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Sample records for acoustically enhanced remediation

  1. Acoustically enhanced remediation of contaminated soil and ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iovenitti, J.L.; Rynne, T.M.; Spencer, J.W. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    This program systematically evaluates the use of acoustic excitation fields (AEFs) to increase fluid and contaminant extraction rates from a wide range of unconsolidated soils. Successful completion of this program will result in a commercially-viable, advanced in-situ remediation technology that will significantly reduce clean-up times and costs. This technology should have wide applicability since it is envisioned to augment existing remediation technologies, such as traditional pump and treat and soil vapor extraction, not replace them. The overall program has three phases: Phase 1--laboratory scale parametric investigation; Phase 2--technology scaling study; Phase 3--field demonstration. Phase 1 of the program, corresponding to this period of performance, has as its primary objectives to provide a laboratory-scale proof of concept, and to fully characterize the effects of AEFs on fluid and contaminant extraction rates in a wide variety of soil types. The laboratory measurements of the soil transport properties and process parameters will be used in a computer model of the enhanced remediation process. A Technology Merit and Trade Study will complete Phase 1.

  2. Acoustically enhanced remediation of contaminated soils and ground water. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Phase 1 laboratory bench-scale investigation results have shown that acoustically enhanced remediation (AER) technology can significantly accelerate the ground water remediation of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in unconsolidated soils. The testing also determined some of the acoustic parameters which maximize fluid and contaminant extraction rates. A technology merit and trade analysis identified the conditions under which AER could be successfully deployed in the field, and an analysis of existing acoustical sources and varying methods for their deployment found that AER technology can be successfully deployed in-situ. Current estimates of deployability indicate that a NAPL plume 150 ft in diameter can be readily remediated. This program focused on unconsolidated soils because of the large number of remediation sites located in this type of hydrogeologic setting throughout the nation. It also focused on NAPLs and low permeability soil because of the inherent difficult in the remediation of NAPLs and the significant time and cost impact caused by contaminated low permeability soils. This overall program is recommended for Phase 2 which will address the technology scaling requirements for a field scale test.

  3. Laboratory {open_quotes}proof of principle{close_quotes} investigation for the acoustically enhanced remediation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iovenitti, J.L.; Spencer, J.W. Jr.; Hill, D.G. [Weiss Associates, Emergyville, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Weiss Associates is conducting a three phase program investigating the systematics of using acoustic excitation fields (AEFs) to enhance the in-situ remediation of contaminated soil and ground water under both saturated and unsaturated conditions: Phase I - Laboratory Scale Parametric Investigation; Phase II - Technology Scaling Study; and Phase III - Large Scale Field Tests. Phase I, the subject of this paper, consisted primarily of a laboratory proof of principle investigation. The field deployment and engineering viability of acoustically enhanced remediation (AER) technology was also examined. Phase II is a technology scaling study addressing the scale up between laboratory size samples on the order of inches, and the data required for field scale testing, on the order of hundreds of feet. Phase III will consist of field scale testing at an non-industrialized, non-contaminated site and at a contaminated site to validate the technology. Summarized herein are the results of the Phase I {open_quotes}proof-of-principle{close_quotes} investigation, and recommendations for Phase H. A general overview of AER technology along with the plan for the Phase I investigation was presented.

  4. Acoustically enhanced heat transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, Kar M.; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming K., E-mail: tan.ming.kwang@monash.edu [School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor (Malaysia); Yeo, Leslie Y. [Micro/Nanophysics Research Laboratory, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); Friend, James R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We investigate the enhancement of heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime by inducing high frequency acoustic waves (f ∼ 10{sup 6} Hz) on the heated surface. In the experiments, liquid droplets (deionized water) are dispensed directly onto a heated, vibrating substrate. At lower vibration amplitudes (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −9} m), the improved heat transfer is mainly due to the detachment of vapor bubbles from the heated surface and the induced thermal mixing. Upon increasing the vibration amplitude (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −8} m), the heat transfer becomes more substantial due to the rapid bursting of vapor bubbles happening at the liquid-air interface as a consequence of capillary waves travelling in the thin liquid film between the vapor bubble and the air. Further increases then lead to rapid atomization that continues to enhance the heat transfer. An acoustic wave displacement amplitude on the order of 10{sup −8} m with 10{sup 6} Hz order frequencies is observed to produce an improvement of up to 50% reduction in the surface temperature over the case without acoustic excitation.

  5. Enhanced Remediation of a Hydrocarbon Polluted Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Wokoma and C.C.Wokocha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use NPKs, saw dust and poultry manure as enhanced remediation techniques of a crude oil polluted soil, using a 42-day study period, time length. Polluted soil samples were collected at 0-10 cm depth from different polluted sites of the same area. Physicochemical parametres such as pottasium concentration and total hydrocarbon recorded a decrease at the 6th week, after application and lab testing. Total organic carbon recorded an increase on the 6th week, for treatments containing; PS+SD, PS+NPK and PS+PM. pH ranged between 5.21-10.1. The results suggest that a combination of ammendments in the right proportion w ould be effective in the remediation of crude oil polluted soil.

  6. Acoustic Cavitation: A Potential Remediation Technology for On-Site Elimination of Perfluorinated Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecitis, C. D.; Cheng, J.; Park, H.; Hoffmann, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    Perfluorinated chemicals are emerging as globally ubiquitous contaminants which are recalcitrant to the conventional remediation techniques of adsorption and chemical oxidation. The release of these chemicals to the environment occurs from specific sites such as manufacturing plants, fire-fighting foams at airports and contaminated landfills. Even though these compounds are widely recognized as potentially hazardous, disposal regulations have been limited due to the ineffectiveness of current pump and treat technologies towards these species. We have shown that ultrasonically induced acoustic cavitation can effectively mineralize aqueous perfluorinated acid and sulfonate species by in situ pyrolysis and chemical oxidation at the lab and pilot scale. Efficiency has been tested on a variety of matrices such as tap water, groundwater and landfill pump-out with VOC content being the major detriment towards remediation. Advanced oxidation by the simultaneously application of ozone and ultrasound seems to partially eliminate this barrier by enhancing the rate of VOC mineralization. Application of this technology to a contaminated field site and the obstacles of scaling to such a degree are discussed.

  7. Acoustic enhancement for photo detecting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundat, Thomas G; Senesac, Lawrence R; Van Neste, Charles W

    2013-02-19

    Provided are improvements to photo detecting devices and methods for enhancing the sensitivity of photo detecting devices. A photo detecting device generates an electronic signal in response to a received light pulse. An electro-mechanical acoustic resonator, electrically coupled to the photo detecting device, damps the electronic signal and increases the signal noise ratio (SNR) of the electronic signal. Increased photo detector standoff distances and sensitivities will result.

  8. Enhanced acoustic transmission through a slanted grating

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    It is known that an acoustic wave incident on an infinite array of aligned rectangular blocks of a different acoustic material exhibits total transmission if certain conditions are met [1] which relate the unique "intromission" angle of incidence with geometric and material properties of the slab. This extraordinary acoustic transmission phenomenon holds for any slab thickness, making it analogous to a Brewster effect in optics, and is independent of frequency as long as the slab microstructure is sub-wavelength in the length-wise direction. Here we show that the enhanced transmission effect is obtained in a slab with grating elements oriented obliquely to the slab normal. The dependence of the intromission angle $\\theta_i$ is given explicitly in terms of the orientation angle. Total transmission is achieved at incidence angles $\\pm \\theta_i$, with a relative phase shift between the transmitted amplitudes of the $+\\theta_i$ and $- \\theta_i$ cases. These effects are shown to follow from explicit formulas for t...

  9. Pulse current enhanced electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tian R.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille E.

    2012-01-01

    extent depending on the pulse frequency. The experiment with the frequency of 16 cycles per day showed the best restoration of equilibrium and lowest energy consumption. The energy consumption per removed heavy metals was lower in pulse current experiments than constant current and increased...... in a dramatic decrease in energy consumption, but this change impeded the acidification process and thus the removal of heavy metals decreased significantly. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Energy consumption is an important factor influencing the cost of electrodialytic soil remediation (EDR). It has been indicated that the pulse current (in low frequency range) could decrease the energy consumption during EDR. This work is focused on the comparison of energy saving effect...

  10. Enhancing the Efficiency of Electrokinetic Remediation through Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Komai, T.

    2009-12-01

    Remediation or cleanup of soils and groundwater polluted by heavy metals remains a challenge in the field of geo-environmental engineering. Many sites, like ore dressing plants, electroplating plants and battery factories may be polluted by heavy metals. In addition, some natural factors like metal deposits or abundant metal mines, hot springs and volcanic eruptions may also cause heavy metal pollutions. Unlike organic pollutants, heavy metals do not decay naturally, and active approaches to remediation are generally necessary. Although electrokinetic method is considered to be the only technique that is highly-perspective for in situ remediation of heavy metals, and numerous bench-scale studies as well as a few pilot scale experiments illustrated its applicability, this technique has not yet been widely used in practice due to the low efficiencies and/or unacceptable long remediation periods. To enhance the total efficiency of electrokinetic remediation, a systematic approach by integrating different technologies is proposed. This systematic approach includes 1) on-site quick mapping for screening out localized pollution areas, characterizing chemical composition of polluted soils, and for examining the progress of in situ remediation; 2) electrical resistivity tomography(ERT) or electrical resistivity imaging(ERI) for predicting geological structure and hydrogeological boundaries conditions of a polluted site, and for optimizing parameters like voltage and current density for an effective remediation; 3) the use of solar energy to increase flexibility in and applicability of electrokinetic technique; 4) combination with large scale modeling tests for a pertinent evaluation of the feasibility related to electrokinetic remediation for a given soil type taken from a specific polluted site; 5) combination with risk-assessment method to determine feasible cleanup levels; and 6) recovery of heavy metals deposited on electrode plates for possible use as resources

  11. Rheology enhancement for remediated PX6 melter feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is referenced in WSRC-TR-94-0556. This memorandum summarizes results of experimental work performed on the original IDMS PX6 melter feed, the remediated IDMS PX6 melter feed, and melter feeds produced in a laboratory simulation to duplicate the IDMS remediation as well as the experimental results on the caustic treatment to enhance the rheology. Characterization of the products of excess caustic addition and what steps to take if excess caustic is inadvertently added to the IDMS PX6 melter feed are also discussed

  12. Enhancing a Groundwater Remedy for TCE with ISCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    determined that the X-740 Phyto-remediation System has not performed as predicted by the Quadrant III CAS/CMS groundwater model. In a letter, Ohio EPA stated the current remedy is not achieving the goals outlined and required DOE to evaluate other remedial alternatives in conjunction with the current remedy. To enhance the remediation of groundwater at the X-740 SWMU, a new remediation approach is being implemented for the unit. The new approach involves the injection of Modified Fenton's Reagent, using temporary direct push injection points, directly into the portion of the groundwater plume that currently contains TCE concentrations of 50 parts per billion (ppb) or higher. This new approach overcomes limitations imposed by heterogeneities in the subsurface by injecting relatively small quantities of reagent into a large number of temporary injection points over the area. These injections are then repeated as necessary on a grid pattern until performance goals are achieved. Baseline and post-injection groundwater data from three complete Phase injection events are expected to be available in time for the conference. These data will be compared against the remediation end point as defined in the work plan to determine the progress of the remedy. (authors)

  13. Decontamination formulation with additive for enhanced mold remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D.; Irvine, Kevin; Berger, Paul; Comstock, Robert

    2010-02-16

    Decontamination formulations with an additive for enhancing mold remediation. The formulations include a solubilizing agent (e.g., a cationic surfactant), a reactive compound (e.g., hydrogen peroxide), a carbonate or bicarbonate salt, a water-soluble bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate), a mold remediation enhancer containing Fe or Mn, and water. The concentration of Fe.sup.2+ or Mn.sup.2+ ions in the aqueous mixture is in the range of about 0.0001% to about 0.001%. The enhanced formulations can be delivered, for example, as a foam, spray, liquid, fog, mist, or aerosol for neutralization of chemical compounds, and for killing certain biological compounds or agents and mold spores, on contaminated surfaces and materials.

  14. Classroom acoustics and intervention strategies to enhance the learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Christal

    The classroom environment can be an acoustically difficult atmosphere for students to learn effectively, sometimes due in part to poor acoustical properties. Noise and reverberation have a substantial influence on room acoustics and subsequently intelligibility of speech. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA, 1995) developed minimal standards for noise and reverberation in a classroom for the purpose of providing an adequate listening environment. A lack of adherence to these standards may have undesirable consequences, which may lead to poor academic performance. The purpose of this capstone project is to develop a protocol to measure the acoustical properties of reverberation time and noise levels in elementary classrooms and present the educators with strategies to improve the learning environment. Noise level and reverberation will be measured and recorded in seven, unoccupied third grade classrooms in Lincoln Parish in North Louisiana. The recordings will occur at six specific distances in the classroom to simulate teacher and student positions. The recordings will be compared to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association standards for noise and reverberation. If discrepancies are observed, the primary investigator will serve as an auditory consultant for the school and educators to recommend remediation and intervention strategies to improve these acoustical properties. The hypothesis of the study is that the classroom acoustical properties of noise and reverberation will exceed the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association standards; therefore, the auditory consultant will provide strategies to improve those acoustical properties.

  15. Sustainable Remediation for Enhanced NAPL Recovery from Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaher, M.

    2012-12-01

    Sustainable remediation relates to the achievement of balance between environmental, social, and economic elements throughout the remedial lifecycle. A significant contributor to this balance is the use of green and sustainable technologies which minimize environmental impacts, while maximizing social and economic benefits of remedial implementation. To this end, a patented mobile vapor energy generation (VEG) technology has been developed targeting variable applications, including onsite soil remediation for unrestricted reuse and enhanced non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) recover at the water table. At the core of the mobile VEG technology is a compact, high efficiency vapor generator, which utilizes recycled water and propane within an entirely enclosed system to generate steam as high as 1100°F. Operating within a fully enclosed system and capturing all heat that is generated within this portable system, the VEG technology eliminates all emissions to the atmosphere and yields an undetected carbon footprint with resulting carbon dioxide concentrations that are below ambient levels. Introduction of the steam to the subsurface via existing wells results in a desired change in the NAPL viscosity and the interfacial tension at the soil, water, NAPL interface; in turn, this results in mobilization and capture of the otherwise trapped, weathered NAPL. Approved by the California Air Resources Control Board (and underlying Air Quality Management Districts) and applied in California's San Joaquin Valley, in-well heating of NAPLs trapped at the water table using the VEG technology has proven as effective as electrical resistivity heating (ERH) in changing the viscosity of and mobilizing NAPLs in groundwater in support of recovery, but has achieved these results while minimizing the remedial carbon footprint by 90%, reducing energy use by 99%, and reducing remedial costs by more than 95%. NAPL recovery using VEG has also allowed for completion of source removal historically

  16. Broadband enhanced transmission of acoustic waves through serrated metal gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Dong-Xiang; Fan, Ren-Hao; Deng, Yu-Qiang; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu; Jiangnan University Collaboration

    In this talk, we present our studies on broadband properties of acoustic waves through metal gratings. We have demonstrated that serrated metal gratings, which introduce gradient coatings, can give rise to broadband transmission enhancement of acoustic waves. Here, we have experimentally and theoretically studied the acoustic transmission properties of metal gratings with or without serrated boundaries. The average transmission is obviously enhanced for serrated metal gratings within a wide frequency range, while the Fabry-Perot resonance is significantly suppressed. An effective medium hypothesis with varying acoustic impedance is proposed to analyze the mechanism, which was verified through comparison with finite-element simulation. The serrated boundary supplies gradient mass distribution and gradient normal acoustic impedance, which could efficiently reduce the boundary reflection. Further, by increasing the region of the serrated boundary, we present a broadband high-transmission grating for wide range of incident angle. Our results may have potential applications to broadband acoustic imaging, acoustic sensing and new acoustic devices. References: [1] Dong-Xiang Qi, Yu-Qiang Deng, Di-Hu Xu, Ren-Hao Fan, Ru-Wen Peng, Ze-Guo Chen, Ming-Hui Lu, X. R. Huang and Mu Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 011906 (2015); [2] Dong-Xiang Qi, Ren-Hao Fan, Ru-Wen Peng, Xian-Rong Huang, Ming-Hui Lu, Xu Ni, Qing Hu, and Mu Wang, Applied Physics Letters 101, 061912 (2012).

  17. Cost studies of thermally enhanced in situ soil remediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremser, J.; Booth, S.R.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes five thermally enhanced technologies that may be used to remediate contaminated soil and water resources. The standard methods of treating these contaminated areas are Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE), Excavate & Treat (E&T), and Pump & Treat (P&T). Depending on the conditions at a given site, one or more of these conventional alternatives may be employed; however, several new thermally enhanced technologies for soil decontamination are emerging. These technologies are still in demonstration programs which generally are showing great success at achieving the expected remediation results. The cost savings reported in this work assume that the technologies will ultimately perform as anticipated by their developers in a normal environmental restoration work environment. The five technologies analyzed in this report are Low Frequency Heating (LF or Ohmic, both 3 and 6 phase AC), Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS), Radio Frequency Heating (RF), Radio Frequency Heating using Dipole Antennae (RFD), and Thermally Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES). In all of these technologies the introduction of heat to the formation raises vapor pressures accelerating contaminant evaporation rates and increases soil permeability raising diffusion rates of contaminants. The physical process enhancements resulting from temperature elevations permit a greater percentage of volatile organic compound (VOC) or semi- volatile organic compound (SVOC) contaminants to be driven out of the soils for treatment or capture in a much shorter time period. This report presents the results of cost-comparative studies between these new thermally enhanced technologies and the conventional technologies, as applied to five specific scenarios.

  18. Cost studies of thermally enhanced in situ soil remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes five thermally enhanced technologies that may be used to remediate contaminated soil and water resources. The standard methods of treating these contaminated areas are Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE), Excavate ampersand Treat (E ampersand T), and Pump ampersand Treat (P ampersand T). Depending on the conditions at a given site, one or more of these conventional alternatives may be employed; however, several new thermally enhanced technologies for soil decontamination are emerging. These technologies are still in demonstration programs which generally are showing great success at achieving the expected remediation results. The cost savings reported in this work assume that the technologies will ultimately perform as anticipated by their developers in a normal environmental restoration work environment. The five technologies analyzed in this report are Low Frequency Heating (LF or Ohmic, both 3 and 6 phase AC), Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS), Radio Frequency Heating (RF), Radio Frequency Heating using Dipole Antennae (RFD), and Thermally Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES). In all of these technologies the introduction of heat to the formation raises vapor pressures accelerating contaminant evaporation rates and increases soil permeability raising diffusion rates of contaminants. The physical process enhancements resulting from temperature elevations permit a greater percentage of volatile organic compound (VOC) or semi- volatile organic compound (SVOC) contaminants to be driven out of the soils for treatment or capture in a much shorter time period. This report presents the results of cost-comparative studies between these new thermally enhanced technologies and the conventional technologies, as applied to five specific scenarios

  19. Acoustics as a tool to enhance physics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilsen, Tracianne B.; Gee, Kent L.

    2016-03-01

    The use of acoustics in physics pedagogy, whether in stand-alone courses, or as examples, analogies, or demonstrations in other contexts, can enhance student learning. At most, a typical physics student receives only a few weeks of instruction in acoustics, despite its potential ability to enhance class discussions of source, resonance, and traveling-wave phenomena in both introductory and advanced settings. A recent annotated bibliography, includes specific resources for incorporating acoustics-based demonstrations into physics courses. Acoustics analogies can be used to illustrate wave phenomena in advanced contexts, such as diffraction, scattering, refraction, reflection, method of images, resonance, dispersion, tunneling. This presentation will review the Resource Letter, highlighting specific demonstration ideas, as well as offer additional perspectives gained since its publication.

  20. Dynamic rayed aurora and enhanced ion-acoustic radar echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Blixt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation mechanism for naturally enhanced ion-acoustic echoes is still debated. One important issue is how these enhancements are related to auroral activity. All events of enhanced ion-acoustic echoes observed simultaneously with the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR and with high-resolution narrow field-of-view auroral imagers have been collected and studied. Characteristic of all the events is the appearance of very dynamic rayed aurora, and some of the intrinsic features of these auroral displays are identified. Several of these identified features are directly related to the presence of low energy (10-100eV precipitating electrons in addition to the higher energy population producing most of the associated light. The low energy contribution is vital for the formation of the enhanced ion-acoustic echoes. We argue that this type of aurora is sufficient for the generation of naturally enhanced ion-acoustic echoes. In one event two imagers were used to observe the auroral rays simultaneously, one from the radar site and one 7km away. The data from these imagers shows that the auroral rays and the strong backscattering filaments (where the enhanced echoes are produced are located on the same field line, which is in contrast to earlier statements in the litterature that they should be separated.

  1. Enhancement of in situ Remediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmroth, M.

    2006-07-01

    Approximately 750 000 sites of contaminated land exist across Europe. The harmful chemicals found in Finnish soils include heavy metals, oil products, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorophenols, and pesticides. Petroleum and petroleum products enter soil from ruptured oil pipelines, land disposal of refinery products, leaking storage tanks and through accidents. PAH contamination is caused by the spills of coal tar and creosote from coal gasification and wood treatment sites in addition to oil spills. Cleanup of soil by bioremediation is cheaper than by chemical and physical processes. However, the cleaning capacity of natural attenuation and in situ bioremediation is limited. The purpose of this thesis was to find feasible options to enhance in situ remediation of hydrocarbon contaminants. The aims were to increase the bioavailability of the contaminants and microbial activity at the subsurface in order to achieve higher contaminant removal efficiency than by intrinsic biodegradation alone. Enhancement of microbial activity and decrease of soil toxicity during remediation were estimated by using several biological assays. The performance of these assays was compared in order to find suitable indicators to follow the progress of remediation. Phytoremediation and chemical oxidation are promising in situ techniques to increase the degradation of hydrocarbons in soil. Phytoremediation is plant-enhanced decontamination of soil and water. Degradation of hydrocarbons is enhanced in the root zone by increased microbial activity and through the detoxifying enzymes of plants themselves. Chemical oxidation of contaminants by Fenton's reaction can produce degradation products which are more biodegradable than the parent compounds. Fenton's reaction and its modifications apply solutions of hydrogen peroxide and iron for the oxidation of organic chemicals. The cost of oxidation can be reduced by aiming at partial instead of full

  2. Compatibility of polymers and chemical oxidants for enhanced groundwater remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Megan M; Silva, Jeff A K; Munakata-Marr, Junko; McCray, John E

    2008-12-15

    Polymer floods provide a promising method to more effectively deliver conventional groundwater treatment agents to organic contaminants distributed within heterogeneous aquifer systems. Combinations of nontoxic polymers (xanthan and hydrolyzed polyacrylamide) and common chemical oxidants (potassium permanganate and sodium persulfate) were investigated to determine the suitability of these mixtures for polymer-enhanced in situ chemical oxidation applications. Oxidant demand and solution viscosity were utilized as initial measures of chemical compatibility. After 72 h of reaction with both test oxidants, solution viscosities in mixtures containing hydrolyzed polyacrylamide were decreased by more than 90% (final viscosities approximately 2 cP), similar to the 95% viscosity loss (final viscosities approximately 1 cP, near that of water) observed in xanthan/persulfate experiments. In contrast, xanthan solutions exposed to potassium permanganate preserved 60-95% of initial viscosity after 72 h. Permanganate depletion in xanthan-containing experiments ranged from 2% to 24% over the same test period. Although oxidant consumption in xanthan/permanganate solutions appeared to be correlated with increasing xanthan concentrations, solutions of up to 2000 mg/L xanthan did not inhibit permanganate from oxidizing a dissolved-phase test contaminant (tetrachloroethene, PCE) in xanthan solution. These advantageous characteristics (high viscosity retention, moderate oxidant demand, and lack of competitive effects on PCE oxidation rate) render xanthan/permanganate the most compatible polymer/oxidant combination of those tested for remediation by polymer-enhanced chemical oxidation. PMID:19174907

  3. Acoustic Wave Stimulated Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmann, Sven; Giese, Rüdiger; Amro, Mohammed

    2013-04-01

    High demand and the finite oil deposits will be a problem in the future. To temper the impact of a shortage in crude oil, a lot of research in the field of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is worldwide ongoing. Using seismic waves to stimulate recovery of oil is known as seismic-EOR. The development of a stimulation procedure using seismic sources and the evaluation of the obtained data in a real oil field is the aim of the project WAVE.O.R. The project is funded by the German scientific society for oil, gas and coal (DGMK). The Technical University of Freiberg (TUBAF) and the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ) in Potsdam developed a flooding cell connected with magnetostrictive actuators as sources for seismic energy. This device is eligible to survey the impact of different seismic stimulation parameter like frequency, alignment, amplitude and rock characteristics on oil recovery. The obtained laboratory data of flooding experiments using seismic waves were analyzed for key features like water breakthrough point, oil recovery and oil fraction. New approach has been developed, which consists of the connection of a principal component analysis with a clustering algorithm. This new technique allows us a better understanding and thus prediction of the recovery behavior of oil bearing sediments. The experiments show promising possibilities to enhance oil recovery with seismic stimulation. Especially the combination of different frequencies between 100 Hz and 4000 Hz had a positive impact on oil recovery. The responsible mechanisms were identified and discussed. Data obtained with the laboratory device will be applied in a field test using a borehole device developed by the GFZ in the project "Seismic Prediction While Drilling" (SPWD). For this purpose experiments are conducted to obtain the radiation pattern of the seismic sources used by the SPWD device in a borehole. In addition, the development of a control setup for the 1-D actuator array is an aim of the

  4. Sand amendment enhances bioelectrochemical remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Zhang, Yueyong; Li, Nan; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-12-01

    Bioelectrochemical system is an emerging technology for the remediation of soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. However, performance of such systems can be limited by the inefficient mass transport in soil. Here we report a new method of sand amendment, which significantly increases both oxygen and proton transports, resulting to increased soil porosity (from 44.5% to 51.3%), decreased Ohmic resistance (by 46%), and increased charge output (from 2.5 to 3.5Cg(-1)soil). The degradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons increased by up to 268% in 135d. The degradation of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with high molecular weight was accelerated, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed that the microbial community close to the air-cathode was substantially stimulated by the induced current, especially the hydrocarbon degrading bacteria Alcanivorax. The bioelectrochemical stimulation imposed a selective pressure on the microbial community of anodes, including that far from the cathode. These results suggested that sand amendment can be an effective approach for soil conditioning that will enhances the bioelectrochemical removal of hydrocarbons in contaminated soils. PMID:26135976

  5. Surface Modification on Acoustic Wave Biosensors for Enhanced Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D. Gallant

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in mass loading on the surface of acoustic biosensors result in output frequency shifts which provide precise measurements of analytes. Therefore, to detect a particular biomarker, the sensor delay path must be judiciously designed to maximize sensitivity and specificity. B-cell lymphoma 2 protein (Bcl-2 found in urine is under investigation as a biomarker for non-invasive early detection of ovarian cancer. In this study, surface chemistry and biofunctionalization approaches were evaluated for their effectiveness in presenting antibodies for Bcl-2 capture while minimizing non-specific protein adsorption. The optimal combination of sequentially adsorbing protein A/G, anti-Bcl-2 IgG and Pluronic F127 onto a hydrophobic surface provided the greatest signal-to-noise ratio and enabled the reliable detection of Bcl-2 concentrations below that previously identified for early stage ovarian cancer as characterized by a modified ELISA method. Finally, the optimal surface modification was applied to a prototype acoustic device and the frequency shift for a range of Bcl-2 concentration was quantified to demonstrate the effectiveness in surface acoustic wave (SAW-based detection applications. The surface functionalization approaches demonstrated here to specifically and sensitively detect Bcl-2 in a working ultrasonic MEMS biosensor prototype can easily be modified to detect additional biomarkers and enhance other acoustic biosensors.

  6. Enhanced Remedial Amendment Delivery through Fluid Viscosity Modifications: Experiments and numerical simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Covert, Matthew A.

    2008-07-29

    Abstract Heterogeneity is often encountered in subsurface contamination characterization and remediation. Low-permeability zones are typically bypassed when remedial fluids are injected into subsurface heterogeneous aquifer systems. Therefore, contaminants in the bypassed areas may not be contacted by the amendments in the remedial fluid, which may significantly prolong the remediation operations. Laboratory experiments and numerical studies have been conducted to develop the Mobility-Controlled Flood (MCF) technology for subsurface remediation and to demonstrate the capability of this technology in enhancing the remedial amendments delivery to the lower permeability zones in heterogeneous systems. Xanthan gum, a bio-polymer, was used to modify the viscosity of the amendment-containing remedial solutions. Sodium mono-phosphate and surfactant were the remedial amendment used in this work. The enhanced delivery of the amendments was demonstrated in two-dimensional (2-D) flow cell experiments, packed with heterogeneous systems. The impact of polymer concentration, fluid injection rate, and permeability contract in the heterogeneous systems has been studied. The Subsurface Transport over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator was modified to include polymer-induced shear thinning effects. Shear rates of polymer solutions were computed from pore-water velocities using a relationship proposed in the literature. Viscosity data were subsequently obtained from empirical viscosity-shear rate relationships derived from laboratory data. The experimental and simulation results clearly show that the MCF technology is capable of enhancing the delivery of remedial amendments to subsurface lower permeability zones. The enhanced delivery significantly improved the NAPL removal from these zones and the sweeping efficiency on a heterogeneous system was remarkably increased when a polymer fluid was applied. MCF technology is also able to stabilize the fluid displacing front when there is a

  7. NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Enhanced Melamine (ML) Foam Acoustic Test (NEMFAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNelis, Anne M.; Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) funded a proposal to achieve initial basic acoustic characterization of ML (melamine) foam, which could serve as a starting point for a future, more comprehensive acoustic test program for ML foam. A project plan was developed and implemented to obtain acoustic test data for both normal and enhanced ML foam. This project became known as the NESC Enhanced Melamine Foam Acoustic Test (NEMFAT). This document contains the outcome of the NEMFAT project.

  8. Naturally enhanced ion-acoustic spectra and their interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgemore-Schulthess, K.J.F.; St. Maurice, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Incoherent scatter radars are designed to detect scatter from thermal fluctuations in the ionosphere. These fluctuations contain, among other things, features associated with ion-acoustic waves driven by random motions within the plasma. The resulting spectra are generally broad and noisy, but...... nevertheless the technique can, through a detailed analysis of spectra, be used to measure a range of physical parameters in the Earth's upper atmosphere, and provides a powerful diagnostic in studies of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, thermosphere dynamics and the geospace environment in general. In recent...... acceleration, wave-particle and wave-wave interactions in the ionosphere, and their association with magnetospheric processes. There is now a substantial body of literature documenting observations of enhanced ion-acoustic spectra, but there remains controversy over generation mechanisms. We present a review...

  9. CHEMICAL ENHANCEMENTS TO PUMP-AND-TREAT REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional pump-and-treat technologies are among the most widely used systems for the remediation of contaminated ground-water. ithin recent years it has become recognized that these systems can require protracted periods of time to make significant reductions in the quantity o...

  10. Enhanced electrokinetic remediation of lead-contaminated soil by complexing agents and approaching anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Zou, Hua; Ji, Minhui; Li, Xiaolin; Li, Liqiao; Tang, Tang

    2014-02-01

    Optimizing process parameters that affect the remediation time and power consumption can improve the treatment efficiency of the electrokinetic remediation as well as determine the cost of a remediation action. Lab-scale electrokinetic remediation of Pb-contaminated soils was investigated for the effect of complexant ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and acetic acid and approaching anode on the removal efficiency of Pb. When EDTA was added to the catholyte, EDTA dissolved insoluble Pb in soils to form soluble Pb-EDTA complexes, increasing Pb mobility and accordingly removal efficiency. The removal efficiency was enhanced from 47.8 to 61.5 % when the EDTA concentration was increased from 0.1 to 0.2 M, showing that EDTA played an important role in remediation. And the migration rate of Pb was increased to 72.3 % when both EDTA and acetic acid were used in the catholyte. The "approaching anode electrokinetic remediation" process in the presence of both EDTA and acetic acid had a higher Pb-removal efficiency with an average efficiency of 83.8 %. The efficiency of electrokinetic remediation was closely related to Pb speciation. Exchangeable and carbonate-bounded Pb were likely the forms which could be removed. All results indicate that the approaching anode method in the presence of EDTA and acetic acid is an advisable choice for electrokinetic remediation of Pb-contaminated soil. PMID:24203258

  11. Electrokinetic remediation of organochlorines in soil: enhancement techniques and integration with other remediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Helena I; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2012-06-01

    Electrokinetic remediation has been increasingly used in soils and other matrices for numerous contaminants such as inorganic, organic, radionuclides, explosives and their mixtures. Several strategies were tested to improve this technology effectiveness, namely techniques to solubilize contaminants, control soil pH and also couple electrokinetics with other remediation technologies. This review focus in the experimental work carried out in organochlorines soil electroremediation, aiming to systemize useful information to researchers in this field. It is not possible to clearly state what technique is the best, since experimental approaches and targeted contaminants are different. Further research is needed in the application of some of the reviewed techniques. Also a number of technical and environmental issues will require evaluation for full-scale application. Removal efficiencies reported in real contaminated soils are much lower than the ones obtained with spiked kaolinite, showing the influence of other factors like aging of the contamination and adsorption to soil particles, resulting in important challenges when transferring technologies into the field. PMID:22386462

  12. Stability and performance enhancements of Electrokinetic-Fenton soil remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Y. S.; Sen Gupta, B; Hashim, M A

    2014-01-01

    Electrokinetic process is a potential in situ soil remediation process which transports the contaminants via electromigration and electroosmosis. For organic compounds contaminated soil, Fenton’s reagent is utilized as a flushing agent in electrokinetic process (Electrokinetic-Fenton) so that removal of organic contaminants could be achieved by in situ oxidation/destruction. However, this process is not applied widely in industries as the stability issue for Fenton’s reagent is the main drawb...

  13. Bioavailability enhanced rhizosphere remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliphatic, aromatic and polycyclic aromatic oil hydrocarbons are structurally complicated man-caused pollutants that are constantly brought into biosphere. Oil production in Russia, so as all over the world, is connected with pollution of biotopes, ecosystems and agro-landscapes. Presently large funds are allocated either for oil leak prevention or for discharged oil gathering. At the same time, in spite of large necessity in technologies for efficient reconstruction of soil bio-productivity, reliable regional systems of their remediation in situ have not been developed yet. One such method is rhizosphere remediation, a biotechnology, based on the functioning of plant-microbial complexes. Little is known about bioavailability in phyto-remediation systems. Specific bioavailability-promoting mechanisms, operating in soil with hydrocarbon-degrading populations, may be responsible for increased rates of pollutant transformation (increased bacterial adherence to the pollutants, production of bio-surfactants by bacteria or by plants, possible role of chemotaxis). In the course of work collection of 42 chemo-tactically active bio-surfactant producing strain-degraders of petroleum hydrocarbons including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was created. Two representative strains were selected for detailed chemotaxis studies with PAHs (naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene), bacterial lipopolysaccharide and root exudates from seven different plants. These strains are produce the bio-surfactants (rhamno-lipid). The chemotactic response was quantified with a capillary and densitometric chemotaxis assay. Surface tension of cultural liquid was measured after cultivation of strains in the presence of hexadecane or phenanthrene with the use of a ring tensiometer. Before measuring of surface tension microbial cells were collected from liquid culture by centrifugation. Total petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil were analyzed by infra-red spectroscopy method. PAHs

  14. Enhanced Synthesis of Carbon Nanomaterials Using Acoustically Excited Methane Diffusion Flames

    OpenAIRE

    Shuhn-Shyurng Hou; Kuan-Ming Chen; Zong-Yun Yang; Ta-Hui Lin

    2015-01-01

    Acoustically modulated methane jet diffusion flames were used to enhance carbon nanostructure synthesis. A catalytic nickel substrate was employed to collect the deposit materials at sampling position z = 10 mm above the burner exit. The fabrication of carbon nano-onions (CNOs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was significantly enhanced by acoustic excitation at frequencies near the natural flickering frequency (ƒ = 20 Hz) and near the acoustically resonant frequency (ƒ = 90 Hz), respectively. At ...

  15. Heating Unsaturated Sediments Using Solar Energy to Enhance Passive Sediment Remediation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, A.

