Durand, Marc; Pourchez, Jérémie

    2015-10-15

    We investigated the impact of vibrating acoustic airflow, the high frequency (f≥100 Hz) and the low frequency (f≤45 Hz) sound waves, on the enhancement of intrasinus drug deposition. (81m)Kr-gas ventilation study was performed in a plastinated human cast with and without the addition of vibrating acoustic airflow. Similarly, intrasinus drug deposition in a nasal replica using gentamicin as a marker was studied with and without the superposition of different modes of acoustic airflow. Ventilation experiments demonstrate that no sinus ventilation was observed without acoustic airflow although sinus ventilation occurred whatever the modes of acoustic airflow applied. Intrasinus drug deposition experiments showed that the high frequency acoustic airflow led to 4-fold increase in gentamicin deposition into the left maxillary sinus and to 2-fold deposition increase into the right maxillary sinus. Besides, the low frequency acoustic airflow demonstrated a significant increase of 4-fold and 2-fold in the right and left maxillary sinuses, respectively. We demonstrated the benefit of different modes of vibrating acoustic airflow for maxillary sinus ventilation and intrasinus drug deposition. The degree of gentamicin deposition varies as a function of frequency of the vibrating acoustic airflow and the geometry of the ostia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Vibration Damping Via Acoustic Treatment Attached To Vehicle Body Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Carlo

    Currently, in the automotive industry, the control of noise and vibration is the subject of much research, oriented towards the creation of innovative solutions to improve the comfort of the vehicle and to reduce its cost and weight. This thesis fits into this particular framework, as it aims to investigate the possibility of integrating the functions of sound absorptioninsulation and vibration damping in a unique component. At present the bituminous viscoelastic treatments, which are bonded to the car body panels, take charge of the vibration damping, while the sound absorption and insulation is obtained by means of the poroacoustic treatments. The solution proposed here consists of employing porous materials to perform both these functions, thus allowing the partial or complete removal of the viscoelastic damping treatments from the car body. This should decrease the weight of the vehicle, reducing fuel consumption and emissions, and it might also benefit production costs.

  19. Fuel Rod Flow-Induced Vibration Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Hee; Kang, Heung Seok; Kim, Hyung Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    To ensure fuel design safety and structural integrity requires the response prediction of fuel rod to reactor coolant flow excitation. However, there are many obstacles in predicting the response as described. Even if the response can be predicted, the design criteria on wear failure, including correlation with the vibration, may be difficult to establish because of a variety of related parameters, such as material, surface condition and environmental factors. Thus, a prototype test for each new fuel assembly design, i.e. a long-term endurance test, is performed for design validation with respect to flow-induced vibration (FIV) and wear. There are still needs of theoretical prediction methods for the response and anticipated failure. This paper revisits the general aspect on the response prediction, mathematical description, analysis procedure and wear correlation aspect of fuel rod's FIV

  20. Resonant vibrations and acoustic radiation of rotating spherical structures.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, M

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available involved into rotation (precession) with respect to the inertial space with scale factors depending on nature of elastic modes and their numbers. Corresponding scales factors or Bryan’s factors of the vibrating mode’s precession are calculated depending...

  1. Machine Fault Detection Based on Filter Bank Similarity Features Using Acoustic and Vibration Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Holguín-Londoño

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration and acoustic analysis actively support the nondestructive and noninvasive fault diagnostics of rotating machines at early stages. Nonetheless, the acoustic signal is less used because of its vulnerability to external interferences, hindering an efficient and robust analysis for condition monitoring (CM. This paper presents a novel methodology to characterize different failure signatures from rotating machines using either acoustic or vibration signals. Firstly, the signal is decomposed into several narrow-band spectral components applying different filter bank methods such as empirical mode decomposition, wavelet packet transform, and Fourier-based filtering. Secondly, a feature set is built using a proposed similarity measure termed cumulative spectral density index and used to estimate the mutual statistical dependence between each bandwidth-limited component and the raw signal. Finally, a classification scheme is carried out to distinguish the different types of faults. The methodology is tested in two laboratory experiments, including turbine blade degradation and rolling element bearing faults. The robustness of our approach is validated contaminating the signal with several levels of additive white Gaussian noise, obtaining high-performance outcomes that make the usage of vibration, acoustic, and vibroacoustic measurements in different applications comparable. As a result, the proposed fault detection based on filter bank similarity features is a promising methodology to implement in CM of rotating machinery, even using measurements with low signal-to-noise ratio.

  2. Acoustic and Thermal Vibrational Behavior of Rare Earth Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senin, H. B.; Kancono, W.; Sidek, H. A. A.

    2007-01-01

    The ultrasonic wave velocity and the thermal expansion of the rare earth glasses have been measured as functions of temperature and pressure to test predictions of the soft potential model for the acoustic and thermal properties. The longitudinal ultrasonic wave velocities increase under pressure. The hydrostatic pressure derivative of the bulk modulus is positive: these glasses show a normal elastic response as compressed. However, the pressure derivative of the shear modulus is negative and small, indicating weak softening of shear modes under pressure. The results found are used to determine the Gruneisen parameters. This is to obtain the acoustic mode contribution to thermal expansion. After subtraction of the relaxation and anharmonic contributions, the temperature dependence of the shear wave ultrasound velocity follows a linear law as predicted by the Soft Potential Model

  3. Induced vibrations facilitate traversal of cluttered obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, George; Yu, Siyuan; Kang, Yucheng; Li, Chen

    When negotiating cluttered terrains such as grass-like beams, cockroaches and legged robots with rounded body shapes most often rolled their bodies to traverse narrow gaps between beams. Recent locomotion energy landscape modeling suggests that this locomotor pathway overcomes the lowest potential energy barriers. Here, we tested the hypothesis that body vibrations induced by intermittent leg-ground contact facilitate obstacle traversal by allowing exploration of locomotion energy landscape to find this lowest barrier pathway. To mimic a cockroach / legged robot pushing against two adjacent blades of grass, we developed an automated robotic system to move an ellipsoidal body into two adjacent beams, and varied body vibrations by controlling an oscillation actuator. A novel gyroscope mechanism allowed the body to freely rotate in response to interaction with the beams, and an IMU and cameras recorded the motion of the body and beams. We discovered that body vibrations facilitated body rolling, significantly increasing traversal probability and reducing traversal time (P locomotor pathways in complex 3-D terrains.

  4. Determination of acoustic vibration in watermelon by finite element modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourain, Jamal; Ying, Yibin B.; Wang, Jianping; Rao, Xiuqin

    2004-11-01

    The analysis of the vibration responses of a fruit is suggested to measure firmness non-destructively. A wooden ball excited the fruits and the response signals were captured using an accelerometer sensor. The method has been well studied and understood on ellipsoidal shaped fruit (watermelon). In this work, using the finite element simulations, the applicability of the method on watermelon was investigated. The firmness index is dependent on the mass, density, and natural frequency of the lowest spherical modes (under free boundary conditions). This developed index extends the firmness estimation for fruits or vegetables from a spherical to an ellipsoidal shape. The mode of Finite element analysis (FEA) of watermelon was generated based on measured geometry, and it can be served as a theoretical reference for predicting the modal characteristics as a function of design parameters such as material, geometrical, and physical properties. It was found that there were four types of mode shapes. The 1st one was first-type longitudinal mode, the 2nd one was the second-type longitudinal mode, the 3rd one was breathing mode or pure compression mode, and the fourth was flexural or torsional mode shape. As suggested in many references, the First-type spherical vibration mode or oblate-Prolate for watermelon is the lowest bending modes, it's most likely related to fruit firmness. Comparisons of finite element and experimental modal parameters show that both results were agreed in mode shape as well as natural frequencies. In order to measure the vibration signal of the mode, excitation and sensors should be placed on the watermelon surface far away from the nodal lines. The excitation and the response sensors should be in accordance with vibration directions. The correlations between the natural frequency and firmness was 0.856, natural frequency and Young's modulus was 0.800, and the natural frequency and stiffness factor (SF) was 0.862. The stiffness factor (SF) is adequate

  5. A simple steel/water model for preliminary studies of acoustic vibration in LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, P.G.; Firth, D.; Rowley, R.; Beesley, M.

    1977-01-01

    One source of vibration excitation in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors is the acoustic energy which is generated by the circulating pump and transmitted through the fluid to various structural components. Since most of the energy occurs at fairly low frequencies, that of low harmonies of blade passing frequency, only the very large components have resonant frequencies such that they are significantly excited. To gain some preliminary understanding of the extent and magnitude of vibration in fast reactors therefore, a simple model has been constructed in which only the major components are represented. The modelling theory is discussed and it is shown that adequate representation of the steel/sodium reactor materials can be obtained in the model based on the use of steel/water. The model represents a pool design with a primary tank of 3 1/4 metres diameter and typical components scaled in proportion; however, it does not necessarily relate to any specific reactor design. The pump acoustic source is represented by an underwater loudspeaker system and vibration amplitudes are scaled according to typical pressures generated by reactor circulators. Results from the model include calibration data for the acoustic source and measurements of acoustic pressure throughout the primary flow circuit and the inner and outer pools. Stresses are measured on structural components over a frequency range scaled from reactor frequencies and compensated for the characteristics of the acoustic source. Appreciable stresses are found on all the components in the primary circuit, not necessarily only those close to the simulated pump source. After scaling them to reactor size and allowing for the source calibration, it is found that stresses are unlikely to be sufficiently high to cause damage

  6. Gearbox Tooth Cut Fault Diagnostics Using Acoustic Emission and Vibration Sensors — A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhi Qu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, acoustic emission (AE sensors and AE-based techniques have been developed and tested for gearbox fault diagnosis. In general, AE-based techniques require much higher sampling rates than vibration analysis-based techniques for gearbox fault diagnosis. Therefore, it is questionable whether an AE-based technique would give a better or at least the same performance as the vibration analysis-based techniques using the same sampling rate. To answer the question, this paper presents a comparative study for gearbox tooth damage level diagnostics using AE and vibration measurements, the first known attempt to compare the gearbox fault diagnostic performance of AE- and vibration analysis-based approaches using the same sampling rate. Partial tooth cut faults are seeded in a gearbox test rig and experimentally tested in a laboratory. Results have shown that the AE-based approach has the potential to differentiate gear tooth damage levels in comparison with the vibration-based approach. While vibration signals are easily affected by mechanical resonance, the AE signals show more stable performance.

  7. Gearbox tooth cut fault diagnostics using acoustic emission and vibration sensors--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yongzhi; He, David; Yoon, Jae; Van Hecke, Brandon; Bechhoefer, Eric; Zhu, Junda

    2014-01-14

    In recent years, acoustic emission (AE) sensors and AE-based techniques have been developed and tested for gearbox fault diagnosis. In general, AE-based techniques require much higher sampling rates than vibration analysis-based techniques for gearbox fault diagnosis. Therefore, it is questionable whether an AE-based technique would give a better or at least the same performance as the vibration analysis-based techniques using the same sampling rate. To answer the question, this paper presents a comparative study for gearbox tooth damage level diagnostics using AE and vibration measurements, the first known attempt to compare the gearbox fault diagnostic performance of AE- and vibration analysis-based approaches using the same sampling rate. Partial tooth cut faults are seeded in a gearbox test rig and experimentally tested in a laboratory. Results have shown that the AE-based approach has the potential to differentiate gear tooth damage levels in comparison with the vibration-based approach. While vibration signals are easily affected by mechanical resonance, the AE signals show more stable performance.

  8. Gearbox Tooth Cut Fault Diagnostics Using Acoustic Emission and Vibration Sensors — A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yongzhi; He, David; Yoon, Jae; Van Hecke, Brandon; Bechhoefer, Eric; Zhu, Junda

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, acoustic emission (AE) sensors and AE-based techniques have been developed and tested for gearbox fault diagnosis. In general, AE-based techniques require much higher sampling rates than vibration analysis-based techniques for gearbox fault diagnosis. Therefore, it is questionable whether an AE-based technique would give a better or at least the same performance as the vibration analysis-based techniques using the same sampling rate. To answer the question, this paper presents a comparative study for gearbox tooth damage level diagnostics using AE and vibration measurements, the first known attempt to compare the gearbox fault diagnostic performance of AE- and vibration analysis-based approaches using the same sampling rate. Partial tooth cut faults are seeded in a gearbox test rig and experimentally tested in a laboratory. Results have shown that the AE-based approach has the potential to differentiate gear tooth damage levels in comparison with the vibration-based approach. While vibration signals are easily affected by mechanical resonance, the AE signals show more stable performance. PMID:24424467

  9. Effects of heat exchange and nonlinearity on acoustic streaming in a vibrating cylindrical cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubaidullin, Amir A; Yakovenko, Anna V

    2015-06-01

    Acoustic streaming in a gas filled cylindrical cavity subjected to the vibration effect is investigated numerically. Both thermally insulated walls and constant temperature walls are considered. The range of vibration frequencies from low frequencies, at which the process can be described by an approximate analytical solution, to high frequencies giving rise to strong nonlinear effects is studied. Frequencies lower than the resonant one are chosen, and nonlinearity is achieved due to the large amplitude. The problem is solved in an axisymmetric statement. The dependence of acoustic streaming in narrow channels at vibration frequencies lower than the resonant one on the type of thermal boundary conditions is shown. The streaming vortices' directions of rotation in the case of constant temperature walls are found to be opposite to those in the case of thermally insulated walls. Different nonlinear effects, which increase with the frequency of vibration, are obtained. Nonlinear effects manifesting as the nonuniformity of average temperature, pressure, and density are in turn found to be influencing the streaming velocity and streaming structure.

  10. Flow induced vibrations in a PWR piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seligmann, D.C.; Guillou, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we present and industrial study of the dynamic behaviour of the piping system of a French 1300 M We nuclear power plant. High-amplitude vibrations had been noticed on a safeguard system during the periodical operation startup tests. These vibrations, due to acoustical pump sources, cause fatigue-damage and it is therefore necessary to propose an estimation of the service-life of the piping and to propose modification of piping system to reduce vibrations. First, we define a mechanical model readjusted according to gauged vibratory speeds and construct a vibro-acoustic coupled model and a pump-behaviour model as a source of excitation. Second, we simulate a modification of the supports. The influence of this modification is analysed by comparison of the root mean square values of vibratory speeds and the stresses between the initial system and the modified system. 3 refs., 7 figs

  11. Flow induced vibration of secondary piping of LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, R.J.; Axisa, F.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents a method for evaluating the characteristics of vibrations caused by internal flow in three-dimensional piping systems conveying high density fluids. The excitation of the circuit is mainly caused by the flow singularities, and it is shown that the problem may be reduced to calculate the response of the circuit to an acoustical pressure discontinuity, localised at each flow singularity. The paper is divided into two main parts: First part is devoted to the theoretical formulation of the coupled acoustical-mechanical problem and to its numerical solution by the french computer code TEDEL. Second part describes an experimental test of the method. The tested piping system consists of a stainless steel tube circuit comprising four 909 bends, conveying water. Vibrations are excited by a half closed gate valve. Satisfactory results are obtained concerning both the frequencies of resonance of the circuit and the level of the vibrations observed

  12. Numerical investigation on vibration and noise induced by unsteady flow in an axial-flow pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Eryun; Ma, Zui Ling; Yang, Ai Ling; Nan, Guo Fang [School of Energy and Power Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Zhao, Gai Ping [School of Medical Instruments and Food Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Li, Guo Ping [Shanghai Marine Equipment Research Institute, Shanghai (China)

    2016-12-15

    Full-scale structural vibration and noise induced by flow in an axial-flow pump was simulated by a hybrid numerical method. An unsteady flow field was solved by a large eddy simulation-based computational fluid dynamics commercial code, Fluent. An experimental validation on pressure fluctuations was performed to impose an appropriate vibration exciting source. The consistency between the computed results and experimental tests were interesting. The modes of the axial-flow pump were computed by the finite element method. After that, the pump vibration and sound field were solved using a coupled vibro-acoustic model. The numerical results indicated that the the blade-passing frequency was the dominant frequency of the vibration acceleration of the pump. This result was consistent with frequency spectral characteristics of unsteady pressure fluctuation. Finally, comparisons of the vibration acceleration between the computed results and the experimental test were conducted. These comparisons validated the computed results. This study shows that using the hybrid numerical method to evaluate the flow-induced vibration and noise generated in an axial-flow pump is feasible.

  13. Calculation of acoustic field based on laser-measured vibration velocities on ultrasonic transducer surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang; Zhao, Nannan; Gao, Zhijian; Mao, Kai; Chen, Wenyu; Fu, Xin

    2018-05-01

    Determination of the distribution of a generated acoustic field is valuable for studying ultrasonic transducers, including providing the guidance for transducer design and the basis for analyzing their performance, etc. A method calculating the acoustic field based on laser-measured vibration velocities on the ultrasonic transducer surface is proposed in this paper. Without knowing the inner structure of the transducer, the acoustic field outside it can be calculated by solving the governing partial differential equation (PDE) of the field based on the specified boundary conditions (BCs). In our study, the BC on the transducer surface, i.e. the distribution of the vibration velocity on the surface, is accurately determined by laser scanning measurement of discrete points and follows a data fitting computation. In addition, to ensure the calculation accuracy for the whole field even in an inhomogeneous medium, a finite element method is used to solve the governing PDE based on the mixed BCs, including the discretely measured velocity data and other specified BCs. The method is firstly validated on numerical piezoelectric transducer models. The acoustic pressure distributions generated by a transducer operating in an homogeneous and inhomogeneous medium, respectively, are both calculated by the proposed method and compared with the results from other existing methods. Then, the method is further experimentally validated with two actual ultrasonic transducers used for flow measurement in our lab. The amplitude change of the output voltage signal from the receiver transducer due to changing the relative position of the two transducers is calculated by the proposed method and compared with the experimental data. This method can also provide the basis for complex multi-physical coupling computations where the effect of the acoustic field should be taken into account.

  14. Analytical research of vibration and far-field acoustic radiation of cylindrical shell immersed at finite depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Wenjie

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the current lack of analytical research concerning the cylindrical shell-flow field coupling vibration and sound radiation system under the influence of a free surface, this paper proposes an analytical method which solves the vibration response and far-field acoustic radiation of a finite cylindrical shell immersed at a finite depth. Based on the image method and Graf addition theorem, the analytical expression of the fluid velocity potential can be obtained, then combined with the energy functional of the variation method to deduce the shell-liquid coupling vibration equation, which can in turn solve the forced vibration response. The research shows that, compared with an infinite fluid, a free surface can increase at the same order of resonance frequency; but as the depth of immersion gradually increases, the mean square vibration velocity tends to become the same as that in an infinite fluid. Compared with numerical results from Nastran software, this shows that the present method is accurate and reliable, and has such advantages as a simple method and a small amount of calculation. The far-field radiated pressure can be obtained by the vibration response using the Fourier transformation and stationary phase method. The results indicate that the directivity and volatility of the far-field acoustic pressure of a cylindrical shell is similar to that of an acoustical dipole due to the free surface. However, the far-field acoustic pressure is very different from the vibration characteristics, and will not tend to an infinite fluid as the submerging depth increases. Compared with the numerical method, the method in this paper is simpler and has a higher computational efficiency. It enables the far-field acoustic radiation of an underwater cylindrical shell to be predicted quickly under the influence of external incentives and the free surface, providing guiding significance for acoustic research into the half space structure vibration

  15. Scientific basis for modelling and calculation of acoustic vibrations in the nuclear power plant coolant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskuryakov, K. N.

    2017-11-01

    Created new scientific direction: “Diagnosis, prognosis and prevention of vibration - acoustic resonances in the nuclear power plant (NPP) equipment. The possibility of using methods for calculating and analyzing electric oscillation systems in the study of the properties of acoustic systems with a two-phase medium is proved, based on the similarity of the differential equations describing the state of these systems. Is shown that the developed methods can be used to predict and prevent the occurrence of vibration - acoustic resonances in the NPP equipment. Is shown that the volume of pressurizer at NPPs with VVER and PWR as well as boiling water reactor that exploded at Japan’s NPP Fukushima Daiichi is a Helmholtz resonator, which contain water and steam volumes and able many times increases the impact on them of outside periodic oscillations. Paper presents most important results published long before the severe accidents at NPPs Three Mile Island (TMI), Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi that could be used for the prediction of a severe accident scenario, identification of measuring data and process control in order to minimize the damage. Worked out results also could be useful in another industrial technologies based on applications of single and two-phase flows.

  16. Parametric analysis of protective grid flow induced vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jooyoung; Eom, Kyongbo; Jeon, Sangyoun; Suh, Jungmin [KEPCO NF Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Protective grid (P-grid) flow-induced vibration in a nuclear power reactor is one of the critical factors for the mechanical integrity of a nuclear fuel. The P-grid is located at the lower most position above the bottom nozzle of the nuclear fuel as shown in Fig. 1, and it is required for not only filtering debris, but also supporting fuel rods. On the other hand, P-grid working conditions installed in a nuclear fuel in a reactor are severe in terms of flow speed, temperature and pressure. Considering such a severe condition of P-grid's functional performance in working environment, excessive vibration could be developed. Furthermore, if the P-grid is exposed to high levels of excessive vibration over a long period of time, fatigue failure could be unavoidable. Therefore, it is important to reduce excessive vibration while maintaining P-grid's own functional performance. KEPCO Nuclear Fuel has developed a test facility - Investigation Flow-induced Vibration (INFINIT) - to study flow-induced vibration caused by flowing coolant at various flow rates. To investigate specific relationships between configuration of P-grid and flow-induced vibration characteristics, several types of the P-grids were tested in INFINIT facility. And, based on the test results through parametric studies, the flow-induced vibration characteristics could be analyzed, and critical design parameters were found.

  17. A non-invasive acoustic and vibration analysis technique for evaluation of hip joint conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Diana; Komistek, Richard D; Cates, Harold E; Mahfouz, Mohamed R

    2010-02-10

    The performance evaluation of THA outcome is difficult and surgeons often use invasive methods to investigate effectiveness. A non-invasive acoustic and vibration analysis technique has recently been developed for more-in-depth evaluation of in vivo hip conditions. Gait kinematics, corresponding vibration and sound measurement of five THA subjects were analyzed post-operatively using video-fluoroscopy, sound and accelerometer measurements while walking on a treadmill. The sound sensor and a pair of tri-axial accelerometers, externally attached to the pelvic and femoral bone prominences, detected frequencies that are propagated through the femoral head and acetabular cup interactions. A data acquisition system was used to amplify the signal and filter out noise generated by undesired frequencies. In vivo kinematics and femoral head sliding quantified using video fluoroscopy were correlated to the sound and acceleration measurements. Distinct variations between the different subjects were identified. A correlation of sound and acceleration impulses with separation has been achieved. Although, in vivo sounds are quite variable in nature and all correlated well with the visual images. This is the first study to document and correlate visual and audible effects of THA under in-vivo conditions. This study has shown that the development of the acoustic and vibration technique provides a practical method and generates new possibilities for a better understanding of THA performance. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation of active vibration drilling using acoustic emission and cutting size analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjian Xiao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an investigation of active bit vibration on the penetration mechanisms and bit-rock interaction for drilling with a diamond impregnated coring bit. A series of drill-off tests (DOTs were conducted where the drilling rate-of-penetration (ROP was measured at a series of step-wise increasing static bit thrusts or weight-on-bits (WOBs. Two active DOTs were conducted by applying 60 Hz axial vibration at the bit-rock interface using an electromagnetic vibrating table mounted underneath the drilling samples, and a passive DOT was conducted where the bit was allowed to vibrate naturally with lower amplitude due to the compliance of the drilling sample mountings. During drilling, an acoustic emission (AE system was used to record the AE signals generated by the diamond cutter penetration and the cuttings were collected for grain size analysis. The instrumented drilling system recorded the dynamic motions of the bit-rock interface using a laser displacement sensor, a load cell, and an LVDT (linear variable differential transformer recorded the dynamic WOB and the ROP, respectively. Calibration with the drilling system showed that rotary speed was approximately the same at any given WOB, facilitating comparison of the results at the same WOB. Analysis of the experimental results shows that the ROP of the bit at any given WOB increased with higher amplitude of axial bit-rock vibration, and the drill cuttings increased in size with a higher ROP. Spectral analysis of the AEs indicated that the higher ROP and larger cutting size were correlated with a higher AE energy and a lower AE frequency. This indicated that larger fractures were being created to generate larger cutting size. Overall, these results indicate that a greater magnitude of axial bit-rock vibration produces larger fractures and generates larger cuttings which, at the same rotary speed, results in a higher ROP. Keywords: Active bit vibration, Diamond coring drilling, Drill

  19. Density-near-zero using the acoustically induced transparency of a Fano acoustic resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Elayouch, A.

    2017-01-05

    We report experimental results of near-zero mass density involving an acoustic metamaterial supporting Fano resonance. For this, we designed and fabricated an acoustic resonator with two closely coupled modes and measured its transmission properties. Our study reveals that the phenomenon of acoustically induced transparency is accompanied by an effect of near-zero density. Indeed, the dynamic effective parameters obtained from experimental data show the presence of a frequency band where the effective mass density is close to zero, with high transmission levels reaching 0.7. Furthermore, we demonstrate that such effective parameters lead to wave guiding in a 90-degrees-bent channel. This kind of acoustic metamaterial can, therefore, give rise to acoustic functions like controlling the wavefront, which may lead to very promising applications in acoustic cloacking or imaging.

  20. Study on the radial vibration and acoustic field of an isotropic circular ring radiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuyu; Xu, Long

    2012-01-01

    Based on the exact analytical theory, the radial vibration of an isotropic circular ring is studied and its electro-mechanical equivalent circuit is obtained. By means of the equivalent circuit model, the resonance frequency equation is derived; the relationship between the radial resonance frequency, the radial displacement amplitude magnification and the geometrical dimensions, the material property is analyzed. For comparison, numerical method is used to simulate the radial vibration of isotropic circular rings. The resonance frequency and the radial vibrational displacement distribution are obtained, and the radial radiation acoustic field of the circular ring in radial vibration is simulated. It is illustrated that the radial resonance frequencies from the analytical method and the numerical method are in good agreement when the height is much less than the radius. When the height becomes large relative to the radius, the frequency deviation from the two methods becomes large. The reason is that the exact analytical theory is limited to thin circular ring whose height must be much less than its radius. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Nonlinear generation of non-acoustic modes by low-frequency sound in a vibrationally relaxing gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perelomova, A.

    2010-01-01

    Two dynamic equations referring to a weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive flow of a gas in which molecular vibrational relaxation takes place, are derived. The first one governs an excess temperature associated with the thermal mode, and the second one describes variations in vibrational energy. Both quantities refer to non-wave types of gas motion. These variations are caused by the nonlinear transfer of acoustic energy into thermal mode and internal vibrational degrees of freedom of a relaxing gas. The final dynamic equations are instantaneous; they include a quadratic nonlinear acoustic source, reflecting the nonlinear character of interaction of low-frequency acoustic and non-acoustic motions of the fluid. All types of sound, periodic or aperiodic, may serve as an acoustic source of both phenomena. The low-frequency sound is considered in this study. Some conclusions about temporal behavior of non-acoustic modes caused by periodic and aperiodic sound are made. Under certain conditions, acoustic cooling takes place instead of heating. (author)

  2. Vibration and acoustic characteristics of a city-car engine fueled with biodiesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiatti, Giancarlo; Chiavola, Ornella; Palmieri, Fulvio

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation on the impact of UCO bends on the engine vibro-acoustic behavior. • The engine is mainly used in micro-cars in urban areas. • Data analysis to select the vibration/acoustic components related to the combustion. • Indicators used to evaluate the effect of blends on vibration and noise radiation. - Abstract: A number of studies have demonstrated that biodiesel is a more environmentally sustainable fuel than petroleum-derived fuels since it is a renewable source of energy and it allows to reduce undesired exhaust emissions (e.g. unburned HC, CO and particulate matter). However, specialized literature highlights there is still the need to further investigate performance, emissions and NVH characteristics of engines equipped with up-to-date technologies fueled with biodiesel blend. The aim of the present paper is to investigate the vibro-acoustic behavior of a small displacement engine, mainly employed in micro-cars, fueled with blends of distilled biodiesel (obtained from used cooking oil) and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel up to 40% by volume. Demands for reducing chemical and noise pollutions, traffic congestion and parking difficulties in urban areas make the micro-cars one of the possible solutions for the future urban environment, especially if the engine is fueled with biodiesel blends for their potential of reducing the pollutant emissions. An original methodology developed by the authors for in-cylinder pressure characterization via non-intrusive measurements is here applied to evaluate the impact of biodiesel content on the combustion process and therefore on engine vibration and noise emissions. The data processing in frequency domain allowed to extract the components mainly related to the combustion events. Concerning vibration signals: for all blends, the vibration amplitudes increases with the increase of engine speed values; B40 is characterized by highest values of RMS of accelerometer signal almost in the complete

  3. SPEED DEPENDENCE OF ACOUSTIC VIBRATION PROPAGATION FROM THE FERRITIC GRAIN SIZE IN LOW-CARBON STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Vakulenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. It is determining the nature of the ferrite grain size influence of low-carbon alloy steel on the speed propagation of acoustic vibrations. Methodology. The material for the research served a steel sheet of thickness 1.4 mm. Steel type H18T1 had a content of chemical elements within grade composition: 0, 12 % C, 17, 5 % Cr, 1 % Mn, 1, 1 % Ni, 0, 85 % Si, 0, 9 % Ti. The specified steel belongs to the semiferritic class of the accepted classification. The structural state of the metal for the study was obtained by cold plastic deformation by rolling at a reduction in the size range of 20-30 % and subsequent recrystallization annealing at 740 – 750 ° C. Different degrees of cold plastic deformation was obtained by pre-selection of the initial strip thickness so that after a desired amount of rolling reduction receives the same final thickness. The microstructure was observed under a light microscope, the ferrite grain size was determined using a quantitative metallographic technique. The using of X-ray structural analysis techniques allowed determining the level of second-order distortion of the crystal latitude of the ferrite. The speed propagation of acoustic vibrations was measured using a special device such as an ISP-12 with a working frequency of pulses 1.024 kHz. As the characteristic of strength used the hardness was evaluated by the Brinell’s method. Findings. With increasing of ferrite grain size the hardness of the steel is reduced. In the case of constant structural state of metal, reducing the size of the ferrite grains is accompanied by a natural increasing of the phase distortion. The dependence of the speed propagation of acoustic vibrations up and down the rolling direction of the ferrite grain size remained unchanged and reports directly proportional correlation. Originality. On the basis of studies to determine the direct impact of the proportional nature of the ferrite grain size on the rate of propagation of sound

  4. Flow-Induced Vibration of Circular Cylindrical Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shoei-Sheng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Components Technology Division

    1985-06-01

    Flow-induced vibration is a term to denote those phenomena associated with the response of structures placed in or conveying fluid flow. More specifically, the terra covers those cases in which an interaction develops between fluid-dynamic forces and the inertia, damping or elastic forces in the structures. The study of these phenomena draws on three disciplines: (1) structural mechanics, (2) mechanical vibration, and (3) fluid dynamics. The vibration of circular cylinders subject to flow has been known to man since ancient times; the vibration of a wire at its natural frequency in response to vortex shedding was known in ancient Greece as aeolian tones. But systematic studies of the problem were not made until a century ago when Strouhal established the relationship between vortex shedding frequency and flow velocity for a given cylinder diameter. The early research in this area has beer summarized by Zdravkovich (1985) and Goldstein (1965). Flow-induced structural vibration has been experienced in numerous fields, including the aerospace industry, power generation/transmission (turbine blades, heat exchanger tubes, nuclear reactor components), civil engineering (bridges, building, smoke stacks), and undersea technology. The problems have usually been encountered or created accidentally through improper design. In most cases, a structural or mechanical component, designed to meet specific objectives, develops problems when the undesired effects of flow field have not been accounted for in the design. When a flow-induced vibration problem is noted in the design stage, the engineer has different options to eliminate the detrimental vibration. Unfortunately, in many situations, the problems occur after the components are already in operation; the "fix" usually is very costly. Flow-induced vibration comprises complex and diverse phenomena; subcritical vibration of nuclear fuel assemblies, galloping of transmission lines, flutter of pipes conveying fluid, and whirling

  5. Flow-induced vibration -- 1994. PVP-Volume 273

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au-Yang, M.K.; Fujita, K.

    1994-01-01

    Flow-induced vibration is a subject of practical interest to many engineering disciplines, including the power generation, process, and petrochemical industries. In the nuclear industry, flow-induced vibration reaches a higher level of concern because of safety issues and the huge cost associated with down time and site repair. Not surprisingly, during the last 25 years a tremendous amount of effort has been spent in the study of flow-induced vibration phenomena related to nuclear plant components, notably nuclear steam generator tube banks and nuclear fuel bundles. Yet, in spite of this concentrated effort, the industry is still not free from flow-induced vibration-related problems. This explains why in this volume almost half of the papers address the issue of cross-flow induced vibration in tube bundles, with applications to the nuclear steam generator and nuclear fuel bundles in mind. Unlike 10 or 15 years ago, when flow-induced vibration studies almost always involved experimentation and empirical studies, the advent of high-speed computers has enabled numerical calculation and simulation of this complex phenomenon to take place. Separate abstracts were prepared for 27 papers in this volume

  6. Numerical calculation of acoustic radiation from band-vibrating structures via FEM/FAQP method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAO Honglin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Finite Element Method (FEM combined with the Frequency Averaged Quadratic Pressure method (FAQP are used to calculate the acoustic radiation of structures excited in the frequency band. The surface particle velocity of stiffened cylindrical shells under frequency band excitation is calculated using finite element software, the normal vibration velocity is converted from the surface particle velocity to calculate the average energy source (frequency averaged across intensity, frequency averaged across pressure and frequency averaged across velocity, and the FAQP method is used to calculate the average sound pressure level within the bandwidth. The average sound pressure levels are then compared with the bandwidth using finite element and boundary element software, and the results show that FEM combined with FAQP is more suitable for high frequencies and can be used to calculate the average sound pressure level in the 1/3 octave band with good stability, presenting an alternative to applying frequency-by-frequency calculation and the average frequency process. The FEM/FAQP method can be used as a prediction method for calculating acoustic radiation while taking the randomness of vibration at medium and high frequencies into consideration.

  7. A new acoustic portal into the odontocete ear and vibrational analysis of the tympanoperiotic complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted W Cranford

    Full Text Available Global concern over the possible deleterious effects of noise on marine organisms was catalyzed when toothed whales stranded and died in the presence of high intensity sound. The lack of knowledge about mechanisms of hearing in toothed whales prompted our group to study the anatomy and build a finite element model to simulate sound reception in odontocetes. The primary auditory pathway in toothed whales is an evolutionary novelty, compensating for the impedance mismatch experienced by whale ancestors as they moved from hearing in air to hearing in water. The mechanism by which high-frequency vibrations pass from the low density fats of the lower jaw into the dense bones of the auditory apparatus is a key to understanding odontocete hearing. Here we identify a new acoustic portal into the ear complex, the tympanoperiotic complex (TPC and a plausible mechanism by which sound is transduced into the bony components. We reveal the intact anatomic geometry using CT scanning, and test functional preconceptions using finite element modeling and vibrational analysis. We show that the mandibular fat bodies bifurcate posteriorly, attaching to the TPC in two distinct locations. The smaller branch is an inconspicuous, previously undescribed channel, a cone-shaped fat body that fits into a thin-walled bony funnel just anterior to the sigmoid process of the TPC. The TPC also contains regions of thin translucent bone that define zones of differential flexibility, enabling the TPC to bend in response to sound pressure, thus providing a mechanism for vibrations to pass through the ossicular chain. The techniques used to discover the new acoustic portal in toothed whales, provide a means to decipher auditory filtering, beam formation, impedance matching, and transduction. These tools can also be used to address concerns about the potential deleterious effects of high-intensity sound in a broad spectrum of marine organisms, from whales to fish.

  8. Light-induced ion-acoustic instability of rarefied plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, I.V.; Sizykh, D.V.

    1987-01-01

    A new method of ion-acoustic instability excitation under the effect of coherent light, resonance to ion quantum transitions on collisionless plasma, is suggested. The light-induced ion-acoustic instability (LIIAI) considered is based on the induced progressive nonequilibrium resonance particles in the field of travelling electromagnetic wave. Principal possibility to use LIIAI in high-resolution spectroscopy and in applied problems of plasma physics, related to its instability, is pointed out

  9. Acoustically induced transparency using Fano resonant periodic arrays

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2015-10-22

    A three-dimensional acoustic device, which supports Fano resonance and induced transparency in its response to an incident sound wave, is designed and fabricated. These effects are generated from the destructive interference of closely coupled one broad- and one narrow-band acoustic modes. The proposed design ensures excitation and interference of two spectrally close modes by locating a small pipe inside a wider and longer one. Indeed, numerical simulations and experiments demonstrate that this simple-to-fabricate structure can be used to generate Fano resonance as well as acoustically induced transparency with promising applications in sensing, cloaking, and imaging.

  10. Acoustically induced transparency using Fano resonant periodic arrays

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed; Elayouch, A.; Farhat, Mohamed; Addouche, M.; Khelif, A.; Bagci, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional acoustic device, which supports Fano resonance and induced transparency in its response to an incident sound wave, is designed and fabricated. These effects are generated from the destructive interference of closely coupled one broad- and one narrow-band acoustic modes. The proposed design ensures excitation and interference of two spectrally close modes by locating a small pipe inside a wider and longer one. Indeed, numerical simulations and experiments demonstrate that this simple-to-fabricate structure can be used to generate Fano resonance as well as acoustically induced transparency with promising applications in sensing, cloaking, and imaging.

  11. Two-phase flow induced parametric vibrations in structural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Fumio

    1980-01-01

    This paper is divided into two parts concerning piping systems and a nuclear fuel pin system. The significant experimental results concerning the random vibration induced in an L-shaped pipe by air-water two-phase flow and the theoretical analysis of the vibration are described in the first part. It was clarified for the first time that the parametric excitation due to the periodic changes of system mass, centrifugal force and Coriolis force was the mechanism of exciting the vibration. Moreover, the experimental and theoretical analyses of the mechanism of exciting vibration by air-water two-phase flow in a straight, horizontal pipe were carried out, and the first natural frequency of the piping system was strongly related to the dominant frequency of void signals. The experimental results on the vibration of a nuclear fuel pin model in parallel air-water two-phase flow are reported in the latter part. The relations between vibrational strain variance and two-phase flow velocity or pressure fluctuation, and the frequency characteristics of vibrational strain variance were obtained. The theoretical analysis of the dynamic interaction between air-water two-phase flow and a fuel pin structure, and the vibrational instability of fuel pins in alternate air and water slugs or in large bubble flow are also reported. (Kako, I.)

  12. Flow-induced vibration of helical coil compression springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, F.E.; King, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Helical coil compression springs are used in some nuclear fuel assembly designs to maintain holddown and to accommodate thermal expansion. In the reactor environment, the springs are exposed to flowing water, elevated temperatures and pressures, and irradiation. Flow parallel to the longitudinal axis of the spring may excite the spring coils and cause vibration. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the flow-induced vibration (FIV) response characteristics of the helical coil compression springs. Experimental tests indicate that a helical coil spring responds like a single circular cylinder in cross-flow. Two FIV excitation mechanisms control spring vibration. Namely: 1) Turbulent Buffeting causes small amplitude vibration which increases as a function of velocity squared. 2) Vortex Shedding causes large amplitude vibration when the spring natural frequency and Strouhal frequency coincide. Several methods can be used to reduce or to prevent vortex shedding large amplitude vibrations. One method is compressing the spring to a coil pitch-to-diameter ratio of 2 thereby suppressing the vibration amplitude. Another involves modifying the spring geometry to alter its stiffness and frequency characteristics. These changes result in separation of the natural and Strouhal frequencies. With an understanding of how springs respond in the flowing water environment, the spring physical parameters can be designed to avoid large amplitude vibration. (orig.)

  13. Friction interface mechanics and self-induced vibrations

    OpenAIRE

    Wernitz, Boris Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Vibrations in braking systems have been studied since the beginning of the last century and despite several insights, still many phenomena, particularly in the area of friction induced vibrations, are not fully understood. The objective of the actual study was the identification of the complex dynamics in the friction interface of a dry friction brake system. In this context, particular consideration was given to the generation of instabilities and brake squeal. In work presently being ...

  14. General theory of detection of signal induced in vibrating magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacyna, A.W.

    1980-01-01

    Assuming the point dipole approximation only and making use of the vectorial notation, signal (EMF) induced in a single-turn pick-up coil of the vibrating magnetometer are calculated for the case of any orientation of the coil, of vibration axis and of the magnetic moment of the sample. On the basis of formula obtained, three types of measurement geometries have been distinquished and for these the qualitative analysis is made. (author)

  15. Frequency Response of the Sample Vibration Mode in Scanning Probe Acoustic Microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ya-Jun, Zhao; Qian, Cheng; Meng-Lu, Qian

    2010-01-01

    Based on the interaction mechanism between tip and sample in the contact mode of a scanning probe acoustic microscope (SPAM), an active mass of the sample is introduced in the mass-spring model. The tip motion and frequency response of the sample vibration mode in the SPAM are calculated by the Lagrange equation with dissipation function. For the silicon tip and glass assemblage in the SPAM the frequency response is simulated and it is in agreement with the experimental result. The living myoblast cells on the glass slide are imaged at resonance frequencies of the SPAM system, which are 20kHz, 30kHz and 120kHz. It is shown that good contrast of SPAM images could be obtained when the system is operated at the resonance frequencies of the system in high and low-frequency regions

  16. Similarity analysis and prediction for data of structural acoustic and vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Liquan; Ding Xuemei; Zhang Shujuan

    2010-01-01

    Support vector machine (SVM) is a learning machine based on statistical learning theory, which can get a model having good generalization. It can solve 'learning more' when dealing with small size. It can also avoid 'dimensional disaster' when solving nonlinear problems. This paper works on the parameters optimization for support vector regression machine (SVRM) and its applications. Solution path algorithm can save much CPU time when it is employed to optimize the regularization parameter of SVRM. Simulated annealing algorithm has good ability of finding global optimal solution. An improved solution path algorithm and simulated annealing algorithm are combined to optimize parameters of SVRM in the regression analysis of the acoustic and vibration data for complex practical problems. The numerical results show the model has good predictive capability. (authors)

  17. Hydrodynamics induced vibration to trash-racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadrnejad, A.

    2002-01-01

    In conventional power plants trash-racks are provided at the intakes to protect the turbines. In pumped storage plants, the draft tube or tailrace must also have trash-racks to protect the units while pumping. Because the loads believed to cause many failures of trash-racks are dynamic in nature, it is important to understand the dynamic characteristics of trash-racks structures in general and a single rack in particular. The classical added-mass solution structure-fluid dynamic interaction is known as an approximate solution procedure. An accurate added-mass approach mixed with implementation in finite element framework is proposed. In this proposal, experimental conclusions, supported by theory, led to presentation of more accurate results in vibration of trash-racks. This numerical solution as a powerful method to solve such a complex problem can be employed to carry out dynamic characteristics of these structures while vibrating in water

  18. Scale modeling flow-induced vibrations of reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulcahy, T.M.

    1982-06-01

    Similitude relationships currently employed in the design of flow-induced vibration scale-model tests of nuclear reactor components are reviewed. Emphasis is given to understanding the origins of the similitude parameters as a basis for discussion of the inevitable distortions which occur in design verification testing of entire reactor systems and in feature testing of individual component designs for the existence of detrimental flow-induced vibration mechanisms. Distortions of similitude parameters made in current test practice are enumerated and selected example tests are described. Also, limitations in the use of specific distortions in model designs are evaluated based on the current understanding of flow-induced vibration mechanisms and structural response

  19. Vibration-Induced Kinesthetic Illusions and Corticospinal Excitability Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancheva, Kapka; Rollnik, Jens D; Wolf, Werner; Dengler, Reinhard; Kossev, Andon

    2017-01-01

    The authors' aim was to investigate the changes of corticospinal excitability during kinesthetic illusions induced by tendon vibration. Motor-evoked potentials in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded from the vibrated flexor carpi radialis and its antagonist, extensor carpi radialis. The illusions were evoked under vision conditions without feedback for the position of the wrist (open or closed eyes). In these two conditions motor-evoked potential changes during vibration in the antagonist were not identical. This discrepancy may be a result of 2 simultaneously acting, different and opposite influences and the balance between them depends on visual conditions. Thus, the illusion was accompanied by the facilitation of corticospinal excitability in both vibrated muscle and its antagonist.

  20. Implementing wavelet packet transform for valve failure detection using vibration and acoustic emission signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, H Y; Ramli, R; Abdullah, M A K

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of reciprocating compressors relies heavily on the health condition of its moving components, most importantly its valves. Previous studies showed good correlation between the dynamic response and the physical condition of the valves. These can be achieved by employing vibration technique which is capable of monitoring the response of the valve, and acoustic emission technique which is capable of detecting the valves' material deformation. However, the relationship/comparison between the two techniques is rarely investigated. In this paper, the two techniques were examined using time-frequency analysis. Wavelet packet transform (WPT) was chosen as the multi-resolution analysis technique over continuous wavelet transform (CWT), and discrete wavelet transform (DWT). This is because WPT could overcome the high computational time and high redundancy problem in CWT and could provide detailed analysis of the high frequency components compared to DWT. The features of both signals can be extracted by evaluating the normalised WPT coefficients for different time window under different valve conditions. By comparing the normalised coefficients over a certain time frame and frequency range, the feature vectors revealing the condition of valves can be constructed. One way analysis of variance was employed on these feature vectors to test the significance of data under different valve conditions. It is believed that AE signals can give a better representation of the valve condition as it can detect both the fluid motion and material deformation of valves as compared to the vibration signals.

  1. Test-Anchored Vibration Response Predictions for an Acoustically Energized Curved Orthogrid Panel with Mounted Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frady, Gregory P.; Duvall, Lowery D.; Fulcher, Clay W. G.; Laverde, Bruce T.; Hunt, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    rich body of vibroacoustic test data was recently generated at Marshall Space Flight Center for component-loaded curved orthogrid panels typical of launch vehicle skin structures. The test data were used to anchor computational predictions of a variety of spatially distributed responses including acceleration, strain and component interface force. Transfer functions relating the responses to the input pressure field were generated from finite element based modal solutions and test-derived damping estimates. A diffuse acoustic field model was applied to correlate the measured input sound pressures across the energized panel. This application quantifies the ability to quickly and accurately predict a variety of responses to acoustically energized skin panels with mounted components. Favorable comparisons between the measured and predicted responses were established. The validated models were used to examine vibration response sensitivities to relevant modeling parameters such as pressure patch density, mesh density, weight of the mounted component and model form. Convergence metrics include spectral densities and cumulative root-mean squared (RMS) functions for acceleration, velocity, displacement, strain and interface force. Minimum frequencies for response convergence were established as well as recommendations for modeling techniques, particularly in the early stages of a component design when accurate structural vibration requirements are needed relatively quickly. The results were compared with long-established guidelines for modeling accuracy of component-loaded panels. A theoretical basis for the Response/Pressure Transfer Function (RPTF) approach provides insight into trends observed in the response predictions and confirmed in the test data. The software developed for the RPTF method allows easy replacement of the diffuse acoustic field with other pressure fields such as a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) model suitable for vehicle ascent. Structural responses

  2. Flow-induced vibrations an engineering guide

    CERN Document Server

    Naudascher, Eduard

    2012-01-01

    Despite their variety, the vibration phenomena from many different engineering fields can be classified into a relatively few basic excitation mechanisms. The classification enables engineers to identify all possible sources of excitation in a given system and to assess potential dangers. This graduate-level text presents a synthesis of research results and practical experience from disparate fields in the form of engineering guidelines. It is particularly geared toward assessing the possible sources of excitation in a flow system, in identifying the actual danger spots, and in finding appropr

  3. Advances in Forecasting and Prevention of Resonances Between Coolant Acoustical Oscillations and Fuel Rod Vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, Konstantin Nicolaevich [NPP, NPEI, 14, Krasnokazarmennaya str. Moscow, 111250 (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    To prevent the appearance of the conditions for resonance interaction between the fluid flow and the reactor internals (RI), fuel rod (FR ) and fuel assemblies (FA) it is necessary to de-tune Eigen frequency of coolant pressure oscillations (EFCPO) and natural frequency of mechanical element's oscillations and also of the system which is formed by the comprising of these elements. Other words it is necessary to de-tune acoustic resonance frequency and natural frequencies of RI, FR and FA. While solving these problems it is necessary to have a theoretical and settlement substantiation of an oscillation frequency band of the coolant outside of which there is no resonant interaction with structure vibrations. The presented work is devoted to finding the solution of this problem. There are results of an estimation of width of such band as well as the examples of a preliminary quantitative estimation of Q - factors of coolant acoustic oscillatory circuit formed by the equipment of the NPP. Abnormal growth of intensity of pressure pulsations in a mode with definite value of reactor capacity have been found out by measurements on VVER - 1000 reactor. This phenomenon has been found out casually and its original reason had not been identified. Paper shows that disappearance of this effect could be reached by realizing outlet of EFCPO from so-called, pass bands of frequencies (PBF). PBF is located symmetrical on both parties from frequency of own oscillations of FA. Methods, algorithms of calculations and quantitative estimations are developed for EFCPO, Q and PBF in various modes of operation NPP with VVER-1000. Results of calculations allow specifying area of resonant interaction EFCPO with vibrations of FR, FA and a basket of reactor core. For practical realization of the received results it is offered to make corresponding additions to the design documentation and maintenance instructions of the equipment of the NPP with VVER-1000. The improvement of these documents

  4. Vibration and acoustic noise emitted by dry-type air-core reactors under PWM voltage excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingsong; Wang, Shanming; Hong, Jianfeng; Yang, Zhanlu; Jiang, Shengqian; Xia, Shichong

    2018-05-01

    According to coupling way between the magnetic field and the structural order, structure mode is discussed by engaging finite element (FE) method and both natural frequency and modal shape for a dry-type air-core reactor (DAR) are obtained in this paper. On the basis of harmonic response analysis, electromagnetic force under PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) voltage excitation is mapped with the structure mesh, the vibration spectrum is gained and the consequences represents that the whole structure vibration predominates in the radial direction, with less axial vibration. Referring to the test standard of reactor noise, the rules of emitted noise of the DAR are measured and analyzed at chosen switching frequency matches the sample resonant frequency and the methods of active vibration and noise reduction are put forward. Finally, the low acoustic noise emission of a prototype DAR is verified by measurement.

  5. Vertical vibration dynamics of acoustically levitated drop containing two immiscible liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Duyang; Zhai, Zhicong; Li, Lin; Lin, Kejun; Li, Xiaoguang; Geng, Xingguo

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the levitation and oscillation dynamics of complex drops containing two immiscible liquids. Two types of drops, core-shell drop and abnormal-shaped drop, have been obtained depending on the levitation procedures. The oscillation dynamics of the drops have been studied using a high speed camera. It has been found that the oscillation of the abnormal-shaped drop has a longer oscillation period and decays much faster than that of the core-shell drop, which cannot be accounted for by the air resistance itself. The acoustic streaming induced by ultrasound may bring an additional force against the motion of the drop due to the Bernoulli effect. This is responsible for the enhanced damping during the oscillation in acoustic levitation.

  6. Flow induced vibrations in gas tube assembly of centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.; Atta, M.A.; Mirza, J.A.; Khan, A.Q.

    1986-01-01

    A centrifuge essentially consists of a rotor rotating at very high speed. Gas tube assembly, located at the center of the rotor, is used to introduce feed gas into the rotor and remove product and waste streams from it. The gas tube assembly is thus a static component, the product and waste scoops of which are lying in the high pressure region of a fluid rotating at very high speed. This can cause flow induced vibrations in the gas tube assembly. Such vibrations affect not only the mechanical stability of the gas tube assembly but may also reduce the separative power of the centrifuge. In a cascade, if some of the centrifuges have gas tube vibration, then cascade performance will be affected. A theoretical analysis of the effect of waste tube vibrations on product and waste flow rates and pressures in the centrifuge is presented. A simple stage consisting of two centrifuges, in which one has tube vibration, is considered for this purpose. The results are compared with experiment. It is shown that waste tube vibration generates oscillations in waste and product flow rates that are observable outside the centrifuge. (author)

  7. Evaluation of blast-induced vibration effects on structures 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Rim; Jeon, Gyu Shick; Lee, Dae Soo; Joo, Kwang Ho; Lee, Woong Keon [Korea Electrotechnology Research Inst., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Chang Ha; Chung, So Keul; Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Hee Soon; Chun, Sun Woo; Park, Yeon Jun; Synn, Joong Ho; Choi, Byung Hee [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Due to the difficulties of obtaining construction site for new plants, following ones are inevitably being built in the site adjacent to existing power plants. Therefore considerable thought has been recently given to the dynamic loading generated by blasting works near the plants to maintain the safety of structures and facilities in power plants. Our own standard for safety level of blast vibration is not prepared yet, and foreign standards have been generally employed without theoretical and experimental verification. Safety-related structures of power plants and facilities have to be protected against the effects of possible hazards due to blast vibration. Earthquakes have been considered a major dynamic design loading as a requirement of plant design, but the effects of blast-induced vibration are not. In order to ensure the safety, rational safe criterion should be established and blast design should be satisfy it, which requires the development of a model for prediction of vibration level through more systematic measurement and analysis. The main objectives of the study are : to provide background data for establishing the rational safe vibration limits, to develop models for prediction of blast vibration level, to establish safe blast design criterion, and to accumulate techniques for field measurements, data acquisition and analysis (author). 80 refs., 347 figs.

  8. The effect of mechanical vibration on orthodontically induced root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sumit; Dobie, Thomas; Assefnia, Amir; Kalajzic, Zana; Nanda, Ravindra

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effect of low-frequency mechanical vibration (LFMV) on orthodontically induced root resorption. Forty male CD1, 12-week-old mice were used for the study. The mice were randomly divided into five groups: group 1 (baseline)-no spring and no mechanical vibration, group 2-orthodontic spring but no vibration, group 3-orthodontic spring and 5 Hz of vibration applied to the maxillary first molar, group 4-orthodontic spring and 10 Hz of vibration applied to maxillary first molar, and group 5-orthodontic spring and 20 Hz of vibration applied to maxillary first molar. In the different experimental groups, the first molar was moved mesially for 2 weeks using a nickel-titanium coil spring delivering 10 g of force. LFMVs were applied at 5 Hz, 10 Hz, and 20 Hz. Microfocus X-ray computed tomography imaging was used to analyze root resorption. Additionally, to understand the mechanism, we applied LFMV to MC3T3 cells, and gene expression analyses were done for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). Orthodontic tooth movement leads to decreased root volume (increased root resorption craters). Our in vivo experiments showed a trend toward increase in root volume with different frequencies of mechanical vibration. In vitro gene expression analyses showed that with 20 Hz of mechanical vibration, there was a significant decrease in RANKL and a significant increase in OPG expression. There was a trend toward decreased root resorption with different LFMVs (5 Hz, 10 Hz, and 20 Hz); however, it was not more statistically significant than the orthodontic-spring-only group.

  9. An inverse method for identification of a distributed random excitation acting on a vibrating structure flow-induced vibration application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perotin, L.; Granger, S.

    1997-01-01

    In order to improve the prediction of wear problems due to flow-induced vibration in PWR components, an inverse method for identifying a distributed random excitation acting on a dynamical system has been developed at EDF. This method, whose applications go far beyond the flow-induced vibration field, has been implemented into the MEIDEE software. This method is presented. (author)

  10. Pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations of footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    by pedestrians during walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal motion at varying combinations of frequencies (0.33 – 1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5 – 48mm). The experimental campaign involved...... is triggered. This disproportionate increase in the lateral vibration response is caused by a dynamic interaction between the pedestrian and the laterally moving structure, although the governing mechanism which generates the load is still disputed. In this thesis, a comprehensive literature review...... 71 test subjects who covered approximately 55 km of walking distributed on almost 5000 individual tests. An in-depth analysis of the movement of the pedestrians that participated in the experimental campaign reveal that synchronisation is not a pre-condition for the ix development of large amplitude...

  11. Predicting vibration-induced displacement for a resonant friction slider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fidlin, A.; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2001-01-01

    A mathematical model is set up to quantify vibration-induced motions of a slider, sandwiched between friction layers with different coefficients of friction, and equipped with an imbedded resonator that oscillates at high frequency and small amplitude. This model is highly nonlinear, involving non...