    2002-12-01

    Sediment heating has been shown to enhance passive sediment remediation technologies such as bioremediation and barometric pumping (passive soil venting). Sediment heating raises the slow remediation rates that often limit the widespread use of these technologies. In bioremediation applications, a 10 degree C increase in subsurface temperature is expected to double the microbial activity, and thus the remediation rate. The removal rate of tetracholorethylene (PCE - a common subsurface contaminant) by passive soil vapor extraction is expected to nearly double in low-permeable sediments when the subsurface is heated 10 degree C from ambient temperatures due to an increased vapor pressure in the PCE. When the sediment is heated using renewable energy sources, these thermally enhanced remediation technologies can be environmentally benign alternatives to conventional remediation techniques that rely on large external energy inputs. The thermally enhanced passive technologies may be particularly useful for remediating unsaturated, low-permeable lenses that are troublesome to most conventional remediation technologies such as conventional soil vapor extraction and co-solvent flushes. The main objective of this work was to quantify subsurface sediment heating using a solar powered heat injection well. To do this, a pilot sediment heating system was installed in Vermont and high resolution meteorological and sediment temperature data were collected using a stand-alone data acquisition system. Unsaturated, silty sediments were heated in-situ by converting the direct and indirect solar energy available at the surface to heat energy in the subsurface using stand-alone renewable energy sources and a resistive element heat injection well. The heat injection well was powered by a 600-W passively tracking photovoltaic (PV) array and a small 1.2-m swept area wind turbine. It is envisioned that the heat injection well would be placed directly into an area of high subsurface

  16. Engineered Injection and Extraction for Enhanced In-situ Remediation of Sorbing Solutes in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, B. D.; Neupauer, R. M.; Piscopo, A. N.; Mays, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater remediation is becoming increasingly more important as the world's population grows and the necessity of access to clean drinking water persists. The majority of current groundwater treatment methods involve pumping the contaminated groundwater out of the soil and treating it above ground. Sorbed contaminants are difficult to remediate using this conventional pump-and-treat method, and often produce poor treatment results because sorbed contaminants are difficult to extract from the aquifer; therefore in-situ remediation research is of particular importance. One type of in-situ groundwater remediation involves a treatment solution of varying composition being injected into the polluted aquifer to react with the contaminant and degrade it to an acceptable byproduct. Increasing the amount of spreading between the contaminant and the treatment solution promotes an increase in contact area and more desired reactions. It has been previously determined that sequential injection and extraction using four wells for in-situ remediation can enhance the spreading of an aqueous contaminant and treatment solution and increase degradation through more reactions. In this work, we focus on sorbing contaminants and investigate the effectiveness of the injection and extraction methods on varying degrees of contaminant sorption. Tests were conducted in homogeneous and heterogeneous soil media, and with instantaneous and kinetic reaction. It was determined that engineered injection and extraction methods previously developed for aqueous contaminants also enhance in-situ remediation of sorbing solutes.

  17. Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) Munition Classification System enhancements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, O.A.; Huggard, J.C.

    1997-09-18

    Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) is a non-destructive evaluation technology developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This technology has resulted in three generations of instrumentation, funded by the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), specifically designed for field identification of chemical weapon (CW) munitions. Each generation of ARS instrumentation was developed with a specific user in mind. The ARS1OO was built for use by the U.N. Inspection Teams going into Iraq immediately after the Persian Gulf War. The ARS200 was built for use in the US-Russia Bilateral Chemical Weapons Treaty (the primary users for this system are the US Onsite Inspection Agency (OSIA) and their Russian counterparts). The ARS300 was built with the requirements of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in mind. Each successive system is an improved version of the previous system based on learning the weaknesses of each and, coincidentally, on the fact that more time was available to do a requirements analysis and the necessary engineering development. The ARS300 is at a level of development that warrants transferring the technology to a commercial vendor. Since LANL will supply the computer software to the selected vendor, it is possible for LANL to continue to improve the decision algorithms, add features where necessary, and adjust the user interface before the final transfer occurs. This paper describes the current system, ARS system enhancements, and software enhancements. Appendices contain the Operations Manual (software Version 3.01), and two earlier reports on enhancements.

  18. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Pollution of Mangrove Swamps: The Promises of Remediation by Enhanced Natural Attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Orji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Remediation by Enhanced Natural Attenuation (RENA is currently being used as a cleanup technology in polluted environments in the Niger Delta and other parts of the globe. The effectiveness of RENA as a remediation technology in the most recent time has been challenged by few authorities. The deleterious effects of pollutants on the environment have led to increased awareness and vigilance against contamination of the Niger Delta environment. Bio remediation which has been defined as biological response to environmental abuse has continued to receive research attentions across the globe. This study addresses issues against the RENA and recommended ways forward. Approach: The review paper studied published articles and Oil companies routine practices of managing petroleum hydrocarbon polluted Environments including mangrove swamps from 1970 till date. The Remediation by Enhanced Natural Attenuation (RENA is currently being used as a cleanup technology in polluted environments in the Niger Delta including mangrove ecosystems. Results: The study made inputs on the controversial issues around RENA technology and recommended certain ways forward. This revision also reported the ways of managing the concerns raised against RENA. Conclusion/Recommendations: Oil firms, remediation contractors and consultants using this RENA approach should employ strict monitoring during the process and also adhere strictly to standard practices and the mitigation measures for all the cases against RENA as documented in this review study. This is to ensure the achievement of Sustainable Development.

  19. STEAM ENHANCED REMEDIATION RESEARCH FOR DNAPL IN FRACTURED ROCK, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, LIMESTONE, MAINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report details a research project on Steam Enhanced Remediation (SER) for the recovery of volatile organic compounds from fractured limestone that was carried out at the Quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base in Limestone, Maine. This project was carried out by USEPA, Ma...

  20. Enhanced Remedial Amendment Delivery to Subsurface Using Shear Thinning Fluid and Aqueous Foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Lirong; Szecsody, James E.; Oostrom, Martinus; Truex, Michael J.; Shen, Xin; Li, Xiqing

    2011-04-23

    A major issue with in situ subsurface remediation is the ability to achieve an even spatial distribution of remedial amendments to the contamination zones in an aquifer or vadose zone. Delivery of amendment to the aquifer using shear thinning fluid and to the vadose zone using aqueous foam has the potential to enhance the amendment distribution into desired locations and improve the remediation. 2-D saturated flow cell experiments were conducted to evaluate the enhanced sweeping, contaminant removal, and amendment persistence achieved by shear thinning fluid delivery. Bio-polymer xanthan gum solution was used as the shear thinning fluid. Unsaturated 1-D column and 2-D flow cell experiments were conducted to evaluate the mitigation of contaminant mobilization, amendment uniform distribution enhancement, and lateral delivery improvement by foam delivery. Surfactant sodium lauryl ether sulfate was used as the foaming agent. It was demonstrated that the shear thinning fluid injection enhanced the fluid sweeping over a heterogeneous system and increased the delivery of remedial amendment into low-permeability zones. The persistence of the amendment distributed into the low-perm zones by the shear thinning fluid was prolonged compared to that of amendment distributed by water injection. Foam delivery of amendment was shown to mitigate the mobilization of highly mobile contaminant from sediments under vadose zone conditions. Foam delivery also achieved more uniform amendment distribution in a heterogeneous unsaturated system, and demonstrated remarkable increasing in lateral distribution of the injected liquid compared to direct liquid injection.

  1. Ion-acoustic solitary waves and spectrally uniform scattering cross section enhancements

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ekeberg; Wannberg, G.; Eliasson, L; Stasiewicz, K.

    2010-01-01

    Spectra measured by incoherent scatter radars are formed predominantly by scattering of the incident signal off ion-acoustic and Langmuir waves in the ionosphere. Occasionally, the upshifted and/or downshifted lines produced by the ion-acoustic waves are enhanced well above thermal levels and referred to as naturally enhanced ion-acoustic lines. In this paper, we study another kind of enhancement, which is spectrally uniform over the whole ion-line, i.e. the up- and downshifted shoulder and t...

  2. POTENTIAL ENHANCEMENTS TO NATURAL ATTENUATION: LINES OF INQUIRY SUPPORTING ENHANCED PASSIVE REMEDIATION OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, K; Tom Early, T; Michael Heitkamp, M; Brian02 Looney, B; David Major, D; Brian Riha, B; Jody Waugh, J; Gary Wein, G

    2004-06-18

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring an initiative to facilitate efficient, effective and responsible use of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) and Enhanced Passive Remediation (EPR) for chlorinated solvents. This Office of Environmental Management (EM) ''Alternative Project,'' focuses on providing scientific and policy support for MNA/EPR. A broadly representative working group of scientists supports the project along with partnerships with regulatory organizations such as the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The initial product of the technical working group was a summary report that articulated the conceptual approach and central scientific tenants of the project, and that identified a prioritized listing of technical targets for field research. This report documented the process in which: (1) scientific ground rules were developed, (2) lines of inquiry were identified and then critically evaluated, (3) promising applied research topics were highlighted in the various lines of inquiry, and (4) these were discussed and prioritized. The summary report will serve as a resource to guide management and decision-making throughout the period of the subject MNA/EPR Alternative Project. To support and more fully document the information presented in the summary report, we are publishing a series of supplemental documents that present the full texts from the technical analyses within the various lines of inquiry (see listing). The following report - documenting our evaluation of the state of the science of the characterization and monitoring process and tools-- is one of those supplemental documents.

  3. Enhanced vibration based energy harvesting using embedded acoustic black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Semperlotti, F.; Conlon, S. C.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of dynamic structural tailoring via the concept of an Acoustic Black Hole (ABH) to enhance the performance of piezoelectric based energy harvesting from operational mechanical vibrations. The ABH is a variable thickness structural feature that can be embedded in the host structure allowing a smooth reduction of the phase velocity while minimizing the amplitude of reflected waves. The ABH thickness variation is typically designed according to power-law profiles. As a propagating wave enters the ABH, it is progressively slowed down while its wavelength is compressed. This effect results in structural areas with high energy density that can be exploited effectively for energy harvesting. The potential of ABH for energy harvesting is shown via a numerical study based on fully coupled finite element electromechanical models of an ABH tapered plate with surface mounted piezo-transducers. The performances of the novel design are evaluated by direct comparison with a non-tapered structure in terms of energy ratios and attenuation indices. Results show that the tailored structural design allows a drastic increase in the harvested energy both for steady state and transient excitation. Performance dependencies of key design parameters are also investigated.

  4. Enhanced electrokinetic remediation of fluorine-contaminated soil by applying an ammonia continuous circulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Shufa; Zhou, Ming; Zhang, Shuangyan [Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang (China)

    2016-02-15

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of ammonia continuous circulation enhanced electrokinetic remediation of fluorine contaminated soil and to analyze its influence on soil pH after remediation. An experimental study was carried out in self-made electrokinetic apparatus. The voltage gradient was set at 1.0V/cm and ammonia water with different concentrations was used as electrolyte which circulated in series. Comparative studies were made by using deionized water as electrolyte which circulated separately in one experiment and continuously in another. According to the experiment the continuous circulation of ammonia water increased the current value during the remediation process and maintained current through the soil cell stabler, which not only increased fluorine migration but also reduced energy consumption. Among the given ammonia concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1 and 0.2mol/L) the removal rate increased with ammonia concentration. 0.2mol/L had the highest current (26.8mA), and the removal rate amounted up to 57.3%. By using ammonia circulation enhanced electrokinetic technology, the difference between pH values of cathode soil and anode soil became smaller. Ammonia continuous circulation enhanced electrokinetics can effectively remediate fluorine contaminated soil and the residual ammonia in the soil can also improve soil fertility.

  5. Enhancing electrokinetic remediation of cadmium- contaminated soils with stepwise moving anode method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue J; Shen, Zhe M; Yuan, Tao; Zheng, Shen S; Ju, Bing X; Wang, Wen H

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposed an innovative approach by stepwise moving anode towards cathode to enhance the cadmium (Cd) removal from soil during the process of electrokinetic (EK) remediation. Fixed anode tests and moving anode tests were carried out for 60 hours to compare their performances. The anode-cathode spacing was 21 cm. Constant voltage grade of 1.0 V cm(-1) was applied in this study. The parameters included pH, electrical conductivity, current, Cd concentration and speciation distributions, energy consumptions, etc. It was found that the pH values in the moving anode tests were relatively lower than those of the fixed tests. In the moving anode test, the removal efficiency of Cd in the soils at the fraction of S4 was enhanced by 54.9% compared with that of the fixed anode tests. After 60 hours of treatment, approximately 80% of the spiked soils (100.63 mg x kg(-1) of Cd) in the system were successfully remedied in the moving anode tests; and the mean removal efficiency was 73% for actual field-contaminated soil (54.26 mg x kg(-1) of Cd). It is effective to remedy actual contaminated soils. In addition, the cumulative energy consumptions were 59.29 kWhm(-3) and 31.52 kWhm(-3) for the fixed and moving tests, respectively. The results revealed that the Cd removal efficiency was improved by the moving anode method. Moreover, less energy was consumed in the moving test. The proposed approach does not need to introduce extra chemicals nor adjust the pH in the system to enhance the Cd removal by EK remediation. The basic idea proposed in this paper provides a novel and environmental friendly method to enhance the EK remediation of heavy metals contaminated soils. PMID:17000543

  6. Using acoustic cavitation to enhance chemotherapy of DOX liposomes: experiment in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying-Zheng; Dai, Dan-Dan; Lu, Cui-Tao; Lv, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Yan; Li, Xing; Li, Wen-Feng; Wu, Yan; Jiang, Lei; Li, Xiao-Kun; Huang, Pin-Tong; Chen, Li-Juan; Lin, Min

    2012-09-01

    Experiments in vitro and in vivo were designed to investigate tumor growth inhibition of chemotherapeutics-loaded liposomes enhanced by acoustic cavitation. Doxorubicin-loaded liposomes (DOX liposomes) were used in experiments to investigate acoustic cavitation mediated effects on cell viability and chemotherapeutic function. The influence of lingering sensitive period after acoustic cavitation on tumor inhibition was also investigated. Animal experiment was carried out to verify the practicability of this technique in vivo. From experiment results, blank phospholipid-based microbubbles (PBM) combined with ultrasound (US) at intensity below 0.3 W/cm² could produce acoustic cavitation which maintained cell viability at high level. Compared with DOX solution, DOX liposomes combined with acoustic cavitation exerted effective tumor inhibition in vitro and in vivo. The lingering sensitive period after acoustic cavitation could also enhance the susceptibility of tumor to chemotherapeutic drugs. DOX liposomes could also exert certain tumor inhibition under preliminary acoustic cavitation. Acoustic cavitation could enhance the absorption efficiency of DOX liposomes, which could be used to reduce DOX adverse effect on normal organs in clinical chemotherapy.

  7. [Microwave thermal remediation of soil contaminated with crude oil enhanced by granular activated carbon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da-Wei; Zhang, Yao-Bin; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Ya-Zhi

    2009-02-15

    The advantage of rapid, selective and simultaneous heating of microwave heating technology was taken to remediate the crude oil-contaminated soil rapidly and to recover the oil contaminant efficiently. The contaminated soil was processed in the microwave field with addition of granular activated carbon (GAC), which was used as strong microwave absorber to enhance microwave heating of the soil mixture to remove the oil contaminant and recover it by a condensation system. The influences of some process parameters on the removal of the oil contaminant and the oil recovery in the remediation process were investigated. The results revealed that, under the condition of 10.0% GAC, 800 W microwave power, 0.08 MPa absolute pressure and 150 mL x min(-1) carrier gas (N2) flow-rate, more than 99% oil removal could be obtained within 15 min using this microwave thermal remediation enhanced by GAC; at the same time, about 91% of the oil contaminant could be recovered without significant changes in chemical composition. In addition, the experiment results showed that GAC can be reused in enhancing microwave heating of soil without changing its enhancement efficiency obviously.

  8. Ammonium citrate as enhancement for electrodialytic soil remediation and investigation of soil solution during the process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Seven electrodialytic experiments were conducted using ammonium citrate as enhancing agent to remediate copper and chromium-contaminated soil from a wood-preservation site. The purpose was to investigate the effect of current density (0.2, 1.0 and 1.5 mA cm−2), concentration of enhancing agent (0.......25, 0.5 and 1.0 M) and remediation times (21, 42 and 117 d) for the removal of Cu and Cr from a calcareous soil. To gain insight on metal behavior, soil solution was periodically collected using suction cups. It was seen that current densities higher than 1.0 mA cm−2 did not increase removal and thus...

  9. Microwave thermal remediation of crude oil contaminated soil enhanced by carbon fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dawei; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Yazhi

    2009-01-01

    Thermal remediation of the soil contaminated with crude oil using microwave heating enhanced by carbon fiber (CF) was explored. The contaminated soil was treated with 2.45 GHz microwave, and CF was added to improve the conversion of microwave energy into thermal energy to heat the soil. During microwave heating, the oil contaminant was removed from the soil matrix and recovered by a condensation system of ice-salt bath. The experimental results indicated that CF could efficiently enhance the microwave heating of soil even with relatively low-dose. With 0.1 wt.% CF, the soil could be heated to approximately 700 degrees C within 4 min using 800 W of microwave irradiation. Correspondingly, the contaminated soil could be highly cleaned up in a short time. Investigation of oil recovery showed that, during the remediation process, oil contaminant in the soil could be efficiently recovered without causing significant secondary pollution.

  10. Enhanced tolerance and remediation of anthracene by transgenic tobacco plants expressing a fungal glutathione transferase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, Prachy; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Sherkhane, Pramod D.; Kale, Sharad P. [Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Eapen, Susan, E-mail: eapenhome@yahoo.com [Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Transgenic plants expressing a TvGST gene were tested for tolerance, uptake and degradation of anthracene. {yields} Transgenic plants were more tolerant to anthracene and take up more anthracene from soil and solutions compared to control plants. {yields} Using in vitro T{sub 1} seedlings, we showed that anthracene-a three fused benzene ring compound was phytodegraded to naphthalene derivatives, having two benzene rings. {yields} This is the first time that a transgenic plant was shown to have the potential to phytodegrade anthracene. - Abstract: Plants can be used for remediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, which are known to be a major concern for human health. Metabolism of xenobiotic compounds in plants occurs in three phases and glutathione transferases (GST) mediate phase II of xenobiotic transformation. Plants, although have GSTs, they are not very efficient for degradation of exogenous recalcitrant xenobiotics including polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Hence, heterologous expression of efficient GSTs in plants may improve their remediation and degradation potential of xenobiotics. In the present study, we investigated the potential of transgenic tobacco plants expressing a Trichoderma virens GST for tolerance, remediation and degradation of anthracene-a recalcitrant polyaromatic hydrocarbon. Transgenic plants with fungal GST showed enhanced tolerance to anthracene compared to control plants. Remediation of {sup 14}C uniformly labeled anthracene from solutions and soil by transgenic tobacco plants was higher compared to wild-type plants. Transgenic plants (T{sub 0} and T{sub 1}) degraded anthracene to naphthalene derivatives, while no such degradation was observed in wild-type plants. The present work has shown that in planta expression of a fungal GST in tobacco imparted enhanced tolerance as well as higher remediation potential of anthracene compared to wild-type plants.

  11. Use of Historical Pump-and-Treat Data to Enhance Site Characterization and Remediation Performance Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Brusseau, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater withdrawal and contaminant concentration data are routinely collected for pump-and-treat operations conducted at hazardous waste sites. These data sets can be mined to produce a wealth of information to support enhanced site characterization, optimization of remedial system operations, and improved decision making regarding long-term site management and closure. Methods that may be used to analyze and interpret pump-and-treat data to produce such assessments are presented, along w...

  12. Electrokinetic-enhanced bioaugmentation for remediation of chlorinated solvents contaminated clay

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Xuhui; Wang, James; Ciblak, Ali; Cox, Evan E.; Riis, Charlotte; Terkelsen, Mads; Gent, David B.; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

    2012-01-01

    Successful bioremediation of contaminated soils is controlled by the ability to deliver bioremediation additives, such as bacteria and/or nutrients, to the contaminated zone. Because hydraulic advection is not practical for delivery in clays, electrokinetic (EK) injection is an alternative for efficient and uniform delivery of bioremediation additive into low-permeability soil and heterogeneous deposits. EK–enhanced bioaugmentation for remediation of clays contaminated with chlorinated solven...

  13. Enhanced Synthesis of Carbon Nanomaterials Using Acoustically Excited Methane Diffusion Flames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhn-Shyurng Hou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Acoustically modulated methane jet diffusion flames were used to enhance carbon nanostructure synthesis. A catalytic nickel substrate was employed to collect the deposit materials at sampling position z = 10 mm above the burner exit. The fabrication of carbon nano-onions (CNOs and carbon nanotubes (CNTs was significantly enhanced by acoustic excitation at frequencies near the natural flickering frequency (ƒ = 20 Hz and near the acoustically resonant frequency (ƒ = 90 Hz, respectively. At these characteristic frequencies, flow mixing was markedly enhanced by acoustic excitation, and a flame structure with a bright slender core flame was generated, which provided a favorable flame environment for the growth of carbon nanomaterials. The production rate of CNOs was high at 20 Hz (near the natural flickering frequency, at which the gas temperature was about 680 °C. Additionally, a quantity of CNTs was obtained at 70–95 Hz, near the acoustically resonant frequency, at which the gas temperature was between 665 and 830 °C. However, no carbon nanomaterials were synthesized at other frequencies. The enhanced synthesis of CNOs and CNTs is attributed to the strong mixing of the fuel and oxidizer due to the acoustic excitation at resonant frequencies.

  14. ENHANCING OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION WITH ACOUSTIC CAVITATION%声空化强化渗透脱水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝芝; 姜任秋; 淮秀兰; 李斌; 刘登瀛

    2004-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to enhance osmotic dehydration of fruits--apples using acoustic cavitation. The variation in water losses and dry matter gain rates of materials with solute concentration, cavitation intensity, the thickness of materials and treating time segment during osmotic dehydration was discussed, at the same time, the influence of different materials on mass transfer during osmotic dehydration using acoustic cavitation was investigated. The results showed that water losses rates of materials were remarkably increased during osmotic dehydration using acoustic cavitation, but dry matter gain rates increased very little. Meanwhile the physical mechanism of enhanced mass transfer during osmotic dehydration with acoustic cavitation was clarified on the basis of analyzing the experimental results.

  15. Enhanced acoustic cavitation following laser-induced bubble formation : long-term memory effect

    OpenAIRE

    Yavaṣ, Oğuz; Leiderer, Paul; Park, Hee K.; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Poon, Chie C.; Tam, Andrew C.

    1994-01-01

    The enhancement of acoustic caviation at a liquid-solid interface following laser-induced bubble formation is studied. The experiment results indicate that metastable ultramicroscopic bubbles formed on the solid surface cause a long-term memory effect on acoustic cavitation. By performing a double-pulse experiment using two excimer lasers, the temporal decay of this memory effect is determined for two different liquids on a chromium surface. An explanation of the observed decay mode by a ...

  16. Selecting enhancing solutions for electrokinetic remediation of dredged sediments polluted with fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas, F; Castellote, M

    2015-03-15

    In this paper a procedure for selecting the enhancing solutions in electrokinetic remediation experiments is proposed. For this purpose, dredged marine sediment was contaminated with fuel, and a total of 22 different experimental conditions were tested, analysing the influence of different enhancing solutions by using three commercial non-ionic surfactants, one bio-surfactant, one chelating agent, and one weak acid. Characterisation, microelectrophoretic and electrokinetic remediation trials were carried out. The results are explained on the basis of the interactions between the fuel, the enhancing electrolytes and the matrix. For one specific system, the electrophoretic zeta potential, (ζ), of the contaminated matrix in the solution was found to be related to the electroosmotic averaged ζ in the experiment and not to the efficiency in the extraction. This later was correlated to a parameter accounting for both contributions, the contaminant and the enhancing solution, calculated on the basis of differences in the electrophoretic ζ in different conditions which has allowed to propose a methodology for selection of enhancing solutions. PMID:25559497

  17. A remediation performance model for enhanced metabolic reductive dechlorination of chloroethenes in fractured clay till

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoli, Gabriele; Chambon, Julie C.; Bjerg, Poul L.;

    2012-01-01

    A numerical model of metabolic reductive dechlorination is used to describe the performance of enhanced bioremediation in fractured clay till. The model is developed to simulate field observations of a full scale bioremediation scheme in a fractured clay till and thereby to assess remediation...... efficiency and timeframe. A relatively simple approach is used to link the fermentation of the electron donor soybean oil to the sequential dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) while considering redox conditions and the heterogeneous clay till system (clay till matrix, fractures and sand stringers...... stringers. Field scale simulations show that the injected donor is expected to be depleted after 5 years, and that without donor re-injection contaminant rebound will occur in the high permeability zones and the mass removal will stall at 18%. Long remediation timeframes, if dechlorination is limited...

  18. Effect of heterogeneity on enhanced reductive dechlorination: Analysis of remediation efficiency and groundwater acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovelli, A.; Lacroix, E.; Robinson, C. E.; Gerhard, J.; Holliger, C.; Barry, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Enhanced reductive dehalogenation is an attractive in situ treatment technology for chlorinated contaminants. The process includes two acid-forming microbial reactions: fermentation of an organic substrate resulting in short-chain fatty acids, and dehalogenation resulting in hydrochloric acid. The accumulation of acids and the resulting drop of groundwater pH are controlled by the mass and distribution of chlorinated solvents in the source zone, type of electron donor, alternative terminal electron acceptors available and presence of soil mineral phases able to buffer the pH (such as carbonates). Groundwater acidification may reduce or halt microbial activity, and thus dehalogenation, significantly increasing the time and costs required to remediate the aquifer. In previous work a detailed geochemical and groundwater flow simulator able to model the fermentation-dechlorination reactions and associated pH change was developed. The model accounts for the main processes influencing microbial activity and groundwater pH, including the groundwater composition, the electron donor used and soil mineral phase interactions. In this study, the model was applied to investigate how spatial variability occurring at the field scale affects dechlorination rates, groundwater pH and ultimately the remediation efficiency. Numerical simulations were conducted to examine the influence of heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity on the distribution of the injected, fermentable substrate and on the accumulation/dilution of the acidic products of reductive dehalogenation. The influence of the geometry of the DNAPL source zone was studied, as well as the spatial distribution of soil minerals. The results of this study showed that the heterogeneous distribution of the soil properties have a potentially large effect on the remediation efficiency. For examples, zones of high hydraulic conductivity can prevent the accumulation of acids and alleviate the problem of groundwater acidification. The

  19. Enhanced acoustoelectric coupling in acoustic energy harvester using dual Helmholtz resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiao; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping; Yang, Aichao; Bai, Xiaoling

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, enhanced acoustoelectric transduction in an acoustic energy harvester using dual Helmholtz resonators has been reported. The harvester uses a pair of cavities mechanically coupled with a compliant perforated plate to enhance the acoustic coupling between the cavity and the plate. The experimental results show that the volume optimization of the second cavity can significantly increase the generated electric voltage up to 400% and raise the output power to 16 times as large as that of a harvester using a single Helmholtz resonator at resonant frequencies primarily related to the plate.

  20. Ion-acoustic solitary waves and spectrally uniform scattering cross section enhancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ekeberg

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Spectra measured by incoherent scatter radars are formed predominantly by scattering of the incident signal off ion-acoustic and Langmuir waves in the ionosphere. Occasionally, the upshifted and/or downshifted lines produced by the ion-acoustic waves are enhanced well above thermal levels and referred to as naturally enhanced ion-acoustic lines. In this paper, we study another kind of enhancement, which is spectrally uniform over the whole ion-line, i.e. the up- and downshifted shoulder and the spectral valley in between. Based on observations made with the EISCAT Svalbard radar (ESR facility, we investigate the transient and spectrally uniform power enhancements, which can be explained by ion-acoustic solitary waves. We use a theory of nonlinear waves in a magnetized plasma to determine the properties of such waves and evaluate their effects on scattered signals measured by ESR. We suggest a new mechanism that can explain backscattered power enhancements by one order of magnitude above the thermal level and show that it is consistent with observations.

  1. Wayside acoustic diagnosis of defective train bearings based on signal resampling and information enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingbo; Wang, Jun; Hu, Fei; Kong, Fanrang

    2013-10-01

    The diagnosis of train bearing defects plays a significant role to maintain the safety of railway transport. Among various defect detection techniques, acoustic diagnosis is capable of detecting incipient defects of a train bearing as well as being suitable for wayside monitoring. However, the wayside acoustic signal will be corrupted by the Doppler effect and surrounding heavy noise. This paper proposes a solution to overcome these two difficulties in wayside acoustic diagnosis. In the solution, a dynamically resampling method is firstly presented to reduce the Doppler effect, and then an adaptive stochastic resonance (ASR) method is proposed to enhance the defective characteristic frequency automatically by the aid of noise. The resampling method is based on a frequency variation curve extracted from the time-frequency distribution (TFD) of an acoustic signal by dynamically minimizing the local cost functions. For the ASR method, the genetic algorithm is introduced to adaptively select the optimal parameter of the multiscale noise tuning (MST)-based stochastic resonance (SR) method. The proposed wayside acoustic diagnostic scheme combines signal resampling and information enhancement, and thus is expected to be effective in wayside defective bearing detection. The experimental study verifies the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  2. Enhanced removal of petroleum hydrocarbons using a bioelectrochemical remediation system with pre-cultured anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkidusamy, Krishnaveni; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Marzorati, Massimo; Lockington, Robin; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical remediation (BER) systems such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have recently emerged as a green technology for the effective remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants (PH) coupled with simultaneous energy recovery. Recent research has shown that biofilms previously enriched for substrate degrading bacteria resulted in excellent performance in terms of substrate removal and electricity generation but the effects on hydrocarbon contaminant degradation were not examined. Here we investigate the differences between enriched biofilm anodes and freshly inoculated new anodes in diesel fed single chamber mediatorless microbial fuel cells (DMFC) using various techniques for the enhancement of PH contaminant remediation with concomitant electricity generation. An anodophilic microbial consortium previously selected for over a year through continuous culturing with a diesel concentration of about 800mgl(-1) and which now showed complete removal of this concentration of diesel within 30days was compared to that of a freshly inoculated new anode MFC (showing 83.4% removal of diesel) with a simultaneous power generation of 90.81mW/m(2) and 15.04mW/m(2) respectively. The behaviour of pre-cultured anodes at a higher concentration of PH (8000mgl(-1)) was also investigated. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed a thick biofilm covering the pre-cultured anodic electrode but not the anode from the freshly inoculated MFC. High resolution imaging showed the presence of thin 60nm diametre pilus-like projections emanating from the cells. Anodic microbial community profiling confirmed that the selection for diesel degrading exoelectrogenic bacteria had occurred. Identification of a biodegradative gene (alkB) provided strong evidence of the catabolic pathway used for diesel degradation in the DMFCs. PMID:26360455

  3. Ligand-enhanced electrokinetic remediation of metal-contaminated marine sediments with high acid buffering capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Matteo; Iannelli, Renato; Losito, Gabriella

    2016-06-01

    The suitability of electrokinetic remediation for removing heavy metals from dredged marine sediments with high acid buffering capacity was investigated. Laboratory-scale electrokinetic remediation experiments were carried out by applying two different voltage gradients to the sediment (0.5 and 0.8 V/cm) while circulating water or two different chelating agents at the electrode compartments. Tap water, 0.1 M citric acid and 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions were used respectively. The investigated metals were Zn, Pb, V, Ni and Cu. In the unenhanced experiment, the acid front could not propagate due to the high acid buffering capacity of the sediments; the production of OH(-) ions at the cathode resulted in a high-pH environment causing the precipitation of CaCO3 and metal hydroxides. The use of citric acid prevented the formation of precipitates, but solubilisation and mobilisation of metal species were not sufficiently achieved. Metal removal was relevant when EDTA was used as the conditioning agent, and the electric potential was raised up to 0.8 V/cm. EDTA led to the formation of negatively charged complexes with metals which migrated towards the anode compartment by electromigration. This result shows that metal removal from sediments with high acid buffering capacity may be achieved by enhancing the electrokinetic process by EDTA addition when the acidification of the medium is not economically and/or environmentally sustainable. PMID:26490900

  4. Remediation of phthalates in river sediment by integrated enhanced bioremediation and electrokinetic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gordon C C; Huang, Sheng-Chih; Jen, Yu-Sheng; Tsai, Pei-Shin

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of enhanced bioremediation coupling with electrokinetic process for promoting the growth of intrinsic microorganisms and removing phthalate esters (PAEs) from river sediment by adding an oxygen releasing compound (ORC). Test results are given as follows: Enhanced removal of PAEs was obtained by electrokinetics, through which the electroosmotic flow would render desorption of organic pollutants from sediment particles yielding an increased bioavailability. It was also found that the ORC injected into the sediment compartment not only would alleviate the pH value variation due to acid front and base front, but would be directly utilized as the carbon source and oxygen source for microbial growth resulting in an enhanced degradation of organic pollutants. However, injection of the ORC into the anode compartment could yield a lower degree of microbial growth due to the loss of ORC during the transport by EK. Through the analysis of molecular biotechnology it was found that both addition of an ORC and application of an external electric field can be beneficial to the growth of intrinsic microbial and abundance of microflora. In addition, the sequencing result showed that PAEs could be degraded by the following four strains: Flavobacterium sp., Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Rhodococcus sp. The above findings confirm that coupling of enhanced bioremediation and electrokinetic process could be a viable remediation technology to treat PAEs-contaminated river sediment. PMID:26733014

  5. Analysis of enhanced modal damping ratio in porous materials using an acoustic-structure interaction model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghwan Kook

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the enhancement of the damping ratio of a structure with embedded microbeam resonators in air-filled internal cavities. In this context, we discuss theoretical aspects in the framework of the effective modal damping ratio (MDR and derive an approximate relation expressing how an increased damping due to the acoustic medium surrounding the microbeam affect the MDR of the macrobeam. We further analyze the effect of including dissipation of the acoustic medium by using finite element (FE analysis with acoustic-structure interaction (ASI using a simple phenomenological acoustic loss model. An eigenvalue analysis is carried out to demonstrate the improvement of the damping characteristic of the macrobeam with the resonating microbeam in the lossy air and the results are compared to a forced vibration analysis for a macrobeam with one or multiple embedded microbeams. Finally we demonstrate the effect of randomness in terms of position and size of microbeams and discuss the difference between the phenomenological acoustic loss model and a full thermoacoustic model.

  6. Use of Historical Pump-and-Treat Data to Enhance Site Characterization and Remediation Performance Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusseau, Mark L

    2013-10-01

    Groundwater withdrawal and contaminant concentration data are routinely collected for pump-and-treat operations conducted at hazardous waste sites. These data sets can be mined to produce a wealth of information to support enhanced site characterization, optimization of remedial system operations, and improved decision making regarding long-term site management and closure. Methods that may be used to analyze and interpret pump-and-treat data to produce such assessments are presented, along with a brief illustration of their application to a site. The results presented herein illustrate that comprehensive analysis of pump-and-treat data is a powerful, cost-effective method for providing higher-resolution, value-added characterization of contaminated sites. PMID:24587562

  7. Hydraulic fracturing to enhance the remediation of DNAPL in low permeability soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdoch, L. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Slack, B. [FRX Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Meager rates of fluid flow are a major obstacle to in situ remediation of low permeability soils. This paper describes methods designed to avoid that obstacle by creating fractures and filling them with sand to increase well discharge and change paths of fluid flow in soil. Gently dipping fractures 10 m in maximum dimension and 1 to 2 cm thick can be created in some contaminated soils at depths of a few in or greater. Hydraulic fractures can also be used to create electrically conductive layers or to deliver granules of chemically or biologically active compounds that will degrade contaminants in place. Benefits of applying hydraulic fractures to DNAPL recovery include rates of fluid recovery, enhancing upward gradients to improve hydrodynamic stabilization, forming flat-lying reactive curtains to intersect compounds moving downward, or improving the performance of electrokinetics intended to recover compounds dissolved in water. 30 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Enhancing gas-phase reaction in a plasma using high intensity and high power ultrasonic acoustic waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    This invention relates to enhancing a gas-phase reaction in a plasma comprising: creating plasma (104) by at least one plasma source (106), and wherein that the method further comprises: generating ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) having a predetermined amount...... of acoustic energy by at least one ultrasonic high intensity and high power gas-jet acoustic wave generator (101), where said ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves are directed to propagate towards said plasma (104) so that at least a part of said predetermined amount of acoustic energy...... substantially 100 W. In this way, a high sound intensity and power are obtained that efficiently enhances a gas-phase reaction in the plasma, which enhances the plasma process, e.g. enabling more efficient ozone or hydrogen generation using plasma in relation to reaction speed and/or obtained concentration...

  9. Acoustic trauma-induced auditory cortex enhancement and tinnitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erin Laundrie; Wei Sun

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence suggests that noise-induced cochlear damage may lead to hyperexcitability in the central auditory system (CAS) which may give rise to tinnitus. However, the correlation between the onset of the neurophysiological changes in the CAS and the onset of tinnitus has not been well studied. To investigate this relationship, chronic electrodes were implanted into the auditory cortex (AC) and sound evoked activities were measured from awake rats before and after noise exposure. The auditory brainstem response (ABR) was used to assess the degree of noise-induced hearing loss. Tinnitus was evaluated by measuring gap-induced prepulse inhibition (gap-PPI). Rats were exposed monaurally to a high-intensity narrowband noise centered at 12 kHz at a level of 120 dB SPL for 1 h. After the noise exposure, all the rats developed either permanent (>2 weeks) or temporary (<3 days) hearing loss in the exposed ear(s). The AC amplitudes increased significantly 4 h after the noise exposure. Most of the exposed rats also showed decreased gap-PPI. The post-exposure AC enhancement showed a positive correlation with the amount of hearing loss. The onset of tinnitus-like behavior was happened after the onset of AC enhancement.

  10. Enhancement of effective electromechanical coupling factor by mass loading in layered surface acoustic wave device structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gongbin; Han, Tao; Teshigahara, Akihiko; Iwaki, Takao; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes a drastic enhancement of the effective coupling factor K\\text{e}2 by mass loading in layered surface acoustic wave (SAW) device structures such as the ScAlN film/Si substrate structure. This phenomenon occurs when the piezoelectric layer exhibits a high acoustic wave velocity. The mass loading decreases the SAW velocity and causes SAW energy confinement close to the top surface where an interdigital transducer is placed. It is shown that this phenomenon is obvious even when an amorphous SiO2 film is deposited on the top surface for temperature compensation. This K\\text{e}2 enhancement was also found in various combinations of electrode, piezoelectric layer, and/or substrate materials. The existence of this phenomenon was verified experimentally using the ScAlN film/Si substrate structure.

  11. Documenting clinical performance problems among medical students: feedback for learner remediation and curriculum enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E. Mavis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We operationalized the taxonomy developed by Hauer and colleagues describing common clinical performance problems. Faculty raters pilot tested the resulting worksheet by observing recordings of problematic simulated clinical encounters involving third-year medical students. This approach provided a framework for structured feedback to guide learner improvement and curricular enhancement. Methods: Eighty-two problematic clinical encounters from M3 students who failed their clinical competency examination were independently rated by paired clinical faculty members to identify common problems related to the medical interview, physical examination, and professionalism. Results: Eleven out of 26 target performance problems were present in 25% or more encounters. Overall, 37% had unsatisfactory medical interviews, with ‘inadequate history to rule out other diagnoses’ most prevalent (60%. Seventy percent failed because of physical examination deficiencies, with missing elements (69% and inadequate data gathering (69% most common. One-third of the students did not introduce themselves to their patients. Among students failing based on standardized patient (SP ratings, 93% also failed to demonstrate competency based on the faculty ratings. Conclusions: Our review form allowed clinical faculty to validate pass/fail decisions based on standardized patient ratings. Detailed information about performance problems contributes to learner feedback and curricular enhancement to guide remediation planning and faculty development.

  12. Multi-Quartz Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy with Different Acoustic Microresonator Configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Huadan Zheng; Xukun Yin; Lei Dong; Hongpeng Wu; Xiaoli Liu; Weiguang Ma; Lei Zhang; Wangbao Yin; Suotang Jia

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic microresonators were added to the recently developed multi-QTF based QEPAS spectrophone to enhance the signal amplitude. Two kinds of “on-beam” configurations were experimentally investigated in detail. The developed multi-QTF based “on-beam” spectrophone had a signal enhancement of 1.6 times compared with the traditional single QTF based “on-beam” spectrophone, with the approximate noise level. A normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient (1σ) of 1.24 × 10−9 W·cm−1·Hz−1/2 wa...

  13. Multi-Quartz Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy with Different Acoustic Microresonator Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huadan Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic microresonators were added to the recently developed multi-QTF based QEPAS spectrophone to enhance the signal amplitude. Two kinds of “on-beam” configurations were experimentally investigated in detail. The developed multi-QTF based “on-beam” spectrophone had a signal enhancement of 1.6 times compared with the traditional single QTF based “on-beam” spectrophone, with the approximate noise level. A normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient (1σ of 1.24 × 10−9 W·cm−1·Hz−1/2 was obtained for water vapor detection at atmospheric pressure.

  14. Enhancement of coherent acoustic phonons in InGaN multiple quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, Shopan D.; Zhang, Fan; Monavarian, Morteza; Avrutin, Vitaliy; Morkoç, Hadis; Özgür, Ümit

    2015-03-01

    Enhancement of coherent zone folded longitudinal acoustic phonon (ZFLAP) oscillations at terahertz frequencies was demonstrated in InGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) by using wavelength degenerate time resolved differential transmission spectroscopy. Screening of the piezoelectric field in InGaN MQWs by photogenerated carriers upon femtosecond pulse excitation gave rise to terahertz ZFLAPs, which were monitored at the Brillouin zone center in the transmission geometry. MQWs composed of 10 pairs InxGa1-xN wells and In0.03Ga0.97N barriers provided coherent phonon frequencies of 0.69-0.80 THz depending on the period of MQWs. Dependences of ZFLAP amplitude on excitation density and wavelength were also investigated. Possibility of achieving phonon cavity, incorporating a MQW placed between two AlN/GaN phonon mirrors designed to exhibit large acoustic gaps at the zone center, was also explored.

  15. Electrokinetic-enhanced bioaugmentation for remediation of chlorinated solvents contaminated clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuhui; Wang, James; Ciblak, Ali; Cox, Evan E; Riis, Charlotte; Terkelsen, Mads; Gent, David B; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

    2012-04-30

    Successful bioremediation of contaminated soils is controlled by the ability to deliver bioremediation additives, such as bacteria and/or nutrients, to the contaminated zone. Because hydraulic advection is not practical for delivery in clays, electrokinetic (EK) injection is an alternative for efficient and uniform delivery of bioremediation additive into low-permeability soil and heterogeneous deposits. EK-enhanced bioaugmentation for remediation of clays contaminated with chlorinated solvents is evaluated. Dehalococcoides (Dhc) bacterial strain and lactate ions are uniformly injected in contaminated clay and complete dechlorination of chlorinated ethene is observed in laboratory experiments. The injected bacteria can survive, grow, and promote effective dechlorination under EK conditions and after EK application. The distribution of Dhc within the clay suggests that electrokinetic transport of Dhc is primarily driven by electroosmosis. In addition to biodegradation due to bioaugmentation of Dhc, an EK-driven transport of chlorinated ethenes is observed in the clay, which accelerates cleanup of chlorinated ethenes from the anode side. Compared with conventional advection-based delivery, EK injection is significantly more effective for establishing microbial reductive dechlorination capacity in low-permeability soils. PMID:22365139

  16. Potential enhancements to addressing programmatic risk in the tank waste remediation system (TWRS) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Risk Management methodology development task. The objective of this task was to develop risk management methodology focused on (1) the use of programmatic risk information in making TWRS architecture selection decisions and (2) the identification/evaluation/selection of TWRS risk-handling actions. Methods for incorporating programmatic risk/uncertainty estimates into trade studies are provided for engineers/analysts. Methods for identifying, evaluating, and selecting risk-handling actions are provided for managers. The guidance provided in this report is designed to help decision-makers make difficult judgments. Current approaches to architecture selection decisions and identification/evaluation/selection of risk-handling actions are summarized. Three categories of sources of programmatic risk (parametric, external, and organizational) are examined. Multiple analytical approaches are presented to enhance the current alternative generation and analysis (AGA) and risk-handling procedures. Appendix A describes some commercially available risk management software tools and Appendix B provides a brief introduction to quantification of risk attitudes. The report provides three levels of analysis for enhancing the AGA Procedure: (1) qualitative discussion coupled with estimated uncertainty ranges for scores in the alternatives-by-criteria matrix; (2) formal elicitation of probability distributions for the alternative scores; and (3) a formal, more structured, comprehensive risk analysis. A framework is also presented for using the AGA programmatic risk analysis results in making better decisions. The report also presents two levels of analysis for evaluation and selection of risk-handling actions: (1) qualitative analysis and judgmental rankings of alternative actions, and (2) Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique (SMART)

  17. Potential enhancements to addressing programmatic risk in the tank waste remediation system (TWRS) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brothers, A.; Fassbender, L.; Bilyard, G.; Levine, L.

    1996-04-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Risk Management methodology development task. The objective of this task was to develop risk management methodology focused on (1) the use of programmatic risk information in making TWRS architecture selection decisions and (2) the identification/evaluation/selection of TWRS risk-handling actions. Methods for incorporating programmatic risk/uncertainty estimates into trade studies are provided for engineers/analysts. Methods for identifying, evaluating, and selecting risk-handling actions are provided for managers. The guidance provided in this report is designed to help decision-makers make difficult judgments. Current approaches to architecture selection decisions and identification/evaluation/selection of risk-handling actions are summarized. Three categories of sources of programmatic risk (parametric, external, and organizational) are examined. Multiple analytical approaches are presented to enhance the current alternative generation and analysis (AGA) and risk-handling procedures. Appendix A describes some commercially available risk management software tools and Appendix B provides a brief introduction to quantification of risk attitudes. The report provides three levels of analysis for enhancing the AGA Procedure: (1) qualitative discussion coupled with estimated uncertainty ranges for scores in the alternatives-by-criteria matrix; (2) formal elicitation of probability distributions for the alternative scores; and (3) a formal, more structured, comprehensive risk analysis. A framework is also presented for using the AGA programmatic risk analysis results in making better decisions. The report also presents two levels of analysis for evaluation and selection of risk-handling actions: (1) qualitative analysis and judgmental rankings of alternative actions, and (2) Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique (SMART).

  18. Engineering Behavior and Characteristics of Water-Soluble Polymers: Implication on Soil Remediation and Enhanced Oil Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Shuang Cindy Cao; Bate Bate; Jong Wan Hu; Jongwon Jung

    2016-01-01

    Biopolymers have shown a great effect in enhanced oil recovery because of the improvement of water-flood performance by mobility control, as well as having been considered for oil contaminated-soil remediation thanks to their mobility control and water-flood performance. This study focused on the wettability analysis of biopolymers such as chitosan (85% deacetylated power), PEO (polyethylene oxide), Xanthan (xanthan gum), SA (Alginic Acid Sodium Salt), and PAA (polyacrylic acid), including th...

  19. Lab scale study of the influence of the acid strength over the performance of an acid-enhanced electrokinetic remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Villén Guzmán, M.D.; Paz García, J.M.; García Delgado, R.A.; García Herruzo, Francisco; Arhoun, B.; Rodríguez Maroto, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that, when an electrokinetic remediation (EKR) is performed for the cleanup of most toxic metals, an enhancement is needed. During the unenhanced EKR the reactions at the electrodes, probably water electrolysis, result in the production of hydroxides, at the cathode, and hydroniums, at the anode, that migrate towards the opposite electrode. Most toxic metals are recovered as cations, and in their way towards the cathode will meet the hydroxides, with different problems a...

  20. Electrokinetic-Enhanced Remediation of Phenanthrene-Contaminated Soil Combined with Sphingomonas sp. GY2B and Biosurfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Weijia; Guo, Chuling; Zhang, Hui; Liang, Xujun; Wei, Yanfu; Lu, Guining; Dang, Zhi

    2016-04-01

    Electrokinetic-microbial remediation (EMR) has emerged as a promising option for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soils. The aim of this study was to enhance degradation of phenanthrene (Phe)-contaminated soils using EMR combined with biosurfactants. The electrokinetic (EK) remediation, combined with Phe-degrading Sphingomonas sp. GY2B, and biosurfactant obtained by fermentation of Pseudomonas sp. MZ01, degraded Phe in the soil with an efficiency of up to 65.1 % at the anode, 49.9 % at the cathode after 5 days of the treatment. The presence of biosurfactants, electricity, and a neutral electrolyte stimulated the growth of the degrading bacteria as shown by a rapid increase in microbial biomass with time. The electrical conductivity and pH changed little during the course of the treatment, which benefitted the growth of microorganisms and the remediation of Phe-contaminated soil. The EMR system with the addition of biosurfactant had the highest Phe removal, demonstrating the biosurfactant may enhance the bioavailability of Phe and the interaction with the microorganism. This study suggests that the EMR combined with biosurfactants can be used to enhance in situ bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils. PMID:26683200

  1. Electrokinetic-enhanced bioaugmentation for remediation of chlorinated solvents contaminated clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Xuhui, E-mail: x.mao@neu.edu [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Wang, James [Geosyntec Consultants, Columbia, MA (United States); Ciblak, Ali [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Cox, Evan E. [Geosyntec Consultants, Columbia, MA (United States); Riis, Charlotte [NIRAS A/S, Alleroed (Denmark); Terkelsen, Mads [Capital Region of Denmark, Hilleroed (Denmark); Gent, David B. [Environmental Laboratory, Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), US Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS (United States); Alshawabkeh, Akram N., E-mail: aalsha@neu.edu [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simultaneous delivery of electron donors and bacteria into low permeability clays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bacteria injection, growth and consequent transformation of contaminants are viable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EK injection is more effective than advection-based injection for clay soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electroosmosis appears to be the driving mechanism for bacteria injection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both EK transport and biodegradation contribute the removal of VOCs in clay. - Abstract: Successful bioremediation of contaminated soils is controlled by the ability to deliver bioremediation additives, such as bacteria and/or nutrients, to the contaminated zone. Because hydraulic advection is not practical for delivery in clays, electrokinetic (EK) injection is an alternative for efficient and uniform delivery of bioremediation additive into low-permeability soil and heterogeneous deposits. EK-enhanced bioaugmentation for remediation of clays contaminated with chlorinated solvents is evaluated. Dehalococcoides (Dhc) bacterial strain and lactate ions are uniformly injected in contaminated clay and complete dechlorination of chlorinated ethene is observed in laboratory experiments. The injected bacteria can survive, grow, and promote effective dechlorination under EK conditions and after EK application. The distribution of Dhc within the clay suggests that electrokinetic transport of Dhc is primarily driven by electroosmosis. In addition to biodegradation due to bioaugmentation of Dhc, an EK-driven transport of chlorinated ethenes is observed in the clay, which accelerates cleanup of chlorinated ethenes from the anode side. Compared with conventional advection-based delivery, EK injection is significantly more effective for establishing microbial reductive dechlorination capacity in low-permeability soils.

  2. [Continuous remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil by co-cropping system enhanced with chelator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ze-Bin; Guo, Xiao-Fang; Wu, Qi-Tang; Long, Xin-Xian

    2014-11-01

    In order to elucidate the continuous effectiveness of co-cropping system coupling with chelator enhancement in remediating heavy metal contaminated soils and its environmental risk towards underground water, soil lysimeter (0.9 m x 0.9 m x 0.9 m) experiments were conducted using a paddy soil affected by Pb and Zn mining in Lechang district of Guangdong Province, 7 successive crops were conducted for about 2.5 years. The treatments included mono-crop of Sedum alfredii Hance (Zn and Cd hyperaccumulator), mono-crop of corn (Zea mays, cv. Yunshi-5, a low-accumulating cultivar), co-crop of S. alfredii and corn, and co-crop + MC (Mixture of Chelators, comprised of citric acid, monosodium glutamate waste liquid, EDTA and KCI with molar ratio of 10: 1:2:3 at the concentration of 5 mmol x kg(-1) soil). The changes of heavy metal concentrations in plants, soil and underground water were monitored. Results showed that the co-cropping system was suitable only in spring-summer seasons and significantly increased Zn and Cd phytoextraction. In autumn-winter seasons, the growth of S. alfredii and its phytoextraction of Zn and Cd were reduced by co-cropping and MC application. In total, the mono-crops of S. alfredii recorded a highest phytoextraction of Zn and Cd. However, the greatest reduction of soil Zn, Cd and Pb was observed with the co-crop + MC treatment, the reduction rates were 28%, 50%, and 22%, respectively, relative to the initial soil metal content. The reduction of this treatment was mainly attributed to the downwards leaching of metals to the subsoil caused by MC application. The continuous monitoring of leachates during 2. 5 year's experiment also revealed that the addition of MC increased heavy metal concentrations in the leaching water, but they did not significantly exceed the III grade limits of the underground water standard of China. PMID:25639110

  3. Auroral ion acoustic wave enhancement observed with a radar interferometer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatter, N. M.; Belyey, V.; Gustavsson, B.; Ivchenko, N.; Whiter, D.; Dahlgren, H.; Tuttle, S.; Grydeland, T.

    2015-07-01

    Measurements of naturally enhanced ion acoustic line (NEIAL) echoes obtained with a five-antenna interferometric imaging radar system are presented. The observations were conducted with the European Incoherent SCATter (EISCAT) radar on Svalbard and the EISCAT Aperture Synthesis Imaging receivers (EASI) installed at the radar site. Four baselines of the interferometer are used in the analysis. Based on the coherence estimates derived from the measurements, we show that the enhanced backscattering region is of limited extent in the plane perpendicular to the geomagnetic field. Previously it has been argued that the enhanced backscatter region is limited in size; however, here the first unambiguous observations are presented. The size of the enhanced backscatter region is determined to be less than 900 × 500 m, and at times less than 160 m in the direction of the longest antenna separation, assuming the scattering region to have a Gaussian scattering cross section in the plane perpendicular to the geomagnetic field. Using aperture synthesis imaging methods volumetric images of the NEIAL echo are obtained showing the enhanced backscattering region to be aligned with the geomagnetic field. Although optical auroral emissions are observed outside the radar look direction, our observations are consistent with the NEIAL echo occurring on field lines with particle precipitation.

  4. Low-concentration tailing and subsequent quicklime-enhanced remediation of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by mechanical soil aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Du, Xiaoming; Shi, Yi; Xu, Zhu; Fang, Jidun; Li, Zheng; Li, Fasheng

    2015-02-01

    Mechanical soil aeration has long been regarded as an effective ex-situ remediation technique and as suitable for remediation of large-scale sites contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at low cost. However, it has been reported that the removal efficiency of VOCs from soil is relatively low in the late stages of remediation, in association with tailing. Tailing may extend the remediation time required; moreover, it typically results in the presence of contaminants residues at levels far exceeding regulations. In this context, the present study aimed to discuss the tailing that occurs during the process of remediation of soils contaminated artificially with volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHs) and to assess possible quicklime-enhanced removal mechanisms. The results revealed the following conclusions. First, temperature and aeration rate can be important controls on both the timing of appearance of tailing and the levels of residual contaminants. Furthermore, the addition of quicklime to soil during tailing can reduce the residual concentrations rapidly to below the remedial target values required for site remediation. Finally, mechanical soil aeration can be enhanced using quicklime, which can improve the volatilization of VCHs via increasing soil temperature, reducing soil moisture, and enhancing soil permeability. Our findings give a basic understanding to the elimination of the tailing in the application of mechanical soil aeration, particularly for VOCs-contaminated soils.

  5. Development of a Diagnostic and Remedial Learning System Based on an Enhanced Concept--Effect Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjaburees, Patcharin; Triampo, Wannapong; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chuedoung, Meechoke; Triampo, Darapond

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid advances in computer technology during recent years, researchers have demonstrated the pivotal influences of computer-assisted diagnostic systems on student learning performance improvement. This research aims to develop a Diagnostic and Remedial Learning System (DRLS) for an algebra course in a Thai lower secondary school context…

  6. Part 2: A field study of enhanced remediation of Toluene in the vadose zone using a nutrient solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, J.A.; Weeks, E.P.; Friedel, M.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of a nitrate-rich nutrient solution and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to enhance in-situ microbial remediation of toluene in the unsaturated zone. Three sand-filled plots were tested in three phases (each phase lasting approximately 2 weeks). During the control phase, toluene was applied uniformly via sprinkler irrigation. Passive remediation was allowed to occur during this phase. A modified Hoagland nutrient solution, concentrated in 150 L of water, was tested during the second phase. The final phase involved addition of 230 moles of H2O2 in 150 L of water to increase the available oxygen needed for aerobic biodegradation. During the first phase, measured toluene concentrations in soil gas were reduced from 120 ppm to 25 ppm in 14 days. After the addition of nutrients during the second phase, concentrations were reduced from 90 ppm to about 8 ppm within 14 days, and for the third phase (H 2O2), toluene concentrations were about 1 ppm after only 5 days. Initial results suggest that this method could be an effective means of remediating a contaminated site, directly after a BTEX spill, without the intrusiveness and high cost of other abatement technologies such as bioventing or soil-vapor extraction. However, further tests need to be completed to determine the effect of each of the BTEX components. ?? Springer 2005.

  7. Enhanced Remediation of Toluene in the Vadose Zone via a Nitrate-Rich Nutrient Solution: Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, J. A.; Friedel, M. J.

    2003-12-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of nitrate-rich nutrient solutions and hydrogen peroxide (H202) to enhance in-situ microbial remediation of toluene. Three sand filled plots (2 m2 surface area and 1.5 meters deep) were tested in three phases (each phase lasting approximately 2 weeks). During each phase, toluene (21.6 mol as an emulsion in 50L of water) was applied uniformly via sprinkler irrigation. Passive remediation was allowed to occur during the first (control) phase. A nutrient solution (modified Hoagland), concentrated in 40L of water, was tested during the second phase. The final phase involved addition of 230 moles of H202 in 50L of water to increase the available oxygen needed for aerobic biodegradation. During the first phase, toluene concentrations in soil gas were reduced from 120 ppm to 25 ppm in 14 days. After the addition of nutrients during the second phase, concentrations were reduced from 90 ppm to about 8 ppm within 14 days, and for the third phase (H202), toluene concentrations were about 1 ppm after only five days. Initial results suggest that this method could be an effective means of remediating a contaminated site, directly after a BTEX spill, without the intrusiveness and high cost of other abatement technologies such as bioventing and soil vapor extraction. However, further tests need to be completed to determine the effect of each of the BTEX components.

  8. Enhancing the Dynamic Range of Targeted Energy Transfer in Acoustics Using Several Nonlinear Membrane Absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Bellet, Romain; Côte, Renaud; Mattei, Pierre-Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In order to enhance the robustness and the energy range of efficiency of targeted energy transfer (TET) phenomena in acoustics, we discuss in this paper about the use of multiple nonlinear membrane absorbers in parallel. We show this way, mainly thanks to an experimental set-up with two membranes, that the different absorbers have additional effects that extend the efficiency and the possibilities of observation of TET. More precisely, we present the different behavior of the system under sinusoidal forcing and free oscillations, characterizing the phenomena for all input energies. The frequency responses are also presented, showing successive clipping of the original resonance peak of the system. A model is finally used to generalize these results to more than two NES and to simulate the case of several very similar membranes in parallel which shows how to extend the existence zone of TET.

  9. The enhanced volume source boundary point method for the calculation of acoustic radiation problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiufeng; CHEN Xinzhao; WANG Youcheng

    2003-01-01

    The Volume Source Boundary Point Method (VSBPM) is greatly improved so that it will speed up the VSBPM's solution of the acoustic radiation problem caused by the vibrating body. The fundamental solution provided by Helmholtz equation is enforced in a weighted residual sense over a tetrahedron located on the normal line of the boundary node to replace the coefficient matrices of the system equation. Through the enhanced volume source boundary point analysis of various examples and the sound field of a vibrating rectangular box in a semi-anechoic chamber, it has revealed that the calculating speed of the EVSBPM is more than 10 times faster than that of the VSBPM while it works on the aspects of its calculating precision and stability, adaptation to geometric shape of vibrating body as well as its ability to overcome the non-uniqueness problem.

  10. Enhancing Plasma Surface Modification using high Intensity and high Power Ultrasonic Acoustic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) by at least one ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic wave generator (101 ), wherein the ultrasonic acoustic waves are directed to propagate towards said surface (314) of the object (100) so that a laminar boundary layer (313) of a gas or a...

  11. Nonneoplastic enhancement of internal auditory canal contents mimicking intracanalicular acoustic neuroma on MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present five patients with inflammation of facial and/or vestibulocochlear nerves that showed enhancement of structures in the internal auditory canal. (IAC) on MR imaging that mimic intracanalicular acoustic neuroma. MR imaging findings of four patients with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and one with acute facial paralysis were reviewed along with the operative findings. MR imaging included pre-and postcontrast T1- and T2-weighted images. Three patients who presented with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss underwent surgery for exploration and decompression of the IAC. One patient with facial paralysis showed vesicular eruption in the external auditory canal and was diagnosed as having Ramsay Hunt syndrome (herpes zosteroticus) clinically. The fifth patient is also being followed up clinically. MR imaging findings in all five cases were similar. There was focal enhancement in the lateral portion of the IAC on postcontrast T1-weighted images with minimal mass effect. The swollen and edematous nerves were noted on surgery without any evidence of neoplasm. The patients not operated on showed no progression of symptoms. The enhancement of IAC contents on MR imaging in patients with nonspecific neuritis or Ramsay Hunt syndrome may be difficult to differentiate from a small intracanalicular neuroma, which may have important therapeutic implications

  12. Geotechnical behaviour of low-permeability soils in surfactant-enhanced electrokinetic remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vizcaíno, Rubén; Navarro, Vicente; Alonso, Juan; Yustres, Ángel; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Sáez, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Electrokinetic processes provide the basis of a range of very interesting techniques for the remediation of polluted soils. These techniques consist of the application of a current field in the soil that develops different transport mechanisms capable of mobilizing several types of pollutants. However, the use of these techniques could generate nondesirable effects related to the geomechanical behavior of the soil, reducing the effectiveness of the processes. In the case of the remediation of polluted soils with plasticity index higher than 35, an excessive shrinkage can be observed in remediation test. For this reason, the continued evaporation that takes place in the sample top can lead to the development of cracks, distorting the electrokinetic transport regime, and consequently, the development of the operation. On the other hand, when analyzing silty soils, in the surroundings of injection surfactant wells, high seepages can be generated that give rise to the development of piping processes. In this article methods are described to allow a reduction, or to even eliminate, both problems. PMID:26488188

  13. Field Test of Enhanced Remedial Amendment Delivery Using a Shear-Thinning Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Adamson, David; Oostrom, Martinus; Zhong, Lirong; Mackley, Rob D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Horner, Jacob A.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Thomle, Jonathan N.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Johnson, Christian D.; Rysz, Michal; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Newell, Charles J.

    2015-03-01

    Heterogeneity of hydraulic properties in aquifers may lead to contaminants residing in lower-permeability zones where it is difficult to deliver remediation amendments using conventional injection processes. The focus of this effort is to examine use of a shear-thinning fluid (STF) to improve the uniformity of remedial amendment distribution within a heterogeneous aquifer. Previous studies have demonstrated the significant potential of STFs for improving remedial amendment delivery in heterogeneous aquifers, but quantitative evaluation of these improvements from field applications are lacking. A field-scale test was conducted that compares data from successive injection of a tracer in water followed by injection of a tracer in a STF to evaluate the impact of the STF on tracer distribution uniformity in the presence of permeability contrasts within the targeted injection zone. Data from tracer breakthrough at multiple depth-discrete monitoring intervals and electrical resistivity tomography showed that inclusion of STF in the injection solution slowed movement in high-permeability pathways, improved delivery of amendment to low-permeability materials, and resulted in better uniformity in injected fluid distribution within the targeted treatment zone.

  14. Engineering Behavior and Characteristics of Water-Soluble Polymers: Implication on Soil Remediation and Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Cindy Cao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers have shown a great effect in enhanced oil recovery because of the improvement of water-flood performance by mobility control, as well as having been considered for oil contaminated-soil remediation thanks to their mobility control and water-flood performance. This study focused on the wettability analysis of biopolymers such as chitosan (85% deacetylated power, PEO (polyethylene oxide, Xanthan (xanthan gum, SA (Alginic Acid Sodium Salt, and PAA (polyacrylic acid, including the measurements of contact angles, interfacial tension, and viscosity. Furthermore, a micromodel study was conducted to explore pore-scale displacement phenomena during biopolymer injection into the pores. The contact angles of biopolymer solutions are higher on silica surfaces submerged in decane than at atmospheric conditions. While interfacial tensions of the biopolymer solutions have a relatively small range of 25 to 39 mN/m, the viscosities of biopolymer solutions have a wide range, 0.002 to 0.4 Pa·s, that dramatically affect both the capillary number and viscosity number. Both contact angles and interfacial tension have effects on the capillary entry pressure that increases along with an applied effective stress by overburden pressure in sediments. Additionally, a high injection rate of biopolymer solutions into the pores illustrates a high level of displacement ratio. Thus, oil-contaminated soil remediation and enhanced oil recovery should be operated in cost-efficient ways considering the injection rates and capillary entry pressure.

  15. An Enhanced Energy Balanced Data Transmission Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Nadeem; Shah, Mehreen; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Imran, Muhammad; Khan, Majid Iqbal; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents two new energy balanced routing protocols for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs); Efficient and Balanced Energy consumption Technique (EBET) and Enhanced EBET (EEBET). The first proposed protocol avoids direct transmission over long distance to save sufficient amount of energy consumed in the routing process. The second protocol overcomes the deficiencies in both Balanced Transmission Mechanism (BTM) and EBET techniques. EBET selects relay node on the basis of optimal distance threshold which leads to network lifetime prolongation. The initial energy of each sensor node is divided into energy levels for balanced energy consumption. Selection of high energy level node within transmission range avoids long distance direct data transmission. The EEBET incorporates depth threshold to minimize the number of hops between source node and sink while eradicating backward data transmissions. The EBET technique balances energy consumption within successive ring sectors, while, EEBET balances energy consumption of the entire network. In EEBET, optimum number of energy levels are also calculated to further enhance the network lifetime. Effectiveness of the proposed schemes is validated through simulations where these are compared with two existing routing protocols in terms of network lifetime, transmission loss, and throughput. The simulations are conducted under different network radii and varied number of nodes.

  16. An Enhanced Energy Balanced Data Transmission Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Javaid

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two new energy balanced routing protocols for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs; Efficient and Balanced Energy consumption Technique (EBET and Enhanced EBET (EEBET. The first proposed protocol avoids direct transmission over long distance to save sufficient amount of energy consumed in the routing process. The second protocol overcomes the deficiencies in both Balanced Transmission Mechanism (BTM and EBET techniques. EBET selects relay node on the basis of optimal distance threshold which leads to network lifetime prolongation. The initial energy of each sensor node is divided into energy levels for balanced energy consumption. Selection of high energy level node within transmission range avoids long distance direct data transmission. The EEBET incorporates depth threshold to minimize the number of hops between source node and sink while eradicating backward data transmissions. The EBET technique balances energy consumption within successive ring sectors, while, EEBET balances energy consumption of the entire network. In EEBET, optimum number of energy levels are also calculated to further enhance the network lifetime. Effectiveness of the proposed schemes is validated through simulations where these are compared with two existing routing protocols in terms of network lifetime, transmission loss, and throughput. The simulations are conducted under different network radii and varied number of nodes.

  17. Treatment of murine tumors using acoustic droplet vaporization-enhanced high intensity focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meili; Jiang, Lixing; Fabiilli, Mario L.; Zhang, Aili; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Xu, Lisa X.

    2013-09-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can be applied focally and noninvasively to thermally ablate solid tumors. Long treatment times are typically required for large tumors, which can expose patients to certain risks while potentially decreasing the therapeutic efficacy of the treatment. Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) is a promising modality that can enhance the efficacy of tumor treatment using HIFU. In this study, the therapeutic effects of combined HIFU and ADV was evaluated in mice bearing subcutaneously-implanted 4T1 tumors. Histological examination showed that the combination of HIFU and ADV generated a mean necrotic area in the tumor that was 2.9-fold larger than with HIFU alone. A significant enhancement of necrosis was found in the periphery of the tumor, where the blood supply was abundant. Seven days after treatment, the tumors treated with combined HIFU and ADV were 30-fold smaller in volume than tumors treated with HIFU alone. The study demonstrates the potential advantage of combining HIFU and ADV in tumor treatment.

  18. Enhanced electrokinetic (E/K) remediation on copper contaminated soil by CFW (carbonized foods waste).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung-Geun; Hong, Ki-Kwon; Kim, Young-Woong; Lee, Jong-Young

    2010-05-15

    The E/K remediation method is presented to purify low permeable contaminated soils due to Cu(2+), and carbonized foods waste (CFW) was used as a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) material. For adsorption and precipitation of the Cu(2+) in the PRB during its motion, PRB was installed in a zone of rapidly changing pH values. The adsorption efficiency of CFW used as PRB material was found to be 4-8 times more efficient than that of Zeolite. Throughout the experiment, a voltage slope of 1V/cm was implemented and acetic acid was injected on the anode to increase the remediation efficiency. The electrode exchange was executed to more completely remove precipitated heavy metals in the vicinity of the cathode. The majority of Cu(2+) was adsorbed or sedimented by CFW prior to the exchange of the electrode, and the remaining quantity of precipitated Cu(2+) on the cathode had decreased with an increase in the operating time. Experiments of seven cases with different E/K operating times were performed, and the average removal ratios were 53.4-84.6%. The removal efficiencies for the majority of cases increased proportionally with an increase in the operating time. After the experiments were completed, the adsorbed Cu(2+) on CFW was 75-150 mg. This means that the role of CFW as the material in PRB for remediating heavy metals was confirmed. The cost of energies needed to remove Cu(2+), CFW, and acetic acid are estimated at US$ 13.3-40/m(3). PMID:20080337

  19. Development of Enhanced Remedial Techniques for Petroleum Fuel and Related Contaminants in Soil and Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-02-10

    Western Research Institute (WRI) in conjunction with Earth Tech and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) was to identify proper sites with soils and/or groundwater contaminated by petroleum constituents and MTBE. Biodegradation rates would have been quantitatively assessed in both laboratory and field tests to achieve the optimal destruction of contaminants of concern. WRI and Earth Tech identified a site contaminated with high concentrations of methanol associated with petroleum hydrocarbons. The site was assessed and a remediation project plan was prepared; however, the site was soon acquired by a new company. An agreement between Earth Tech, WRI, and the new site owners could not be reached; therefore, a work was performed to identify a new project site. Task 33 was terminated and the available funding was redeployed to other Tasks after receiving approval from the U.S. DOE task manager.

  20. Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R.E.; Londergan, J.T.; Pickens, J.F. [INTERA Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Many DOE facilities are situated in areas of sand and gravel which have become polluted with dense, non-aqueous phase liquids or DNAPLs, such as chlorinated solvents, from the various industrial operations at these facilities. The presence of such DNAPLs in sand and gravel aquifers is now recognized as the principal factor in the failure of standard ground-water remediation methods. The principal objective of this study, as stated in the Statement of Work of the contract (DE-AC21-92MC29111), is to demonstrate that multi-component DNAPLs can be readily solubilized in sand and gravel aquifers by dilute surfactant solutions. The specific objectives of the contract are: to identify dilute surfactants or blends of surfactants in the laboratory that will efficiently extract multi-component DNAPLs from sand and gravel aquifers by micellar solubilization (Phase 1); 2. to test the efficacy of the identified surfactants or blends of surfactants to solubilize in situ perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) DNAPLs by the injection and the subsequent extraction through an existing well or wells at a government-owned contaminated site (Phase 1); and 3. to demonstrate the full-scale operation of this remedial technology at a government-owned contaminated site (Phase 2). Specific objective number 1 has been completed and reported to DOE. However, the results of the test referred to in specific objective number 2, conducted at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in 1994, were inconclusive. Following this first test, it was decided by DOE and INTERA to move the test site elsewhere due to difficulties with obtaining core samples of the sand and gravel aquifer containing the DNAPL and with ascertaining the location of the DNAPL relative to the injection well. The solubilization test at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) will constitute the second test of Phase 1 of this contract.