  12. Analysis of flow-induced vibrations in the PEC design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornaggia, L.; Reale, M.; Martelli, A.; Zambelli, M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes the studies performed for the Italian PEC fast reactor test facility with regard to flow-induced vibration problems. Reference is made to the reactor-block, the primary and secondary coolant loops and the emergency loops. Studies in progress and future developments foreseen are also mentioned. (author)

  13. Analysis of flow induced vibration in heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beek, A.W. van [Institute for Mechanical Constructions TNO, Delft (Netherlands)

    1977-12-01

    A description will be given of three different types of heat exchangers developed by the Dutch Nuclear Industry Group ''Neratoom'' in cooperation with TNO for the sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor SNR-300 at Kalkar. Moreover, the research related with flow induced vibrations carried out by TNO (Organization for Applied Scientific Research) will be presented. The flow induced forces on the tubes of the straight-tube steam generators were measured at the inlet and outlet section where partial crossflow occurs. With the measured flow induced forces the response of a tube was calculated as a function of the tube-to-supportbush clearances taking into account the non-linear damping effects from the sodium. The theoretical results showed that for this particular design no tube impact damage is to be expected which was confirmed later by a full scale experiment. Special attention will be devoted to the steam generator with helical-coil tube-bundles, where the sodium flows in a counter cross-flow over the tube-bundle. Extensive measurements of the power spectra of the flow induced forces were carried out since no information could be found in the literature. The vibration analysis will be presented and vibration modes of the entire bundle will be compared with experimentally obtained results. Finally a description of the vibration tests to be carried out on the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) will be presented. (author)

  14. Analysis of flow induced vibration in heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beek, A.W. van

    1977-01-01

    A description will be given of three different types of heat exchangers developed by the Dutch Nuclear Industry Group ''Neratoom'' in cooperation with TNO for the sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor SNR-300 at Kalkar. Moreover, the research related with flow induced vibrations carried out by TNO (Organization for Applied Scientific Research) will be presented. The flow induced forces on the tubes of the straight-tube steam generators were measured at the inlet and outlet section where partial crossflow occurs. With the measured flow induced forces the response of a tube was calculated as a function of the tube-to-supportbush clearances taking into account the non-linear damping effects from the sodium. The theoretical results showed that for this particular design no tube impact damage is to be expected which was confirmed later by a full scale experiment. Special attention will be devoted to the steam generator with helical-coil tube-bundles, where the sodium flows in a counter cross-flow over the tube-bundle. Extensive measurements of the power spectra of the flow induced forces were carried out since no information could be found in the literature. The vibration analysis will be presented and vibration modes of the entire bundle will be compared with experimentally obtained results. Finally a description of the vibration tests to be carried out on the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) will be presented. (author)

  15. Flow-induced vibration of circular cylindrical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.S.

    1985-06-01

    This report summarizes the flow-induced vibration of circular cylinders in quiescent fluid, axial flow, and crossflow, and applications of the analytical methods and experimental data in design evaluation of various system components consisting of circular cylinders. 219 figs., 30 tabs

  16. Flow-induced vibrations of circular cylindrical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.

    1977-06-01

    The problems of flow-induced vibrations of circular cylindrical structures are reviewed. First, the general method of analysis and classification of structural responses are presented. Then, the presentation is broken up along the lines with stationary fluid, parallel flow, and cross flow. Finally, design considerations and future research needs are pointed out. 234 references

  17. Laser-induced vibrational dynamics of ozone in solid argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Amstrup, B.; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    1997-01-01

    We consider the vibrational dynamics, induced by an intense infrared laser pulse, in an ozone molecule with isotopic substitution, that is, (OOO)-O-16-O-16-O-18 and compare the dynamics in the gas phase and in solid ar on. not perturbed by argon on a time-scale of a few picoseconds and selective...

  18. Vibration and acoustic signatures of the water circulation pump in the pressurised LMR fuel element test loop at IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, L.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents results of vibration and acoustic field measurements made on the water circulating pump in the IPEN - CNEN/Sao Paulo pressurised water loop. The use of such measurements to monitor the vibration of coolant circulating pumps of light water reactors is indicated. Measurements were made for defined water flows and pressures varying between 5 bar/5.22 ls sup(-1) and 40 bar/17,42ls sup(-1). Analyses of various recordings of two accelerometer signals and 1 microphone signal were made principally in the frequency range 0-5 KHz using a Nicolet 660 A Fourier analyser. Results of these analyses indicate that CPSD distributions might be more sensitive indicators of changes in pump operating conditions than the more frequently used PSD distributions. In addition, as an indicador of changing pump conditions the acoustic-vibration signal pair is perhaps a more sensitive indicator than the vibration-vibration signal pair. While coherence distributions are elearly sensitive to changing pump conditions, trends in the change of these distributions were not readily identified. It is recommended that more detailed analyses be made using pattern recognition techniques in conjunction with frequency zooming. (Author) [pt

  19. Flow induced vibrations in a PWR piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seligmann, D.; Guillou, J.

    1995-11-01

    During a recurring bench test of an operating system, high amplitude vibrations have been observed on a safety piping system of a nuclear power plant. Due to the source of the pumps, these vibrations lead to wear damage and it is therefore necessary to estimate the life time of the piping system. This paper describes the methodology used to study the dynamic behaviour and to analyze the damage of a piping system submitted to internal flow. Starting from an experimental modal analysis of the piping system when not i service, we analyse the main parameters of the mechanical behaviour. Following this analysis, we obtain a mechanical model fitting the first experimental modes. On this basis, we build a vibro-acoustical model. This model takes into account the influence of the acoustical pipe length, both above and below the mechanical part, the modelling of acoustical components, the speed of sound. We did not experimentally characterize the pumps. Therefore, we use a numerical model in order to simulate the behaviour of the pumps. This model is based on the theory of the transfer matrix and takes into account the geometric and the hydraulic characteristics of the pump.The modelling of both sources (suction and discharge) connected to the pump is formed by contributions from a source corresponding to the turbulent noise at low frequency, a source at blade passage frequency. This model has been experimentally validated in a laboratory. The final results of the modelling of the complete piping system are in a complete accord with experimental measurements. (author). 3 refs., 7 figs

  20. Specialists meeting on LMFBR flow induced vibrations. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    A Specialists' Meeting on LMFBR Flow-Induced Vibrations was held at ANL in the United States which was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the recommendations of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR). It was attended by participants from France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, the United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United States and the IAEA. The purpose of the meeting was to provide, for the first time, a common forum for the exchange of information on flow-induced vibration programs of the member countries. As this was a first meeting, information was sought in the broad areas of: 1. Design Criteria and Problem Areas in LMFBR Design; 2. Current Design Procedures; and 3. Ongoing Research. A session was devoted to each of the above topics wherein papers were presented and discussed followed by open discussions on the session topic. The objective of the open discussions was to identify, from a review of specific reactor designs, (a) flow induced vibration problem areas (expected and observed) and their potential for occurrence; (b) failure modes and associated design criteria; (c) specific components that are susceptible to flow induced vibration; and (d) probable excitation mechanisms. It was aimed to assess the current state-of-the-art in designing to avoid flow induced vibration with consideration of licensing requirements; to evaluate existing methods of analysis, testing, and surveillance, along with their limitations and to identify areas requiring research and review ongoing research programmes relative to these research needs

  1. Specialists meeting on LMFBR flow induced vibrations. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-12-01

    A Specialists' Meeting on LMFBR Flow-Induced Vibrations was held at ANL in the United States which was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the recommendations of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR). It was attended by participants from France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, the United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United States and the IAEA. The purpose of the meeting was to provide, for the first time, a common forum for the exchange of information on flow-induced vibration programs of the member countries. As this was a first meeting, information was sought in the broad areas of: 1. Design Criteria and Problem Areas in LMFBR Design; 2. Current Design Procedures; and 3. Ongoing Research. A session was devoted to each of the above topics wherein papers were presented and discussed followed by open discussions on the session topic. The objective of the open discussions was to identify, from a review of specific reactor designs, (a) flow induced vibration problem areas (expected and observed) and their potential for occurrence; (b) failure modes and associated design criteria; (c) specific components that are susceptible to flow induced vibration; and (d) probable excitation mechanisms. It was aimed to assess the current state-of-the-art in designing to avoid flow induced vibration with consideration of licensing requirements; to evaluate existing methods of analysis, testing, and surveillance, along with their limitations and to identify areas requiring research and review ongoing research programmes relative to these research needs.

  2. Flow induced vibrations in liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Flow induced vibrations are well known phenomena in industry. Engineers have to estimate their destructive effects on structures. In the nuclear industry, flow induced vibrations are assessed early in the design process, and the results are incorporated in the design procedures. In many cases, model testing is used to supplement the design process to ensure that detrimental behaviour due to flow induced vibrations will not occur in the component in question. While these procedures attempt to minimize the probability of adverse performance of the various components, there is a problem in the extrapolation of analytical design techniques and/or model testing to actual plant operation. Therefore, sodium tests or vibrational measurements of components in the reactor system are used to provide additional assurance. This report is a general survey of experimental and calculational methods in this area of structural mechanics. The report is addressed to specialists and institutions in industrialized and developing countries who are responsible for the design and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors. 92 refs, 90 figs, 8 tabs

  3. Finite-Element Simulation of Cantilever Vibrations in Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, F J Espinoza [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN. Unidad Queretaro, Apdo. Postal 1-798, 76001 Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); Scholz, T [Hamburg University of Technology, Institute of Advanced Ceramics, Denickestrasse 15, D-21073 Hamburg (Germany); Schneider, G A [Hamburg University of Technology, Institute of Advanced Ceramics, Denickestrasse 15, D-21073 Hamburg (Germany); Munoz-Saldana, J [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN. Unidad Queretaro, Apdo. Postal 1-798, 76001 Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); Rabe, U [Fraunhofer Institute for Non-Destructive Testing (IZFP), Bldg. E3.1, University, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Arnold, W [Fraunhofer Institute for Non-Destructive Testing (IZFP), Bldg. E3.1, University, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy has been proven to be a powerful technique for materials characterization with nanoscale lateral resolution. This technique allows one to obtain images of elastic properties of materials. By means of spectroscopic measurements of the tip-sample contact-resonance frequencies, it is possible to obtain quantitative values of the mechanical stiffness of the sample surface. For quantitative analysis a reliable relation between the spectroscopic data and the contact stiffness is required based on a correct geometrical model of the cantilever vibrations. This model must be precise enough for predicting the resonance frequencies of the tip-sample interaction when excited over a wide range of frequencies. Analytical models have served as a good reference for understanding the vibrational behavior of the AFM cantilever. They have certain limits, however, for reproducing the tip-sample contact-resonances due to the cantilever geometries used. For obtaining the local elastic modulus of samples, it is necessary to know the tip-sample contact area which is usually obtained by a calibration procedure with a reference sample. In this work we show that finiteelement modeling may be used to replace the analytical inversion procedure for AFAM data. First, the three first bending modes of cantilever resonances were used for finding the geometrical dimension of the cantilever employed. Then the normal and in-plane stiffness of the sample were obtained for each measurement on the surface to be measured. A calibration was needed to obtain the tip position of the cantilever by making measurements on a sample with known surface elasticity, here crystalline silicon. The method developed in this work was applied to AFAM measurements on silicon, zerodur, and strontium titanate.

  4. Structural impact response for assessing railway vibration induced on buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouroussis, Georges; Mouzakis, Harris P.; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos E.

    2018-03-01

    Over the syears, the rapid growth in railway infrastructure has led to numerous environmental challenges. One such significant issue, particularly in urban areas, is ground-borne vibration. A common source of ground-borne vibration is caused by local defects (e.g. rail joints, switches, turnouts, etc.) that generate large amplitude excitations at isolated locations. Modelling these excitation sources is particularly challenging and requires the use of complex and extensive computational efforts. For some situations, the use of experiments and measured data offers a rapid way to estimate the effect of such defects and to evaluate the railway vibration levels using a scoping approach. In this paper, the problem of railway-induced ground vibrations is presented along with experimental studies to assess the ground vibration and ground borne noise levels, with a particular focus on the structural response of sensitive buildings. The behaviour of particular building foundations is evaluated through experimental data collected in Brussels Region, by presenting the expected frequency responses for various types of buildings, taking into account both the soil-structure interaction and the tramway track response. A second study is dedicated to the Athens metro, where transmissibility functions are used to analyse the effect of various Athenian building face to metro network trough comprehensive measurement campaigns. This allows the verification of appropriate vibration mitigation measures. These benchmark applications based on experimental results have been proved to be efficient to treat a complex problem encountered in practice in urban areas, where the urban rail network interacts with important local defects and where the rise of railway ground vibration problems has clearly been identified.

  5. Acoustic streaming induced by an ultrasonically oscillating endodontic file

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, B.; Boutsioukis, C.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Versluis, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonically activated irrigation is an advanced dental technique for irrigation of the root canal system during a root canal treatment. The basic cleaning mechanism is a result of acoustic streaming induced by an oscillating file, leading to mixing of the irrigant and pressure and shear stresses

  6. Acoustic streaming induced by an ultrasonically oscillating endodontic file

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, B.; Boutsioukis, C.; van der Sluis, L. W. M.; Versluis, M.

    Ultrasonically activated irrigation is an advanced dental technique for irrigation of the root canal system during a root canal treatment. The basic cleaning mechanism is a result of acoustic streaming induced by an oscillating file, leading to mixing of the irrigant and pressure and shear stresses

  7. Vibration and Acoustic Response of Rectangular Sandwich Plate under Thermal Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the vibration and acoustic response of a rectangular sandwich plate which is subjected to a concentrated harmonic force under thermal environment. The critical buckling temperature is obtained to decide the thermal load. The natural frequencies and modes as well as dynamic responses are acquired by using the analytical formulations based on equivalent non-classical theory, in which the effects of shear deformation and rotational inertia are taken into account. The rise of thermal load decreases the natural frequencies and moves response peaks to the low-frequency range. The specific features of sandwich plates with different formations are discussed subsequently. As the thickness ratio of facing to core increases, the natural frequencies are enlarged, and the response peaks float to the high-frequency region. Raising the Young's modulus of the core can cause the similar trends. The accuracy of the theoretical method is verified by comparing its results with those computed by the FEM/BEM.

  8. An intelligent sensor array distributed system for vibration analysis and acoustic noise characterization of a linear switched reluctance actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvado, José; Espírito-Santo, António; Calado, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM) of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs). The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications.

  9. An Intelligent Sensor Array Distributed System for Vibration Analysis and Acoustic Noise Characterization of a Linear Switched Reluctance Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Calado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs. The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications.

  10. Experimental Study on the Measurement of Water Bottom Vibration Induced by Underwater Drilling Blasting

    OpenAIRE

    Wenbin, Gu; Jianghai, Chen; Zhenxiong, Wang; Zhihua, Wang; Jianqing, Liu; Ming, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Due to the lack of proper instrumentations and the difficulties in underwater measurements, the studies about water bottom vibration induced by underwater drilling blasting are seldom reported. In order to investigate the propagation and attenuation laws of blasting induced water bottom vibration, a water bottom vibration monitor was developed with consideration of the difficulties in underwater measurements. By means of this equipment, the actual water bottom vibration induced by underwater ...

  11. Theoretical study of time-dependent, ultrasound-induced acoustic streaming in microchannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Peter Barkholt; Bruus, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Based on first- and second-order perturbation theory, we present a numerical study of the temporal buildup and decay of unsteady acoustic fields and acoustic streaming flows actuated by vibrating walls in the transverse cross-sectional plane of a long straight microchannel under adiabatic...

  12. Induced clustering of Escherichia coli by acoustic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Ramos, Salomé; Hoyos, Mauricio; Ruiz-Suárez, J C

    2018-03-16

    Brownian or self-propelled particles in aqueous suspensions can be trapped by acoustic fields generated by piezoelectric transducers usually at frequencies in the megahertz. The obtained confinement allows the study of rich collective behaviours like clustering or spreading dynamics in microgravity-like conditions. The acoustic field induces the levitation of self-propelled particles and provides secondary lateral forces to capture them at nodal planes. Here, we give a step forward in the field of confined active matter, reporting levitation experiments of bacterial suspensions of Escherichia coli. Clustering of living bacteria is monitored as a function of time, where different behaviours are clearly distinguished. Upon the removal of the acoustic signal, bacteria rapidly spread, impelled by their own swimming. Nevertheless, long periods of confinement result in irreversible bacteria entanglements that could act as seeds for levitating bacterial aggregates.

  13. Evaluation of human-induced vibration of continuous footbridges

    OpenAIRE

    El-Robaa Ahmed; Gaawan Sameh; Malek Charles

    2015-01-01

    With the development of construction materials and the introduction of high strength steel and concrete, the human-induced vibration became a dominant criterion for the design of pedestrian bridges. Currently, longer spans and lightweight bridges have been comprised in most of design trends. This leads to lower the natural frequencies of the system which have a great effect on the dynamic performance of bridges subjected to human activities. Although the design of steel footbridges could reac...

  14. Graphical analysis of electron inertia induced acoustic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmakar, P.K.; Deka, U.; Dwivedi, C.B.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, the practical significance of the asymptotic limit of m e /m i →0 for electron density distribution has been judged in a two-component plasma system with drifting ions. It is reported that in the presence of drifting ions with drift speed exceeding the ion acoustic wave speed, the electron inertial delay effect facilitates the resonance coupling of the usual fluid ion acoustic mode with the ion-beam mode. In this contribution the same instability is analyzed by graphical and numerical methods. This is to note that the obtained dispersion relation differs from those of the other known normal modes of low frequency ion plasma oscillations and waves. This is due to consideration of electron inertial delay in derivation of the dispersion relation of the ion acoustic wave fluctuations. Numerical calculations of the dispersion relation and wave energy are carried out to depict the graphical appearance of poles and positive-negative energy modes. It is found that the electron inertia induced ion acoustic wave instability arises out of linear resonance coupling between the negative and positive energy modes. Characterization of the resonance nature of the instability in Mach number space for different wave numbers of the ion acoustic mode is presented

  15. Synchrotron x-ray imaging of acoustic cavitation bubbles induced by acoustic excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sung Yong; Park, Han Wook; Park, Sung Ho; Lee, Sang Joon

    2017-01-01

    The cavitation induced by acoustic excitation has been widely applied in various biomedical applications because cavitation bubbles can enhance the exchanges of mass and energy. In order to minimize the hazardous effects of the induced cavitation, it is essential to understand the spatial distribution of cavitation bubbles. The spatial distribution of cavitation bubbles visualized by the synchrotron x-ray imaging technique is compared to that obtained with a conventional x-ray tube. Cavitation bubbles with high density in the region close to the tip of the probe are visualized using the synchrotron x-ray imaging technique, however, the spatial distribution of cavitation bubbles in the whole ultrasound field is not detected. In this study, the effects of the ultrasound power of acoustic excitation and working medium on the shape and density of the induced cavitation bubbles are examined. As a result, the synchrotron x-ray imaging technique is useful for visualizing spatial distributions of cavitation bubbles, and it could be used for optimizing the operation conditions of acoustic cavitation. (paper)

  16. Vibration induced sliding: theory and experiment for a beam with a spring-loaded mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, Erik; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    1998-01-01

    The study sets up a simple model for predicting vibration induced sliding of mass, and provides quantitative experimental evidence for the validity of the model. The results lend confidence to recent theoretical developments on using vibration induced sliding for passive vibration damping, and co...

  17. Prediction of dynamic loads and induced vibrations in stall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirstrup Petersen, J.; Aagaard Madsen, H. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Bjoerck, A. [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden (Sweden); Enevoldsen, P. [Bonus Energy A/S (Denmark); Oeye, S. [The Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Ganander, H. [Teknikgruppen AB (Sweden); Winkelaar, D. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (Netherlands)

    1998-05-01

    Results from research in an EC Joule-III project and from national projects are presented. The objectives are improvement of design methods for stall regulated wind turbines with emphasis on stall induced vibrations and dynamic stall. The primary concern is limitation of the edgewise vibrations in the fundamental blade natural mode shape, which have caused trouble on modern wind turbines of approximate size 500 kW nominal power and 40 m rotor diameter. A theoretical study of quasi-steady aerodynamics confirms that the vibrations are driven basically by energy supplied from the aerodynamic forces during stalled operation. This energy exchange is equivalent to negative aerodynamic damping. The theoretical approach identifies the main parameters controlling the phenomenon. These parameters describe the steady and the dynamic airfoil characteristics, the overall aerodynamic layout of the blade, e.g. chord length and twist, the structural properties of the blade, e.g. structural damping and properties controlling the resulting vibration direction. Furthermore, full aeroelastic calculations and comparison with measurements show that the properties of the supporting structure, i.e. the main shaft, the nacelle and the tower, are important, as the global vibration of the rotor on its support may exchange energy with the blade vibration, when the blade natural frequency is close to one of the frequencies of the coupled rotor tilt-yaw mode shapes, usually denoted the global rotor whirl frequencies. It is confirmed that the influence of changing the primary design parameters can be determined by use of qualified aeroelastic calculations. Presented design guidelines therefore build on both the simple quasi-steady models, which can be used for the preliminary choice of the design variables mentioned above, and on full aeroelastic calculations. The aeroelastic calculations refine the design basis and should be used for choosing the final design variables and for final

  18. Diagnostic aspects of vibration-induced white finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Niels

    2002-01-01

    Vibration-induced white finger (VWF) is a secondary type of Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) caused by exposure to hand-arm vibration. The present review concerns the cold-provoked attack of RP in vasospastic VWF. It concentrates on the most common clinical and laboratory methods used to diagnose RP in vibration-exposed subjects. Some physiological aspects of the attack of RP are mentioned to elucidate the diagnostic principles of the tests. Anamnestic diagnostics by medical interviews and questionnaires as well as cold-provocation tests with detection of finger colour, finger systolic blood pressure (FSP), recovery time of finger skin temperature and recovery time of normal nail colour after nail compression are mentioned. The discriminative capacity and the reproducibility of the tests are discussed. Cold-provocation tests with detection of finger colour or zero FSP during cooling are recommended to be used if an attack of RP has to be registered for diagnostic or medico-legal purposes in individual cases. An abnormal reduction in FSP during cooling makes a history of RP very probable and is a suitable laboratory test for groups of subjects. Both recovery tests may be useful screening tests in field studies of vibration-exposed subject groups.

  19. Passive acoustic radiation control for a vibrating panel with piezoelectric shunt damping circuit using particle swarm optimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Jin Young

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new acoustic radiation optimization method for a vibrating panel-like structure with a passive piezoelectric shunt damping system in order to minimize well-radiating modes generated from the panel. The optimization method is based on an idea of using the p-version finite element method(p-version FEM), the boundary element method(BEM), and the particle swarm optimization algorithm(PSOA). Optimum embossment design for the vibrating panel using the PSOA is first investigated in order to minimize noise radiation over a frequency range of interest. The optimum embossment design works as a kind of stiffener so that well-radiating natural modes are shifted up with some degrees. The optimized panel, however, may still require additional damping for attenuating the peak acoustic amplitudes. A passive shunt damping system is thus employed to additionally damp the well-radiating modes from the optimized panel. To numerically evaluate the acoustic multiple-mode damping capability by a shunt damping system, the integrated p-version FEM/BEM for the panel with the shunt damping system is modeled and developed by MATLAB. Using the PSOA, the optimization technique for the optimal multiple-mode shunt damper is investigated in order to achieve the optimum damping performance for the well-radiating modes simultaneously. Also, the acoustic damping performance of the shunt damping circuit in the acoustic environment is demonstrated numerically and experimentally with respect to the realistically sized panel. The simulated result shows a good agreement with that of the experimental result

  20. Full-scale investigation of wind-induced vibrations of mast-arm traffic signal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Because of their inherent : fl : exibility and low damping ratios, cantilevered mast : - : arm : tra : ffi : c signal structures are suscepti : b : le to : wind : - : induced vibrations. : These vibrations : cause stru : ctural stresses and strains t...

  1. Vibration-induced particle formation during yogurt fermentation - Industrial vibration measurements and development of an experimental setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körzendörfer, Adrian; Temme, Philipp; Nöbel, Stefan; Schlücker, Eberhard; Hinrichs, Jörg

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of vibrations during yogurt fermentation. Machinery such as pumps and switching valves generate vibrations that may disturb the gelation by inducing large particles. Oscillation measurements on an industrial yogurt production line showed that oscillations are transferred from pumps right up to the fermentation tanks. An experimental setup (20L) was developed to study the effect of vibrations systematically. The fermenters were decoupled with air springs to enable reference fermentations under idle conditions. A vibration exciter was used to stimulate the fermenters. Frequency sweeps (25-1005Hz, periodic time 10s) for 20min from pH5.4 induced large particles. The number of visible particles was significantly increased from 35±4 (reference) to 89±9 particles per 100g yogurt. Rheological parameters of the stirred yogurt samples were not influenced by vibrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Flow induced vibrational excitation of nuclear reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    The pressure fluctuations generated by disturbed flows, encountered in nuclear reactors induce vibrations in the structures. In order to make forecastings for these vibrational levels, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the random pressure fluctuations induced in the walls by the main flow peculiarities of the circuits. This knowledge is essentially provided by experimentation which shows that most of the energy from these fluctuations is in the low frequency area. It is also necessary to determine the transfer functions of the fluid-structure coupled system. Given the frequency range of the excitations, a calculation of the characteristics of the first eigenmodes is generally sufficient. This calculation is carried out by finite element codes, the modal dampings being assessed separately. In this paper, emphasis is placed mainly on the analysis of the sources of excitation due to flow peculiarities. Some examples will also be given of assessments of vibrations in real structures (pipes, reactor internals, etc.) and of comparisons with the experimental results obtained on models or on a site [fr

  3. Evaluation of human-induced vibration of continuous footbridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Robaa Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of construction materials and the introduction of high strength steel and concrete, the human-induced vibration became a dominant criterion for the design of pedestrian bridges. Currently, longer spans and lightweight bridges have been comprised in most of design trends. This leads to lower the natural frequencies of the system which have a great effect on the dynamic performance of bridges subjected to human activities. Although the design of steel footbridges could reach the optimum level of design in terms of strength criterion, it might not reach the acceptance level for vibration condition. This will enforce the designer to choose section profiles with higher inertia to enhance stiffness of the whole system. This paper presents an overall assessment for floor vibration problem due to pedestrian induced vertical forces on continuous composite footbridges. The footfall method presented by concrete centre “CCIP-016” is adopted in this study to evaluate the response factor and acceleration of pedestrian bridges using a FEA software package “Robot Structural Analysis”.

  4. Evaluation of Aero Commander sidewall vibration and interior acoustic data: Static operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersol, A. G.; Wilby, E. G.; Wilby, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    Results for the vibration measured at five locations on the fuselage structure during static operations are presented. The analysis was concerned with the magnitude of the vibration and the relative phase between different locations, the frequency response (inertance) functions between the exterior pressure field and the vibration, and the coherent output power functions at interior microphone locations based on sidewall vibration. Fuselage skin panels near the plane of rotation of the propeller accept propeller noise excitation more efficiently than they do exhaust noise.

  5. Sonic excitation by means of ultrasound; an experimental illustration of acoustic radiation forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozen, N.B.; Nuij, P.W.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic acoustic waves are known to induce a vibration of particles around an equilibrium position. However, for large acoustic amplitudes, due to non-linear acoustic effects, a rectified, net acoustic radiation force can occur. Experimental work is performed in which the non-linear behavior is

  6. X-ray-induced acoustic computed tomography of concrete infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shanshan; Ramseyer, Chris; Samant, Pratik; Xiang, Liangzhong

    2018-02-01

    X-ray-induced Acoustic Computed Tomography (XACT) takes advantage of both X-ray absorption contrast and high ultrasonic resolution in a single imaging modality by making use of the thermoacoustic effect. In XACT, X-ray absorption by defects and other structures in concrete create thermally induced pressure jumps that launch ultrasonic waves, which are then received by acoustic detectors to form images. In this research, XACT imaging was used to non-destructively test and identify defects in concrete. For concrete structures, we conclude that XACT imaging allows multiscale imaging at depths ranging from centimeters to meters, with spatial resolutions from sub-millimeter to centimeters. XACT imaging also holds promise for single-side testing of concrete infrastructure and provides an optimal solution for nondestructive inspection of existing bridges, pavement, nuclear power plants, and other concrete infrastructure.

  7. Laser-induced vibration of a thin soap film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile, Olivier; Emile, Janine

    2014-09-21

    We report on the vibration of a thin soap film based on the optical radiation pressure force. The modulated low power laser induces a counter gravity flow in a vertical free-standing draining film. The thickness of the soap film is then higher in the upper region than in the lower region of the film. Moreover, the lifetime of the film is dramatically increased by a factor of 2. Since the laser beam only acts mechanically on the film interfaces, such a film can be employed in an optofluidic diaphragm pump, the interfaces behaving like a vibrating membrane and the liquid in-between being the fluid to be pumped. Such a pump could then be used in delicate micro-equipment, in chips where temperature variations are detrimental and even in biological systems.

  8. Computer modeling of flow induced in-reactor vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turula, P.; Mulcahy, T.M.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the reliability of finite element method computer models, as applied to the computation of flow induced vibration response of components used in nuclear reactors, is presented. The prototype under consideration was the Fast Flux Test Facility reactor being constructed for US-ERDA. Data were available from an extensive test program which used a scale model simulating the hydraulic and structural characteristics of the prototype components, subjected to scaled prototypic flow conditions as well as to laboratory shaker excitations. Corresponding analytical solutions of the component vibration problems were obtained using the NASTRAN computer code. Modal analyses and response analyses were performed. The effect of the surrounding fluid was accounted for. Several possible forcing function definitions were considered. Results indicate that modal computations agree well with experimental data. Response amplitude comparisons are good only under conditions favorable to a clear definition of the structural and hydraulic properties affecting the component motion. 20 refs

  9. Review of leakage-flow-induced vibrations of reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulcahy, T.M.

    1983-05-01

    The primary-coolant flow paths of a reactor system are usually subject to close scrutiny in a design review to identify potential flow-induced vibration sources. However, secondary-flow paths through narrow gaps in component supports, which parallel the primary-flow path, occasionally are the excitation source for significant vibrations even though the secondary-flow rates are orders of magnitude smaller than the primary-flow rate. These so-called leakage flow problems are reviewed here to identify design features and excitation sources that should be avoided. Also, design rules of thumb are formulated that can be employed to guide a design, but quantitative prediction of component response is found to require scale-model testing

  10. Current-induced runaway vibrations in dehydrogenated graphene nanoribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Bjerregaard Christensen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We employ a semi-classical Langevin approach to study current-induced atomic dynamics in a partially dehydrogenated armchair graphene nanoribbon. All parameters are obtained from density functional theory. The dehydrogenated carbon dimers behave as effective impurities, whose motion decouples from the rest of carbon atoms. The electrical current can couple the dimer motion in a coherent fashion. The coupling, which is mediated by nonconservative and pseudo-magnetic current-induced forces, change the atomic dynamics, and thereby show their signature in this simple system. We study the atomic dynamics and current-induced vibrational instabilities using a simplified eigen-mode analysis. Our study illustrates how armchair nanoribbons can serve as a possible testbed for probing the current-induced forces.

  11. Experimental Study on the Measurement of Water Bottom Vibration Induced by Underwater Drilling Blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of proper instrumentations and the difficulties in underwater measurements, the studies about water bottom vibration induced by underwater drilling blasting are seldom reported. In order to investigate the propagation and attenuation laws of blasting induced water bottom vibration, a water bottom vibration monitor was developed with consideration of the difficulties in underwater measurements. By means of this equipment, the actual water bottom vibration induced by underwater drilling blasting was measured in a field experiment. It shows that the water bottom vibration monitor could collect vibration signals quite effectively in underwater environments. The followed signal analysis shows that the characteristics of water bottom vibration and land ground vibration induced by the same underwater drilling blasting are quite different due to the different geological environments. The amplitude and frequency band of water bottom vibration both exceed those of land ground vibration. Water bottom vibration is mainly in low-frequency band that induced by blasting impact directly acts on rock. Besides the low-frequency component, land vibration contains another higher frequency band component that induced by followed water hammer wave acts on bank slope.

  12. Numerical simulation of flow-induced vibrations in tube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elisabeth Longatte; Zaky Bendjeddou; Mhamed Souli

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In many industrial components mechanical structures like rod cluster control assembly, fuel assembly and heat exchanger tube bundles are submitted to complex flows causing possible vibrations and damage. Fluid forces are usually split into two parts: structure motion independent forces and fluid-elastic forces coupled with tube motion and responsible for possible dynamic instability development leading to possible short term failures through high amplitude vibrations. Most classical fluid force identification methods rely on structure response experimental measurements associated with convenient data processes. Owing to recent improvements in Computational Fluid Dynamics (C.F.D.), numerical fluid force identification is now practicable in the presence of industrial configurations. The present paper is devoted to numerical simulation of flow-induced vibrations of tube bundles submitted to single-phase cross flows by using C.F.D. codes. Direct Numerical Simulation (D.N.S.), Arbitrary Lagrange Euler formulation (A.L.E.) and code coupling process are involved to predict fluid forces responsible for tube bundle vibrations in the presence of fluid structure and fluid-elastic coupling effects. In the presence of strong multi-physics coupling, simulation of flow-induced vibrations requires a fluid structure code coupling process. The methodology consists in solving in the same time thermohydraulics and mechanics problems by using an A.L.E. formulation for the fluid computation. The purpose is to take into account coupling between flow and structure motions in order to be able to capture coupling effects. From a numerical point of view, there are three steps in the computation: the fluid problem is solved on the computational domain; fluid forces acting on the moving tube are estimated; finally they are introduced in the structure solver providing the tube displacement that is used to actualize the fluid computational domain. Specific

  13. Experimental chaotic quantification in bistable vortex induced vibration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, B. H.; Tjahjowidodo, T.

    2017-02-01

    The study of energy harvesting by means of vortex induced vibration systems has been initiated a few years ago and it is considered to be potential as a low water current energy source. The energy harvester is realized by exposing an elastically supported blunt structure under water flow. However, it is realized that the system will only perform at a limited operating range (water flow) that is attributed to the resonance phenomenon that occurs only at a frequency that corresponds to the fluid flow. An introduction of nonlinear elements seems to be a prominent solution to overcome the problem. Among many nonlinear elements, a bistable spring is known to be able to improve the harvested power by a vortex induced vibrations (VIV) based energy converter at the low velocity water flows. However, it is also observed that chaotic vibrations will occur at different operating ranges that will erratically diminish the harvested power and cause a difficulty in controlling the system that is due to the unpredictability in motions of the VIV structure. In order to design a bistable VIV energy converter with improved harvested power and minimum negative effect of chaotic vibrations, the bifurcation map of the system for varying governing parameters is highly on demand. In this study, chaotic vibrations of a VIV energy converter enhanced by a bistable stiffness element are quantified in a wide range of the governing parameters, i.e. damping and bistable gap. Chaotic vibrations of the bistable VIV energy converter are simulated by utilization of a wake oscillator model and quantified based on the calculation of the Lyapunov exponent. Ultimately, a series of experiments of the system in a water tunnel, facilitated by a computer-based force-feedback testing platform, is carried out to validate the existence of chaotic responses. The main challenge in dealing with experimental data is in distinguishing chaotic response from noise-contaminated periodic responses as noise will smear

  14. Current pathophysiological views on vibration-induced Raynaud's phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyneva, Z; Lyapina, M; Tzvetkov, D; Vodenicharov, E

    2003-03-01

    This review attempts to summarize and discuss contemporary pathogenetic views on vibration-induced Raynaud's phenomenon assuming its multifactorial etiology. An increase in central and peripheral sympathetic nervous activity is discussed based on different physiological indicators of autonomic dysfunction and sympathetic hyperactivity. Local acral vasodysregulation is considered. Receptor and nerve endings dysfunction presented with predominance of alpha(2)-receptor function in the digital arteries and neuronal loss in those digital cutaneous perivascular nerves containing calcitonin gene-related peptide result in deficiency of endogenous release of this powerful vasodilator. Endothelial damage and dysregulation induced by vibration and increased shear stresses are demonstrated by the elevated plasma level of thrombomodulin and of von Willebrand factor and reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilator responses. The concentrations of endothelin-1 are high, the highest being in most advanced stages. Decreased plasma thiol level, indicating increased production and activity of free radicals, contribute to vasospastic paroxysms in vibration white finger patients. Dysbalance of local vasoactive factors with opposing effects on vascular smooth muscle like endothelin and nitric oxide, endothelin and calcitonin gene-related peptide, nitric oxide and superoxide anion are discussed. Disturbed smooth muscle response is supposed. Changes in hemostasis, fibrinolysis and hemorrheology, activation of blood cells with erythrocyte hyperaggregation and red cell hypodeformability, platelet aggregation with increased release of vasoconstricting thromboxane A(2) and serotonin as well as leukocyte activation, entrapment within capillaries and post-capillary venules and increased reactive oxygen species and lysosomal lytic enzymes release might also contribute to digital vasospasms and tissue damage. Elevated soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels involved in the adherence of

  15. Flow-induced vibration in LMFBR steam generators: a state-of-the-art review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.S.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1975-05-01

    This state-of-the-art review identifies and discusses existing methods of flow-induced vibration analysis applicable to steam generators, their limitations, and base-technology needs. Also included are discussions of five different LMFBR steam-generator configurations and important design considerations, failure experiences, possible flow-induced excitation mechanisms, vibration testing, and available methods of vibration analysis. The objectives are to aid LMFBR steam-generator designers in making the best possible evaluation of potential vibration in steam-generator internals, and to provide the basis for development of design guidelines to avoid detrimental flow-induced vibration

  16. Evaluation of flow-induced vibration of thermometer well for JOYO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isozaki, Kazunori; Tomita, Naoki

    1997-05-01

    Sodium leak accident of MONJU was caused high cycles fatigue damage of thermometer well by flow-induced vibration. It was due to the symmetric vortex shedding which was occurred rear flow of thermometer well. So, Thermometer wells installed in primary and secondary heat transport systems of JOYO were evaluated of flow-induced vibration. Evaluation of flow-induced vibration of thermometer well was done checking of flow-induced vibration base on authorized design report for JOYO, evaluation of summary flow-induced vibration by natural frequency of thermometer well in sodium as cantilever models, and evaluation based on small velocity rule of ASME Code Section III Appendix N-1300. By this result, thermometer wells (12B piping of secondary cooling system) were not satisfied requirement to avoid flow-induced vibration by small velocity rule. Therefore, Detailed vibration characteristic analysis, water flow-induced vibration test, dumping test and evaluation of structural integrity were carried out. These results, vibration amplitude of well on the tip was 0.13 mm (vibration non-dimensional amplitude of 0.015) and peak stress of 2.9 kg/mm 2 is occurred. Thermometer wells (12B piping of secondary cooling system) which occurred peak stress by flow vibration was confirmed enough to satisfy 5.3 kg/mm 2 of design fatigue limit. (author)

  17. New vibrational mode of the acoustic type in Nd(Pr)2 Cu O4 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fil', D.V.; Kolobov, I.G.; Fil', V.D.; Barilo, S.N.; Zhigunov, D.I.

    1995-01-01

    Sound velocities along main symmetry directions as well as their angle dependences in (100),(110)-type planes are measured in Nd(Pr) 2 Cu O 4 . Anomalies in the angle dependences are found, which are interpreted as a result of the interaction of elastic vibrations with an additional plane mode of the acoustic type. According to the proposed interpretation, the bare spectrum of the additional mode is two-dimensional, and the origin of the mode is connected with the electron degrees of freedom in the Cu O 2 -planes. A phenomenological model for description of acoustic mode spectra in the investigated systems is proposed. On the basis of the anion model of HTSC, a possible microscopic scenario of the appearance of the additional mode is analyzed. In the framework of the phenomenological model, the Debye temperatures are computed, which are in agreement with the specific heat data. The values of the components of the elastic moduli tensor are given

  18. Two-phase flow induced vibrations in CANDU steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gidi, A.

    2009-01-01

    The U-Bend region of nuclear steam generators tube bundles have suffered from two-phase cross flow induced vibrations. Tubes in this region have experienced high amplitude vibrations leading to catastrophic failures. Turbulent buffeting and fluid-elastic instability has been identified as the main causes. Previous investigations have focused on flow regime and two-phase flow damping ratio. However, tube bundles in steam generators have vapour generated on the surface of the tubes, which might affect the flow regime, void fraction distribution, turbulent intensity levels and tube-flow interaction, all of which have the potential to change the tube vibration response. A cantilevered tube bundle made of electric cartridges heaters was built and tested in a Freon-11 flow loop at McMaster University. Tubes were arranged in a parallel triangular configuration. The bundle was exposed to two-phase cross flows consisting of different combinations of void from two sources, void generated upstream of the bundle and void generated at the surface of the tubes. Tube tip vibration response was measured optically and void fraction was measured by gamma densitometry technique. It was found that tube vibration amplitude in the transverse direction was reduced by a factor of eight for void fraction generated at the tube surfaces only, when compared to the upstream only void generation case. The main explanation for this effect is a reduction in the correlation length of the turbulent buffeting forcing function. Theoretical calculations of the tube vibration response due to turbulent buffeting under the same experimental conditions predicted a similar reduction in tube amplitude. The void fraction for the fluid-elastic instability threshold in the presence of tube bundle void fraction generation was higher than that for the upstream void fraction generation case. The first explanation of this difference is the level of turbulent buffeting forces the tube bundle was exposed to

  19. Intermediate heat exchanger tube vibration induced by cross and parallel mixed flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Koji

    1986-01-01

    The characteristics of pool type LMFBR intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) tube vibrations induced by cross and parallel mixed flow were basically investigated. Secondary coolant in IHX tube bundle is mixed flow of parallel jit flow along the tube axis through flow holes in baffle plates and cross flow. By changing these two flow rate, flow distributions vary in the tube bundle. Mixed flow also induces vibrations which cause fretting wear and fatigue of tube. It is therefore very important to evaluate the tube vibration characteristics for estimating the tube integrity. The results show that the relationships between tube vibrations and flow distributions in the tube bundle were cleared, and mixed flow induced tube vibration could be evaluated on the base of the characteristics of both parallel and cross flow induced vibration. From these investigations it could be concluded that the characteristics of tube vibration for various flow distributions can be systematically evaluated. (author)

  20. Experimental and analytical studies on pedestrian induced footbridge vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Gudmundur Valur; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Einarsson, Baldvin

    2007-01-01

    characteristics and to measure the response of the bridges to human induced excitation such as walking, running and jumping. Two of the bridges were a part of a design competition related to the realignment of an existing highway in the city centre of Reykjavik in 2005. The bridges have similar cross sections...... modes corresponding to the measured values. The models were subsequently used to calculate the predicted acceleration according to the preliminary version of the Eurocode (ENV 1992-2: Concrete bridges) using time-history analysis with a moving load as representative for a single pedestrian. The load...... models describing human-induced vibrations on structures in current literature and standards are explained, both for a single person walking or running and crowd loading. The measured vertical acceleration induced by single pedestrians was compared against the predictions and it was found that all...

  1. The Shock and Vibration Bulletin. Part 2. Measurement Techniques and Data Analysis, Dynamic Measurements, Vibration and Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Smallwood and D. L. Gregory, Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM A NEW METHOD OF IMPROVING SPECTRA SHAPING IN REVERBERANT CHAMBERS...DAMPING M. M. Wallace and C. W. Bert, The University of Oklahoma, Norman , OK CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF MAGLEV VEHICLES ON ELEVATED GUIDEWAYS...RANDOM VIBRATION EXTRENAL CONTROL STRATEGY D. 0. Smallwood D. L. Gregory Sandia Laboratories Albuquerque, NM This paper discusses the theoretical basis for

  2. Advancements in flow-induced vibration research and design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettigrew, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Two-phase flow exists in many nuclear components and, in particular, steam generators. So far relatively little research work has been done on two-phase flow-induced vibration probably because it is difficult to do. Two-phase flows are not homogeneous and are governed by an additional parameter called void fraction. This can lead to different flow patterns or regimes that can change completely the vibration behaviour. Fluidelastic instability, random turbulence excitation and detailed flow characteristics are being investigated in tube bundles subjected to two-phase cross flow. Fluidelastic instability of a tube bundle preferentially flexible in the flow direction was observed probably for the first time. This is particularly relevant to the problem of in-plane vibration of nuclear steam generator U-tubes and has resulted in changes in our design criteria. Unexpected quasi-periodic excitation forces were also measured in the tube bundle. These are attributed to an alternating wake in the lift direction and to fluctuating momentum flux in the drag direction. Vibration damping due to two-phase flow is very dependent on void fraction and appears directly related to the interface surface area between phases. Maximum damping values correspond to the transitions between flow regimes. Fibre optic probes were developed to measure the characteristics of two-phase flows. These probes are used to take detailed measurements in a triangular array of tubes in cross flow. The results show that the flow tends to stream between the tubes. These studies have yielded interesting results but have raised more questions that could lead to improved design criteria. The more puzzling results will be discussed in this presentation. Some of the dynamic phenomena will be illustrated by animation. (author)

  3. Distributed Fiber-Optic Sensor for Detection and Localization of Acoustic Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sifta Radim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A sensing system utilizing a standard optical fiber as a distributed sensor for the detection and localization of mechanical vibrations is presented. Vibrations can be caused by various external factors, like moving people, cars, trains, and other objects producing mechanical vibrations that are sensed by a fiber. In our laboratory we have designed a sensing system based on the Φ-OTDR (phase sensitive Optical Time Domain Reflectometry using an extremely narrow laser and EDFAs.

  4. Physical model study of neutron noise induced by vibration of reactor internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinhui; Gu Fangyu

    1999-01-01

    The author presents a physical model of neutron noise induced by reactor internals vibration in frequency domain. Based on system control theory, the reactor dynamic equations are coupled with random vibration equation, and non-linear terms are also taken into accounted while treating the random vibration. Experiments carried out on a zero-power reactor show that the model can be used to describe dynamic character of neutron noise induced by internals' vibration. The model establishes a method to help to determine internals'vibration features, and to diagnosis anomalies through neutron noise

  5. Neuropathic Pain-like Alterations in Muscle Nociceptor Function Associated with Vibration-induced Muscle Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaojie; Green, Paul G.; Levine, Jon D.

    2010-01-01

    We recently developed a rodent model of the painful muscle disorders induced by occupational exposure to vibration. In the present study we used this model to evaluate the function of sensory neurons innervating the vibration-exposed gastrocnemius muscle. Activity of 74 vibration-exposed and 40 control nociceptors, with mechanical receptive fields in the gastrocnemius muscle, were recorded. In vibration-exposed rats ~15% of nociceptors demonstrated an intense and long-lasting barrage of actio...

  6. Harbor seal vibrissa morphology suppresses vortex-induced vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Wolf; Witte, Matthias; Miersch, Lars; Brede, Martin; Oeffner, Johannes; Michael, Mark; Hanke, Frederike; Leder, Alfred; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2010-08-01

    Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) often live in dark and turbid waters, where their mystacial vibrissae, or whiskers, play an important role in orientation. Besides detecting and discriminating objects by direct touch, harbor seals use their whiskers to analyze water movements, for example those generated by prey fish or by conspecifics. Even the weak water movements left behind by objects that have passed by earlier can be sensed and followed accurately (hydrodynamic trail following). While scanning the water for these hydrodynamic signals at a swimming speed in the order of meters per second, the seal keeps its long and flexible whiskers in an abducted position, largely perpendicular to the swimming direction. Remarkably, the whiskers of harbor seals possess a specialized undulated surface structure, the function of which was, up to now, unknown. Here, we show that this structure effectively changes the vortex street behind the whiskers and reduces the vibrations that would otherwise be induced by the shedding of vortices from the whiskers (vortex-induced vibrations). Using force measurements, flow measurements and numerical simulations, we find that the dynamic forces on harbor seal whiskers are, by at least an order of magnitude, lower than those on sea lion (Zalophus californianus) whiskers, which do not share the undulated structure. The results are discussed in the light of pinniped sensory biology and potential biomimetic applications.

  7. Flow Induced Vibration Program at Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory's Flow Induced Vibration Program, currently residing in the Laboratory's Components Technology Division is discussed. Throughout its existence, the overall objective of the program was to develop and apply new and/or improved methods of analysis and testing for the design evaluation of nuclear reactor plant components and heat exchange equipment from the standpoint of flow induced vibration. Historically, the majority of the program activities were funded by the US Atomic Energy Commission, the Energy Research and Development Administration, and the Department of Energy. Current DOE funding is from the Breeder Mechanical Component Development Division, Office of Breeder Technology Projects; Energy Conversion and Utilization Technology Program, Office of Energy Systems Research; and Division of Engineering, Mathematical and Geosciences, office of Basic Energy Sciences. Testing of Clinch River Breeder Reactor upper plenum components was funded by the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant Project Office. Work was also performed under contract with Foster Wheeler, General Electric, Duke Power Company, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and Westinghouse.

  8. Flow Induced Vibration Program at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has had a Flow Induced Vibration Program since 1967; the Program currently resides in the Laboratory's Components Technology Division. Throughout its existence, the overall objective of the program has been to develop and apply new and/or improved methods of analysis and testing for the design evaluation of nuclear reactor plant components and heat exchange equipment from the standpoint of flow induced vibration. Historically, the majority of the program activities have been funded by the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), and Department of Energy (DOE). Current DOE funding is from the Breeder Mechanical Component Development Division, Office of Breeder Technology Projects; Energy Conversion and Utilization Technology (ECUT) Program, Office of Energy Systems Research; and Division of Engineering, Mathematical and Geosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Testing of Clinch River Breeder Reactor upper plenum components has been funded by the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) Project Office. Work has also been performed under contract with Foster Wheeler, General Electric, Duke Power Company, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and Westinghouse

  9. Vibration impact acoustic emission technique for identification and analysis of defects in carbon steel tubes: Part B Cluster analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halim, Zakiah Abd [Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (Malaysia); Jamaludin, Nordin; Junaidi, Syarif [Faculty of Engineering and Built, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi (Malaysia); Yahya, Syed Yusainee Syed [Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam (Malaysia)

    2015-04-15

    Current steel tubes inspection techniques are invasive, and the interpretation and evaluation of inspection results are manually done by skilled personnel. Part A of this work details the methodology involved in the newly developed non-invasive, non-destructive tube inspection technique based on the integration of vibration impact (VI) and acoustic emission (AE) systems known as the vibration impact acoustic emission (VIAE) technique. AE signals have been introduced into a series of ASTM A179 seamless steel tubes using the impact hammer. Specifically, a good steel tube as the reference tube and four steel tubes with through-hole artificial defect at different locations were used in this study. The AEs propagation was captured using a high frequency sensor of AE systems. The present study explores the cluster analysis approach based on autoregressive (AR) coefficients to automatically interpret the AE signals. The results from the cluster analysis were graphically illustrated using a dendrogram that demonstrated the arrangement of the natural clusters of AE signals. The AR algorithm appears to be the more effective method in classifying the AE signals into natural groups. This approach has successfully classified AE signals for quick and confident interpretation of defects in carbon steel tubes.

  10. Vibration impact acoustic emission technique for identification and analysis of defects in carbon steel tubes: Part B Cluster analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halim, Zakiah Abd; Jamaludin, Nordin; Junaidi, Syarif; Yahya, Syed Yusainee Syed

    2015-01-01

    Current steel tubes inspection techniques are invasive, and the interpretation and evaluation of inspection results are manually done by skilled personnel. Part A of this work details the methodology involved in the newly developed non-invasive, non-destructive tube inspection technique based on the integration of vibration impact (VI) and acoustic emission (AE) systems known as the vibration impact acoustic emission (VIAE) technique. AE signals have been introduced into a series of ASTM A179 seamless steel tubes using the impact hammer. Specifically, a good steel tube as the reference tube and four steel tubes with through-hole artificial defect at different locations were used in this study. The AEs propagation was captured using a high frequency sensor of AE systems. The present study explores the cluster analysis approach based on autoregressive (AR) coefficients to automatically interpret the AE signals. The results from the cluster analysis were graphically illustrated using a dendrogram that demonstrated the arrangement of the natural clusters of AE signals. The AR algorithm appears to be the more effective method in classifying the AE signals into natural groups. This approach has successfully classified AE signals for quick and confident interpretation of defects in carbon steel tubes.

  11. On results of tests of thermal insulation structural fragments for in-vessel equipment and pipelines of the VG-400 plant on vibrational and acoustic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledenko, S.A.; Andreev, V.A.; Mirenkov, A.F.; Zakharov, V.A.; Suvorov, V.E.; Prokimnov, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    Results of vibrostrength and acoustic fatigue tests of the fragments of thermal insulation for in-vessel equipment and pipelines of the VG-400 reactor are presented. The insulation structure is based on the insulation layer made of steel foil and carbon materials. Weak points in the insulation structure, namely - the welded joints of stiffening ribs - are detected in the course of testing. A conclusion is made on the possibility of vibrational test substitution for the acoustic ones

  12. Wave-induced Ship Hull Vibrations in Stochastic Seaways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Dogliani, M.

    1996-01-01

    A theoretical Study is undertaken on the determination of wave-induced loads in flexible ship hulls. The calculations are performed within the framework of a non-linear, quadratic strip theory formulated in the frequency domain. Included are non-linear effects due to changes in added mass......, hydrodynamic damping and water line breadth with sectional immersion in waves. The study is limited to continuous excitations from the waves and thus transient so-called whipping vibrations due to slamming loads are not considered.Because of the non-linearities the ship hull responses become non...... to the large separation between dominating wave frequencies and the lowest two-node frequency of the hull beam. Both extreme value predictions and fatigue damage are considered.For a fast container ship the rigid body and two-node (springing) vertical wave-induced bending moments amidship are calculated...

  13. PWR control rods wear by vibrations induced by coolant fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynier, R.

    1997-01-01

    Flow induced vibrations in pressurised water reactors generate the wear of control rods against their guidance systems. Alternate sliding (at 320 deg. C in water) and impact-sliding tests (at room temperature in air) were carried out on 304 L austenitic stainless steel control rods' claddings. Microstructural analysis were made on the wear scars of the tube specimen using Scanning ELectron Microscopy, microhardness measurements and X-ray diffractometry. The alternate sliding leads to an important mass loss, a strong plastic deformation due to the strain hardening of the surface layers and generates strong compressive residual stresses. These results are specific to a severe wear case. Therefore, the impact-sliding mode induces martensitic phase, a cracked oxide layer and a compressive residual stresses weaker than those created in the alternate sliding case. This type of motion leads to a milder wear of the control rods

  14. A Comparative Experimental Study on Identification of Defect Severity in Rolling Element Bearings using Acoustic Emission and Vibration Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Rao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the comparison between Vibration Analysis (VA and Acoustic Emission (AE method to predict the defect severity in rolling element bearings with respect to the gradual increase of defect size. In bearing fault diagnosis vibration based methods are very popular, but the signals acquired by its transducers from the bearings are distorted by other faults and mechanical noise from the equipment. Vibration based methods are effective when the defect in the bearings has already become severe. AE is a non destructive testing (NDT technique used in structural health monitoring and its application for bearing defect diagnosis is gaining momentum as an alternate diagnostic tool because of its inherent high signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR. A bearing test rig was designed and set up to study the various defects in rolling element bearings in real environment. In earlier cases, though the researchers studied on different types of seeded defects with random sizes, they could not ascertain the correlation between their defect sizes and the vibration amplitude. The experimental investigation reported in this paper is centered on seeded defect of same type with gradual increase of its size on outer race of radially loaded cylindrical roller bearings and running the defective bearing at different speeds and loads. Data acquired through AE & vibration probes simultaneously for better diagnosis. Comparisons between AE and VA over a range of speed and load conditions at gradual increase of defect size are presented and from them it is concluded that AE method is superior to identify the severity of defect.