  1. Acoustically active liposome-nanobubble complexes for enhanced ultrasonic imaging and ultrasound-triggered drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, An T; Wrenn, Steven P

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound is well known as a safe, reliable imaging modality. A historical limitation of ultrasound, however, was its inability to resolve structures at length scales less than nominally 20 µm, which meant that classical ultrasound could not be used in applications such as echocardiography and angiogenesis where one requires the ability to image small blood vessels. The advent of ultrasound contrast agents, or microbubbles, removed this limitation and ushered in a new wave of enhanced ultrasound applications. In recent years, the microbubbles have been designed to achieve yet another application, namely ultrasound-triggered drug delivery. Ultrasound contrast agents are thus tantamount to 'theranostic' vehicles, meaning they can do both therapy (drug delivery) and imaging (diagnostics). The use of ultrasound contrast agents as drug delivery vehicles, however, is perhaps less than ideal when compared to traditional drug delivery vehicles (e.g., polymeric microcapsules and liposomes) which have greater drug carrying capacities. The drawback of the traditional drug delivery vehicles is that they are not naturally acoustically active and cannot be used for imaging. The notion of a theranostic vehicle is sufficiently intriguing that many attempts have been made in recent years to achieve a vehicle that combines the echogenicity of microbubbles with the drug carrying capacity of liposomes. The attempts can be classified into three categories, namely entrapping, tethering, and nesting. Of these, nesting is the newest-and perhaps the most promising.

  2. Enhanced Sensitivity of Surface Acoustic Wave-Based Rate Sensors Incorporating Metallic Dot Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A new surface acoustic wave (SAW-based rate sensor pattern incorporating metallic dot arrays was developed in this paper. Two parallel SAW delay lines with a reverse direction and an operation frequency of 80 MHz on a same X-112°Y LiTaO3 wafer are fabricated as the feedback of two SAW oscillators, and mixed oscillation frequency was used to characterize the external rotation. To enhance the Coriolis force effect acting on the SAW propagation, a copper (Cu dot array was deposited along the SAW propagation path of the SAW devices. The approach of partial-wave analysis in layered media was referred to analyze the response mechanisms of the SAW based rate sensor, resulting in determination of the optimal design parameters. To improve the frequency stability of the oscillator, the single phase unidirectional transducers (SPUDTs and combed transducer were used to form the SAW device to minimize the insertion loss and accomplish the single mode selection, respectively. Excellent long-term (measured in hours frequency stability of 0.1 ppm/h was obtained. Using the rate table with high precision, the performance of the developed SAW rate sensor was evaluated experimentally; satisfactory detection sensitivity (16.7 Hz∙deg∙s−1 and good linearity were observed.

  3. Canonical Acoustics and Its Application to Surface Acoustic Wave on Acoustic Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian Qi

    2016-08-01

    In a conventional formalism of acoustics, acoustic pressure p and velocity field u are used for characterizing acoustic waves propagating inside elastic/acoustic materials. We shall treat some fundamental problems relevant to acoustic wave propagation alternatively by using canonical acoustics (a more concise and compact formalism of acoustic dynamics), in which an acoustic scalar potential and an acoustic vector potential (Φ ,V), instead of the conventional acoustic field quantities such as acoustic pressure and velocity field (p,u) for characterizing acoustic waves, have been defined as the fundamental variables. The canonical formalism of the acoustic energy-momentum tensor is derived in terms of the acoustic potentials. Both the acoustic Hamiltonian density and the acoustic Lagrangian density have been defined, and based on this formulation, the acoustic wave quantization in a fluid is also developed. Such a formalism of acoustic potentials is employed to the problem of negative-mass-density assisted surface acoustic wave that is a highly localized surface bound state (an eigenstate of the acoustic wave equations). Since such a surface acoustic wave can be strongly confined to an interface between an acoustic metamaterial (e.g., fluid-solid composite structures with a negative dynamical mass density) and an ordinary material (with a positive mass density), it will give rise to an effect of acoustic field enhancement on the acoustic interface, and would have potential applications in acoustic device design for acoustic wave control.

  4. Analysis of enhanced modal damping ratio in porous materials using an acoustic-structure interaction model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kook, Junghwan; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    phenomenological acoustic loss model. An eigenvalue analysis is carried out to demonstrate the improvement of the damping characteristic of the macrobeam with the resonating microbeam in the lossy air and the results are compared to a forced vibration analysis for a macrobeam with one or multiple embedded...... relation expressing how an increased damping due to the acoustic medium surrounding the microbeam affect the MDR of the macrobeam. We further analyze the effect of including dissipation of the acoustic medium by using finite element (FE) analysis with acoustic-structure interaction (ASI) using a simple...... microbeams. Finally we demonstrate the effect of randomness in terms of position and size of microbeams and discuss the difference between the phenomenological acoustic loss model and a full thermoacoustic model....

  5. Enhanced-electrokinetic remediation of copper-pyrene co-contaminated soil with different oxidants and pH control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cang, Long; Fan, Guang-Ping; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Wang, Quan-Ying

    2013-02-01

    Electrokinetic (EK) remediation has potential to simultaneously remove heavy metals and organic compounds from soil, but the removal percent of these pollutants is very low in general if no enhancing treatment is applied. This study developed a new enhanced-EK remediation technology to decontaminate a heavy metal-organic compound co-contaminated soil by applying different oxidants and pH control. A red soil was used as a model clayed soil, and was spiked with pyrene and Cu at about 500 mg kg(-1) for both to simulate real situation. Bench-scale EK experiments were performed using four oxidants (H(2)O(2), NaClO, KMnO(4), and Na(2)S(2)O(8)) and controlling electrolyte pH at 3.5 or 10. After the treatments with 1.0 V cm(-1) of voltage gradient for 335 h, soil pH, electrical conductivity, and the concentrations and chemical fractionations of soil pyrene and Cu were analyzed. The results showed that there was significant migration of pyrene and Cu from the soil, and the removal percent of soil pyrene and Cu varied in the range of 30-52% and 8-94%, respectively. Low pH favoured the migration of soil Cu, while KMnO(4) was the best one for the degradation of pyrene among the tested oxidants, although it unfortunately prevented the migration of soil Cu by forming Cu oxide. Application of Na(2)S(2)O(8) and to control the catholyte pH at 3.5 were found to be the best operation conditions for decontaminating the Cu-pyrene co-contaminated soil. PMID:23177009

  6. Application of iron electrode corrosion enhanced electrokinetic-Fenton oxidation to remediate diesel contaminated soils: A laboratory feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tzai-Tang; Sah, Jygau; Kao, Chih-Ming

    2010-01-01

    SummaryDiesel soil contamination on gas stations or refinery plants is a worldwide environmental problem. The main objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the efficiency of electrokinetic (EK) by using different electrode materials (graphite and iron rods) and electrolytes (tap water, 0.01 M NaCl, and 0.1 M NaCl) on the remediation of diesel contaminated soils, and (2) evaluate the feasibility of total petroleum hydrocarbon-diesel (TPH-D) reducing in soils via EK-Fenton oxidation enhanced by corroded iron electrode. The EK and EK-Fenton experiments were conducted in batch and sand box experiments, respectively. Batch experiments reveal that the most appropriate electrolyte was 0.1 M NaCl when iron electrode was used in the EK system. Sand box experiments indicate that the TPH-D concentration dropped from 10,000 to 300 mg kg -1 when amorphous iron/total iron (Fe o/Fe t) ratio increased from 0.1 to 0.33, with the addition of 8% of H 2O 2 and 0.1 M NaCl after 60 days of EK-Fenton operation. Electrokinetically enhanced oxidation with the presence of both H 2O 2 and Fe 3O 4 (iron electrode corrosion) resulted in higher TPH-D removal efficiency (97%) compared to the efficiencies observed from EK (55%) or Fenton oxidation (27%) alone. This demonstrates that EK-Fenton oxidation catalyzed by iron electrode corrosion is a valuable direction to efficiently and effectively remediate diesel contaminated soils.

  7. Characteristics of Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) naturally enhanced ion-acoustic lines (NEIALs) in relation to auroral forms

    OpenAIRE

    Michell, R. G.; T. Grydeland; Samara, M.

    2014-01-01

    Naturally enhanced ion-acoustic lines (NEIALs) have been observed with the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) ever since it began operating in 2006. The nearly continuous operation of PFISR since then has led to a large number of NEIAL observations from there, where common-volume, high-resolution auroral imaging data are available. We aim to systematically distinguish the different types of auroral forms that are associated with different NEIAL features, including s...

  8. Steroid-dependent auditory plasticity for the enhancement of acoustic communication: recent insights from a vocal teleost fish

    OpenAIRE

    Sisneros, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    The vocal plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) has become an excellent model for identifying neural mechanisms of auditory perception that may be shared by all vertebrates. Recent neuroethological studies of the midshipman fish have yielded strong evidence for the steroid-dependent modulation of hearing sensitivity that leads to enhanced coupling of sender and receiver in this vocal-acoustic communication system. Previous work shows that non-reproductive females treated with either t...

  9. Hierarchical Assembly of Tungsten Spheres and Epoxy Composites in Three-Dimensional Graphene Foam and Its Enhanced Acoustic Performance as a Backing Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yunfeng; Liu, Jingjing; Lu, Yue; Zhang, Rui; Cao, Wenwu; Hu, PingAn

    2016-07-20

    Backing materials play important role in enhancing the acoustic performance of an ultrasonic transducer. Most backing materials prepared by conventional methods failed to show both high acoustic impedance and attenuation, which however determine the bandwidth and axial resolution of acoustic transducer, respectively. In the present work, taking advantage of the structural feature of 3D graphene foam as a confined space for dense packing of tungsten spheres with the assistance of centrifugal force, the desired structural requirement for high impedance is obtained. Meanwhile, superior thermal conductivity of graphene contributes to the acoustic attenuation via the conversion of acoustic waves to thermal energy. The tight contact between tungstate spheres, epoxy matrix, or graphene makes the acoustic wave depleted easily for the absence of air barrier. The as-prepared 3DG/W80 wt %/epoxy film in 1 mm, prepared using ∼41 μm W spheres in diameter, not only displays acoustic impedance of 13.05 ± 0.11 MRayl but also illustrates acoustic attenuation of 110.15 ± 1.23 dB/cm MHz. Additionally, the composite film exhibits a high acoustic absorption coefficient, which is 94.4% at 1 MHz and 100% at 3 MHz, respectively. Present composite film outperforms most of the reported backing materials consisting of metal fillers/polymer blending in terms of the acoustic impedance and attenuation. PMID:27352024

  10. Study on remediation for uranium contaminated soils enhanced by chelator using brassica mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening of perfect hyperaccumulators is the key to the application of this technology. Through the previous stage study, mustard was found to be good at absorption and accumulation of uranium among 51 species, the plant grows fast with wide adaptability and large biomass. Researches will focus on the following two aspects: 1. Simulating U- contaminated soils was prepared by two different ways to add uranium. (1). UO2 (NO3)2 . 6H2O solution was sprayed into soil when the plant was grown in the soil; (2). Above U-contaminated soils after planting and placed for a year. Study on whether the way of adding uranium can effect mustard accumulate uranium. Results found: in the first Phytoremediation, U-contaminated concentration at 100 mg/kg, U concentration in shoots reaches 1103.42 mg/kg, roots reach 1909.49 mg/kg, annual removal rate is 7.81%; in the second Phytoremediation, U-contaminated concentration at 100 mg/kg, U concentration in shoots reach 295.83 mg/kg, roots reach 268.42 mg/kg, annual removal rate is 2.52%. Led to the difference between the twice remediation is the speciation of uranium m soils has changed, respectively, Tessier-five step continuous extraction method for determination of uranium speciation in soils and found available uranium (exchangeable uranium, uranium carbonate) in the soil of the first phytoremediation was 52% higher than the second phytoremediation. 2. Study on chelators (Citric acids, Malic acids) and soil amendments (Organic fertilizer, microbe fertilizer. Humic acid organic fertilizer, Urea) whether effect mustard accumulate uranium, found organic fertilizer can reduce shoots accumulate uranium, Citric acid and microbe fertilizer increase shoots enrichment of uranium. (authors)

  11. 77 FR 593 - Enhanced Prudential Standards and Early Remediation Requirements for Covered Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... companies, the core measure of capital adequacy, were not truly loss absorbing. Section 165(b)(1)(A)(i) of... of the Act. The enhanced standards include risk-based capital and leverage requirements, liquidity... Division. Risk-Based Capital Requirements and Leverage Limits: Anna Lee Hewko, Assistant Director,...

  12. Effect of heterogeneity on enhanced reductive dechlorination: Analysis of remediation efficiency and groundwater acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Brovelli, Alessandro; Lacroix, Elsa; Robinson, Clare; Gerhard, Jason Ian; Holliger, Christof; Barry, David Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced reductive dehalogenation is an attractive in situ treatment technology for chlorinated contaminants. The process includes two acid-forming microbial reactions: fermentation of an organic substrate resulting in short-chain fatty acids, and dehalogenation resulting in hydrochloric acid. The accumulation of acids and the resulting drop of groundwater pH are controlled by the mass and distribution of chlorinated solvents in the source zone, type of electron donor, alternative terminal el...

  13. Prosodic strengthening and featural enhancement: Evidence from acoustic and articulatory realizations of /opena,eye/ in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Taehong

    2005-06-01

    In this study the effects of accent and prosodic boundaries on the production of English vowels (/opena,eye/), by concurrently examining acoustic vowel formants and articulatory maxima of the tongue, jaw, and lips obtained with EMA (Electromagnetic Articulography) are investigated. The results demonstrate that prosodic strengthening (due to accent and/or prosodic boundaries) has differential effects depending on the source of prominence (in accented syllables versus at edges of prosodic domains; domain initially versus domain finally). The results are interpreted in terms of how the prosodic strengthening is related to phonetic realization of vowel features. For example, when accented, /eye/ was fronter in both acoustic and articulatory vowel spaces (enhancing [-back]), accompanied by an increase in both lip and jaw openings (enhancing sonority). By contrast, at edges of prosodic domains (especially domain-finally), /eye/ was not necessarily fronter, but higher (enhancing [+high]), accompanied by an increase only in the lip (not jaw) opening. This suggests that the two aspects of prosodic structure (accent versus boundary) are differentiated by distinct phonetic patterns. Further, it implies that prosodic strengthening, though manifested in fine-grained phonetic details, is not simply a low-level phonetic event but a complex linguistic phenomenon, closely linked to the enhancement of phonological features and positional strength that may license phonological contrasts. .

  14. Correlation between DNAPL distribution area and dissolved concentration in surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation effluent: a two-dimensional flow cell study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Bin; Li, Huiying; Du, Xiaoming; Zhong, Lirong; Yang, Bin; Du, Ping; Gu, Qingbao; Li, Fasheng

    2016-02-01

    During the process of surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR), free phase dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) may be mobilized and spread. The understanding of the impact of DNAPL spreading on the SEAR remediation is not sufficient with its positive effect infrequently mentioned. To evaluate the correlation between DNAPL spreading and remediation efficiency, a two-dimensional sandbox apparatus was used to simulate the migration and dissolution process of 1,2-DCA (1,2-dichloroethane) DNAPL in SEAR. Distribution area of DNAPL in the sandbox was determined by digital image analysis and correlated with effluent DNAPL concentration. The results showed that the effluent DNAPL concentration has significant positive linear correlation with the DNAPL distribution area, indicating the mobilization of DNAPL could improve remediation efficiency by enlarging total NAPL-water interfacial area for mass transfer. Meanwhile, the vertical migration of 1,2-DCA was limited within the boundary of aquifer in all experiments, implying that by manipulating injection parameters in SEAR, optimal remediation efficiency can be reached while the risk of DNAPL vertical migration is minimized. This study provides a convenient visible and quantitative method for the optimization of parameters for SEAR project, and an approach of rapid predicting the extent of DNAPL contaminant distribution based on the dissolved DNAPL concentration in the extraction well.

  15. Correlation between DNAPL distribution area and dissolved concentration in surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation effluent: A two-dimensional flow cell study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Li, Huiying; Du, Xiaoming; Zhong, Lirong; Yang, Bin; Du, Ping; Gu, Qingbao; Li, Fasheng

    2016-02-01

    During the process of surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR), free phase dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) may be mobilized and spread. The understanding of the impact of DNAPL spreading on the SEAR remediation is not sufficient with its positive effect infrequently mentioned. To evaluate the correlation between DNAPL spreading and remediation efficiency, a two-dimensional sandbox apparatus was used to simulate the migration and dissolution process of 1,2-DCA (1,2-dichloroethane) DNAPL in SEAR. Distribution area of DNAPL in the sandbox was determined by digital image analysis and correlated with effluent DNAPL concentration. The results showed that the effluent DNAPL concentration has significant positive linear correlation with the DNAPL distribution area, indicating the mobilization of DNAPL could improve remediation efficiency by enlarging total NAPL-water interfacial area for mass transfer. Meanwhile, the vertical migration of 1,2-DCA was limited within the boundary of aquifer in all experiments, implying that by manipulating injection parameters in SEAR, optimal remediation efficiency can be reached while the risk of DNAPL vertical migration is minimized. This study provides a convenient visible and quantitative method for the optimization of parameters for SEAR project, and an approach of rapid predicting the extent of DNAPL contaminant distribution based on the dissolved DNAPL concentration in the extraction well.

  16. Novel Acoustic Feedback Cancellation Approaches In Hearing Aid Applications Using Probe Noise and Probe Noise Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Meng; Jensen, Søren Holdt; Jensen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive filters are widely used in acoustic feedback cancellation systems and have evolved to be state-of-the-art. One major challenge remaining is that the adaptive filter estimates are biased due to the nonzero correlation between the loudspeaker signals and the signals entering the audio syst...... the proposed approaches much more attractive in practical applications. We demonstrate this through a simulation experiment with audio signals in a hearing aid acoustic feedback cancellation system, where the convergence rate is improved by as much as a factor of 10....

  17. PFISR nightside observations of naturally enhanced ion acoustic lines, and their relation to boundary auroral features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Michell

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We present results from a coordinated camera and radar study of the auroral ionosphere conducted during March of 2006 from Poker Flat, Alaska. The campaign was conducted to coincide with engineering tests of the first quarter installation of the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR. On 31 March 2006, a moderately intense auroral arc, (~10 kR at 557.7 nm, was located in the local magnetic zenith at Poker Flat. During this event the radar observed 7 distinct periods of abnormally large backscattered power from the F-region. These were only observed in the field-aligned radar beam, and radar spectra from these seven times show naturally enhanced ion-acoustic lines (NEIALs, the first observed with PFISR. These times corresponded to (a when the polar cap boundary of the auroral oval passed through the magnetic zenith, and (b when small-scale filamentary dark structures were visible in the magnetic zenith. The presence of both (a and (b was necessary for their occurrence. Soft electron precipitation occurs near the magnetic zenith during these same times. The electron density in the vicinity where NEIALs have been observed by previous studies is roughly between 5 and 30×1010 m−3. Broad-band extremely low frequency (BBELF wave activity is observed in situ by satellites and sounding rockets to occur with similar morphology, during active auroral conditions, associated with the poleward edge of the aurora and soft electron precipitation. The observations presented here suggest further investigation of the idea that NEIALs and BBELF wave activity are differently-observed aspects of the same wave phenomenon. If a connection between NEIALs and BBELF can be established with more data, this could provide a link between in situ measurements of downward current regions (DCRs and dynamic aurora, and ground-based observations of dark auroral structures and NEIALs. Identification of in situ processes, namely wave activity, in ground

  18. Electrokinetically Enhanced Delivery for ERD Remediation of Chlorinated Ethenes in a Fractured Limestone Aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette Martina; Hansen, Bente H.; With Nedergaard, Lærke;

    Leakage of the chlorinated solvents PCE and TCE into limestone aquifers from contaminated overburden and the long-lasting back diffusion from the secondary source in the limestone matrix pose a severe risk for contamination of drinking water resources. Dechlorination of PCE and TCE in limestone...... often accumulates cis-DCE due to incomplete dechlorination in the limestone aquifers, as observed downgradient of a PCE and TCE DNAPL source area at Naverland in Denmark. A microcosm study with limestone core material and groundwater from the Naverland site source area spiked with PCE showed...... that enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD) by the addition of donor and specific degraders (KB1® culture) can lead to complete dechlorination of PCE and TCE in the limestone aquifer, provided sufficient contact between specific degraders, donor and specific degraders, is obtained. Advection-based delivery...

  19. Excited and enhanced twinborn acoustic-induced mutual forces in oblique grating structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuifang; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Fugen; Yao, Yuanwei; Chen, Zongwang

    2016-07-01

    We propose a water-immersed geometrically oblique grating structure patterned with a 1D periodic array of oblique rhombuses. Twin acoustic-induced mutual forces (both repulsive and attractive) between coupled steel plates were realized in this system when the external plane wave normally impacted the plates. Calculations showed that the emerging forces are more than an order of magnitude larger than the corresponding induced force of a conventional grating structure. We also found that the strong acoustic-induced mutual forces stem from the resonant excitation of nonleaky flexural Lamb modes in the coupled plates, and that these forces couple more strongly with the external incident acoustic waves. Furthermore, the amplitudes and resonant wavelengths of these forces can be coarsely controlled by changing the symmetry of the system and finely adjusted by varying the slant angle and the edge-length of the oblique rhombus. The proposed acoustic system could potentially be applied in sensors and in the ultrasonic detection of weak signals in water.

  20. Remediation of hexachlorobenzene contaminated soils by rhamnolipid enhanced soil washing coupled with activated carbon selective adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jinzhong; Chai, Lina; Lu, Xiaohua; Lin, Yusuo; Zhang, Shengtian

    2011-05-15

    The present study investigates the selective adsorption of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from rhamnolipid solution by a powdered activated carbon (PAC). A combined soil washing-PAC adsorption technique is further evaluated on the removal of HCB from two soils, a spiked kaolin and a contaminated real soil. PAC at a dosage of 10 g L(-1) could achieve a HCB removal of 80-99% with initial HCB and rhamnolipid concentrations of 1 mg L(-1) and 3.3-25 g L(-1), respectively. The corresponding adsorptive loss of rhamnolipid was 8-19%. Successive soil washing-PAC adsorption tests (new soil sample was subjected to washing for each cycle) showed encouraging leaching and adsorption performances for HCB. When 25 g L(-1) rhamnolipid solution was applied, HCB leaching from soils was 55-71% for three cycles of washing, and HCB removal by PAC was nearly 90%. An overall 86% and 88% removal of HCB were obtained for kaolin and real soil, respectively, by using the combined process to wash one soil sample for twice. Our investigation suggests that coupling AC adsorption with biosurfactant-enhanced soil washing is a promising alternative to remove hydrophobic organic compounds from soils. PMID:21397398

  1. Efficiency of drug delivery enhanced by acoustic pressure during blood–brain barrier disruption induced by focused ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang FY

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Feng-Yi Yang, Pei-Yi LeeDepartment of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, TaiwanPurpose: We evaluated the delivery efficiency of intravenously injected large molecular agents, before and after disruption of the blood–brain barrier (BBB-D, induced by focused ultrasound (FUS using various acoustic parameters.Materials and methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intravenously with Evans blue (EB before or after BBB-D induction by pulsed FUS. We used a 1.0 MHz pulsed FUS with four acoustic power settings and an ultrasound contrast agent (UCA at four different doses to induce BBB-D resulting from cavitation. The permeability of the BBB was assessed quantitatively based on the extravasation of EB. Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was used to monitor the gadolinium deposition associated with FUS. Histological analysis was performed to examine tissue damage.Results: The accumulation of EB in rat brain was found to be dependent on acoustic power and UCA dosage, regardless of whether EB administration occurred before or after FUS-induced BBB-D. Administration of EB followed by sonication resulted in greater EB extravasation than that for rats subjected to sonication prior to EB injection. To reduce tissue damage, EB extravasation was enhanced by first administering EB by intravenous injection, followed by sonication at reduced acoustic power or UCA dosage. The normalized signal intensity change in rat brains that received the same dose of UCA and sonicated after gadolinium injection was significantly greater than in rats undergoing sonication followed by gadolinium administration. Moreover, contrast enhanced MRI showed a more precise distribution of gadolinium in the brain when gadolinium was administered before sonication.Conclusion: We demonstrated that a compound administered prior to sonication treatment promotes extravasation of the sonicated region. Thus, it is possible to

  2. Enhanced bioremediation as a cost effective approach following thermally enhanced soil vapour extraction for sites requiring remediation of chlorinated solvents - 16296

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermally enhanced bioremediation can be a more cost-effective alternative to full scale in-situ thermal treatment especially for sites contaminated with chlorinated solvents, where reductive dechlorination is or might be a dominant biological step. The effect of Thermally Enhanced Soil Vapour Extraction (TESVE) on indigenous microbial communities and the potential for subsequent biological polishing of chlorinated solvents was investigated in field trials at the Western Storage Area (WSA) - RSRL (formerly United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority - UKAEA) Oxfordshire, UK. The WSA site had been contaminated with various chemicals including mineral oil, chloroform, trichloroethane (TCA), carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethene (PCE). The contamination had affected the unsaturated zone, groundwater in the chalk aquifer and was a continuing source of groundwater contamination below the WSA. During TESVE the target treatment zone was heated to above the boiling point of water increasing the degree of volatilization of contaminants of concern (CoC), which were mobilised and extracted in the vapour phase. A significant reduction of concentrations of chlorinated solvent in the unsaturated zone was achieved by the full-scale application of TESVE - In Situ Thermal Desorption (ISTD) technology. The rock mass temperature within target treatment zone remained in the range of 35 deg. - 44 deg. C, 6 months after cessation of heating. The concentration of chlorinated ethenes and other CoC were found to be significantly lower adjacent to the thermal treatment area and 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower within the thermal treatment zone. Samples were collected within and outside the thermal treatment zone using BioTrapsR (passive, in- situ microbial samplers) from which the numbers of specific bacteria were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods of analysis. High populations of reductive de-chlorinators such as Dechalococcoides spp. and Dehalobacter spp

  3. AlScN thin film based surface acoustic wave devices with enhanced microfluidic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. B.; Fu, Y. Q.; Chen, J. J.; Xuan, W. P.; Chen, J. K.; Wang, X. Z.; Mayrhofer, P.; Duan, P. F.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U.; Luo, J. K.

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the characterization of scandium aluminum nitride (Al1-x Sc x N, x  =  27%) films and discusses surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices based on them. Both AlScN and AlN films were deposited on silicon by sputtering and possessed columnar microstructures with (0 0 0 2) crystal orientation. The AlScN/Si SAW devices showed improved electromechanical coupling coefficients (K 2, ~2%) compared with pure AlN films (hardness of the AlN film decreased significantly when Sc was doped, and this was responsible for the decreased acoustic velocity and resonant frequency, and the increased temperature coefficient of frequency, of the AlScN SAW devices.

  4. A surface acoustic wave (SAW)-enhanced grating-coupling phase-interrogation surface plasmon resonance (SPR) microfluidic biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonato, A; Agostini, M; Ruffato, G; Gazzola, E; Liuni, D; Greco, G; Travagliati, M; Cecchini, M; Romanato, F

    2016-04-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW)-enhanced, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) microfluidic biosensor in which SAW-induced mixing and phase-interrogation grating-coupling SPR are combined in a single lithium niobate lab-on-a-chip is demonstrated. Thiol-polyethylene glycol adsorption and avidin/biotin binding kinetics were monitored by exploiting the high sensitivity of grating-coupling SPR under azimuthal control. A time saturation binding kinetics reduction of 82% and 24% for polyethylene and avidin adsorption was obtained, respectively, due to the fluid mixing enhancement by means of the SAW-generated chaotic advection. These results represent the first implementation of a nanostructured SAW-SPR microfluidic biochip capable of significantly improving the molecule binding kinetics on a single, portable device. In addition, the biochip here proposed is suitable for a great variety of biosensing applications. PMID:26932784

  5. Study of the behavior of an acid-enhanced electrokinetic remediation performed with a real soil spiked with lead

    OpenAIRE

    Nekrasova, Marina; Sidorenko, Sergey; Galkin, K.A.; Pisar, L.U.; García Herruzo, Francisco; Rodríguez Maroto, José Miguel; Gómez-Lahoz, C.; Vereda Alonso, Carlos; Villén Guzmán, María D.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s decade there has been a sharp increase in the research for the development of new techniques for the remediation of contaminates sites, because one after another country realized that the economic budget that would require the recovery of all these sites is simply unaffordable. Most countries have developed criteria to prioritize the remediation of those sites that were bearing the most severe risks for humans or the environment. Also an important effort has been done in order...

  6. Action Enhances Acoustic Cues for 3-D Target Localization by Echolocating Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, Melville J.

    2016-01-01

    Under natural conditions, animals encounter a barrage of sensory information from which they must select and interpret biologically relevant signals. Active sensing can facilitate this process by engaging motor systems in the sampling of sensory information. The echolocating bat serves as an excellent model to investigate the coupling between action and sensing because it adaptively controls both the acoustic signals used to probe the environment and movements to receive echoes at the auditory periphery. We report here that the echolocating bat controls the features of its sonar vocalizations in tandem with the positioning of the outer ears to maximize acoustic cues for target detection and localization. The bat’s adaptive control of sonar vocalizations and ear positioning occurs on a millisecond timescale to capture spatial information from arriving echoes, as well as on a longer timescale to track target movement. Our results demonstrate that purposeful control over sonar sound production and reception can serve to improve acoustic cues for localization tasks. This finding also highlights the general importance of movement to sensory processing across animal species. Finally, our discoveries point to important parallels between spatial perception by echolocation and vision. PMID:27608186

  7. Action Enhances Acoustic Cues for 3-D Target Localization by Echolocating Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, Melville J; Kothari, Ninad B; Moss, Cynthia F

    2016-09-01

    Under natural conditions, animals encounter a barrage of sensory information from which they must select and interpret biologically relevant signals. Active sensing can facilitate this process by engaging motor systems in the sampling of sensory information. The echolocating bat serves as an excellent model to investigate the coupling between action and sensing because it adaptively controls both the acoustic signals used to probe the environment and movements to receive echoes at the auditory periphery. We report here that the echolocating bat controls the features of its sonar vocalizations in tandem with the positioning of the outer ears to maximize acoustic cues for target detection and localization. The bat's adaptive control of sonar vocalizations and ear positioning occurs on a millisecond timescale to capture spatial information from arriving echoes, as well as on a longer timescale to track target movement. Our results demonstrate that purposeful control over sonar sound production and reception can serve to improve acoustic cues for localization tasks. This finding also highlights the general importance of movement to sensory processing across animal species. Finally, our discoveries point to important parallels between spatial perception by echolocation and vision. PMID:27608186

  8. Development of a New Apparatus for Investigating Acoustic Effects on Hydraulic Properties of Low-Permeability Geo-Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, H.; Sawada, A.; Sugita, H.; Takeda, M.; Komai, T.; Zhang, M.

    2006-12-01

    Remediation of polluted soils and groundwater contaminated by heavy metals and non-aqueous phase liquids has been one of the challenging issues in the field of geo-environments. In-situ removal of the contaminants from low permeable soils, such as clay strata, is particularly difficult because of the low mobility, strong adsorption, and/or other various interactions within soils. Thus current remediation techniques, such as pump- and-treat method and even eletrokinetic method, generally suffer from low recovery rates and/or economically unacceptable long remediation periods. A perspective improvement in remediation technology is to couple the electrokinetic method with an application of acoustic waves. This so-called Electro-Acoustic Soil Decontamination (EASD) method has been proposed by Battelle Columbus Labs.(Muralidhara et al. 1990). Simultaneous application of an electric field and an acoustic field may produce a synergistic effect and result in further enhancement of water transport by electro-osmosis in principle, but there is still no fundamental data for the design of EASD method in practical applications. A number of investigations have shown that an application of acoustic waves can increase hydraulic conductivity and mobility of non-aqueous phase liquids in porous media. Most of the prior and ongoing researches in this area have been focused on increasing production from declining oil and gas reservoirs. During several field tests by the oil and gas industries, increases in oil production rates by 20% or more have been reported. However, underlying physical mechanisms for acoustically enhanced fluid transport are not adequately understood. In addition, majority of the past investigations has dealt with applications of large amplitude of acoustic waves to relatively permeable soils or fractured rocks, and there is little information if acoustic wave effectively enhances flow and contaminant transport for less permeable clayey soils. To evaluate the

  9. Integrated enhanced bioremediation and vacuum extraction for remediation of a hydrocarbon release in response to oscillating hydrologic conditions 'Traverse Co-Bio-Vac'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of enhanced in-situ biological treatment and vacuum extraction has been demonstrated to be successful in the remediation of ground water and soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. Seasonal fluctuations in the ground water causes the zone of contamination to be in the either saturated or unsaturated zone of the aquifer. In order to address these conditions, an integrated engineering design approach is being taken for the full scale remediation of an aviation of an aviation gasoline spill at the US Coast Guard Air Station at Traverse City, Township, Michigan. Enhanced aerobic biodegradation will be utilized during the periods of high water table whereby most of the contaminated interval is saturated. Carbon treated water will be utilized from the existing ground water plume. Oxygen will be injected via an oxygen generator to saturate the process stream prior to discharge to the aquifer. During low water table conditions, the same infrastructure will be utilized as a modified vacuum extraction system. The same injection wells used during the high water table would then be used during the low table condition as vapor extraction wells. The vapors will be routed to an above-ground catalytic incinerator for compound destruction. This integrated approach, entitled 'Traverse Co-Bio-Vac,' should reduce the capital costs of installing a full scale remedial system as well allowing the system to operate efficiently depending on water table conditions. The system is expected to be constructed in 1992

  10. Enhanced Sensitive Love Wave Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor Designed for Immunoassay Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Puiu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We report a Love wave surface acoustic wave (LW-SAW immunosensor designed for the detection of high molecular weight targets in liquid samples, amenable also for low molecular targets in surface competition assays. We implemented a label-free interaction protocol similar to other surface plasmon resonance bioassays having the advantage of requiring reduced time analysis. The fabricated LW-SAW sensor supports the detection of the target in the nanomolar range, and can be ultimately incorporated in portable devices, suitable for point-of-care testing (POCT applications.

  11. DNAPL Surface Chemistry: Its Impact on DNAPL Distribution in the Vadose Zone and its Manipulation to Enhance Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suan Power; Stefan Grimberg; Miles Denham

    2003-06-16

    The remediation of DNAPLs in subsurface environments is often limited by the heterogeneous distribution of the organic fluid. The fraction of DNAPL that is in the high conductivity regions of the subsurface can often be recovered relatively easily, although DNAPL in lower conductivity regions is much more difficult to extract, either through direct pumping or remediation measures based on interface mass transfer. The distribution of DNAPL within the vadose zone is affected by a complex interplay of heterogeneities in the porous matrix and the interfacial properties defining the interactions among all fluid and solid phases. Decreasing the interfacial tension between a DNAPL and water in the vadose zone could change the spreading of the DNAPL, thereby increase the surface area for mass transfer and the effectiveness of soil vapor extraction remediation.

  12. Enhanced characterization of calcified areas in intravascular ultrasound virtual histology images by quantification of the acoustic shadow: validation against computed tomography coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broersen, Alexander; de Graaf, Michiel A; Eggermont, Jeroen; Wolterbeek, Ron; Kitslaar, Pieter H; Dijkstra, Jouke; Bax, Jeroen J; Reiber, Johan H C; Scholte, Arthur J

    2016-04-01

    We enhance intravascular ultrasound virtual histology (VH) tissue characterization by fully automatic quantification of the acoustic shadow behind calcified plaque. VH is unable to characterize atherosclerosis located behind calcifications. In this study, the quantified acoustic shadows are considered calcified to approximate the real dense calcium (DC) plaque volume. In total, 57 patients with 108 coronary lesions were included. A novel post-processing step is applied on the VH images to quantify the acoustic shadow and enhance the VH results. The VH and enhanced VH results are compared to quantitative computed tomography angiography (QTA) plaque characterization as reference standard. The correlation of the plaque types between enhanced VH and QTA differs significantly from the correlation with unenhanced VH. For DC, the correlation improved from 0.733 to 0.818. Instead of an underestimation of DC in VH with a bias of 8.5 mm(3), there was a smaller overestimation of 1.1 mm(3) in the enhanced VH. Although tissue characterization within the acoustic shadow in VH is difficult, the novel algorithm improved the DC tissue characterization. This algorithm contributes to accurate assessment of calcium on VH and could be applied in clinical studies.

  13. Enhanced characterization of calcified areas in intravascular ultrasound virtual histology images by quantification of the acoustic shadow: validation against computed tomography coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broersen, Alexander; de Graaf, Michiel A; Eggermont, Jeroen; Wolterbeek, Ron; Kitslaar, Pieter H; Dijkstra, Jouke; Bax, Jeroen J; Reiber, Johan H C; Scholte, Arthur J

    2016-04-01

    We enhance intravascular ultrasound virtual histology (VH) tissue characterization by fully automatic quantification of the acoustic shadow behind calcified plaque. VH is unable to characterize atherosclerosis located behind calcifications. In this study, the quantified acoustic shadows are considered calcified to approximate the real dense calcium (DC) plaque volume. In total, 57 patients with 108 coronary lesions were included. A novel post-processing step is applied on the VH images to quantify the acoustic shadow and enhance the VH results. The VH and enhanced VH results are compared to quantitative computed tomography angiography (QTA) plaque characterization as reference standard. The correlation of the plaque types between enhanced VH and QTA differs significantly from the correlation with unenhanced VH. For DC, the correlation improved from 0.733 to 0.818. Instead of an underestimation of DC in VH with a bias of 8.5 mm(3), there was a smaller overestimation of 1.1 mm(3) in the enhanced VH. Although tissue characterization within the acoustic shadow in VH is difficult, the novel algorithm improved the DC tissue characterization. This algorithm contributes to accurate assessment of calcium on VH and could be applied in clinical studies. PMID:26667446

  14. Enhancement of stability of various nZVI suspensions used in groundwater remediation with environmentally friendly organic stabilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Doris; Wagner, Stephan; Velimirović, Milica; Laumann, Susanne; Micić, Vesna; Hofmann, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    The use of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles for in situ remediation of polluted soil and groundwater has been shown as one of the most promising techniques [1]. The success of this technology depends on the mobility, reactivity, and longevity of nZVI particles. The mobility of nZVI particles depends on the properties of the single particles, stability of the particle suspension, and the aquifer material [1,2]. In order to enhance the mobility of nZVI, the mobility-decisive properties of the nZVI particles in suspension such as concentration, size distribution, surface charge, and sedimentation rate have to be investigated and optimized. Previous studies showed that pristine nZVI particles aggregate rapidly in water, reducing the particles radius of influence after injection [3]. In order to prevent aggregation and sedimentation of the nZVI particles, and consequently improve the stability of nZVI suspension and therefore the mobility of the nZVI particles, surface stabilizers can be used to provide electrostatic repulsion and steric or electrosteric stabilization [3,4]. The objective of this lab-scale study is to investigate the potential for enhancing the stability of different nZVI suspensions by means of environmentally friendly organic stabilizers, including carboxymethyl cellulose, pectin, alginate, xanthan, and guar gum. The different nZVI particles used included pristine and polyacrylic acid-coated nZVI particles provided in suspension (Nanofer 25 and Nanofer 25S, respectively, NANOIRON s.r.o., Czech Republic), air-stable nZVI particles (Nanofer Star, (NANOIRON s.r.o., Czech Republic), and milled iron flakes (UVR-FIA, Germany). In order to study the enhancement of nZVI stability (1 g L-1 total iron) different concentrations of organic stabilizers (1-20 wt.%) were applied in these nZVI suspensions. Each nZVI suspension was freshly prepared and treated for 10 minutes with Ultra-Turrax (15 000 rpm) and 10 minutes ultrasonic bath prior to

  15. Acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian

    2016-05-31

    An acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam includes a housing; a plurality of spaced apart piezo-electric layers disposed within the housing; and a non-linear medium filling between the plurality of layers. Each of the plurality of piezoelectric layers is configured to generate an acoustic wave. The non-linear medium and the plurality of piezo-electric material layers have a matching impedance so as to enhance a transmission of the acoustic wave generated by each of plurality of layers through the remaining plurality of layers.

  16. Enhanced sensitivity of a surface acoustic wave gyroscope using a progressive wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based gyroscope with an 80 MHz central frequency was developed on two different piezoelectric substrates (128° YX LiNbO3 and ST-X quartz). A sensor was developed that contained two SAW oscillators. One oscillator was used as the sensing element and had metallic dots in the cavity between the input and output interdigital transducers (IDTs). The other oscillator was used as a reference element. Two oscillators were formed to extract the Coriolis effect by comparing the oscillation frequencies between these two delay lines, and metallic dots were used to induce a Coriolis force. Three different IDT structures were used to obtain a stable progressive SAW. Coupling of modes modeling was conducted prior to fabrication for determining the optimal device parameters. The device was fabricated and then measured on a rate table in accordance with the results of simulation. When the device was subjected to an angular rotation, the oscillation frequencies of the two oscillators were observed to differ. Depending on the angular velocity, the frequency difference was linearly modulated. The obtained sensitivity was approximately 62.57 Hz deg−1 s−1 at angular rates in the range 0–1000 deg s−1 in the case of the LiNbO3 substrate and single-phase unidirectional transducer and combed electrode structure. The dependence of the device performance on the piezoelectric substrate, IDT structure, and temperatures was also characterized. The developed device has good resistance to mechanical shock and stability to temperature

  17. Genealogy Remediated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2007-01-01

    Genealogical websites are becoming an increasingly popular genre on the Web. This chapter will examine how remediation is used creatively in the construction of family history. While remediation of different kinds of old memory materials is essential in genealogy, digital technology opens new...

  18. Simulation Of Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination For Remediation Of Tce In A Fractured Clay System: A New Model Approach And Application To Field Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoli, Gabriele; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Christiansen, Camilla Maymann;

    2010-01-01

    An innovative model is developed for Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination (ERD) of chlorinated solvents in a fractured glacial till. The model consists of three components: hydraulics, transport and degradation. The hydraulic component calculates the flow of water through a fractured clay till...... a contamination of trichloroethylene located in a fractured clay till. The site is simulated using the model developed. Fracture geometry, site parameters and degradation rates are based on observations from the site and lab studies. The risk for drinking water is assessed and cleanup times are simulated using...... model results. The spatial extent of remediation and downstream impact of the technology is evaluated. Perspectives for enhanced bioremediation technologies in fractured clay systems are discussed....

  19. X-231A demonstration of in-situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media by soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or reactive barrier destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Environmental Science and Engineering Div.; Lowe, K.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Murdoch, L.D. [FRx, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)]|[Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Slack, W.W. [FRx, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Houk, T.C. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Piketon, OH (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The overall goal of the program of activities is to demonstrate robust and cost-effective technologies for in situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media (LPM), including adaptations and enhancements of conventional technologies to achieve improved performance for DNAPLs in LPM. The technologies sought should be potential for application at simple, small sites (e.g., gasoline underground storage tanks) as well as at complex, larger sites (e.g., DOE land treatment units). The technologies involved in the X-231A demonstration at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) utilized subsurface manipulation of the LPM through soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or horizontal barrier in place destruction. To enable field evaluation of these approaches, a set of four test cells was established at the X-231A land treatment unit at the DOE PORTS plant in August 1996 and a series of demonstration field activities occurred through December 1997. The principal objectives of the PORTS X-231A demonstration were to: determine and compare the operational features of hydraulic fractures as an enabling technology for steam and hot air enhanced soil vapor extraction and mass recovery, in situ interception and reductive destruction by zero valent iron, and in situ interception and oxidative destruction by potassium permanganate; determine the interaction of the delivered agents with the LPM matrix adjacent to the fracture and within the fractured zone and assess the beneficial modifications to the transport and/or reaction properties of the LPM deposit; and determine the remediation efficiency achieved by each of the technology strategies.

  20. X-231A demonstration of in-situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media by soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or reactive barrier destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall goal of the program of activities is to demonstrate robust and cost-effective technologies for in situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media (LPM), including adaptations and enhancements of conventional technologies to achieve improved performance for DNAPLs in LPM. The technologies sought should be potential for application at simple, small sites (e.g., gasoline underground storage tanks) as well as at complex, larger sites (e.g., DOE land treatment units). The technologies involved in the X-231A demonstration at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) utilized subsurface manipulation of the LPM through soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or horizontal barrier in place destruction. To enable field evaluation of these approaches, a set of four test cells was established at the X-231A land treatment unit at the DOE PORTS plant in August 1996 and a series of demonstration field activities occurred through December 1997. The principal objectives of the PORTS X-231A demonstration were to: determine and compare the operational features of hydraulic fractures as an enabling technology for steam and hot air enhanced soil vapor extraction and mass recovery, in situ interception and reductive destruction by zero valent iron, and in situ interception and oxidative destruction by potassium permanganate; determine the interaction of the delivered agents with the LPM matrix adjacent to the fracture and within the fractured zone and assess the beneficial modifications to the transport and/or reaction properties of the LPM deposit; and determine the remediation efficiency achieved by each of the technology strategies

  1. Evidence of Key Tinnitus-Related Brain Regions Documented by a Unique Combination of Manganese-Enhanced MRI and Acoustic Startle Reflex Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Avril Genene Holt; David Bissig; Najab Mirza; Gary Rajah; Bruce Berkowitz

    2010-01-01

    Animal models continue to improve our understanding of tinnitus pathogenesis and aid in development of new treatments. However, there are no diagnostic biomarkers for tinnitus-related pathophysiology for use in awake, freely moving animals. To address this disparity, two complementary methods were combined to examine reliable tinnitus models (rats repeatedly administered salicylate or exposed to a single noise event): inhibition of acoustic startle and manganese-enhanced MRI. Salicylate-induc...

  2. Phononic crystals and acoustic metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hui Lu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Phononic crystals have been proposed about two decades ago and some important characteristics such as acoustic band structure and negative refraction have stimulated fundamental and practical studies in acoustic materials and devices since then. To carefully engineer a phononic crystal in an acoustic “atom” scale, acoustic metamaterials with their inherent deep subwavelength nature have triggered more exciting investigations on negative bulk modulus and/or negative mass density. Acoustic surface evanescent waves have also been recognized to play key roles to reach acoustic subwavelength imaging and enhanced transmission.

  3. Envelope enhancement increases cortical sensitivity to interaural envelope delays with acoustic and electric hearing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas E H Hartley

    Full Text Available Evidence from human psychophysical and animal electrophysiological studies suggests that sensitivity to interaural time delay (ITD in the modulating envelope of a high-frequency carrier can be enhanced using half-wave rectified stimuli. Recent evidence has shown potential benefits of equivalent electrical stimuli to deaf individuals with bilateral cochlear implants (CIs. In the current study we assessed the effects of envelope shape on ITD sensitivity in the primary auditory cortex of normal-hearing ferrets, and profoundly-deaf animals with bilateral CIs. In normal-hearing animals, cortical sensitivity to ITDs (±1 ms in 0.1-ms steps was assessed in response to dichotically-presented i sinusoidal amplitude-modulated (SAM and ii half-wave rectified (HWR tones (100-ms duration; 70 dB SPL presented at the best-frequency of the unit over a range of modulation frequencies. In separate experiments, adult ferrets were deafened with neomycin administration and bilaterally-implanted with intra-cochlear electrode arrays. Electrically-evoked auditory brainstem responses (EABRs were recorded in response to bipolar electrical stimulation of the apical pair of electrodes with singe biphasic current pulses (40 µs per phase over a range of current levels to measure hearing thresholds. Subsequently, we recorded cortical sensitivity to ITDs (±800 µs in 80-µs steps within the envelope of SAM and HWR biphasic-pulse trains (40 µs per phase; 6000 pulses per second, 100-ms duration over a range of modulation frequencies. In normal-hearing animals, nearly a third of cortical neurons were sensitive to envelope-ITDs in response to SAM tones. In deaf animals with bilateral CI, the proportion of ITD-sensitive cortical neurons was approximately a fifth in response to SAM pulse trains. In normal-hearing and deaf animals with bilateral CI the proportion of ITD sensitive units and neural sensitivity to ITDs increased in response to HWR, compared with SAM stimuli

  4. Trapping of embolic particles in a vessel phantom by cavitation-enhanced acoustic streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Adam D; Park, Simone; Vaughan, Benjamin L; Cain, Charles A; Grotberg, James B; Xu, Zhen

    2014-09-01

    Cavitation clouds generated by short, high-amplitude, focused ultrasound pulses were previously observed to attract, trap, and erode thrombus fragments in a vessel phantom. This phenomenon may offer a noninvasive method to capture and eliminate embolic fragments flowing through the bloodstream during a cardiovascular intervention. In this article, the mechanism of embolus trapping was explored by particle image velocimetry (PIV). PIV was used to examine the fluid streaming patterns generated by ultrasound in a vessel phantom with and without crossflow of blood-mimicking fluid. Cavitation enhanced streaming, which generated fluid vortices adjacent to the focus. The focal streaming velocity, uf, was as high as 120 cm/s, while mean crossflow velocities, uc, were imposed up to 14 cm/s. When a solid particle 3-4 mm diameter was introduced into crossflow, it was trapped near the focus. Increasing uf promoted particle trapping while increasing uc promoted particle escape. The maximum crossflow Reynolds number at which particles could be trapped, Rec, was approximately linear with focal streaming number, Ref, i.e. Rec = 0.25Ref + 67.44 (R(2) = 0.76) corresponding to dimensional velocities uc = 0.084uf + 3.122 for 20 < uf < 120 cm/s. The fluidic pressure map was estimated from PIV and indicated a negative pressure gradient towards the focus, trapping the embolus near this location.

  5. Acoustic power absorption and enhancement generated by slow and fast MHD waves

    CERN Document Server

    Simoniello, R; Garcia, R A; Salabert, D; Jimenez, A; Elsworth, Y; Schunker, H

    2010-01-01

    We used long duration, high quality, unresolved (Sun-as-a star) observations collected by the ground based network BiSON and by the instruments GOLF and VIRGO on board the ESA/NASA SOHO satellite to search for solar-cycle-related changes in mode characteristics in velocity and continuum intensity for the frequency range between 2.5mHz < nu < 6.8mHz. Over the ascending phase of solar cycle 23 we found a suppression in the p-mode amplitudes both in the velocity and intensity data between 2.5mHz enhancement in ...

  6. Integrating Real-Time Room Acoustics Simulation into a CAD Modeling Software to Enhance the Architectural Design Process

    OpenAIRE

    Sönke Pelzer; Lukas Aspöck; Dirk Schröder; Michael Vorländer

    2014-01-01

    For architects, real-time 3D visual rendering of CAD-models is a valuable tool. The architect usually perceives the visual appearance of the building interior in a natural and realistic way during the design process. Unfortunately this only emphasizes the role of the visual appearance of a building, while the acoustics often remain disregarded. Controlling the room acoustics is not integrated into most architects’ workflows—due to a lack of tools. The present contribution describes a newly de...

  7. Integrating Real-Time Room Acoustics Simulation into a CAD Modeling Software to Enhance the Architectural Design Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sönke Pelzer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For architects, real-time 3D visual rendering of CAD-models is a valuable tool. The architect usually perceives the visual appearance of the building interior in a natural and realistic way during the design process. Unfortunately this only emphasizes the role of the visual appearance of a building, while the acoustics often remain disregarded. Controlling the room acoustics is not integrated into most architects’ workflows—due to a lack of tools. The present contribution describes a newly developed plug-in for adding an adequate 3D-acoustics feedback to the architect. To present intuitively the acoustical effect of the current design project, the plug-in uses real-time audio rendering and 3D-reproduction. The room acoustics of the design can be varied by modifying structural shapes as well as by changing the material selection. In addition to the audio feedback, also a visualization of important room acoustics qualities is provided by displaying color-coded maps inside the CAD software.

  8. Identification of Turbomachinery Noise Sources Using Acoustical Holography Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Evaluation and enhancement of the acoustical performance of turbomachinery requires knowledge of the acoustic sources. However, the noise generation mechanisms...

  9. Evaluation of the Eological Management and Enhancement Alernative for Remediation of the K1007-P1 Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.J.

    2005-10-31

    An evaluation of the human and ecological risks associated with the P1 Pond and surrounding environs was conducted as part of the ETTP Site-Wide Remedial Investigation. The RI provides the basis for the focus on PCBs as the most important unacceptable risk to human and ecological health in the pond. Other P1 contaminants, media, or pathways of risk to receptors are identified in the RI, but are not addressed as a major risk reduction goal for the ETTP Site-Wide Feasibility Study. Therefore, the goal of the Ecological Management alternative is to reduce unacceptable risks associated with PCBs in fish. Many of the actions proposed for this alternative, however, are likely to reduce risks associated with other contaminants and their pathways. The high PCB concentrations in fish from the P1 Pond are most certainly due in part to the current ecological condition of the pond that maximizes PCB biomagnification. This basic assumption and the factors contributing to it were evaluated by conducting an intensive field study of the P1 Pond in the summer of 2004 (for a thorough presentation of current P1 Pond biological conditions, see Peterson et al. 2005). Major hypotheses regarding the P1 Pond's current fish community, PCB fate and transport processes, pond vegetation, and limnological conditions that contribute to the high PCB levels in fish were validated by the study (Appendix A), The results of the 2004 ecological assessment, in concert with long-term datasets obtained as part of the ETTP Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) and recent abiotic sampling for the RI, provide the basis for the assessment of current conditions.

  10. Reimagining Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Stephen J.; Williams, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the College Board's Community College Advisory Panel--a group of college presidents that advises the organization's membership on community college issues--asked these authors to write a paper describing effective remedial education programs. They never wrote the paper. The problem was not the lack of dedicated faculty and staff working…

  11. Phyto-enhanced remediation of soil co-contaminated with lead and diesel fuel using biowaste and Dracaena reflexa: A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadrasnia, Arezoo; Pariatamby, Agamuthu

    2016-03-01

    In phytoremediation of co-contaminated soil, the simultaneous and efficient remediation of multiple pollutants is a major challenge rather than the removal of pollutants. A laboratory-scale experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of 5% addition of each of three different organic waste amendments (tea leaves, soy cake, and potato skin) to enhance the phytoaccumulation of lead (60 mg kg(-1)) and diesel fuel (25,000 mg kg(-1)) in co-contaminated soil by Dracaena reflexa Lam for a period of 180 day. The highest rate of oil degradation was recorded in co-contaminated soil planted with D. reflexa and amended with soy cake (75%), followed by potato skin (52.8%) and tea leaves (50.6%). Although plants did not accumulate hydrocarbon from the contaminated soil, significant bioaccumulation of lead in the roots and stems of D. reflexa was observed. At the end of 180 days, 16.7 and 9.8 mg kg(-1) of lead in the stems and roots of D. reflexa were recorded, respectively, for the treatment with tea leaves. These findings demonstrate the potential of organic waste amendments in enhancing phytoremediation of oil and bioaccumulation of lead. PMID:26675494

  12. The potential for solubilizing agents to enhance the remediation of hydrophobic organic solutes in soil-water suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laha, S.; Liu, Z.; Edwards, D.; Luthy, R.G.

    1991-02-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility for use of surfactant solubilizing agents to enhance the solubility and the rate of microbial degradation of hydrophobic organic solutes in soil-water suspensions. Hydrophobic organic contaminants are strongly sorbed to soil or sediment material, and as a consequence the rate of microbial degradation may depend greatly on the desorption of the sorbed-phase contaminant and the accessibility of the contaminant to soil microorganisms. Chemical solubilizing agents may enhance the rate of hydrophobic organic solute degradation by increasing the rate of solute desorption from soil and the extent of solute partitioning to the aqueous phase. The presentation will review on-going research on: surfactant solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds in clean water, and in soil-water suspensions; and experiments to assess if the addition of surfactant to soil-water suspension results in faster rate of mineralization of PAH compounds in soil.

  13. The potential for solubilizing agents to enhance the remediation of hydrophobic organic solutes in soil-water suspensions. [Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laha, S.; Liu, Z.; Edwards, D.; Luthy, R.G.

    1991-02-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility for use of surfactant solubilizing agents to enhance the solubility and the rate of microbial degradation of hydrophobic organic solutes in soil-water suspensions. Hydrophobic organic contaminants are strongly sorbed to soil or sediment material, and as a consequence the rate of microbial degradation may depend greatly on the desorption of the sorbed-phase contaminant and the accessibility of the contaminant to soil microorganisms. Chemical solubilizing agents may enhance the rate of hydrophobic organic solute degradation by increasing the rate of solute desorption from soil and the extent of solute partitioning to the aqueous phase. The presentation will review on-going research on: surfactant solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds in clean water, and in soil-water suspensions; and experiments to assess if the addition of surfactant to soil-water suspension results in faster rate of mineralization of PAH compounds in soil.

  14. Remediation of a hexachlorobenzene-contaminated soil by surfactant-enhanced electrokinetics coupled with microscale Pd/Fe PRB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jinzhong; Li, Zhirong; Lu, Xiaohua; Yuan, Songhu

    2010-12-15

    Treatment of soils contaminated with chlorinated hydrophobic organic compounds (CHOCs) remains a challenge for environmental scientists worldwide. In this study surfactant-enhanced electrokinetics (SEEK) was coupled with permeable reactive barrier (PRB) composed of microscale Pd/Fe to treat a hexachlorobenzene (HCB)-contaminated soil. A nonionic surfactant, Triton X-100 (TX-100), was selected as the solubility-enhancing agent. Five bench-scale tests were conducted to investigate the performance of EK-PRB on HCB removal from soils. Results showed that the HCB removal was generally increased by a factor of 4 by EK coupled with PRB compared with EK alone (60% versus 13%). In the EK-PRB system, HCB was removed from soil through several sequential processes: the movement driven by electroosmotic flow (EOF) in the anode column, the complete adsorption/degradation by the reactive Pd/Fe particles in PRB, and the consequent movement by EOF and probable electrochemical reactions in the cathode column. TX-100 was supposed to be a superior enhancement agent for HCB removal, not only in the EOF movement process but also in the Pd/Fe degradation process. This study indicates that the combination of SEEK and Pd/Fe PRB is efficient and promising to remove CHOCs from contaminated soils.

  15. The potential for solubilizing agents to enhance the remediation of hydrophobic organic solutes in soil-water suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the feasibility for use of surfactant solubilizing agents to enhance the solubility and the rate of microbial degradation of hydrophobic organic solutes in soil-water suspensions. Hydrophobic organic contaminants are strongly sorbed to soil or sediment material, and as a consequence the rate of microbial degradation may depend greatly on the desorption of the sorbed-phase contaminant and the accessibility of the contaminant to soil microorganisms. Chemical solubilizing agents may enhance the rate of hydrophobic organic solute degradation by increasing the rate of solute desorption from soil and the extent of solute partitioning to the aqueous phase. The presentation will review on-going research on: (1) surfactant solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds in clean water, and in soil-water suspensions; and (2) experiments to assess if the addition of surfactant to soil-water suspension results in faster rate of mineralization of PAH compounds in soil. The presentation explains the methodology employed to select various surfactants for use in the experiments. Experimental results presented show the equilibrium partitioning of phenanthrene, aanthracene and pyrene in soil-water suspensions. A preliminary model is shown which describes some of the features of the solubilization process. Currently work is in progress to evaluate the rate of evolution of 14CO2 from soil-water suspensions using 14C-labeled phenanthrene and surfactants. The tests are being performed with acclimaated PAH-degrading organisms. The experimental protocols for this work will be reviewed

  16. Communication Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blauert, Jens

    Communication Acoustics deals with the fundamentals of those areas of acoustics which are related to modern communication technologies. Due to the advent of digital signal processing and recording in acoustics, these areas have enjoyed an enormous upswing during the last 4 decades. The book...... the book a source of valuable information for those who want to improve or refresh their knowledge in the field of communication acoustics - and to work their way deeper into it. Due to its interdisciplinary character Communication Acoustics is bound to attract readers from many different areas, such as......: acoustics, cognitive science, speech science, and communication technology....

  17. A context based approach using Green Chemistry/Bio-remediation principles to enhance interest and learning of organic chemistry in a high school AP chemistry classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tricia

    The ability of our planet to sustain life and heal itself is not as predictable as it used to be. Our need for educated future scientists who know what our planet needs, and can passionately apply that knowledge to find solutions should be at the heart of science education today. This study of learning organic chemistry through the lens of the environmental problem "What should be done with our food scraps?" explores student interest, and mastery of certain concepts in organic chemistry. This Green Chemistry/ Bio-remediation context-based teaching approach utilizes the Nature MillRTM, which is an indoor food waste composting machine, to learn about organic chemistry, and how this relates to landfill reduction possibilities, and resource production. During this unit students collected food waste from their cafeteria, and used the Nature MillRTM to convert food waste into compost. The use of these hands on activities, and group discussions in a context-based environment enhanced their interest in organic chemistry, and paper chromatography. According to a one-tailed paired T-test, the result show that this context-based approach is a significant way to increase both student interest and mastery of the content.

  18. Historical and Retrospective Survey of Monitored Natural Attenuation: A Line of Inquiry Supporting Monitored Natural Attenuation and Enhanced Passive Remediation of Chlorinated Solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy is sponsoring an initiative to facilitate efficient, effective and responsible use of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) and Enhanced Passive Remediation(EPR) for chlorinated solvents. This Office of Environmental Management Alternative Project, focuses on providing scientific and policy support for MNA/EPR. A broadly representative working group of scientists supports the project along with partnerships with regulatory organizations such as the Interstate Technology Regulatory Council and the Environmental Protection Agency. The initial product of the technical working group was a summary report that articulated the conceptual approach and central scientific tenants of the project, and that identified a prioritized listing of technical targets for field research. This report documented the process in which: (1) scientific ground rules were developed, (2) lines of inquiry were identified and then critically evaluated, (3) promising applied research topics were highlighted in the various lines of inquiry, and (4) these were discussed and prioritized. The summary report will serve as a resource to guide management and decision making throughout the period of the subject MNA/EPR Alternative Project. To support and more fully document the information presented in the summary report, we are publishing a series of supplemental documents that present the full texts from the technical analyses within the various lines of inquiry. The following report - documenting our Historical and Retrospective Survey of Monitored Natural Attenuation - is one of those supplemental documents

  19. Enhanced solubilisation of six PAHs by three synthetic cyclodextrins for remediation applications: molecular modelling of the inclusion complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Morillo

    Full Text Available Solubilisation of six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs (acenaphthene, anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene by three synthetic cyclodextrins (CDs (2-hydroxypropyl-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-γ-CD and randomly methylated-β-CD was investigated in order to select the CD which presents the greatest increase in solubility and better complexation parameters for its use in contaminated scenarios. The presence of the three cyclodextrins greatly enhanced the apparent water solubility of all the PAHs through the formation of inclusion complexes of 1:1 stoichiometry. Anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene and phenanthrene clearly presented a higher solubility when β-CD derivatives were used, and especially the complexes with the randomly methylated-β-CD were favoured. On the contrary, pyrene presented its best solubility results when using 2-hydroxypropyl-γ-CD, but for acenaphthene the use of any of the three CDs gave the same results. Complementary to experimental phase-solubility studies, a more in-depth estimation of the inclusion process for the different complexes was carried out using molecular modelling in order to find a correlation between the degree of solubilisation and the fit of PAH molecules within the cavity of the different CDs and to know the predominant driving forces of the complexation.

  20. Application of biosurfactants and periodic voltage gradient for enhanced electrokinetic remediation of metals and PAHs in dredged marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammami, M T; Portet-Koltalo, F; Benamar, A; Duclairoir-Poc, C; Wang, H; Le Derf, F

    2015-04-01

    Dredged harbor sediment co-contaminated by heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was subjected to enhanced electrokinetic treatments, using a mixture of a chelating agent (citric acid CA) and a surfactant as additives in the processing fluids. We tested various operating conditions (at 1 V cm(-1)): different CA concentrations, applying a periodic voltage gradient, pre-conditioning the sediment with the additives, and replacing the synthetic surfactant Tween 20 (TW20) by biosurfactants. Increasing the CA concentration was favorable for both metal and PAH removal. Applying a periodic voltage gradient associated to a low concentration of CA and TW20 provided the best results for Zn, Cd and Pb removal and also for removal of the 16 priority PAHs. Promising results were obtained with solutions containing rhamnolipids (0.028%) and a viscosin-like biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pfa7B (0.025%), associated to a periodic voltage gradient. Although the rhamnolipid and the viscosin-like compounds involved a higher electrical current than TW20, metals were less removed from the sediment. The electroosmotic flow was lower when we used biosurfactants, hence a less effective effect on PAH removal. PMID:25644703

  1. Acoustic Neuroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that develops on the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. ... can press against the brain, becoming life-threatening. Acoustic neuroma can be difficult to diagnose, because the ...

  2. Efficiency of drug delivery enhanced by acoustic pressure during blood–brain barrier disruption induced by focused ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Feng-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Feng-Yi Yang, Pei-Yi LeeDepartment of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, TaiwanPurpose: We evaluated the delivery efficiency of intravenously injected large molecular agents, before and after disruption of the blood–brain barrier (BBB-D), induced by focused ultrasound (FUS) using various acoustic parameters.Materials and methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intravenously with Evans blue (EB) before or after BBB-D induction...

  3. Anolyte Enhanced Electrokinetic Remediation of Fluorine-contaminated Soils%氟污染土壤的阳极强化电动力学修复研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱书法; 闫春丽; 董铁有; 汤红妍

    2009-01-01

    在不同电解电压及阳极电解液浓度下,对土壤氟在电动力学作用下的迁移特征及其影响因素进行了研究,分析了利用阳极强化电动力学技术修复氟污染土壤的可行性.结果表明,1.0 V/cm电解电压下,当阳极电解液为去离子水时,氟在阴、阳极电解液中的累积量分别为8.2 mg和47.7 mg,土壤氟的去除率仅为8.8%.而阳极强化电动力学作用能够有效促进土壤中氟化物的迁移,1.0、1.5、2.0 V/cm电解电压下,阳极电解液为0.02 mol/L的氢氧化钠溶液时,土壤氟的去除率分别为25.9%、31.2%、47.3%;当阳极电解液浓度升高为0.1 mol/L时,土壤氟的去除率分别为55.4%、61.1%、73.O%.电迁移是其主要的作用机制,电渗析也对氟在土壤中的移动产生影响.电解电压及电解液浓度是影响氟去除效率的主要因素.可以采用适当的阳极强化电动力学技术对氟污染土壤进行修复.%An experimental study was carried out in order to determine the characteristics of migration and its influencing factor of soil fluorine in the electrokinetic process under different applied voltage and concentration of anolyte. The feasibility of anolyte enhanced on electrokinetic remediation of fluorine-contaminated soil was analyzed. The results show that when deionized water is used as anolyte with the 1.0 V/cm voltage gradient, the cumulative mass of fluorine in catholyte and anolyte are 8.2 mg and 47.7 nig respectively and the removal rate of fluorine is only 8.8% . Anolyle enhanced electrokinetic process can promote effectively the migration of fluoride in soil. When 0.02 mol/L NaOH solution is employed as the anolyte, the removal rates are 25.9%, 31.2% and 47.3% with 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 V/cm voltage gradient respectively. As the concentration of anolyte increased to 0.1 mol/L, the removal rates are 55.4% , 61.1% and 73.0%. The electromigration is the main transport mechanism and the electroosmotic flow has an effect on the

  4. Acoustic Test Characterization of Melamine Foam for Usage in NASA's Payload Fairing Acoustic Attenuation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.; McNelis, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    The external acoustic liftoff levels predicted for NASA's future heavy lift launch vehicles are expected to be significantly higher than the environment created by today's commercial launch vehicles. This creates a need to develop an improved acoustic attenuation system for future NASA payload fairings. NASA Glenn Research Center initiated an acoustic test series to characterize the acoustic performance of melamine foam, with and without various acoustic enhancements. This testing was denoted as NEMFAT, which stands for NESC Enhanced Melamine Foam Acoustic Test, and is the subject of this paper. Both absorption and transmission loss testing of numerous foam configurations were performed at the Riverbank Acoustical Laboratory in July 2013. The NEMFAT test data provides an initial acoustic characterization and database of melamine foam for NASA. Because of its acoustic performance and lighter mass relative to fiberglass blankets, melamine foam is being strongly considered for use in the acoustic attenuation systems of NASA's future launch vehicles.

  5. REPORT ON THE GEOELECTRICAL DETECTION OF SURFACTANT ENHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION OF PCE: PROPERTY CHANGES IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS DUE TO SURFACTANT TREATMENT OF PERCHLOROETHYLENE: IMPLICATIONS TO GEOPHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Select physicochemical properties of nine surfactants which are conventionally used in the remediation of perchloroethylene (PCE, a.k.a. tetrachloroethene) were evaluated with varying concentrations of PCE and indicator dyes in aqueous solutions using a response surface quadrati...

  6. Use of Borehole-Radar Methods to Monitor a Steam-Enhanced Remediation Pilot Study at a Quarry at the Former Loring Air Force Base, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, Colette; Joesten, Peter K.; Lane, Jr., John W.

    2007-01-01

    Single-hole radar reflection and crosshole radar tomography surveys were used in conjunction with conventional borehole-geophysical methods to evaluate the effectiveness of borehole-radar methods for monitoring the movement of steam and heat through fractured bedrock. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), conducted surveys in an abandoned limestone quarry at the former Loring Air Force Base during a field-scale, steam-enhanced remediation (SER) pilot project conducted by the USEPA, the U.S. Air Force, and the Maine Department of Environmental Protection to study the viability of SER to remediate non-aqueous phase liquid contamination in fractured bedrock. Numerical modeling and field experiments indicate that borehole-radar methods have the potential to monitor the presence of steam and to measure large temperature changes in the limestone matrix during SER operations. Based on modeling results, the replacement of water by steam in fractures should produce a decrease in radar reflectivity (amplitude of the reflected wave) by a factor of 10 and a change in reflection polarity. In addition, heating the limestone matrix should increase the bulk electrical conductivity and decrease the bulk dielectric permittivity. These changes result in an increase in radar attenuation and an increase in radar-wave propagation velocity, respectively. Single-hole radar reflection and crosshole radar tomography data were collected in two boreholes using 100-megahertz antennas before the start of steam injection, about 10 days after the steam injection began, and 2 months later, near the end of the injection. Fluid temperature logs show that the temperature of the fluid in the boreholes increased by 10?C (degrees Celsius) in one borehole and 40?C in the other; maximum temperatures were measured near the bottom of the boreholes. The results of the numerical modeling were used to interpret the borehole-radar data. Analyses of the

  7. Evidence of key tinnitus-related brain regions documented by a unique combination of manganese-enhanced MRI and acoustic startle reflex testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avril Genene Holt

    Full Text Available Animal models continue to improve our understanding of tinnitus pathogenesis and aid in development of new treatments. However, there are no diagnostic biomarkers for tinnitus-related pathophysiology for use in awake, freely moving animals. To address this disparity, two complementary methods were combined to examine reliable tinnitus models (rats repeatedly administered salicylate or exposed to a single noise event: inhibition of acoustic startle and manganese-enhanced MRI. Salicylate-induced tinnitus resulted in wide spread supernormal manganese uptake compared to noise-induced tinnitus. Neither model demonstrated significant differences in the auditory cortex. Only in the dorsal cortex of the inferior colliculus (DCIC did both models exhibit supernormal uptake. Therefore, abnormal membrane depolarization in the DCIC appears to be important in tinnitus-mediated activity. Our results provide the foundation for future studies correlating the severity and longevity of tinnitus with hearing loss and neuronal activity in specific brain regions and tools for evaluating treatment efficacy across paradigms.

  8. Acoustical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Litniewski, Jerzy; Kujawska, Tamara; 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging

    2012-01-01

    The International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging is a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place continuously since 1968. In the course of the years the proceedings volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have become a reference for cutting-edge research in the field. In 2011 the 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Warsaw, Poland, April 10-13. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art as well as  in-depth research contributions by the specialists in the field, this Volume 31 in the Series contains an excellent collection of papers in six major categories: Biological and Medical Imaging Physics and Mathematics of Acoustical Imaging Acoustic Microscopy Transducers and Arrays Nondestructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Underwater Imaging

  9. Acoustic textiles

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, Rajkishore

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights the manufacturing and applications of acoustic textiles in various industries. It also includes examples from different industries in which acoustic textiles can be used to absorb noise and help reduce the impact of noise at the workplace. Given the importance of noise reduction in the working environment in several industries, the book offers a valuable guide for companies, educators and researchers involved with acoustic materials.

  10. A signal processing approach for enhanced Acoustic Emission data analysis in high activity systems: Application to organic matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharrat, M.; Ramasso, E.; Placet, V.; Boubakar, M. L.