  15. BVI induced vibration and noise alleviation by active and passive approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li

    This dissertation describes the development of a comprehensive aeroelastic/aeroacoustic simulation capability for the modeling of vibration and noise in rotorcraft induced by blade-vortex interaction (BVI). Subsequently this capability is applied to study vibration and noise reduction, using active and passive control approaches. The active approach employed is the actively controlled partial span trailing edge flaps (ACF), implemented in single and dual, servo and plain flap configurations. The passive approach is based on varying the sweep and anhedral on the tip of the rotor. Two different modern helicopters are chosen as the baseline for the implementation of ACF approach, one resembling a four-bladed MBB BO-105 hingeless rotor and the other similar to a five-bladed MD-900 bearingless rotor. The structural model is based on a finite element approach capable of simulating composite helicopter blades with swept tips, and representing multiple load paths at the blade root which is a characteristic of bearingless rotors. An unsteady compressible aerodynamic model based on a rational function approximation (RFA) approach is combined with a free wake analysis which has been enhanced by improving the wake analysis resolution and modeling a dual vortex structure. These enhancements are important for capturing BVI effects. A method for predicting compressible unsteady blade surface pressure distribution on rotor blades has been developed, which is required by the acoustic analysis. A modified version of helicopter noise code WOPWOP with provisions for blade flexibility has been combined with the aeroelastic analysis to predict the BVI noise. Several variants of the higher harmonic control (HHC) algorithm have been applied for the active noise control, as well as the simultaneous vibration and noise control. Active control of BVI noise is accomplished using feedback from an onboard microphone. The simulation has been extensively validated against experimental data and

  16. Interferometric Correlator for Acoustic Radiation & Underlying Structural Vibration (ICARUSV), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current methods for identification of aircraft noise sources, such as near-field acoustical holography and beam forming techniques, involve the use of pressure...

  17. Interferometric Correlator for Acoustic Radiation & Underlying Structural Vibration (ICARUSV), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current methods for identification of aircraft noise sources, such as near-field acoustical holography and beam forming techniques, involve the use of pressure...

  18. Modeling photothermal and acoustical induced microbubble generation and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasovitski, Boris; Kislev, Hanoch; Kimmel, Eitan

    2007-12-01

    Previous experimental studies showed that powerful heating of nanoparticles by a laser pulse using energy density greater than 100 mJ/cm(2), could induce vaporization and generate microbubbles. When ultrasound is introduced at the same time as the laser pulse, much less laser power is required. For therapeutic applications, generation of microbubbles on demand at target locations, e.g. cells or bacteria can be used to induce hyperthermia or to facilitate drug delivery. The objective of this work is to develop a method capable of predicting photothermal and acoustic parameters in terms of laser power and acoustic pressure amplitude that are needed to produce stable microbubbles; and investigate the influence of bubble coalescence on the thresholds when the microbubbles are generated around nanoparticles that appear in clusters. We develop and solve here a combined problem of momentum, heat and mass transfer which is associated with generation and growth of a microbubble, filled with a mixture of non-vaporized gas (air) and water vapor. The microbubble's size and gas content vary as a result of three mechanisms: gas expansion or compression, evaporation or condensation on the bubble boundary, and diffusion of dissolved air in the surrounding water. The simulations predict that when ultrasound is applied relatively low threshold values of laser and ultrasound power are required to obtain a stable microbubble from a single nanoparticle. Even lower power is required when microbubbles are formed by coalescence around a cluster of 10 nanoparticles. Laser pulse energy density of 21 mJ/cm(2) is predicted for instance together with acoustic pressure of 0.1 MPa for a cluster of 10 or 62 mJ/cm(2) for a single nanoparticle. Those values are well within the safety limits, and as such are most appealing for targeted therapeutic purposes.

  19. Acoustically Induced Microparticle Orbiting and Clustering on a Solid Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, A.; Tarimala, S.; Roberts, P. M.

    2008-12-01

    Behavior of colloidal particles in the bulk solution or at interfaces under the effect of high-frequency acoustics is critical to many seemingly different applications ranging from enhanced oil recovery to improved mixing in microfluidic channels and from accelerated contaminant extractions to surface cleaning, drug delivery and microelectronics. It can be detrimental or beneficial, depending on the application. In medical research, flow cytometry and microfluidics, for example, acoustically induced clustering of tracer particles and/or their sticking to the walls of channels, vessels, or tubes often becomes a problem. On the other hand, it can be tailored to enhance processes such as mixing in microfluidic devices, particle separation and sizing, and power generation microdevices. To better understand the underlying mechanisms, microscopic visualization experiments were performed in which polystyrene fluorescent (468/508 nm wavelength) microspheres with a mean diameter of 2.26-µm and density of 1.05 g/cm3, were suspended in either de-ionized water or a 0.1M NaCl solution. The freshly-prepared colloidal suspension was injected into a parallel-plate glass flow cell, which was subjected to high-frequency acoustics (200-500 kHz) through a piezoelectric transducer attached to one of the cell's outer walls. When the suspending medium is de-ionized water, acoustic stimulation of the cell at 313 kHz induced three distinct particle behaviors: 1) entrainment and bulk transport via wavelength-scale Rayleigh streaming, 2) transport via direct radiation forces to concentrate at nodal or anti-nodal planes, and 3) entrapment via boundary layer vorticular microstreaming resulting in mobile particles orbiting deposited particles. This latter phenomenon is intriguing. It occurs at specific frequencies and the shape of the orbits is determined by the applied frequency, whereas the rotation speed is proportional to the applied amplitude. At the higher ionic strength, on the other

  20. Flow induced vibrations of secondary piping of L.M.F.B.R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, R.J.; Axisa, F.

    1977-01-01

    A method for evaluating the characteristics of vibrations caused by internal flow in three-dimensional piping systems conveying high density fluids, is presented. The excitation of the circuit is mainly caused by the flow singularities, and it is shown that the problem may be reduced to calculate the response of the circuit to an acoustical pressure discontinuity, localized at each flow singularity. The theoretical formulation of the coupled acoustical-mechanical problem and its numerical solution by the french computer code TEDEL, are given. An experimental test of the method is described. The tested piping system consists of a stainless steel tube circuit comprising four 90 0 bends, conveying water. Vibrations are excited by a half closed gate valve. Satisfactory results are obtained concerning both the frequencies of resonance of the circuit and the level of the vibrations observed

  1. Influence of contact conditions on vibration induced wear of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, P.J.; Schettler, T.; Wieling, N.; Steininger, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Unfavourable design characteristics of nuclear power plant steam generators and heat exchangers in general may result in vibration induced tube wear. A systematic investigation was performed on the contact conditions which may appear between heat exchanger tubes and tube support structure and the influence of different parameters e.g., normal contact force, on the resulting steady state wear rates. It is concluded that not only are contact forces and sliding distances important in the wear process but also the type of relative motion has a decisive influence on the resulting wear rates. For a certain 'work rate', the wear rate caused by repeated impact motions between tube and tube support structure may be an order of magnitude higher than that caused by only sliding motion. This is the result of different operating wear mechanisms which are discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  2. Density-near-zero using the acoustically induced transparency of a Fano acoustic resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Elayouch, A.; Addouche, M.; Farhat, Mohamed; El-Amin, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan; Khelif, A.

    2017-01-01

    We report experimental results of near-zero mass density involving an acoustic metamaterial supporting Fano resonance. For this, we designed and fabricated an acoustic resonator with two closely coupled modes and measured its transmission properties

  3. Dynamic Characteristics of Flow Induced Vibration in a Rotor-Seal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow induced vibration is an important factor affecting the performance of the rotor-seal system. From the point of view of flow induced vibration, the nonlinear models of the rotor-seal system are presented for the analysis of the fluid force, which is induced by the interaction between the unstable fluid flow in the seal and the vibrating rotor. The nonlinear characteristics of flow induced vibration in the rotor-seal system are analyzed, and the nonlinear phenomena in the unbalanced rotor-seal system are investigated using the nonlinear models. Various nonlinear phenomena of flow induced vibration in the rotor-seal system, such as synchronization phenomenon and amplitude mutation, are reproduced.

  4. Vibration and acoustic frequency spectra for industrial process modeling using selective fusion multi-condition samples and multi-source features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Qiao, Junfei; Wu, ZhiWei; Chai, Tianyou; Zhang, Jian; Yu, Wen

    2018-01-01

    Frequency spectral data of mechanical vibration and acoustic signals relate to difficult-to-measure production quality and quantity parameters of complex industrial processes. A selective ensemble (SEN) algorithm can be used to build a soft sensor model of these process parameters by fusing valued information selectively from different perspectives. However, a combination of several optimized ensemble sub-models with SEN cannot guarantee the best prediction model. In this study, we use several techniques to construct mechanical vibration and acoustic frequency spectra of a data-driven industrial process parameter model based on selective fusion multi-condition samples and multi-source features. Multi-layer SEN (MLSEN) strategy is used to simulate the domain expert cognitive process. Genetic algorithm and kernel partial least squares are used to construct the inside-layer SEN sub-model based on each mechanical vibration and acoustic frequency spectral feature subset. Branch-and-bound and adaptive weighted fusion algorithms are integrated to select and combine outputs of the inside-layer SEN sub-models. Then, the outside-layer SEN is constructed. Thus, "sub-sampling training examples"-based and "manipulating input features"-based ensemble construction methods are integrated, thereby realizing the selective information fusion process based on multi-condition history samples and multi-source input features. This novel approach is applied to a laboratory-scale ball mill grinding process. A comparison with other methods indicates that the proposed MLSEN approach effectively models mechanical vibration and acoustic signals.

  5. High Energy Vibration for Gas Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gary Y. H.; Chan, K. B.; Lee, Aylwin Y. S.; Jia, ShengXiang

    2017-07-01

    In September 2016, a gas compressor in offshore Sarawak has its rotor changed out. Prior to this change-out, pipe vibration study was carried-out by the project team to evaluate any potential high energy pipe vibration problems at the compressor’s existing relief valve downstream pipes due to process condition changes after rotor change out. This paper covers high frequency acoustic excitation (HFAE) vibration also known as acoustic induced vibration (AIV) study and discusses detailed methodologies as a companion to the Energy Institute Guidelines for the avoidance of vibration induced fatigue failure, which is a common industry practice to assess and mitigate for AIV induced fatigue failure. Such detailed theoretical studies can help to minimize or totally avoid physical pipe modification, leading to reduce offshore plant shutdown days to plant shutdowns only being required to accommodate gas compressor upgrades, reducing cost without compromising process safety.

  6. Topographic analysis of the skull vibration-induced nystagmus test with piezoelectric accelerometers and force sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Georges; Lion, Alexis; Perrin, Philippe; Ouedraogo, Evariste; Schmerber, Sébastien

    2016-03-23

    Vibration-induced nystagmus is elicited by skull or posterior cervical muscle stimulations in patients with vestibular diseases. Skull vibrations delivered by the skull vibration-induced nystagmus test are known to stimulate the inner ear structures directly. This study aimed to measure the vibration transfer at different cranium locations and posterior cervical regions to contribute toward stimulus topographic optimization (experiment 1) and to determine the force applied on the skull with a hand-held vibrator to study the test reproducibility and provide recommendations for good clinical practices (experiment 2). In experiment 1, a 100 Hz hand-held vibrator was applied on the skull (vertex, mastoids) and posterior cervical muscles in 11 healthy participants. Vibration transfer was measured by piezoelectric sensors. In experiment 2, the vibrator was applied 30 times by two experimenters with dominant and nondominant hands on a mannequin equipped to measure the force. Experiment 1 showed that after unilateral mastoid vibratory stimulation, the signal transfer was higher when recorded on the contralateral mastoid than on the vertex or posterior cervical muscles (Pskull vibration-induced nystagmus test in patients with unilateral vestibular lesions and enables a stronger stimulation of the healthy side. In clinical practice, the vibrator should be placed on the mastoid and should be held by the clinician's dominant hand.

  7. Flow-induced vibration and fretting-wear damage in a moisture separator reheater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettigrew, M.J.; Taylor, C.E.; Fisher, N.J.

    1996-01-01

    Tube failures due to excessive flow-induced vibration were experienced in the tube bundles of moisture separator reheaters in a BWR nuclear station. This paper presents the results of a root cause analysis and covers recommendations for continued operation and for replacement tube bundles. The following tasks are discussed: tube failure analysis; flow velocity distribution calculations; flow-induced vibration analysis with particular emphasis on finned-tubes; fretting-wear testing of a tube and tube-support material combination under simulated operating conditions; field measurements of flow-induced vibration; and development of vibration specifications for replacement tube bundles. The effect of transient operating conditions and of other operational changes such as tube fouling were considered in the analysis. This paper outlines a typical field problem and illustrates the application of flow-induced vibration technology for the solution of a practical problem

  8. On a Non-Symmetric Eigenvalue Problem Governing Interior Structural–Acoustic Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Voss

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Small amplitude vibrations of a structure completely filled with a fluid are considered. Describing the structure by displacements and the fluid by its pressure field, the free vibrations are governed by a non-self-adjoint eigenvalue problem. This survey reports on a framework for taking advantage of the structure of the non-symmetric eigenvalue problem allowing for a variational characterization of its eigenvalues. Structure-preserving iterative projection methods of the the Arnoldi and of the Jacobi–Davidson type and an automated multi-level sub-structuring method are reviewed. The reliability and efficiency of the methods are demonstrated by a numerical example.

  9. Investigation of energetic particle induced geodesic acoustic mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneller, Mirjam; Fu, Guoyong; Chavdarovski, Ilija; Wang, Weixing; Lauber, Philipp; Lu, Zhixin

    2017-10-01

    Energetic particles are ubiquitous in present and future tokamaks due to heating systems and fusion reactions. Anisotropy in the distribution function of the energetic particle population is able to excite oscillations from the continuous spectrum of geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs), which cannot be driven by plasma pressure gradients due to their toroidally and nearly poloidally symmetric structures. These oscillations are known as energetic particle-induced geodesic acoustic modes (EGAMs) [G.Y. Fu'08] and have been observed in recent experiments [R. Nazikian'08]. EGAMs are particularly attractive in the framework of turbulence regulation, since they lead to an oscillatory radial electric shear which can potentially saturate the turbulence. For the presented work, the nonlinear gyrokinetic, electrostatic, particle-in-cell code GTS [W.X. Wang'06] has been extended to include an energetic particle population following either bump-on-tail Maxwellian or slowing-down [Stix'76] distribution function. With this new tool, we study growth rate, frequency and mode structure of the EGAM in an ASDEX Upgrade-like scenario. A detailed understanding of EGAM excitation reveals essential for future studies of EGAM interaction with micro-turbulence. Funded by the Max Planck Princeton Research Center. Computational resources of MPCDF and NERSC are greatefully acknowledged.

  10. Utilization of old vibro-acoustic measuring equipment to grasp basic concepts of vibration measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darula, Radoslav

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to show that even old vibro-acoustic (analog) equipment can be used as a very suitable teaching equipment to grasp basic principles of measurements in an era, when measurement equipments are more-or-less treated as ‘black-boxes’, i.e. the user cannot see directly how...

  11. Vibration impact acoustic emission technique for identification and analysis of defects in carbon steel tubes: Part A Statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halim, Zakiah Abd [Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (Malaysia); Jamaludin, Nordin; Junaidi, Syarif [Faculty of Engineering and Built, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi (Malaysia); Yahya, Syed Yusainee Syed [Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam (Malaysia)

    2015-04-15

    Current steel tubes inspection techniques are invasive, and the interpretation and evaluation of inspection results are manually done by skilled personnel. This paper presents a statistical analysis of high frequency stress wave signals captured from a newly developed noninvasive, non-destructive tube inspection technique known as the vibration impact acoustic emission (VIAE) technique. Acoustic emission (AE) signals have been introduced into the ASTM A179 seamless steel tubes using an impact hammer, and the AE wave propagation was captured using an AE sensor. Specifically, a healthy steel tube as the reference tube and four steel tubes with through-hole artificial defect at different locations were used in this study. The AE features extracted from the captured signals are rise time, peak amplitude, duration and count. The VIAE technique also analysed the AE signals using statistical features such as root mean square (r.m.s.), energy, and crest factor. It was evident that duration, count, r.m.s., energy and crest factor could be used to automatically identify the presence of defect in carbon steel tubes using AE signals captured using the non-invasive VIAE technique.

  12. Force Limiting Vibration Tests Evaluated from both Ground Acoustic Tests and FEM Simulations of a Flight Like Vehicle System Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Waldon, James; Hunt, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center has conducted a series of ground acoustic tests with the dual goals of informing analytical judgment, and validating analytical methods when estimating vibroacoustic responses of launch vehicle subsystems. The process of repeatedly correlating finite element-simulated responses with test-measured responses has assisted in the development of best practices for modeling and post-processing. In recent work, force transducers were integrated to measure interface forces at the base of avionics box equipment. Other force data was indirectly measured using strain gauges. The combination of these direct and indirect force measurements has been used to support and illustrate the advantages of implementing the Force Limiting approach for equipment qualification tests. The comparison of force response from integrated system level tests to measurements at the same locations during component level vibration tests provides an excellent illustration. A second comparison of the measured response cases from the system level acoustic tests to finite element simulations has also produced some principles for assessing the suitability of Finite Element Models (FEMs) for making vibroacoustics estimates. The results indicate that when FEM models are employed to guide force limiting choices, they should include sufficient detail to represent the apparent mass of the system in the frequency range of interest.

  13. Nanoparticle dispersion in liquid metals by electromagnetically induced acoustic cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldre, Imants; Bojarevičs, Andris; Grants, Ilmārs; Beinerts, Toms; Kalvāns, Matīss; Milgrāvis, Mikus; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study is to investigate experimentally the effect of magnetically induced cavitation applied for the purpose of nanoparticle dispersion in liquid metals. The oscillating magnetic force due to the azimuthal induction currents and the axial magnetic field excites power ultrasound in the sample. If the fields are sufficiently high then it is possible to achieve the acoustic cavitation threshold in liquid metals. Cavitation bubble collapses are known to create microscale jets with a potential to break nanoparticle agglomerates and disperse them. The samples are solidified under the contactless ultrasonic treatment and later analyzed by electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). It is observed that SiC nanoparticles are dispersed in an aluminum magnesium alloy, whereas in tin the same particles remain agglomerated in micron-sized clusters despite a more intense cavitation.

  14. Numerical Research about Influence of Blade Outlet Angle on Flow-Induced Noise and Vibration for Centrifugal Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailing Yang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid numerical method was used to calculate the flow-induced noise and vibration of the centrifugal pump in the paper. The unsteady flows inside the centrifugal pumps with different blade outlet angles were simulated firstly. The unsteady pressure on the inner surface of the volute and the unsteady force applied on the impeller were analyzed. Then the vibration of the volute and sound field were calculated based on an acoustic-vibro-coupling method. The results show that the pump head has increased 7% while the hydraulic efficiency decreased 11.75% as blade outlet angles increased from 18° to 39°. The amplitude of pressure fluctuation at the first blade passing frequency has decreased but increased at the second-order blade passing frequency as the angle growing. The total fluctuation power near volute tongue goes up about 12% every 3° increment of blade outlet angle. The results also show that vibrating-velocity of the volute at second-order blade passing frequency is much higher than at other frequencies, and the velocity increases rapidly as blade outlet angle varies from 18° to 39°. At the same time, the sound pressure level outside the pump has increased about 8.6 dB when the angle increased from 18° to 39°.

  15. Development of Design Criteria for Fluid Induced Structural Vibrations in Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvan Catton; Dhir, Vijay K.; Deepanjan Mitra; Omar Alquaddoomi; Pierangelo Adinolfi

    2004-01-01

    Flow-induced vibration in heat exchangers has been a major cause of concern in the nuclear industry for several decades. Many incidents of failure of heat exchangers due to apparent flow-induced vibration have been reported through the USNRC incident reporting system. Almost all heat exchangers have to deal with this problem during their operation. The phenomenon has been studied since the 1970s and the database of experimental studies on flow-induced vibration is constantly updated with new findings and improved design criteria for heat exchangers

  16. Analysis of fluid induced vibration of cryogenic pipes in consideration of the cooling effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Soo; Kim, Young Ki; Choi, Jung Woon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of system analysis using fluid induced vibration is to identify the problems of the system in advance by analyzing the vibration behavior of the system excited by fluid flow. Fluid-induced vibration analysis methods, developed so far, generally use the numerical analysis method to analyze the fluid flowing inside the pipe and the infinitesimal elements at normal temperature on the basis of the governing equation obtained by applying Newton's Second Law and the momentum equation. However, as the fluid temperature changes greatly at low temperature, fluid-induced vibration analysis methods for normal temperature cannot be applied. This study investigated methods of analyzing fluid-induced vibration in consideration of the cooling effect. In consideration of the changes in the properties of the fluid and system relative to temperature, vibration behavior was analyzed numerically by means of the equation of motion. As a result, the natural frequency of the system tends to change because of the changes of the properties of materials even when the flux is constant inside the pipe, and the vibration behavior of the system was compared to that in case of normal temperature to analyze how much influence the cooling effect has on the vibration behavior of the system

  17. Proceedings of the 8. international conference on Flow-induced vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langre, E. de; Axisa, F.

    2004-01-01

    of all, it proved to be efficient in solving many industrial problems, ranging from civil engineering and marine structures, aerospace terrestrial and marine transportation, to power generation and chemical processing. In the other hand, in the course of investigating the physical mechanisms responsible for FIV and the response of the structures, new mathematical and computational methods, as well as experimental and data processing techniques, have been developed which are of general interest to understand the dynamics of complex systems. Following the trend set at the last three Conferences, the 164 papers from more than 20 countries and presented in the 40 technical sessions at the FIV2004 Conference, address a large range of application areas. Major headings of the topics covered include axial flow and thin walled structures, fluid structure interaction, wind induced vibration, computational methods, flow-acoustic coupling, ship and offshore applications, bluff bodies, bio-mechanics, vortex induced vibrations, tube arrays, piping systems, gates and turbines. Among these papers, 30 have been selected for the INIS database and 35 for the ETDE database

  18. Floor Vibrations - as Induced and Reduced by Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    . As for dynamic loads focus is placed on heel impact excitation and actions of jumping people causing floor vibrations. As for interaction between stationary humans and the vibrating floor focus is on modelling humans as oscillating spring-mass-damper systems attached to the floor rather than as simple added mass...

  19. Wind-induced Vibrations in the European Court Towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jannick B.; Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Ken G.

    2012-01-01

    Issues regarding occupancy comfort in vibration-sensitive structures are the motivation of this study concerning windinduced vibrations in the European Court Towers in Luxembourg. In one of the two identical towers tuned liquid dampers (TLD) have been installed. Recent studies investigate the cha...

  20. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from flow-induced vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D-A; Ko, H-H

    2010-01-01

    A new piezoelectric energy harvester for harnessing energy from flow-induced vibration is developed. It converts flow energy into electrical energy by piezoelectric conversion with oscillation of a piezoelectric film. A finite element model is developed in order to estimate the generated voltage of the piezoelectric laminate subjected to a distributed load. Prototypes of the energy harvester are fabricated and tested. Experimental results show that an open circuit output voltage of 2.2 V pp and an instantaneous output power of 0.2 µW are generated when the excitation pressure oscillates with an amplitude of 1.196 kPa and a frequency of about 26 Hz. The solution of the generated voltage based on the finite element model agrees well with the experiments. Based on the finite element model, the effects of the piezoelectric film dimensions, the fluid pressure applied to the harvester and types of piezoelectric layer on the output voltage of the harvester can be investigated.

  1. Suppressing molecular vibrations in organic semiconductors by inducing strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Takayoshi; Häusermann, Roger; Tsurumi, Junto; Soeda, Junshi; Okada, Yugo; Yamashita, Yu; Akamatsu, Norihisa; Shishido, Atsushi; Mitsui, Chikahiko; Okamoto, Toshihiro; Yanagisawa, Susumu; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Takeya, Jun

    2016-04-04

    Organic molecular semiconductors are solution processable, enabling the growth of large-area single-crystal semiconductors. Improving the performance of organic semiconductor devices by increasing the charge mobility is an ongoing quest, which calls for novel molecular and material design, and improved processing conditions. Here we show a method to increase the charge mobility in organic single-crystal field-effect transistors, by taking advantage of the inherent softness of organic semiconductors. We compress the crystal lattice uniaxially by bending the flexible devices, leading to an improved charge transport. The mobility increases from 9.7 to 16.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) by 70% under 3% strain. In-depth analysis indicates that compressing the crystal structure directly restricts the vibration of the molecules, thus suppresses dynamic disorder, a unique mechanism in organic semiconductors. Since strain can be easily induced during the fabrication process, we expect our method to be exploited to build high-performance organic devices.

  2. Fluid-induced vibration of composite natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, G.P.; Cheraghi, N.; Taheri, F. [Dalhousie Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    Advancements in materials bonding techniques have led to the use of reinforced composite pipelines. The use of steel pipe with a fiber-reinforced composite over-wrap together has produced an exceptionally strong pipe with positive advantages in weight and corrosion resistivity. Understanding the dynamic characteristics of this kind of sub-sea composite pipelines, which often accommodate axial flow of gas, and prediction of their response is of great interest. This paper presents a state-variable model developed for the analysis of fluid-induced vibration of composite pipeline systems. Simply supported, clamped and clamped-simply supported pipelines are investigated. The influence of fluid's Poisson ratio, the ratio of pipe radius to pipe-wall thickness, laminate layup, the ratio of liquid mass density to pipe-wall mass density, the fluid velocity, initial tension and fluid pressure are all considered. The results of our proposed methodology are compared with those of finite element analysis, using ANSYS ssoftware. (Author)

  3. Effect of structural design on traffic-induced building vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Peter; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Persson, Kent

    2017-01-01

    Population growth and urbanization results in densified cities, where new buildings are being built closer to existing vibration sources such as road-, tram- and rail traffic. In addition, new transportation systems are constructed closer to existing buildings. Potential disturbing vibrations...... are one issue to consider in planning urban environment and densification of cities. Vibrations can be disturbing for humans but also for sensitive equipment in, for example, hospitals. In determining the risk for disturbing vibrations, the distance between the source and the receiver, the ground...... properties, and type and size of the building are governing factors. In the paper, a study is presented aiming at investigating the influence of various parameters of the building's structural design on vibration levels in the structure caused by ground surface loads, e.g. traffic. Parameters studied...

  4. A Comparative Study of Ground and Underground Vibrations Induced by Bench Blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhi Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground vibrations originating from bench blasting may cause damage to slopes, structures, and underground workings in close proximity to an operating open-pit mine. It is important to monitor and predict ground vibration levels induced by blasting and to take measures to reduce their hazardous effects. The aims of this paper are to determine the weaker protection objects by comparatively studying bench blasting induced vibrations obtained at surface and in an underground tunnel in an open-pit mine and thus to seek vibration control methods to protect engineering objects at the site. Vibrations arising from measurement devices at surface and in an underground tunnel at the Zijinshan Open-Pit Mine were obtained. Comparative analysis of the peak particle velocities shows that, in the greatest majority of cases, surface values are higher than underground values for the same vibration distance. The transmission laws of surface and underground vibrations were established depending on the type of rock mass, the explosive charge, and the distance. Compared with the Chinese Safety Regulations for Blasting (GB6722-2014, the bench blasting induced vibrations would not currently cause damage to the underground tunnel. According to the maximum allowable peak particle velocities for different objects, the permitted maximum charges per delay are obtained to reduce damage to these objects at different distances.

  5. Neuropathic pain-like alterations in muscle nociceptor function associated with vibration-induced muscle pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Green, Paul G; Levine, Jon D

    2010-11-01

    We recently developed a rodent model of the painful muscle disorders induced by occupational exposure to vibration. In the present study we used this model to evaluate the function of sensory neurons innervating the vibration-exposed gastrocnemius muscle. Activity of 74 vibration-exposed and 40 control nociceptors, with mechanical receptive fields in the gastrocnemius muscle, were recorded. In vibration-exposed rats ∼15% of nociceptors demonstrated an intense and long-lasting barrage of action potentials in response to sustained suprathreshold mechanical stimulation (average of 2635 action potentials with frequency of ∼44Hz during a 1min suprathreshold stimulus) much greater than that has been reported to be produced even by potent inflammatory mediators. While these high-firing nociceptors had lower mechanical thresholds than the remaining nociceptors, exposure to vibration had no effect on conduction velocity and did not induce spontaneous activity. Hyperactivity was not observed in any of 19 neurons from vibration-exposed rats pretreated with intrathecal antisense for the IL-6 receptor subunit gp130. Since vibration can injure peripheral nerves and IL-6 has been implicated in painful peripheral neuropathies, we suggest that the dramatic change in sensory neuron function and development of muscles pain, induced by exposure to vibration, reflects a neuropathic muscle pain syndrome. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. FLOW-INDUCED VIBRATION IN PIPES: CHALLENGESS AND SOLUTIONS - A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SIBA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Flow-induced vibration has recently been the topic of experimental, numerical, and theoretical studies. It was intended to implement better applications for controlling the flow using orifice technique. Having the flow under control, the orifice becomes an instrument for measuring the flow. The flow of all fluid such as water, oil, gas and vapours through an orifice was tested and mathematical models were developed adequately. The basic theme for these enormous studies was the need for the very accurate flow measurements through orifices. All experimental, theoretical, numerical, and analytical studies have agreed that there is more than one avenue to develop, modify, and enhance such measurements. However, one factor that affects the flow measurements is the vibration which was not treated as required until the mid-20th century due to enormous discoveries that damages could be rooted to vibration. Researchers have studied vibration and then proposed mathematical models in conjunction with the pressure and velocity measurements of the flowing fluids and then the effect of the vibration, induced or not induced, has been under continuous investigation. This paper is an attempt to review the previous studies regarding understanding the nature of the vibration and the possible effects of vibration on the flow and on the piping structure in order to limit the damage caused by the vibration. This study shows that the need for more experimental studies and more comprehensive analytical approaches are, in particular, very essential to develop better results.

  7. Predicting wind-induced vibrations of high-rise buildings using unsteady CFD and modal analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yue; Habashi, Wagdi G (Ed); Khurram, Rooh Ul Amin

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the wind-induced vibration of the CAARC standard tall building model, via unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and a structural modal analysis. In this numerical procedure, the natural unsteady wind in the atmospheric

  8. Flow induced vibrations of the CLIC X-Band accelerating structures

    CERN Document Server

    Charles, Tessa; Boland, Mark; Riddone, Germana; Samoshkin, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    Turbulent cooling water in the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) accelerating structures will inevitably induce some vibrations. The maximum acceptable amplitude of vibrations is small, as vibrations in the accelerating structure could lead to beam jitter and alignment difficulties. A Finite Element Analysis model is needed to identify the conditions under which turbulent instabilities and significant vibrations are induced. Due to the orders of magnitude difference between the fluid motion and the structure’s motion, small vibrations of the structure will not contribute to the turbulence of the cooling fluid. Therefore the resonant conditions of the cooling channels presented in this paper, directly identify the natural frequencies of the accelerating structures to be avoided under normal operating conditions. In this paper a 2D model of the cooling channel is presented finding spots of turbulence being formed from a shear layer instability. This effect is observed through direct visualization and wavelet ana...

  9. Smartphones as experimental tools to measure acoustical and mechanical properties of vibrating rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Manuel Á.; González, Miguel Á.

    2016-07-01

    Modern smartphones have calculation and sensor capabilities that make them suitable for use as versatile and reliable measurement devices in simple teaching experiments. In this work a smartphone is used, together with low cost materials, in an experiment to measure the frequencies emitted by vibrating rods of different materials, shapes and lengths. The results obtained with the smartphone have been compared with theoretical calculations and the agreement is good. Alternatively, physics students can perform the experiment described here and use their results to determine the dependencies of the obtained frequencies on the rod characteristics. In this way they will also practice research methods that they will probably use in their professional life.

  10. Fast reactor flow induced vibration with particular reference to PFR and conceptual CDFR design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collinson, A E [REML, UKAEA, RNPDE, Risley, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1977-12-01

    This paper describes development work and basic design criteria as applied to vibration induced by fluid flow for the United Kingdom LMFBR programme. Possible harmful effects that could result from excessive vibration levels are highlighted with the associated excitation mechanisms. Instances of flow-induced vibration encountered in development models and in PFR are described. Basic design requirements and the overall philosophy are considered with respect to PFR and notional CDFRs. Ongoing research objectives are outlined giving some insight into the broad strategy involved. Finally, details are given concerning projects presently in progress along with more long term proposals. (author)

  11. Fast reactor flow induced vibration with particular reference to PFR and conceptual CDFR design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collinson, A.E.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes development work and basic design criteria as applied to vibration induced by fluid flow for the United Kingdom LMFBR programme. Possible harmful effects that could result from excessive vibration levels are highlighted with the associated excitation mechanisms. Instances of flow-induced vibration encountered in development models and in PFR are described. Basic design requirements and the overall philosophy are considered with respect to PFR and notional CDFRs. Ongoing research objectives are outlined giving some insight into the broad strategy involved. Finally, details are given concerning projects presently in progress along with more long term proposals. (author)

  12. Optimal Design and Acoustic Assessment of Low-Vibration Rotor Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bernardini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal procedure for the design of rotor blade that generates low vibratory hub loads in nonaxial flow conditions is presented and applied to a helicopter rotor in forward flight, a condition where vibrations and noise become severe. Blade shape and structural properties are the design parameters to be identified within a binary genetic optimization algorithm under aeroelastic stability constraint. The process exploits an aeroelastic solver that is based on a nonlinear, beam-like model, suited for the analysis of arbitrary curved-elastic-axis blades, with the introduction of a surrogate wake inflow model for the analysis of sectional aerodynamic loads. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the capability of the proposed approach to identify low vibratory hub loads rotor blades as well as to assess the robustness of solution at off-design operating conditions. Further, the aeroacoustic assessment of the rotor configurations determined is carried out in order to examine the impact of low-vibration blade design on the emitted noise field.

  13. Report on acoustic and vibration measurements on 250 MVA transformer at St. Vital Station, Winnipeg, Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, K.; McLoughlin, M.; Schott, R.; Tennese, G.; Daneryd, A.

    1998-09-01

    Vibroacoustic behaviour of a power transformer was characterized prior to employing active noise control (ANC) to control transformer noise. The effect of changes in temperature and loading conditions on the vibration pattern of the transformer tank received particular attention. The transformer quieting technology has been developed and implemented by QuietPower Systems of New York and Noise Cancellation Technologies Inc., of Maryland. Results of the study will be used to ensure that actuator placement is appropriate for each of the seasons experienced throughout the year, as well as to build boundary element and finite element models of the tank vibration and the associated radiated noise. Boundary element results show that the first four harmonics are the primary contributors to radiated noise. The finite element model used to examine the modal response of the tank structure showed high modal densities, even around the lower order harmonics (120 Hz). This can be interpreted to mean that statistical techniques normally associated with high frequency noise problems may be applicable here because of the high modal density. Results of the completed summer and winter measurements permit an evaluation of the effects of loading conditions, temperature and other environmental factors on transformer noise. Appendix B contains the results of numerical simulations on a 250 MVA transformer. 3 refs., 72 figs., 2 appendices

  14. Clashing of risers due to vortex induced vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teissier, D. [Ecole Superieure d' Ingenieurs de Marseille (ESIM), 13 - Marseille (France)]|[Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Scolan, Y.M. [Ecole Superieure d' Ingenieurs de Marseille (ESIM), 13 - Marseille (France); Fontaine, E. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2004-07-01

    Phenomena such as Vortex Induced Vibrations can potentially damage offshore risers, especially in ar ay configurations. Due to wake interferences, amplification of VIV is observed leading to large displacements which are no more self limited to one di meter as in the case of VIV. In this context, clash ng becomes also an issue. In order to study this problems, Institut Francais du Petrole is developing a Computational Fluid Dynamics code, DeepFlow, devoted to the simulation of two-dimensional flows around risers. The extension to three-dimensional configurations follows from a strip theory for the fluid flow, coupled to a structural model for flexible pipes (DeepLines). The numerical method (Etienne s 1999) developed in DeepFlow allows to solve the two-dimensional Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations through a mixed representation (Eulerian and Lagrangian) of the flow properties: vorticity and turbulence. The Eulerian method is necessary in the close vicinity of the bodies in order to capture the boundary layer effects with accuracy, whereas the Lagrangian representation, based on a grid-less method is suitable for the flow in the wake. In the present pa-per, this approach is applied to study the flow around two freely moving cylinders. For this test case, there are some numerical results (Sagatum et al, 2002), however instabilities have been experimentally identified (Paidoussis et al, 1998; Zdravkovich, 1985, 2003). The approach has also been improved to solve accurately the interstitial flow when the bodies are very close to each other. Results from a Chimera approach are presented. (authors)

  15. Vibrational relaxation induced population inversions in laser pumped polyatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamah, I.; Flynn, G.; Columbia Univ., New York

    1981-01-01

    Conditions for population inversion in laser pumped polyatomic molecules are described. For systems which exhibit metastable vibrational population distributions, large, long lived inversions are possible even when the vibrational modes are strongly coupled by rapid collisional vibration-vibration (V-V) energy transfer. Overtone states of a hot mode are found to invert with respect to fundamental levels of a cold mode even at V-V steady state. Inversion persists for a V-T/R relaxation time. A gain of 4 m -1 for the 2ν 3 → ν 2 transition in CH 3 F (lambda approx. 15.9 μ) was found assuming a spontaneous emission lifetime of 10 s for this transition. General equations are derived which can be used to determine the magnitude of population inversion in any laser pumped, vibrationally metastable, polyatomic molecule. A discussion of factors controlling the population maxima of different vibrational states in optically pumped, V-V equilibrated metastable polyatomics is also given. (orig./WL)

  16. Evaluation of the Perceptual Characteristics of a Force Induced by Asymmetric Vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Takeshi; Yano, Hiroaki; Iwata, Hiroo

    2017-08-29

    This paper describes the properties of proprioceptive sensations induced by asymmetric vibration using a vibration speaker-type non-grounded haptic interface. We confirm that the vibration speaker generates a perceived force that pulls or pushes a user's hand in a particular direction when an asymmetric amplitude signal that is generated by inverting a part of a sine wave is input. In this paper, to verify the system with respect to various factors of force perception caused by asymmetric vibration, we conducted six experiments and the following results were obtained. (1) The force vector can be controlled by reversing the asymmetric waves. (2) By investigating the physical characteristics of the vibration, asymmetric vibration was confirmed. (3) The presentation of vibration in the shear direction on the finger pad is effective. (4) The point of subjective equality of the perceived force can be controlled by up to 0.43 N by changing the amplitude voltage of the input signals. (5) The minimum stimulation time required for force perception is 66.7 ms. (6) When the vibration is continuously presented for 40 to 50 s, the perceived force decreases because of adaptation. Hence, we confirmed that we can control both the direction and magnitude of the reaction force by changing the input signal of the vibration speaker.

  17. Differences in Train-induced Vibration between Hard Soil and Soft Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyori, M.; Yokoyama, H.

    2017-12-01

    Vibration and noise caused by running trains sometimes raises environmental issues. Train-induced vibration is caused by moving static and dynamic axle loads. To reduce the vibration, it is important to clarify the conditions under which the train-induced vibration increases. In this study, we clarified the differences in train-induced vibration between on hard soil and on soft soil using a numerical simulation method. The numerical simulation method we used is a combination of two analysis. The one is a coupled vibration analysis model of a running train, a track and a supporting structure. In the analysis, the excitation force of the viaduct slabs generated by a running train is computed. The other analysis is a three-dimensional vibration analysis model of a supporting structure and the ground into which the excitation force computed by the former analysis is input. As a result of the numerical simulation, the ground vibration in the area not more than 25m from the center of the viaduct is larger under the soft soil condition than that under the hard soil condition in almost all frequency ranges. On the other hand, the ground vibration of 40 and 50Hz at a point 50m from the center of the viaduct under the hard soil condition is larger than that under the soft soil condition. These are consistent with the result of the two-dimensional FEM based on a ground model alone. Thus, we concluded that these results are obtained from not the effects of the running train but the vibration characteristics of the ground.

  18. Acoustic Characteristics of Simulated Respiratory-Induced Vocal Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Rosemary A.; Story, Brad H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation of respiratory forced oscillation to the acoustic characteristics of vocal tremor. Method: Acoustical analyses were performed to determine the characteristics of the intensity and fundamental frequency (F[subscript 0]) for speech samples obtained by Farinella, Hixon, Hoit, Story,…

  19. Mesoscale variations in acoustic signals induced by atmospheric gravity waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunchuzov, Igor; Kulichkov, Sergey; Perepelkin, Vitaly; Ziemann, Astrid; Arnold, Klaus; Kniffka, Anke

    2009-02-01

    The results of acoustic tomographic monitoring of the coherent structures in the lower atmosphere and the effects of these structures on acoustic signal parameters are analyzed in the present study. From the measurements of acoustic travel time fluctuations (periods 1 min-1 h) with distant receivers, the temporal fluctuations of the effective sound speed and wind speed are retrieved along different ray paths connecting an acoustic pulse source and several receivers. By using a coherence analysis of the fluctuations near spatially distanced ray turning points, the internal wave-associated fluctuations are filtered and their spatial characteristics (coherences, horizontal phase velocities, and spatial scales) are estimated. The capability of acoustic tomography in estimating wind shear near ground is shown. A possible mechanism describing the temporal modulation of the near-ground wind field by ducted internal waves in the troposphere is proposed.

  20. Laser-induced acoustic imaging of underground objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; DiMarzio, Charles A.; McKnight, Stephen W.; Sauermann, Gerhard O.; Miller, Eric L.

    1999-02-01

    This paper introduces a new demining technique based on the photo-acoustic interaction, together with results from photo- acoustic experiments. We have buried different types of targets (metal, rubber and plastic) in different media (sand, soil and water) and imaged them by measuring reflection of acoustic waves generated by irradiation with a CO2 laser. Research has been focused on the signal acquisition and signal processing. A deconvolution method using Wiener filters is utilized in data processing. Using a uniform spatial distribution of laser pulses at the ground's surface, we obtained 3D images of buried objects. The images give us a clear representation of the shapes of the underground objects. The quality of the images depends on the mismatch of acoustic impedance of the buried objects, the bandwidth and center frequency of the acoustic sensors and the selection of filter functions.

  1. Acoustic Pressure Oscillations Induced in I-Burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Kiyoshi

    Iwama et al. invented the I-burner to investigate acoustic combustion instability in solid-propellant rockets (Proceedings of ICT Conference, 1994, pp. 26-1 26-14). Longitudinal pressure oscillations were induced in the combustion chamber of a thick-walled rocket by combustion of a stepped-perforation grain (I-burner). These oscillations were studied here experimentally. Two I-burners with an internal diameter of 80 mm and a length of 1208 mm or 2240 mm were made. The grain had stepped perforations (20 and 42 mm in diameter and 657 and 160 mm in length, respectively). Longitudinal pressure oscillations always occur in two stages when an HTPB (hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene)/AP (ammonium perchlorate)/aluminum-powder propellant burns (54 tests; the highest average pressure in the combustion chamber was 9.5 29 MPa), but no oscillations occur when an HTPB/AP propellant burns (29 tests). The pressure oscillations are essentially linear, but dissipation adds a nonlinear nature to them. In the first stage, the amplitudes are small and the first wave group predominates. In the next stage, the amplitudes are large and many wave groups are present. The change in the grain form accompanying the combustion affects the pressure oscillations.

  2. Mechanisms mediating vibration-induced chronic musculoskeletal pain analyzed in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dina, Olayinka A; Joseph, Elizabeth K; Levine, Jon D; Green, Paul G

    2010-04-01

    While occupational exposure to vibration is a common cause of acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain, eliminating exposure produces limited symptomatic improvement, and reexposure precipitates rapid recurrence or exacerbation. To evaluate mechanisms underlying these pain syndromes, we have developed a model in the rat, in which exposure to vibration (60-80Hz) induces, in skeletal muscle, both acute mechanical hyperalgesia as well as long-term changes characterized by enhanced hyperalgesia to a proinflammatory cytokine or reexposure to vibration. Exposure of a hind limb to vibration-produced mechanical hyperalgesia measured in the gastrocnemius muscle of the exposed hind limb, which persisted for approximately 2 weeks. When nociceptive thresholds had returned to baseline, exposure to a proinflammatory cytokine or reexposure to vibration produced markedly prolonged hyperalgesia. The chronic prolongation of vibration- and cytokine-hyperalgesia was prevented by spinal intrathecal injection of oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) antisense to protein kinase Cepsilon, a second messenger in nociceptors implicated in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain. Vibration-induced hyperalgesia was inhibited by spinal intrathecal administration of ODN antisense to receptors for the type-1 tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) receptor. Finally, in TNFalpha-pretreated muscle, subsequent vibration-induced hyperalgesia was markedly prolonged. These studies establish a model of vibration-induced acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain, and identify the proinflammatory cytokine TNFalpha and the second messenger protein kinase Cepsilon as targets against which therapies might be directed to prevent and/or treat this common and very debilitating chronic pain syndrome. Copyright 2010 American Pain Society. All rights reserved.

  3. A Comparative Study of the Monitoring of a Self Aligning Spherical Journal using Surface Vibration, Airborne Sound and Acoustic Emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raharjo, P; Tesfa, B; Gu, F; Ball, A D

    2012-01-01

    A Self aligning spherical journal bearing is a plain bearing which has spherical surface contact that can be applied in high power industrial machinery. This type of bearing can accommodate a misalignment problem. The journal bearing faults degrade machine performance, decrease life time service and cause unexpected failure which are dangerous for safety issues. Non-intrusive measurements such as surface vibration (SV), airborne sound (AS) and acoustic emission (AE) measurement are appropriate monitoring methods for early stage journal bearing fault in low, medium and high frequency. This paper focuses on the performance comparison using SV, AS and AE measurements in monitoring a self aligning spherical journal bearing for normal and faulty (scratch) conditions. It examines the signals in the time domain and frequency domain and identifies the frequency ranges for each measurement in which significant changes are observed. The results of SV, AS and AE experiments indicate that the spectrum can be used to detect the differences between normal and faulty bearing. The statistic parameter shows that RMS value and peak value for faulty bearing is higher than normal bearing.

  4. Studying the field induced breakup of acoustically levitated drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warschat, C.; Riedel, J.

    2017-10-01

    Coulomb fission of charged droplets (The terms drop and droplet are often used synonymous. Throughout this manuscript, to avoid confusion, the terms drop and droplet will be used for liquid spheres with radii in the millimeter range and the micrometer range, respectively. In our experiments, the first correspond to the parent drop while the latter describes the ejected progeny droplets.) is a well-studied natural phenomenon. Controlled droplet fission is already successfully employed in several technological applications. Still, since the occurring surface rupture relies on the exact understanding and description of the liquid gas boundary, some details are still under debate. Most empirical systematic studies observe falling micrometer droplets passing through the electric field inside a plate capacitor. This approach, although easily applicable and reliable, limits the experimental degrees of freedom regarding the observable time and the maximum size of the drops and can only be performed in consecutive individual observations of different subsequent drops. Here we present a novel setup to study the field induced breakup of acoustically levitated drops. The design does not bear any restrictions towards the temporal window of observation, and allows handling of drops of a tunable radius ranging from 10 μm to several millimeters and a real-time monitoring of one single drop. Our comprehensive study includes a time resolved visual inspection, laser shadowgraphy, laser induced fluorescence imaging, and ambient mass spectrometric interrogation of the nascent Taylor cone. The results shown for a millimeter sized drop, previously inaccessible for Coulomb fission experiments, are mostly comparable with previous results for smaller drops. The major difference is the time scale and the threshold potential of the drop rupture. Both values, however, resemble theoretically extrapolations to the larger radius. The technique allows for a systematic study of breakup behavior of

  5. Experimental study of flow induced vibration of the planar fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinhua; Bo Hanliang; Jiang Shengyao; Jia Haijun; Zheng Wenxiang; Min Gang; Qu Xinxing

    2005-01-01

    The paper studied the flow-induced vibration of the planar fuel assembly under scour of coolant through experiments, the study includes: the characteristics of the inherent vibration, the response to the flow-induced vibration in rating condition and the confirmation of the critical flow velocity's scope of the flow flexible instability. The velocity distributions in different flow channels formed by fuel plates in the assembly were measured, and the velocity distribution in the same flow channel was also measured. The experimental conclusions includes: the inherent vibration frequency of the planar fuel assembly is different for a little in each direction. The damp ratio corresponding to the assembly each rank's inherent frequency is small, and the damp ratio decreased with the increase of the corresponding inherent frequency. The velocity in different flow channels decreased from outside to inside, and the velocity in the middle channel was the least; the velocity in the same channel decreased from inside to outside, and the velocity in the middle position was the most. The vibration swing of the fuel assembly was small at rating condition, and the vibration swing of the fuel plates was larger than side plates. The vibration of the fuel assembly increased with the increase of the velocity, the vibration of the middle fuel plate were larger than the border fuel plate, and the vibration of the border fuel plate was larger than the side plate. The large scale vibration of the flow flexible instability didn't occur in the velocity scope of 0-18.8 m/s in the experiment, so the critical flow velocity of the flow flexible instability was not in the flow velocity scope of the experiment. (authors)

  6. Numerical simulation of flow induced airfoil vibrations with large amplitudes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sváček, Petr; Feistauer, M.; Horáček, Jaromír

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 23, - (2007), s. 391-411 ISSN 0889-9746 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760613 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : aeroelasticity * flutter * nonlinear oscillations Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.821, year: 2007

  7. Study on Fluid-Induced Vibration Power Harvesting of Square Columns under Different Attack Angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of the flow-vibration-electrical circuit multiphysical coupling system for solving square column vortex-induced vibration piezoelectric energy harvesting (VIVPEH is proposed in this paper. The quasi steady state theory is adopted to describe the fluid solid coupling process of vortex-induced vibration based on the finite volume method coupled Gauss equation. The vibrational response and the quasi steady state form of the output voltage are solved by means of the matrix coefficient method and interactive computing. The results show that attack angles play an important role in the performance of square column VIVPEH, of which α=45° is a relatively ideal attack angle of square column VIVPEH.

  8. The Effects of Acute Stress-Induced Sleep Disturbance on Acoustic Trauma-Induced Tinnitus in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic tinnitus is a debilitating condition and often accompanied by anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance. It has been suggested that sleep disturbance, such as insomnia, may be a risk factor/predictor for tinnitus-related distress and the two conditions may share common neurobiological mechanisms. This study investigated whether acute stress-induced sleep disturbance could increase the susceptibility to acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus in rats. The animals were exposed to unilateral acoustic trauma 24 h before sleep disturbance being induced using the cage exchange method. Tinnitus perception was assessed behaviourally using a conditioned lick suppression paradigm 3 weeks after the acoustic trauma. Changes in the orexin system in the hypothalamus, which plays an important role in maintaining long-lasting arousal, were also examined using immunohistochemistry. Cage exchange resulted in a significant reduction in the number of sleep episodes and acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus with acoustic features similar to a 32 kHz tone at 100 dB. However, sleep disturbance did not exacerbate the perception of tinnitus in rats. Neither tinnitus alone nor tinnitus plus sleep disturbance altered the number of orexin-expressing neurons. The results suggest that acute sleep disturbance does not cause long-term changes in the number of orexin neurons and does not change the perception of tinnitus induced by acoustic trauma in rats.

  9. Strategy for predicting railway-induced vibrations in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Peter; Persson, Kent; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2016-01-01

    Urban densification is a way of accommodating population growth. Land adjacent to railways is used for constructing residences and other buildings, and new tramway systems are planned. Under these circumstances, nearby buildings will be exposed to vibrations and noise that may become a nuisance...

  10. Mechanisms Mediating Vibration-induced Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain Analyzed in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Dina, Olayinka A.; Joseph, Elizabeth K.; Levine, Jon D.; Green, Paul G.

    2009-01-01

    While occupational exposure to vibration is a common cause of acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain, eliminating exposure produces limited symptomatic improvement, and re-exposure precipitates rapid recurrence or exacerbation. To evaluate mechanisms underlying these pain syndromes, we have developed a model in the rat, in which exposure to vibration (60–80 Hz) induces, in skeletal muscle, both acute mechanical hyperalgesia as well as long-term changes characterized by enhanced hyperalgesia t...

  11. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Relation With Vibration Disease and Exposure to Vibration Among Employees in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Karganova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Occupational noise-induced hearing loss (ONIHL is a form of sensorineural hearing loss that is caused by intensive and continuous exposure to noise. It is one of the most frequently encountered occupational diseases worldwide despite numerous available control measures. ONIHL is a preventable disease, however, once the damage to the inner ear structures has occurred no medical intervention can reverse it. Aim. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse incidence of registered cases of ONIHL in relation to vibration disease and exposure to vibration among employees in Latvia between 2005 and 2014. Materials and methods. The data used in the study were acquired from the Latvian State Register of Patients with Occupational Diseases and afterwards analyzed with applicable statistical tests using both Excel and IBM SPSS programmes to compare epidemiological parameters between ONIHL, vibration disease (VD and exposure to vibration and to identify the association between them. Results. In total data were obtained about 2302 patients with 2562 cases of occupational ear, nose and throat (ENT diseases. Out of them ONIHL was registered in 1699 cases (819 cases were ONIHL in combination with VD. Most of the employees with ONIHL and ONIHL simultaneously with VD were males aged 55-64. There was found statistically significant association between ONIHL and VD (p<0.001; Cramer’s V=0.42; OR=32.08; 95% confidence interval (95% CI 19.62–52.45. Statistically significant association was encountered between ONIHL and exposure to vibration as well (p<0.001; Cramer’s V=0.46; OR=10.97; 95% CI: 8.63–13.96. Conclusion. In total ONIHL was the most prevalent occupational ENT disease followed by chronic laryngitis, chronic pharyngitis and allergic rhinitis. Statistically significant association was found between ONIHL and VD, and ONIHL and exposure to vibration. Study revealed that hearing quality of workers employed in manufacturing; transport, storage

  12. Acoustic Measurement of the Length of Air-plasma Filament Induced by an Intense Femtosecond Laser Pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Si-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies acoustic emission from air-plasma filament induced by a strong femtosecond laser pulse. Acoustic signal is detected with a sensitive directional microphone. Acoustic measurement provides a new method to determine the length of a filament. Compared with other methods, acoustic measurement is simpler, more sensitive, and with higher spatial resolution. Information of filament length is experimentally acquired through measuring acoustic pressure at different position of filament. On the basis of the relationship between acoustic signal and free-electron density in filament, profile of free-electron density is demonstrated

  13. Heart rate responses induced by acoustic tempo and its interaction with basal heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ken; Ooishi, Yuuki; Kashino, Makio

    2017-03-07

    Many studies have revealed the influences of music on the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Since previous studies focused on the effects of acoustic tempo on the ANS, and humans have their own physiological oscillations such as the heart rate (HR), the effects of acoustic tempo might depend on the HR. Here we show the relationship between HR elevation induced by acoustic tempo and individual basal HR. Since high tempo-induced HR elevation requires fast respiration, which is based on sympatho-respiratory coupling, we controlled the participants' respiration at a faster rate (20 CPM) than usual (15 CPM). We found that sound stimuli with a faster tempo than the individual basal HR increased the HR. However, the HR increased following a gradual increase in the acoustic tempo only when the extent of the gradual increase in tempo was within a specific range (around + 2%/min). The HR did not follow the increase in acoustic tempo when the rate of the increase in the acoustic tempo exceeded 3% per minute. These results suggest that the effect of the sympatho-respiratory coupling underlying the HR elevation caused by a high acoustic tempo depends on the basal HR, and the strength and the temporal dynamics of the tempo.

  14. Theoretical study of time-dependent, ultrasound-induced acoustic streaming in microchannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Peter Barkholt; Bruus, Henrik

    2015-12-01

    Based on first- and second-order perturbation theory, we present a numerical study of the temporal buildup and decay of unsteady acoustic fields and acoustic streaming flows actuated by vibrating walls in the transverse cross-sectional plane of a long straight microchannel under adiabatic conditions and assuming temperature-independent material parameters. The unsteady streaming flow is obtained by averaging the time-dependent velocity field over one oscillation period, and as time increases, it is shown to converge towards the well-known steady time-averaged solution calculated in the frequency domain. Scaling analysis reveals that the acoustic resonance builds up much faster than the acoustic streaming, implying that the radiation force may dominate over the drag force from streaming even for small particles. However, our numerical time-dependent analysis indicates that pulsed actuation does not reduce streaming significantly due to its slow decay. Our analysis also shows that for an acoustic resonance with a quality factor Q, the amplitude of the oscillating second-order velocity component is Q times larger than the usual second-order steady time-averaged velocity component. Consequently, the well-known criterion v(1)≪c(s) for the validity of the perturbation expansion is replaced by the more restrictive criterion v(1)≪c(s)/Q. Our numerical model is available as supplemental material in the form of comsol model files and matlab scripts.

  15. Energy harvesting by means of flow-induced vibrations on aerospace vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daochun; Wu, Yining; Da Ronch, Andrea; Xiang, Jinwu

    2016-10-01

    This paper reviews the design, implementation, and demonstration of energy harvesting devices that exploit flow-induced vibrations as the main source of energy. Starting with a presentation of various concepts of energy harvesters that are designed to benefit from a general class of flow-induced vibrations, specific attention is then given at those technologies that may offer, today or in the near future, a potential benefit to extend the operational capabilities and to monitor critical parameters of unmanned aerial vehicles. Various phenomena characterized by flow-induced vibrations are discussed, including limit cycle oscillations of plates and wing sections, vortex-induced and galloping oscillations of bluff bodies, vortex-induced vibrations of downstream structures, and atmospheric turbulence and gusts. It was found that linear or linearized modeling approaches are commonly employed to support the design phase of energy harvesters. As a result, highly nonlinear and coupled phenomena that characterize flow-induced vibrations are neglected in the design process. The Authors encourage a shift in the current design paradigm: considering coupled nonlinear phenomena, and adequate modeling tools to support their analysis, from a design limitation to a design opportunity. Special emphasis is placed on identifying designs and implementations applicable to aircraft configurations. Application fields of flow-induced vibrations-based energy harvesters are discussed including power supply for wireless sensor networks and simultaneous energy harvest and control. A large body of work on energy harvesters is included in this review journal. Whereas most of the references claim direct applications to unmanned aerial vehicles, it is apparent that, in most of the cases presented, the working principles and characteristics of the energy harvesters are incompatible with any aerospace applications. Finally, the challenges that hold back the integration of energy harvesting

  16. Diagnostic method based on the analysis of vibration and acoustic emission. Monitoring of emergency diesel NPP Garona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paniagua, L.; Munoz, M.; Moreno, F.; Arroyo, J.; Monne, C.

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance Technicians, more and more, must dispose of predictive tools to diagnose the state of the equipment, especially if they are responsible for the emergency diesel in a Nuclear Power Plant. the use of these tools should be understood as a complement to more classic Preventive Maintenance of the equipment, thus increasing their availability because the parameters necessary for evaluating motor behaviour are taken while the engine is in operation. In this way, it facilitates the decision-making on whether to carry out certain preventive tasks. The basic information about this diagnostic tool presented in this article is based on the reading, recording and analysis of pressure, vibrations and acoustic emission in each engine cylinder during its operating cycle. A nice addition to the above diagnosis is carrying out and endoscopy of each cylinder, which enables the observation of: water leaks, injector leaks, the spraying of each injector, valve leaks,... etc. This article describes the fundamentals of a non-intrusive, easy to use and low cost tool, used to check the function of Emergency Diesel engines, as well as the experience of its use in the St. Maria Garona Nuclear Plant. The article also describes the case of a fault which occurred in the Nuclear Power plant in Garona that would hardly have been possible to detect by other means. This tool was developed jointly by the Engines Laboratory of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Zaragoza and the St. Maria Garona Nuclear Plant. It has been further improved, extended and optimized over the more than 10 years of its use. (Author)

  17. Fluid induced structural vibrations in steam generators and heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catton, I.; Adinolfi, P.; Alquaddoomi, O.

    2003-01-01

    Fluid-elastic instability (FEI) in tube bundle heat exchangers was studied experimentally. The motion of an array of 15 stainless steel vibrating tubes (Φ 25.4mm) in water cross-flow, suspended using stainless steel piano wire has been recorded with a CCD camera. The individual motion and relative motion of the tubes are reported and can be used for computational model validation. The relative displacement of the tubes allows identification of the most potentially damaging patterns of tube bundle vibration. A critical reduced velocity may be determined by specification of an allowable limit on tube motion amplitude. Measurements were made for various tube array configurations, tube natural frequencies and flow conditions. (author)

  18. Tyre induced vibrations of the car-trailer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beregi, S.; Takács, D.; Stépán, G.

    2016-02-01

    The lateral and yaw dynamics of the car-trailer combination are analysed by means of a single track model. The equations of motion are derived rigorously by means of the Appell-Gibbs equations for constant longitudinal velocity of the vehicle. The tyres are described with the help of the so-called delayed tyre model, which is based on a brush model with pure rolling contact. The lateral forces and aligning torques of the tyre/road interaction are calculated via the instantaneous lateral deformations in the contact patches. The linear stability analysis of the rectilinear motion is performed via the analytically determined characteristic function of the system. Stability charts are constructed with respect to the vehicle longitudinal velocity and the payload position on the trailer. Self-excited lateral vibrations are detected with different vibration modes at low and at high longitudinal speeds of the vehicle. The effects of the tyre parameters are also investigated.

  19. Vibration-Induced Errors in MEMS Tuning Fork Gyroscopes with Imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiang; Dong, Linxi; Zhao, Wen-Sheng; Yan, Haixia; Teh, Kwok Siong; Wang, Gaofeng

    2018-05-29

    This paper discusses the vibration-induced error in non-ideal MEMS tuning fork gyroscopes (TFGs). Ideal TFGs which are thought to be immune to vibrations do not exist, and imbalance between two gyros of TFGs is an inevitable phenomenon. Three types of fabrication imperfections (i.e., stiffness imbalance, mass imbalance, and damping imbalance) are studied, considering different imbalance radios. We focus on the coupling types of two gyros of TFGs in both drive and sense directions, and the vibration sensitivities of four TFG designs with imbalance are simulated and compared. It is found that non-ideal TFGs with two gyros coupled both in drive and sense directions (type CC TFGs) are the most insensitive to vibrations with frequencies close to the TFG operating frequencies. However, sense-axis vibrations with in-phase resonant frequencies of a coupled gyros system result in severe error outputs to TFGs with two gyros coupled in the sense direction, which is mainly attributed to the sense capacitance nonlinearity. With increasing stiffness coupled ratio of the coupled gyros system, the sensitivity to vibrations with operating frequencies is cut down, yet sensitivity to vibrations with in-phase frequencies is amplified.

  20. A modified wake oscillator model for predicting vortex induced vibration of heat exchanger tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhipeng; Zang Fenggang; Zhang Yixiong; Ye Xianhui

    2014-01-01

    Base on the classical wake oscillator model, a new modified wake oscillator model is proposed, for predicting vortex induced vibration of heat exchanger tube in uniform current. The comparison between the new wake oscillator model and experimental show that the present model can simulate the characteristics of vortex induced vibration of tube. Firstly, the research shows that the coupled fluid-structure dynamical system should be modeled by combined displacement and acceleration mode. Secondly, the empirical parameter in wake oscillator model depends on the material properties of the structure, instead of being a universal constant. Lastly, the results are compared between modified wake oscillator model and fluid-structure interaction numerical model. It shows the present, predicted results are compared to the fluid-structure interaction numerical data. The new modified wake oscillator model can predict the vortex induced heat exchanger tube vibration feasibly. (authors)

  1. Self-induced vibrations of a DU96-W-180 airfoil in stall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrzypinski, Witold Robert; Gaunaa, Mac; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) non-moving, prescribed motion and elastically mounted airfoil computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computations. The elastically mounted airfoil computations were performed by means of a 2D structural model with two...... degrees of freedom. The computations aimed at investigating the mechanisms of both vortex-induced and stall-induced vibrations related to a wind turbine blade at standstill conditions. In this work, a DU96-W-180 airfoil was used in the angle-of-attack region potentially corresponding to stallinduced...... vibrations. The analysis showed significant differences between the aerodynamic stability limits predicted by 2D and 3D CFD computations. A general agreement was reached between the prescribed motion and elastically mounted airfoil computations. 3D computations indicated that vortex-induced vibrations...

  2. Interference-induced angle-independent acoustical transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Lehua; Yu, Gaokun; Wang, Ning; Wang, Xinlong; Wang, Guibo

    2014-01-01

    It is revealed that the Fano-like interference leads to the extraordinary acoustic transmission through a slab metamaterial of thickness much smaller than the wavelength, with each unit cell consisting of a Helmholtz resonator and a narrow subwavelength slit. More importantly, both the theoretical analysis and experimental measurement show that the angle-independent acoustical transparency can be realized by grafting a Helmholtz resonator and a quarter-wave resonator to the wall of a narrow subwavelength slit in each unit cell of a slit array. The observed phenomenon results from the interferences between the waves propagating in the slit, those re-radiated by the Helmholtz resonator, and those re-radiated by the quarter-wave resonator. The proposed design may find its applications in designing angle-independent acoustical filters and controlling the phase of the transmitted waves

  3. Effect of top ligament blanking on reducing flow induced vibration of protective grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Kyong Bo; Ryu, Joo Young; Kwon, Oh Joon; Park, Joon Kyoo; Jeon, Sang Youn; Suh, Jung Min [KEPCO NF Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The protective grid is a Inconel 718 spacer grid located just above the bottom nozzle in many kinds of fuel assemblies for PWR. The purpose of using protective grid is to capture debris before they flow up into the fuel assembly and get trapped by the other grids causing fuel rod damages as well as to provide support at the lower end plugs of fuel rods. Recently, it has been reported that strap failure has occurred in the protective grids and the flow induced vibration of the strap has resulted in the strap fatigue failure. After the root cause of the protective grid failure was found to be the flow induced vibration of the strap, KEPCO NF has made an effort to find the vibration tendencies of grid strap and draw vibration mitigation concepts of the protective grid strap. The vibration tendency and the effect of the vibration mitigation concept of the protective grid which have been found by the results of the loop tests and simulations in KEPCO NF are presented herein.

  4. Acoustically enhanced heat transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, Kar M.; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming K., E-mail: tan.ming.kwang@monash.edu [School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor (Malaysia); Yeo, Leslie Y. [Micro/Nanophysics Research Laboratory, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); Friend, James R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We investigate the enhancement of heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime by inducing high frequency acoustic waves (f ∼ 10{sup 6} Hz) on the heated surface. In the experiments, liquid droplets (deionized water) are dispensed directly onto a heated, vibrating substrate. At lower vibration amplitudes (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −9} m), the improved heat transfer is mainly due to the detachment of vapor bubbles from the heated surface and the induced thermal mixing. Upon increasing the vibration amplitude (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −8} m), the heat transfer becomes more substantial due to the rapid bursting of vapor bubbles happening at the liquid-air interface as a consequence of capillary waves travelling in the thin liquid film between the vapor bubble and the air. Further increases then lead to rapid atomization that continues to enhance the heat transfer. An acoustic wave displacement amplitude on the order of 10{sup −8} m with 10{sup 6} Hz order frequencies is observed to produce an improvement of up to 50% reduction in the surface temperature over the case without acoustic excitation.

  5. A study on mechanical properties and flow-induced vibrations of coil-shaped holddown spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyu-Tae

    2010-01-01

    The fuel assemblies used in the OPR1000s in Korea employ four coil-shaped hold-down springs to exert compressive load at the top of fuel assembly so that the assemblies may not be damaged by preventing its hydraulic-induced lifting-off from its lower seating surface. However, the coolant flow generates the flow-induced vibration at the coil-shaped hold-down springs which may cause wear on the spring surfaces. A hold-own spring may be fractured if torsional stress acting on its worn area exceeds a stress limit, resulting in the loss of hold-down spring force of the fuel assembly. In this paper, flow-induced vibration tests were performed for standard and improved coil type hold-down springs to investigate the effects of these two hold-down spring designs on flow-induced vibration wear. In parallel, a wide spectrum of mechanical tests was performed to obtain vibration-related characteristics of these two hold-down springs, which can be used as input data for the fuel assembly static and dynamic analysis. It is found that the improved hold-down spring design is better against flow-induced vibration wear than the standard one. With the use of the three-dimensional Solidwork model, the stress-related design lifetime of the improved hold-down spring was estimated by extrapolating its wear data measured from the flow-induced vibration tests, which indicates that the improved HD spring design will maintain integrity during the fuel design lifetime in OPR1000s in Korea.

  6. Induced vibrations increase performance of a winged self-righting robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othayoth, Ratan; Xuan, Qihan; Li, Chen

    When upside down, cockroaches can open their wings to dynamically self-right. In this process, an animal often has to perform multiple unsuccessful maneuvers to eventually right, and often flails its legs. Here, we developed a cockroach-inspired winged self-righting robot capable of controlled body vibrations to test the hypothesis that vibrations assist self-righting transitions. Robot body vibrations were induced by an oscillating mass (10% of body mass) and varied by changing oscillation frequency. We discovered that, as the robot's body vibrations increased, righting probability increased, and righting time decreased (P locomotor transitions, but highlights the need for further stochastic modeling to capture the uncertain nature of when righting maneuvers result in successful righting.

  7. FFTF scale-model characterization of flow-induced vibrational response of reactor internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.A.; Julyk, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    As an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program for Reactor Internals, the flow-induced vibrational characteristics of scaled Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup. The Hydraulic Core Mockup, a 0.285 geometric scale model, was designed to model the vibrational and hydraulic characteristics of the Fast Test Reactor. Model component vibrational characteristics were measured and determined over a range of 36 percent to 111 percent of the scaled prototype design flow. Selected model and prototype components were shaker tested to establish modal characteristics. The dynamic response of the Hydraulic Core Mockup components exhibited no anomalous flow-rate dependent or modal characteristics, and prototype response predictions were adjudged acceptable

  8. Scale-model characterization of flow-induced vibrational response of FFTF reactor internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.A.; Mahoney, J.J.

    1980-10-01

    Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed for flow-induced vibrational characteristics under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup as an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program. The Hydraulic Core Mockup was an 0.285 geometric scale model of the Fast Test Reactor internals designed to simulate prototype vibrational and hydraulic characteristics. Using water to simulate sodium coolant, vibrational characteristics were measured and determined for selected model components over the scaled flow range of 36 to 110%. Additionally, in-situ shaker tests were conducted on selected Hydraulic Core Mockup outlet plenum components to establish modal characteristics. Most components exhibited resonant response at all test flow rates; however, the measured dynamic response was neither abnormal nor anomalously flow-rate dependent, and the predicted prototype components' response were deemed acceptable

  9. First international symposium on Flow Induced Noise and Vibration Issues and Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Rosa, Sergio; Franco, Francesco; Guyader, Jean-Louis; Hambric, Stephen; Flinovia - Flow Induced Noise and Vibration Issues and Aspects

    2015-01-01

    Flow induced vibration and noise (FIVN) remains a critical research topic. Even after over 50 years of intensive research, accurate and cost-effective FIVN simulation and measurement techniques remain elusive. This book gathers the latest research from some of the most prominent experts in the field. It describes methods for characterizing wall pressure fluctuations, including subsonic and supersonic turbulent boundary layer flows over smooth and rough surfaces using computational methods like Large Eddy Simulation;
for inferring wall pressure fluctuations using inverse techniques based on panel vibrations or holographic pressure sensor arrays;
for calculating the resulting structural vibrations and radiated sound using traditional finite element methods, as well as advanced methods like Energy Finite Elements;
for using scaling approaches to universally collapse flow-excited vibration and noise spectra; and for computing time histories of structural response, including alternating stresses. This book p...

  10. Calculation of the ex-core neutron noise induced by fuel vibrations in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Hoai Nam; Cao Van Chung; Hoang Thanh Phi Hung; Hoang Van Khanh

    2015-01-01

    Calculation of the neutron noise induced by fuel assembly vibrations in two pressurized water reactor (PWR) cores has been performed to investigate the effect of cycle burnup on the properties of the ex-core detector noise. Pendular vibrations of individual fuel assemblies were assumed to occur at different locations in the core. The auto power spectra density (APSD) of the ex-core detector noise was evaluated with the assumption of stochastic vibrations along a random two-dimensional trajectory. The results show that no general monotonic variation of APSD was found. The increase of APSD occurs predominantly for peripheral assemblies. Assuming simultaneous vibrations of a number of fuel assemblies uniformly distributed over the core with the more realistic perturbation model, the effect of the peripheral assemblies will dominate and the increase of the amplitude of the ex-core neutron noise with burnup can be confirmed. (author)

  11. FFTF scale-model characterization of flow induced vibrational response of reactor internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, J A; Julyk, L J [Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1977-12-01

    As an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program for Reactor Internals, the flow-induced vibrational characteristics of scaled Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup. The Hydraulic Core Mockup, a 0.285 geometric scale model, was designed to model the vibrational and hydraulic characteristics of the Fast Test Reactor. Model component vibrational characteristics were measured and determined over a range of 36% to 111% of the scaled prototype design flow. Selected model and prototype components were shaker tested to establish modal characteristics. The dynamic response of the Hydraulic Core Mockup components exhibited no anomalous flow-rate dependent or modal characteristics, and prototype response predictions were adjudged acceptable. (author)

  12. FFTF scale-model characterization of flow induced vibrational response of reactor internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.A.; Julyk, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    As an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program for Reactor Internals, the flow-induced vibrational characteristics of scaled Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup. The Hydraulic Core Mockup, a 0.285 geometric scale model, was designed to model the vibrational and hydraulic characteristics of the Fast Test Reactor. Model component vibrational characteristics were measured and determined over a range of 36% to 111% of the scaled prototype design flow. Selected model and prototype components were shaker tested to establish modal characteristics. The dynamic response of the Hydraulic Core Mockup components exhibited no anomalous flow-rate dependent or modal characteristics, and prototype response predictions were adjudged acceptable. (author)

  13. Flow-induced vibration analysis of heat exchanger and steam generator designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettigrew, M.J.; Sylvestre, Y.; Campagna, A.O.

    1977-08-01

    Tube and shell heat exchange components such as steam generators, heat exchangers and condensers are essential parts of CANDU nuclear power stations. Excessive flow-induced vibration may cause tube failures by fatigue or more likely by fretting-wear. Such failures may lead to station shutdowns that are very undesirable in terms of lost production. Hence good performance and reliability dictate a thorough flow-induced vibration analysis at the design stage. This paper presents our approach and techniques in this respect. (author)

  14. Measurement of ground and nearby building vibration and noise induced by trains in a metro depot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chao; Wang, Yimin; Wang, Peng; Guo, Jixing

    2015-12-01

    Metro depots are where subway trains are parked and where maintenance is carried out. They usually occupy the largest ground areas in metro projects. Due to land utilization problems, Chinese cities have begun to develop over-track buildings above metro depots for people's life and work. The frequently moving trains, when going into and out of metro depots, can cause excessive vibration and noise to over-track buildings and adversely affect the living quality of the building occupants. Considering the current need of reliable experimental data for the construction of metro depots, field measurements of vibration and noise on the ground and inside a nearby 3-story building subjected to moving subway trains were conducted in a metro depot at Guangzhou, China. The amplitudes and frequency contents of velocity levels were quantified and compared. The composite A-weighted equivalent sound levels and maximum sound levels were captured. The predicted models for vibration and noise of metro depot were proposed based on existing models and verified. It was found that the vertical vibrations were significantly greater than the horizontal vibrations on the ground and inside the building near the testing line. While at the throat area, the horizontal vibrations near the curved track were remarkably greater than the vertical vibrations. The attenuation of the vibrations with frequencies above 50 Hz was larger than the ones below 50 Hz, and the frequencies of vibration transmitting to adjacent buildings were mainly within 10-50 Hz. The largest equivalent sound level generated in the throat area was smaller than the testing line one, but the instantaneous maximum sound level induced by wheels squeal, contact between wheels and rail joints as well as turnout was close to or even greater than the testing line one. The predicted models gave a first estimation for design and assessment of newly built metro depots. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Shallow Water Acoustic Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where high-frequency acoustic scattering and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures...

  16. Laboratory for Structural Acoustics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where acoustic radiation, scattering, and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures are...

  17. Sympathetic Tone Induced by High Acoustic Tempo Requires Fast Respiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Watanabe

    Full Text Available Many studies have revealed the influences of music, and particularly its tempo, on the autonomic nervous system (ANS and respiration patterns. Since there is the interaction between the ANS and the respiratory system, namely sympatho-respiratory coupling, it is possible that the effect of musical tempo on the ANS is modulated by the respiratory system. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the relationship between musical tempo and respiratory rate on the ANS. Fifty-two healthy people aged 18-35 years participated in this study. Their respiratory rates were controlled by using a silent electronic metronome and they listened to simple drum sounds with a constant tempo. We varied the respiratory rate-acoustic tempo combination. The respiratory rate was controlled at 15 or 20 cycles per minute (CPM and the acoustic tempo was 60 or 80 beats per minute (BPM or the environment was silent. Electrocardiograms and an elastic chest band were used to measure the heart rate and respiratory rate, respectively. The mean heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV were regarded as indices of ANS activity. We observed a significant increase in the mean heart rate and the low (0.04-0.15 Hz to high (0.15-0.40 Hz frequency ratio of HRV, only when the respiratory rate was controlled at 20 CPM and the acoustic tempo was 80 BPM. We suggest that the effect of acoustic tempo on the sympathetic tone is modulated by the respiratory system.

  18. Sympathetic Tone Induced by High Acoustic Tempo Requires Fast Respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ken; Ooishi, Yuuki; Kashino, Makio

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have revealed the influences of music, and particularly its tempo, on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and respiration patterns. Since there is the interaction between the ANS and the respiratory system, namely sympatho-respiratory coupling, it is possible that the effect of musical tempo on the ANS is modulated by the respiratory system. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the relationship between musical tempo and respiratory rate on the ANS. Fifty-two healthy people aged 18-35 years participated in this study. Their respiratory rates were controlled by using a silent electronic metronome and they listened to simple drum sounds with a constant tempo. We varied the respiratory rate-acoustic tempo combination. The respiratory rate was controlled at 15 or 20 cycles per minute (CPM) and the acoustic tempo was 60 or 80 beats per minute (BPM) or the environment was silent. Electrocardiograms and an elastic chest band were used to measure the heart rate and respiratory rate, respectively. The mean heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) were regarded as indices of ANS activity. We observed a significant increase in the mean heart rate and the low (0.04-0.15 Hz) to high (0.15-0.40 Hz) frequency ratio of HRV, only when the respiratory rate was controlled at 20 CPM and the acoustic tempo was 80 BPM. We suggest that the effect of acoustic tempo on the sympathetic tone is modulated by the respiratory system.

  19. Induced wave propagation from a vibrating containment envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, R.B.; Thigpen, L.; Rambo, J.T.

    1985-09-01

    Low frequency wave forms are observed in the particle velocity measurements around the cavity and containment envelope formed by an underground nuclear test. The vibration solution for a spherical shell is used to formulate a model for the low frequency wave that propagates outward from this region. In this model the containment envelope is the zone of material that is crushed by the compressive shock wave of the nuclear explosion. The containment envelope is approximated by a spherical shell of material. The material in the spherical shell is densified and is given a relatively high kinetic energy density because of the high compressive stress and particle velocity of the shock wave. After the shock wave has propagated through the spherical shell, the spherical shell vibrates in order to dissipate the kinetic energy acquired from the shock wave. Based on the model, the frequency of vibration depends on the dimensions and material properties of the spherical shell. The model can also be applied in an inverse mode to obtain global estimates of averaged materials properties. This requires using experimental data and semi-empirical relationships involving the material properties. A particular case of estimating a value for shear strength is described. Finally, the oscillation time period of the lowest frequency from five nuclear tests is correlated with the energy of the explosion. The correlation provides another diagnostic to estimate the energy of a nuclear explosion. Also, the longest oscillation time period measurement provides additional experimental data that can be used to assess and validate various computer models. 11 refs., 2 figs

  20. Intelligent control for braking-induced longitudinal vibration responses of floating-type railway bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei-Lian; Qin, Shun-Quan; Tu, Jian-Weia; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Qiang; Cheng, Haibin; Pi, Yong-Lin

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents an intelligent control method and its engineering application in the control of braking-induced longitudinal vibration of floating-type railway bridges. Equations of motion for the controlled floating-type railway bridges have been established based on the analysis of the longitudinal vibration responses of floating-type railway bridges to train braking and axle-loads of moving trains. For engineering applications of the developed theory, a full-scale 500 kN smart magnetorheologic (MR) damper has been designed, fabricated and used to carry out experiments on the intelligent control of braking-induced longitudinal vibration. The procedure for using the developed intelligent method in conjunction with the full-scale 500 kN MR dampers has been proposed and used to control the longitudinal vibration responses of the deck of floating-type railway bridges induced by train braking and axle-loads of moving trains. This procedure has been applied to the longitudinal vibration control of the Tian Xingzhou highway and railway cable-stayed bridge over the Yangtze River in China. The simulated results have shown that the intelligent control system using the smart MR dampers can effectively control the longitudinal response of the floating-type railway bridge under excitations of braking and axle-loads of moving trains.

  1. Fatigue failure by in-line flow-induced vibration and fatigue life evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odahara, Satoru; Murakami, Yukitaka; Inoue, Masahiro; Sueoka, Atsuo

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of fatigue failure by the In-line flow-induced vibration was studied. A newly water-flow-induced vibration system was made and used to reproduce fatigue failure by flow-induced vibration. A medium carbon steel specimen was fixed to the experimental equipment. A small artificial hole was introduced onto the specimen surface. Fatigue crack initiated from the artificial hole. A small portable strain histogram recorder (Mini Rainflow Corder, MRC) developed in another project of the authors' team was used to acquire the service strain hisogram at a critical point of the specimen and to measure the variation of natural frequency. Cumulative fatigue damage D defined by the Modified Miner Rule was calculated by using the strain histogram at the initial stage of test. The value of D was almost unity in the case of In-line vibration, while the values of D in the case of the Cross-flow vibration ranged from 0.2 to 0.8. (author)

  2. Intelligent control for braking-induced longitudinal vibration responses of floating-type railway bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Wei-Lian; Tu, Jian-Weia; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Qiang; Qin, Shun-Quan; Cheng, Haibin; Pi, Yong-Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent control method and its engineering application in the control of braking-induced longitudinal vibration of floating-type railway bridges. Equations of motion for the controlled floating-type railway bridges have been established based on the analysis of the longitudinal vibration responses of floating-type railway bridges to train braking and axle-loads of moving trains. For engineering applications of the developed theory, a full-scale 500 kN smart magnetorheologic (MR) damper has been designed, fabricated and used to carry out experiments on the intelligent control of braking-induced longitudinal vibration. The procedure for using the developed intelligent method in conjunction with the full-scale 500 kN MR dampers has been proposed and used to control the longitudinal vibration responses of the deck of floating-type railway bridges induced by train braking and axle-loads of moving trains. This procedure has been applied to the longitudinal vibration control of the Tian Xingzhou highway and railway cable-stayed bridge over the Yangtze River in China. The simulated results have shown that the intelligent control system using the smart MR dampers can effectively control the longitudinal response of the floating-type railway bridge under excitations of braking and axle-loads of moving trains

  3. Vortex-Induced Vibrations of a Riser with Design Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-19

    0.283s (right plot) periods This gyroscopic effect is real, stable and has a preferred direction in much the same way that the Magnus effect does. The... Magnus effect is normally associated with the generation of a cross-flow force on a spinning cylinder in a larger fluid flow field. The Magnus force...for public release; distribution is unlimited 8 period (Figure 7) vibrates in a “figure 8” and thus does not evolve a Magnus effect . The opposing

  4. Experimental study of acoustic damping induced by gas-liquid scheme injectors in a combustion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hak Soon; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2007-01-01

    In a liquid rocket engine, acoustic damping induced by gas-liquid scheme injectors is studied experimentally for combustion stability by adopting linear acoustic test. In the previous work, it has been found that gas-liquid scheme injector can play a significant role in acoustic damping or absorption when it is tuned finely. Based on this finding, acoustic-damping characteristics of multi-injectors are intensively investigated. From the experimental data, it is found that acoustic oscillations are almost damped out by multi-injectors when they have the tuning length proposed in the previous study. The length corresponds to a half wavelength of the first longitudinal overtone mode traveling inside the injector with the acoustic frequency intended for damping in the chamber. But, new injector-coupled acoustic modes show up in the chamber with the injectors of the tuning length although the target mode is nearly damped out. And, appreciable frequency shift is always observed except for the case of the worst tuned injector. Accordingly, it is proposed that the tuning length is adjusted to have the shorter length than a half wavelength when these phenomena are considered

  5. Panel acoustic contribution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sean F; Natarajan, Logesh Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Formulations are derived to analyze the relative panel acoustic contributions of a vibrating structure. The essence of this analysis is to correlate the acoustic power flow from each panel to the radiated acoustic pressure at any field point. The acoustic power is obtained by integrating the normal component of the surface acoustic intensity, which is the product of the surface acoustic pressure and normal surface velocity reconstructed by using the Helmholtz equation least squares based nearfield acoustical holography, over each panel. The significance of this methodology is that it enables one to analyze and rank relative acoustic contributions of individual panels of a complex vibrating structure to acoustic radiation anywhere in the field based on a single set of the acoustic pressures measured in the near field. Moreover, this approach is valid for both interior and exterior regions. Examples of using this method to analyze and rank the relative acoustic contributions of a scaled vehicle cabin are demonstrated.

  6. Dissociative ionization of liquid water induced by vibrational overtone excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natzle, W.C.

    1983-03-01

    Photochemistry of vibrationally activated ground electronic state liquid water to produce H + and OH - ions has been initiated by pulsed, single-photon excitation of overtone and combination transitions. Transient conductivity measurements were used to determine quantum yields as a function of photon energy, isotopic composition, and temperature. The equilibrium relaxation rate following perturbation by the vibrationally activated reaction was also measured as a function of temperature reaction and isotopic composition. In H 2 O, the quantum yield at 283 +- 1 K varies from 2 x 10 -9 to 4 x 10 -5 for wave numbers between 7605 and 18140 cm -1 . In D 2 O, the dependence of quantum yield on wavelength has the same qualitative shape as for H 2 O, but is shifted to lower quantum yields. The position of a minimum in the quantum yield versus hydrogen mole fraction curve is consistent with a lower quantum yield for excitation of HOD in D 2 O than for excitation of D 2 O. The ionic recombination distance of 5.8 +- 0.5 A is constant within experimental error with temperature in H 2 O and with isotopic composition at 25 +- 1 0 C

  7. Dissociative ionization of liquid water induced by vibrational overtone excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natzle, W.C.

    1983-03-01

    Photochemistry of vibrationally activated ground electronic state liquid water to produce H/sup +/ and OH/sup -/ ions has been initiated by pulsed, single-photon excitation of overtone and combination transitions. Transient conductivity measurements were used to determine quantum yields as a function of photon energy, isotopic composition, and temperature. The equilibrium relaxation rate following perturbation by the vibrationally activated reaction was also measured as a function of temperature reaction and isotopic composition. In H/sub 2/O, the quantum yield at 283 +- 1 K varies from 2 x 10/sup -9/ to 4 x 10/sup -5/ for wave numbers between 7605 and 18140 cm/sup -1/. In D/sub 2/O, the dependence of quantum yield on wavelength has the same qualitative shape as for H/sub 2/O, but is shifted to lower quantum yields. The position of a minimum in the quantum yield versus hydrogen mole fraction curve is consistent with a lower quantum yield for excitation of HOD in D/sub 2/O than for excitation of D/sub 2/O. The ionic recombination distance of 5.8 +- 0.5 A is constant within experimental error with temperature in H/sub 2/O and with isotopic composition at 25 +- 1/sup 0/C.

  8. On the Detectability of Acoustic Waves Induced Following Irradiation by a Radiotherapy Linear Accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, Susannah; Leger, Pierre; El Naqa, Issam

    2016-02-11

    Irradiating an object with a megavoltage photon beam generated by a clinical radiotherapy linear accelerator (linac) induces acoustic waves through the photoacoustic effect. The detection and characterization of such acoustic waves has potential applications in radiation therapy dosimetry. The purpose of this work was to gain insight into the properties of such acoustic waves by simulating and experimentally detecting them in a well-defined system consisting of a metal block suspended in a water tank. A novel simulation workflow was developed by combining radiotherapy Monte Carlo and acoustic wave transport simulation techniques. Different set-up parameters such as photon beam energy, metal block depth, metal block width, and metal block material were varied, and the simulated and experimental acoustic waveforms showed the same relative amplitude trends and frequency variations for such setup changes. The simulation platform developed in this work can easily be extended to other irradiation situations, and will be an invaluable tool for developing a radiotherapy dosimetry system based on the detection of the acoustic waves induced following linear accelerator irradiation.

  9. Study of the levels of serum cortisol and gastrin in dogs with vibration-induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zikun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of levels of serum cortisol and gastrin in dogs with vibration-induced injury for providing better treatment regimen. Methods: In this experiment, 8 or 10 domestic dogs were placed on each of four sites away from explosion center about 0, 100, 200, 300 meters respectively. The dogs were standing uncontrolled or lying right side down under anesthesia. Serum cortisol and gastrin levels were detected with RIA both before and after explosion. Results: The levels of serum cortisol and gastrin began to fall about 24 hours after explosion. The serum levels of cortisol were still decreased significantly after 9 days and 17 days. Conclusion: The levels of the serum cortisol declined when the animals were injured by vibration. Detection of serum cortisol levels might lead to definitive diagnosis and supplemental treatment with cortical hormones for vibration-induced injury. (authors)

  10. Flow induced vibration of the large-sized sodium valve for MONJU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements have been made on the hydraulic characteristics of the large-sized sodium valves in the hydraulic simulation test loop with water as fluid. The following three prototype sodium valves were tested; (1) 22-inch wedge gate type isolation valve, (2) 22-inch butterfly type isolation valve, and (3) 16-inch butterfly type control valve. In the test, accelerations of flow induced vibrations were measured as a function of flow velocity and disk position. The excitation mechanism of the vibrations is not fully interpreted in these tests due to the complexity of the phenomena, but the experimental results suggest that it closely depends on random pressure fluctuations near the valve disk and flow separation at the contracted cross section between the valve seat and the disk. The intensity of flow induced vibrations suddenly increases at a certain critical condition, which depends on the type of valve and is proportional to fluid velocity. (author)

  11. Flow induced vibration of the large-sized sodium valve for MONJU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K [Sodium Engineering Division, O-arai Engineering Centre, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Nariata-cho, O-arai Machi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1977-12-01

    Measurements have been made on the hydraulic characteristics of the large-sized sodium valves in the hydraulic simulation test loop with water as fluid. The following three prototype sodium valves were tested; (1) 22-inch wedge gate type isolation valve, (2) 22-inch butterfly type isolation valve, and (3) 16-inch butterfly type control valve. In the test, accelerations of flow induced vibrations were measured as a function of flow velocity and disk position. The excitation mechanism of the vibrations is not fully interpreted in these tests due to the complexity of the phenomena, but the experimental results suggest that it closely depends on random pressure fluctuations near the valve disk and flow separation at the contracted cross section between the valve seat and the disk. The intensity of flow induced vibrations suddenly increases at a certain critical condition, which depends on the type of valve and is proportional to fluid velocity. (author)

  12. Physical and numerical investigation of the flow induced vibration of the hydrofoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q.; Wang, G. Y.; Huang, B.

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the flow induced vibration of a flexible hydrofoil in cavitating flows via combined experimental and numerical studies. The experiments are presented for the modified NACA66 hydrofoil made of POM Polyacetate in the closed-loop cavitation tunnel at Beijing Institute of Technology. The high-speed camera and the single point Laser Doppler Vibrometer are applied to analyze the transient flow structures and the corresponding structural vibration characteristics. The hybrid coupled fluid structure interaction model is conducted to couple the incompressible and unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes solver with a simplified two-degree-of-freedom structural model. The k-ω SST turbulence model with the turbulence viscosity correction and the Zwart cavitation model are introduced to the present simulations. The results showed that with the decreasing of the cavitation number, the cavitating flows display incipient cavitation, sheet cavitation, cloud cavitation and supercavitation. The vibration magnitude increases dramatically for the cloud cavitation and decline for the supercavitation. The cloud cavitation development strongly affects the vibration response, which is corresponding to the periodically developing and shedding of the large-scale cloud cavity. The main frequency of the vibration amplitude is accordance with the cavity shedding frequency and other two frequencies of the vibration amplitude are corresponding to the natural frequencies of the bending and twisting modes.

  13. Stabilization of axisymmetric liquid bridges through vibration-induced pressure fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, M; Vega, E J; Herrada, M A; Benilov, E S; Montanero, J M

    2018-03-01

    Previous theoretical studies have indicated that liquid bridges close to the Plateau-Rayleigh instability limit can be stabilized when the upper supporting disk vibrates at a very high frequency and with a very small amplitude. The major effect of the vibration-induced pressure field is to straighten the liquid bridge free surface to compensate for the deformation caused by gravity. As a consequence, the apparent Bond number decreases and the maximum liquid bridge length increases. In this paper, we show experimentally that this procedure can be used to stabilize millimeter liquid bridges in air under normal gravity conditions. The breakup of vibrated liquid bridges is examined experimentally and compared with that produced in absence of vibration. In addition, we analyze numerically the dynamics of axisymmetric liquid bridges far from the Plateau-Rayleigh instability limit by solving the Navier-Stokes equations. We calculate the eigenfrequencies characterizing the linear oscillation modes of vibrated liquid bridges, and determine their stability limits. The breakup process of a vibrated liquid bridge at that stability limit is simulated too. We find qualitative agreement between the numerical predictions for both the stability limits and the breakup process and their experimental counterparts. Finally, we show the applicability of our technique to control the amount of liquid transferred between two solid surfaces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Charging-delay induced dust acoustic collisionless shock wave: Roles of negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Samiran; Bharuthram, R.; Khan, Manoranjan; Gupta, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of charging-delay and negative ions on nonlinear dust acoustic waves are investigated. It has been found that the charging-delay induced anomalous dissipation causes generation of dust acoustic collisionless shock waves in an electronegative dusty plasma. The small but finite amplitude wave is governed by a Korteweg-de Vries Burger equation in which the Burger term arises due to the charging-delay. Numerical investigations reveal that the charging-delay induced dissipation and shock strength decreases (increases) with the increase of negative ion concentration (temperature)

  15. A Numerical Study on the Screening of Blast-Induced Waves for Reducing Ground Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dohyun; Jeon, Byungkyu; Jeon, Seokwon

    2009-06-01

    Blasting is often a necessary part of mining and construction operations, and is the most cost-effective way to break rock, but blasting generates both noise and ground vibration. In urban areas, noise and vibration have an environmental impact, and cause structural damage to nearby structures. Various wave-screening methods have been used for many years to reduce blast-induced ground vibration. However, these methods have not been quantitatively studied for their reduction effect of ground vibration. The present study focused on the quantitative assessment of the effectiveness in vibration reduction of line-drilling as a screening method using a numerical method. Two numerical methods were used to analyze the reduction effect toward ground vibration, namely, the “distinct element method” and the “non-linear hydrocode.” The distinct element method, by particle flow code in two dimensions (PFC 2D), was used for two-dimensional parametric analyses, and some cases of two-dimensional analyses were analyzed three-dimensionally using AUTODYN 3D, the program of the non-linear hydrocode. To analyze the screening effectiveness of line-drilling, parametric analyses were carried out under various conditions, with the spacing, diameter of drill holes, distance between the blasthole and line-drilling, and the number of rows of drill holes, including their arrangement, used as parameters. The screening effectiveness was assessed via a comparison of the vibration amplitude between cases both with and without screening. Also, the frequency distribution of ground motion of the two cases was investigated through fast Fourier transform (FFT), with the differences also examined. From our study, it was concluded that line-drilling as a screening method of blast-induced waves was considerably effective under certain design conditions. The design details for field application have also been proposed.

  16. Effect of angle on flow-induced vibrations of pinniped vibrissae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin T Murphy

    Full Text Available Two types of vibrissal surface structures, undulated and smooth, exist among pinnipeds. Most Phocidae have vibrissae with undulated surfaces, while Otariidae, Odobenidae, and a few phocid species possess vibrissae with smooth surfaces. Variations in cross-sectional profile and orientation of the vibrissae also exist between pinniped species. These factors may influence the way that the vibrissae behave when exposed to water flow. This study investigated the effect that vibrissal surface structure and orientation have on flow-induced vibrations of pinniped vibrissae. Laser vibrometry was used to record vibrations along the whisker shaft from the undulated vibrissae of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina and northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris and the smooth vibrissae of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus. Vibrations along the whisker shaft were measured in a flume tank, at three orientations (0°, 45°, 90° to the water flow. The results show that vibration frequency and velocity ranges were similar for both undulated and smooth vibrissae. Angle of orientation, rather than surface structure, had the greatest effect on flow-induced vibrations. Vibration velocity was up to 60 times higher when the wide, flat aspect of the whisker faced into the flow (90°, compared to when the thin edge faced into the flow (0°. Vibration frequency was also dependent on angle of orientation. Peak frequencies were measured up to 270 Hz and were highest at the 0° orientation for all whiskers. Furthermore, CT scanning was used to quantify the three-dimensional structure of pinniped vibrissae that may influence flow interactions. The CT data provide evidence that all vibrissae are flattened in cross-section to some extent and that differences exist in the orientation of this profile with respect to the major curvature of the hair shaft. These data support the hypothesis that a compressed cross-sectional profile may play a key role in reducing self

  17. Regarding "A new method for predicting nonlinear structural vibrations induced by ground impact loading" [Journal of Sound and Vibration, 331/9 (2012) 2129-2140

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartmell, Matthew P.

    2016-09-01

    The Editor wishes to make the reader aware that the paper "A new method for predicting nonlinear structural vibrations induced by ground impact loading" by Jun Liu, Yu Zhang, Bin Yun, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 331 (2012) 2129-2140, did not contain a direct citation of the fundamental and original work in this field by Dr. Mark Svinkin. The Editor regrets that this omission was not noted at the time that the above paper was accepted and published.

  18. Vortex-induced vibrations on a modern wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinz, Joachim Christian; Sørensen, Niels N.; Zahle, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the aero-elastic response of the DTU 10-MW RWT blade in deep stall conditions with angles of attack in the vicinity of 90 degrees. The simulations were conducted with the high-fidelity fluid–structure interaction simulation tool HAWC2CFD employing the multi......-body-based structural model of HAWC2 and the incompressible computational fluid dynamics solver EllipSys3D. The study utilizes detached eddy simulation computations and considers the three-dimensional blade geometry including blade twist and taper. A preliminary frequency analysis of the load variations on a stiff....... Aero-elastic computations of the elastic blade confirmed the findings of the frequency analysis. Inflow conditions with inclination angles between Ψ = 20° and Ψ = 55° and relatively low to moderate wind speeds between V = 16 and V = 26 m s-1 were sufficient to trigger severe edgewise blade vibrations...

  19. Numerical approximations of flow induced vibrations of vocal folds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sváček Petr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focus on mathematical modelling of incompressible fluid flow interacting with vibrations of an elastic vocal fold. The flow in moving domain is modelled by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations written in the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE form. The channel geometry is an approximation of the human glottal region. The flow model is coupled with a simplified structure model. The problem is mathematically described and the resulting fluid-structure interaction problem is discretized by a stabilized finite element method. A strong coupling algorithm is applied for solution of the coupled fluid-structure problem. The choice of boundary conditions is discussed, particularly the choice of different artificial inlet/outlet boundary conditions is described in details. The numerical results are shown.

  20. Numerical approximations of flow induced vibrations of vocal folds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sváček, Petr

    The paper focus on mathematical modelling of incompressible fluid flow interacting with vibrations of an elastic vocal fold. The flow in moving domain is modelled by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations written in the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) form. The channel geometry is an approximation of the human glottal region. The flow model is coupled with a simplified structure model. The problem is mathematically described and the resulting fluid-structure interaction problem is discretized by a stabilized finite element method. A strong coupling algorithm is applied for solution of the coupled fluid-structure problem. The choice of boundary conditions is discussed, particularly the choice of different artificial inlet/outlet boundary conditions is described in details. The numerical results are shown.

  1. Vibration-induced displacement using high-frequency resonators and friction layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    1998-01-01

    A mathematical model is set up to quantify vibration-induced motions of a slider with an imbedded resonator. A simple approximate expression is presented for predicting average velocities of the slider, agreeing fairly well with numerical integration of the full equations of motion. The simple ex...

  2. Two improvements on numerical simulation of 2-DOF vortex-induced vibration with low mass ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhuang; Ni, Wen-chi; Zhang, Xu; Sun, Li-ping

    2017-12-01

    Till now, there have been lots of researches on numerical simulation of vortex-induced vibration. Acceptable results have been obtained for fixed cylinders with low Reynolds number. However, for responses of 2-DOF vortex-induced vibration with low mass ratio, the accuracy is not satisfactory, especially for the maximum amplitudes. In Jauvtis and Williamson's work, the maximum amplitude of the cylinder with low mass ratio m*=2.6 can reach as large as 1.5 D to be called as the "super-upper branch", but from current literatures, few simulation results can achieve such value, even fail to capture the upper branch. Besides, it is found that the amplitude decays too fast in the lower branch with the RANS-based turbulence model. The reason is likely to be the defects of the turbulence model itself in the prediction of unsteady separated flows as well as the unreasonable setting of the numerical simulation parameters. Aiming at above issues, a modified turbulence model is proposed in this paper, and the effect of the acceleration of flow field on the response of vortex-induced vibration is studied based on OpenFOAM. By analyzing the responses of amplitude, phase and trajectory, frequency and vortex mode, it is proved that the vortex-induced vibration can be predicted accurately with the modified turbulence model under appropriate flow field acceleration.

  3. A study on waviness induced vibration of ball bearings based on signal coherence theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wentao; Zhang, Yun; Feng, Zhi-Jing; Zhao, Jing-Shan; Wang, Dongfeng

    2014-11-01

    This paper focuses on the effects of waviness on vibration of ball bearings. An experimental analysis method is developed by adopting signal coherence theory of multiple-inputs/single-output (MISO) system. The inputs are waviness excitations of the inner and outer races, and the output is vibration response of the outer ring. Waviness excitation signals are first derived from the manufacturing deviations, and found to be strongly coherent in low frequency range. Virtual input signals are then introduced by the method of orthogonalization. In both cases of vibration acceleration and speed responses, the cumulated virtual input-output coherence function verifies that the first peak region of vibration spectrum is mainly induced by the waviness excitations. In order to distinguish the contributions of the inner and outer races, coherence functions of the virtual inputs with real inputs are calculated, and the results indicate that the outer race waviness contributes more to vibration than the inner race waviness does in the example. Further, a multi-body dynamic model is constructed and employed to frequency response analyses. It is discovered that the waviness induced spectral peak frequency is close to the natural frequency of bearing.

  4. Vibration induced hearing loss in guinea pig cochlea: expression of TNF-alpha and VEGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jing; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Sutinen, Päivi; Toppila, Esko

    2005-04-01

    Transcranial vibration was applied for seven animals at a frequency of 250 Hz for 15 min, and five animals were used as normal controls to investigate cellular and molecular mechanism linked to vibration-induced hearing loss in animal model. Compound action potential (CAP) thresholds were measured by round window niche electrode. The expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and its receptors (TNF R1, TNF R2), vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (VEGF R1, VEGF R2) were analysed by immunohistochemistry. Transcranial vibration caused expression of TNF-alpha, TNF R1 and TNF R2 in the cochlea and the expression of TNF R2 was stronger than that of TNF R1. Vibration also induced VEGF and VEGF R2 expression in the cochlea. The average immediate hearing loss was 62 dB and after three days still 48 dB. It is concluded that transcranial vibration as during temporal bone drilling produces cochlear shear stress that is connected with up-regulation of TNF-alpha and its receptors. Also VEGF and VEGF R2 are up-regulated. These responses may be linked to both the damage and repair process of the cochlea.

  5. Directing the path of light-induced electron transfer at a molecular fork using vibrational excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delor, Milan; Archer, Stuart A.; Keane, Theo; Meijer, Anthony J. H. M.; Sazanovich, Igor V.; Greetham, Gregory M.; Towrie, Michael; Weinstein, Julia A.

    2017-11-01

    Ultrafast electron transfer in condensed-phase molecular systems is often strongly coupled to intramolecular vibrations that can promote, suppress and direct electronic processes. Recent experiments exploring this phenomenon proved that light-induced electron transfer can be strongly modulated by vibrational excitation, suggesting a new avenue for active control over molecular function. Here, we achieve the first example of such explicit vibrational control through judicious design of a Pt(II)-acetylide charge-transfer donor-bridge-acceptor-bridge-donor 'fork' system: asymmetric 13C isotopic labelling of one of the two -C≡C- bridges makes the two parallel and otherwise identical donor→acceptor electron-transfer pathways structurally distinct, enabling independent vibrational perturbation of either. Applying an ultrafast UVpump(excitation)-IRpump(perturbation)-IRprobe(monitoring) pulse sequence, we show that the pathway that is vibrationally perturbed during UV-induced electron transfer is dramatically slowed down compared to its unperturbed counterpart. One can thus choose the dominant electron transfer pathway. The findings deliver a new opportunity for precise perturbative control of electronic energy propagation in molecular devices.

  6. A numerical method to calculate flow-induced vibrations in a turbulent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaoka, Noriyuki; Umegaki, Kikuo

    1993-01-01

    An unsteady fluid force on structures in a turbulent flow can cause their vibration. The phenomenon is the most important among various flow-induced vibrations and it is an important subject in design nuclear plant components such as heat exchangers. A new approach to simulate flow-induced vibrations is introduced. A fully coupled analysis of fluid-structure interaction has been realized in a turbulent flow field by integrating the following calculational steps: (a) solving turbulent flow by a direct simulation method where the ALE (arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian) type approximation is adopted to take account of structure displacements; (b) estimating fluid force on structures by integrating fluid pressure and shear stress; (c) calculating dynamic response of structures and determining the amount of displacement; (d) regenerate curvilinear grids for new geometry using the boundary-fitted coordinate transformation method. Forced vibration of a circular cylinder in a cross flow were successfully simulated and the synchronization phenomena between Karman-vortices and cylinder vibrations were clearly seen

  7. Experimental investigation of railway train-induced vibrations of surrounding ground and a nearby multi-story building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, He; Chen, Jianguo; Wei, Pengbo; Xia, Chaoyi; de Roeck, G.; Degrande, G.

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, a field experiment was carried out to study train-induced environmental vibrations. During the field experiment, velocity responses were measured at different locations of a six-story masonry structure near the Beijing-Guangzhou Railway and along a small road adjacent to the building. The results show that the velocity response levels of the environmental ground and the building floors increase with train speed, and attenuate with the distance to the railway track. Heavier freight trains induce greater vibrations than lighter passenger trains. In the multi-story building, the lateral velocity levels increase monotonically with floor elevation, while the vertical ones increase with floor elevation in a fluctuating manner. The indoor floor vibrations are much lower than the outdoor ground vibrations. The lateral vibration of the building along the direction of weak structural stiffness is greater than along the direction with stronger stiffness. A larger room produces greater floor vibrations than the staircase at the same elevation, and the vibration at the center of a room is greater than at its corner. The vibrations of the building were compared with the Federal Transportation Railroad Administration (FTA) criteria for acceptable ground-borne vibrations expressed in terms of rms velocity levels in decibels. The results show that the train-induced building vibrations are serious, and some exceed the allowance given in relevant criterion.

  8. Vibrational emission analysis of the CN molecules in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Bravo, Ángel; Delgado, Tomás; Lucena, Patricia; Laserna, J. Javier, E-mail: laserna@uma.es

    2013-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of organic materials is based on the analysis of atomic and ionic emission lines and on a few molecular bands, the most important being the CN violet system and the C{sub 2} Swan system. This paper is focused in molecular emission of LIBS plasmas based on the CN (B{sup 2}Σ–X{sup 2}Σ) band, one of the strongest emissions appearing in all carbon materials when analyzed in air atmosphere. An analysis of this band with sufficient spectral resolution provides a great deal of information on the molecule, which has revealed that valuable information can be obtained from the plume chemistry and dynamics affecting the excitation mechanisms of the molecules. The vibrational emission of this molecular band has been investigated to establish the dependence of this emission on the molecular structure of the materials. The paper shows that excitation/emission phenomena of molecular species observed in the plume depend strongly on the time interval selected and on the irradiance deposited on the sample surface. Precise time resolved LIBS measurements are needed for the observation of distinctive CN emission. For the organic compounds studied, larger differences in the behavior of the vibrational emission occur at early stages after plasma ignition. Since molecular emission is generally more complex than that involving atomic emission, local plasma conditions as well as plume chemistry may induce changes in vibrational emission of molecules. As a consequence, alterations in the distribution of the emissions occur in terms of relative intensities, being sensitive to the molecular structure of every single material. - Highlights: • Vibrational emission of CN species in laser-induced plasmas has been investigated. • Distribution of vibrational emission of CN has been found to be time dependent. • Laser irradiance affects the vibrational distribution of the CN molecules. • Plume chemistry controls the excitation mechanisms of CN

  9. Mathematical model for cross-flow-induced vibrations of tube rows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.S.

    1976-09-01

    A mathematical model for flow-induced vibrations in heat exchanger tube banks is presented which includes the effects of vortex shedding, fluidelastic coupling, drag force, and fluid inertia coupling. Once the fluid forces are known, the model can predict the details of complex tube-fluid interactions: (1) natural frequencies and mode shapes of coupled vibrations; (2) critical flow velocities; (3) responses to vortex shedding, drag force, and other types of excitations; and (4) the dominant excitation mechanism at a given flow velocity. The analytical results are in good agreement with the published experimental results

  10. Leakage flow-induced vibrations for variations of a tube-in-tube slip joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulcahy, T.M.

    1986-01-01

    Variations in the design of a specific slip joint separating two cantilevered, telescoping tubes conveying water were studied to determine their effect upon the leakage flow-induced vibration self-excitation mechanism known to exist for the original slip joint geometry. The important parameters controlling the self-excitation mechanism were identified, which, along with previous results, allowed the determination of a comprehensive set of design rules to avoid unstable vibrations. This was possible even though a new self-excitation mechanism was found when the engagement of the two tubes was small. 9 refs

  11. Experimental study on flow-induced acoustic resonance in square closed side branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui; Gu Hanyang; Liu Xiaojing; Zhang Kai; Xie Yongcheng; Zu Hongbiao

    2014-01-01

    Flow-induced acoustic resonance is a phenomenon caused by the interaction of flow and acoustic fields in special structure. Acoustic resonance characteristic experiments were carried out on square closed side branch. The influences of the velocity in main pipe and the length of the side branch on acoustic resonance were studied. The range of occurrence and characteristics of pressure pulsation were analyzed. Three lengths of side branches (L/d=5.6 and 7) were experimentally studied and the Reynolds number in the experiment was 2.74 X 10 4 -2.429 X 10 5 while the Mach number was 0.025-0.218. The results show that the resonance frequency shows a lock-in phenomenon with the increase of velocity. As the length of the side branch increasing, the amplitude of the acoustic pressure and the resonance frequency decrease. In the considered structure, the acoustic resonance occurs when Strouhal number is 0.3-0.6 and 0.7-1.0. (authors)

  12. Proton beam characterization by proton-induced acoustic emission: simulation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K C; Witztum, A; Avery, S; Sehgal, C M

    2014-01-01

    Due to their Bragg peak, proton beams are capable of delivering a targeted dose of radiation to a narrow volume, but range uncertainties currently limit their accuracy. One promising beam characterization technique, protoacoustic range verification, measures the acoustic emission generated by the proton beam. We simulated the pressure waves generated by proton radiation passing through water. We observed that the proton-induced acoustic signal consists of two peaks, labeled α and γ, with two originating sources. The α acoustic peak is generated by the pre-Bragg peak heated region whereas the source of the γ acoustic peak is the proton Bragg peak. The arrival time of the α and γ peaks at a transducer reveals the distance from the beam propagation axis and Bragg peak center, respectively. The maximum pressure is not observed directly above the Bragg peak due to interference of the acoustic signals. Range verification based on the arrival times is shown to be more effective than determining the Bragg peak position based on pressure amplitudes. The temporal width of the α and γ peaks are linearly proportional to the beam diameter and Bragg peak width, respectively. The temporal separation between compression and rarefaction peaks is proportional to the spill time width. The pressure wave expected from a spread out Bragg peak dose is characterized. The simulations also show that acoustic monitoring can verify the proton beam dose distribution and range by characterizing the Bragg peak position to within ∼1 mm. (paper)

  13. Magnetically induced rotor vibration in dual-stator permanent magnet motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bang; Wang, Shiyu; Wang, Yaoyao; Zhao, Zhifu; Xiu, Jie

    2015-07-01

    Magnetically induced vibration is a major concern in permanent magnet (PM) motors, which is especially true for dual-stator motors. This work develops a two-dimensional model of the rotor by using energy method, and employs this model to examine the rigid- and elastic-body vibrations induced by the inner stator tooth passage force and that by the outer. The analytical results imply that there exist three typical vibration modes. Their presence or absence depends on the combination of magnet/slot, force's frequency and amplitude, the relative position between two stators, and other structural parameters. The combination and relative position affect these modes via altering the force phase. The predicted results are verified by magnetic force wave analysis by finite element method (FEM) and comparison with the existing results. Potential directions are also given with the anticipation of bringing forth more interesting and useful findings. As an engineering application, the magnetically induced vibration can be first reduced via the combination and then a suitable relative position.