    2016-03-01

    Structural elements made of Organic Matrix Composites (OMC) under complex loading may suffer from high Acoustic Emission (AE) activity caused by the emergence of different emission sources at high rates with high noise level, which finally engender continuous emissions. The detection of hits in this situation becomes a challenge particularly during fatigue tests. This work suggests an approach based on the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) denoising applied on signal segments. A particular attention is paid to the adjustment of the denoising parameters based on pencil lead breaks and their influence on the quality of the denoised AE signals. The validation of the proposed approach is performed on a ring-shaped Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) under in-service-like conditions involving continuous emissions with superimposed damage-related transients. It is demonstrated that errors in hit detection are greatly reduced leading to a better identification of the natural damage scenario based on AE signals.

  11. Acoustic telemetry and network analysis reveal the space use of multiple reef predators and enhance marine protected area design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, James S E; Humphries, Nicolas E; von Brandis, Rainer G; Clarke, Christopher R; Sims, David W

    2016-07-13

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are commonly employed to protect ecosystems from threats like overfishing. Ideally, MPA design should incorporate movement data from multiple target species to ensure sufficient habitat is protected. We used long-term acoustic telemetry and network analysis to determine the fine-scale space use of five shark and one turtle species at a remote atoll in the Seychelles, Indian Ocean, and evaluate the efficacy of a proposed MPA. Results revealed strong, species-specific habitat use in both sharks and turtles, with corresponding variation in MPA use. Defining the MPA's boundary from the edge of the reef flat at low tide instead of the beach at high tide (the current best in Seychelles) significantly increased the MPA's coverage of predator movements by an average of 34%. Informed by these results, the larger MPA was adopted by the Seychelles government, demonstrating how telemetry data can improve shark spatial conservation by affecting policy directly. PMID:27412274

  12. Use of borehole radar reflection logging to monitor steam-enhanced remediation in fractured limestone-results of numerical modelling and a field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, C.; Joesten, P.K.; Lane, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Ground penetrating radar is an efficient geophysical method for the detection and location of fractures and fracture zones in electrically resistive rocks. In this study, the use of down-hole (borehole) radar reflection logs to monitor the injection of steam in fractured rocks was tested as part of a field-scale, steam-enhanced remediation pilot study conducted at a fractured limestone quarry contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons at the former Loring Air Force Base, Limestone, Maine, USA. In support of the pilot study, borehole radar reflection logs were collected three times (before, during, and near the end of steam injection) using broadband 100 MHz electric dipole antennas. Numerical modelling was performed to predict the effect of heating on radar-frequency electromagnetic (EM) wave velocity, attenuation, and fracture reflectivity. The modelling results indicate that EM wave velocity and attenuation change substantially if heating increases the electrical conductivity of the limestone matrix. Furthermore, the net effect of heat-induced variations in fracture-fluid dielectric properties on average medium velocity is insignificant because the expected total fracture porosity is low. In contrast, changes in fracture fluid electrical conductivity can have a significant effect on EM wave attenuation and fracture reflectivity. Total replacement of water by steam in a fracture decreases fracture reflectivity of a factor of 10 and induces a change in reflected wave polarity. Based on the numerical modelling results, a reflection amplitude analysis method was developed to delineate fractures where steam has displaced water. Radar reflection logs collected during the three acquisition periods were analysed in the frequency domain to determine if steam had replaced water in the fractures (after normalizing the logs to compensate for differences in antenna performance between logging runs). Analysis of the radar reflection logs from a borehole where the temperature

  13. Radiation acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Lyamshev, Leonid M

    2004-01-01

    Radiation acoustics is a developing field lying at the intersection of acoustics, high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and condensed matter physics. Radiation Acoustics is among the first books to address this promising field of study, and the first to collect all of the most significant results achieved since research in this area began in earnest in the 1970s.The book begins by reviewing the data on elementary particles, absorption of penetrating radiation in a substance, and the mechanisms of acoustic radiation excitation. The next seven chapters present a theoretical treatment of thermoradiation sound generation in condensed media under the action of modulated penetrating radiation and radiation pulses. The author explores particular features of the acoustic fields of moving thermoradiation sound sources, sound excitation by single high-energy particles, and the efficiency and optimal conditions of thermoradiation sound generation. Experimental results follow the theoretical discussions, and these clearl...

  14. Strong acoustic wave action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhberg, M. B.

    1983-07-01

    Experiments devoted to acoustic action on the atmosphere-magnetosphere-ionosphere system using ground based strong explosions are reviewed. The propagation of acoustic waves was observed by ground observations over 2000 km in horizontal direction and to an altitude of 200 km. Magnetic variations up to 100 nT were detected by ARIEL-3 satellite near the epicenter of the explosion connected with the formation of strong field aligned currents in the magnetosphere. The enhancement of VLF emission at 800 km altitude is observed.

  15. Acoustic Cavitation Enhances Focused Ultrasound Ablation with Phase-Shift Inorganic Perfluorohexane Nanoemulsions: An In Vitro Study Using a Clinical Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lu-Yan; Zou, Jian-Zhong; Chen, Zong-Gui; Liu, Shan; Jiao, Jiao; Wu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate whether acoustic cavitation could increase the evaporation of a phase-shift inorganic perfluorohexane (PFH) nanoemulsion and enhance high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation. Materials and Methods. PFH was encapsulated by mesoporous silica nanocapsule (MSNC) to form a nanometer-sized droplet (MSNC-PFH). It was added to a tissue-mimicking phantom, whereas phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was added as a control (PBS-control). HIFU (P ac = 150 W, t = 5/10 s) exposures were performed in both phantoms with various duty cycles (DC). US images, temperature, and cavitation emissions were recorded during HIFU exposure. HIFU-induced lesions were measured and calculated. Results. Compared to PBS-control, MSNC-PFH nanoemulsion could significantly increase the volume of HIFU-induced lesion (P cavitation was much stronger in the pulsed-HIFU than that in the continuous-wave HIFU exposure. Compared to 100%-DC exposure, the mean volume of lesion induced by 5 s exposure at 10%-DC was significantly larger, but smaller at 2%-DC. Conclusions. MSNC-PFH nanoemulsion can significantly enhance HIFU ablation. Appropriate pulsed-HIFU exposure could significantly increase the volume of lesion and reduce total US energy required for HIFU ablation. PMID:27419138

  16. Memory-Effect on Acoustic Cavitation

    OpenAIRE

    Yavaṣ, Oğuz; Leiderer, Paul; Park, Hee K.; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Poon, Chie C.; Tam, Andrew C.

    1994-01-01

    The formation of bubbles at a liquid-solid interface due to acoustic cavitation depends particularly on the preconditions of the interface. Here, it wiIl be shown that following laser-induced bubble formation at the interface the acoustic cavitation efficiency is strongly enhanced. Optical reflectance measurements reveal that this observed enhancement of acoustic cavitation due to preceding laser-induced bubble formation, which could be termed as memory effect, decays in a few hundred microse...

  17. Stabilisation of nanoscale zero-valent iron with biochar for enhanced transport and in-situ remediation of hexavalent chromium in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Huijie; Fang, Zhanqiang; Tsang, Pokeung Eric; Fang, Jianzhang; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a biochar-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI@BC) material was used for in situ remediation of hexavalent chromium-contaminated soil. Sedimentation tests and column experiments were used to compare the stability and mobility of nZVI@BC and bare-nZVI. The immobilisation efficiency of chromium, toxic effect of chromium and the content of iron were assessed through leaching tests and pot experiments. Sedimentation tests and transport experiments indicated that nZVI@BC with nZVI to BC mass ratio of 1:1 exhibited better stability and mobility than that of bare-nZVI. The immobilisation efficiency of Cr(VI) and Crtotal was 100% and 92.9%, respectively, when the soil was treated with 8 g/kg of nZVI@BC for 15 days. Moreover, such remediation effectively reduced the leachability of Fe caused by bare-nZVI. In addition, pot experiments showed that such remediation reduced the phytotoxicity of Cr and the leachable Fe and was favourable for plant growth. PMID:27064615

  18. Room Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttruff, Heinrich; Mommertz, Eckard

    The traditional task of room acoustics is to create or formulate conditions which ensure the best possible propagation of sound in a room from a sound source to a listener. Thus, objects of room acoustics are in particular assembly halls of all kinds, such as auditoria and lecture halls, conference rooms, theaters, concert halls or churches. Already at this point, it has to be pointed out that these conditions essentially depend on the question if speech or music should be transmitted; in the first case, the criterion for transmission quality is good speech intelligibility, in the other case, however, the success of room-acoustical efforts depends on other factors that cannot be quantified that easily, not least it also depends on the hearing habits of the listeners. In any case, absolutely "good acoustics" of a room do not exist.

  19. Acoustical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, Iwaki

    2009-01-01

    The 29th International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Shonan Village, Kanagawa, Japan, April 15-18, 2007. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place every two years since 1968 and forms a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. In the course of the years the volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have developed and become well-known and appreciated reference works. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art in the field as well as an in-depth look at its leading edge research, this Volume 29 in the Series contains again an excellent collection of seventy papers presented in nine major categories: Strain Imaging Biological and Medical Applications Acoustic Microscopy Non-Destructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Components and Systems Geophysics and Underwater Imaging Physics and Mathematics Medical Image Analysis FDTD method and Other Numerical Simulations Audience Researcher...

  20. Battlefield acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Damarla, Thyagaraju

    2015-01-01

    This book presents all aspects of situational awareness in a battlefield using acoustic signals. It starts by presenting the science behind understanding and interpretation of sound signals. The book then goes on to provide various signal processing techniques used in acoustics to find the direction of sound source, localize gunfire, track vehicles, and detect people. The necessary mathematical background and various classification and fusion techniques are presented. The book contains majority of the things one would need to process acoustic signals for all aspects of situational awareness in one location. The book also presents array theory, which is pivotal in finding the direction of arrival of acoustic signals. In addition, the book presents techniques to fuse the information from multiple homogeneous/heterogeneous sensors for better detection. MATLAB code is provided for majority of the real application, which is a valuable resource in not only understanding the theory but readers, can also use the code...

  1. Acoustics Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fisheries acoustics data are collected from more than 200 sea-days each year aboard the FRV DELAWARE II and FRV ALBATROSS IV (decommissioned) and the FSV Henry B....

  2. Topical Day on Site Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongoing activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre relating to site remediation and restoration are summarized. Special attention has been paid to the different phases of remediation including characterization, impact assessment, evaluation of remediation actions, and execution of remediation actions

  3. Topical Day on Site Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, H. [ed.

    1996-09-18

    Ongoing activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre relating to site remediation and restoration are summarized. Special attention has been paid to the different phases of remediation including characterization, impact assessment, evaluation of remediation actions, and execution of remediation actions.

  4. Evaluation of Transient Elastography, Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging (ARFI, and Enhanced Liver Function (ELF Score for Detection of Fibrosis in Morbidly Obese Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Karlas

    Full Text Available Liver fibrosis induced by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease causes peri-interventional complications in morbidly obese patients. We determined the performance of transient elastography (TE, acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI imaging, and enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF score for fibrosis detection in bariatric patients.41 patients (median BMI 47 kg/m2 underwent 14-day low-energy diets to improve conditions prior to bariatric surgery (day 0. TE (M and XL probe, ARFI, and ELF score were performed on days -15 and -1 and compared with intraoperative liver biopsies (NAS staging.Valid TE and ARFI results at day -15 and -1 were obtained in 49%/88% and 51%/90% of cases, respectively. High skin-to-liver-capsule distances correlated with invalid TE measurements. Fibrosis of liver biopsies was staged as F1 and F3 in n = 40 and n = 1 individuals. However, variations (median/range at d-15/-1 of TE (4.6/2.6-75 and 6.7/2.9-21.3 kPa and ARFI (2.1/0.7-3.7 and 2.0/0.7-3.8 m/s were high and associated with overestimation of fibrosis. The ELF score correctly classified 87.5% of patients.In bariatric patients, performance of TE and ARFI was poor and did not improve after weight loss. The ELF score correctly classified the majority of cases and should be further evaluated.

  5. Acoustic Cavitation Enhances Focused Ultrasound Ablation with Phase-Shift Inorganic Perfluorohexane Nanoemulsions: An In Vitro Study Using a Clinical Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Yan Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate whether acoustic cavitation could increase the evaporation of a phase-shift inorganic perfluorohexane (PFH nanoemulsion and enhance high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU ablation. Materials and Methods. PFH was encapsulated by mesoporous silica nanocapsule (MSNC to form a nanometer-sized droplet (MSNC-PFH. It was added to a tissue-mimicking phantom, whereas phosphate buffered saline (PBS was added as a control (PBS-control. HIFU (Pac=150 W, t=5/10 s exposures were performed in both phantoms with various duty cycles (DC. US images, temperature, and cavitation emissions were recorded during HIFU exposure. HIFU-induced lesions were measured and calculated. Results. Compared to PBS-control, MSNC-PFH nanoemulsion could significantly increase the volume of HIFU-induced lesion (P<0.01. Peak temperatures were 78.16 ± 5.64°C at a DC of 100%, 70.17 ± 6.43°C at 10%, 53.17 ± 4.54°C at 5%, and 42.00 ± 5.55°C at 2%, respectively. Inertial cavitation was much stronger in the pulsed-HIFU than that in the continuous-wave HIFU exposure. Compared to 100%-DC exposure, the mean volume of lesion induced by 5 s exposure at 10%-DC was significantly larger, but smaller at 2%-DC. Conclusions. MSNC-PFH nanoemulsion can significantly enhance HIFU ablation. Appropriate pulsed-HIFU exposure could significantly increase the volume of lesion and reduce total US energy required for HIFU ablation.

  6. Duct Remediation Program: Remediation operations and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckman, T.d.; Davis, M.M.; Karas, T.M.

    1992-11-01

    Plutonium holdup material has accumulated in the process ventilation duct systems at Rocky Flats. Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) measurements identified ducts containing this material. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board and the Department of Energy established the criteria for remediation of these ducts. A remediation team was assembled and a program plan created. This program plan included activities such as fissile material accumulation identification, criticality safety assessments, radiation dose determinations, facility safety evaluations, prevention of future accumulation, and removal of holdup material. Several operational considerations had to be evaluated in determining completion of remediation.

  7. Acoustic biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2016-06-30

    Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of cost, size and scalability, as well as potential additional features including integration with microfluidics and electronics, scaled sensitivities associated with smaller dimensions and higher operational frequencies, the ability to multiplex detection across arrays of hundreds of devices embedded in a single chip, increased throughput and the ability to interrogate a wider range of modes including within the same device. Additionally, device fabrication is often compatible with semiconductor volume batch manufacturing techniques enabling cost scalability and a high degree of precision and reproducibility in the manufacturing process. Integration with microfluidics handling also enables suitable sample pre-processing/separation/purification/amplification steps that could improve selectivity and the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Three device types are reviewed here: (i) bulk acoustic wave sensors, (ii) surface acoustic wave sensors, and (iii) micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) sensors. PMID:27365040

  8. Opto-acoustic cell permeation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, S R; Heredia, N

    2000-03-09

    Optically generated acoustic waves have been used to temporarily permeate biological cells. This technique may be useful for enhancing transfection of DNA into cells or enhancing the absorption of locally delivered drugs. A diode-pumped frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser operating at kHz repetition rates was used to produce a series of acoustic pulses. An acoustic wave was formed via thermoelastic expansion by depositing laser radiation into an absorbing dye. Generated pressures were measured with a PVDF hydrophone. The acoustic waves were transmitted to cultured and plated cells. The cell media contained a selection of normally- impermeable fluorescent-labeled dextran dyes. Following treatment with the opto-acoustic technique, cellular incorporation of dyes, up to 40,000 Molecular Weight, was noted. Control cells that did not receive opto-acoustic treatment had unremarkable dye incorporation. Uptake of dye was quantified via fluorescent microscopic analysis. Trypan Blue membrane exclusion assays and fluorescent labeling assays confirmed the vitality of cells following treatment. This method of enhanced drug delivery has the potential to dramatically reduce required drug dosages and associated side effects and enable revolutionary therapies.

  9. A quartz enhanced photo-acoustic gas sensor based on a custom tuning fork and a terahertz quantum cascade laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patimisco, Pietro; Borri, Simone; Sampaolo, Angelo; Beere, Harvey E; Ritchie, David A; Vitiello, Miriam S; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    An innovative quartz enhanced photoacoustic (QEPAS) gas sensing system operating in the THz spectral range and employing a custom quartz tuning fork (QTF) is described. The QTF dimensions are 3.3 cm × 0.4 cm × 0.8 cm, with the two prongs spaced by ∼800 μm. To test our sensor we used a quantum cascade laser as the light source and selected a methanol rotational absorption line at 131.054 cm(-1) (∼3.93 THz), with line-strength S = 4.28 × 10(-21) cm mol(-1). The sensor was operated at 10 Torr pressure on the first flexion QTF resonance frequency of 4245 Hz. The corresponding Q-factor was 74 760. Stepwise concentration measurements were performed to verify the linearity of the QEPAS signal as a function of the methanol concentration. The achieved sensitivity of the system is 7 parts per million in 4 seconds, corresponding to a QEPAS normalized noise-equivalent absorption of 2 × 10(-10) W cm(-1) Hz(-1/2), comparable with the best result of mid-IR QEPAS systems. PMID:24167816

  10. Acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is related to our activities on acoustic emission (A.E.). The work is made with different materials: metals and fibre reinforced plastics. At present, acoustic emission transducers are being developed for low and high temperature. A test to detect electrical discharges in electrical transformers was performed. Our experience in industrial tests to detect cracks or failures in tanks or tubes is also described. The use of A.E. for leak detection is considered. Works on pattern recognition of A.E. signals are also being performed. (Author)

  11. Natural Remediation at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural remediation is a general term that includes any technology or strategy that takes advantage of natural processes to remediate a contaminated media to a condition that is protective of human health and the environment. Natural remediation techniques are often passive and minimally disruptive to the environment. They are generally implemented in conjunction with traditional remedial solutions for source control (i.e., capping, stabilization, removal, soil vapor extraction, etc.). Natural remediation techniques being employed at Savannah River Site (SRS) include enhanced bio-remediation, monitored natural attenuation, and phytoremediation. Enhanced bio-remediation involves making nutrients available and conditions favorable for microbial growth. With proper precautions and feeding, the naturally existing microbes flourish and consume the contaminants. Case studies of enhanced bio-remediation include surface soils contaminated with PCBs and pesticides, and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) contamination in both the vadose zone and groundwater. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) has been selected as the preferred alternative for groundwater clean up at several SRS waste units. Successful implementation of MNA has been based on demonstration that sources have been controlled, groundwater modeling that indicates that plumes will not expand or reach surface water discharge points at levels that exceed regulatory limits, and continued monitoring. Phytoremediation is being successfully utilized at several SRS waste units. Phytoremediation involves using plants and vegetation to uptake, break down, or manage contaminants in groundwater or soils. Case studies at SRS include managing groundwater plumes of tritium and VOCs with pine trees that are native to the area. Significant decreases in tritium discharge to a site stream have been realized in one phytoremediation project. Studies of other vegetation types, methods of application, and other target contaminants are

  12. Natural Remediation at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, C. M.; Van Pelt, R.

    2002-02-25

    Natural remediation is a general term that includes any technology or strategy that takes advantage of natural processes to remediate a contaminated media to a condition that is protective of human health and the environment. Natural remediation techniques are often passive and minimally disruptive to the environment. They are generally implemented in conjunction with traditional remedial solutions for source control (i.e., capping, stabilization, removal, soil vapor extraction, etc.). Natural remediation techniques being employed at Savannah River Site (SRS) include enhanced bio-remediation, monitored natural attenuation, and phytoremediation. Enhanced bio-remediation involves making nutrients available and conditions favorable for microbial growth. With proper precautions and feeding, the naturally existing microbes flourish and consume the contaminants. Case studies of enhanced bio-remediation include surface soils contaminated with PCBs and pesticides, and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) contamination in both the vadose zone and groundwater. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) has been selected as the preferred alternative for groundwater clean up at several SRS waste units. Successful implementation of MNA has been based on demonstration that sources have been controlled, groundwater modeling that indicates that plumes will not expand or reach surface water discharge points at levels that exceed regulatory limits, and continued monitoring. Phytoremediation is being successfully utilized at several SRS waste units. Phytoremediation involves using plants and vegetation to uptake, break down, or manage contaminants in groundwater or soils. Case studies at SRS include managing groundwater plumes of tritium and VOCs with pine trees that are native to the area. Significant decreases in tritium discharge to a site stream have been realized in one phytoremediation project. Studies of other vegetation types, methods of application, and other target contaminants are

  13. Remediation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contaminated site by successive methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and sunflower oil enhanced soil washing - Portulaca oleracea L. cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Hu, Feng; Kengara, Fredrick Orori; Jiang, Xin; Luo, Yongming; Yang, Xinlun

    2014-06-01

    An innovative ex situ soil washing technology was developed in this study to remediate organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)-contaminated site. Elevated temperature (50 °C) combined with ultrasonication (35 kHz, 30 min) at 25 g L(-1) methyl-β-cyclodextrin and 100 mL L(-1) sunflower oil were effective in extracting OCPs from the soil. After four successive washing cycles, the removal efficiency for total OCPs, DDTs, endosulfans, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexanes, heptachlors, and chlordanes were all about 99%. The 4th washed soil with 3 months cultivation of Portulaca oleracea L. and nutrient addition significantly increase (p<0.05) the number, biomass carbon, nitrogen, and functioning diversity of soil microorganisms. This implied that the microbiological functioning of the soil was at least partially restored. This combined cleanup strategy proved to be effective and environmental friendly.

  14. 声波团聚煤飞灰微粒强化旋风分离的试验研究%Experimental Research on Enhanced Cyclone Separation of Acoustic Agglomerated Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑艳; 黄虹宾; 阎为革

    2000-01-01

    研究在试验冷态下,声场中煤飞灰微粒团聚后的坚固程度和分离效率. 对煤飞灰微粒在声场中团聚的现象进行试验研究,探索在冷态下声波增强旋风分离煤飞灰微粒的分离技术. 在声波声压级150dB的声场下,经声波辐射后的微粒强化旋风分离效率增加了3%-4%. 声波团聚微粒强化旋风分离的冷态试验,为高温下燃煤增压流化床燃烧联合循环中煤飞灰微粒分离的应用提供了技术基础.%To test the particles solidity and to verify the separating efficiency at normal atmospheric temperature, the experimental research was made on the enhanced cyclone separation of acoustic agglomerated fly-ash particles. The separating efficiency has increased by 3%-4% in a sound field with 150dB pressure level compared with that obtained without acoustic wave processing. The enhanced cyclone separation test study for acoustic agglomerated particles has provided a technical basis for pressurized fluid-bed combustion(PFBC) application.

  15. Introducing passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring: Motor bike piston-bore fault identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, D. P.; Panigrahi, S. N.

    2016-03-01

    Requirement of designing a sophisticated digital band-pass filter in acoustic based condition monitoring has been eliminated by introducing a passive acoustic filter in the present work. So far, no one has attempted to explore the possibility of implementing passive acoustic filters in acoustic based condition monitoring as a pre-conditioner. In order to enhance the acoustic based condition monitoring, a passive acoustic band-pass filter has been designed and deployed. Towards achieving an efficient band-pass acoustic filter, a generalized design methodology has been proposed to design and optimize the desired acoustic filter using multiple filter components in series. An appropriate objective function has been identified for genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique with multiple design constraints. In addition, the sturdiness of the proposed method has been demonstrated in designing a band-pass filter by using an n-branch Quincke tube, a high pass filter and multiple Helmholtz resonators. The performance of the designed acoustic band-pass filter has been shown by investigating the piston-bore defect of a motor-bike using engine noise signature. On the introducing a passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring reveals the enhancement in machine learning based fault identification practice significantly. This is also a first attempt of its own kind.

  16. Sustainable multistage process for enhanced productivity of bioplastics from waste remediation through aerobic dynamic feeding strategy: Process integration for up-scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amulya, K; Jukuri, Srinivas; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production was evaluated in a multistage operation using food waste as a renewable feedstock. The first step involved the production of bio-hydrogen (bio-H2) via acidogenic fermentation. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) rich effluent from bio-H2 reactor was subsequently used for PHA production, which was carried out in two stages, Stage II (culture enrichment) and Stage III (PHA production). PHA-storing microorganisms were enriched in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), operated at two different cycle lengths (CL-24; CL-12). Higher polymer recovery as well as VFA removal was achieved in CL-12 operation both in Stage II (16.3% dry cell weight (DCW); VFA removal, 84%) and Stage III (23.7% DCW; VFA removal, 88%). The PHA obtained was a co-polymer [P(3HB-co-3HV)] of PHB and PHV. The results obtained indicate that this integrated multistage process offers new opportunities to further leverage large scale PHA production with simultaneous waste remediation in the framework of biorefinery. PMID:25682477

  17. Electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Bodil; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene;

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of how heavy metals can be found in the soil and the theory of electrodialytic remediation. Basically electrodialytic remediation works by passing electric current through the soil, and the heavy metals in ionic form will carry some of the current. Ion-exchange membranes...... prevents the protons and the hydroxides ions from the electrode processes to enter the soil. The heavy metals are collected in a concentration compartment, which is separated from the soil by ion-exchange membranes. Examples from remediation experiments are shown, and it is demonstrated that it is possible...... to remediate soil polluted with heavy metals be this method. When adding desorbing agents or complexing agents, chosing the right current density, electrolyte and membranes, the proces can be optimised for a given remediation situation. Also electroosmosis is influencing the system, and if extra water...

  18. Enhanced electrokinetic remediation of quinoline-contaminated soils%喹啉污染土壤的电动强化修复研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任大军; 周思思; 刘剑; 张元元

    2012-01-01

    Kaolin was selected as a test soil and quinoline was investigated as a typical pollutant. The characteristic of migration and its effect of quinoline in Kaolin under different voltage gradient and experimental time were studied, revealing the mechanism of using electrokinetic technology to remediate the quinoline-contaminated in soils. The results show that the electrokinetic transport processes can effectively stimulate the desorption and movement of the quinoline in the test soils. Migration rate and distance of quinoline will increase along with the voltage gradient growth under some conditions. Electromigration and electroosmosis are the main mechanisms both driving the quinoline migrate toward the cathode.%以高岭土为实验土壤,喹啉为代表污染物,研究了不同电压梯度和运行时间下土壤中喹啉的迁移特征和效果,揭示了利用电动力学技术迁移土壤中喹啉的作用机理.结果表明:电动力学过程能有效地促进土壤中喹啉的解吸附和迁移,迁移速率和距离在一定条件下随电压强度升高而增大;电渗析和电迁移是其主要作用机理,均推动喹啉向阴极移动.

  19. Aquatic environmental remediation approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant's nuclear accident contaminated a significant portion of Fukushima Prefecture, and environmental remediation activities have been performed. To reduce the human exposure to the radiation induced by the nuclear contamination, one can reduce the radiation level in the environment, and/or eliminate radionuclide pathways to humans. This paper presents some case studies that are relevant to the Fukushima case. These examples include the Chernobyl nuclear accident's environmental and remediation assessments, U.S. Hanford environmental remediation activities, and the pesticide remediation assessment for the James River Estuary, Virginia, U.S.A. 1-D TODAM, 2-D FETRA and 3-D FLESCOT codes have been applied to the surface waters. TODAM code is currently being applied to the Ukedo and Takase rivers in Fukushima to predict cesium-137 migration in these rivers. A lesson learned from these experiences is that to achieve the effective clean-up, remediation decision makers must include knowledgeable scientists and competent engineers, so that environmental remediation activities are based on a scientifically-valid approach for a given contaminated location. Local participation to the remediation decision making is critically important. (author)

  20. Physiochemical technologies for HCB remediation and disposal: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Man [State Key Lab of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Environmental Science Research Institute, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yuan, Songhu, E-mail: yuansonghu622@hotmail.com [State Key Lab of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HCB contamination is still a serious environmental problem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physiochemical technologies for HCB remediation and disposal are reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Perspectives for most remediation technologies are proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pilot and large scale remediation and disposal are presented. - Abstract: Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is one of the 12 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) listed in 'Stockholm Convention'. It is hydrophobic, toxic and persistent in the environment. Due to extensive use in the past, HCB contamination is still a serious environmental problem. Strong adsorption on solid particles makes the remediation difficult. This paper presents an overview of the physiochemical technologies for HCB remediation and disposal. The adsorption/desorption behavior of HCB is firstly described because it comprises the fundamental for most remediation technologies. Physiochemical technologies concerned mostly for HCB remediation and disposal, i.e., chemical enhanced washing, electrokinetic remediation, reductive dechlorination and thermal decomposition, are reviewed in terms of fundamentals, state of the art and perspectives. The other physiochemical technologies including chemical oxidation, radiation induced catalytic dechlorination, ultrasonic assisted treatment and mechanochemical dechlorination are also reviewed. The pilot and large scale tests on HCB remediation or disposal are summarized in the end. This review aims to provide useful information to researchers and practitioners regarding HCB remediation and disposal.

  1. REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOILS BY SOLVENT FLUSHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solvent flushing is a potential technique for remediating a waste disposal/spill site contaminated with organic chemicals. This technique involves the injection of a solvent mixture (e.g., water plus alcohols) that enhances contaminant solubility, reduces the retardation factor, ...

  2. C60/Bi2TiO4F2 heterojunction photocatalysts with enhanced visible-light activity for environmental remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guisheng; Jiang, Bo; Li, Xin; Lian, Zichao; Xiao, Shuning; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Dieqing; Li, Hexing

    2013-08-14

    Fullerene (C60)-enhanced Bi2TiO4F2 hierarchical microspheres were prepared by a facile solvothermal method. Compared to the pure Bi2TiO4F2 photocatalyst, the C60/Bi2TiO4F2 samples exhibit much stronger photocatalytic performance for degrading Rhodamine B (RhB) and Eosin Y (EY) under visible light irradiation. Such greatly enhanced photocatalytic activity may be ascribed to strong combination and heterojunctions between C60 and Bi2TiO4F2, favorable for charge separation and light adsorption. Loading C60 on Bi2TiO4F2 results in a new photocatalytic mechanism (based on photo-generated hvb(+) and ·O2(-) radicals) different from that of pure Bi2TiO4F2. PMID:23834299

  3. Alkaline electrolyte circulation enhanced electrokinetic remediation of fluorine-contaminated Soils%碱液循环强化电动力学修复氟污染土壤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱书法; 杜锦屏; 索美玉; 闫春丽

    2009-01-01

    1 V·cm~(-1)电解电压下,利用去离子水及NaOH溶液做电解液,研究了电解液不同循环方式下土壤氟在电动力学作用下的迁移特征,分析了利用碱液循环强化电动力学技术修复氟污染土壤的可行性.结果表明,以去离子水为电解液单独循环时,土壤氟的去除率为20.3%,而以NaOH溶液为电解液时去除率最高可达57.3%,碱性电解液可提高土壤氟的去除率,且随着碱性的增强土壤氟的去除率逐渐升高.电解液的不同循环方式也对土壤氟的去除产生显著影响,两极溶液串联循环时土壤氟的去除率明显升高.可以采用碱液循环强化电动力学技术修复氟污染土壤.%Deionized water and NaOH solution being used as electrolyte with 1 V·cm~(-1) voltage gradient, an experimental study was carried out in order to determine the characteristics of migration of soil fluorine in the electrokinetic process under different circula-tion manner of electrolyte. The feasibility of electrokinetic remediation of fluorine-contaminated soil enhanced by alkaline electrolyte circulation was analyzed. The results show that when deionized water is used as the electrolyte and circulates separately, the removal rate of fluorine is only 20.3%. When NaOH solution is employed as the electrolyte, the removal rote is up to 57.3%. Alkaline elec-trolyte can effectively promote the removal rate of fluorine in soil and the removal rate increases with the alkalinity of the electrolyte. Different circulation manner of electrolyte has a significant effect on the removal of fluorine in soil. The removal rate of fluorine in soil is markedly increased when catholyte and anolyte circulate in series. Alkaline electrolyte circulation enhanced electroldnetic method can be applied to remediate fluorine-contaminated soils.

  4. Environmental Remediation Data Management Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wierowski, J. V.; Henry, L. G.; Dooley, D. A.

    2002-02-26

    Computer software tools for data management can improve site characterization, planning and execution of remediation projects. This paper discusses the use of two such products that have primarily been used within the nuclear power industry to enhance the capabilities of radiation protection department operations. Advances in digital imaging, web application development and programming technologies have made development of these tools possible. The Interactive Visual Tour System (IVTS) allows the user to easily create and maintain a comprehensive catalog containing digital pictures of the remediation site. Pictures can be cataloged in groups (termed ''tours'') that can be organized either chronologically or spatially. Spatial organization enables the user to ''walk around'' the site and view desired areas or components instantly. Each photo is linked to a map (floor plan, topographical map, elevation drawing, etc.) with graphics displaying the location on the map and any available tour/component links. Chronological organization enables the user to view the physical results of the remediation efforts over time. Local and remote management teams can view these pictures at any time and from any location. The Visual Survey Data System (VSDS) allows users to record survey and sample data directly on photos and/or maps of areas and/or components. As survey information is collected for each area, survey data trends can be reviewed for any repetitively measured location or component. All data is stored in a Quality Assurance (Q/A) records database with reference to its physical sampling point on the site as well as other information to support the final closeout report for the site. The ease of use of these web-based products has allowed nuclear power plant clients to plan outage work from their desktop and realize significant savings with respect to dose and cost. These same tools are invaluable for remediation and decommissioning

  5. Diagnostic Values of Plain and Contrast-enhanced MRI to Mini and Small Size Acoustic Neuroma%MRI平扫加增强检查对微型、小型听神经瘤的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙兴旺; 袁涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate diagnostic values of enhanced MR imaging to mini and small size acoustic neuroma. Materials and methods 13 cases with mini-size acoustic neuroma (d < 10mm) and 19 cases with small size acoustic neuroma (10enhanced MRI were performed. The images were retrospectively analyzed, and boundaries, signals and adjacengt structures were compared. Results 32 cases with mini and small size acoustic neuroma showed obvious enhancement in Gd-DTPA scanning, and the location, signal, adjacent structures of masses showed more clearly. Masses showed equal or low signal on T1WI, high signal on T2WI. There were no enlargement of offected canal. 11 cases located in internal auditory canal, and the size of tumors were about 0.3-1.2mm, average 0. 54mm. 3cases located in auditory nerve, T1WI and T2WI showed thickened auditory nerves, but no abnormal signals, and the tumors showed flaky enhancement. Tumors of 18 cases were mostly located in internal auditory canal, small parts of them out into cerebellopontine angle, and the size were 0.8-2.0mm, average 1.24mm. Conclusion Conventional and contrast-enhanced MRI is the most effective examination to prevent missed diagnosis of mini and small size acoustic neuroma, and the diagnosis is accurate and reliable.%目的 评价增强MRI对微型、小型听神经瘤的诊断价值.材料和方法 本文收集了经手术和病理证实的微型听神经瘤13例(d≤10mm),小型听神经瘤19例(10<d≤20mm),男15例,女17例,年龄33-61岁,平均41.8岁,采用Signa HDX 3.0T MRI超导型MR系统平扫及增强扫描,对其影像学表现进行回顾性分析,对肿瘤病灶边缘、信号、邻近结构关系进行比较.结果 32例微、小型听神经瘤Gd-DTPA扫描呈明显强化,病灶的位置、边缘及邻近

  6. Extraordinary acoustic transmission through annuluses in air and its applications in acoustic beam splitter and concentrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yong; Sun, Hong-Xiang; Liu, Shu-Sen; Yuan, Shou-Qi; Xia, Jian-Ping; Guan, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Shu-Yi

    2016-08-01

    We report an extraordinary acoustic transmission through two layer annuluses made of metal cylinders in air both numerically and experimentally. The effect arises from the enhancement and reconstruction of the incident source induced by different Mie-resonance modes of the annuluses. The proposed system takes advantages of the consistency in the waveform between the input and output waves, the high amplitude amplification of output waves, and the easy adjustment of structure. More interestingly, we investigate the applications of the extraordinary acoustic transmission in the acoustic beam splitter and acoustic concentrator. Our finding should have an impact on ultrasonic applications. PMID:27587144

  7. Case study on the strategy and application of enhancement solutions to improve remediation of soils contaminated with Cu, Pb and Zn by means of electrodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.;

    2005-01-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted with electrochemical removal of heavy metals from spiked kaolinite. Meanwhile, when moving from kaolinite to real soils, new factors must be taken into account-factors influencing, e.g., the buffering capacity of the soil against acidification and the adsorption....../desorption processes of the heavy metals. The present study gives some examples where it is necessary to use an enhancement solution to aid desorption of Cu, Zn and Pb during electrodialytic treatment. Dependent on the composition of the pollution, different choices can be made. In the case of a Cu-polluted calcareous...... for electrochemical treatment of an actual industrially polluted soil, this scheme must be chosen on basis of characterization of soil and pollution combination....