  14. Probabilistic analysis of wind-induced vibration mitigation of structures by fluid viscous dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbing; Zeng, Xiaoshu; Peng, Yongbo

    2017-11-01

    The high-rise buildings usually suffer from excessively large wind-induced vibrations, and thus vibration control systems might be necessary. Fluid viscous dampers (FVDs) with nonlinear power law against velocity are widely employed. With the transition of design method from traditional frequency domain approaches to more refined direct time domain approaches, the difficulty of time integration of these systems occurs sometimes. In the present paper, firstly the underlying reason of the difficulty is revealed by identifying that the equations of motion of high-rise buildings installed with FVDs are sometimes stiff differential equations. Thus, an approach effective for stiff differential systems, i.e., the backward difference formula (BDF), is then introduced, and verified to be effective for the equation of motion of wind-induced vibration controlled systems. Comparative studies are performed among some methods, including the Newmark method, KR-alpha method, energy-based linearization method and the statistical linearization method. Based on the above results, a 20-story steel frame structure is taken as a practical example. Particularly, the randomness of structural parameters and of wind loading input is emphasized. The extreme values of the responses are examined, showing the effectiveness of the proposed approach, and also necessitating the refined probabilistic analysis in the design of wind-induced vibration mitigation systems.

  15. A study on leakage-flow-induced vibrations: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, F.; Hayama, S.

    1990-01-01

    The viscous fluid-dynamic forces and the moments acting on the walls of a one-dimensional, narrow, tapered passage when one wall is vibrating in coupled translational and rotational modes are analyzed, and fluid-dynamic mass, damping and stiffness matrices are determined. By this means the mechanism of instability generated from the flow through a narrow passage is examined. In the case of a single-degree-of-freedom translational or rotational system, only diagonal components of the fluid-dynamic matrices are estimated, and it is found that both negative fluid-dynamic damping caused by the phase delay due to the fluid inertia and negative fluid-dynamic stiffness can occur. In the case of a single-degree-of-freedom translational system, if the passage is divergent, both negative fluid-dynamic damping and fluid-dynamic stiffness can occur. In the case of a single-degree-of-freedom rotational system, the area increment ratio of the passage, at which negative fluid-dynamic damping and fluid-dynamic stiffness can occur, changes remarkably with the location of the pivot. In the case of a two-degree-of-freedom translational and rotational system, it is difficult to conclude directly from the fluid-dynamic matrices whether the fluid-dynamic forces stabilize the system or not. (author)

  16. Concorde noise-induced building vibrations: International Airport Dulles. [studies by Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, W. H.; Scholl, H. F.; Stephens, D. G.; Holliday, B. G.; Deloach, R.; Finley, T. D.; Holmes, H. K.; Lewis, R. B.; Lynch, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    A series of studies were conducted to assess the noise-induced building vibrations associated with Concorde operations. The vibration levels of windows, walls, and floors were measured along with the associated noise levels of Concorde, subsonic aircraft and some nonaircraft events. Test sites included Sully Plantation which is adjacent to Dulles International Airport and three residential homes located in Montgomery County, Maryland. The measured vibration response levels due to Concorde operations were found to be: (1) higher than the levels due to other aircraft, (2) less than the levels due to certain household events which involve direct impulsive loading such as door and window closing, (3) less than criteria levels for building damage, and (4) comparable to levels which are perceptible to people.

  17. Simulation of vibration-induced effect on plasma current measurement using a fiber optic current sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, Frédéric; Aerssens, Matthieu; Gusarov, Andrei; Mégret, Patrice; Massaut, Vincent; Wuilpart, Marc

    2014-06-16

    An accurate measurement of the plasma current is of paramount importance for controlling the plasma magnetic equilibrium in tokamaks. Fiber optic current sensor (FOCS) technology is expected to be implemented to perform this task in ITER. However, during ITER operation, the vessel and the sensing fiber will be subject to vibrations and thus to time-dependent parasitic birefringence, which may significantly compromise the FOCS performance. In this paper we investigate the effects of vibrations on the plasma current measurement accuracy under ITER-relevant conditions. The simulation results show that in the case of a FOCS reflection scheme including a spun fiber and a Faraday mirror, the error induced by the vibrations is acceptable regarding the ITER current diagnostics requirements.

  18. Study and analysis for the flow-induced vibration of the core barrel of a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Weida; Shi Guolin; Jiang Nanyan

    1989-01-01

    The resemblance criteria are derived and a test model is designed by applying the flow-soild coupling theory. After having completed the model analysis of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) core barrel in an 1:10 model, the dynamic characteristics are obtained. In an 1:5 reactor model with a hydraulic closed loop, the hydraulic vibration tests of the core barrel are performed, and the relations between the flow rate and the flow-induced pulse pressure on core barrel, acceleration and strain signals have been measured. The corresponding responses and a group of computational equations for hydraulic vibration are derived from these two experiments. The computational hydraulic vibration responses for core barrel in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant are in good agreement with the test results, and it shows that the core barrel is safe within its lifetime of 30 years

  19. Vulnerability Assessment for a Complex Structure Using Vibration Response Induced by Impact Load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeongwon; Park, Junhong; Koo, Man Hoi

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a vulnerability assessment procedure for a complex structure using vibration characteristics. The structural behavior of a three-dimensional framed structure subjected to impact forces was predicted using the spectral element method. The Timoshenko beam function was applied to simulate the impact wave propagations induced by a high-velocity projectile at relatively high frequencies. The interactions at the joints were analyzed for both flexural and longitudinal wave propagations. Simulations of the impact energy transfer through the entire structure were performed using the transient displacement and acceleration responses obtained from the frequency analysis. The kill probabilities of the crucial components for an operating system were calculated as a function of the predicted acceleration amplitudes according to the acceptable vibration levels. Following the proposed vulnerability assessment procedure, the vulnerable positions of a three-dimensional combat vehicle with high possibilities of damage generation of components by impact loading were identified from the estimated vibration responses

  20. Studies on flow induced vibration of reactivity devices of 700 MWe Indian PHWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakaran, K.M., E-mail: kmprabha@yahoo.com [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Goyal, P.; Dutta, Anu; Bhasin, V.; Vaze, K.K.; Ghosh, A.K. [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Pillai, Ajith V.; Mathew, Jimmy [Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd., Mumbai 400 094 (India)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FIV studies on internals of heavy water filled calandria of 700 MWe Indian PHWR is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This includes CFD and structural dynamic analysis to predict the dynamic behavior of component lying inside calandria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of these calculations as well as conclusions from this investigation are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is established that FIV is not a concern in the present design of calandria internals. - Abstract: Component failures due to excessive flow-induced vibration are still affecting the performance and reliability of nuclear power stations. Tube failures due to fretting-wear in nuclear steam generators, and vibration related damage of reactor internals are of particular concern. In the Indian nuclear industry, flow induced vibrations are assessed early in the design process and the results are incorporated in the design procedures. In this paper the details of flow induced vibration studies on internals like liquid zone control unit and poison injection units of heavy water filled calandria of 700 MWe Indian pressurized heavy water reactor is given. This includes computational fluid dynamics studies from which the velocities are extracted for the components lying inside the calandria. With these velocities as input, further studies are performed to predict the dynamic behavior of these components. Results of these calculations as well as conclusions derived from this investigation are presented. Based on the studies it has been established that flow induced vibration is not a concern in the present design of 700 MWe calandria internals.

  1. Assessing the Underwater Acoustics of the World's Largest Vibration Hammer (OCTA-KONG) and Its Potential Effects on the Indo-Pacific Humpbacked Dolphin (Sousa chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhitao; Wu, Yuping; Duan, Guoqin; Cao, Hanjiang; Liu, Jianchang; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its potential adverse effects on the environment and aquatic life. The Hongkong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is currently under construction in the Pearl River Estuary, a hot spot for the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in China. The OCTA-KONG, the world's largest vibration hammer, is being used during this construction project to drive or extract steel shell piles 22 m in diameter. This activity poses a substantial threat to marine mammals, and an environmental assessment is critically needed. The underwater acoustic properties of the OCTA-KONG were analyzed, and the potential impacts of the underwater acoustic energy on Sousa, including auditory masking and physiological impacts, were assessed. The fundamental frequency of the OCTA-KONG vibration ranged from 15 Hz to 16 Hz, and the noise increments were below 20 kHz, with a dominant frequency and energy below 10 kHz. The resulting sounds are most likely detectable by Sousa over distances of up to 3.5 km from the source. Although Sousa clicks do not appear to be adversely affected, Sousa whistles are susceptible to auditory masking, which may negatively impact this species' social life. Therefore, a safety zone with a radius of 500 m is proposed. Although the zero-to-peak source level (SL) of the OCTA-KONG was lower than the physiological damage level, the maximum root-mean-square SL exceeded the cetacean safety exposure level on several occasions. Moreover, the majority of the unweighted cumulative source sound exposure levels (SSELs) and the cetacean auditory weighted cumulative SSELs exceeded the acoustic threshold levels for the onset of temporary threshold shift, a type of potentially recoverable auditory damage resulting from prolonged sound exposure. These findings may aid in the identification and design of appropriate mitigation methods, such as the use of air bubble curtains, “soft start” and “power down

  2. Assessing the underwater acoustics of the world's largest vibration hammer (OCTA-KONG and its potential effects on the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitao Wang

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic noise in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its potential adverse effects on the environment and aquatic life. The Hongkong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is currently under construction in the Pearl River Estuary, a hot spot for the Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis in China. The OCTA-KONG, the world's largest vibration hammer, is being used during this construction project to drive or extract steel shell piles 22 m in diameter. This activity poses a substantial threat to marine mammals, and an environmental assessment is critically needed. The underwater acoustic properties of the OCTA-KONG were analyzed, and the potential impacts of the underwater acoustic energy on Sousa, including auditory masking and physiological impacts, were assessed. The fundamental frequency of the OCTA-KONG vibration ranged from 15 Hz to 16 Hz, and the noise increments were below 20 kHz, with a dominant frequency and energy below 10 kHz. The resulting sounds are most likely detectable by Sousa over distances of up to 3.5 km from the source. Although Sousa clicks do not appear to be adversely affected, Sousa whistles are susceptible to auditory masking, which may negatively impact this species' social life. Therefore, a safety zone with a radius of 500 m is proposed. Although the zero-to-peak source level (SL of the OCTA-KONG was lower than the physiological damage level, the maximum root-mean-square SL exceeded the cetacean safety exposure level on several occasions. Moreover, the majority of the unweighted cumulative source sound exposure levels (SSELs and the cetacean auditory weighted cumulative SSELs exceeded the acoustic threshold levels for the onset of temporary threshold shift, a type of potentially recoverable auditory damage resulting from prolonged sound exposure. These findings may aid in the identification and design of appropriate mitigation methods, such as the use of air bubble curtains, "soft start" and "power down

  3. Vibro-acoustic modulation–based damage identification in a composite skin–stiffener structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooijevaar, T.H.; Rogge, M.D.; Loendersloot, Richard; Warnet, Laurent; Akkerman, Remko; Tinga, Tiedo

    2016-01-01

    Vibro-acoustic modulation–based damage identification relies on the modulation of a high-frequency carrier signal by an intenser low-frequency vibration signal due to damage-induced structural nonlinearities. A time domain analysis of the vibro-acoustic modulation phenomena was presented at multiple

  4. Music-induced emotions can be predicted from a combination of brain activity and acoustic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ian; Williams, Duncan; Hallowell, James; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Weaver, James; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2015-12-01

    It is widely acknowledged that music can communicate and induce a wide range of emotions in the listener. However, music is a highly-complex audio signal composed of a wide range of complex time- and frequency-varying components. Additionally, music-induced emotions are known to differ greatly between listeners. Therefore, it is not immediately clear what emotions will be induced in a given individual by a piece of music. We attempt to predict the music-induced emotional response in a listener by measuring the activity in the listeners electroencephalogram (EEG). We combine these measures with acoustic descriptors of the music, an approach that allows us to consider music as a complex set of time-varying acoustic features, independently of any specific music theory. Regression models are found which allow us to predict the music-induced emotions of our participants with a correlation between the actual and predicted responses of up to r=0.234,pmusic induced emotions can be predicted by their neural activity and the properties of the music. Given the large amount of noise, non-stationarity, and non-linearity in both EEG and music, this is an encouraging result. Additionally, the combination of measures of brain activity and acoustic features describing the music played to our participants allows us to predict music-induced emotions with significantly higher accuracies than either feature type alone (p<0.01). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Numerical investigation on flow-induced vibration of a triangular cylinder at a low Reynolds number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huakun; Zhao, Dongliang; Yang, Wenyu; Yu, Guoliang, E-mail: yugl@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering, School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China (China)

    2015-02-01

    Flow-induced vibration (FIV) of a triangular cylinder is numerically investigated at a Reynolds number of Re = 100. The four-step fractional finite element method is employed to solve the two-dimensional (2D) incompressible Navier–Stokes equations. The cylinder is endowed with a two-degree-of-freedom motion with the reduced mass ratio of M{sub r} = 2. Three typical flow incidence angles, α = 0°, 30° and 60°, are examined to identify the effect of incidence angle on the vibration characteristics of the cylinder. For each α, computations are conducted in a wide range of reduced velocities 2 U{sub r} ≤ 18. The numerical results show that at α = 0° and 30°, the responses of the cylinder are dominated by vortex-induced vibration which resembles that of a circular cylinder. At α = 0°, the peak amplitude of transverse vibration is the smallest among the three investigated α, and most of the cylinder motions exhibit a regular figure-eight trajectory. Some single-loop trajectories are observed at α = 30°, where the vibration frequency in the in-line direction is always identical to that in the transverse direction. At α = 60°, the triangular cylinder undergoes a typical transverse galloping with large amplitude and low frequency, and the vibration trajectories appear to be regular or irregular figure-eight patterns, which are strongly affected by the reduced velocity. (paper)

  6. Axial-flow-induced vibration for a rod supported by translational springs at both ends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H.S.; Song, K.N.; Kim, H.K.; Yoon, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    An axial-flow-induced vibration model was proposed for a rod supported by two translational springs at both ends in order to evaluate the sensitivity to spring stiffness on the FIV for a PWR fuel rod. For developing the model, a one-mode approximation was made based on the assumption that the first mode was dominant in vibration behavior of the single span rod. The first natural frequency and mode shape functions for the flow-induced vibration, called the FIV, model were derived by using Lagrange's method. The vibration displacements were calculated by both of the spring-supported rod and the simple-supported (SS) one. As a result, the vibration displacement for the spring-supported (50 kN m -1 ) rod was 15-20% larger than that of the SS rod when the rods are in axial flow of 5-8 m s -1 velocity. The discrepancy between both displacements became much larger as flow velocity increased, and that of the rod having the short span length was larger than that of the rod having the long span length although the displacement value itself of the long span rod was larger than that of the short one. The vibration displacement for the spring-supported rod appeared to decrease with the increase of the spring constant. Since single span beam supported by the two translational springs are focused on in this paper, further study will be needed to reflect more realistic supporting conditions of the PWR fuel rod such as two springs and four dimples and cross or swirling flow caused by the mixing vane of the spacer grid

  7. Flow and flow-induced vibration of a square array of cylinders in steady currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Ming [School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751 (Australia); Cheng, Liang; An, Hongwei; Tong, Feifei, E-mail: m.zhao@uws.edu.au [School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2015-08-15

    Flow and flow-induced vibration of a square array of cylinders are investigated by two-dimensional numerical simulations. Flow past 36 cylinders in an inline arranged square array and 33 cylinders in a staggered arranged square array is firstly simulated, for Re = 100 and the spacing ratios of L/D = 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5. Only one vortex street is observed in the wake of the cylinder array when the spacing ratio is 1.5 in the inline arrangement and 1.5 and 2 in the staggered arrangement, indicating that the critical spacing ratio for the single-vortex street mode in the staggered arrangement is higher than that in the inline arrangement. The vortex shedding from the cylinders is suppressed at L/D = 3 for both inline and staggered arrangements. Vortex shedding from each individual cylinder is observed when L/D = 4. Flow-induced vibration of 36 cylinders in an inline square arrangement is studied for a constant Reynolds number of 100, two spacing ratios of 2 and 5, a constant mass ratio of 2.5 and a wide range of reduced velocities. It is found that for a spacing ratio of 2, the vibration of the cylinders in the four downstream columns does not start until the reduced velocity exceeds 4.5. The vibration of the cylinders progresses downstream with increasing reduced velocity. For a spacing ratio of 5, the vibrations of the cylinders in the most upstream column are similar to that of a single cylinder. The vibration amplitudes of the downstream cylinders peak at higher reduced velocities than that of a single cylinder. The maximum possible response amplitudes occur at the most downstream cylinders. (paper)

  8. Modeling fluid forces and response of a tube bundle in cross-flow induced vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khushnood, Shahab; Khan, Zaffar M.; Malik, M. Afzaal; Koreshi, Zafarullah; Khan, Mahmood Anwar

    2003-01-01

    Flow induced vibrations occur in process heat exchangers, condensers, boilers and nuclear steam generators. Under certain flow conditions and fluid velocities, the fluid forces result in tube vibrations and possible damage of tube, tube sheet or baffle due to fretting and fatigue. Prediction of these forces is an important consideration. The characteristics of vibration depend greatly on the fluid dynamic forces and structure of the tube bundle. It is undesirable for the tube bundles to vibrate excessively under normal operating conditions because tubes wear and eventual leakage can occur leading to costly shutdowns. In this paper modeling of fluid forces and vibration response of a tube in a heat exchanger bundle has been carried out. Experimental validation has been performed on an existing refinery heat exchanger tube bundle. The target tube has been instrumented with an accelerometer and strain gages. The bundle has been studied for pulse, sinusoidal and random excitations. Natural frequencies and damping of the tubes have also been computed. Experimental fluid forces and response shows a reasonable agreement with the predictions. (author)

  9. The efficacy of airflow and seat vibration on reducing visually induced motion sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Bos, Jelte E; Keshavarz, Behrang

    2017-09-01

    Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a well-known sensation in virtual environments and simulators, typically characterized by a variety of symptoms such as pallor, sweating, dizziness, fatigue, and/or nausea. Numerous methods to reduce VIMS have been previously introduced; however, a reliable countermeasure is still missing. In the present study, the effect of airflow and seat vibration to alleviate VIMS was investigated. Eighty-two participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups (airflow, vibration, combined airflow and vibration, and control) and then exposed to a 15 min long video of a bicycle ride shot from first-person view. VIMS was measured using the Fast Motion Sickness Scale (FMS) and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ). Results showed that the exposure of airflow significantly reduced VIMS, whereas the presence of seat vibration, in contrast, did not have an impact on VIMS. Additionally, we found that females reported higher FMS scores than males, however, this sex difference was not found in the SSQ scores. Our findings demonstrate that airflow can be an effective and easy-to-apply technique to reduce VIMS in virtual environments and simulators, while vibration applied to the seat is not a successful method.

  10. Picosecond dynamics of the glutamate receptor in response to agonist-induced vibrational excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Minoru; Shiomitsu, Eiji; Odai, Kei; Sugimoto, Tohru; Suzuki, Hideo; Ito, Etsuro

    2004-02-01

    Conformational changes of proteins are dominated by the excitation and relaxation processes of their vibrational states. To elucidate the mechanism of receptor activation, the conformation dynamics of receptors must be analyzed in response to agonist-induced vibrational excitation. In this study, we chose the bending vibrational mode of the guanidinium group of Arg485 of the glutamate receptor subunit GluR2 based on our previous studies, and we investigated picosecond dynamics of the glutamate receptor caused by the vibrational excitation of Arg485 via molecular dynamics simulations. The vibrational excitation energy in Arg485 in the ligand-binding site initially flowed into Lys730, and then into the J-helix at the subunit interface of the ligand-binding domain. Consequently, the atomic displacement in the subunit interface around an intersubunit hydrogen bond was evoked in about 3 ps. This atomic displacement may perturb the subunit packing of the receptor, triggering receptor activation. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. FIVPET Flow-Induced Vibration Test Report (1) - Candidate Spacer Grid Type I (Optimized H Type)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Hee; Kang, Heung Seok; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Song, Kee Nam; Kim, Jae Yong

    2006-03-15

    The flow-induced vibration (FIV) test using a 5x5 partial fuel assembly was performed to evaluate mechanical/structural performance of the candidate spacer grid type I (Optimized H shape). From the measured vibration response of the test bundle and the flow parameters, design features of the spacer strap can be analyzed in the point of vibration and hydraulic aspect, and also compared with other spacer strap in simple comparative manner. Furthermore, the FIV test will contributes to understand behaviors of nuclear fuel in operating reactor. The FIV test results will be used to verify the theoretical model of fuel rod and assembly vibration. The aim of this report is to present the results of the FIV test of partial fuel assembly and to introduce the detailed test methodology and analysis procedure. In chapter 2, the overall configuration of test bundle and instrumented tube is remarked and chapter 3 will introduce the test facility (FIVPET) and test section. Chapter 4 deals with overall test condition and procedure, measurement and data acquisition devices, instrumentation equipment and calibration, and error analysis. Finally, test result of vibration and pressure fluctuation is presented and discussed in chapter 5.

  12. Current-induced runaway vibrations in dehydrogenated graphene nanoribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rasmus Bjerregaard; Lu, Jing Tao; Hedegard, Per

    2016-01-01

    We employ a semi-classical Langevin approach to study current-induced atomic dynamics in a partially dehydrogenated armchair graphene nanoribbon. All parameters are obtained from density functional theory. The dehydrogenated carbon dimers behave as effective impurities, whose motion decouples fro...

  13. Current-induced runaway vibrations in dehydrogenated graphene nanoribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rasmus Bjerregaard; Lu, Jing Tao; Hedegard, Per

    2016-01-01

    We employ a semi-classical Langevin approach to study current-induced atomic dynamics in a partially dehydrogenated armchair graphene nanoribbon. All parameters are obtained from density functional theory. The dehydrogenated carbon dimers behave as effective impurities, whose motion decouples from...

  14. Development of Design Criteria for Fluid Induced Structural Vibrations in Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catton, Ivan; Dhir, Vijay K.; Alquaddoomi, O.S.; Mitra, Deepanjan; Adinolfi, Pierangelo

    2004-01-01

    OAK-B135 Flow-induced vibration in heat exchangers has been a major cause of concern in the nuclear industry for several decades. Many incidents of failure of heat exchangers due to apparent flow-induced vibration have been reported through the USNRC incident reporting system. Almost all heat exchangers have to deal with this problem during their operation. The phenomenon has been studied since the 1970s and the database of experimental studies on flow-induced vibration is constantly updated with new findings and improved design criteria for heat exchangers. In the nuclear industry, steam generators are often affected by this problem. However, flow-induced vibration is not limited to nuclear power plants, but to any type of heat exchanger used in many industrial applications such as chemical processing, refrigeration and air conditioning. Specifically, shell and tube type heat exchangers experience flow-induced vibration due to the high velocity flow over the tube banks. Flow-induced vibration in these heat exchangers leads to equipment breakdown and hence expensive repair and process shutdown. The goal of this research is to provide accurate measurements that can help modelers to validate their models using the measured experimental parameters and thereby develop better design criteria for avoiding fluid-elastic instability in heat exchangers. The research is divided between two primary experimental efforts, the first conducted using water alone (single phase) and the second using a mixture of air or steam and water as the working fluid (two phase). The outline of this report is as follows: After the introduction to fluid-elastic instability, the experimental apparatus constructed to conduct the experiments is described in Chapter 2 along with the measurement procedures. Chapter 3 presents results obtained on the tube array and the flow loop, as well as techniques used in data processing. The project performance is described and evaluated in Chapter 4 followed by

  15. Prolonged maintenance of capsaicin-induced hyperalgesia by brief daily vibration stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Kee; Schattschneider, Jörn; Lee, Inhyung; Chung, Kyungsoon; Baron, Ralf; Chung, Jin Mo

    2007-05-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that central sensitization initiated by nociceptive input can be maintained by repeated brief innocuous peripheral inputs. Capsaicin was injected intradermally into the hind paw of adult rats. Three different types of daily cutaneous mechanical stimulations (vibration, soft brush, or pressure) were applied to the capsaicin-injected paw for a period of 2 weeks. Daily stimulation consisted of a 10-s stimulation repeated every 30s for 30 min. Foot withdrawal thresholds to von Frey stimuli applied to the paw were measured once a day for 4 weeks. The capsaicin-only group (control rats without daily stimulation) showed hyperalgesia lasting for 3 days. In contrast, hyperalgesia persisted for 2 weeks in the group that received vibration stimulation. Neither the soft brush nor the pressure group showed a significant difference in mechanical threshold from the control group (capsaicin only). The vibration-induced prolonged hyperalgesia was significantly reduced by systemic injection of ifenprodil, an NMDA-receptor antagonist, but it was not influenced by either an AMPA-receptor blocker or a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger. Furthermore, a dorsal column lesion did not interfere with the prolongation of hyperalgesia. Data suggest that vibration-induced prolongation of hyperalgesia is mediated by spinal NMDA-receptors, and a similar mechanism may underlie some forms of chronic pain with no obvious causes, such as complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1).

  16. Characterizing human activity induced impulse and slip-pulse excitations through structural vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shijia; Mirshekari, Mostafa; Fagert, Jonathon; Ramirez, Ceferino Gabriel; Chung, Albert Jin; Hu, Chih Chi; Shen, John Paul; Zhang, Pei; Noh, Hae Young

    2018-02-01

    Many human activities induce excitations on ambient structures with various objects, causing the structures to vibrate. Accurate vibration excitation source detection and characterization enable human activity information inference, hence allowing human activity monitoring for various smart building applications. By utilizing structural vibrations, we can achieve sparse and non-intrusive sensing, unlike pressure- and vision-based methods. Many approaches have been presented on vibration-based source characterization, and they often either focus on one excitation type or have limited performance due to the dispersion and attenuation effects of the structures. In this paper, we present our method to characterize two main types of excitations induced by human activities (impulse and slip-pulse) on multiple structures. By understanding the physical properties of waves and their propagation, the system can achieve accurate excitation tracking on different structures without large-scale labeled training data. Specifically, our algorithm takes properties of surface waves generated by impulse and of body waves generated by slip-pulse into account to handle the dispersion and attenuation effects when different types of excitations happen on various structures. We then evaluate the algorithm through multiple scenarios. Our method achieves up to a six times improvement in impulse localization accuracy and a three times improvement in slip-pulse trajectory length estimation compared to existing methods that do not take wave properties into account.

  17. Study on flow-induced vibration of the fuel rod in HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Kazuyuki

    1988-03-01

    This study was performed in order to investigate flow-induced vibration characteristics of a fuel rod in HTTR (High Temperature engineering Test Reactor) from both an experiment and a numerical simulation. Two kinds of fuel rods were used in this experiment: one was a graphite rod which simulated a specification of the HTTR's fuel rod and the other was an aluminum rod whose weight was a half of the graphite one. The experiment was carried out up to Re = 31000 using air at room temperature and pressure. Air flowed downstream in an annular passage which consisted of the fuel rod and the graphite channel. Numerical simulations by fluid and frequency equations were also carried out. Numerical and experimental results were then compared. The following conclusions were drived: (1) The fuel rod amplitudes increase with the flow rate and with a decrease of the fuel rod weight. (2) The fuel rod amplitudes are obtained by δ/De = 2.22 x 10 -10 Re 1.43 , 9000 ≤ Re ≤ 31000, where δ is a vibration amplitude, De is a hydraulic diameter and Reis Reynolds number. (3) The fuel rod frequencies shift from lower natural frequency to higher as the flow rate increases. (4) The flow-induced vibration behavior of the fuel rod can simulate well by simultaneous equations which used the turbulence model for fluid and the mass model for vibration of the fuel rod. (author)

  18. Fluid-Induced Vibration Analysis for Reactor Internals Using Computational FSI Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Jong Sung; Yi, Kun Woo; Sung, Ki Kwang; Im, In Young; Choi, Taek Sang [KEPCO E and C, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This paper introduces a fluid-induced vibration analysis method which calculates the response of the RVI to both deterministic and random loads at once and utilizes more realistic pressure distribution using the computational Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) method. As addressed above, the FIV analysis for the RVI was carried out using the computational FSI method. This method calculates the response to deterministic and random turbulence loads at once. This method is also a simple and integrative method to get structural dynamic responses of reactor internals to various flow-induced loads. Because the analysis of this paper omitted the bypass flow region and Inner Barrel Assembly (IBA) due to the limitation of computer resources, it is necessary to find an effective way to consider all regions in the RV for the FIV analysis in the future. Reactor coolant flow makes Reactor Vessel Internals (RVI) vibrate and may affect the structural integrity of them. U. S. NRC Regulatory Guide 1.20 requires the Comprehensive Vibration Assessment Program (CVAP) to verify the structural integrity of the RVI for Fluid-Induced Vibration (FIV). The hydraulic forces on the RVI of OPR1000 and APR1400 were computed from the hydraulic formulas and the CVAP measurements in Palo Verde Unit 1 and Yonggwang Unit 4 for the structural vibration analyses. In this method, the hydraulic forces were divided into deterministic and random turbulence loads and were used for the excitation forces of the separate structural analyses. These forces are applied to the finite element model and the responses to them were combined into the resultant stresses.

  19. Flow-induced vibration phenomenon in a Mark III TRIGA reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C K; Whittemore, W L; Kim, B S; Lee, J B; Blevins, R D; Burton, T E [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); General Atomic Company, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1976-07-01

    The Mark III TRIGA reactor with hexagonal fuel spacing is capable of operating at 2.0 MW. The Mark III at San Diego operated without core cooling problems or vibration at power levels up to 2.0 MW. All Mark III reactors have operated trouble-free up to 1.0 MW. The Mark III TRIGA in Korea was installed in 1972 and operated many months without trouble at 2.0 MW. During this period core changes including addition of new fuel were made. Eighteen months after startup, a coolant flow-induced vibration was observed for the first time at a power of 1.5 MW. A lengthy series of tests showed that it was not possible to establish a core configuration that permitted vibration-free operation for power levels in the range 1.5 - 2.0 MW. Observations during the tests confirmed that standing waves in the reactor tank water coupled the source within the core to the shield structure and surrounding building. Analysis of the data indicates strongly that the source of the vibration is the creation and collapse of bubbles with the core acting as a resonator. A substantially increased flow of coolant through the upper grid plate is expected to eliminate the vibration phenomenon and permit trouble-free operation at power up to 2.0 MW. In an attempt to seek a remedy, both GAC and KAERI have independently developed designs for upper grid plates. KAERI has constructed and installed an interim version of the standard grid plate which was calculated to provide 25% more coolant flow and mounted high so as to provide less restriction to flow around the upper fittings of the fuel elements. A substantial reduction in vibration was observed. No vibration was observed at any power up to 2.0 MW with cooling water at or below 20 C. A slight vibration at 1.8 MW occurred for higher cooling temperatures. The GAC grid plate design provides not only for increasing the flow area but also for streamlining the flow surfaces on the grid plate and possibly also on the top fittings of the fuel elements. It is

  20. Flow-induced vibration phenomenon in a Mark III TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.K.; Whittemore, W.L.; Kim, B.S.; Lee, J.B.; Blevins, R.D.; Burton, T.E.

    1976-01-01

    The Mark III TRIGA reactor with hexagonal fuel spacing is capable of operating at 2.0 MW. The Mark III at San Diego operated without core cooling problems or vibration at power levels up to 2.0 MW. All Mark III reactors have operated trouble-free up to 1.0 MW. The Mark III TRIGA in Korea was installed in 1972 and operated many months without trouble at 2.0 MW. During this period core changes including addition of new fuel were made. Eighteen months after startup, a coolant flow-induced vibration was observed for the first time at a power of 1.5 MW. A lengthy series of tests showed that it was not possible to establish a core configuration that permitted vibration-free operation for power levels in the range 1.5 - 2.0 MW. Observations during the tests confirmed that standing waves in the reactor tank water coupled the source within the core to the shield structure and surrounding building. Analysis of the data indicates strongly that the source of the vibration is the creation and collapse of bubbles with the core acting as a resonator. A substantially increased flow of coolant through the upper grid plate is expected to eliminate the vibration phenomenon and permit trouble-free operation at power up to 2.0 MW. In an attempt to seek a remedy, both GAC and KAERI have independently developed designs for upper grid plates. KAERI has constructed and installed an interim version of the standard grid plate which was calculated to provide 25% more coolant flow and mounted high so as to provide less restriction to flow around the upper fittings of the fuel elements. A substantial reduction in vibration was observed. No vibration was observed at any power up to 2.0 MW with cooling water at or below 20 C. A slight vibration at 1.8 MW occurred for higher cooling temperatures. The GAC grid plate design provides not only for increasing the flow area but also for streamlining the flow surfaces on the grid plate and possibly also on the top fittings of the fuel elements. It is

  1. A new methodology for predicting flow induced vibration in industrial components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, N.

    1997-12-01

    Flow induced vibration damage is a major concern for designers and operators of industrial components. For example, nuclear power plant operators have currently to deal with such flow induced vibration problems, in steam generator tube bundles, control rods or nuclear fuel assemblies. Some methodologies have thus been recently proposed to obtain an accurate description of the flow induced vibration phenomena. These methodologies are based on unsteady semi-analytical models for fluid-dynamic forces, associated with non-dimensional fluid force coefficients generally obtained from experiments. The aim is to determine the forces induced by the flow on the structure, and then to take account of these forces to derive the dynamic behaviour of the component under flow excitation. The approach is based on a general model for fluid-dynamic forces, using several non-dimensional parameters that cannot be reached through computation. These parameters are then determined experimentally on simplified test sections, representative of the component, of the flow and of the fluid-elastic coupling phenomena. Predicting computations of the industrial component can then be performed for various operating configurations, by applying laws of similarity. The major physical mechanisms involved in complex fluid-structure interaction phenomena have been understood and modelled. (author)

  2. Controlling flow-induced vibrations of flood barrier gates with data-driven and finite-element modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erdbrink, C.D.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Sloot, P.M.A.; Klijn, F.; Schweckendiek, T.

    2012-01-01

    Operation of flood barrier gates is sometimes hampered by flow-induced vibrations. Although the physics is understood for specific gate types, it remains challenging to judge dynamic gate behaviour for unanticipated conditions. This paper presents a hybrid modelling system for predicting vibrations

  3. Periodicity-induced effects and methods in vibro-acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    issue addressed in the paper is an influence of the corrugation shape and amplitude on the broadness and location of the stop- and pass-bands in an infinite periodic structure. Explicit asymptotic formulae for the stop band borders are given and the topology of the stop band pattern is explained......The paper is concerned with the modelling of wave propagation in and vibration of periodic elastic structures. Although analysis of waveguide properties of infinite periodic structures is a well establish research subject, some issues have not yet been fully addressed in the literature. The aim...... of the paper is to illustrate these issues in simple examples and to discuss possible applications and generalisations. First, the eigenfrequency spectra of finite periodic structures are compared with the location of stop-bands for their infinite counterparts. Special attention is paid to eigenfrequencies...

  4. Correlation between microbubble-induced acoustic cavitation and hemolysis in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chun-Bing; Liu Zheng; Guo Xia-Sheng; Zhang Dong

    2011-01-01

    Microbubbles promise to enhance the efficiency of ultrasound-mediated drug delivery and gene therapy by taking advantage of artificial cavitation nuclei. The purpose of this study is to examine the ultrasound-induced hemolysis in the application of drug delivery in the presence of microbubbles. To achieve this goal, human red blood cells mixed with microbubbles were exposed to 1-MHz pulsed ultrasound. The hemolysis level was measured by a flow cytometry, and the cavitation dose was detected by a passive cavitation detecting system. The results demonstrate that larger cavitation dose would be generated with the increase of acoustic pressure, which might give rise to the enhancement of hemolysis. Besides the experimental observations, the acoustic pressure dependence of the radial oscillation of microbubble was theoretically estimated. The comparison between the experimental and calculation results indicates that the hemolysis should be highly correlated to the acoustic cavitation. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  5. Soft Computing Approach to Evaluate and Predict Blast-Induced Ground Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Manoj

    2010-05-01

    Drilling and blasting is still one of the major economical operations to excavate a rock mass. The consumption of explosive has been increased many folds in recent years. These explosives are mainly used for the exploitation of minerals in mining industry or the removal of undesirable rockmass for community development. The amount of chemical energy converted into mechanical energy to fragment and displace the rockmass is minimal. Only 20 to 30% of this explosive energy is utilized for the actual fragmentation and displacement of rockmass and rest of the energy is wasted in undesirable ill effects, like, ground vibration, air over pressure, fly rock, back break, noise, etc. Ground vibration induced due to blasting is very crucial and critical as compared to other ill effects due to involvement of public residing in the close vicinity of mining sites, regulating and ground vibration standards setting agencies together with mine owners and environmentalists and ecologists. Also, with the emphasis shifting towards eco-friendly, sustainable and geo-environmental activities, the field of ground vibration have now become an important and imperative parameter for safe and smooth running of any mining and civil project. The ground vibration is a wave motion, spreading outward from the blast like ripples spreading outwards due to impact of a stone dropped into a pond of water. As the vibration passes through the surface structures, it induces vibrations in those structures also. Sometimes, due to high ground vibration level, dwellings may get damaged and there is always confrontation between mine management and the people residing in the surroundings of the mine area. There is number of vibration predictors available suggested by different researchers. All the predictors estimate the PPV based on mainly two parameters (maximum charge used per delay and distance between blast face to monitoring point). However, few predictors considered attenuation/damping factor too. For

  6. Imaging of microwave-induced acoustic fields in LiNbO{sub 3} by high-performance Brillouin microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, B [Lab. Europeen de Recherche Univ.: Saarland-Lorraine, Univ. des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, CNRS-UMR 7040, Univ. H. Poincare, Nancy I, F-54506 (France); Krueger, J K [Lab. Europeen de Recherche Univ.: Saarland-Lorraine, Univ. des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Fachrichtung 7.2, Experimentalphysik, Univ. des Saarlandes, Bau 38, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Elmazria, O [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire: Saarland-Lorraine, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, CNRS-UMR 7040, Universite H. Poincare, Nancy I, F-54506 (France); Bouvot, L [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire: Saarland-Lorraine, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, CNRS-UMR 7040, Universite H. Poincare, Nancy I, F-54506 (France); Mainka, J [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire: Saarland-Lorraine, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Fachrichtung 7.2, Experimentalphysik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Bau 38, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Sanctuary, R [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire: Saarland-Lorraine, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Campus Luxembourg-Limpertsberg, L-1511 Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Rouxel, D [Lab. Europeen de Recherche Univ.: Saarland-Lorraine, Univ. des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, CNRS-UMR 7040, Univ. H. Poincare, Nancy I, F-54506 (France); Alnot, P [Lab. Europeen de Recherche Univ.: Saarland-Lorraine, Univ. des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, CNRS-UMR 7040, Univ. H. Poincare, Nancy I, F-54506 (France)

    2005-06-21

    High performance Brillouin microscopy (BM) has been used to characterize the spatial distribution of piezoelectrically induced acoustic fields excited at microwave frequencies in a LiNbO{sub 3} single crystal. It is demonstrated that under suitable conditions BM is able to detect microwave-induced bulk as well as surface acoustic waves. Brillouin spectroscopy is able to probe sound wave intensities of induced phonons, which are as small as those of thermal phonons.

  7. Acoustic streaming induced by two orthogonal ultrasound standing waves in a microfluidic channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doinikov, Alexander A; Thibault, Pierre; Marmottant, Philippe

    2018-07-01

    A mathematical model is derived for acoustic streaming in a microfluidic channel confined between a solid wall and a rigid reflector. Acoustic streaming is produced by two orthogonal ultrasound standing waves of the same frequency that are created by two pairs of counter-propagating leaky surface waves induced in the solid wall. The magnitudes and phases of the standing waves are assumed to be different. Full analytical solutions are found for the equations of acoustic streaming. The obtained solutions are used in numerical simulations to reveal the structure of the acoustic streaming. It is shown that the interaction of two standing waves leads to the appearance of a cross term in the equations of acoustic streaming. If the phase lag between the standing waves is nonzero, the cross term brings about circular vortices with rotation axes perpendicular to the solid wall of the channel. The vortices make fluid particles rotate and move alternately up and down between the solid wall and the reflector. The obtained results are of immediate interest for acoustomicrofluidic applications such as the ultrasonic micromixing of fluids and the manipulation of microparticles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Influence of Acoustic Field Induced by HRT on Oscillation Behavior of a Single Droplet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Ruan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental and theoretical study on the effects of an acoustic field induced by Hartmann Resonance Tube (HRT on droplet deformation behavior. The characteristics of the acoustic field generated by HRT are investigated. Results show that the acoustic frequency decreases with the increase of the resonator length, the sound pressure level (SPL increases with the increase of nozzle pressure ratio (NPR, and it is also noted that increasing resonator length can cause SPL to decrease, which has rarely been reported in published literature. Further theoretical analysis reveals that the resonance frequency of a droplet has several modes, and when the acoustic frequency equals the droplet’s frequency, heightened droplet responses are observed with the maximum amplitude of the shape oscillation. The experimental results for different resonator cavity lengths, nozzle pressure ratios and droplet diameters confirm the non-linear nature of this problem, and this conclusion is in good agreement with theoretical analysis. Measurements by high speed camera have shown that the introduction of an acoustic field can greatly enhance droplet oscillation, which means with the use of an ultrasonic atomizer based on HRT, the quality of atomization and combustion can be highly improved.

  9. Study of flow induce vibration inside 3.5 inch hard disk drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichitpon Seepangmon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on flow induced vibration of head stack assembly (HSA in a 3.5 inch hard disk drive with 5 disks and 10 read/write heads. We studied the effects of air flow on gimbal flex and resonance on arm. The comparison of vibrations on slider between the normal model and the experiment has been done for verifying the model. The peaks of frequency in experiment match the normal model at 1,040 1,320 and 1,400 Hz respectively. After that, the RNG K-ε turbulence model was used to determine the turbulent air flow of 7,200 rpm hard disk drive. The comparison between the normal model and the model with spoiler was investigated by using, computational fluid dynamics software (ANSYS and FLUENT. The results shown velocity magnitudes at the arm were decreased by 0.725 - 57.689 % and pressure dropped by 74.028 - 87.222 %. The velocity magnitudes at the gimbal flex were decreased by 5.522 - 14.291 % and pressure dropped by 48.440 - 82.947 %. The peak of vibrations on arm and gimbal flex was occurred at the frequency 1200 Hz. The model with spoiler could reduce vibration at arm by 2.56 - 95.601 % and reduce vibration at gimbal flex by 4.065 - 95.503 %. In the conclusion, the model with a spoiler could decrease the vibration at all surface of the arm and gimbal flex due to the velocity and pressure reduction[1][4].

  10. Noise-induced hearing loss and combined noise and vibration exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcot, A; Girard, S A; Courteau, M; Baril, J; Larocque, R

    2015-04-01

    While there is a wide body of literature addressing noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) independently, relatively few studies have considered the combined effects of noise and vibration. These studies have suggested an increased risk of NIHL in workers with vibration white finger (VWF), though the relationship remains poorly understood. To determine whether hearing impairment is worse in noise-exposed workers with VWF than in workers with similar noise exposures but without VWF. The Quebec National Institute of Public Health audiometric database was used in conjunction with work-related accident and occupational diseases data from the Quebec workers' compensation board to analyse differences in audiometry results between vibration-exposed workers in the mining and forestry industries and the overall source population, and between mining and forestry workers with documented VWF and those without VWF. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 7029 standards were used to calculate hearing loss not attributable to age. 15751 vibration-exposed workers were identified in an overall source population of 59339. Workers with VWF (n = 96) had significantly worse hearing at every frequency studied (500, 1000, 2000 4000 Hz) compared with other mining and forestry workers without VWF. This study confirms previous findings of greater hearing loss at higher frequencies in workers with VWF, but also found a significant difference in hearing loss at low frequencies. It therefore supports the association between combined noise and hand-arm vibration (HAV) exposure and NIHL. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Acute exposure to vibration is an apoptosis-inducing stimulus in the vocal fold epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaleski, Carolyn K; Kimball, Emily E; Mizuta, Masanobu; Rousseau, Bernard

    2016-10-01

    Clinical voice disorders pose significant communication-related challenges to patients. The purpose of this study was to quantify the rate of apoptosis and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) signaling in vocal fold epithelial cells in response to increasing time-doses and cycle-doses of vibration. 20 New Zealand white breeder rabbits were randomized to three groups of time-doses of vibration exposure (30, 60, 120min) or a control group (120min of vocal fold adduction and abduction). Estimated cycle-doses of vocal fold vibration were extrapolated based on mean fundamental frequency. Laryngeal tissue specimens were evaluated for apoptosis and gene transcript and protein levels of TNF-α. Results revealed that terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining was significantly higher after 120min of vibration compared to the control. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed no significant effect of time-dose on the mean area of epithelial cell nuclei. Extrapolated cycle-doses of vibration exposure were closely related to experimental time-dose conditions, although no significant correlations were observed with TUNEL staining or mean area of epithelial cell nuclei. TUNEL staining was positively correlated with TNF-α protein expression. Our findings suggest that apoptosis can be induced in the vocal fold epithelium after 120min of modal intensity phonation. In contrast, shorter durations of vibration exposure do not result in apoptosis signaling. However, morphological features of apoptosis are not observed using TEM. Future studies are necessary to examine the contribution of abnormal apoptosis to vocal fold diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. F center deexcitation induced by local vibration tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, L.; Morato, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    A new concept of electronic deexcitation of defects has been made for systems where the electron couples very strong with a local lattice mode. The model is based on a classical - quantum description of the configuration curve diagram which proposes that an electronic transition may be induced when the wave packets of both oscillators involved are overlaping. It was successfully applied to the F center system, at low temperatures, in almost all the alkali halides. The luminescence efficiency derived from the model explains very well the observation, even the fact that the F * - electron always reaches the relaxed excited state. (author) [pt

  13. On vortex shedding and prediction of vortex-induced vibrations of circular cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Karl Henning

    1998-12-31

    In offshore installations, many crucial components can be classified as slender marine structures: risers, mooring lines, umbilicals and cables, pipelines. This thesis studies the vortex shedding phenomenon and the problem of predicting vortex-induced vibrations of such structures. As the development of hydrocarbons move to deeper waters, the importance of accurately predicting the vortex-induced response has increased and so the need for proper response prediction methods is large. This work presents an extensive review of existing research publications about vortex shedding from circular cylinders and the vortex-induced vibrations of cylinders and the different numerical approaches to modelling the fluid flow. The response predictions from different methods are found to disagree, both in response shapes and in vibration amplitudes. This work presents a prediction method that uses a fully three-dimensional structural finite element model integrated with a laminar two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solution modelling the fluid flow. This solution is used to study the flow both around a fixed cylinder and in a flexibly mounted one-degree-of-freedom system. It is found that the vortex-shedding process (in the low Reynolds number regime) is well described by the computer program, and that the vortex-induced vibration of the flexibly mounted section do reflect the typical dynamic characteristics of lock-in oscillations. However, the exact behaviour of the experimental results found in the literature was not reproduced. The response of the three-dimensional structural model is larger than the expected difference between a mode shape and a flexibly mounted section. This is due to the use of independent hydrodynamic sections along the cylinder. The predicted response is not unrealistic, and the method is considered a powerful tool. 221 refs., 138 figs., 36 tabs.

  14. Experimental study of hydrodynamically induced vibrational processes in VVER-440 fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solonin, V.I.; Perevezentsev, V.V.; Rekshnya, N.F.; Krapivtsev, V.G.

    2000-01-01

    Investigations are described of hydrodynamically induced vibrations in a single fuel assembly of a VVER-440 reactor, performed on a full-scale model installed in a closed loop filled with distilled water; the model fuel elements contained simulators of fuel pellets. Data on hydrodynamic loads were obtained by measuring pressure oscillations along the height of the fuel assembly case. Results of the measurements are presented in graphs and are discussed in some detail. (A.K.)

  15. On vortex shedding and prediction of vortex-induced vibrations of circular cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Karl Henning

    1997-12-31

    In offshore installations, many crucial components can be classified as slender marine structures: risers, mooring lines, umbilicals and cables, pipelines. This thesis studies the vortex shedding phenomenon and the problem of predicting vortex-induced vibrations of such structures. As the development of hydrocarbons move to deeper waters, the importance of accurately predicting the vortex-induced response has increased and so the need for proper response prediction methods is large. This work presents an extensive review of existing research publications about vortex shedding from circular cylinders and the vortex-induced vibrations of cylinders and the different numerical approaches to modelling the fluid flow. The response predictions from different methods are found to disagree, both in response shapes and in vibration amplitudes. This work presents a prediction method that uses a fully three-dimensional structural finite element model integrated with a laminar two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solution modelling the fluid flow. This solution is used to study the flow both around a fixed cylinder and in a flexibly mounted one-degree-of-freedom system. It is found that the vortex-shedding process (in the low Reynolds number regime) is well described by the computer program, and that the vortex-induced vibration of the flexibly mounted section do reflect the typical dynamic characteristics of lock-in oscillations. However, the exact behaviour of the experimental results found in the literature was not reproduced. The response of the three-dimensional structural model is larger than the expected difference between a mode shape and a flexibly mounted section. This is due to the use of independent hydrodynamic sections along the cylinder. The predicted response is not unrealistic, and the method is considered a powerful tool. 221 refs., 138 figs., 36 tabs.

  16. Using Fast Vibrations to Quench Friction-induced Oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    1999-01-01

    -ity corresponding to the minimum kinetic coefficient of friction. Simple expressions are given also for predicting the excitation necessary for quenching self-excited oscillations at or below a specified belt velocity. These and other results contribute to the general understanding of how friction properties may......This work examines how friction-induced self-excited oscillations are affected by high-frequency ex-ternal excitation. Simple analytical approximations are derived for predicting the occurence of self-excited oscillations for the traditional mass-on-moving-belt model – with and without high......-frequency excitation. It appears that high-frequency excitation can effectively cancel the negative slope in the friction-velocity relationship, and may thus prevent self-excited oscillations. To accomplish this it is sufficient that the (nondimensional) product of excitation amplitude and frequency exceeds the veloc...

  17. Large scale vibration tests on pile-group effects using blast-induced ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuichirou Hijikata; Hideo Tanaka; Takayuki Hashimoto; Kazushige Fujiwara; Yuji Miyamoto; Osamu Kontani

    2005-01-01

    Extensive vibration tests have been performed on pile-supported structures at a large-scale mining site. Ground motions induced by large-scale blasting operations were used as excitation forces for vibration tests. The main objective of this research is to investigate the dynamic behavior of pile-supported structures, in particular, pile-group effects. Two test structures were constructed in an excavated 4 m deep pit. Their test-structures were exactly the same. One structure had 25 steel piles and the other had 4 piles. The test pit was backfilled with sand of appropriate grain size distributions to obtain good compaction, especially between the 25 piles. Accelerations were measured at the structures, in the test pit and in the adjacent free field, and pile strains were measured. Dynamic modal tests of the pile-supported structures and PS measurements of the test pit were performed before and after the vibration tests to detect changes in the natural frequencies of the soil-pile-structure systems and the soil stiffness. The vibration tests were performed six times with different levels of input motions. The maximum horizontal acceleration recorded at the adjacent ground surface varied from 57 cm/s 2 to 1,683 cm/s 2 according to the distances between the test site and the blast areas. (authors)

  18. Risk of hearing loss among workers with vibration-induced white fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Hans; Burström, Lage; Hagberg, Mats; Lundström, Ronnie; Nilsson, Tohr

    2014-12-01

    We examined the risk of hearing loss for workers who use hand-held vibrating tools with vibration-induced white fingers (VWF) compared to workers without VWF. Data on 184 participants from a 21-year cohort were gathered with questionnaires and measurements. The effects on hearing status of VWF, hand-arm vibration exposure, smoking habits, age and two-way interactions of these independent variables were examined with binary logistic regression. Analyses were made for the right hand and ear as well as for the hand with VWF and the ear with worse categorized hearing status. Workers with VWF in their right hand had an increased risk of hearing loss (odds ratio 2.2-2.3) in the right ear. Workers with VWF in any hand did not have any increased risk of hearing loss in the ear with worse hearing status. This study supports the hypothesis that VWF increases the risk of hearing loss among workers who use hand-held vibrating tools in a noisy environment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Development of acoustics and vibrational comfort on the New A6; Entwicklung von Akustik und Schwingungskomfort am neuen Audi A6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.; Bukovics, J.; Kosamke, D.; Ohlendorf, J.; Schrey, A.C.; Verweyen, K. [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2004-03-01

    Positioning the new A6 as a sporty vehicle, which is, at the same time, a comfortable touring limousine, places special demands on the acoustic design and vibrational comfort. Because the characteristics of a vehicle are the result of the interactions of its subassemblies, in the concept phase, the characteristics of the complete vehicle were broken down to the individual modules. Examples of this are the radiation of sound from the engine, airborne noise from the inlet and exhaust systems, and the insulation of the body against airborne noise. (orig.) [German] Die sportliche Positionierung des neuen A6, der zugleich eine komfortable Reiselimousine bleiben sollte, stellte spezielle Anforderungen an die Auslegung von Akustik und Schwingungskomfort. Da ein Fahrzeug seine Eigenschaften durch das Zusammenspiel seiner Baugruppen erhaelt, wurden die Charakteristiken des Gesamtfahrzeugs in der Konzeptphase auf die einzelnen Module heruntergebrochen. Beispiele sind hier die Schallabstrahlung des Motors, der Muendungsschall von Ansaug- und Abgasanlage und die Luftschalldaemmung der Karosserie. (orig.)

  20. Advanced non-linear flow-induced vibration and fretting-wear analysis capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toorani, M.; Pan, L.; Li, R.; Idvorian, N. [Babcock and Wilcox Canada Ltd., Cambridge, Ontario (Canada); Vincent, B.

    2009-07-01

    Fretting wear is a potentially significant degradation mechanism in nuclear steam generators and other shell and tube heat transfer equipment as well. This paper presents an overview of the recently developed code FIVDYNA which is used for the non-linear flow-induced vibration and fretting wear analysis for operating steam generators (OTSG and RSG) and shell-and-tube heat exchangers. FIVDYNA is a non-linear time-history Flow-Induced Vibration (FIV) analysis computer program that has been developed by Babcock and Wilcox Canada to advance the understanding of tube vibration and tube to tube-support interaction. In addition to the dynamic fluid induced forces the program takes into account other tube static forces due to axial and lateral tube preload and thermal interaction loads. The program is capable of predicting the location where the fretting wear is most likely to occur and its magnitude taking into account the support geometry including gaps. FIVDYNA uses the general purpose finite element computer code ABAQUS as its solver. Using ABAQUS gives the user the flexibility to add additional forces to the tube ranging from tube preloads and the support offsets to thermal loads. The forces currently being modeled in FIVDYNA are the random turbulence, steady drag force, fluid-elastic forces, support offset and pre-strain force (axial loads). This program models the vibration of tubes and calculates the structural dynamic characteristics, and interaction forces between the tube and the tube supports. These interaction forces are then used to calculate the work rate at the support and eventually the predicted depth of wear scar on the tube. A very good agreement is found with experiments and also other computer codes. (author)

  1. Identifying and mitigating flow-induced vibration in recycle loop gas piping at a centrifugal compressor station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broerman, Eugene L.; Gatewood, Jason T.; O' Grady, James T. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Troy, Russell F. [Spectra Energy, Houston, TX (United States); Rand, Charles L.; Stroud, Gary T. [R-S-H Engineering, Monroe, LA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The South East Supply Header joining Delhi, Louisiana, to Coden, Alabama, was put into service in 2008. During start-up of the mainline compressor station, located near Lucedale, MS, high amplitude vibration was detected on the second elbow downstream of the anti-surge valve/fast stop valve piping tee in the recycle loop piping. The aim of this paper is to present the issue and the solution adopted. An investigation of the high vibration was carried out and was followed by Strouhal and acoustic analyses. A solution to the problem was then proposed and mechanically analyzed. It was found that upfront analyses of these types can give an accurate prediction of the vibration and could have avoided the problem encountered and saved a lot of time and money since the modification costs were about 10 times higher than those for a typical analysis made at the installation design phase would have been.

  2. Air-pressure, vocal fold vibration and acoustic characteristics of phonation during vocal exercising. - Part 1: Measurement in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Radolf, Vojtěch; Laukkanen, A. M.; Horáček, Jaromír; Liu, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2014), s. 53-59 ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP101/12/P579 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : biomechanics of voice * subglottal * oral and transglottal pressure * electroglottography * phonation into tubes Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  3. Linear and non-linear infrared response of one-dimensional vibrational Holstein polarons in the anti-adiabatic limit: Optical and acoustical phonon models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falvo, Cyril

    2018-02-01

    The theory of linear and non-linear infrared response of vibrational Holstein polarons in one-dimensional lattices is presented in order to identify the spectral signatures of self-trapping phenomena. Using a canonical transformation, the optical response is computed from the small polaron point of view which is valid in the anti-adiabatic limit. Two types of phonon baths are considered: optical phonons and acoustical phonons, and simple expressions are derived for the infrared response. It is shown that for the case of optical phonons, the linear response can directly probe the polaron density of states. The model is used to interpret the experimental spectrum of crystalline acetanilide in the C=O range. For the case of acoustical phonons, it is shown that two bound states can be observed in the two-dimensional infrared spectrum at low temperature. At high temperature, analysis of the time-dependence of the two-dimensional infrared spectrum indicates that bath mediated correlations slow down spectral diffusion. The model is used to interpret the experimental linear-spectroscopy of model α-helix and β-sheet polypeptides. This work shows that the Davydov Hamiltonian cannot explain the observations in the NH stretching range.

  4. Analytical Model of Underground Train Induced Vibrations on Nearby Building Structures in Cameroon: Assessment and Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezin Seba MINSILI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research paper was to assess and predict the effect of vibrations induced by an underground railway on nearby-existing buildings prior to the construction of projected new railway lines of the National Railway Master Plan of Cameroon and after upgrading of the railway conceded to CAMRAIL linking the two most densely populated cities of Cameroon: Douala and Yaoundé. With the source-transmitter-receiver mathematical model as the train-soil-structure interaction model, taking into account sub-model parameters such as type of the train-railway system, typical geotechnical conditions of the ground and the sensitivity of the nearby buildings, the analysis is carried out over the entire system using the dynamic finite element method in the time domain. This subdivision of the model is a powerful tool that allows to consider different alternatives of sub-models with different characteristics, and thus to determine any critical excessive vibration impact. Based on semi-empirical analytical results obtained from presented models, the present work assesses and predicts characteristics of traffic-induced vibrations as a function of time duration, intensity and vehicle speed, as well as their influence on buildings at different levels.

  5. Sensory training with vibration-induced kinesthetic illusions improves proprioceptive integration in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribot-Ciscar, Edith; Aimonetti, Jean-Marc; Azulay, Jean-Philippe

    2017-12-15

    The present study investigates whether proprioceptive training, based on kinesthetic illusions, can help in re-educating the processing of muscle proprioceptive input, which is impaired in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The processing of proprioceptive input before and after training was evaluated by determining the error in the amplitude of voluntary dorsiflexion ankle movement (20°), induced by applying a vibration on the tendon of the gastrocnemius-soleus muscle (a vibration-induced movement error). The training consisted of the subjects focusing their attention upon a series of illusory movements of the ankle. Eleven PD patients and eleven age-matched control subjects were tested. Before training, vibration reduced dorsiflexion amplitude in controls by 4.3° (Pkinesthetic illusions, is a simple means for re-educating the processing of muscle proprioceptive input in PD patients. Such complementary training should be included in rehabilitation programs that presently focus on improving balance and motor performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Flow induced vibration characteristics in 2X3 bundle critical heat flux experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Hun; Chang, Soon Heung

    2005-01-01

    Above a certain heat flux, the liquid can no longer permanently wet the heater surface. This situation leads to an inordinate decrease in the surface heat transfer. This heat flux is commonly referred to as the critical heat flux (CHF). The CHF in nuclear reactors is one of the important thermal hydraulic parameters limiting the available power. Flow induced vibration (FIV) is the vibration caused by a fluid flowing around a body. In the fluid flowing system, FIV occurred by structures and flow condition. Many structures in nuclear power plant system are designed to prevent from structure failure due to FIV. Recently, Hibiki and Ishii (1998) carried out an experimental investigation on the effect of flow-induced vibration (FIV) on two-phase flow structure in vertical tube and reported that the FIV drastically changed the void fraction profiles. The void fraction profiles is one of the important parameter for determining CHF. Therefore, the investigation on the effect of FIV on CHF are needed. The research on FIV characteristics detection during CHF experiment in 2X3 bundle using R-134a has been carried out in KAIST. Using the results new FIV correlation in 2-pahse turbulent flow are suggested after finding out relation between CHF and dynamic pressure fluctuation value

  7. A Patch Density Recommendation based on Convergence Studies for Vehicle Panel Vibration Response resulting from Excitation by a Diffuse Acoustic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Jones, Douglas; Towner, Robert; Waldon, James; Hunt, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Producing fluid structural interaction estimates of panel vibration from an applied pressure field excitation are quite dependent on the spatial correlation of the pressure field. There is a danger of either over estimating a low frequency response or under predicting broad band panel response in the more modally dense bands if the pressure field spatial correlation is not accounted for adequately. It is a useful practice to simulate the spatial correlation of the applied pressure field over a 2d surface using a matrix of small patch area regions on a finite element model (FEM). Use of a fitted function for the spatial correlation between patch centers can result in an error if the choice of patch density is not fine enough to represent the more continuous spatial correlation function throughout the intended frequency range of interest. Several patch density assumptions to approximate the fitted spatial correlation function are first evaluated using both qualitative and quantitative illustrations. The actual response of a typical vehicle panel system FEM is then examined in a convergence study where the patch density assumptions are varied over the same model. The convergence study results illustrate the impacts possible from a poor choice of patch density on the analytical response estimate. The fitted correlation function used in this study represents a diffuse acoustic field (DAF) excitation of the panel to produce vibration response.

  8. High doses of salicylate causes prepulse facilitation of onset-gap induced acoustic startle response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Doolittle, Lauren; Flowers, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Qiuju

    2014-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle reflex (PPI), a well-established method for evaluating sensorimotor gating function, has been used to detect tinnitus in animal models. Reduced gap induced PPI (gap-PPI) was considered as a sign of tinnitus. The silent gap used in the test contains both onset and offset signals. Tinnitus may affect these cues differently. In this experiment, we studied the effects of a high dose of salicylate (250 mg/kg, i.p.), an inducer of reversible tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss, on gap-PPI induced by three different gaps: an onset-gap with 0.1 ms onset and 25 ms offset time, an offset-gap with 25 ms onset and 0.1 ms offset time, and an onset-offset-gap with 0.1 ms onset and offset time. We found that the onset-gaps induced smaller inhibitions than the offset-gaps before salicylate treatment. The offset-gap induced PPI was significantly reduced 1-3h after salicylate treatment. However, the onset-gap caused a facilitation of startle response. These results suggest that salicylate induced reduction of gap-PPI was not only caused by the decrease of offset-gap induced PPI, but also by the facilitation induced by the onset-gap. Since the onset-gap induced PPI is caused by neural offset response, our results suggest that salicylate may cause a facilitation of neural response to an offset acoustical signal. Treatment of vigabatrin (60 mg/kg/day, 14 days), which elevates the GABA level in the brain, blocked the offset-gap induced PPI and onset-gap induced facilitation caused by salicylate. These results suggest that enhancing GABAergic activities can alleviate salicylate induced tinnitus. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Structural coloration of metallic surfaces with micro/nano-structures induced by elliptical vibration texturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Pan, Yayue; Guo, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Creating orderly periodic micro/nano-structures on metallic surfaces, or structural coloration, for control of surface apparent color and optical reflectivity has been an exciting research topic over the years. The direct applications of structural coloration include color marking, display devices, and invisibility cloak. This paper presents an efficient method to colorize metallic surfaces with periodic micro/nano-gratings using elliptical vibration texturing. When the tool vibration is coupled with a constant cutting velocity, controlled periodic ripples can be generated due to the overlapping tool trajectory. These periodic ripples with a wavelength near visible spectrum can act as micro-gratings to introduce iridescent colors. The proposed technique also provides a flexible method for color marking of metallic surfaces with arbitrary patterns and images by precise control of the spacing distance and orientation of induced micro/nano-ripples. Theoretical analysis and experimental results are given to demonstrate structural coloration of metals by a direct mechanical machining technique.

  10. Study and analysis on the flow induced vibration of the core barrel of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Weida; Shi Guolin; Jiang Nanyan; Peng YongYong; Zhang Huijun; Wang Yufen; Xie Yongcheng; Guo Chunhua; Shen Qinping

    1989-01-01

    The deduction of the resemblance criterion and the design of the test model by applying flow-solid coupling theory are described. The model analysis of a core barrel both in the air and stationary water were performed in a 1:10 model, thus obtaining the dynamic characteristic. In a 1:5 reactor model with a hydraulic closed loop, the inner structure and support were modeled for performing hydraulic closed loop, the inner structure and support were modeled for performing hydraulic vibration test of the core barrel. The flow induced pulse pressure of the core barrel and corresponding response were obtained by using miniature pressure capsule, strain gauge and accelerometer. Power spectrum, correlation functions, transfer function and amplitudes under different flow velocities were calculated. The hydraulic vibration test shows that the core barrel will be in safety during its 30-year life time

  11. Bubbling behavior of a fluidized bed of fine particles caused by vibration-induced air inflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsusaka, Shuji; Kobayakawa, Murino; Mizutani, Megumi; Imran, Mohd; Yasuda, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that a vibration-induced air inflow can cause vigorous bubbling in a bed of fine particles and report the mechanism by which this phenomenon occurs. When convective flow occurs in a powder bed as a result of vibrations, the upper powder layer with a high void ratio moves downward and is compressed. This process forces the air in the powder layer out, which leads to the formation of bubbles that rise and eventually burst at the top surface of the powder bed. A negative pressure is created below the rising bubbles. A narrow opening at the bottom allows the outside air to flow into the powder bed, which produces a vigorously bubbling fluidized bed that does not require the use of an external air supply system.

  12. Chemical reactions of water molecules on Ru(0001) induced by selective excitation of vibrational modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugarza, Aitor; Shimizu, Tomoko K.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-05-07

    Tunneling electrons in a scanning tunneling microscope were used to excite specific vibrational quantum states of adsorbed water and hydroxyl molecules on a Ru(0 0 0 1) surface. The excited molecules relaxed by transfer of energy to lower energy modes, resulting in diffusion, dissociation, desorption, and surface-tip transfer processes. Diffusion of H{sub 2}O molecules could be induced by excitation of the O-H stretch vibration mode at 445 meV. Isolated molecules required excitation of one single quantum while molecules bonded to a C atom required at least two quanta. Dissociation of single H{sub 2}O molecules into H and OH required electron energies of 1 eV or higher while dissociation of OH required at least 2 eV electrons. In contrast, water molecules forming part of a cluster could be dissociated with electron energies of 0.5 eV.

  13. Smooth polishing of femtosecond laser induced craters on cemented carbide by ultrasonic vibration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. P.; Guan, Y. C.; Zheng, H. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Rough surface features induced by laser irradiation have been a challenging for the fabrication of micro/nano scale features. In this work, we propose hybrid ultrasonic vibration polishing method to improve surface quality of microcraters produced by femtosecond laser irradiation on cemented carbide. The laser caused rough surfaces are significantly smoothened after ultrasonic vibration polishing due to the strong collision effect of diamond particles on the surfaces. 3D morphology, SEM and AFM analysis has been conducted to characterize surface morphology and topography. Results indicate that the minimal surface roughness of Ra 7.60 nm has been achieved on the polished surfaces. The fabrication of microcraters with smooth surfaces is applicable to molding process for mass production of micro-optical components.

  14. Numerical study on flow induced vibration characteristics of heat transfer tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhipeng; Zang Fenggang; Zhang Yixiong

    2014-01-01

    The model presents a fully coupled approach with solving the fluid flow and the structure vibration simultaneously. The three-dimensional unsteady, viscous, incompressible Navier-Stokes equation and LES turbulence model were solved by the finite volume approach and the heat transfer structure was solved by finite element method combined with moving mesh control technique. The dynamic equilibrium equation was discretized according to the finite element theory and the mesh update was achieved by the dynamic mesh technology. Based on this model, flow induced vibration responses of the tube were thus investigated using response branch, phase angle, Lissajou diagram, trajectory, phase portrait and Poincare section mapping. Meanwhile, the limit cycle and bifurcation of lift coefficient and lateral displacement were analyzed. The results reveal that a quasi-upper branch is found in the fluid-structure interaction system, and there is no bifurcation of lift coefficient and lateral displacement occurred in three-dimensional flexible tube submitted to uniform turbulent flow. (authors)

  15. Coupled analysis of multi-impact energy harvesting from low-frequency wind induced vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jin; Zhang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Energy need from off-grid locations has been critical for effective real-time monitoring and control to ensure structural safety and reliability. To harvest energy from ambient environments, the piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting system has been proven very efficient to convert high frequency vibrations into usable electrical energy. However, due to the low frequency nature of the vibrations of civil infrastructures, such as those induced from vehicle impacts, wind, and waves, the application of a traditional piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting system is greatly restrained since the output power drops dramatically with the reduction of vibration frequencies. This paper focuses on the coupled analysis of a proposed piezoelectric multi-impact wind-energy-harvesting device that can effectively up-convert low frequency wind-induced vibrations into high frequency ones. The device consists of an H-shape beam and four bimorph piezoelectric cantilever beams. The H-shape beam, which can be easily triggered to vibrate at a low wind speed, is originated from the first Tacoma Narrows Bridge, which failed at wind speeds of 18.8 m s-1 in 1940. The multi-impact mechanism between the H-shape beam and the bimorph piezoelectric cantilever beams is incorporated to improve the harvesting performance at lower frequencies. During the multi-impact process, a series of sequential impacts between the H-shape beam and the cantilever beams can trigger high frequency vibrations of the cantilever beams and result in high output power with a considerably high efficiency. In the coupled analysis, the coupled structural, aerodynamic, and electrical equations are solved to obtain the dynamic response and the power output of the proposed harvesting device. A parametric study for several parameters in the coupled analysis framework is carried out including the external resistance, wind speed, and the configuration of the H-shape beam. The average harvested power for the piezoelectric cantilever

  16. Predictions and observations of global beta-induced Alfven-acoustic modes in JET and NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelenkov, N N [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Berk, H L [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Crocker, N A [Institute of Plasma and Fusion Research, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1354 (United States); Fredrickson, E D [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Kaye, S [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Kubota, S [Institute of Plasma and Fusion Research, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1354 (United States); Park, H [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Peebles, W [Institute of Plasma and Fusion Research, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1354 (United States); Sabbagh, S A [Department of Applied Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027-6902 (United States); Sharapov, S E [Euroatom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Stutmat, D [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tritz, K [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Levinton, F M [Nova Photonics, One Oak Place, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Yuh, H [Nova Photonics, One Oak Place, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    In this paper we report on observations and interpretations of a new class of global MHD eigenmode solutions arising in gaps in the low frequency Alfven-acoustic continuum below the geodesic acoustic mode frequency. These modes have been just reported (Gorelenkov et al 2007 Phys. Lett. 370 70-7) where preliminary comparisons indicate qualitative agreement between theory and experiment. Here we show a more quantitative comparison emphasizing recent NSTX experiments on the observations of the global eigenmodes, referred to as beta-induced Alfven-acoustic eigenmodes (BAAEs), which exist near the extrema of the Alfven-acoustic continuum. In accordance to the linear dispersion relations, the frequency of these modes may shift as the safety factor, q, profile relaxes. We show that BAAEs can be responsible for observations in JET plasmas at relatively low beta <2% as well as in NSTX plasmas at relatively high beta >20%. In NSTX plasma observed magnetic activity has the same properties as predicted by theory for the mode structure and the frequency. Found numerically in NOVA simulations BAAEs are used to explain the observed properties of relatively low frequency experimental signals seen in NSTX and JET tokamaks.

  17. Predications and Observations of Global Beta-induced Alfven-acoustic Modes in JET and NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelenkov, N.N.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we report on observations and interpretations of a new class of global MHD eigenmode solutions arising in gaps in the low frequency Alfven-acoustic continuum below the geodesic acoustic mode frequency. These modes have been just reported (Gorelenkov et al 2007 Phys. Lett. 370 70-7) where preliminary comparisons indicate qualitative agreement between theory and experiment. Here we show a more quantitative comparison emphasizing recent NSTX experiments on the observations of the global eigenmodes, referred to as beta-induced Alfven-acoustic eigenmodes (BAAEs), which exist near the extrema of the Alfven-acoustic continuum. In accordance to the linear dispersion relations, the frequency of these modes may shift as the safety factor, q, profile relaxes. We show that BAAEs can be responsible for observations in JET plasmas at relatively low beta 20%. In NSTX plasma observed magnetic activity has the same properties as predicted by theory for the mode structure and the frequency. Found numerically in NOVA simulations BAAEs are used to explain the observed properties of relatively low frequency experimental signals seen in NSTX and JET tokamaks

  18. Numerical investigations of two-degree-of-freedom vortex-induced vibration in shear flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Mengke; Han, Yang; Li, Jian; Gui, Mingyue; Chen, Zhihua, E-mail: zhanghui1902@hotmail.com [Science and Technology on Transient Physics Laboratory, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Exponential-polar coordinates attached to a moving cylinder are used to deduce the stream function-vorticity equations for two-degree-of-freedom vortex-induced vibration, the initial and boundary conditions, and the distribution of the hydrodynamic force, which consists of the vortex-induced force, inertial force, and viscous damping force. The fluid-structure interactions occurring from the motionless cylinder to the steady vibration are investigated numerically, and the variations of the flow field, pressure, lift/drag, and cylinder displacement are discussed. Both the dominant vortex and the cylinder shift, whose effects are opposite, affect the shear layer along the transverse direction and the secondary vortex along the streamwise direction. However, the effect of the cylinder shift is larger than that of the dominant vortices. Therefore, the former dominates the total effects of the flow field. Moreover, the symmetry of the flow field is broken with the increasing shear rate. With the effect of the background vortex, the upper vortices are strengthened, and the lower vortices are weakened; thus, the shear layer and the secondary vortices induced by the upper shedding vortices are strengthened, while the shear layer and the secondary vortices induced by the lower shedding vortices are weakened. Therefore, the amplitudes of the displacement and drag/lift dominated by the upper vortex are larger than those of the displacement and drag/lift dominated by the lower vortex. (paper)

  19. Vibro-acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This three-volume book gives a thorough and comprehensive presentation of vibration and acoustic theories. Different from traditional textbooks which typically deal with some aspects of either acoustic or vibration problems, it is unique of this book to combine those two correlated subjects together. Moreover, it provides fundamental analysis and mathematical descriptions for several crucial phenomena of Vibro-Acoustics which are quite useful in noise reduction, including how structures are excited, energy flows from an excitation point to a sound radiating surface, and finally how a structure radiates noise to a surrounding fluid. Many measurement results included in the text make the reading interesting and informative. Problems/questions are listed at the end of each chapter and the solutions are provided. This will help the readers to understand the topics of Vibro-Acoustics more deeply. The book should be of interest to anyone interested in sound and vibration, vehicle acoustics, ship acoustics and inter...

  20. A study on the flow induced vibration in two phase flow under heating and non-heating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Hun

    2007-02-01

    Critical heat flux (CHF) enhancement devices, like a spacer grid with mixing vane, cause flow-induced vibration (FIV) due to turbulence made by structural resistance. CHF enhancement and FIV reduction are usually studied separately. The main purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between CHF and FIV. Information of flow-induced vibration due to wire coil design, is experimentally presented in this study by detecting flow-induced vibration under the two-phase flow condition with wire coil inserts. CHF experiments were performed in an upward vertical annulus tube under controlled vibration conditions to determine the effect of vibration on CHF. FIV was measured in an upward vertical tube with various wire coil inserts using air-water as flow material. CHF experiments were performed at one atmosphere with mechanically controlled vibration. A quartz tube (inner diameter of 17 mm, thickness of 2mm and length of 0.72 m) was used for outer tube and a SUS-304 tube (outer diameter of 6.35 mm, thickness of 0.89 mm and length of 0.7 m) was used for the inner heater. Vibration of the heater tube with an amplitude range of 0.1 mm to 0.5 mm and a frequency range of 10 Hz to 50 Hz was carried out at a mass flux of 115 kg/m 2 s and 215 kg/m 2 s. CHF was enhanced by vibration with a maximum ratio of 16.4 %. CHF was increased with increased amplitude and quality. The CHF correlation was developed with R (coefficient of correlation) of 0.903. FIV measuring experiments were performed at one atmosphere by changing the inserted wire coil type. An acrylic tube was used for the test section with inner diameter of 25 mm, thickness of 10 mm and length of 0.5 m. Four types of wire coil, which have a thickness of between 2 mm and 3 mm and pitch length of between 25 mm and 50 mm, were used. FIV and dynamic pressure were detected in water mass flux range of 100 ∼ 3060 kg/m 2 s and air mass flux range of 5.02 ∼ 60.3 kg/m 2 s. Vibration increased along with mass flux and

  1. A Study on the Uncertainty of Flow-Induced Vibration in a Cross Flow over Staggered Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji-Su; Park, Jong-Woon [Dongguk univ, Gyeong Ju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyeon-Kyeong [HanNam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Cross-flow in many support columns of very high temperature reactor (VHTR) lower plenum would have FIV issues under high speed flow jetting from the core. For a group of multiple circular cylinders subjected to a cross-flow, three types of potential vibration mechanisms may exist: (1) Vortex-induced vibration (VIV), (2) Fluid-elastic vibration (FEV) and (3) Turbulence-induced vibration (TIV). Kevalahan studied the free vibration of circular cylinders in a tightly packed periodic square inline array of cylinders. Pandey et al. studied the flue gas flow distribution in the Low Temperature Super Heater (LTSH) tube bundles situated in second pass of a utility boiler and the phenomenon of flow induced vibration. Nakamura et al. studied flow instability of cylinder arrays resembling U-bend tubes in steam generators. The FIV evaluation is usually performed with computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis to obtain unknown frequency of oscillation of the multiple objects under turbulent flow and thus the uncertainty residing in the turbulence model used should be quantified. In this paper, potential FIV uncertainty arising from the turbulence phenomena are evaluated for a typical cross flow through staggered tube bundles resembling the VHTR lower plenum support columns. Flow induced vibration (FIV) is one of the important mechanical and fatigue issues in nuclear systems. Especially, cross-flow in many support structures of VHTR lower plenum would have FIV issues under highly turbulent jet flows from the core. The results show that the effect of turbulence parameters on FIV is not negligible and the uncertainty is 5 to 10%. Present method can be applied to future FIV evaluations of nuclear systems. More extensive studies on flow induced vibration in a plant scale by using more rigorous computational methods are under way.

  2. Acoustic Imaging Frequency Dynamics of Ferroelectric Domains by Atomic Force Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun-Yu, Zhao; Hua-Rong, Zeng; Hong-Zhang, Song; Sen-Xing, Hui; Guo-Rong, Li; Qing-Rui, Yin; Shimamura, Kiyoshi; Kannan, Chinna Venkadasamy; Villora, Encarnacion Antonia Garcia; Takekawa, Shunji; Kitamura, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    We report the acoustic imaging frequency dynamics of ferroelectric domains by low-frequency acoustic probe microscopy based on the commercial atomic force microscopy It is found that ferroelectric domain could be firstly visualized at lower frequency down to 0.5 kHz by AFM-based acoustic microscopy The frequency-dependent acoustic signal revealed a strong acoustic response in the frequency range from 7kHz to 10kHz, and reached maximum at 8.1kHz. The acoustic contrast mechanism can be ascribed to the different elastic response of ferroelectric microstructures to local elastic stress fields, which is induced by the acoustic wave transmitting in the sample when the piezoelectric transducer is vibrating and exciting acoustic wave under ac electric fields due to normal piezoelectric effects. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  3. A review on energy harvesting approaches for renewable energies from ambient vibrations and acoustic waves using piezoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Riaz; Mir, Fariha; Banerjee, Sourav

    2017-08-01

    The principal objective of this article is to categorically review and compare the state of the art vibration based energy harvesting approaches. To evaluate the contemporary methodologies with respect to their physics, average power output and operational frequencies, systematically divided and easy readable tables are presented followed by the description of the energy harvesting methods. Energy harvesting is the process of obtaining electrical energy from the surrounding vibratory mechanical systems through an energy conversion method using smart structures, like, piezoelectric, electrostatic materials. Recent advancements in low power electronic gadgets, micro electro mechanical systems, and wireless sensors have significantly increased local power demand. In order to circumvent the energy demand; to allow limitless power supply, and to avoid chemical waste from conventional batteries, low power local energy harvesters are proposed for harvesting energy from different ambient energy sources. Piezoelectric materials have received tremendous interest in energy harvesting technology due to its unique ability to capitalize the ambient vibrations to generate electric potential. Their crystalline configuration allows the material to convert mechanical strain energy into electrical potential, and vice versa. This article discusses the various approaches in vibration based energy scavenging where piezoelectric materials are employed as the energy conversion medium.

  4. Fluid Induced Vibration Analysis of a Cooling Water Pipeline for the HANARO CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Soo; Lee, Young Sub; Kim, Ik Soo; Kim, Young Ki

    2007-01-01

    CNS is the initial of Cold Neutron Source and the CNS facility system consists of hydrogen, a vacuum, a gas blanketing, a helium refrigeration and a cooling water supply system. Out of these subsystems, the helium refrigeration system has the function of removal of heat from a thermal neutron under reactor operation. Therefore, HRS (helium refrigeration system) must be under normal operation for the production of cold neutron. HRS is mainly made up of a helium compressor and a coldbox. This equipment is in need of cooling water to get rid of heat generation under stable operation and a cooling water system is essential to maintain the normal operation of a helium compressor and a coldbox. The main problem for the cooling water system is the vibration issue in the middle of operation due to a water flow in a pipeline. In order to suppress the vibration problem for a pipeline, the characteristics of a pipeline and fluid flow must be analyzed in detail. In this paper, fluid induced vibration of a cooling water pipe is analyzed numerically and the stability of the cooling water pipeline is investigated by using pipe dynamic theory

  5. Flow-induced vibration analysis of a helical coil steam generator experiment using large eddy simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Haomin; Solberg, Jerome; Merzari, Elia; Kraus, Adam; Grindeanu, Iulian

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes a numerical study of flow-induced vibration in a helical coil steam generator experiment conducted at Argonne National Laboratory in the 1980s. In the experiment, a half-scale sector model of a steam generator helical coil tube bank was subjected to still and flowing air and water, and the vibrational characteristics were recorded. The research detailed in this document utilizes the multi-physics simulation toolkit SHARP developed at Argonne National Laboratory, in cooperation with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, to simulate the experiment. SHARP uses the spectral element code Nek5000 for fluid dynamics analysis and the finite element code DIABLO for structural analysis. The flow around the coil tubes is modeled in Nek5000 by using a large eddy simulation turbulence model. Transient pressure data on the tube surfaces is sampled and transferred to DIABLO for the structural simulation. The structural response is simulated in DIABLO via an implicit time-marching algorithm and a combination of continuum elements and structural shells. Tube vibration data (acceleration and frequency) are sampled and compared with the experimental data. Currently, only one-way coupling is used, which means that pressure loads from the fluid simulation are transferred to the structural simulation but the resulting structural displacements are not fed back to the fluid simulation

  6. Parametric Study and Optimization of a Piezoelectric Energy Harvester from Flow Induced Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, P.; Jawahar Chandra, C.; Neeraj, P.; Santhosh, B.

    2018-02-01

    Self-powered systems have become the need of the hour and several devices and techniques were proposed in favour of this crisis. Among the various sources, vibrations, being the most practical scenario, is chosen in the present study to investigate for the possibility of harvesting energy. Various methods were devised to trap the energy generated by vibrating bodies, which would otherwise be wasted. One such concept is termed as flow-induced vibration which involves the flow of a fluid across a bluff body that oscillates due to a phenomenon known as vortex shedding. These oscillations can be converted into electrical energy by the use of piezoelectric patches. A two degree of freedom system containing a cylinder as the primary mass and a cantilever beam as the secondary mass attached with a piezoelectric circuit, was considered to model the problem. Three wake oscillator models were studied in order to determine the one which can generate results with high accuracy. It was found that Facchinetti model produced better results than the other two and hence a parametric study was performed to determine the favourable range of the controllable variables of the system. A fitness function was formulated and optimization of the selected parameters was done using genetic algorithm. The parametric optimization led to a considerable improvement in the harvested voltage from the system owing to the high displacement of secondary mass.

  7. An advanced tube wear and fatigue workstation to predict flow induced vibrations of steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, N.; Baratte, C.; Flesch, B.

    1997-01-01

    Flow induced tube vibration damage is a major concern for designers and operators of nuclear power plant steam generators (SG). The operating flow-induced vibrational behaviour has to be estimated accurately to allow a precise evaluation of the new safety margins in order to optimize the maintenance policy. For this purpose, an industrial 'Tube Wear and Fatigue Workstation', called 'GEVIBUS Workstation' and based on an advanced methodology for predictive analysis of flow-induced vibration of tube bundles subject to cross-flow has been developed at Electricite de France. The GEVIBUS Workstation is an interactive processor linking modules as: thermalhydraulic computation, parametric finite element builder, interface between finite element model, thermalhydraulic code and vibratory response computations, refining modelling of fluid-elastic and random forces, linear and non-linear dynamic response and the coupled fluid-structure system, evaluation of tube damage due to fatigue and wear, graphical outputs. Two practical applications are also presented in the paper; the first simulation refers to an experimental set-up consisting of a straight tube bundle subject to water cross-flow, while the second one deals with an industrial configuration which has been observed in some operating steam generators i.e., top tube support plate degradation. In the first case the GEVIBUS predictions in terms of tube displacement time histories and phase planes have been found in very good agreement with experiment. In the second application the GEVIBUS computation showed that a tube with localized degradation is much more stable than a tube located in an extended degradation zone. Important conclusions are also drawn concerning maintenance. (author)

  8. Temperature and Pressure Dependence of Signal Amplitudes for Electrostriction Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Gregory C.

    2015-01-01

    The relative signal strength of electrostriction-only (no thermal grating) laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA) in gas-phase air is reported as a function of temperature T and pressure P. Measurements were made in the free stream of a variable Mach number supersonic wind tunnel, where T and P are varied simultaneously as Mach number is varied. Using optical heterodyning, the measured signal amplitude (related to the optical reflectivity of the acoustic grating) was averaged for each of 11 flow conditions and compared to the expected theoretical dependence of a pure-electrostriction LITA process, where the signal is proportional to the square root of [P*P /( T*T*T)].

  9. Comparative assessment of different treatment modalities in miners with vibration- and noise-induced disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velskaya, M.L.; Nekhorosheva, M.A.; Konovalova, S.I.; Kukhtina, G.V.; Gonchar, I.G.; Terentyeva, D.P.; Grishchenko, L.A.; Soboleva, N.P.; Kharitonov, S.A.; Priklonskiy, I.V.

    1985-02-01

    A group of 71 miners with vibration sickness and noise-induced pathology were managed either by standard methods, or in combination with acupuncture and/or hyperbaric oxygenation for a comparative assessment of the effectiveness of the different therapeutic approaches. Analysis of subjective factors as well as standard physiological parameters (EKG, rheoencephalography, peripheral rheography, EEG, neuropsychological tests) demonstrate that both acupuncture and hyperbaric oxygenation are effective modalities in the majority of the subjects. Nevertheless, the lack of improvement in certain criteria, or even what could be regarded as adverse sequelae, suggest that the use of hyperbaric oxygenation in the management of such disorders be approached with considerable care.

  10. Flow-induced vibration for light-water reactors. Progress report, April 1978-December 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schardt, J.F.

    1980-03-01

    Flow-Induced vibration for Light Water Reactors (FIV for LWRs) is a four-year program designed to improve the FIV performance of light water reactors through the development of design criteria, analytical models for predicting behavior of components, general scaling laws to improve the accuracy of reduced-scale tests, and the identification of high FIV risk areas. The program commenced December 1, 1976, but was suspended on September 30, 1978, due to a shift in Department of Energy (DOE) priorities away from LWR productivity/availability. It was reinitiated as of August 1, 1979. This progress report summarizes the accomplishments achieved during the period from April 1978 to December 1979

  11. Collaboratively Adaptive Vibration Sensing System for High-fidelity Monitoring of Structural Responses Induced by Pedestrians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijia Pan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a collaboratively adaptive vibration monitoring system that captures high-fidelity structural vibration signals induced by pedestrians. These signals can be used for various human activities’ monitoring by inferring information about the impact sources, such as pedestrian footsteps, door opening and closing, and dragging objects. Such applications often require high-fidelity (high resolution and low distortion signals. Traditionally, expensive high resolution and high dynamic range sensors are adopted to ensure sufficient resolution. However, for sensing systems that use low-cost sensing devices, the resolution and dynamic range are often limited; hence this type of sensing methods is not well explored ubiquitously. We propose a low-cost sensing system that utilizes (1 a heuristic model of the investigating excitations and (2 shared information through networked devices to adapt hardware configurations and obtain high-fidelity structural vibration signals. To further explain the system, we use indoor pedestrian footstep sensing through ambient structural vibration as an example to demonstrate the system performance. We evaluate the application with three metrics that measure the signal quality from different aspects: the sufficient resolution rate to present signal resolution improvement without clipping, the clipping rate to measure the distortion of the footstep signal, and the signal magnitude to quantify the detailed resolution of the detected footstep signal. In experiments conducted in a school building, our system demonstrated up to 2× increase on the sufficient resolution rate and 2× less error rate when used to locate the pedestrians as they walk along the hallway, compared to a fixed sensing setting.

  12. Flow-induced vibration test of an advanced water reactor model. Pt. 1. Turbulence-induced forcing function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au-Yang, M.K.; Brenneman, B.; Raj, D.

    1995-01-01

    A 1:9 scale model of a proposed advanced water reactor was tested for flow-induced vibration. The main objectives of this test were: (1) to derive an empirical equation for the turbulence forcing function which can be applied to the full-sized prototype; (2) to study the effect of viscosity on the turbulence; (3) to verify the ''superposition'' assumption widely used in dynamic analysis of weakly coupled fluid-shell systems; and (4) to measure the shell responses to verify methods and computer programs used in the flow-induced vibration analysis of the prototype. This paper describes objectives (1), (2), and (3); objective (4) will be discussed in a companion paper.The turbulence-induced fluctuating pressure was measured at 49 locations over the surface of a thick-walled, non-responsive scale model of the reactor vessel/core support cylinders. An empirical equation relating the fluctuating pressure, the frequency, and the distance from the inlet nozzle center line was derived to fit the test data. This equation involves only non-dimensional, fluid mechanical parameters that are postulated to represent the full-sized, geometrically similar prototype. While this postulate cannot be verified until similar measurements are taken on the full-sized unit, a similar approach using a 1:6 scale model of a commercial pressurized water reactor was verified in the mid-1970s by field measurements on the full-sized reactor. (orig.)

  13. Improving hand sensibility in vibration induced neuropathy: A case-series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundborg Göran

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives We report a long-term series of nine workers suffering from vibration-induced neuropathy, after many years of exposure to hand-held vibrating tools at high or low frequency. They were treated with temporary selective cutaneous anaesthesia (EMLA® cream of the forearm repeatedly for a period up to one year (in two cases four years. The aim was to improve their capacity to perceive touch and thereby improve hand function and diminish disability. The treatment principle is based on current concepts of brain plasticity, where a deafferentation of a skin area results in improved sensory function in adjacent skin areas. Methods All participants had sensory hand problems in terms of numbness (median touch thresholds > 70 mg and impaired hand function influencing ADL (mean DASH score 22. After an initial identical self-administered treatment period of 8 weeks (12-15 treatments with increasing intervals they did one treatment every 2-3 month. Results After one year sensibility (touch thresholds and tactile discrimination as well as hand function (mean DASH score 13 were improved in a majority of the cases. Seven of the participants choose to continue the treatment after the first year and two of them have continued at a regular basis for up to four years. A surprising, secondary finding was diminishing nocturnal numbness of the hand and arm in eight of the nine subjects from "frequently" to "hardly ever or never". Conclusions Our observations open new perspectives for treatment of impaired sensibility and hand function in a group of patients with vibration induced hand problems where we have no treatment to offer today.

  14. Investigation of the integrity of u-bend tube bundles subjected to flow-induced vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, M. [University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Riznic, J. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Maintaining the integrity of nuclear steam generator (SG) tubes in CANDU reactors is a major safety issue since they maintain the physical barrier between the primary and secondary coolants. The integrity of these tubes can be compromised due to flow-induced vibrations in the form of fatigue and fretting wear damage. Wear is a result of the tube impacting and sliding against its loose supports, and it becomes more severe as the tube/support clearance increases. The vibration is caused by fluid flow around these tubes through turbulence and fluidelastic instability mechanisms. Supports are installed to stiffen the structure and to ensure safe and stable operation. The U-bend region is the most critical part since it is subjected to high cross flow. Therefore, special attention is paid to properly supporting this region. However, in some situations, tube support plates (TSP) located on the straight part of the tube may deteriorate to the point where extremely large clearances, or even total wastage of the supports, may result. One possible cause for such a situation is corrosion and/or excessive fretting wear. This loss of TSP may affect the rate of wear in the U-bend portion of the tube due to the increased flexibility in this region. The integrity could be seriously breached as result of a potential support loss. This paper addresses the flow-induced vibrations (FIV) aspect, consequences, and suggested remedies for support degradation. This analysis will include fretting wear producing parameters, such as impact force and normal work rate. Turbulence and fluidelastic instability (FEI) are considered to be the main excitation mechanisms. The investigation is conducted through a numerical simulation of the full Ubend tube bundles including modelling the variable flow distribution, flow excitation, impact, and friction at the supports. (author)

  15. Measuring the arterial-induced skin vibration by geometrical moiré fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shih-Yung; Wang, Chun-Hsiung; Lee, Shu-Sheng; Wu, Wen-Jong; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2018-02-01

    The demand for self-measured blood pressure self-monitoring device has much increased due to cardiovascular diseases have become leading causes of death for aging population. Currently, the primary non-invasive blood pressure monitoring method is cuff-based. It is well developed and accurate. However, the measuring process is not comfortable, and it cannot provide a continuous measurement. To overcome this problem, methods such as tonometry, volume clamp method, photoplethysmography, pulse wave velocity, and pulse transit time are reported. However, the limited accuracy hindered its application for diagnostics. To perform sequential blood pressure measurement with a high accuracy and long-term examination, we apply moiré interferometry to measure wrist skin vibration induced by radial artery. To achieve this goal, we developed a miniaturized device that can perform moiré interferometry around the wrist region. The 0.4-mm-pitched binary grating and tattoo sticker with 0.46 mm-pitched stripe pattern are used to perform geometric moiré. We demonstrated that the sensitivity and accuracy of this integrated system were sufficient to monitor arterialinduced skin vibration non-invasively. Our developed system was validated with ECG signals collected by a commercial system. According to our studies from measurement, the repeatability of wrist pulsation measurement was achieved with an accuracy of 99.1% in heart rate. A good repeatability of wrist pulse measurement was achieved. Simulations and experiments are both conducted in this paper and prove of geometrical moiré method a suitable technique for arterial-induced skin vibration monitoring.

  16. The Skull Vibration-Induced Nystagmus Test of Vestibular Function—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Georges; Curthoys, Ian S.; Lion, Alexis; Perrin, Philippe; Schmerber, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    A 100-Hz bone-conducted vibration applied to either mastoid induces instantaneously a predominantly horizontal nystagmus, with quick phases beating away from the affected side in patients with a unilateral vestibular loss (UVL). The same stimulus in healthy asymptomatic subjects has little or no effect. This is skull vibration-induced nystagmus (SVIN), and it is a useful, simple, non-invasive, robust indicator of asymmetry of vestibular function and the side of the vestibular loss. The nystagmus is precisely stimulus-locked: it starts with stimulation onset and stops at stimulation offset, with no post-stimulation reversal. It is sustained during long stimulus durations; it is reproducible; it beats in the same direction irrespective of which mastoid is stimulated; it shows little or no habituation; and it is permanent—even well-compensated UVL patients show SVIN. A SVIN is observed under Frenzel goggles or videonystagmoscopy and recorded under videonystagmography in absence of visual-fixation and strong sedative drugs. Stimulus frequency, location, and intensity modify the results, and a large variability in skull morphology between people can modify the stimulus. SVIN to 100 Hz mastoid stimulation is a robust response. We describe the optimum method of stimulation on the basis of the literature data and testing more than 18,500 patients. Recent neural evidence clarifies which vestibular receptors are stimulated, how they cause the nystagmus, and why the same vibration in patients with semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) causes a nystagmus beating toward the affected ear. This review focuses not only on the optimal parameters of the stimulus and response of UVL and SCD patients but also shows how other vestibular dysfunctions affect SVIN. We conclude that the presence of SVIN is a useful indicator of the asymmetry of vestibular function between the two ears, but in order to identify which is the affected ear, other information and careful clinical judgment are

  17. Acoustics of friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Adnan

    2002-04-01

    This article presents an overview of the acoustics of friction by covering friction sounds, friction-induced vibrations and waves in solids, and descriptions of other frictional phenomena related to acoustics. Friction, resulting from the sliding contact of solids, often gives rise to diverse forms of waves and oscillations within solids which frequently lead to radiation of sound to the surrounding media. Among the many everyday examples of friction sounds, violin music and brake noise in automobiles represent the two extremes in terms of the sounds they produce and the mechanisms by which they are generated. Of the multiple examples of friction sounds in nature, insect sounds are prominent. Friction also provides a means by which energy dissipation takes place at the interface of solids. Friction damping that develops between surfaces, such as joints and connections, in some cases requires only microscopic motion to dissipate energy. Modeling of friction-induced vibrations and friction damping in mechanical systems requires an accurate description of friction for which only approximations exist. While many of the components that contribute to friction can be modeled, computational requirements become prohibitive for their contemporaneous calculation. Furthermore, quantification of friction at the atomic scale still remains elusive. At the atomic scale, friction becomes a mechanism that converts the kinetic energy associated with the relative motion of surfaces to thermal energy. However, the description of the conversion to thermal energy represented by a disordered state of oscillations of atoms in a solid is still not well understood. At the macroscopic level, friction interacts with the vibrations and waves that it causes. Such interaction sets up a feedback between the friction force and waves at the surfaces, thereby making friction and surface motion interdependent. Such interdependence forms the basis for friction-induced motion as in the case of

  18. Assessment of flow induced vibration in a sodium-sodium heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, V. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India)], E-mail: prakash@igcar.gov.in; Thirumalai, M.; Prabhakar, R.; Vaidyanathan, G. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2009-01-15

    The 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is under construction at Kalpakkam. It is a liquid metal sodium cooled pool type fast reactor with all primary components located inside a sodium pool. The heat produced due to fission in the core is transported by primary sodium to the secondary sodium in a sodium to sodium Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX), which in turn is transferred to water in the steam generator. PFBR IHX is a shell and tube type heat exchanger with primary sodium on shell side and secondary sodium in the tube side. Since IHX is one of the critical components placed inside the radioactive primary sodium, trouble-free operation of the IHX is very much essential for power plant availability. To validate the design and the adequacy of the support system provided for the IHX, flow induced vibration (FIV) experiments were carried out in a water test loop on a 60 deg. sector model. This paper discusses the flow induced vibration measurements carried out in 60 deg. sector model of IHX, the modeling criteria, the results and conclusion.

  19. Acoustic noise induces attention shifts and reduces foraging performance in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Purser

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic noise is known to have a variety of detrimental effects on many animals, including humans, but surprisingly little is known about its impacts on foraging behaviour, despite the obvious potential consequences for survival and reproductive success. We therefore exposed captive three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus to brief and prolonged noise to investigate how foraging performance is affected by the addition of acoustic noise to an otherwise quiet environment. The addition of noise induced only mild fear-related behaviours--there was an increase in startle responses, but no change in the time spent freezing or hiding compared to a silent control--and thus had no significant impact on the total amount of food eaten. However, there was strong evidence that the addition of noise increased food-handling errors and reduced discrimination between food and non-food items, results that are consistent with a shift in attention. Consequently, noise resulted in decreased foraging efficiency, with more attacks needed to consume the same number of prey items. Our results suggest that acoustic noise has the potential to influence a whole host of everyday activities through effects on attention, and that even very brief noise exposure can cause functionally significant impacts, emphasising the threat posed by ever-increasing levels of anthropogenic noise in the environment.

  20. Predictive analyses of flow-induced vibration and fretting wear in steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axisa, F.

    1989-01-01

    Maintaining the service life of PWR steam generators under highly reliable conditions requires a complex design to prevent various damaging processes, including those related to flow induced vibration. Predictive analyses have to rely on numerical tools to compute the vibratory response of multi-supported tubes in association with experimental data and semi-empirical relationships for quantifying flow-induced excitation mechanisms and tube damaging processes. In the presence of loose supports tube dynamics becomes highly nonlinear in nature. To deal with such problems CEA and FRAMATOME developed a computer program called GERBOISE. This paper provides a short description of an experimental program currently in progress at CEN Saclay to validate the numerical methods implemented in GERBOISE. According to the results obtained so far reasonable agreement is obtained between experiment and numerical simulation, especially as averaged quantities are concerned

  1. Development of evaluation method on flow-induced vibration and corrosion of components in two-phase flow by coupled analysis. 1. Evaluation of effects of flow-induced vibration on structural material integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naitoh, Masanori; Uchida, Shunsuke; Koshizuka, Seiichi; Ninokata, Hisashi; Anahara, Naoki; Dosaki, Koji; Katono, Kenichi; Akiyama, Minoru; Saitoh, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    Problems in major components and structural materials in nuclear power plants have often been caused by flow induced vibration, corrosion and their overlapping effects. In order to establish safe and reliable plant operation, it is necessary to predict future problems for structural materials based on combined analyses of flow dynamics and corrosion and to mitigate them before they become serious issues for plant operation. An innovative method for flow induced vibration of structures in two phase flow by combined analyses of three dimensional flow dynamics and structures is to be introduced. (author)

  2. Controlled ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier disruption using passive acoustic emissions monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas D Arvanitis

    Full Text Available The ability of ultrasonically-induced oscillations of circulating microbubbles to permeabilize vascular barriers such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB holds great promise for noninvasive targeted drug delivery. A major issue has been a lack of control over the procedure to ensure both safe and effective treatment. Here, we evaluated the use of passively-recorded acoustic emissions as a means to achieve this control. An acoustic emissions monitoring system was constructed and integrated into a clinical transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound system. Recordings were analyzed using a spectroscopic method that isolates the acoustic emissions caused by the microbubbles during sonication. This analysis characterized and quantified harmonic oscillations that occur when the BBB is disrupted, and broadband emissions that occur when tissue damage occurs. After validating the system's performance in pilot studies that explored a wide range of exposure levels, the measurements were used to control the ultrasound exposure level during transcranial sonications at 104 volumes over 22 weekly sessions in four macaques. We found that increasing the exposure level until a large harmonic emissions signal was observed was an effective means to ensure BBB disruption without broadband emissions. We had a success rate of 96% in inducing BBB disruption as measured by in contrast-enhanced MRI, and we detected broadband emissions in less than 0.2% of the applied bursts. The magnitude of the harmonic emissions signals was significantly (P<0.001 larger for sonications where BBB disruption was detected, and it correlated with BBB permeabilization as indicated by the magnitude of the MRI signal enhancement after MRI contrast administration (R(2 = 0.78. Overall, the results indicate that harmonic emissions can be a used to control focused ultrasound-induced BBB disruption. These results are promising for clinical translation of this technology.

  3. Flow induced vibration studies for LMFBR in Japan: Past and recent studies of FIV for JOYO and MONJU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K [Sodium Engineering Division, O-arai Engineering Centre, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel, Development Corporation, Narita-cho, O-arai Machi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1977-12-01

    This paper presents the past and recent studies of flow induced vibration of the reactor components for the experimental fast breeder reactor JOYO and the prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU, in which many suggestive results for the higher flow velocity systems in a future reactor are contained. The fuel subassembly is the most important from the view point of the vibration. Thus, the studies were carried out with a mock-up subassembly for JOYO. In this experiment, statistical analysis results of the vibration characteristics of single core subassembly and the effects of external forced vibration, flow disturbance and fuel pin bundle vibration were reported. The further more detailed investigations are now being performed for MONJU. In addition to the above studies, the vibration failure of a sodium valve is reported. The valve is a 8-inch stop valve in SODIUM FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER TEST LOOP at O-arai Engineering Center. The failure occurred in 1969 during the performance test of the mechanical pump, and this resulted in a small sodium leak. The cause of the failure was found to be the vibration fatigue of the metal bellows. (author)

  4. The Impact of Traffic-Induced Bridge Vibration on Rapid Repairing High-Performance Concrete for Bridge Deck Pavement Repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on forced vibration tests for high-performance concrete (HPC, the influence of bridge vibration induced by traveling vehicle on compressive strength and durability of HPC has been studied. It is concluded that 1 d and 2 d compressive strength of HPC decreased significantly, and the maximum reduction rate is 9.1%, while 28 d compressive strength of HPC had a slight lower with a 3% maximal drop under the action of two simple harmonic vibrations with 2 Hz, 3 mm amplitude, and 4 Hz, 3 mm amplitude. Moreover, the vibration had a slight effect on the compressive strength of HPC when the simple harmonic vibration had 4 Hz and 1 mm amplitude; it is indicated that the amplitude exerts a more prominent influence on the earlier compressive strength with the comparison of the frequency. In addition, the impact of simple harmonic vibration on durability of HPC can be ignored; this shows the self-healing function of concrete resulting from later hydration reaction. Thus, the research achievements mentioned above can contribute to learning the laws by which bridge vibration affects the properties of concrete and provide technical support for the design and construction of the bridge deck pavement maintenance.

  5. TH-AB-209-07: High Resolution X-Ray-Induced Acoustic Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, L; Tang, S [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Ahmad, M [Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Xing, L [Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: X-ray radiographic absorption imaging is an invaluable tool in medical diagnostics, biology and materials science. However, the use of conventional CT is limited by two factors: the detection sensitivity to weak absorption material and the radiation dose from CT scanning. The purpose of this study is to explore X-ray induced acoustic computed tomography (XACT), a new imaging modality, which combines X-ray absorption contrast and high ultrasonic resolution to address these challenges. Methods: First, theoretical models was built to analyze the XACT sensitivity to X-ray absorption and calculate the minimal radiation dose in XACT imaging. Then, an XACT system comprised of an ultrashort X-ray pulse, a low noise ultrasound detector and a signal acquisition system was built to evaluate the X-ray induced acoustic signal generation. A piece of chicken bone and a phantom with two golden fiducial markers were exposed to 270 kVp X-ray source with 60 ns exposure time, and the X-ray induced acoustic signal was received by a 2.25MHz ultrasound transducer in 200 positions. XACT images were reconstructed by a filtered back-projection algorithm. Results: The theoretical analysis shows that X-ray induced acoustic signals have 100% relative sensitivity to X-ray absorption, but not to X-ray scattering. Applying this innovative technology to breast imaging, we can reduce radiation dose by a factor of 50 compared with newly FDA approved breast CT. The reconstructed images of chicken bone and golden fiducial marker phantom reveal that the spatial resolution of the built XACT system is 350µm. Conclusion: In XACT, the imaging sensitivity to X-ray absorption is improved and the imaging dose is dramatically reduced by using ultrashort pulsed X-ray. Taking advantage of the high ultrasonic resolution, we can also perform 3D imaging with a single X-ray pulse. This new modality has the potential to revolutionize x-ray imaging applications in medicine and biology.

  6. Pressure Measurement in Supersonic Air Flow by Differential Absorptive Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Roger C.; Herring, Gregory C.; Balla, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Nonintrusive, off-body flow barometry in Mach-2 airflow has been demonstrated in a large-scale supersonic wind tunnel using seedless laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA). The static pressure of the gas flow is determined with a novel differential absorption measurement of the ultrasonic sound produced by the LITA pump process. Simultaneously, stream-wise velocity and static gas temperature of the same spatially-resolved sample volume were measured with this nonresonant time-averaged LITA technique. Mach number, temperature and pressure have 0.2%, 0.4%, and 4% rms agreement, respectively, in comparison with known free-stream conditions.

  7. The vibrational signals that male fiddler crabs ( Uca lactea) use to attract females into their burrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Fumio; Murai, Minoru

    2016-06-01

    In some fiddler crab species, males emit vibrations from their burrows to mate-searching females after they have attracted a female to the burrow entrance using a waving display. Although the vibrations are considered acoustic signals to induce mating, it has not been demonstrated whether the vibrations attract the females into the burrow and, consequently, influence females' mating decisions. We investigated the structures and patterns of the vibrations using a dummy female and demonstrated experimentally a female preference for male vibrations in Uca lactea in the field. The acoustic signals consisted of repetitions of pulses. The dominant frequency of the pulses decreased with male carapace width. The pulse length decreased slightly with an increasing number of vibrational repetitions, and the pulse interval increased with increasing repetitions. These factors imply that the vibrations convey information on male characteristics, such as body size and stamina. In the experiment on female mate choice, the females significantly preferred males with higher pulse repetition rates when they were positioned at the entrance of the burrow, indicating that the females use the male vibrational signals to decide whether to enter the burrow. However, females showed no preference for the vibrations once they were inside a burrow, i.e., whether they decided to copulate, suggesting that the vibrations do not independently affect a female's final decision of mate choice. The vibrations inside the burrow might influence a female's decision by interaction with other male traits such as the burrow structure.

  8. Active control of annular flow-induced vibration of axisymmetric elastic beam by the local gap width control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Shoji; Shintani, Atsuhiko; Ito, Tomohiro; Fujita, Katsuhisa

    2011-01-01

    Flow-induced vibration may occur in the structures such as elastic beams subjected to annular flow in the narrow passage. Once the flow-induced vibration occurs, vibration amplitude becomes larger, consequently it causes a lot of troubles such as fatigue or failure in mechanical structures. In this paper, for the purpose to avoid these troubles, the active control of vibration of an axisymmetric elastic beam subjected to annular flow is investigated. An air-pressured actuator is attached on the surface of the circular cylinder for the vibrational control. As the shape of the actuator changes by control, the gap width in narrow passage changes, which causes the change of the fluid pressure. Therefore, the vibration of the fluid-structure coupled system can be suppressed. The fluid-structure coupled equation based on the Euler-Bernoulli type of partial differential equation and the Navier-Stokes equations is analytically derived including control terms. By applying the optimal control law to the coupled system, the unstable behavior is stabilized. The stability of the coupled system is investigated by eigenvalue analyses of controlled coupled equations. Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the efficiency of the proposed control method. (author)

  9. Impact-induced soft-tissue vibrations associate with muscle activation in human landing movements: An accelerometry and EMG evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Weijie; Wang, Xi; Liu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have not used neurophysiological methodology to explore the damping effects on induced soft-tissue vibrations and muscle responses. This study aimed to investigate the changes in activation of the musculoskeletal system in response to soft-tissue vibrations with different applied compression conditions in a drop-jump landing task. Twelve trained male participants were instructed to perform drop-jump landings in compression shorts (CS) and regular shorts without compression (control condition, CC). Soft-tissue vibrations and EMG amplitudes of the leg within 50 ms before and after touchdown were collected synchronously. Peak acceleration of the thigh muscles was significantly lower in CS than in CC during landings from 45 or 60 cm and 30 cm heights (p soft-tissue vibration damping was associated with a decrease in muscular activity of the rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles during drop-jump landings from different heights.

  10. Multipole induced splitting of metal-cage vibrations in crystalline endohedral D2d-M2@C84 dimetallofullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, M; Popov, V N; Inakuma, M; Tagmatarchis, N; Shinohara, H; Georgi, P; Dunsch, L; Kuzmany, H

    2004-01-22

    Metal-carbon cage vibrations of crystalline endohedral D2d-M2@C84 (M=Sc,Y,Dy) dimetallofullerenes were analyzed by temperature dependent Raman scattering and a dynamical force field model. Three groups of metal-carbon cage modes were found at energies of 35-200 cm(-1) and assigned to metal-cage stretching and deformation vibrations. They exhibit a textbook example for the splitting of molecular vibrations in a crystal field. Induced dipole-dipole and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions account quantitatively for the observed mode splitting. Based on the metal-cage vibrational structure it is demonstrated that D2d-Y2@C84 dimetallofullerene retains a monoclinic crystal structure up to 550 K and undergoes a transition from a disordered to an ordered orientational state at a temperature of approximately 150 K.