  8. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Educational Video Home What is an AN What is an Acoustic Neuroma? Identifying an AN Symptoms Acoustic Neuroma Keywords Educational Video ... for pre- and post-treatment acoustic neuroma patients. Home What is an AN What is an Acoustic ...

  9. Acoustic cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Gregory W.; Martin, Richard A.; Radenbaugh, Ray

    1990-01-01

    An acoustic cryocooler with no moving parts is formed from a thermoacoustic driver (TAD) driving a pulse tube refrigerator (PTR) through a standing wave tube. Thermoacoustic elements in the TAD are spaced apart a distance effective to accommodate the increased thermal penetration length arising from the relatively low TAD operating frequency in the range of 15-60 Hz. At these low operating frequencies, a long tube is required to support the standing wave. The tube may be coiled to reduce the overall length of the cryocooler. One or two PTR's are located on the standing wave tube adjacent antinodes in the standing wave to be driven by the standing wave pressure oscillations. It is predicted that a heat input of 1000 W at 1000 K will maintian a cooling load of 5 W at 80 K.

  10. Acoustic telemetry.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumheller, Douglas Schaeffer; Kuszmaul, Scott S.

    2003-08-01

    Broadcasting messages through the earth is a daunting task. Indeed, broadcasting a normal telephone conversion through the earth by wireless means is impossible with todays technology. Most of us don't care, but some do. Industries that drill into the earth need wireless communication to broadcast navigation parameters. This allows them to steer their drill bits. They also need information about the natural formation that they are drilling. Measurements of parameters such as pressure, temperature, and gamma radiation levels can tell them if they have found a valuable resource such as a geothermal reservoir or a stratum bearing natural gas. Wireless communication methods are available to the drilling industry. Information is broadcast via either pressure waves in the drilling fluid or electromagnetic waves in the earth and well tubing. Data transmission can only travel one way at rates around a few baud. Given that normal Internet telephone modems operate near 20,000 baud, these data rates are truly very slow. Moreover, communication is often interrupted or permanently blocked by drilling conditions or natural formation properties. Here we describe a tool that communicates with stress waves traveling through the steel drill pipe and production tubing in the well. It's based on an old idea called Acoustic Telemetry. But what we present here is more than an idea. This tool exists, it's drilled several wells, and it works. Currently, it's the first and only acoustic telemetry tool that can withstand the drilling environment. It broadcasts one way over a limited range at much faster rates than existing methods, but we also know how build a system that can communicate both up and down wells of indefinite length.

  11. Use of acoustic vortices in acoustic levitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic fields are known to exert forces on the surfaces of objects. These forces are noticeable if the sound pressure is sufficiently high. Two phenomena where acoustic forces are relevant are: i) acoustic levitation, where strong standing waves can hold small objects at certain positions......, counterbalancing their weight, and ii) acoustic vortices, spinning sound fields that can impinge angular momentum and cause rotation of objects. In this contribution, both force-creating sound fields are studied by means of numerical simulations. The Boundary Element Method is employed to this end. The simulation...... of acoustical vortices uses an efficient numerical implementation based on the superposition of two orthogonal sound fields with a delay of 90° between them. It is shown that acoustic levitation and the use of acoustic vortices can be combined to manipulate objects in an efficient and controlled manner without...

  12. CT findings of acoustic neuroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Do Choul; Lee, Jae Mun; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-10-15

    Computed Tomography (CT) is very accurate in evaluating the location, size, shape and extension of acoustic neuroma. We analysed CT findings of 23 acoustic neuromas seen at Department of Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University Medical College during the period of from January 1981 to June 1987. 1. Five (22%) were men and 18 (78%) were women with the high incidence occurring in the 4th and 5th decades. 2. Twenty two cases were diagnosed satisfactorily by CT examinations which included axial, coronal and reconstruction images. One with the smallest dimension of 8 mm in diameter could not be detected by the conventional CT scan. But is could be seen after metrizamide cisternography. mean size of the tumor masses was estimated 3.6 cm in diameter. 3. The shape of the tumor was oval in 50%, round in 27% and lobulated in 23%. The masses were presented as hypodense in 50%, isodense in 32% and hyperdense in 18%. All tumors were extended from the internal acoustic and toward the cerebellopontine angle. The internal acoustic canal was widened in 77%. Hydrocephalus was associated in 45%. Widening of cerebellopontine angle cistern was noted in 50%. 4. After contrast infusion the tumors were enhanced markedly in 45%, moderately in 32% and mildly in 23%. The enhanced pattern was homogeneous in 41%, mixed in 41% and rim in 18%. The margin of the tumors was sharply defined in 82%. The tumors were attached to the petrous bone with acute angle in 73%. Cystic change within the tumor was found in 27%. The peritumoral edema was noted in 45%. In conclusion, CT is of most effective modalities to evaluate size, shape, extent and internal architecture of acoustic neuroma as well as relationship with adjacent anatomic structures including the internal acoustic canal.

  13. Acoustic dispersive prism

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein Esfahlani; Sami Karkar; Herve Lissek; Mosig, Juan R.

    2016-01-01

    The optical dispersive prism is a well-studied element, which allows separating white light into its constituent spectral colors, and stands in nature as water droplets. In analogy to this definition, the acoustic dispersive prism should be an acoustic device with capability of splitting a broadband acoustic wave into its constituent Fourier components. However, due to the acoustical nature of materials as well as the design and fabrication difficulties, there is neither any natural acoustic ...

  14. Enhanced proliferation of fibroblasts and endothelial cells treated with an extract of the leaves of Chromolaena odorata (Eupolin), an herbal remedy for treating wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, T T; Hughes, M A; Cherry, G W

    1998-03-01

    Burns are a major problem in many developing countries. Eupolin ointment is a topical agent used in the treatment of soft-tissue wounds and burns in Vietnam and is made from an aqueous extract of the leaves of Chromolaena odorata (formerly Eupatorium odoratum). Clinical studies using this extract have shown antimicrobial and anticoagulation effects as well as the promotion of tissue remodeling in the wound healing process. However, the mechanism by which this agent affects cells involved in the wound healing process is unknown. In our research, fibroblasts and endothelial cells, two cell types that play a crucial role in wound healing, were used to investigate some of the effects of Eupolin extract in vitro. Cell growth was estimated by a colorimetric assay at different time intervals. Enhanced growth of fibroblasts and endothelial cells was found at concentrations of 10 microg/ml and 100 microg/ml of Eupolin extract. This was particularly evident in medium supplemented with only 0.5% fetal calf serum where the cells were quiescent. Toxicity of the extract to fibroblasts was observed at 250 microg/ml in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/0.5% fetal calf serum, but there was no significant damage at this dose to the endothelial cells. The results of the study demonstrated that Eupolin extract increased fibroblast and endothelial cell growth, and this could explain in part the beneficial clinical effects that have been observed. PMID:9500394

  15. Restructuring reward processing with Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement: novel therapeutic mechanisms to remediate hedonic dysregulation in addiction, stress, and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L

    2016-06-01

    Though valuation processes are fundamental to survival of the human species, hedonic dysregulation is at the root of an array of maladies, including addiction, stress, and chronic pain, as evidenced by the allostatic shift in the relative salience of natural reward to drug reward observed among persons with severe substance use disorders. To address this crucial problem, novel interventions are needed to restore hedonic regulatory processes gone awry in persons exhibiting addictive behaviors. This article describes a theoretical rationale and empirical evidence for the effects of one such new intervention, Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE), on top-down and bottom-up mechanisms implicated in cognitive control and hedonic regulation. MORE is innovative and distinct from extant mindfulness-based interventions in that it unites traditional mindfulness meditation with reappraisal and savoring strategies designed to reverse the downward shift in salience of natural reward relative to drug reward, representing a crucial tipping point to disrupt the progression of addiction-a mechanistic target that no other behavioral intervention has been designed to address. Though additional studies are needed, clinical and biobehavioral data from several completed and ongoing trials suggest that MORE may exert salutary effects on addictive behaviors and the neurobiological processes that underpin them. PMID:27037786

  16. Restructuring reward processing with Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement: novel therapeutic mechanisms to remediate hedonic dysregulation in addiction, stress, and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L

    2016-06-01

    Though valuation processes are fundamental to survival of the human species, hedonic dysregulation is at the root of an array of maladies, including addiction, stress, and chronic pain, as evidenced by the allostatic shift in the relative salience of natural reward to drug reward observed among persons with severe substance use disorders. To address this crucial problem, novel interventions are needed to restore hedonic regulatory processes gone awry in persons exhibiting addictive behaviors. This article describes a theoretical rationale and empirical evidence for the effects of one such new intervention, Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE), on top-down and bottom-up mechanisms implicated in cognitive control and hedonic regulation. MORE is innovative and distinct from extant mindfulness-based interventions in that it unites traditional mindfulness meditation with reappraisal and savoring strategies designed to reverse the downward shift in salience of natural reward relative to drug reward, representing a crucial tipping point to disrupt the progression of addiction-a mechanistic target that no other behavioral intervention has been designed to address. Though additional studies are needed, clinical and biobehavioral data from several completed and ongoing trials suggest that MORE may exert salutary effects on addictive behaviors and the neurobiological processes that underpin them.

  17. Enhanced tolerance and remediation to mixed contaminates of PCBs and 2,4-DCP by transgenic alfalfa plants expressing the 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl-1,2-dioxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Ren, Hejun; Pan, Hongyu; Liu, Jinliang; Zhang, Lanying

    2015-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) generally led to mixed contamination of soils as a result of commercial and agricultural activities. Their accumulation in the environment poses great risks to human and animal health. Therefore, the effective strategies for disposal of these pollutants are urgently needed. In this study, genetic engineering to enhance PCBs/2,4-DCP phytoremediation is a focus. We cloned the 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl-1,2-dioxygenase (BphC.B) from a soil metagenomic library, which is the key enzyme of aerobic catabolism of a variety of aromatic compounds, and then it was expressed in alfalfa driven by CaMV 35S promoter using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic line BB11 was selected out through PCR, Western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays. Its disposal and tolerance to both PCBs and 2,4-DCP were examined. The tolerance capability of transgenic line BB11 towards complex contaminants of PCBs/2,4-DCP significantly increased compared with non-transgenic plants. Strong dissipation of PCBs and high removal efficiency of 2,4-DCP were exhibited in a short time. It was confirmed expressing BphC.B would be a feasible strategy to help achieving phytoremediation in mixed contaminated soils with PCBs and 2,4-DCP.

  18. Site Remediation in Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the remediation of a former uranium mining area in Hungary. The work was carried out using stringent quality controls and special attention was paid to the radiological survey during the cleanup works on the roads, on pipe lines and yards, on the mill site and places used earlier for heap leaching. Groundwater quality control and the related groundwater quality restoration were the most important aspects of the post remediation phase which was aimed at the long term protection of the nearby drinking water aquifer. The expenditure for the remediation was approximately $100 million. The estimated cost for long term monitoring and water treatment is about US $4 million/year. (author)

  19. Remedial design/remedial action strategy report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieffenbacher, R.G.

    1994-06-30

    This draft Regulatory Compliance Strategy (RCS) report will aid the ER program in developing and implementing Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) projects. The intent of the RCS is to provide guidance for the implementation of project management requirements and to allow the implementation of a flexible, graded approach to design requirements depending on the complexity, magnitude, schedule, risk, and cost for any project. The RCS provides a functional management-level guidance document for the identification, classification, and implementation of the managerial and regulatory aspects of an ER project. The RCS has been written from the perspective of the ER Design Manager and provides guidance for the overall management of design processes and elements. The RCS does not address the project engineering or specification level of detail. Topics such as project initiation, funding, or construction are presented only in the context in which these items are important as sources of information or necessary process elements that relate to the design project phases.

  20. Electrodialytic Soil Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene; Hansen, Henrik K.;

    1997-01-01

    It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective......It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective...

  1. Solutions Remediate Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, NASA workers used chlorinated solvents to clean rocket engine components at launch sites. These solvents, known as dense non-aqueous phase liquids, had contaminated launch facilities to the point of near-irreparability. Dr. Jacqueline Quinn and Dr. Kathleen Brooks Loftin of Kennedy Space Center partnered with researchers from the University of Central Florida's chemistry and engineering programs to develop technology capable of remediating the area without great cost or further environmental damage. They called the new invention Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI). The groundwater remediation compound is cleaning up polluted areas all around the world and is, to date, NASA's most licensed technology.

  2. Acoustic Mechanical Feedthroughs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic motors can have problems when operating in extreme environments. In addition, if one needs to do mechanical work outside a structure, electrical feedthroughs are required to transport the electric power to drive the motor. In this paper, we present designs for driving rotary and linear motors by pumping stress waves across a structure or barrier. We accomplish this by designing a piezoelectric actuator on one side of the structure and a resonance structure that is matched to the piezoelectric resonance of the actuator on the other side. Typically, piezoelectric motors can be designed with high torques and lower speeds without the need for gears. One can also use other actuation materials such as electrostrictive, or magnetostrictive materials in a benign environment and transmit the power in acoustic form as a stress wave and actuate mechanisms that are external to the benign environment. This technology removes the need to perforate a structure and allows work to be done directly on the other side of a structure without the use of electrical feedthroughs, which can weaken the structure, pipe, or vessel. Acoustic energy is pumped as a stress wave at a set frequency or range of frequencies to produce rotary or linear motion in a structure. This method of transferring useful mechanical work across solid barriers by pumping acoustic energy through a resonant structure features the ability to transfer work (rotary or linear motion) across pressure or thermal barriers, or in a sterile environment, without generating contaminants. Reflectors in the wall of barriers can be designed to enhance the efficiency of the energy/power transmission. The method features the ability to produce a bi-directional driving mechanism using higher-mode resonances. There are a variety of applications where the presence of a motor is complicated by thermal or chemical environments that would be hostile to the motor components and reduce life and, in some instances, not be

  3. Responsive acoustic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Brady; Tamke, Martin; Nielsen, Stig Anton;

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic performance is defined by the parameter of reverberation time; however, this does not capture the acoustic experience in some types of open plan spaces. As many working and learning activities now take place in open plan spaces, it is important to be able to understand and design...... for the acoustic conditions of these spaces. This paper describes an experimental research project that studied the design processes necessary to design for sound. A responsive acoustic surface was designed, fabricated and tested. This acoustic surface was designed to create specific sonic effects. The design...... was simulated using custom integrated acoustic software and also using Odeon acoustic analysis software. The research demonstrates a method for designing space- and sound-defining surfaces, defines the concept of acoustic subspace, and suggests some new parameters for defining acoustic subspaces....

  4. Springer Handbook of Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Rossing, Thomas D

    2007-01-01

    Acoustics, the science of sound, has developed into a broad interdisciplinary field encompassing the academic disciplines of physics, engineering, psychology, speech, audiology, music, architecture, physiology, neuroscience, and others. The Springer Handbook of Acoustics is an unparalleled modern handbook reflecting this richly interdisciplinary nature edited by one of the acknowledged masters in the field, Thomas Rossing. Researchers and students benefit from the comprehensive contents spanning: animal acoustics including infrasound and ultrasound, environmental noise control, music and human speech and singing, physiological and psychological acoustics, architectural acoustics, physical and engineering acoustics, signal processing, medical acoustics, and ocean acoustics. This handbook reviews the most important areas of acoustics, with emphasis on current research. The authors of the various chapters are all experts in their fields. Each chapter is richly illustrated with figures and tables. The latest rese...

  5. Acoustic Spatiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon LaBelle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiences of listening can be appreciated as intensely relational, bringing us into contact with surrounding events, bodies and things. Given that sound propagates and expands outwardly, as a set of oscillations from a particular source, listening carries with it a sensual intensity, whereby auditory phenomena deliver intrusive and disruptive as well as soothing and assuring experiences. The physicality characteristic of sound suggests a deeply impressionistic, locational "knowledge structure" – that is, the ways in which listening affords processes of exchange, of being in the world, and from which we extend ourselves. Sound, as physical energy reflecting and absorbing into the materiality around us, and even one's self, provides a rich platform for understanding place and emplacement. Sound is always already a trace of location.Such features of auditory experience give suggestion for what I may call an acoustical paradigm – how sound sets in motion not only the material world but also the flows of the imagination, lending to forces of signification and social structure, and figuring us in relation to each other. The relationality of sound brings us into a steady web of interferences, each of which announces the promise or problematic of being somewhere.

  6. Acoustic Neurinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Faraji Rad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic neuromas (AN are schwann cell-derived tumors that commonly arise from the vestibular portion of the eighth cranial nerve also known as vestibular schwannoma(VS causes unilateral hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo and unsteadiness. In many cases, the tumor size may remain unchanged for many years following diagnosis, which is typically made by MRI. In the majority of cases the tumor is small, leaving the clinician and patient with the options of either serial scanning or active treatment by gamma knife radiosurgery (GKR or microneurosurgery. Despite the vast number of published treatment reports, comparative studies are few. The predominant clinical endpoints of AN treatment include tumor control, facial nerve function and hearing preservation. Less focus has been put on symptom relief and health-related quality of life (QOL. It is uncertain if treating a small tumor leaves the patient with a better chance of obtaining relief from future hearing loss, vertigo or tinnitus than by observing it without treatment.   In this paper we review the literature for the natural course, the treatment alternatives and the results of AN. Finally, we present our experience with a management strategy applied for more than 30 years.

  7. Acoustic Cluster Therapy (ACT) enhances the therapeutic efficacy of paclitaxel and Abraxane® for treatment of human prostate adenocarcinoma in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wamel, Annemieke; Sontum, Per Christian; Healey, Andrew; Kvåle, Svein; Bush, Nigel; Bamber, Jeffrey; de Lange Davies, Catharina

    2016-08-28

    Acoustic cluster therapy (ACT) is a novel approach for ultrasound mediated, targeted drug delivery. In the current study, we have investigated ACT in combination with paclitaxel and Abraxane® for treatment of a subcutaneous human prostate adenocarcinoma (PC3) in mice. In combination with paclitaxel (12mg/kg given i.p.), ACT induced a strong increase in therapeutic efficacy; 120days after study start, 42% of the animals were in stable, complete remission vs. 0% for the paclitaxel only group and the median survival was increased by 86%. In combination with Abraxane® (12mg paclitaxel/kg given i.v.), ACT induced a strong increase in the therapeutic efficacy; 60days after study start 100% of the animals were in stable, remission vs. 0% for the Abraxane® only group, 120days after study start 67% of the animals were in stable, complete remission vs. 0% for the Abraxane® only group. For the ACT+Abraxane group 100% of the animals were alive after 120days vs. 0% for the Abraxane® only group. Proof of concept for Acoustic Cluster Therapy has been demonstrated; ACT markedly increases the therapeutic efficacy of both paclitaxel and Abraxane® for treatment of human prostate adenocarcinoma in mice. PMID:27297780

  8. In situ Remediation Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    A summary of two decades of developments of In Situ remediation is presented in this chapter. The basic principles of In Situ technology application are addressed, such as equilibrium relations between contaminant phases, factors controlling biological and geochemical processes, contaminant characte

  9. Catalysts for Environmental Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrams, B. L.; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2013-01-01

    The properties of catalysts used in environmental remediation are described here through specific examples in heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis. In the area of heterogeneous catalysis, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx was used as an example reaction with vanadia and tungsta...

  10. The Remediation of Nosferatu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghellal, Sabiha; Morrison, Ann; Hassenzahl, Marc;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present The Remediation of Nosferatu, a location based augmented reality horror adventure. Using the theory of fictional universe elements, we work with diverse material from Nosferatu’s horror genre and vampire themes as a case study. In this interdisciplinary research we...

  11. 2014 Ohio Remediation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In fulfillment of Ohio Revised Code 3333.041 (A) (1) the Chancellor has published a listing by school district of the number of the 2013 high school graduates who attended a state institution of higher education in academic year 2013-2014 and the percentage of each district's graduates required by the institution to enroll in a remedial course in…

  12. Active in-situ petroleum hydrocarbon remediation in discontinuous permafrost : practical experience and lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M. [WorleyParsons Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The active in-situ petroleum hydrocarbon remediation in discontinuous permafrost was presented as practical experience and lessons learned. The presentation provided background information on permafrost, the site characterization phase, and conceptual site model. Remedial options analysis, permeability enhancement, and full scale remediation system were discussed. Remediation options that were presented included: impacted soil; excavation and landfill; excavation and biocell; soil vapour extraction (SVE); and dual phase extraction (DPE). The remediation strategy of SVE and DPE was outlined, with particular reference to full scale DPE remediation; enhancing limited permeability; remediation trench installation; radius of influence; trench potential radius of influence; and fluid and vapour gathering system. The presentation also discussed challenges and lessons learned regarding seasonal operation; permafrost encroachment into trenches; flammable vapours; downhole pump freezing over time; and variable performance and balancing flows. tabs., figs.

  13. [Cognitive remediation and nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenin-King, Palmyre; Thomas, Fanny; Braha-Zeitoun, Sonia; Bouaziz, Noomane; Januel, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Therapies based on cognitive remediation integrate psychiatric care. Cognitive remediation helps to ease cognitive disorders and enable patients to improve their day-to-day lives. It is essential to complete nurses' training in this field. This article presents the example of a patient with schizophrenia who followed the Cognitive Remediation Therapy programme, enabling him to access mainstream employment. PMID:27615702

  14. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS trademark) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase 1 consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project. During Phase 2, the basic nitrification process design was modified to meet the specific needs of the new waste streams available at Paducah. The system design developed for Paducah has significantly enhanced the processing capabilities of the Vortec vitrification process. The overall system design now includes the capability to shred entire drums and drum packs containing mud, concrete, plastics and PCB's as well as bulk waste materials. This enhanced processing capability will substantially expand the total DOE waste remediation applications of the technology

  15. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ANA Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma Legacy Society Programs & Services Join/Renew Ways to Give ANA Discussion Forum ... ANA Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma Legacy Society Programs & Services Search ANAUSA.org Connect with us! Educational Video ...

  16. Atlantic Herring Acoustic Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Advanced Sampling Technologies Research Group conducts annual fisheries acoustic surveys using state-of-the-art acoustic, midwater trawling, and...

  17. Cystic acoustic neuromas

    OpenAIRE

    Chitkara, Naveen; Chanda, Rakesh; Yadav, S. P. S.; N.K. Sharma

    2002-01-01

    Predominantly cystic acoustic neuromas are rare and they usually present with clinical and radiological features different from their more common solid counterparts. Two cases of cystic acoustic neuromas are reported here.

  18. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is ANA? Mission Statement Board of Directors ANA Staff Medical Advisory Board News ANA Annual Reports Acoustic ... is ANA? Mission Statement Board of Directors ANA Staff Medical Advisory Board News ANA Annual Reports Acoustic ...

  19. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask Yourself ... Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask Yourself ...

  20. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Patient Surveys Related Links Clinical Trials.gov Health Care Insurance Toolkit Additional Resources ANA Public Webinars © 2016 Acoustic Neuroma Association Acoustic Neuroma Association ® • ...

  1. Remediation of Contaminated Soils by Solvent Flushing

    OpenAIRE

    Augustijn, Denie C.M.; Jessup, Ron E.; Rao, P. Suresh C.; Wood, A. Lynn

    1994-01-01

    Solvent flushing is a potential technique for remediating a waste disposal/spill site contaminated with organic chemicals. This technique involves the injection of a solvent mixture (e.g., water plus alcohols) that enhances contaminant solubility, reduces the retardation factor, and increases the release rates of the contaminants. A simulation model is developed to predict contaminant elution curves during solvent flushing for the case of one‐dimensional, steady flow through a contaminated me...

  2. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    P. Bala Ramudu; R. P. Tiwari; Srivastava, R. K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself wa...

  3. Life Cycle Analysis of Soil Remediation Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Cappuyns, Valérie; Bouckenooghe, Diederik; Van Breuseghem, Lien

    2009-01-01

    Life cycle analysis (LCA) was applied to evaluate remediation technologies for soil and groundwater contaminated with organic components. The environmental impact, cost and risk of three techniques, namely (1) vacuum enhanced recovery, (2) a new in situ thermal treatment technique and (3) soil excavation have been evaluated by means of different tools. Several LCA-based software packages were screened, with special attention for their easiness to use, the amount of data necessary to perform t...

  4. Tutorial on architectural acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Neil; Talaske, Rick; Bistafa, Sylvio

    2002-11-01

    This tutorial is intended to provide an overview of current knowledge and practice in architectural acoustics. Topics covered will include basic concepts and history, acoustics of small rooms (small rooms for speech such as classrooms and meeting rooms, music studios, small critical listening spaces such as home theatres) and the acoustics of large rooms (larger assembly halls, auditoria, and performance halls).

  5. Remediation Technology Collaboration Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John; Olsen, Wade

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews programs at NASA aimed at development at Remediation Technology development for removal of environmental pollutants from NASA sites. This is challenging because there are many sites with different environments, and various jurisdictions and regulations. There are also multiple contaminants. There must be different approaches based on location and type of contamination. There are other challenges: such as costs, increased need for resources and the amount of resources available, and a regulatory environment that is increasing.

  6. Environmental impacts of remediation of a trichloroethene-contaminated site: life cycle assessment of remediation alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Z; Chambon, Julie; Binning, Philip J; Bulle, Cécile; Margni, Manuele; Bjerg, Poul L

    2010-12-01

    The environmental impacts of remediation of a chloroethene-contaminated site were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The compared remediation options are (i) in situ bioremediation by enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD), (ii) in situ thermal desorption (ISTD), and (iii) excavation of the contaminated soil followed by off-site treatment and disposal. The results showed that choosing the ERD option will reduce the life-cycle impacts of remediation remarkably compared to choosing either ISTD or excavation, which are more energy-demanding. In addition to the secondary impacts of remediation, this study includes assessment of local toxic impacts (the primary impact) related to the on-site contaminant leaching to groundwater and subsequent human exposure via drinking water. The primary human toxic impacts were high for ERD due to the formation and leaching of chlorinated degradation products, especially vinyl chloride during remediation. However, the secondary human toxic impacts of ISTD and excavation are likely to be even higher, particularly due to upstream impacts from steel production. The newly launched model, USEtox, was applied for characterization of primary and secondary toxic impacts and combined with a site-dependent fate model of the leaching of chlorinated ethenes from the fractured clay till site. PMID:21053954

  7. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress.

  8. Remediating MGP brownfields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before natural gas pipelines became widespread in this country, gas fuel was produced locally in more than 5,000 manufactured gas plants (MGPs). The toxic wastes from these processes often were disposed onsite and have since seeped into the surrounding soil and groundwater. Although the MGPs--commonly called gas plants, gas-works or town gas plants--have closed and most have been demolished, they have left a legacy of environmental contamination. At many MGP sites, underground storage tanks were constructed of wood or brick, with process piping and equipment which frequently leaked. Waste materials often were disposed onsite. Releases of coal tars, oils and condensates produced within the plants contributed to a wide range of contamination from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, benzene and cyanide. Remediation of selected MGP sites has been sporadic. Unless the site has been identified as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) Superfund site, the regulatory initiative to remediate often remains with the state in which the MGP is located. A number of factors are working to change that picture and to create a renewed interest in MGP site remediation. The recent Brownfield Initiative by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is such an example

  9. Acoustic elliptical cylindrical cloaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Hua; Qu Shao-Bo; Xu Zhuo; Wang Jia-Fu

    2009-01-01

    By making a comparison between the acoustic equations and the 2-dimensional (2D) Maxwell equations, we obtain the material parameter equations (MPE) for acoustic elliptical cylindrical cloaks. Both the theoretical results and the numerical results indicate that an elliptical cylindrical cloak can realize perfect acoustic invisibility when the spatial distributions of mass density and bulk modulus are exactly configured according to the proposed equations. The present work is the meaningful exploration of designing acoustic cloaks that are neither sphere nor circular cylinder in shape, and opens up possibilities for making complex and multiplex acoustic cloaks with simple models such as spheres, circular or elliptic cylinders.

  10. Pattern-formation under acoustic driving forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Jose Manuel

    2015-07-01

    Chemical and metallurgical processes enhanced by high intensity acoustic waves, thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators, fuel rods in nuclear reactors, heat exchanger tubes, offshore and vibrating structures, solar thermal collectors, acoustic levitators, microfluidic devices, cycling, musical acoustics, blood flow through veins/arteries, hearing in the mammalian ear, carbon nanotube loudspeakers, etc. The evolution of a myriad of processes involving the oscillation of viscous fluids in the presence of solid boundaries is up to a certain extent influenced by acoustic streaming. In addition to the sound field, viscous energy dissipation at the fluid-solid boundary causes a time-independent fluid circulation, which can lead to a significant enhancement of heat, mass and momentum transfer at large oscillation amplitudes. A particularly relevant phenomenon that can be notably affected by acoustic streaming is the promotion of sound waves by temperature gradients or viceversa (thermoacoustics), which is at the basis of potentially efficient and environmental friendly engines and refrigerators that have attracted a renewed interest in the last years. In the present manuscript, historical developments and the underlying basic physics behind acoustic streaming and thermoacoustics are reviewed from an unifying perspective.

  11. ACOUSTICAL STANDARDS NEWS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stremmel, Neil; Struck, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    American National Standards (ANSI Standards) developed by Accredited Standards Committees S1, S2, S3, S3/SC 1, and S12 in the areas of acoustics, mechanical vibration and shock, bioacoustics, animal bioacoustics, and noise, respectively, are published by the Acoustical Society of America (ASA). In addition to these standards, ASA publishes a catalog of Acoustical American National Standards. To receive a copy of the latest Standards catalog, please contact Neil Stremmel.Comments are welcomed on all material in Acoustical Standards News.This Acoustical Standards News section in JASA, as well as the National Catalog of Acoustical Standards and other information on the Standards Program of the Acoustical Society of America, are available via the ASA home page: http://acousticalsociety.org. PMID:27475185

  12. Acoustic streaming in microchannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tribler, Peter Muller

    , the acoustic streaming flow, and the forces on suspended microparticles. The work is motivated by the application of particle focusing by acoustic radiation forces in medical, environmental and food sciences. Here acoustic streaming is most often unwanted, because it limits the focusability of particles...... work. Based on first- and second-order perturbation theory, assuming small acoustic amplitudes, we derived the time-dependent governing equations under adiabatic conditions. The adiabatic first- and second-order equations are solved analytically for the acoustic field between two orthogonally......-of-the-art in the field. Furthermore, the analytical solution for the acoustic streaming in rectangular channels with arbitrary large height-to-width ratios is derived. This accommodates the analytical theory of acoustic streaming to applications within acoustofluidics....

  13. Physiochemical technologies for HCB remediation and disposal: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Man; Yuan, Songhu

    2012-08-30

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is one of the 12 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) listed in "Stockholm Convention". It is hydrophobic, toxic and persistent in the environment. Due to extensive use in the past, HCB contamination is still a serious environmental problem. Strong adsorption on solid particles makes the remediation difficult. This paper presents an overview of the physiochemical technologies for HCB remediation and disposal. The adsorption/desorption behavior of HCB is firstly described because it comprises the fundamental for most remediation technologies. Physiochemical technologies concerned mostly for HCB remediation and disposal, i.e., chemical enhanced washing, electrokinetic remediation, reductive dechlorination and thermal decomposition, are reviewed in terms of fundamentals, state of the art and perspectives. The other physiochemical technologies including chemical oxidation, radiation induced catalytic dechlorination, ultrasonic assisted treatment and mechanochemical dechlorination are also reviewed. The pilot and large scale tests on HCB remediation or disposal are summarized in the end. This review aims to provide useful information to researchers and practitioners regarding HCB remediation and disposal. PMID:22709849

  14. Rhythm perturbations in acoustically paced treadmill walking after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Melvyn; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.; Van Kordelaar, Joost; Elich, Peter; Konijnenbelt, Manin; Kwakkel, Gert; Beek, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Background. In rehabilitation, acoustic rhythms are often used to improve gait after stroke. Acoustic cueing may enhance gait coordination by creating a stable coupling between heel strikes and metronome beats and provide a means to train the adaptability of gait coordination to environmental change

  15. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  16. Electrokinetic remediation prefield test methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodko, Dalibor (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Methods for determining the parameters critical in designing an electrokinetic soil remediation process including electrode well spacing, operating current/voltage, electroosmotic flow rate, electrode well wall design, and amount of buffering or neutralizing solution needed in the electrode wells at operating conditions are disclosed These methods are preferably performed prior to initiating a full scale electrokinetic remediation process in order to obtain efficient remediation of the contaminants.

  17. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bala Ramudu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself was used as the purging solution. Results showed that 49% reduction of cadmium concentration was achieved in the case of soil saturated (washed with ammonium citrate as well as purging solution also was ammonium citrate. The soil pH and washing solutions were the most important factors in controlling the removal of cadmium in electrokinetic remediation process.

  18. Remediating Remediation: From Basic Writing to Writing across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This article challenges faculty members and administrators to rethink current definitions of remediation. First year college students are increasingly placed into basic writing courses due to a perceived inability to use English grammar correctly, but it must be acknowledged that all students will encounter the need for remediation as they attempt…

  19. Remediation of Deep Vadose Zone Radionuclide and Metal Contamination: Status and Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P. Evan; Truex, Michael J.; Cantrell, Keri

    2008-12-30

    This report documents the results of a PNNL literature review to report on the state of maturity of deep vadose zone remediation technologies for metal contaminants including some radionuclides. Its recommendations feed into decisionmakers need for scientific information and cost-effective in situ remediation technlogies needed under DOE's Environmental Management initiative Enhanced Remediation Methods: Scientific & Technical Basis for In Stu Treatment Systems for Metals and Radionuclides.

  20. Springer handbook of acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Acoustics, the science of sound, has developed into a broad interdisciplinary field encompassing the academic disciplines of physics, engineering, psychology, speech, audiology, music, architecture, physiology, neuroscience, and electronics. The Springer Handbook of Acoustics is also in his 2nd edition an unparalleled modern handbook reflecting this richly interdisciplinary nature edited by one of the acknowledged masters in the field, Thomas Rossing. Researchers and students benefit from the comprehensive contents. This new edition of the Handbook features over 11 revised and expanded chapters, new illustrations, and 2 new chapters covering microphone arrays  and acoustic emission.  Updated chapters contain the latest research and applications in, e.g. sound propagation in the atmosphere, nonlinear acoustics in fluids, building and concert hall acoustics, signal processing, psychoacoustics, computer music, animal bioacousics, sound intensity, modal acoustics as well as new chapters on microphone arrays an...

  1. Vibro-acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This three-volume book gives a thorough and comprehensive presentation of vibration and acoustic theories. Different from traditional textbooks which typically deal with some aspects of either acoustic or vibration problems, it is unique of this book to combine those two correlated subjects together. Moreover, it provides fundamental analysis and mathematical descriptions for several crucial phenomena of Vibro-Acoustics which are quite useful in noise reduction, including how structures are excited, energy flows from an excitation point to a sound radiating surface, and finally how a structure radiates noise to a surrounding fluid. Many measurement results included in the text make the reading interesting and informative. Problems/questions are listed at the end of each chapter and the solutions are provided. This will help the readers to understand the topics of Vibro-Acoustics more deeply. The book should be of interest to anyone interested in sound and vibration, vehicle acoustics, ship acoustics and inter...