  11. Modeling the interference of vortex-induced vibration and galloping for a slender rectangular prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannini, Claudio; Massai, Tommaso; Marra, Antonino Maria

    2018-04-01

    Several bluff bodies in an airflow, such as rectangular cylinders with moderate side ratio, in particular conditions of mass and damping can experience the interference of vortex-induced vibration (VIV) and galloping. This promotes a combined instability, which one may call "unsteady galloping", with peculiar features and possibly large vibration amplitudes in flow speed ranges where no excitation is predicted by classical theories. The mathematical model proposed between the 70's and the 80's by Prof. Y. Tamura to simulate this phenomenon was considered here for the case study of a two-dimensional rectangular cylinder with a side ratio of 1.5, having the shorter section side perpendicular to the smooth airflow. This wake-oscillator model relies on the linear superposition of the unsteady wake force producing VIV excitation and the quasi-steady force that is responsible for galloping. The model formulation was slightly modified, and the way to determine a crucial parameter was changed, revealing a previously unexplored behavior of the equations. In the present form, the model is able to predict the dynamic response of the rectangular cylinder with a satisfactory qualitative and, to a certain extent, quantitative agreement with the experimental data, although the limitations of the present approach are clearly highlighted in the paper. The mathematical modeling of unsteady galloping and the analysis of the results offer a deep insight into this complicated phenomenon and its nonlinear features. The model also represents a useful engineering tool to estimate the vibration of a structure or structural element for which the interference of VIV and galloping is envisaged.

  12. Development and modelisation of a hydro-power conversion system based on vortex induced vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebure, David; Dellinger, Nicolas; François, Pierre; Mosé, Robert

    2016-11-01

    The Vortex Induced Vibration (VIV) phenomenon leads to mechanical issues concerning bluff bodies immerged in fluid flows and have therefore been studied by numerous authors. Moreover, an increasing demand for energy implies the development of alternative, complementary and renewable energy solutions. The main idea of EauVIV project consists in the use of VIV rather than its deletion. When rounded objects are immerged in a fluid flow, vortices are formed and shed on their downstream side, creating a pressure imbalance resulting in an oscillatory lift. A convertor modulus consists of an elastically mounted, rigid cylinder on end-springs, undergoing flow- induced motion when exposed to transverse fluid-flow. These vortices induce cyclic lift forces in opposite directions on the circular bar and cause the cylinder to vibrate up and down. An experimental prototype was developed and tested in a free-surface water channel and is already able to recover energy from free-stream velocity between 0.5 and 1 m.s -1. However, the large number of parameters (stiffness, damping coefficient, velocity of fluid flow, etc.) associated with its performances requires optimization and we choose to develop a complete tridimensionnal numerical model solution. A 3D numerical model has been developed in order to represent the real system behavior and improve it through, for example, the addition of parallel cylinders. The numerical model build up was carried out in three phases. The first phase consists in establishing a 2D model to choose the turbulence model and quantify the dependence of the oscillations amplitudes on the mesh size. The second corresponds to a 3D simulation with cylinder at rest in first time and with vertical oscillation in a second time. The third and final phase consists in a comparison between the experimental system dynamic behavior and its numerical model.

  13. Experimental investigation of flow induced dust acoustic shock waves in a complex plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, S., E-mail: surabhijaiswal73@gmail.com; Bandyopadhyay, P.; Sen, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2016-08-15

    We report on experimental observations of flow induced large amplitude dust-acoustic shock waves in a complex plasma. The experiments have been carried out in a Π shaped direct current glow discharge experimental device using kaolin particles as the dust component in a background of Argon plasma. A strong supersonic flow of the dust fluid is induced by adjusting the pumping speed and neutral gas flow into the device. An isolated copper wire mounted on the cathode acts as a potential barrier to the flow of dust particles. A sudden change in the gas flow rate is used to trigger the onset of high velocity dust acoustic shocks whose dynamics are captured by fast video pictures of the evolving structures. The physical characteristics of these shocks are delineated through a parametric scan of their dynamical properties over a range of flow speeds and potential hill heights. The observed evolution of the shock waves and their propagation characteristics are found to compare well with model numerical results based on a modified Korteweg-de-Vries-Burgers type equation.

  14. Exact analytical solution of shear-induced flexural vibration of functionally graded piezoelectric beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Pankaj, E-mail: psharma@rtu.ac.in; Parashar, Sandeep Kumar, E-mail: parashar2@yahoo.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Rajasthan Technical University, Kota (India)

    2016-05-06

    The priority of this paper is to obtain the exact analytical solution for free flexural vibration of FGPM beam actuated using the d{sub 15} effect. In piezoelectric actuators, the potential use of d{sub 15} effect has been of particular interest for engineering applications since shear piezoelectric coefficient d15 is much higher than the other piezoelectric coupling constants d{sub 31} and d{sub 33}. The applications of shear actuators are to induce and control the flexural vibrations of beams and plates. In this study, a modified Timoshenko beam theory is used where electric potential is assumed to vary sinusoidaly along the thickness direction. The material properties are assumed to be graded across the thickness in accordance with power law distribution. Hamilton's principle is employed to obtain the equations of motion along with the associated boundary conditions for FGPM beams. Exact analytical solution is derived thus obtained equations of motion. Results for clamped-clamped and clamped-free boundary conditions are presented. The presented result and method shell serve as benchmark for comparing the results obtained from the other approximate methods.

  15. On the Shaker Simulation of Wind-Induced Non-Gaussian Random Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaussian signal is produced by ordinary random vibration controllers to test the products in the laboratory, while the field data is usually non-Gaussian. Two methodologies are presented in this paper for shaker simulation of wind-induced non-Gaussian vibration. The first methodology synthesizes the non-Gaussian signal offline and replicates it on the shaker in the Time Waveform Replication (TWR mode. A new synthesis method is used to model the non-Gaussian signal as a Gaussian signal multiplied by an amplitude modulation function (AMF. A case study is presented to show that the synthesized non-Gaussian signal has the same power spectral density (PSD, probability density function (PDF, and loading cycle distribution (LCD as the field data. The second methodology derives a damage equivalent Gaussian signal from the non-Gaussian signal based on the fatigue damage spectrum (FDS and the extreme response spectrum (ERS and reproduces it on the shaker in the closed-loop frequency domain control mode. The PSD level and the duration time of the derived Gaussian signal can be manipulated for accelerated testing purpose. A case study is presented to show that the derived PSD matches the damage potential of the non-Gaussian environment for both fatigue and peak response.

  16. Noise-induced hearing loss in construction workers being assessed for hand-arm vibration syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Ronald A; Sauvé, John T; Jiang, Depeng

    2010-01-01

    Construction workers are at risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) but often have no periodic audiometric testing. The participants were construction workers assessed for Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS) at the Occupational Health Clinic, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario. Audiometry was offered and 169 of the 191 workers assessed for HAVS agreed to have the audiometric test. The objective was to examine the prevalence of hearing loss in these 169 workers and to determine the effect on hearing of duration of work in construction (as a proxy for noise exposure) and the severity of vibration white finger (VWF) which previous studies have suggested is a marker for increased individual susceptibility for NIHL. VWF was measured by the Stockholm vascular scale. All participants were men, median age of 57 (range: 28-75), median number of years worked in construction of 35 (range: 4-52). All of the Spearman rank correlations between years worked in construction and the hearing levels at each audiometric frequency were statistically significant (p hearing loss at or above the level at which a workers' compensation pension would be granted in Ontario and the prevalence of this auditory outcome had a statistically significant increase as years worked in construction increased. Multivariate linear regression indicated that VWF also had a statistically significant effect on hearing loss for all audiometric frequencies combined after controlling for years worked in construction. Improved prevention of hearing loss in construction workers is needed.

  17. Harvesting traffic-induced vibrations for structural health monitoring of bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galchev, T V; McCullagh, J; Peterson, R L; Najafi, K

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and testing of a renewable energy source for powering wireless sensors used to monitor the structural health of bridges. Traditional power cables or battery replacement are excessively expensive or infeasible in this type of application. An inertial power generator has been developed that can harvest traffic-induced bridge vibrations. Vibrations on bridges have very low acceleration (0.1–0.5 m s −2 ), low frequency (2–30 Hz), and they are non-periodic. A novel parametric frequency-increased generator (PFIG) is developed to address these challenges. The fabricated device can generate a peak power of 57 µW and an average power of 2.3 µW from an input acceleration of 0.54 m s −2 at only 2 Hz. The generator is capable of operating over an unprecedentedly large acceleration (0.54–9.8 m s −2 ) and frequency range (up to 30 Hz) without any modifications or tuning. Its performance was tested along the length of a suspension bridge and it generated 0.5–0.75 µW of average power without manipulation during installation or tuning at each bridge location. A preliminary power conversion system has also been developed

  18. Flow induced vibration and stability analysis of multi wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Kyung Jae [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jong Woon [Korean Intellectual Property Office, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Kyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Oh Seop [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    The free vibration and flow induced flutter instability of cantilever multi wall carbon nanotubes conveying fluid are investigated and the nanotubes are modeled as thin-walled beams. The non-classical effects of the transverse shear, rotary inertia, warping inhibition, and van der Waals forces between two walls are incorporated into the structural model. The governing equations and associated boundary conditions are derived using Hamilton's principle. A numerical analysis is carried out by using the extended Galerkin method, which enables us to obtain more accurate solutions compared to the conventional Galerkin method. Cantilevered carbon nanotubes are damped with decaying amplitude for a flow velocity below a certain critical value. However, beyond this critical flow velocity, flutter instability may occur. The variations in the critical flow velocity with respect to both the radius ratio and length of the carbon nanotubes are investigated and pertinent conclusions are outlined. The differences in the vibration and instability characteristics between the Timoshenko beam theory and Euler beam theory are revealed. A comparative analysis of the natural frequencies and flutter characteristics of MWCNTs and SWCNTs is also performed.

  19. Flow-induced vibration characteristics of the BWR/5-201 jet pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaCroix, L.V.

    1982-09-01

    A General Electric boiling water reactor BWR/5-201 jet pump was tested for flow-induced vibration (FIV) characteristics in the Large Steam Water Test Facility at Moss Landing, CA, during the period June-July 1978. High level periodic FIV were observed at reactor operating conditions (1027 psia, 532 0 F and prototypical flow rates) for the specific single jet pump assembly tested. High level FIV of similar amplitude and character have been shown capable of damaging jet pump components and associated support hardware if allowed to continue unchecked. High level FIV were effectively suppressed in two special cases tested: (1) lateral load (>500 lb) at the mixer to diffuser slip joint; and (2) a labyrinth seal (5 small, circumferential grooves) on the mixer at the slip joint. Stability criteria for the particular jet pump tested were developed from test data. A cause-effect relationship between the dynamic pressure within the slip joint and the jet pump vibration was established

  20. Wake reconfiguration downstream of an inclined flexible cylinder at the onset of vortex-induced vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguet, Remi; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Slender flexible cylinders immersed in flow are common in nature (e.g. plants and trees in wind) and in engineering applications, for example in the domain of offshore engineering, where risers and mooring lines are exposed to ocean currents. Vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) naturally develop when the cylinder is placed at normal incidence but they also appear when the body is inclined in the current, including at large angles. In a previous work concerning a flexible cylinder inclined at 80 degrees, we found that the occurrence of VIV is associated with a profound alteration of the flow dynamics: the wake exhibits a slanted vortex shedding pattern in the absence of vibration, while the vortices are shed parallel to the body once the large-amplitude VIV regime is reached. The present study aims at bridging the gap between these two extreme configurations. On the basis of direct numerical simulations, we explore the intermediate states of the flow-structure system. We identify two dominant components of the flow: a high-frequency component that relates to the stationary body wake and a low-frequency component synchronized with body motion. We show that the scenario of flow reconfiguration is driven by the opposite trends of these two component contributions.

  1. Evaluation of acoustic resonance at branch section in main steam line. Part 1. Effects of steam wetness on acoustic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yuta; Morita, Ryo

    2011-01-01

    The power uprating of the nuclear power plant (NPP) is conducted in United States, EU countries and so on, and also is planned in Japan. However, the degradation phenomena such as flow-induced vibration and wall thinning may increase or expose in the power uprate condition. In U.S. NPP, the dryer had been damaged by high cycle fatigue due to acoustic-induced vibration under a 17% extended power uprating (EPU) condition. This is caused by acoustic resonance at the stub pipes of safety relief valves (SRVs) in the main steam lines (MSL). Increased velocity by uprating excites the pressure fluctuations and makes large amplitude resonance. To evaluate the acoustic resonance at the stub pipes of SRVs in actual BWR, it is necessary to clarify the acoustic characteristics in steam flow. Although there are several previous studies about acoustic resonance, most of them are not steam flow but air flow. Therefore in this study, to investigate the acoustic characteristics in steam flow, we conducted steam flow experiments in each dry and wet steam conditions, and also nearly saturated condition. We measured pressure fluctuation at the top of the single stub pipe and in main steam piping. As a result, acoustic resonance in dry steam flow could be evaluated as same as that in air flow. It is clarified that resonance amplitude of fluctuating pressure at the top of the stub pipe in wet steam was reduced to one-tenth compared with that in dry. (author)

  2. Design and experiment of controlled bistable vortex induced vibration energy harvesting systems operating in chaotic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, B. H.; Tjahjowidodo, T.; Zhong, Z.-W.; Wang, Y.; Srikanth, N.

    2018-01-01

    Vortex induced vibration based energy harvesting systems have gained interests in these recent years due to its potential as a low water current energy source. However, the effectiveness of the system is limited only at a certain water current due to the resonance principle that governs the concept. In order to extend the working range, a bistable spring to support the structure is introduced on the system. The improvement on the performance is essentially dependent on the bistable gap as one of the main parameters of the nonlinear spring. A sufficiently large bistable gap will result in a significant performance improvement. Unfortunately, a large bistable gap might also increase a chance of chaotic responses, which in turn will result in diminutive harvested power. To mitigate the problem, an appropriate control structure is required to stabilize the chaotic vibrations of a VIV energy converter with the bistable supporting structure. Based on the nature of the double-well potential energy in a bistable spring, the ideal control structure will attempt to drive the responses to inter-well periodic vibrations in order to maximize the harvested power. In this paper, the OGY control algorithm is designed and implemented to the system. The control strategy is selected since it requires only a small perturbation in a structural parameter to execute the control effort, thus, minimum power is needed to drive the control input. Facilitated by a wake oscillator model, the bistable VIV system is modelled as a 4-dimensional autonomous continuous-time dynamical system. To implement the controller strategy, the system is discretized at a period estimated from the subspace hyperplane intersecting to the chaotic trajectory, whereas the fixed points that correspond to the desired periodic orbits are estimated by the recurrence method. Simultaneously, the Jacobian and sensitivity matrices are estimated by the least square regression method. Based on the defined fixed point and the

  3. Electromagnetically induced acoustic emission—novel NDT technique for damage evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, P.; Godinez, V.; Miller, R.; Finlayson, R.

    2001-04-01

    A recently developed electromagnetically induced acoustic emission technique (EM AE) which can be used for damage assessment of thin walled conducting structures is described. This technique allows a structure to be loaded locally by applying an electromagnetic field in order to produce an AE response, which may be captured by conventional or fiber optic (FO) AE sensors. The advantage of this technique is that the localized dynamic stresses induced by a short current pulse in the presence of an external magnetic field aid in the detection of cracks. Also, it is shown that electromagnetic stimulation can be applied to enhance conventional ultrasonics by modulation of the scattered signal from the defect (EM UT). Experimental data is presented for the case of a fatigue crack near rivet holes in thin walled aluminum structures.

  4. IAEA specialist meeting on flow induced vibrations in fast breeder reactors, Paris, France, 22-24 October 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.A.

    1986-10-01

    The Specialists' Meeting on ''Flow Induced Vibrations in FBRs for LMFBR Applications'' was held in Paris under the auspices of the French CEA on 21-24 October 1982. The meeting was sponsored by the IAEA on the recommendation of the 14th Meeting of the IWGFR and was attended by 31 participants from France, the Federal Republic of Germany, India, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United States of America and one international organization (IAEA). The meeting was presided over by Pr. R.J. Gibert of France. After the first session on review of national positions in the subject field (7 papers), the meeting was divided into five technical sections as follows: fluid-structures interaction, calculation methods (3 papers); tubes bundles vibration and weir (4 papers); instability (6 papers); induced vibrations in the pumps (2 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  5. Analysis of musle fatigue induced by isometric vibration exercise at varying frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mischi, M.; Rabotti, C.; Cardinale, M. (Marco)

    2012-01-01

    An increase in neuromuscular activity, measured by electromyography (EMG), is usually observed during vibration exercise. The underlying mechanisms are however unclear, limiting the possibilities to introduce and exploit vibration training in rehabilitation programs. In this study, a new training

  6. Raynaud′s phenomenon among men and women with noise-induced hearing loss in relation to vibration exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Pettersson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Raynaud′s phenomenon is characterized by constriction in blood supply to the fingers causing finger blanching, of white fingers (WF and is triggered by cold. Earlier studies found that workers using vibrating hand-held tools and who had vibration-induced white fingers (VWF had an increased risk for hearing loss compared with workers without VWF. This study examined the occurrence of Raynaud′s phenomenon among men and women with noise-induced hearing loss in relation to vibration exposure. All 342 participants had a confirmed noise-induced hearing loss medico legally accepted as work-related by AFA Insurance. Each subject answered a questionnaire concerning their health status and the kinds of exposures they had at the time when their hearing loss was first discovered. The questionnaire covered types of exposures, discomforts in the hands or fingers, diseases and medications affecting the blood circulation, the use of alcohol and tobacco and for women, the use of hormones and whether they had been pregnant. The participation rate was 41% (n = 133 with 38% (n = 94 for men and 50% (n = 39 for women. 84 men and 36 women specified if they had Raynaud′s phenomenon and also if they had used hand-held vibrating machines. Nearly 41% of them had used hand-held vibrating machines and 18% had used vibrating machines at least 2 h each workday. There were 23 men/6 women with Raynaud′s phenomenon. 37% reported WF among those participants who were exposed to hand-arm vibration (HAV and 15% among those not exposed to HAV. Among the participants with hearing loss with daily use of vibrating hand-held tools more than twice as many reports WF compared with participants that did not use vibrating hand-held tools. This could be interpreted as Raynaud′s phenomenon could be associated with an increased risk for noise-induced hearing loss. However, the low participation rate limits the generalization of the results from this study.

  7. Thermally induced vibrations of smart solar panel in a low-orbit satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, E.; Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad; Azadi, M.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a smart flexible satellite moving in a circular orbit with two flexible panels are studied. The panels have been modeled as clamped-free-free-free rectangular plates with attached piezoelectric actuators. It is assumed that the satellite has a pitch angle rotation maneuver. Rapid temperature changes at day-night transitions in orbit generate time dependent bending moments. Satellite maneuver and temperature varying induce vibrations in the appendages. So, to simulate the system, heat radiation effects on the appendages have been considered. The nonlinear equations of motion and the heat transfer equations are coupled and solved simultaneously. So, the governing equations of motion are nonlinear and very complicated ones. Finally, the whole system is simulated and the effects of the heat radiation, radius of the orbit, piezoelectric voltages, and piezoelectric locations on the response of the system are studied.

  8. Orientation of bluff body for designing efficient energy harvesters from vortex-induced vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, H. L.; Abdelkefi, A.; Yang, Y.; Wang, L.

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics and performances of four distinct vortex-induced vibrations (VIVs) piezoelectric energy harvesters are experimentally investigated and compared. The difference between these VIV energy harvesters is the installation of the cylindrical bluff body at the tip of cantilever beam with different orientations (bottom, top, horizontal, and vertical). Experiments show that the synchronization regions of the bottom, top, and horizontal configurations are almost the same at low wind speeds (around 1.5 m/s). The vertical configuration has the highest wind speed for synchronization (around 3.5 m/s) with the largest harvested power, which is explained by its highest natural frequency and the smallest coupled damping. The results lead to the conclusion that to design efficient VIV energy harvesters, the bluff body should be aligned with the beam for low wind speeds (<2 m/s) and perpendicular to the beam at high wind speeds (>2 m/s)

  9. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with laser irradiation resonant with vibrational transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khachatrian, Ani; Dagdigian, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    An investigation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of polymers, both in bulk form and spin coated on Si wafers, with laser irradiation in the mid-infrared spectral region is presented. Of particular interest is whether the LIBS signals are enhanced when the laser wavelength is resonant with a fundamental vibrational transition of the polymer. Significant increases in the LIBS signals were observed for irradiation on hydride stretch fundamental transitions, and the magnitude of the enhancement showed a strong dependence on the mode excited. The role of the substrate was investigated by comparison of results for bulk and spin-coated samples. The polymers investigated were Nylon 12 and poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene).

  10. CFD simulation of flow-induced vibration of an elastically supported airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šidlof Petr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow-induced vibration of lifting or control surfaces in aircraft may lead to catastrophic consequences. Under certain circumstances, the interaction between the airflow and the elastic structure may lead to instability with energy transferred from the airflow to the structure and with exponentially increasing amplitudes of the structure. In the current work, a CFD simulation of an elastically supported NACA0015 airfoil with two degrees of freedom (pitch and plunge coupled with 2D incompressible airflow is presented. The geometry of the airfoil, mass, moment of inertia, location of the centroid, linear and torsional stiffness was matched to properties of a physical airfoil model used for wind-tunnel measurements. The simulations were run within the OpenFOAM computational package. The results of the CFD simulations were compared with the experimental data.

  11. The ecological and evolutionary consequences of noise-induced acoustic habitat loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessen, Jennifer Beissinger

    negative physiological consequences, and that populations have adapted over short timescales to minimize the detrimental impacts of this novel pressure. Finally, I present results from a field acoustic playback experiment that show that noise from the invasive Cuban treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis ) differentially affects the vocal behavior of native anurans, with those with more similar calls being disproportionally more affected. Green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) shortened their calls, called louder, and maintained call spacing (e.g. continued actively calling) during noise stimuli whereas pine woods treefrogs (H. femoralis) did not modify vocal behavior in response to any noise stimuli. Collectively, the results of these investigations (1) provide insight into the extent of noise-induced acoustic habitat loss in space and time, (2) reveal fitness-relevant individual- and population-level consequences of this form of habitat loss, and (3) show resiliency within ecological systems through the individual- and population-level responses to this novel pressure over short time-scales. These findings advance the field by illustrating how the spatiotemporal extent of anthropogenic noise impacts important ecological processes, and by demonstrating the resiliency of some species in responding rapidly to novel pressures.

  12. Numerical solution for gate induced vibration due to under flow cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadrnezhad, S. A.

    2001-01-01

    Among the many forces to which hydraulic structures are exposed to, the forces induced by cavitation incident are of typical hydrodynamic unknown forces. The aim of this study is to define these forces as coupled fluid-structure interaction under two dynamic effects. The first dynamic effect which incorporates facilities for dealing with cavitation fluid is based on the appearance and bursting of vapor bubbles. The second hydrodynamic effect is dynamic excitation mechanism of the structure. In fluid-structure interaction, both the structure behavior and fluid are considered linear. Fluids can take some tension the extent of which depends on concentration and size of micro bubbles present; nevertheless, if the absolute pressure drops to a value close to the vapor pressure of the fluid, bubbles are formed and cavitation phenomena occurs. In this paper a fixed-wheel gate under the head pressure of a reservoir is considered to be affected by under flow cavitation. Normally, partially opened gates induce energy dissipation resulting in high turbulence, causing negative pressure and cavitation at the back and this exits the gate vibration. Moreover, there are several mechanisms which may cause heavy, self-excited vibration. According to the proposed method, a time function presenting the oscillation and pressure fluctuation in the vicinity of gate lip is estimated. This estimation is based on the parameters obtained from a two dimensional solution of flow under the gate lip. Accordingly, periodic time variable nodal forces are calculated and applied to gate lip element nodes. A transient dynamic solution of the gate, while its lip is sustaining nodal forces is estimated as time function. The results for the most server modal deformation of the structure time history of some critical elements and variation of equivalent force versus time are presented

  13. Estimation of the effects of rain-wind induced vibration in the design stage of inclined stay cables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Staalduinen, P.C. van

    1999-01-01

    Rain-wind induced vibration of stay cables is a great concern for the designers of cable stayed bridges. Despite numerous experimental investigations, an accurate quantitative prediction of this effect in the design stage is not feasible without extensive experiments. This paper presents a model to

  14. Enhancement of Energy Harvesting Performance by a Coupled Bluff Splitter Body and PVEH Plate through Vortex Induced Vibration near Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ken Chin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by vortex induced vibration energy harvesting development as a new source of renewable energy, a T-shaped design vibration energy harvester is introduced with the aim of enhancing its performance through vortex induced vibration at near resonance conditions. The T-shaped structural model designed consists of a fixed boundary aluminum bluff splitter body coupled with a cantilever piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (PVEH plate model which is a piezoelectric bimorph plate made of a brass plate sandwiched between 2 lead zirconate titanate (PZT plates. A 3-dimensional Fluid-Structure Interaction simulation analysis is carried out with Reynolds Stress Turbulence Model under wind speed of 7, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, 22.5, and 25 m/s. The results showed that with 19 m/s wind speed, the model generates 75.758 Hz of vortex frequency near to the structural model’s natural frequency of 76.9 Hz. Resonance lock-in therefore occurred, generating a maximum displacement amplitude of 2.09 mm or a 49.76% increment relatively in vibrational amplitude. Under the effect of resonance at the PVEH plate’s fundamental natural frequency, it is able to generate the largest normalized power of 13.44 mW/cm3g2.

  15. Acoustic pressure waves induced in human heads by RF pulses from high-field MRI scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, James C; Wang, Zhangwei

    2010-04-01

    The current evolution toward greater image resolution from magnetic resonance image (MRI) scanners has prompted the exploration of higher strength magnetic fields and use of higher levels of radio frequencies (RFs). Auditory perception of RF pulses by humans has been reported during MRI with head coils. It has shown that the mechanism of interaction for the auditory effect is caused by an RF pulse-induced thermoelastic pressure wave inside the head. We report a computational study of the intensity and frequency of thermoelastic pressure waves generated by RF pulses in the human head inside high-field MRI and clinical scanners. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) guides limit the local specific absorption rate (SAR) in the body-including the head-to 8 W kg(-1). We present results as functions of SAR and show that for a given SAR the peak acoustic pressures generated in the anatomic head model were essentially the same at 64, 300, and 400 MHz (1.5, 7.0, and 9.4 T). Pressures generated in the anatomic head are comparable to the threshold pressure of 20 mPa for sound perception by humans at the cochlea for 4 W kg(-1). Moreover, results indicate that the peak acoustic pressure in the brain is only 2 to 3 times the auditory threshold at the U.S. FDA guideline of 8 W kg(-1). Even at a high SAR of 20 W kg(-1), where the acoustic pressure in the brain could be more than 7 times the auditory threshold, the sound pressure levels would not be more than 17 db above threshold of perception at the cochlea.

  16. The acoustics of snoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevernagie, Dirk; Aarts, Ronald M; De Meyer, Micheline

    2010-04-01

    Snoring is a prevalent disorder affecting 20-40% of the general population. The mechanism of snoring is vibration of anatomical structures in the pharyngeal airway. Flutter of the soft palate accounts for the harsh aspect of the snoring sound. Natural or drug-induced sleep is required for its appearance. Snoring is subject to many influences such as body position, sleep stage, route of breathing and the presence or absence of sleep-disordered breathing. Its presentation may be variable within or between nights. While snoring is generally perceived as a social nuisance, rating of its noisiness is subjective and, therefore, inconsistent. Objective assessment of snoring is important to evaluate the effect of treatment interventions. Moreover, snoring carries information relating to the site and degree of obstruction of the upper airway. If evidence for monolevel snoring at the site of the soft palate is provided, the patient may benefit from palatal surgery. These considerations have inspired researchers to scrutinize the acoustic characteristics of snoring events. Similarly to speech, snoring is produced in the vocal tract. Because of this analogy, existing techniques for speech analysis have been applied to evaluate snoring sounds. It appears that the pitch of the snoring sound is in the low-frequency range (noise-like', and has scattered energy content in the higher spectral sub-bands (>500 Hz). To evaluate acoustic properties of snoring, sleep nasendoscopy is often performed. Recent evidence suggests that the acoustic quality of snoring is markedly different in drug-induced sleep as compared with natural sleep. Most often, palatal surgery alters sound characteristics of snoring, but is no cure for this disorder. It is uncertain whether the perceived improvement after palatal surgery, as judged by the bed partner, is due to an altered sound spectrum. Whether some acoustic aspects of snoring, such as changes in pitch, have predictive value for the presence of

  17. Acoustic stimulation can induce a selective neural network response mediated by piezoelectric nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Camilo; Tedesco, Mariateresa; Massobrio, Paolo; Marino, Attilio; Ciofani, Gianni; Martinoia, Sergio; Raiteri, Roberto

    2018-06-01

    Objective. We aim to develop a novel non-invasive or minimally invasive method for neural stimulation to be applied in the study and treatment of brain (dys)functions and neurological disorders. Approach. We investigate the electrophysiological response of in vitro neuronal networks when subjected to low-intensity pulsed acoustic stimulation, mediated by piezoelectric nanoparticles adsorbed on the neuronal membrane. Main results. We show that the presence of piezoelectric barium titanate nanoparticles induces, in a reproducible way, an increase in network activity when excited by stationary ultrasound waves in the MHz regime. Such a response can be fully recovered when switching the ultrasound pulse off, depending on the generated pressure field amplitude, whilst it is insensitive to the duration of the ultrasound pulse in the range 0.5 s–1.5 s. We demonstrate that the presence of piezoelectric nanoparticles is necessary, and when applying the same acoustic stimulation to neuronal cultures without nanoparticles or with non-piezoelectric nanoparticles with the same size distribution, no network response is observed. Significance. We believe that our results open up an extremely interesting approach when coupled with suitable functionalization strategies of the nanoparticles in order to address specific neurons and/or brain areas and applied in vivo, thus enabling remote, non-invasive, and highly selective modulation of the activity of neuronal subpopulations of the central nervous system of mammalians.

  18. Amplitude control of the track-induced self-excited vibration for a maglev system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Danfeng; Li, Jie; Zhang, Kun

    2014-09-01

    The Electromagnet Suspension (EMS) maglev train uses controlled electromagnetic forces to achieve suspension, and self-excited vibration may occur due to the flexibility of the track. In this article, the harmonic balance method is applied to investigate the amplitude of the self-excited vibration, and it is found that the amplitude of the vibration depends on the voltage of the power supplier. Based on this observation, a vibration amplitude control method, which controls the amplitude of the vibration by adjusting the voltage of the power supplier, is proposed to attenuate the vibration. A PI controller is designed to control the amplitude of the vibration at a given level. The effectiveness of this method shows a good prospect for its application to commercial maglev systems. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Vibration Analysis of Tube Bundles Induced by Fluid Elastic Excitation in Shell Side of Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Minle; Wang, Lu; Li, Wenyao; Gao, Tianze

    2017-09-01

    Fluid elastic excitation in shell side of heat exchanger was deduced theoretically in this paper. Model foundation was completed by using Pro / Engineer software. The finite element model was constructed and imported into the FLUENT module. The flow field simulation adopted the dynamic mesh model, RNG k-ε model and no-slip boundary conditions. Analysing different positions vibration of tube bundles by selecting three regions in shell side of heat exchanger. The results show that heat exchanger tube bundles at the inlet of the shell side are more likely to be failure due to fluid induced vibration.

  20. Prototype observation and influencing factors of environmental vibration induced by flood discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to a wide range of field vibration problems caused by flood discharge at the Xiangjiaba Hydropower Station, vibration characteristics and influencing factors were investigated based on prototype observation. The results indicate that field vibrations caused by flood discharge have distinctive characteristics of constancy, low frequency, small amplitude, and randomness with impact, which significantly differ from the common high-frequency vibration characteristics. Field vibrations have a main frequency of about 0.5–3.0 Hz and the characteristics of long propagation distance and large-scale impact. The vibration of a stilling basin slab runs mainly in the vertical direction. The vibration response of the guide wall perpendicular to the flow is significantly stronger than it is in other directions and decreases linearly downstream along the guide wall. The vibration response of the underground turbine floor is mainly caused by the load of unit operation. Urban environmental vibration has particular distribution characteristics and change patterns, and is greatly affected by discharge, scheduling modes, and geological conditions. Along with the increase of the height of residential buildings, vibration responses show a significant amplification effect. The horizontal and vertical vibrations of the 7th floor are, respectively, about 6 times and 1.5 times stronger than the corresponding vibrations of the 1st floor. The vibration of a large-scale chemical plant presents the combined action of flood discharge and working machines. Meanwhile, it is very difficult to reduce the low-frequency environmental vibrations. Optimization of the discharge scheduling mode is one of the effective measures of reducing the flow impact loads at present. Choosing reasonable dam sites is crucial.

  1. Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis on the Rain-Wind-Induced Vibration of Cable Considering the Equilibrium Position of Rivulet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xijun Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear dynamic behavior of rain-wind-induced vibration of inclined cable is investigated with the consideration of the equilibrium position of the moving rivulet. The partial differential governing equations of three-degree-of-freedom on the model of rain-wind-induced cable vibration are established, which are proposed for describing the nonlinear interactions among the in-plane, out-of-plane vibration of the cable and the oscillation of the moving rivulet. The Galerkin method is applied to discretize the partial differential governing equations. The approximately analytic solution is obtained by using the method of averaging. The unique correspondence between the wind and the equilibrium position of the rivulet is ascertained. The presence of rivulet at certain positions on the surface of cable is then proved to be one of the trigger for wind-rain-induced cable vibration. The nonlinear dynamic phenomena of the inclined cable subjected to wind and rain turbulence are then studied by varying the parameters including mean wind velocity, Coulomb damping force, damping ratio, the span length, and the initial tension of the inclined cable on the model. The jump phenomenon is also observed which occurs when there are multiple solutions in the system.

  2. Acoustic radiation- and streaming-induced microparticle velocities determined by microparticle image velocimetry in an ultrasound symmetry plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Rune; Augustsson, Per; Laurell, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We present microparticle image velocimetry measurements of suspended microparticles of diameters from 0.6 to 10μm undergoing acoustophoresis in an ultrasound symmetry plane in a microchannel. The motion of the smallest particles is dominated by the Stokes drag from the induced acoustic streaming...

  3. Vortex-induced vibrations of a square cylinder under linear shear flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wenjuan; Zhou, Dai; Han, Zhaolong [School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Tu, Jiahuang, E-mail: tujiahuang1982@163.com, E-mail: han.arkey@gmail.com [College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2017-04-15

    This paper investigates the numerical vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a square cylinder which is connected to a 2-DOF mass-spring system and is immersed in the planar shear flow by employing a characteristic-based split (CBS) finite element method (FEM). The reduced mass of the square cylinder is M {sub r} = 2, while the reduced velocity, U {sub r}, is changed from 3 to 12 with an increment of Δ U {sub r} = 1. The effects of some key parameters on the cylinder dynamic responses, vibrating frequencies, the flow patterns as well as the energy transferred between the fluid and cylinder are revealed. In this study, the key parameters are selected as follows: shear ratio ( k  = 0, 0.05 and 0.1) and Reynolds numbers ( Re  = 80 and 160). Numerical results demonstrate that the X – Y trajectories of the cylinder mainly appear as a symmetrical figure ‘8’ in uniform flow ( k  = 0) and an unsymmetrical figure ‘8’ and ‘O’ in shear flows ( k  = 0.05 and 0.1). The maximum oscillation amplitudes of the square cylinder in both the inline and transverse directions have distinct characteristics compared to that of a circular cylinder. Two kinds of flow patterns, ‘2S’ and ‘P + S’, are mainly observed under the shear flow. Also, the mean values of the energy of the cylinder system increase with the reduced velocity, while the root mean square (rms) of the energy reaches its peak value at reduced velocity U {sub r} = 5. (paper)

  4. Age, duration of work, noise and vibration in inducing hearing and balance impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Bashiruddin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Noisy and vibrating bajaj, a public transportation in Jakarta, is a potential risk in inducing hearing and balance problems. Bajaj drivers in the Jakarta area were chosen by consecutive sampling and examined medically in the Neurotological Subdivision of the ENT Department of the Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta. Hearing and balance impairments were then diagnosed from audiometric and posturographic tests. The study was carried out from March 2000 until October 2001. A number of 350 bajaj drivers participated in this study. There were 97 subjects without hearing and balance impairments, and 96 subjects suffered from hearing and balance impairments. Compared to drivers aged less than 40 years, those aged 41 years or more had a four-fold increased risk of developing hearing and balance impairments [adjusted odds ratio (OR = 3.90; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.67-9.01. Drivers working 9 hours or more a day had an increased risk 2.3 times of developing hearing and balance impairments compared those working less than 9 hours a day (adjusted OR = 2.32; 95% CI=I.22-4.41. Furthermore, when compared to those who had been working for 1-5 years, those who had been working for 5 years had an increased tendency of developing hearing and balance impairments. Those who had been working 21-30 years had a seven-fold increased risk of developing hearing and balance impairments (adjusted OR = 7.11; 95% CI = 1.88-26.92. To minimize hearing and balance impairments bajaj drivers are recommended to work less than 8 hours a day. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 101-6Keywords: noise, vibration, hearing, balance impairments, driver

  5. A direct pedestrian-structure interaction model to characterize the human induced vibrations on slender footbridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Alonso, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the scientific community had knowledge of the human induced vibration problems in structures since the end of the 19th century, it was not until the occurrence of the vibration phenomenon happened in the Millennium Bridge (London, 2000 that the importance of the problem revealed and a higher level of attention devoted. Despite the large advances achieved in the determination of the human-structure interaction force, one of the main deficiencies of the existing models is the exclusion of the effect of changes in the footbridge dynamic properties due to the presence of pedestrians. In this paper, the formulation of a human-structure interaction model, addresses these limitations, is carried out and its reliability is verified from previously published experimental results.Aunque la comunidad científica tenía conocimiento de los problemas vibratorios inducidos por peatones en estructuras desde finales del siglo xix, no fue hasta la ocurrencia de los eventos vibratorios acontecidos en la pasarela del Milenio (Londres, 2000, cuando la importancia del problema se puso de manifiesto y se le comenzó a dedicar un mayor nivel de atención. A pesar de los grandes avances alcanzados en la caracterización de la fuerza de interacción peatón-estructura una de las principales deficiencias de los modelos existentes es la exclusión del cambio en las propiedades dinámicas de la pasarela por la presencia de peatones. En este artículo, se presenta la formulación de un modelo de interacción peatón-estructura que intenta dar respuesta a dichas limitaciones, y su validación a partir de resultados experimentales previamente publicados por otros autores.

  6. Indentation induced mechanical and electrical response in ferroelectric crystal investigated by acoustic mode AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H. F.; Zeng, H. R.; Ma, X. D.; Chu, R. Q.; Li, G. R.; Luo, H. S.; Yin, Q. R.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanical and electrical response of Pb (Mg1/3Nb2/3)- O3-PbTiO3 single crystals to micro-indentation are investigated using the newly developed low frequency scanning probe acoustic microscopy which is based on the atomic force microscope. There are three ways to release the stress produced by indentation. Plastic deformation emerged directly underneath the indentor and along the indentation diagonals. In addition, indentation-induced micro-cracks and new non-180° domain structures which are perpendicular to each other are also observed in the indented surface. Based on the experimental results, the relationship between the cracks and the domain patterns was discussed.

  7. Understanding and controlling wind-induced vibrations of bridge cables: Results from the Femern Crossing research project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos T.; Jakobsen, J. B.; Koss, Holger

    of the project has been the establishment of novel vibration mitigation schemes that could be readily, economically, and effectively implemented on a cable-supported bridge that might form part of the fixed link. In support of the proposed research, Femern A/S commissioned a new climatic wind tunnel, designed......Following the successful completion of the Storebælt and Øresund Crossings, the Danish Ministry of Transport appointed Femern A/S to be in charge of preparation, investigations and planning in relation to the establishment of a fixed link across the Fehmarnbelt. To further investigate the causes...... behind the cable vibrations that were observed on the cable-supported bridges forming part of the aforementioned crossings, Femern A/S commissioned a 5-year international collaborative research project, entitled “Understanding and controlling wind-induced vibrations of bridge cables”. The ultimate goal...

  8. Vortex-Induced Vibration of an Airfoil Used in Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Bridget; Carlson, Daniel; Seyed-Aghazadeh, Banafsheh; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2017-11-01

    In Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs), when the blades are placed at high angles of attack with respect to the incoming flow, they could experience flow-induced oscillations. A series of experiments in a re-circulating water tunnel was conducted to study the possible Vortex-Induced Vibration (VIV) of a fully-submerged, flexibly-mounted NACA 0021 airfoil, which is used in some designs of VAWTs. The airfoil was free to oscillate in the crossflow direction, and the tests were conducted in a Reynolds number range of 600

  9. Modelling and numerical simulation of vortex induced vibrations of single cylinder or cylinder arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jus, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This research thesis fits into the frame of researches achieved in the nuclear field in order to optimize the predictive abilities of sizing models of nuclear plant components. It more precisely addresses the modelling of the action exerted by the flowing fluid and the induced feedback by the structure dynamics. The objective is herein to investigate the interaction between the turbulence at the wall vicinity and the effects of non-conservative and potentially destabilizing unsteady coupling. The peculiar case of a single cylinder in infinite environment, and submitted to a transverse flow, is studied statically and then dynamically. The influence of flow regimes on dynamic response is characterized, and the quantification of fluid-structure interaction energy is assessed. The author then addresses the case of an array of cylinders, and highlights the contribution of three-dimensional macro-simulations for the analysis of flow-induced structure vibrations in subcritical regime within a High Performance Calculation (HPC) framework, and the interest of a CFD/CSM (computational fluid dynamics/computational structure mechanics) coupling in the case of turbulent flows in an industrial environment

  10. Investigations on the Effects of Vortex-Induced Vibration with Different Distributions of Lorentz Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of vortex-induced vibration (VIV in shear flow with different distributions of Lorentz force is numerically investigated based on the stream function–vorticity equations in the exponential-polar coordinates exerted on moving cylinder for Re = 150. The cylinder motion equation coupled with the fluid, including the mathematical expressions of the lift force coefficient C l , is derived. The initial and boundary conditions as well as the hydrodynamic forces on the surface of cylinder are also formulated. The Lorentz force applied to suppress the VIV has no relationship with the flow field, and involves two categories, i.e., the field Lorentz force and the wall Lorentz force. With the application of symmetrical Lorentz forces, the symmetric field Lorentz force can amplify the drag, suppress the flow separation, decrease the lift fluctuation, and then suppress the VIV while the wall Lorentz force decreases the drag only. With the application of asymmetrical Lorentz forces, besides the above-mentioned effects, the field Lorentz force can increase additional lift induced by shear flow, whereas the wall Lorentz force can counteract the additional lift, which is dominated on the total effect.

  11. Inspection of arterial-induced skin vibration by Moire fringe with two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Hsiung; Chiu, Shih-Yung; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Shu-Sheng; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2017-06-01

    A non-contact arterial-induced skin vibration inspection system is implemented. This optical metrology system is constructed with shadow Moiré configuration and the fringe analysis algorithm. Developed with the Region of Interested (ROI) capturing technique and the Two-dimensional Wavelet Transform (2D-CWT) method, this algorithm is able to retrieve the height-correlated phase information from the shadow Moiré fringe patterns. Using a commercial video camera or a CMOS image sensor, this system could monitor the skin-vibration induced by the cyclic deformation of inner layered artery. The cross-sectional variation and the rhythm of heart cycle could be continuously measured for health monitoring purposes. The average vibration amplitude of the artery at the wrist ranges between 20 μm and 50 μm, which is quite subtle comparing with the skin surface structure. Having the non-stationary motion of human body, the traditional phase shifting (PS) technique can be very unstable due to the requirement of several frames of images, especially for case that artery is continuously pumping. To bypass this fundamental issue, the shadow Moiré technique is introduced to enhance the surface deformation characteristic. And the phase information is retrieved by the means of spectrum filtering instead of PS technique, which the phase is calculated from intensity maps of multiple images. The instantaneous surface can therefore be reconstructed individually from each frame, enabling the subtle arterial-induced skin vibration measurement. The comparative results of phase reconstruction between different fringe analysis algorithms will be demonstrated numerically and experimentally. And the electrocardiography (ECG) results will used as the reference for the validity of health monitoring potential of the non-contact arterial-induced skin vibration inspection system.

  12. Acoustic Radiation Force-Induced Creep-Recovery (ARFICR): A Noninvasive Method to Characterize Tissue Viscoelasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador Carrascal, Carolina; Chen, Shigao; Urban, Matthew W; Greenleaf, James F

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasound shear wave elastography is a promising noninvasive, low cost, and clinically viable tool for liver fibrosis staging. Current shear wave imaging technologies on clinical ultrasound scanners ignore shear wave dispersion and use a single group velocity measured over the shear wave bandwidth to estimate tissue elasticity. The center frequency and bandwidth of shear waves induced by acoustic radiation force depend on the ultrasound push beam (push duration, -number, etc.) and the viscoelasticity of the medium, and therefore are different across scanners from different vendors. As a result, scanners from different vendors may give different tissue elasticity measurements within the same patient. Various methods have been proposed to evaluate shear wave dispersion to better estimate tissue viscoelasticity. A rheological model such as the Kelvin-Voigt model is typically fitted to the shear wave dispersion to solve for the elasticity and viscosity of tissue. However, these rheological models impose strong assumptions about frequency dependence of elasticity and viscosity. Here, we propose a new method called Acoustic Radiation Force Induced Creep-Recovery (ARFICR) capable of quantifying rheological model-independent measurements of elasticity and viscosity for more robust tissue health assessment. In ARFICR, the creep-recovery time signal at the focus of the push beam is used to calculate the relative elasticity and viscosity (scaled by an unknown constant) over a wide frequency range. Shear waves generated during the ARFICR measurement are also detected and used to calculate the shear wave velocity at its center frequency, which is then used to calibrate the relative elasticity and viscosity to absolute elasticity and viscosity. In this paper, finite-element method simulations and experiments in tissue mimicking phantoms are used to validate and characterize the extent of viscoelastic quantification of ARFICR. The results suggest that ARFICR can measure tissue

  13. Friction-induced vibrations and self-organization mechanics and non-equilibrium thermodynamics of sliding contact

    CERN Document Server

    Nosonovsky, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Many scientists and engineers do not realize that, under certain conditions, friction can lead to the formation of new structures at the interface, including in situ tribofilms and various patterns. In turn, these structures-usually formed by destabilization of the stationary sliding regime-can lead to the reduction of friction and wear. Friction-Induced Vibrations and Self-Organization: Mechanics and Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Sliding Contact combines the mechanical and thermodynamic methods in tribology, thus extending the field of mechanical friction-induced vibrations to non-mechanical instabilities and self-organization processes at the frictional interface. The book also relates friction-induced self-organization to novel biomimetic materials, such as self-lubricating, self-cleaning, and self-healing materials. Explore Friction from a Different Angle-as a Fundamental Force of Nature The book begins with an exploration of friction as a fundamental force of nature throughout the history of science....

  14. Vertical components of surface vibrations induced by mining tremors in the Upper Silesian Coalfield, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciag, E.; Kowalski, W.

    1997-01-01

    Characteristics of vertical components of surface vibration is epicentral zones due to mining tremors in the Upper Silesian Coalfield (USC) are analysed. Both maximum acceleration amplitudes and dominant frequencies of vertical (Z) and horizontal (N-S and E-W) components of vibrations are compared. The role played by the vertical components of vibrations in estimates of hazard for surface structures excited by mining tremors is discussed. 8 refs., 7 figs

  15. CFD simulation on flow induced vibrations in high pressure control and emergency stop turbine valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, H.

    2011-01-01

    During the refuelling outage at Unit 2 of Forsmark NPP in 2009, the high pressure turbine valves were replaced. Three month after recommissioning, an oil pipe connected to one of the actuators was broken. Measurements showed high-frequency vibration levels. The pipe break was suspected to be an effect of highly increased vibrations caused by the new valve. In order to establish the origin of the vibrations, investigations by means of CFD-simulations were made. The simulations showed that the increased vibrations most likely stems from the open cavity that the valves centre consists of. (author)

  16. [The role of acoustic impedance test in the diagnosis for occupational noise induced deafness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Xue, L J; Yang, A C; Liang, X Y; Chen, Z Q; Zheng, Q L

    2018-01-20

    Objective: To investigate the characteristics of acoustic impedance test and its diagnostic role for occupational noise induced deafness, in order to provide an objective basis for the differential diagnosis of occupational noise induced deafness. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the cases on the diagnosis of occupational noise-induced deafness in Guangdong province hospital for occupational disease prevention and treatment from January 2016 to January 2017. A total of 198 cases (396 ears) were divided into occupation disease group and non occupation disease group based on the diagnostic criteria of occupational noise deafness in 2014 edition, acoustic conductivity test results of two groups were compared including tympanograms types, external auditory canal volume, tympanic pressure, static compliance and slope. Results: In the occupational disease group, 204 ears were found to have 187 ears (91.67%) of type A, which were significantly higher than those in the non occupational disease group 143/192 (74.48%) , the difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=21.038, P occupation disease group in other type were 16/204 (7.84%) , 3/204 (1.47%) , were lower than Ad or As type of occupation disease group (15.63%) , other type (9.38%) , the differences were statistically significant[ (χ(2)=5.834, P Occupation disease group canal volume average (1.68±0.39) ml higher than that of non occupation disease group (1.57 ± 0.47) ml, the difference was statistically significant ( t =2.756, P occupation disease group mean static compliance (1.06±0.82) ml higher than that of non occupation disease group (0.89±0.64) ml. The difference was statistically singificant ( t =2.59, P occupational noise induced deafness, More than 90% of the confirmed cases showed an A-form tympanograms, it is one of the objective examination methods which can be used in the differential diagnosis of pseudo deafness.

  17. Water flow simulation of the flow-induced vibration phenomenon of the thermowell in the prototype-FBR 'Monju'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anoda, Yoshinari; Kuroda, Takeshi; Kondo, Masaya; Murata, Hideo

    1996-06-01

    On December 8, 1995 a sodium leak event occurred in the secondary heat transport system (SHTS) of the prototype fast breeder reactor (FBR), Monju, owned and operated by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). The direct cause of the leak was a break of a thermowell installed in the loop piping of the SHTS. The break of the thermowell is now believed to have resulted from the flow-induced vibrations due to vortex shedding from the thermowell subjected to a crossflow of sodium. The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has conducted a series of water flow model experiments on the flow-induced vibrations of the thermowell to contribute to the post-factor analyses of the event conducted by the Investigation Taskforce on the Sodium Leak Accident in Monju which was established by the Science and Technology Agency (STA) after this event. The experiments were performed for a wide range of experimental conditions including the condition corresponding to the operating condition of the Monju's thermowell and showed the relationship between the vortex shedding pattern and the vibration mode as well as influence of the damping (stability) parameter on the amplitude of vibration. (author)

  18. Using cross correlations of turbulent flow-induced ambient vibrations to estimate the structural impulse response. Application to structural health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabra, Karim G; Winkel, Eric S; Bourgoyne, Dwayne A; Elbing, Brian R; Ceccio, Steve L; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David R

    2007-04-01

    It has been demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that an estimate of the impulse response (or Green's function) between two receivers can be obtained from the cross correlation of diffuse wave fields at these two receivers in various environments and frequency ranges: ultrasonics, civil engineering, underwater acoustics, and seismology. This result provides a means for structural monitoring using ambient structure-borne noise only, without the use of active sources. This paper presents experimental results obtained from flow-induced random vibration data recorded by pairs of accelerometers mounted within a flat plate or hydrofoil in the test section of the U.S. Navy's William B. Morgan Large Cavitation Channel. The experiments were conducted at high Reynolds number (Re > 50 million) with the primary excitation source being turbulent boundary layer pressure fluctuations on the upper and lower surfaces of the plate or foil. Identical deterministic time signatures emerge from the noise cross-correlation function computed via robust and simple processing of noise measured on different days by a pair of passive sensors. These time signatures are used to determine and/or monitor the structural response of the test models from a few hundred to a few thousand Hertz.

  19. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists do not decrease, but may increase, acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen eZheng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus has been suggested to arise from neuronal hyperactivity in auditory areas of the brain and anti-epileptic drugs are sometimes used to provide relief from tinnitus. Recently, the anti-epileptic properties of the cannabinoid drugs have gained increasing interest; however, the use of cannabinoids as a form of treatment for tinnitus is controversial. In the present study, we tested whether a combination of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC and cannabidiol (CBD, delivered in a 1:1 ratio, could affect tinnitus perception in a rat model of acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus. Following sham treatment or acoustic trauma, the animals were divided into the following groups: 1 sham (i.e. no acoustic trauma with vehicle treatment; 2 sham with drug treatment (i.e. delta-9-THC + CBD; 3 acoustic trauma-exposed exhibiting tinnitus, with drug treatment; and 4 acoustic trauma-exposed exhibiting no tinnitus, with drug treatment. The animals received either the vehicle or the cannabinoid drugs every day, 30 min before the tinnitus behavioural testing. Acoustic trauma caused a significant increase in the auditory brainstem response (ABR thresholds in the exposed animals, indicating hearing loss; however, there was a partial recovery over 6 months. Acoustic trauma did not always result in tinnitus; however among those that did exhibit tinnitus, some of them had tinnitus at multiple frequencies while others had it only at a single frequency. The cannabinoids significantly increased the number of tinnitus animals in the exposed-tinnitus group, but not in the sham group. The results suggest that cannabinoids may promote the development of tinnitus, especially when there is pre-existing hearing damage.

  20. Wing mechanics, vibrational and acoustic communication in a new bush-cricket species of the genus Copiphora (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) from Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Sarria-S, Fabio; Buxton, Kallum; Jonsson, Thorin; Montealegre-Z, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Male bush-crickets produce acoustic signals by wing stridulation to call females. Several species also alternate vibratory signals with acoustic calls for intraspecific communication, a way to reduce risk of detection by eavesdropping predators. Both modes of communication have been documented mostly in neotropical species, for example in the genus Copiphora. In this article, we studied vibratory and acoustic signals and the biophysics of wing resonance in C. vigorosa, a new species from the ...

  1. Acoustically induced spin transport in (110)GaAs quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto, Odilon D.D. Jr.

    2008-09-29

    In this work, we employ surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to transport and manipulate optically generated spin ensembles in (110) GaAs quantum wells (QWs). The strong carrier confinement into the SAW piezoelectric potential allows for the transport of spin-polarized carrier packets along well-defined channels with the propagation velocity of the acoustic wave. In this way, spin transport over distances exceeding 60 m is achieved, corresponding to spin lifetimes longer than 20 ns. The demonstration of such extremely long spin lifetimes is enabled by three main factors: (i) Suppression of the D'yakonov-Perel' spin relaxation mechanism for z-oriented spins in (110) IIIV QWs; (ii) Suppression of the Bir-Aronov-Pikus spin relaxation mechanism caused by the type-II SAW piezoelectric potential; (iii) Suppression of spin relaxation induced by the mesoscopic carrier confinement into narrow stripes along the SAW wave front direction. A spin transport anisotropy under external magnetic fields (B{sub ext}) is demonstrated for the first time. Employing the well-defined average carrier momentum impinged by the SAW, we analyze the spin dephasing dynamics during transport along the [001] and [1 anti 10] in-plane directions. For transport along [001], fluctuations of the internal magnetic field (B{sub int}), which arises from the spin-orbit interaction associated with the bulk inversion asymmetry of the crystal, lead to decoherence within 2 ns as the spins precess around B{sub ext}. In contrast, for transport along the [1 anti 10] direction, the z-component of the spin polarization is maintained for times one order of magnitude longer due to the non-zero average value of B{sub int}. The dephasing anisotropy between the two directions is fully understood in terms of the dependence of the spin-orbit coupling on carrier momentum direction, as predicted by the D'yakonov-Perel' mechanism for the (110) system. (orig.)

  2. Analysis of flow-induced vibration of heat exchanger and steam generator tube bundles using the AECL computer code PIPEAU-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, D.J.

    1983-12-01

    PIPEAU-2 is a computer code developed at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories for the flow-induced vibration analysis of heat exchanger and steam generator tube bundles. It can perform this analysis for straight and 'U' tubes. All the theoretical work underlying the code is analytical rather than numerical in nature. Highly accurate evaluation of the free vibration frequencies and mode shapes is therefore obtained. Using the latest experimentally determined parameters available, the free vibration analysis is followed by a forced vibration analysis. Tube response due to fluid turbulence and vortex shedding is determined, as well as critical fluid velocity associated with fluid-elastic instability

  3. Frequencies in the Vibration Induced by the Rotor Stator Interaction in a Centrifugal Pump Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Cristian; Egusquiza, Eduard; Santos, Ilmar

    2007-01-01

    The highest vibration levels in large pump turbines are, in general, originated in the rotor stator interaction (RSI). This vibration has specific characteristics that can be clearly observed in the frequency domain: harmonics of the moving blade passing frequency and a particular relationship am...

  4. Prediction of railway induced ground vibration through multibody and finite element modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kouroussis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The multibody approach is now recognized as a reliable and mature computer aided engineering tool. Namely, it is commonly used in industry for the design of road or railway vehicles. The paper presents a framework developed for predicting the vibrations induced by railway transportation. Firstly, the vehicle/track subsystem is simulated, on the basis of the home-made C++ library EasyDyn, by mixing the multibody model of the vehicle and the finite element model of the track, coupled to each other through the wheel/rail contact forces. Only the motion in the vertical plane is considered, assuming a total symmetry between left and right rails. This first step produces the time history of the forces exerted by the ballast on the foundation, which are then applied to a full 3-D FEM model of the soil, defined under the commercial software ABAQUS. The paper points out the contribution of the pitch motion of the bogies and carbodies which were neglected in previous publications, as well as the interest of the so-called coupled-lumped mass model (CLM to represent the influence of the foundation in the track model. The potentialities of the model are illustrated on the example of the Thalys high-speed train, riding at 300 km h−1 on the Belgian site of Mévergnies.

  5. Simulation analyses of vibration tests on pile-group effects using blast-induced ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayuki Hashimoto; Kazushige Fujiwara; Katsuichirou Hijikata; Hideo Tanaka; Kohji Koyamada; Atsushi Suzuki; Osamu Kontani

    2005-01-01

    Extensive vibration tests have been performed on pile-supported structures at a large-scale mining site to promote better understanding of the dynamic behavior of pile-supported structures, especially pile-group effects. Two test structures were constructed in an excavated pit. One structure was supported on 25 tubular steel piles and the other on 4. The test pit was backfilled with sand of an appropriate grain size distribution to ensure good compaction. Ground motions induced by large-scale blasting operations were used as excitation forces for the tests. The 3D Finite Element Method (3D FEM)and a Genetic Algorithm (GA) were employed to identify the shear wave velocities and damping factors of the compacted sand, especially of the surface layer. A beam-interaction spring model was employed to simulate the test results of the piles and the pile-supported structures. The superstructure and pile foundation were modeled by a one-stick model comprising lumped masses and beam elements. The pile foundations were modeled just as they were, with lumped masses and beam elements to simulate the test results showing that, for the 25-pile structure, piles at different locations showed different responses. It was confirmed that the analysis methods employed were very useful for evaluating the nonlinear behavior of the soil-pile-structure system, even under severe ground motions. (authors)

  6. Vortex-Induced Vibration Tests of a Marine Growth Wrapped Cylinder at Subcritical Reynolds Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurian V. J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vortex Induced Vibrations (VIV may cause great damage to deep water risers. Estimation of accurate hydrodynamic coefficients and response amplitudes for fouled tubular cylinders subjected to VIVs is a complex task. This paper presents the results of an extensive experimental investigation on in-line and cross-flow forces acting on cylinders wrapped with marine growth, subjected to current at Subcritical Reynolds Number. The drag and lift force coefficients have been determined through the use of the Fast Fourier Analysis methods. The different tests were conducted in the offshore engineering laboratory at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP, Malaysia. In this study, a cylinder with outer diameter Do = 27 mm, fixed at top as cantilever beam was used. The in-line and cross-flow forces were measured using VIV Force Totaller (VIVFT. VIVFT is a two degree of freedom (2DOF forces sensor developed by UTP to measure the VIV forces. The tests were conducted for current velocity varied between 0.118 to 0.59 m/s. The test results suggest that the cylinder wrapped with marine growth has shown an overall increase in drag and inertia coefficients as well as on response amplitudes.

  7. Design and Numerical Simulations of a Flow Induced Vibration Energy Converter for Underwater Mooring Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlong Tian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Limited battery energy restricts the duration of the underwater operation of underwater mooring platforms (UMPs. In this paper, a flow-induced vibration energy converter (FIVEC is designed to produce power for the UMPs and extend their operational time. The FIVEC is equipped with a thin plate to capture the kinetic energy in the vortices shed from the surface of the UMP. A magnetic coupling (MC is applied for the non-contacting transmission of the plate torque to the generators so that the friction loss can be minimized. In order to quantify and evaluate the performance of the FIVEC, two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations are performed. Simulations are based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations and the shear stress transport (SST k-ω turbulent model is utilized. The CFD method is firstly validated using existing experimental data. Then the influences of plate length and system damping on the performance of the FIVEC are evaluated. The results show that the device has a maximum averaged power coefficient of 0.0520 (13.86 W in the considered situations. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of this energy converter plan.

  8. Suppression of vortex-induced vibrations in a flexible cylinder with elastic splitter plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huera-Huarte, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Suppression of vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) is a topic that has received a lot of attention due to its practical implications in engineering design. Experiments have been conducted in a recirculating free surface water channel, with a working section of dimensions 1 × 1.1 × 2.5 m. A cylinder model made of a spring and a plastic cover was used for the experiments. It was placed horizontally and fully submerged in the water channel's free stream, hanging from two submersible load cells arranged to measure the total drag force on the cylinder. The model had several white points painted on its surface, so its VIV motion was obtained by imaging it with two cameras synchronised with a strobe light. Image processing allowed to obtain the displacements along the length of the cylinder with sub-pixel accuracy. Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) was also used to quantify the wake downstream the cylinder. A full set of experiments was made for reference purposes with a plain cylinder without suppressors, and for the same conditions, several passive suppression devices such as elastic splitter plates of different sizes and shapes, were installed on the cylinder. Passive VIV suppression with drag reduction was achieved with some of the configurations tested. Funding provided by the Spanish Ministry of Science through grant DPI2012-37904 is acknowledged.

  9. Experimental Simulation of Flow-Induced Vibration for Developing a Grid-to-Rod Fretting Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngho; Kim, Hyungkyu; Kang, Heungseok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    GTRF margin was calculated based on the fuel reliabilities program of operating power plants. But they have not accumulated sufficient experience under challenging operating conditions to be considered proven solutions. In addition, GTRF behaviors were significantly differed according to the plant types, operating condition and fuel types. So, analytical methods to resolve GTRF degradations are considered as difficult procedures for actual application. One of the most important problems is that it is difficult to evaluate the GTRF resistance of new spacer grid under operating power plant condition. Up to now, as a consequence, compliance with the fretting wear limit (typically 10% of the cladding thickness) is checked a posteriori, through post-irradiation examination. Therefore, in this study, rod simulation method for determining GTRF resistance of new spacer grid was proposed with a specially designed wear tester. This simulator enables us to examine the spacer grid shape effect under relatively short development period. In addition, for developing GTRF model, flow-induced vibration (FIV) was measured with different major variables such as GTR clearance, flow rate, etc. Fretting wear tests of nuclear fuel rods (i. e. grid-to-rod fretting) have been performed to examine the flow rate effect by using a specially designed test section with a simulated primary coolant. Based on above results, developed FIV-wear simulator could be effective to examine the spacer grid shape effect with short development period. Further study will be discussed on the GTR clearance effect with various spacer grid shapes.

  10. Effects Of Whole Body Vibration On Vertical Jump Performance Following Exercise Induced Muscle Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole C. Dabbs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing vertical jump performance is critical for many sports. Following high intensity training, individuals often experience exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD. Many recovery modalities have been tested with conflicting results. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration (WBV on vertical jump performance following EIMD. 27 females volunteered for 7 sessions and were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group and administered each testing day. Vertical jump performance was assessed via vertical jump height (VJH, peak power output (PPO, rate of force development (RFD, relative ground reaction force (GRFz, and peak activation ratio of the vastus medialis (VM via electromyography (EMG before and after 3 days of EIMD via split squats. Two testing sets were collected each day, consisting of pre measures followed by WBV or control, and then post second measures. A 2x8 (group x time mixed factor analysis of variance (ANOVA was conducted for each variable. No significant interactions or group differences were found in any variable. Significant main effects for time were found in any variable, indicating performance declined following muscle damage. These results indicate that WBV does not aid in muscle recovery or vertical jump performance following EIMD.

  11. Examination of hydrodynamic force acting on a circular cylinder in vortex-induced vibrations in synchronization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Linwei; Sun, Zhilin [Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Zhoushan, 316021 (China); Chan, Eng-Soon, E-mail: shenlinwei@zju.edu.cn [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, No. 1 Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2017-04-15

    An immersed boundary method is employed to simulate vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of a circular cylinder in two dimensions. The Reynolds number is 150, and the cylinder mass ratios of 2 and 10 are considered. The synchronization regions for these two mass ratios are determined by the simulations. It is found that the cycle-averaged added mass is about zero at the reduced velocity of 6.1. The instantaneous frequency, which is obtained by Hilbert transformation of the cylinder oscillating displacement, exhibits an important feature whereby the cylinder oscillation in the VIV synchronization region is modulated with a frequency twice the displacement prevailing frequency. The cylinder displacement could still be well approximated by a sine function with a constant frequency and amplitude. However, the lift force acting on the cylinder cannot be estimated in the same manner. In fact, both the lift force amplitude and frequency are modulated. The suggested expression provides a better approximation of the lift force. Moreover, it reveals that the presence of the higher harmonics in the lift force is the result of the amplitude and frequency modulation. (paper)

  12. Design and experimental analysis of broadband energy harvesting from vortex-induced vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. B.; Abdelkefi, A.; Dai, H. L.; Naseer, R.; Wang, L.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, an operable strategy to enhance the output power of piezoelectric energy harvesting from vortex-induced vibration (VIV) using nonlinear magnetic forces is proposed for the first time. Two introduced small magnets with a repulsive force are, respectively, attached on a lower support and the bottom of a circular cylinder which is subjected to a uniform wind speed. Experiments show that the natural frequency of the VIV-based energy harvester is significantly changed by varying the relative position of the two magnets and hence the synchronization region is shifted. It is observed that the proposed energy harvester displays a softening behavior due to the impact of nonlinear magnetic forces, which greatly increases the performance of the VIV-based energy harvesting system, showing a wider synchronization region and a higher level of the harvested power by 138% and 29%, respectively, compared to the classical configuration. This proposed design can provide the groundwork to promote the output power of conventional VIV-based piezoelectric generators, further enabling to realize self-powered systems.

  13. Flow-induced vibration for light water reactors. Progress report, January-June 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Coster, M.A.

    1981-02-01

    Flow-Induced Vibration for Light Water Reactors (FIV for LWRs) is a four-year program designed to improve the FIV performance of light water reactors through the development of design criteria, analytical models for predicting behavior of components, general scaling laws to improve the accuracy of reduced-scale tests, and the identification of high FIV risk areas. The program is managed by the General Electric Nuclear Power Systems Engineering Department and has three major contributors: General Electric Nuclear Power Systems Engineering Department (NPSED), General Electric Corporate Research and Development (CR and D) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The program commenced December 1, 1976, but was suspended on September 30, 1978, due to a shift in Department of Energy (DOE) priorities away from LWR productivity/availability. It was reinitiated as of August 1, 1979. A second program suspension occurred from March 29, 1980 through May 16, 1980, due to funding limits. This progress report summarizes the accomplishments achieved during the period from Janury 1980 to June 1980

  14. CFD Simulation of Vortex Induced Vibration for FRP Composite Riser with Different Modeling Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunguang Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Steel risers are widely used in offshore oil and gas industry. However, the production capacity and depths are limited due to their extreme weight and poor fatigue and corrosion resistance. Nowadays, it is confirmed that fiber reinforced polymer (FRP composite risers have apparent advantages over steel risers. However, the study of vortex induced vibration (VIV for composite risers is rarely involved. Three different risers (one steel riser and two composite risers were compared for their VIV characteristics. The effects of 2D and 3D models and fluid–structure interaction (FSI were considered. The models of composite risers are established by effective modulus method (EMM and layered-structure method (LSM. It is found that 2D model are only suitable for ideal condition, while, for real situation, 3D model with FSI has to be considered. The results show that the displacements of the FRP composite risers are significantly larger than those of the steel riser, while the stresses are reversed. In addition, the distributions of the displacements and stresses depend on the geometries, material properties, top-tension force, constraints, etc. In addition, it is obvious that EMM are suitable to study the global working condition while LSM can be utilized to obtain the results in every single composite layer.

  15. Assessment of the impact of VIV (Vortex Induced Vibrations) on closely spaced production jumpers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Marcoux, Jean-Francois; Legras, Jean-Luc; Bastos, Renato; Rochereau, Max [Acergy, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-19

    Brazilian deep water projects require new concepts both for Early Production and Extended Tests Systems for which Floating Production units with smaller hulls are cost-efficient. Further more the Brazilian environment precludes spread mooring. This results in closely spaced riser configurations. Acergy has investigated the issue of interference between closely spaced risers for a few years in practice (bundle Riser Towers, SCR's), experimentally (with Scripps Institution of Oceanography), and with CFD (with Texas A and M University). The result has been in 2008 the inclusion of the Blevins model in commercially available software. Nevertheless the assessment of the impact of VIV of the upstream riser remained elusive. Measurements performed in 2007 confirmed that the wake behind a cylinder under VIV was expanded and the hydrodynamic forces on the downstream riser strongly affected when the upstream cylinder was undergoing Vortex Induced Vibrations (VIV). Measurements conducted in 2008 up to a Reynolds number of 140 000 appear to validate an engineering approach of the impact of VIV that can be readily included in commercially available software for design engineering purpose. The paper describes the experimental measurements, the proposed wake model, comparison of the measurements and model. Application to the design of deep water riser and jumper systems is also included. (author)

  16. Vortex-Induced Vibrations of a Square Cylinder with Damped Free-End Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Manzoor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the results of vortex-induced vibrations of a square cylinder in a wind tunnel. This constitutes a high mass ratio environment. The square cylinder is mounted in the wind tunnel in such a fashion that it only performs rigid body oscillations perpendicular to the flow direction with damped free-end conditions. This physical situation allows a direct evaluation for analytical models relying on simplified 2D assumptions. The results are also compared with two-dimensional fluid-structure (CFD-CSD numerical simulations. The comparison shows that despite having one-dimensional motion, the analytical model does not predict the VIV region with correctness. Results show that the numerical simulations and experimental results differ from the analytical model for the prediction of reduced velocity corresponding to peak amplitude. Also the analytical reduced velocity envelope is underpredicted compared to both numerical simulations and experimental data despite the structure being lightly damped. The findings are significant as the experimental results for freely oscillating high mass ratio body show differences from the low mass ratio especially in the transition between VIV and galloping regions. However the numerical simulations show comparatively close agreement.

  17. Vortex-Induced Vibrations of a Flexibly-Mounted Cyber-Physical Rectangular Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoue, Kyohei; Strom, Benjamin; Song, Arnold; Breuer, Kenneth

    2013-11-01

    We have developed a cyber-physical system to explore the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) behavior of a flat plate mounted on a virtual spring damper support. The plate is allowed to oscillate about its mid-chord and the measured angular position, velocity, and torque are used as inputs to a feedback control system that provides a restoring torque and can simulate a wide range of structural dynamic behavior. A series of experiments were carried out using different sized plates, and over a range of freestream velocities, equilibrium angles of attack, and simulated stiffness and damping. We observe a synchronization phenomenon over a wide range of parameter space, wherein the plate oscillates at moderate to large amplitude with a frequency dictated by the natural structural frequency of the system. Additionally, the existence of bistable states is reflected in the hysteretic response of the system. The cyber-physical damping extracts energy from the flow and the efficiency of this harvesting mechanism is characterized over a range of dimensionless stiffness and damping parameters. This research is funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR).

  18. Beating motion of a circular cylinder in vortex-induced vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Linwei; Chan, Eng-Soon; Wei, Yan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, beating phenomenon of a circular cylinder in vortex-induced vibration is studied by numerical simulations in a systematic manner. The cylinder mass coefficients of 2 and 10 are considered, and the Reynolds number is 150. Two distinctive frequencies, namely cylinder oscillation and vortex shedding frequencies, are obtained from the harmonic analysis of the cylinder displacement. The result is consistent with that observed in laboratory experiments. It is found that the cylinder oscillation frequency changes with the natural frequency of the cylinder while the reduced velocity is varied. The added-mass coefficient of the cylinder in beating motion is therefore estimated. Meanwhile, the vortex shedding frequency does not change dramatically in the beating situations. In fact, it is very close to 0.2. Accordingly, the lift force coefficient has two main components associated with these two frequencies. Besides, higher harmonics of the cylinder oscillation frequency appear in the spectrum of the lift coefficient. Moreover, the vortex shedding timing is studied in the beating motion by examining the instantaneous flow fields in the wake, and two scenarios of the vortex formation are observed.

  19. Predicting wind-induced vibrations of high-rise buildings using unsteady CFD and modal analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the wind-induced vibration of the CAARC standard tall building model, via unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and a structural modal analysis. In this numerical procedure, the natural unsteady wind in the atmospheric boundary layer is modeled with an artificial inflow turbulence generation method. Then, the turbulent flow is simulated by the second mode of a Zonal Detached-Eddy Simulation, and a conservative quadrature-projection scheme is adopted to transfer unsteady loads from fluid to structural nodes. The aerodynamic damping that represents the fluid-structure interaction mechanism is determined by empirical functions extracted from wind tunnel experiments. Eventually, the flow solutions and the structural responses in terms of mean and root mean square quantities are compared with experimental measurements, over a wide range of reduced velocities. The significance of turbulent inflow conditions and aeroelastic effects is highlighted. The current methodology provides predictions of good accuracy and can be considered as a preliminary design tool to evaluate the unsteady wind effects on tall buildings.

  20. Nonlinear laser dynamics induced by frequency shifted optical feedback: application to vibration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardeau, Vadim; Goloni, Carolina; Jacquin, Olivier; Hugon, Olivier; Inglebert, Mehdi; Lacot, Eric

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we study the nonlinear dynamics of a laser subjected to frequency shifted optical reinjection coming back from a vibrating target. More specifically, we study the nonlinear dynamical coupling between the carrier and the vibration signal. The present work shows how the nonlinear amplification of the vibration spectrum is related to the strength of the carrier and how it must be compensated to obtain accurate (i.e., without bias) vibration measurements. The theoretical predictions, confirmed by numerical simulations, are in good agreement with the experimental data. The main motivation of this study is the understanding of the nonlinear response of a laser optical feedback imaging sensor for quantitative phase measurements of small vibrations in the case of strong optical feedback.

  1. Acoustic radiation force induced resonance elastography of coagulating blood: theoretical viscoelasticity modeling and ex vivo experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Manish; Montagnon, Emmanuel; Destrempes, François; Chayer, Boris; Kazemirad, Siavash; Cloutier, Guy

    2018-03-01

    Deep vein thrombosis is a common vascular disease that can lead to pulmonary embolism and death. The early diagnosis and clot age staging are important parameters for reliable therapy planning. This article presents an acoustic radiation force induced resonance elastography method for the viscoelastic characterization of clotting blood. The physical concept of this method relies on the mechanical resonance of the blood clot occurring at specific frequencies. Resonances are induced by focusing ultrasound beams inside the sample under investigation. Coupled to an analytical model of wave scattering, the ability of the proposed method to characterize the viscoelasticity of a mimicked venous thrombosis in the acute phase is demonstrated. Experiments with a gelatin-agar inclusion sample of known viscoelasticity are performed for validation and establishment of the proof of concept. In addition, an inversion method is applied in vitro for the kinetic monitoring of the blood coagulation process of six human blood samples obtained from two volunteers. The computed elasticity and viscosity values of blood samples at the end of the 90 min kinetics were estimated at 411  ±  71 Pa and 0.25  ±  0.03 Pa · s for volunteer #1, and 387  ±  35 Pa and 0.23  ±  0.02 Pa · s for volunteer #2, respectively. The proposed method allowed reproducible time-varying thrombus viscoelastic measurements from samples having physiological dimensions.

  2. Anharmonicity of lattice vibrations induced by charged nickel additions in A sup 2 B sup 6 semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolov, V I; Shirokov, E A; Kislov, A N

    2002-01-01

    Paper presents the results of investigations into lattice vibrations induced by nickel impurities charged negatively as to the lattice in ZnSe:Ni, ZnO:Ni, ZnS:Ni, CdS:Ni semiconductors. To investigate into vibrations one applies a sensitive technique of field exciton-oscillation spectroscopy. One observes experimentally oscillating reiterations of the impurity exciton head line including the intensive peaks of combined repetitions up to the 8-th order. The experimental results are discussed on the basis of the model estimations of oscillations of a lattice with a charged impurity centre, as well as, on the ground of calculations for oscillations of monoatomic chain with high anharmonicity. Charged impurity centres are shown to induce new oscillations of lattice - impurity anharmonic modes

  3. Vibrationally induced nuclear quadrupole coupling in the v3 = 1 state of 189OsO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scappini, F.; Kreiner, W.A.; Frye, J.M.; Oka, T.

    1987-01-01

    Electric nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure arising from a quadrupolar nucleus at the center of tetrahedral molecules, such as 189 OsO 4 , is symmetry forbidden. However, through vibration--rotation distortion a small nuclear quadrupole coupling is induced. The hyperfine structure due to the vibrationally induced eqQ has been measured for a number of P- and R-branch transitions in the ν 3 fundamental of 189 OsO 4 , by using inverse Lamb dip spectroscopy. Microwave modulation sidebands of CO 2 laser lines have been used as the tunable infrared radiation. From the analysis of the observed hyperfine structure patterns, the values of the scalar and tensor coupling constants have been determined to be chi/sup V//sub s/ = -4.103 +- 0.048 MHz and chi/sup V//sub t/ = -3.090 +- 0.059 MHz

  4. Vibration-induced particle formation during yogurt fermentation-Effect of frequency and amplitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körzendörfer, Adrian; Temme, Philipp; Schlücker, Eberhard; Hinrichs, Jörg; Nöbel, Stefan

    2018-05-01

    Machinery such as pumps used for the commercial production of fermented milk products cause vibrations that can spread to the fermentation tanks. During fermentation, such vibrations can disturb the gelation of milk proteins by causing texture defects including lumpiness and syneresis. To study the effect of vibrations on yogurt structure systematically, an experimental setup was developed consisting of a vibration exciter to generate defined vibrational states and accelerometers for monitoring. During the fermentation of skim milk, vibrations (frequency sweep: 25 to 1,005 Hz) were introduced at different pH (5.7 to 5.1, step width 0.1 units) for 200 s. Physical properties of set gels (syneresis, firmness) and resultant stirred yogurts (visible particles, rheology, laser diffraction) were analyzed. Vibrational treatments at pH 5.5 to 5.2 increased syneresis, gel firmness, and the number of large particles (d > 0.9 mm); hence, this period was considered critical. The particle number increased from 34 ± 5 to 242 ± 16 particles per 100 g of yogurt due to vibrations at pH 5.4. In further experiments, yogurts were excited with fixed frequencies (30, 300, and 1,000 Hz). All treatments increased syneresis, firmness, and particle formation. As the strongest effect was observed by applying 30 Hz, the amplitude was set to vibration accelerations of a = 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 m/s 2 in the final experiments. The number of large particles was increased due to each treatment and a positive correlation with the amplitude was found. We concluded that vibrations during gelation increase the collision probability of aggregating milk proteins, resulting in a compressed set gel with syneresis. Resultant stirred yogurts exhibit large particles with a compact structure leading to a reduced water-holding capacity and product viscosity. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of the Suppression Device as Vortex Induced Vibration (VIV Reducer on Free Span using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Priyanta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Subsea pipeline is a transportation infrastructure of oil and gas as an alternative for ship tanker. The uneven topography surface of the sea floor resulting the pipe undergoes free span. The free span is a condition endured by the pipe where the pipe position has  distance or gap with the seabed supported by two pivot. The free span is at risk of experiencing a vibration caused by the presence of dynamic load that is current and the wave. The vibration that occurs is the impact of the presence of the phenomenon of Vortex Induced Vibration (VIV. The Phenomenon Of VIV occur on a cylindrical component caused by ocean currents, causing the occurrence of vibration by the movement of fluid on the pipe so that it raises the vortex at the rear of the direction of oncoming flow. One way to dampen or reduce the impact of VIV is by adding suppresion device. VIV suppression device is a tool that is installed on the pipeline on offshore piping installationcthat serves to dampen or reduce the impact of VIV. One of the simulations used to know the characteristics of a fluid is to use (CFD Computational Fluid Dynamic. With the addition of suppression device can add the rest of the operating time on a free span of affected VIV, on the condition of free span critical exposed VIV (Vortex Induced Vibration value has a life time on plain pipe 44.21 years, on pipe with 53.09 years and Fairing on the pipe with the Helical strike 52.95 year.

  6. Embedding human annoyance rate models in wireless smart sensors for assessing the influence of subway train-induced ambient vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ke; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Huaping; Kim, Robin E.; Spencer, Billie F., Jr.

    2016-10-01

    The operation of subway trains induces ambient vibrations, which may cause annoyance and other adverse effects on humans, eventually leading to physical, physiological, and psychological problems. In this paper, the human annoyance rate (HAR) models, used to assess the human comfort under the subway train-induced ambient vibrations, were deduced and the calibration curves for 5 typical use circumstances were addressed. An autonomous measurement system, based on the Imote2, wireless smart sensor (WSS) platform, plus the SHM-H, high-sensitivity accelerometer board, was developed for the HAR assessment. The calibration curves were digitized and embedded in the computational core of the WSS unit. Experimental validation was conducted, using the developed system on a large underground reinforced concrete frame structure adjoining the subway station. The ambient acceleration of both basement floors was measured; the embedded computation was implemented and the HAR assessment results were wirelessly transmitted to the central server, all by the WSS unit. The HAR distributions of the testing areas were identified, and the extent to which both basements will be influenced by the close-up subway-train’s operation, in term of the 5 typical use circumstances, were quantitatively assessed. The potential of the WSS-based autonomous system for the fast environment impact assessment of the subway train-induced ambient vibration was well demonstrated.

  7. Wind-induced cable vibrations and countermeasures of cables of PC cable-stayed bridge. PC syachokyo keburu no kaze ni yoru shindo to sono taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, M. (Kawada Industries Inc., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-05-01

    In recent years, long span of cable-stayed bridges is remarkable. The wind-induced cable vibration called as line vibration and wake galloping was given as an important problem not only in the steel cable-stayed bridges but also in the PC cable-stayed bridges. The technical engineers in design of the cable-stayed bridges have many times to confront the problems on the vibration control of cables, it is considered that sufficient understand of the wind-induced vibration and countermeasures for cables of the PC cable-stayed bridges is necessary. Many reports on the countermeasure examples and trend of vibration control centred on cables of the cable-stayed bridges have been published. In this paper, the wind-induced vibration of cables in the cable-stayed bridges was reviewed, the examples of countermeasures of vibration control on cables in the PC cable-stayed bridges was mainly introduced. The remaining tasks and future prospects on vibration control of the PC cable-stayed bridges were described. 14 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Parallel two-phase-flow-induced vibrations in fuel pin model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Fumio; Yamashita, Tadashi

    1978-01-01

    This paper reports the experimental results of vibrations of a fuel pin model -herein meaning the essential form of a fuel pin from the standpoint of vibration- in a parallel air-and-water two-phase flow. The essential part of the experimental apparatus consisted of a flat elastic strip made of stainless steel, both ends of which were firmly supported in a circular channel conveying the two-phase fluid. Vibrational strain of the fuel pin model, pressure fluctuation of the two-phase flow and two-phase-flow void signals were measured. Statistical measures such as power spectral density, variance and correlation function were calculated. The authors obtained (1) the relation between variance of vibrational strain and two-phase-flow velocity, (2) the relation between variance of vibrational strain and two-phase-flow pressure fluctuation, (3) frequency characteristics of variance of vibrational strain against the dominant frequency of the two-phase-flow pressure fluctuation, and (4) frequency characteristics of variance of vibrational strain against the dominant frequency of two-phase-flow void signals. The authors conclude that there exist two kinds of excitation mechanisms in vibrations of a fuel pin model inserted in a parallel air-and-water two-phase flow; namely, (1) parametric excitation, which occurs when the fundamental natural frequency of the fuel pin model is related to the dominant travelling frequency of water slugs in the two-phase flow by the ratio 1/2, 1/1, 3/2 and so on; and (2) vibrational resonance, which occurs when the fundamental frequency coincides with the dominant frequency of the two-phase-flow pressure fluctuation. (auth.)

  9. Low frequency vibrations induce malformations in two aquatic species in a frequency-, waveform-, and direction-specific manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N Vandenberg

    Full Text Available Environmental toxicants such as industrial wastes, air particulates from machinery and transportation vehicles, and pesticide run-offs, as well as many chemicals, have been widely studied for their effects on human and wildlife populations. Yet other potentially harmful environmental pollutants such as electromagnetic pulses, noise and vibrations have remained incompletely understood. Because developing embryos undergo complex morphological changes that can be affected detrimentally by alterations in physical forces, they may be particularly susceptible to exposure to these types of pollutants. We investigated the effects of low frequency vibrations on early embryonic development of two aquatic species, Xenopus laevis (frogs and Danio rerio (zebrafish, specifically focusing on the effects of varying frequencies, waveforms, and applied direction. We observed treatment-specific effects on the incidence of neural tube defects, left-right patterning defects and abnormal tail morphogenesis in Xenopus tadpoles. Additionally, we found that low frequency vibrations altered left-right patterning and tail morphogenesis, but did not induce neural tube defects, in zebrafish. The results of this study support the conclusion that low frequency vibrations are toxic to aquatic vertebrates, with detrimental effects observed in two important model species with very different embryonic architectures.

  10. Flow-Induced Vibration Measurement of an Inner Cladding Tube in a Simulated Dual-Cooled Fuel Rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Hee; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Jae Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    To create an internal coolant flow passage in a dual cooled fuel rod, an inner cladding tube cannot have intermediate supports enough to relieve its vibration. Thus it can be suffered from a flow-induced vibration (FIV) more severely than an outer cladding tube which will be supported by series of spacer grids. It may cause a fatigue failure at welding joints on the cladding's end plug or fluid elastic instability of long, slender inner cladding due to decrease of a critical flow velocity. This is one of the challenging technical issues when a dual cooled fuel assembly is to be realized into a conventional reactor core To study an actual vibration phenomenon of a dual cooled fuel rod, FIV tests using a small-scale test bundle are being carried out. Measurement results of inner cladding tube of two typically simulated rods are presented. Causes of the differences in the vibration amplitude and response spectrum of the inner cladding tube in terms of intermediate support condition and pellet stacking are discussed.

  11. [Development of vibration-induced intrahepatic cholestasis in pilots and new ways of correcting these disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preobrazhenskiĭ, V N; Vasilenko, V V; Taianovskiĭ, V Iu

    1999-01-01

    Data of analysis of the role of vibration in the development of hepatobiliary pathology in helicopter pilots are reported. Vibration was found to drastically deteriorate colloid-osmotic qualities of the bile and increase the lithogenesis risk. Exposure to vibration over 10 and more years of the flying career may instigate cholelithiasis. Dynamic USI with functional testing for early diagnostics and correction with ursodeoxycholic acid (ursosan) of disorders in the colloid-osmotic properties of the bile and can be proposed as one of the methods to prevent cholelithiasis.

  12. Measurements of seismic vibrations induced by Quarry blasts at the Mostecká basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaláb, Zdeněk

    -, č. 271 (2006), s. 49-58 ISSN 0372-9508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : seismic vibration * slope stability * quarry blast Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  13. Broadband Acoustic Transmission Enhancement through a Structured Stiff Plate with Locally Resonant Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yong; Liang Bin; Zou Xin-Ye; Cheng Jian-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Broadband acoustic transmission enhancement (ATE) is realized for a periodically structured stiff plate without any opening that is conventionally thought to be only capable of supporting narrowband ATE, by introducing locally resonant (LR) elements. This exotic phenomenon is interpreted by analyzing the vibration pattern of the structure-induced LR modes, and is well modeled by a simple 'spring-mass' system which reveals the contribution of the LR effect to the important broadband performance. Our findings should help to better understand the physical mechanism of ATE and may have potential impact on ultrasonic applications such as broadband acoustic filters or compact acoustic devices in subwavelength scale

  14. Microbial-Induced Heterogeneity in the Acoustic Properties of Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acoustic wave data were acquired over a two-dimensional region of a microbial-stimulated sand column and an unstimulated sand column to assess the spatiotemporal changes in a porous medium caused by microbial growth and biofilm formation. The acoustic signals from the unstimulate...

  15. Acoustic pressure oscillations induced by confined turbulent premixed natural glas flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the development and validation of efientt numerical algorithms to check combustion systems for their sensitivity to thermoacoustic instabilities. For this purpose, a good acoustic model is needed. Since the acoustics in combustion systems are essentially

  16. Laser-induced acoustic landmine detection with experimental results on buried landmines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, J.C. van den; Putten, F.J.M. van; Koersel, A.C. van; Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Acoustic landmine detection (ALD) is a technique for the detection of buried landmines including non-metal mines. Since it gives complementary results with GPR or metal detection, sensor fusion of these techniques with acoustic detection would give promising results. Two methods are used for the

  17. Quantum decoherence in electronic current flowing through carbon nanotubes induced by thermal atomic vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizeki, Keisuke; Sasaoka, Kenji; Konabe, Satoru; Souma, Satofumi; Yamamoto, Takahiro

    2018-06-01

    We theoretically investigate quantum decoherence in electronic currents flowing through metallic carbon nanotubes caused by thermal atomic vibrations using the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for an open system. We reveal that the quantum coherence of conduction electrons decays exponentially with tube length at a fixed temperature, and that the decay rate increases with temperature. We also find that the phase relaxation length due to the thermal atomic vibrations is inversely proportional to temperature.

  18. Fluid elastic vibration of nuclear fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. N.; Jung, S. Y.

    1998-01-01

    Since utilities and fuel venders have adopted the fuel design of high burn-up and improved thermal margin flow mixing vane, several PWR nuclear power plants have in recent years experienced fretting wear fuel rod failure due to flow induced vibration. Flow induced vibration can be resulted from fluidelastic instability, periodic shedding, turbulence-induced excitation, and acoustic resonance (1). Among these mechanisms found in the core of nuclear power plant, the governing mechanism that is fluidelastic instability, could be inferred from the analysis of fuel failure patterns. Therefore, to simulate the fuel failure in nuclear power plants, Tanaka's model (2) was chosen as most suitable one, which is well explaining the damage pattern, in particular it's second row damage characteristics. In the model, unsteady fluid dynamic forces acting on the vibrating cyclinders were included which consists of the inertia forces due to the added mass of fluid, damping forces of fluid in phase to the cylinder vibrating velocity, and stiffness forces proportional to cylinder displacements. However, the model did not account for radiation effect-spring forces deflection. So, the model was modified to account for the spring force relaxation due to radiation exposure. The stiffness of spring was fitted with experimental data. Finally the critical velocities were calculated with the modified spring force at beginning and end of cycle

  19. Flow-induced vibration for light water reactors. Progress report, December 1976--May 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schardt, J.

    1977-09-01

    The report describes the program objectives, overall work plans, and progress achieved. A description is also given of the related state-of-the-art flow-induced vibration (FIV) technology which represents the starting point of the program. The program has been developed to increase plant availability through substantially reducing downtime caused by FIV failure of components. It is a four-year balanced effort of fundamental studies, analyses, tests of idealized conditions, and realistic tests of reactor components, all leading to the preparation of design guides and criteria for LWR's. The specific goals of the program are to: (1) produce improved FIV design criteria; (2) provide improved analytical methods for predicting behavior of components; (3) provide general scaling laws which will improve the accuracy of reduced-scale tests (required for those situations where it is impossible to predict the FIV response analytically or through full-scale testing); and (4) identify high FIV risk areas. To achieve these goals, the program has been divided into four major tasks: (1) fundamental studies; (2) model and full-size tests; (3) design methods, guides and criteria; and (4) program administration. Task 1 will provide a better understanding of FIV phenomena through a combination of fundamental tests and analyses of geometries common in LWR's and mechanisms which can cause FIV. The studies will systematically vary parameters using relatively small-scale idealized geometries and controlled flow fields. Task 2 will verify and extend the results of Task 1 through the testing of realistic LWR component geometries. Task 3 will develop analytical methods, as well as utilize the results of Tasks 1 and 2 to produce design guides, predictive models, and scaling laws. Task 4 will administrate the program, as well as insure that pressure water reactor (PWR) needs are given proper consideration

  20. Application of flow-induced vibration predictive techniques to operating steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauve, R.G.; Tabatabai, M.; Morandin, G.; Kozluk, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Analytical techniques for flow-induced vibration (FIV), such as those incorporated in available design tools, are routinely applied to process equipment at the initial design stage. Unfortunately, this does not always apply to the situation when problems, related to FIV, develop in crucial operating equipment, since design uses conservative methods, whereas in-service applications require more realistic assessments. Usually these problems appear in the form of severe through wall fret flaws or fatigue cracks that compromise the integrity of the tubes and possibly the complete unit. It is here where a somewhat different approach must be taken in the evaluation of tube response to FIV. Tube damage from fretting wear or fatigue crack growth must be estimated from actual in situ operating conditions. In this paper, an overview of the predictive methods used in the development and/or qualification of remedial measures for problems that occur in operating process equipment along with applications are described. The steps in the evaluation procedure, from the prediction of flow regimes, the development of the nonlinear computer models and associated fluid forcing functions through to the estimates of tube damage in operating heat exchangers and steam generators are presented. A probabilistic (i.e. Monte Carlo simulation) FIV approach that readily accommodates uncertainties associated with damage predictions is summarized. The efficacy of this approach comes from the fact that probabilistic methods facilitate the incorporation of field data, and that a large number of tubes and possible variations in geometry, process and support conditions, usually present in such equipment, can be addressed effectively. (author)

  1. A visualization study of flow-induced acoustic resonance in a branched pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanrong; Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji

    2008-01-01

    Systems with closed side-branches are liable to an excitation of sound, as called cavity tones. It may occur in pipe branches leading to safety valves or to boiler relief valves. The outbreak mechanism of the cavity tone has been known by phase-averaged measurement in previous researches, while the relation between sound propagation and flow field is still unclear due to the difficulty of detecting instantaneous pressure field. High time-resolved PIV has a possibility to analyze the pressure field and the relation mentioned above. In this report, flow-induced acoustic resonances of piping system containing closed side-branches were investigated experimentally. A High-Time-Resolved PIV technique was applied to measure a gas-flow in a cavity-tone. Air flow containing an oil mist as tracer particles was measured using a high frequency pulse laser and a high-speed camera. The present investigation on the coaxial closed side-branches is the first rudimentary study to measure the flow field two-dimensionally and simultaneously with the pressure measurement at multi-points and to visualize the fluid flow in the cross-section by using PIV. The fluid flows at different points in the cavity interact with some phase differences and the relation should be clarified. (author)

  2. The Acute Effect of Local Vibration As a Recovery Modality from Exercise-Induced Increased Muscle Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Pournot, Jérémy Tindel, Rodolphe Testa, Laure Mathevon, Thomas Lapole

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Exercise involving eccentric muscle contractions is known to decrease range of motion and increase passive muscle stiffness. This study aimed at using ultrasound shear wave elastography to investigate acute changes in biceps brachii passive stiffness following intense barbell curl exercise involving both concentric and eccentric contractions. The effect of local vibration (LV as a recovery modality from exercise-induced increased stiffness was further investigated. Eleven subjects performed 4 bouts of 10 bilateral barbell curl movements at 70% of the one-rep maximal flexion force. An arm-to-arm comparison model was then used with one arm randomly assigned to the passive recovery condition and the other arm assigned to the LV recovery condition (10 min of 55-Hz vibration frequency and 0.9-mm amplitude. Biceps brachii shear elastic modulus measurements were performed prior to exercise (PRE, immediately after exercise (POST-EX and 5 min after the recovery period (POST-REC. Biceps brachii shear elastic modulus was significantly increased at POST-EX (+53 ± 48%; p < 0.001 and POST-REC (+31 ± 46%; p = 0.025 when compared to PRE. No differences were found between passive and LV recovery (p = 0.210. LV as a recovery strategy from exercise-induced increased muscle stiffness was not beneficial, probably due to an insufficient mechanical action of vibrations.

  3. Design specifications to ensure flow-induced vibration and fretting-wear performance in CANDU steam generators and heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzen, V.P.; Han, Y.; Pettigrew, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Preventing flow-induced vibration and fretting-wear problems in steam generators and heat exchangers requires design specifications that bring together specific guidelines, analysis methods, requirements and appropriate performance criteria. This paper outlines the steps required to generate and support such design specifications for CANDU nuclear steam generators and heat exchangers, and relates them to typical steam-generator design features and computer modeling capabilities. It also describes current issues that are driving changes to flow-induced vibration and fretting-wear specifications that can be applied to the design process for component refurbishment, replacement or new designs. These issues include recent experimental or field evidence for new excitation mechanisms, e.g., the possibility of in-plane fluidelastic instability of U-tubes, the demand for longer reactor and component lifetimes, the need for better predictions of dynamic properties and vibration response, e.g., two-phase random-turbulence excitation, and requirements to consider system 'excursions' or abnormal scenarios, e.g., a main steam line break in the case of steam generators. The paper describes steps being taken to resolve these issues. (author)

  4. Laboratory measurements of vortex- and wake-induced vibrations of a tandem arrangement of two flexible risers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huai-zeng; Wang, Fei; Jiang, Guo-sheng; Guo, Hai-yan; Li, Xiao-min

    2016-03-01

    The dynamic response of two flexible model risers in tandem arrangement immersed in a stepped current was analyzed. The risers, with an external diameter of 20 mm and a total length of 6200 mm, had an aspect ratio of 310. They were hinged to the support structure at the center-to-center distances away 3-12 times the external diameter. The top 1200 mm was exposed to a uniform current at a speed which was up to 0.9 m/s (the Reynolds number was 18000) and the rest in still water. The dynamic responses, which were obtained through the Fiber Bragg Grating strain gauges mounted on the surface, were analyzed by studying the cross-flow amplitudes and modal weights. The cross-flow vibration were observed up to the third mode, and the modal transformation from the second mode to the third mode was clearly observed. The experiment confirmed that the typical vortex-induced vibration (VIV) had occurred on the up-stream riser. But for the down-stream riser, the main excitation mechanism was wake-induced vibration (WIV). The modal transformation of WIV was more complex than that of VIV, which might be helpful for other researchers to study the interference effect.

  5. Influence of light-induced conical intersection on the photodissociation dynamics of D2(+) starting from individual vibrational levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halász, Gábor J; Csehi, András; Vibók, Ágnes; Cederbaum, Lorenz S

    2014-12-26

    Previous works have shown that dressing of diatomic molecules by standing or by running laser waves gives rise to the appearance of so-called light-induced conical intersections (LICIs). Because of the strong nonadiabatic couplings, the existence of such LICIs may significantly change the dynamical properties of a molecular system. In our former paper (J. Phys. Chem. A 2013, 117, 8528), the photodissociation dynamics of the D(2)(+) molecule were studied in the LICI framework starting the initial vibrational nuclear wave packet from the superposition of all the vibrational states initially produced by ionizing D(2). The present work complements our previous investigation by letting the initial nuclear wave packets start from different individual vibrational levels of D(2)(+), in particular, above the energy of the LICI. The kinetic energy release spectra, the total dissociation probabilities, and the angular distributions of the photofragments are calculated and discussed. An interesting phenomenon has been found in the spectra of the photofragments. Applying the light-induced adiabatic picture supported by LICI, explanations are given for the unexpected structure of the spectra.

  6. Study on flow-induced acoustic resonance in symmetrically located side-branches using dynamic PIV technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanrong; Inagaki, Terumi; Nishi, Yasuyuki; Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Flow-induced acoustic resonance in a piping system containing closed coaxial side-branches was investigated experimentally. Resonance characteristics of the piping system were examined by a microphone. The results revealed that the resonance frequencies of the shear layer instability were locked in corresponding to the natural frequencies of the side-branches. Phase-averaged velocity fields were obtained two-dimensionally in the junction of coaxial side-branches by dynamic particle image velocimetry (PIV), while the acoustic resonance was induced at the first and second hydrodynamic modes. Patterns of jet correspond to two hydrodynamic modes were derived from the phase-averaged velocity fields. The dynamic PIV can acquire time-series velocity fluctuations, then, two-dimensional phase delay maps under resonance and off-resonance conditions in the junction of coaxial side-branches were obtained. Experimental results show that the proposed phase delay map method costs less experiment and computation time and achieves a better accuracy and repetition than the phase-locking technique. In addition, the phase delay map method can obtain phase difference under the different frequency components. This is important when two different acoustic modes were induced in one experimental condition. (author)

  7. Predictions and Observations of Low-shear Beta-induced Alfvén-acoustic Eigenmodes in Toroidal Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelenkov, N. N.; Berk, H. L.; Fredrickson, E.; Sharapov, S. E.

    2007-07-02

    New global MHD eigenmode solutions arising in gaps in the low frequency Alfvén -acoustic continuum below the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) frequency have been found numerically and have been used to explain relatively low frequency experimental signals seen in NSTX and JET tokamaks. These global eigenmodes, referred to here as Beta-induced Alfvén-Acoustic Eigenmodes (BAAE), exist in the low magnetic safety factor region near the extrema of the Alfvén-acoustic continuum. In accordance to the linear dispersion relations, the frequency of these modes shifts as the safety factor, q, decreases. We show that BAAEs can be responsible for observations in JET plasmas at relatively low beta < 2% as well as in NSTX plasmas at relatively high beta > 20%. In contrast to the mostly electrostatic character of GAMs the new global modes also contain an electromagnetic (magnetic field line bending) component due to the Alfvén coupling, leading to wave phase velocities along the field line that are large compared to the sonic speed. Qualitative agreement between theoretical predictions and observations are found.

  8. Predictions and observations of low-shear beta-induced shear Alfven-acoustic eigenmodes in toroidal plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelenkov, N.N. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University (United States)], E-mail: ngorelen@pppl.gov; Berk, H.L. [IFS, Austin, Texas (United States); Fredrickson, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University (United States); Sharapov, S.E. [Euroatom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United States)

    2007-10-08

    New global MHD eigenmode solutions arising in gaps in the low frequency Alfven-acoustic continuum below the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) frequency have been found numerically and have been used to explain relatively low frequency experimental signals seen in NSTX and JET tokamaks. These global eigenmodes, referred to here as Beta-induced Alfven-Acoustic Eigenmodes (BAAE), exist in the low magnetic safety factor region near the extrema of the Alfven-acoustic continuum. In accordance to the linear dispersion relations, the frequency of these modes shifts as the safety factor, q, decreases. We show that BAAEs can be responsible for observations in JET plasmas at relatively low beta <2% as well as in NSTX plasmas at relatively high-beta >20%. In contrast to the mostly electrostatic character of GAMs the new global modes also contain an electromagnetic (magnetic field line bending) component due to the Alfven coupling, leading to wave phase velocities along the field line that are large compared to the sonic speed. Qualitative agreement between theoretical predictions and observations are found.

  9. Flow-induced vibration and flow characteristics prediction for a sliding roller gate by two-dimensional unsteady CFD simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nak-Geun; Lee, Kye-Bock [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yong [Korea Water Resources Corporation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    Numerical analysis on the flow induced vibration and flow characteristics in the water gate has been carried out by 2-dimensional unsteady CFD simulation when sea water flows into the port in the river. Effect of gate opening on the frequency and the mean velocity and the vortex shedding under the water gate were studied. The streamlines were compared for various gate openings. To get the frequency spectrum, Fourier transform should be performed. Spectral analysis of the excitation force signals permitted identification of the main characteristics of the interaction process. The results show that the sources of disturbed frequency are the vortex shedding from under the water gate. As the gate opening ratio increases, the predicted vibration frequency decreases. The bottom scouring occurs for large gate opening rather than smaller one. The unstable operation conditions can be estimated by using the CFD results and the Strouhal number results for various gate opening gaps.

  10. Flow-induced vibration and flow characteristics prediction for a sliding roller gate by two-dimensional unsteady CFD simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nak-Geun; Lee, Kye-Bock; Cho, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Numerical analysis on the flow induced vibration and flow characteristics in the water gate has been carried out by 2-dimensional unsteady CFD simulation when sea water flows into the port in the river. Effect of gate opening on the frequency and the mean velocity and the vortex shedding under the water gate were studied. The streamlines were compared for various gate openings. To get the frequency spectrum, Fourier transform should be performed. Spectral analysis of the excitation force signals permitted identification of the main characteristics of the interaction process. The results show that the sources of disturbed frequency are the vortex shedding from under the water gate. As the gate opening ratio increases, the predicted vibration frequency decreases. The bottom scouring occurs for large gate opening rather than smaller one. The unstable operation conditions can be estimated by using the CFD results and the Strouhal number results for various gate opening gaps.

  11. Flow-Induced Pulsation and Vibration in Hydroelectric Machinery Engineer’s Guidebook for Planning, Design and Troubleshooting

    CERN Document Server

    Dörfler, Peter; Coutu, André

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1970’s, an increasing amount of specialized research has focused on the problems created by instability of internal flow in hydroelectric power plants. However, progress in this field is hampered by the inter­disciplinary nature of the subject, between fluid mechanics, structural mechanics and hydraulic transients. Flow-induced Pulsation and Vibration in Hydroelectric Machinery provides a compact guidebook explaining the many different underlying physical mechanisms and their possible effects.   Typical phenomena are described to assist in the proper diagnosis of problems and various key strategies for solution are compared and considered with support from practical experience and real-life examples. The link between state-of the-art CFD computation and notorious practical problems is discussed  and quantitative data is provided on  normal levels of vibration and pulsation so realistic limits can be set for future projects. Current projects are also addressed as the possibilities and limitatio...

  12. Vibrationally induced inversion of photoelectron forward-backward asymmetry in chiral molecule photoionization by circularly polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gustavo A.; Nahon, Laurent; Daly, Steven; Powis, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Electron–nuclei coupling accompanying excitation and relaxation processes is a fascinating phenomenon in molecular dynamics. A striking and unexpected example of such coupling is presented here in the context of photoelectron circular dichroism measurements on randomly oriented, chiral methyloxirane molecules, unaffected by any continuum resonance. Here, we report that the forward-backward asymmetry in the electron angular distribution, with respect to the photon axis, which is associated with photoelectron circular dichroism can surprisingly reverse direction according to the ion vibrational mode excited. This vibrational dependence represents a clear breakdown of the usual Franck–Condon assumption, ascribed to the enhanced sensitivity of photoelectron circular dichroism (compared with other observables like cross-sections or the conventional anisotropy parameter-β) to the scattering phase off the chiral molecular potential, inducing a dependence on the nuclear geometry sampled in the photoionization process. Important consequences for the interpretation of such dichroism measurements within analytical contexts are discussed. PMID:23828557

  13. Development of a perpendicular vibration-induced electrical discharge machining process for fabrication of partially wavy inner structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Chul; Park, Sang Hu; Min, June Kee; Ha, Man Yeong; Shin, Bo Sung [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jong Rae [Korea Maritime University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Heat transfer enhancement is an important issue in energy systems. To improve the efficiency of a cooling channel used inside injection molds, turbine blades, and high-temperature devices, channels with various shapes, such as wavy, elliptical, and twisted, have been studied. A cooling channel with a partially wavy inner structure has shown outstanding cooling performance despite a small increase in friction factor. However, generating a partially wavy inner structure inside a channel through conventional machining processes is not easy. To address this problem, we developed a new process called Perpendicular vibration-induced electrical discharge machining (PV-EDM). A specific electrode and one- and random-directional vibrating devices controlled by a pneumatic load were designed for the PV-EDM process. Experimental results showed that local shaping on the inner wall of a channel is possible, which confirmed the possibility of application of this process to actual industrial problems.

  14. An energy signature scheme for steam trap assessment and flow rate estimation using pipe-induced acoustic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Allgood, Glenn O.; Kuruganti, Teja P.; Lake, Joe E.

    2012-06-01

    The US Congress has passed legislation dictating that all government agencies establish a plan and process for improving energy efficiencies at their sites. In response to this legislation, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has recently conducted a pilot study to explore the deployment of a wireless sensor system for a real-time measurement-based energy efficiency optimization framework within the steam distribution system within the ORNL campus. We make assessments on the real-time status of the distribution system by observing the state measurements of acoustic sensors mounted on the steam pipes/traps/valves. In this paper, we describe a spectral-based energy signature scheme that interprets acoustic vibration sensor data to estimate steam flow rates and assess steam traps health status. Experimental results show that the energy signature scheme has the potential to identify different steam trap health status and it has sufficient sensitivity to estimate steam flow rate. Moreover, results indicate a nearly quadratic relationship over the test region between the overall energy signature factor and flow rate in the pipe. The analysis based on estimated steam flow and steam trap status helps generate alerts that enable operators and maintenance personnel to take remedial action. The goal is to achieve significant energy-saving in steam lines by monitoring and acting on leaking steam pipes/traps/valves.

  15. Experimental validation of the design method to prevent flow-induced vibration in high Reynolds-number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takaaki; Yamaguchi, Akira; Morisita, Masaki; Iwata, Koji

    1998-08-01

    The incident of sodium leakage from a main pipe of the secondary heat transport system of Monju fast breeder reactor was caused by the failure of a thermometer well. 'Flow-induced vibration design guide for thermometer wells' (express as 'design guide') was proposed by PNC Working Group to prevent the same cause of the sodium leak incident in future. On this report, applicability of the 'design guide' was estimated to plant conditions in high Reynolds-number(approximately 3x10 5 ∼ 3x10 6 ) involving the supercritical region, by measured data on a vortex synchronized vibration and a turbulence induced vibration. Experiments were performed for cylindrical and taper shaped types of test pieces. As results, reduced velocity (Vr) at onsets of the inline synchronized vibration were evaluated to be grater than 1.0 in the range of experimental conditions. Fluctuating drag and lift coefficients, which were evaluated from power spectrum of turbulence for Vr < 1.0 condition, were 0.01 ∼ 0.05 for drag direction and 0.04 ∼ 0.13 for lift direction. The fluctuating drag and lift coefficients used in the 'design guide' were estimated to be conservative by comparison with these data. Correlation lengths for a cylinder and a taper shaped one in the high Reynolds-number region were estimated to be 1.6 times of the diameter(D) in the maximum case. The measured value of correlation length is enough smaller than the 'design guide' value of 3.0D. Displacement amplitudes of test pieces for Vr < 1.0 conditions were enough smaller (fives times) than calculated values based on the 'design guide'. Consequently, the applicability of the design guide' was confirmed in the range of experiments involving the super critical Reynolds-number region. (author)

  16. Eutectic growth under acoustic levitation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, W J; Cao, C D; Lü, Y J; Wei, B

    2002-12-01

    Samples of Pb-Sn eutectic alloy with a high density of 8.5 x 10(3) kg/m(3) are levitated with a single-axis acoustic levitator, and containerlessly melted and then solidified in argon atmosphere. High undercoolings up to 38 K are obtained, which results in a microstructural transition of "lamellas-broken lamellas-dendrites." This transition is further investigated in the light of the coupled zone for eutectic growth and the effects of ultrasound. The breaking of regular eutectic lamellas and suppression of gravity-induced macrosegregation of (Pb) and (Sn) dendrites are explained by the complicated internal flow inside the levitated drop, which is jointly induced by the shape oscillation, bulk vibration and rotation of the levitated drop. The ultrasonic field is also found to drive forced surface vibration, which subsequently excites capillary ripples and catalyzes nucleation on the sample surface.

  17. Select Internet Resources on Acoustics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela R. Davis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Merriam-Webster (2016 defines acoustics as, “a science that deals with the production, control, transmission, reception, and effects of sounds.” According to Rossing (2014, the study of acoustics began in ancient Greece with Pythagoras’ study of vibrating strings on musical instruments. Since those early beginnings, famous scientists including Rayleigh, Alexander Graham Bell, and Thomas Edison, have helped expand the field of acoustics to include architectural, physical, engineering, structural, underwater, physiological and psychological, musical acoustics, and speech. Acoustics is a highly interdisciplinary field and researchers may need resources from physics, medicine, and engineering to understand all aspects of their research.

  18. Digital Controller For Acoustic Levitation

    Science.go