  2. Remedial action technology - arid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is presented of the low-level waste remedial action program at Los Alamos. The experimental design and progress is described for the experiments on second generation intrusion barriers, subsidence effects on SLB components, moisture cycling effects on chemical transport, and erosion control methodologies. The soil moisture data from the bio-intrusion and moisture cycling experiments both demonstrate the overwhelming importance of vegetation in minimizing infiltration of water through trench covers and backfill. Evaporation, as a water loss component in trench covers, is only effective in reducing soil moisture within 40 cm of the trench cover surface. Moisture infiltrating past the zone of evaporation in unvegetated or poorly vegetated trench covers is in storage and accumulates until drainage out of the soil profile occurs. Judicious selection of vegetation species for revegetating a low-level waste site may prevent infiltration of moisture into the trench and, when coupled with other design features (i.e. trench cover slope, tilling and seeding practice), may greatly reduce problems with erosion. Standard US Department of Agriculture erosion plots, when coupled with a state-of-the-art water balance and erosion model (CREAMS) promises to be highly useful in screening proposed remedial action cover designs for low-level waste sites. The erosion plot configuration allows for complete accounting of the water balance in a soil profile. This feature enables the user to optimize cover designs to minimize erosion and infiltration of water into the trench

  3. Managing soil remediation problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okx, J P; Hordijk, L; Stein, A

    1996-12-01

    Soil remediation has only a short history but the problem addressed is a significant one. Cost estimates for the clean-up of contaminated sites in the European Union and the United States are in the order of magnitude of 1,400 billion ECU. Such an enormous operation deserves the best management it can get. Reliable cost estimations per contaminated site are an important prerequisite. This paper addresses the problems related to site-wise estimations.When solving soil remediation problems, we have to deal with a large number of scientific disciplines. Too often solutions are presented from the viewpoint of only one discipline. In order to benefit from the combined disciplinary knowledge and experience, we think that it is necessary to describe the interrelations between these disciplines. This can be realized by developing an adequate model of the desired process which enables to consider and evaluate the essential factors as interdependent components of the total system.The resulting model provides a binding paradigm to the contributing disciplines which will result in improved efficiency and effectivity of the decision and the cost estimation process. In the near future, we will release the "Biosparging and Bioventing Expert Support System", an expert support system for problem owners, consultants and authorities dealing with the design and operation of a biosparging and/or a bioventing system.

  4. Study on Acoustic Catheter of Boiler Tube Leakage Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yongxing; Feng, Qiang

    Boiler tube leakage is the major reason of affecting the safe operation of the unit now, there are 3 methods of the "four tube" leakage detection: Traditional method, filtering method and acoustic spectrum analysis, acoustic spectrum analysis is the common method, but this method have low sensitivity and the sensor damage easily. Therewith, designed the special acoustic catheter with acoustic resonance cavity type, proved by experiments, the acoustic catheter with acoustic resonance cavity type can enhance leakage sound, can accurately extract leakage signals, has high sensitivity, and can avoid the effect of sensor by fire and hot-gas when the furnace is in positive pressure situation, reduce the installation and maintenance costs of the boiler tube leakage monitor system.

  5. Management of the Acoustic Characteristics of Jet Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulat Pavel Viktorovich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objects of research are devices, which generate and suppress the acoustic and wave pressure oscillations. Purpose of the study is the classification of oscillations generating devices, description of the physical principles of acoustic waves generation. The schemes of the most common sound generators-whistles are discussed. The gas-jet sound generators are described separately. It is shown that a simple cylindrical head at the supersonic nozzle can both enhance the acoustic emission and serve as an effective silencer. The comparison of acoustic emission of a supersonic jet and a jet, flowing into a cylindrical head is given. The results presented in the study can be recommended by the developers of whistles, sirens, other acoustic generators, installations for thermo-acoustic hardening metals, metallurgical blast devices.

  6. Shallow Water Acoustic Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where high-frequency acoustic scattering and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures...

  7. Low frequency acoustic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.

    1986-11-04

    A scanning acoustic microscope is disclosed for the detection and location of near surface flaws, inclusions or voids in a solid sample material. A focused beam of acoustic energy is directed at the sample with its focal plane at the subsurface flaw, inclusion or void location. The sample is scanned with the beam. Detected acoustic energy specularly reflected and mode converted at the surface of the sample and acoustic energy reflected by subsurface flaws, inclusions or voids at the focal plane are used for generating an interference signal which is processed and forms a signal indicative of the subsurface flaws, inclusions or voids.

  8. Handbook of Engineering Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Möser, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the physical background of engineering acoustics, focusing on empirically obtained engineering experience as well as on measurement techniques and engineering methods for prognostics. Its goal is not only to describe the state of art of engineering acoustics but also to give practical help to engineers in order to solve acoustic problems. It deals with the origin, the transmission and the methods of the abating different kinds of air-borne and structure-borne sounds caused by various mechanisms – from traffic to machinery and flow-induced sound. In addition the modern aspects of room and building acoustics, as well as psychoacoustics and active noise control, are covered.

  9. Localized acoustic surface modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Mohamed; Chen, Pai-Yen; Bağcı, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes. We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  10. Localized Acoustic Surface Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-08-04

    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes (ASMs). We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  11. Bioeffects due to acoustic droplet vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Encapsulated micro- and nano-droplets can be vaporized via ultrasound, a process termed acoustic droplet vaporization. Our interest is primarily motivated by a developmental gas embolotherapy technique for cancer treatment. In this methodology, infarction of tumors is induced by selectively formed vascular gas bubbles that arise from the acoustic vaporization of vascular microdroplets. Additionally, the microdroplets may be used as vehicles for localized drug delivery, with or without flow occlusion. In this talk, we examine the dynamics of acoustic droplet vaporization through experiments and theoretical/computational fluid mechanics models, and investigate the bioeffects of acoustic droplet vaporization on endothelial cells and in vivo. Early timescale vaporization events, including phase change, are directly visualized using ultra-high speed imaging, and the influence of acoustic parameters on droplet/bubble dynamics is discussed. Acoustic and fluid mechanics parameters affecting the severity of endothelial cell bioeffects are explored. These findings suggest parameter spaces for which bioeffects may be reduced or enhanced, depending on the objective of the therapy. This work was supported by NIH grant R01EB006476.

  12. What Is an Acoustic Neuroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org Connect with us! What is an Acoustic Neuroma? Each heading slides to reveal information. Important Points ... Neuroma Important Points To Know About an Acoustic Neuroma An acoustic neuroma, also called a vestibular schwannoma, ...

  13. Electrodialytic remediation of solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Karlsmose, Bodil;

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted solid waste is a method that combines the technique of electrodialysis with the electromigration of ions in the solid waste. Results of laboratory scale remediation experiments of soil are presented and considerations are given on how to secure...... fly ash waste deposits from polluting the ground water....

  14. Fermentative processes for environmental remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Grilli, Selene

    2013-01-01

    The growing interest in environmental protection has led to the development of emerging biotechnologies for environmental remediation also introducing the biorefinery concept. This work mainly aimed to evaluate the applicability of innovative biotechnologies for environmental remediation and bioenergy production, throught fermentative processes. The investigated biotechnologies for waste and wastewater treatment and for the valorisation of specific feedstocks and energy recovery, were m...

  15. Soil remediation: a systems approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okx, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Soil remediation has only a short history, but the problem addressed is a significant one. When solving soil remediation problems we have to deal with a large number of scientific disciplines, however solutions are often presented from the viewpoint of just one discipline. In order to benefit from t

  16. Boiling heat transfer with acoustic cavitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The effects of acoustic cavitation and nanometer granule on boiling heat transfer of horizontal circular copper tube are investigated experimentally and theoretically using acetone as the working fluid according to the boiling procedure. The results show that heat transfer can be enhanced or weakened by generation of the cavitation bubble or addition of the nanometer granules, respectively. The mechanisms of the effects are analyzed.

  17. Acoustic image-processing software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several algorithims that display, enhance and analyze side-scan sonar images of the seafloor, have been developed by the University of Washington, Seattle, as part of an Office of Naval Research funded program in acoustic image analysis. One of these programs, PORTAL, is a small (less than 100K) image display and enhancement program that can run on MS-DOS computers with VGA boards. This program is now available in the public domain for general use in acoustic image processing.PORTAL is designed to display side-scan sonar data that is stored in most standard formats, including SeaMARC I, II, 150 and GLORIA data. (See image.) In addition to the “standard” formats, PORTAL has a module “front end” that allows the user to modify the program to accept other image formats. In addition to side-scan sonar data, the program can also display digital optical images from scanners and “framegrabbers,” gridded bathymetry data from Sea Beam and other sources, and potential field (magnetics/gravity) data. While limited in image analysis capability, the program allows image enhancement by histogram manipulation, and basic filtering operations, including multistage filtering. PORTAL can print reasonably high-quality images on Postscript laser printers and lower-quality images on non-Postscript printers with HP Laserjet emulation. Images suitable only for index sheets are also possible on dot matrix printers.

  18. Predicting Acoustics in Class Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    Typical class rooms have fairly simple geometries, even so room acoustics in this type of room is difficult to predict using today's room acoustic computer modeling software. The reasons why acoustics of class rooms are harder to predict than acoustics of complicated concert halls might be explai......Typical class rooms have fairly simple geometries, even so room acoustics in this type of room is difficult to predict using today's room acoustic computer modeling software. The reasons why acoustics of class rooms are harder to predict than acoustics of complicated concert halls might...... with surface scattering is presented. Each of the two scattering effects is modeled as frequency dependent functions....

  19. Cognitive remediation for vocational rehabilitation nonresponders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurk, Susan R; Mueser, Kim T; Xie, Haiyi; Feldman, Karin; Shaya, Yaniv; Klein, Leslie; Wolfe, Rosemarie

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive remediation in people with severe mental illnesses (SMI) that interfere with work, but less research has evaluated its effects in those who have not benefitted from vocational services. Participants with SMI (83% schizophrenia) who had not benefitted from vocational rehabilitation were randomized to vocational services enhanced by training vocational specialists in recognizing cognitive difficulties and providing job-relevant cognitive coping strategies (Enhanced Vocational Rehabilitation: E-VR), or similarly enhanced vocational services and cognitive remediation (Thinking Skills Work: TSW). Cognition and symptoms were assessed at baseline, post-treatment (9months), and follow-up (18months), with work tracked weekly for 3years. Fifty-four participants were randomized to E-VR (N=26) or TSW (N=28). Participants in TSW had high rates of exposure to the program (89%) and improved more than those in E-VR on cognitive functioning post-training, with attenuation of some gains at the 18-months. Participants in TSW and E-VR did not differ significantly in competitive work (57% vs. 48%) or paid employment (61% vs. 48%) over the 3-year study, although those in TSW were more likely to be engaged in any work activity, including paid or volunteer work (75% vs. 50%, p=0.057), and had more weeks of work activity (23.04 vs. 48.82, p=0.051), and improved marginally more on the clinical symptoms. The significantly higher education level of participants in E-VR than TSW at baseline may have obscured the effects of TSW. This study supports the feasibility and potential benefits of cognitive remediation for persons who have not benefited from vocational rehabilitation. PMID:27209526

  20. Design requirements for ERD and ISCO: How close and how fast to achieve an effective remediation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Lemming, Gitte; Manoli, Gabriele;

    2011-01-01

    Clayey tills contaminated with chlorinated solvents are a threat to groundwater and are difficult to remediate. Full scale Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination (ERD) and In-Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) are promising remediation technologies for such sites, but the delivery of reactants is challeng...

  1. Monitoring engineered remediation with borehole radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J.W., Jr.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Joesten, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    The success of engineered remediation is predicated on correct emplacement of either amendments (e.g., vegetable-oil emulsion, lactate, molasses, etc.) or permeable reactive barriers (e.g., vegetable oil, zero-valent iron, etc.) to enhance microbial or geochemical breakdown of contaminants and treat contaminants. Currently, site managers have limited tools to provide information about the distribution of injected materials; the existence of gaps or holes in barriers; and breakdown or transformation of injected materials over time. ?? 2007 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  2. Applications of Ecological Engineering Remedies for Uranium Processing Sites, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, William [Navarro Research and Engineering

    2016-05-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) is responsible for remediation of environmental contamination and long-term stewardship of sites associated with the legacy of nuclear weapons production during the Cold War in the United States. Protection of human health and the environment will be required for hundreds or even thousands of years at many legacy sites. USDOE continually evaluates and applies advances in science and technology to improve the effectiveness and sustainability of surface and groundwater remedies (USDOE 2011). This paper is a synopsis of ecological engineering applications that USDOE is evaluating to assess the effectiveness of remedies at former uranium processing sites in the southwestern United States. Ecological engineering remedies are predicated on the concept that natural ecological processes at legacy sites, once understood, can be beneficially enhanced or manipulated. Advances in tools for characterizing key processes and for monitoring remedy performance are demonstrating potential. We present test cases for four ecological engineering remedies that may be candidates for international applications.

  3. Ocean acoustic reverberation tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wide-angle imaging using ship-towed acoustic sources and networks of ocean bottom seismographs is a common technique for exploring earth structure beneath the oceans. In these studies, the recorded data are dominated by acoustic waves propagating as reverberations in the water column. For surveys with a small receiver spacing (e.g., ocean acoustic reverberation tomography, is developed that uses the travel times of direct and reflected waves to image ocean acoustic structure. Reverberation tomography offers an alternative approach for determining the structure of the oceans and advancing the understanding of ocean heat content and mixing processes. The technique has the potential for revealing small-scale ocean thermal structure over the entire vertical height of the water column and along long survey profiles or across three-dimensional volumes of the ocean. For realistic experimental geometries and data noise levels, the method can produce images of ocean sound speed on a smaller scale than traditional acoustic tomography.

  4. Acoustic Signals and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook...... will present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...... from different areas, will find the self-contained chapters accessible and will be interested in the similarities and differences between the approaches and techniques used in different areas of acoustics....

  5. Ocean acoustic hurricane classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Joshua D; Makris, Nicholas C

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical evidence are combined to show that underwater acoustic sensing techniques may be valuable for measuring the wind speed and determining the destructive power of a hurricane. This is done by first developing a model for the acoustic intensity and mutual intensity in an ocean waveguide due to a hurricane and then determining the relationship between local wind speed and underwater acoustic intensity. From this it is shown that it should be feasible to accurately measure the local wind speed and classify the destructive power of a hurricane if its eye wall passes directly over a single underwater acoustic sensor. The potential advantages and disadvantages of the proposed acoustic method are weighed against those of currently employed techniques. PMID:16454274

  6. Cochlear bionic acoustic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fuyin; Wu, Jiu Hui; Huang, Meng; Fu, Gang; Bai, Changan

    2014-11-01

    A design of bionic acoustic metamaterial and acoustic functional devices was proposed by employing the mammalian cochlear as a prototype. First, combined with the experimental data in previous literatures, it is pointed out that the cochlear hair cells and stereocilia cluster are a kind of natural biological acoustic metamaterials with the negative stiffness characteristics. Then, to design the acoustic functional devices conveniently in engineering application, a simplified parametric helical structure was proposed to replace actual irregular cochlea for bionic design, and based on the computational results of such a bionic parametric helical structure, it is suggested that the overall cochlear is a local resonant system with the negative dynamic effective mass characteristics. There are many potential applications in the bandboard energy recovery device, cochlear implant, and acoustic black hole.

  7. Computational Ocean Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Finn B; Porter, Michael B; Schmidt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, the computer has played an increasingly pivotal role in the field of ocean acoustics. Faster and less expensive than actual ocean experiments, and capable of accommodating the full complexity of the acoustic problem, numerical models are now standard research tools in ocean laboratories. The progress made in computational ocean acoustics over the last thirty years is summed up in this authoritative and innovatively illustrated new text. Written by some of the field's pioneers, all Fellows of the Acoustical Society of America, Computational Ocean Acoustics presents the latest numerical techniques for solving the wave equation in heterogeneous fluid–solid media. The authors discuss various computational schemes in detail, emphasizing the importance of theoretical foundations that lead directly to numerical implementations for real ocean environments. To further clarify the presentation, the fundamental propagation features of the techniques are illustrated in color. Computational Ocean A...

  8. Covert Operant Reinforcement of Remedial Reading Learning Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmickley, Verne G.

    The effects of covert operant reinforcement upon remedial reading learning tasks were investigated. Forty junior high school students were taught to imagine either neutral scenes (control) or positive scenes (treatment) upon cue while reading. It was hypothesized that positive covert reinforcement would enhance performance on several measures of…

  9. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Pai; Xiao, Bingmu; Wu, Ying, E-mail: ying.wu@kaust.edu.sa

    2014-10-03

    We design a flat sub-wavelength lens that can focus acoustic wave. We analytically study the transmission through an acoustic grating with curled slits, which can serve as a material with tunable impedance and refractive index for acoustic waves. The effective parameters rely on the geometry of the slits and are independent of frequency. A flat acoustic focusing lens by such acoustic grating with gradient effective refractive index is designed. The focusing effect is clearly observed in simulations and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry–Perot resonance. - Highlights: • Expression of transmission coefficient of an acoustic grating with curled slits. • Non-dispersive and tunable effective medium parameters for the acoustic grating. • A flat acoustic focusing lens with gradient index by using the acoustic grating.

  10. Acoustic mapping velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muste, M.; Baranya, S.; Tsubaki, R.; Kim, D.; Ho, H.; Tsai, H.; Law, D.

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of sediment dynamics in rivers is of great importance for various practical purposes. Despite its high relevance in riverine environment processes, the monitoring of sediment rates remains a major and challenging task for both suspended and bed load estimation. While the measurement of suspended load is currently an active area of testing with nonintrusive technologies (optical and acoustic), bed load measurement does not mark a similar progress. This paper describes an innovative combination of measurement techniques and analysis protocols that establishes the proof-of-concept for a promising technique, labeled herein Acoustic Mapping Velocimetry (AMV). The technique estimates bed load rates in rivers developing bed forms using a nonintrusive measurements approach. The raw information for AMV is collected with acoustic multibeam technology that in turn provides maps of the bathymetry over longitudinal swaths. As long as the acoustic maps can be acquired relatively quickly and the repetition rate for the mapping is commensurate with the movement of the bed forms, successive acoustic maps capture the progression of the bed form movement. Two-dimensional velocity maps associated with the bed form migration are obtained by implementing algorithms typically used in particle image velocimetry to acoustic maps converted in gray-level images. Furthermore, use of the obtained acoustic and velocity maps in conjunction with analytical formulations (e.g., Exner equation) enables estimation of multidirectional bed load rates over the whole imaged area. This paper presents a validation study of the AMV technique using a set of laboratory experiments.

  11. Acoustic sniper localization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Gervasio; Dhaliwal, Hardave; Martel, Philip O.

    1997-02-01

    Technologies for sniper localization have received increased attention in recent months as American forces have been deployed to various trouble spots around the world. Among the technologies considered for this task acoustics is a natural choice for various reasons. The acoustic signatures of gunshots are loud and distinctive, making them easy to detect even in high noise background environments. Acoustics provides a passive sensing technology with excellent range and non line of sight capabilities. Last but not least, an acoustic sniper location system can be built at a low cost with off the shelf components. Despite its many advantages, the performance of acoustic sensors can degrade under adverse propagation conditions. Localization accuracy, although good, is usually not accurate enough to pinpoint a sniper's location in some scenarios (for example which widow in a building or behind which tree in a grove). For these more demanding missions, the acoustic sensor can be used in conjunction with an infra red imaging system that detects the muzzle blast of the gun. The acoustic system can be used to cue the pointing system of the IR camera in the direction of the shot's source.

  12. From Architectural Acoustics to Acoustical Architecture Using Computer Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due; KIRKEGAARD, Poul Henning

    2005-01-01

    Architectural acoustics design has in the past been based on simple design rules. However, with a growing complexity in architectural acoustics and the emergence of room acoustic simulation programmes with considerable potential, it is now possible to subjectively analyse and evaluate acoustic properties prior to the actual construction of a building. With the right tools applied, acoustic design can become an integral part of the architectural design process. The aim of this paper is to inve...

  13. Underwater Applications of Acoustical Holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Mehta

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the basic technique of acoustical holography. Requirements for recording the acoustical hologram are discussed with its ability for underwater imaging in view. Some practical systems for short-range and medium-range imaging are described. The advantages of acoustical holography over optical imaging, acoustical imaging and sonars are outlined.

  14. A responsible remediation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with an approach to cleaning up the residue of 150 years of intense urban and industrial development in the United States. The discussion focuses on several choices and strategies that business can adopt given the existing environmental laws and the socio-economic trends of the 1990's. The thesis of this paper is that the best business strategy for dealing with environmental liabilities is to act affirmatively and aggressively. An aggressive, pro-active approach to environmental remediation liabilities makes good business sense. It allows a company to learn the true size of the problem early. Early assessment and prioritization allows one to control the course and conduct of the cleanup. Early voluntary action is always viewed favorably by agencies. It gives one control over spending patterns which has value in and of itself. Voluntary cleanups are certainly faster and invariably more efficient. And they attain clearly acceptable standards. The volunteering company that takes the lead in a multi-party site finds that the courts are supportive in helping the volunteer collect from recalcitrant polluters. All of these pluses have a direct and positive impact on the bottom line and that means that the aggressive approach is the right thing to do for both stockholders and the communities where a business exists

  15. Opium the Best Remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Merskey

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sydenham was the leading English physician of the 17th century and probably to the present time. He was using a well tried remedy. It had been known by then for about 4000 years, frequently mentioned by Hippocrates, and recognized in use in medieval Europe where it probably came through Arabic traders and was well established in use in Paris by the 12th century (2. Professional concerns up to the time of Sydenham were not about addiction. As can be seen from his text, they were about whether the drug was available in adequate preparations, whether there was any difference between opium and other narcotics, particularly comparing the natural juice with "its artificial preparations" (1 (all of which he thought to be about equal in effect, whether it was stimulant or restorative and invigorating, and whether it was being properly used for all the conditions in which it could be helpful. Addiction, dependence and insanity are not mentioned, although the fact that it could occasionally promote excitement ("frenzy" was known.

  16. Student design projects in applied acoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bös, Joachim; Moritz, Karsten; Skowronek, Adam; Thyes, Christian; Tschesche, Johannes; Hanselka, Holger

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes a series of student projects which are intended to complement theoretical education in acoustics and engineering noise control with practical experience. The projects are also intended to enhance the students' ability to work in a team, to manage a project, and to present their results. The projects are carried out in close cooperation with industrial partners so that the students can get a taste of the professional life of noise control engineers. The organization of such a project, its execution, and some of the results from the most recent student project are presented as a demonstrative example. This latest project involved the creation of noise maps of a production hall, the acoustic analysis of a packaging machine, and the acoustic analysis of a spiral vibratory conveyor. Upon completion of the analysis, students then designed, applied, and verified some simple preliminary noise reduction measures to demonstrate the potential of these techniques.

  17. Student design projects in applied acoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bös, Joachim; Moritz, Karsten; Skowronek, Adam; Thyes, Christian; Tschesche, Johannes; Hanselka, Holger

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes a series of student projects which are intended to complement theoretical education in acoustics and engineering noise control with practical experience. The projects are also intended to enhance the students' ability to work in a team, to manage a project, and to present their results. The projects are carried out in close cooperation with industrial partners so that the students can get a taste of the professional life of noise control engineers. The organization of such a project, its execution, and some of the results from the most recent student project are presented as a demonstrative example. This latest project involved the creation of noise maps of a production hall, the acoustic analysis of a packaging machine, and the acoustic analysis of a spiral vibratory conveyor. Upon completion of the analysis, students then designed, applied, and verified some simple preliminary noise reduction measures to demonstrate the potential of these techniques. PMID:22423803

  18. Plant-based remediation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Dharmendra Kumar (ed.) [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Mol (Belgium). Radiological Impact and Performance Assessment Division

    2013-11-01

    A valuable source of information for scientists in the field of environmental pollution and remediation. Describes the latest biotechnological methods for the treatment of contaminated soils. Includes case studies and protocols. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Basic and applied research have unequivocally demonstrated that selected plant species possess the genetic potential to accumulate, degrade, metabolize and immobilize a wide range of contaminants. The main focus of this volume is on the recent advances of technologies using green plants for remediation of various metals and metalloids. Topics include biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution, amendments of higher uptake of toxic metals, transport of heavy metals in plants, and toxicity mechanisms. Further chapters discuss agro-technological methods for minimizing pollution while improving soil quality, transgenic approaches to heavy metal remediation and present protocols for metal remediation via in vitro root cultures.

  19. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. M. Heileson

    2007-09-26

    This Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Remedial Action Report has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of Section 6.2 of the INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan. The agency prefinal inspection of the ICDF Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF) was completed in June of 2005. Accordingly, this report has been developed to describe the construction activities completed at the ICDF along with a description of any modifications to the design originally approved for the facility. In addition, this report provides a summary of the major documents prepared for the design and construction of the ICDF, a discussion of relevant requirements and remedial action objectives, the total costs associated with the development and operation of the facility to date, and identification of necessary changes to the Agency-approved INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan and the ICDF Complex Operations and Maintenance Plan.

  20. 18 CFR 706.103 - Remedial action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remedial action. 706... RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT General Provisions § 706.103 Remedial action. (a) A violation of this part by an employee or special Government employee may be cause for remedial action. Remedial action may include,...

  1. Electrokinetic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    Important process parameters to optimize in electrokinetic soil remediation are those influencing remediation time and power consumption since these directly affect the cost of a remediation action. This work shows how the electrokinetic remediation (EKR) process could be improved by implementing...

  2. LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS: REMEDIATION WITH EMPHASIS ON IN SITU BIORESTORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current literature indicates that in situ biorestoration has great potential for remediation of aquifers contaminated by leaking underground storage tanks. In situ aquifer restoration involves the enhancement of the indigenous microflora to degrade subsurface pollutants. The ...

  3. Enhanced soil washing process for the remediation of PBDEs/Pb/Cd-contaminated electronic waste site with carboxymethyl chitosan in a sunflower oil-water solvent system and microbial augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Wan, Jinzhong; Fang, Guodong; Li, Huixin; Hu, Feng; Jiang, Xin; Kengara, Fredrick Orori

    2015-02-01

    An innovative ex situ soil washing technology was developed to remediate polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals in an electronic waste site. Elevated temperature (50 °C) in combination with ultrasonication (40 kHz, 20 min) at 5.0 mL L(-1) sunflower oil and 2.5 g L(-1) carboxymethyl chitosan were found to be effective in extracting mixed pollutants from soil. After two successive washing cycles, the removal efficiency rates for total PBDEs, BDE28, BDE47, BDE209, Pb, and Cd were approximately 94.1, 93.4, 94.3, 99.1, 89.3, and 92.7 %, respectively. Treating the second washed soil with PBDE-degrading bacteria (Rhodococcus sp. strain RHA1) inoculation and nutrient addition for 3 months led to maximum biodegradation rates of 37.3, 52.6, 23.9, and 1.3 % of the remaining total PBDEs, BDE28, BDE47, BDE209, respectively. After the combined treatment, the microbiological functions of washed soil was partially restored, as indicated by a significant increase in the counts, biomass C, N, and functioning diversity of soil microorganisms (p remediated soil was limited. Therefore, the proposed combined cleanup strategy is an environment-friendly technology that is important for risk assessment and management in mixed-contaminated sites.

  4. Ocean acoustic reverberation tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wide-angle imaging using ship-towed acoustic sources and networks of ocean bottom seismographs is a common technique for exploring earth structure beneath the oceans. In these studies, the recorded data are dominated by acoustic waves propagating as reverberations in the water column. For surveys with a small receiver spacing (e.g., tomography, is developed that uses the travel times of direct and reflected waves to image ocean acoustic structure. Reverberation tomography offers an alternative approach for determining the structure of the oceans and advancing the understanding of ocean heat content and mixing processes. The technique has the potential for revealing small-scale ocean thermal structure over the entire vertical height of the water column and along long survey profiles or across three-dimensional volumes of the ocean. For realistic experimental geometries and data noise levels, the method can produce images of ocean sound speed on a smaller scale than traditional acoustic tomography. PMID:26723303

  5. Acoustic integrated extinction

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    The integrated extinction (IE) is defined as the integral of the scattering cross-section as a function of wavelength. Sohl et al. [1] derived an IE expression for acoustic scattering that is causal, i.e. the scattered wavefront in the forward direction arrives later than the incident plane wave in the background medium. The IE formula was based on electromagnetic results, for which scattering is causal by default. Here we derive a formula for the acoustic IE that is valid for causal and non-causal scattering. The general result is expressed as an integral of the time dependent forward scattering function. The IE reduces to a finite integral for scatterers with zero long-wavelength monopole and dipole amplitudes. Implications for acoustic cloaking are discussed and a new metric is proposed for broadband acoustic transparency.

  6. Autonomous Acoustic Receiver System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Collects underwater acoustic data and oceanographic data. Data are recorded onboard an ocean buoy and can be telemetered to a remote ship or shore station...

  7. Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) is a progressive wave tube test facility that is used to test structures for dynamic response and sonic fatigue due to...

  8. Acoustic Igniter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An acoustic igniter eliminates the need to use electrical energy to drive spark systems to initiate combustion in liquid-propellant rockets. It does not involve the...

  9. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treatment Summary Types Of Post-treatment Issues Resources Medical Resources Considerations When Selecting a Healthcare Professional Healthcare ... ANA? Mission Statement Board of Directors ANA Staff Medical Advisory Board News ANA Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma ...

  10. Acoustics lecturing in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beristain, Sergio

    2002-11-01

    Some thirty years ago acoustics lecturing started in Mexico at the National Polytechnic Institute in Mexico City, as part of the Bachelor of Science degree in Communications and Electronics Engineering curricula, including the widest program on this field in the whole country. This program has been producing acoustics specialists ever since. Nowadays many universities and superior education institutions around the country are teaching students at the B.Sc. level and postgraduate level many topics related to acoustics, such as Architectural Acoustics, Seismology, Mechanical Vibrations, Noise Control, Audio, Audiology, Music, etc. Also many institutions have started research programs in related fields, with participation of medical doctors, psychologists, musicians, engineers, etc. Details will be given on particular topics and development.

  11. An acoustic invisible gateway

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Yi-Fan; Liang, Bin; Kan, Wei-Wei; Yang, Jun; Cheng, Jian-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The recently-emerged concept of "invisible gateway" with the extraordinary capability to block the waves but allow the passage of other entities has attracted great attentions due to the general interests in illusion devices. However, the possibility to realize such a fascinating phenomenon for acoustic waves has not yet been explored, which should be of paramount significance for acoustical applications but would necessarily involve experimental difficulty. Here we design and experimentally demonstrate an acoustic invisible gateway (AIG) capable of concealing a channel under the detection of sound. Instead of "restoring" a whole block of background medium by using transformation acoustics that inevitably requires complementary or restoring media with extreme parameters, we propose an inherently distinct methodology that only aims at engineering the surface impedance at the "gate" to mimic a rigid "wall" and can be conveniently implemented by decorating meta-structures behind the channel. Such a simple yet ef...

  12. Principles of musical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, William M

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Musical Acoustics focuses on the basic principles in the science and technology of music. Musical examples and specific musical instruments demonstrate the principles. The book begins with a study of vibrations and waves, in that order. These topics constitute the basic physical properties of sound, one of two pillars supporting the science of musical acoustics. The second pillar is the human element, the physiological and psychological aspects of acoustical science. The perceptual topics include loudness, pitch, tone color, and localization of sound. With these two pillars in place, it is possible to go in a variety of directions. The book treats in turn, the topics of room acoustics, audio both analog and digital, broadcasting, and speech. It ends with chapters on the traditional musical instruments, organized by family. The mathematical level of this book assumes that the reader is familiar with elementary algebra. Trigonometric functions, logarithms and powers also appear in the book, but co...

  13. Sound reduction by metamaterial-based acoustic enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many practical systems, acoustic radiation control on noise sources contained within a finite volume by an acoustic enclosure is of great importance, but difficult to be accomplished at low frequencies due to the enhanced acoustic-structure interaction. In this work, we propose to use acoustic metamaterials as the enclosure to efficiently reduce sound radiation at their negative-mass frequencies. Based on a circularly-shaped metamaterial model, sound radiation properties by either central or eccentric sources are analyzed by numerical simulations for structured metamaterials. The parametric analyses demonstrate that the barrier thickness, the cavity size, the source type, and the eccentricity of the source have a profound effect on the sound reduction. It is found that increasing the thickness of the metamaterial barrier is an efficient approach to achieve large sound reduction over the negative-mass frequencies. These results are helpful in designing highly efficient acoustic enclosures for blockage of sound in low frequencies

  14. Sound reduction by metamaterial-based acoustic enclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Yao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In many practical systems, acoustic radiation control on noise sources contained within a finite volume by an acoustic enclosure is of great importance, but difficult to be accomplished at low frequencies due to the enhanced acoustic-structure interaction. In this work, we propose to use acoustic metamaterials as the enclosure to efficiently reduce sound radiation at their negative-mass frequencies. Based on a circularly-shaped metamaterial model, sound radiation properties by either central or eccentric sources are analyzed by numerical simulations for structured metamaterials. The parametric analyses demonstrate that the barrier thickness, the cavity size, the source type, and the eccentricity of the source have a profound effect on the sound reduction. It is found that increasing the thickness of the metamaterial barrier is an efficient approach to achieve large sound reduction over the negative-mass frequencies. These results are helpful in designing highly efficient acoustic enclosures for blockage of sound in low frequencies.

  15. Anal acoustic reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Telford, Karen J;

    2011-01-01

    Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new technique of assessing anal sphincter function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, the opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis.......Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new technique of assessing anal sphincter function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, the opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis....

  16. Acoustic surface cavitation

    OpenAIRE

    Zijlstra, Aaldert Geert

    2011-01-01

    Merely the presence of compressible entities, known as bubbles, greatly enriches the physical phenomena encountered when introducing ultrasound in a liquid. Mediated by the response of these bubbles, the otherwise diffuse and relatively low energy density of the acoustic field can induce strong, localized liquid motion, high internal temperatures and pressures as well as secondary acoustic emissions. In turn, these effects give rise to considerable stresses exerted on nearby objects and molec...

  17. Wavefront modulation and subwavelength diffractive acoustics with an acoustic metasurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yangbo; Wang, Wenqi; Chen, Huanyang; Konneker, Adam; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    Metasurfaces are a family of novel wavefront-shaping devices with planar profile and subwavelength thickness. Acoustic metasurfaces with ultralow profile yet extraordinary wave manipulating properties would be highly desirable for improving the performance of many acoustic wave-based applications. However, designing acoustic metasurfaces with similar functionality to their electromagnetic counterparts remains challenging with traditional metamaterial design approaches. Here we present a design and realization of an acoustic metasurface based on tapered labyrinthine metamaterials. The demonstrated metasurface can not only steer an acoustic beam as expected from the generalized Snell's law, but also exhibits various unique properties such as conversion from propagating wave to surface mode, extraordinary beam-steering and apparent negative refraction through higher-order diffraction. Such designer acoustic metasurfaces provide a new design methodology for acoustic signal modulation devices and may be useful for applications such as acoustic imaging, beam steering, ultrasound lens design and acoustic surface wave-based applications. PMID:25418084

  18. Spectral induced polarization for monitoring electrokinetic remediation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Matteo; Losito, Gabriella

    2015-12-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is an emerging technology for extracting heavy metals from contaminated soils and sediments. This method uses a direct or alternating electric field to induce the transport of contaminants toward the electrodes. The electric field also produces pH variations, sorption/desorption and precipitation/dissolution of species in the porous medium during remediation. Since heavy metal mobility is pH-dependent, the accurate control of pH inside the material is required in order to enhance the removal efficiency. The common approach for monitoring the remediation process both in laboratory and in the field is the chemical analysis of samples collected from discrete locations. The purpose of this study is the evaluation of Spectral Induced Polarization as an alternative method for monitoring geochemical changes in the contaminated mass during remediation. The advantage of this technique applied to field-scale is to offer higher resolution mapping of the remediation site and lower cost compared to the conventional sampling procedure. We carried out laboratory-scale electrokinetic remediation experiments on fine-grained marine sediments contaminated by heavy metal and we made Spectral Induced Polarization measurements before and after each treatment. Measurements were done in the frequency range 10- 3-103 Hz. By the deconvolution of the spectra using the Debye Decomposition method we obtained the mean relaxation time and total chargeability. The main finding of this work is that a linear relationship exists between the local total chargeability and pH, with good agreement. The observed behaviour of chargeability is interpreted as a direct consequence of the alteration of the zeta potential of the sediment particles due to pH changes. Such relationship has a significant value for the interpretation of induced polarization data, allowing the use of this technique for monitoring electrokinetic remediation at field-scale.

  19. Acoustic vector sensor signal processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Guiqing; LI Qihu; ZHANG Bin

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic vector sensor simultaneously, colocately and directly measures orthogonal components of particle velocity as well as pressure at single point in acoustic field so that is possible to improve performance of traditional underwater acoustic measurement devices or detection systems and extends new ideas for solving practical underwater acoustic engineering problems. Although acoustic vector sensor history of appearing in underwater acoustic area is no long, but with huge and potential military demands, acoustic vector sensor has strong development trend in last decade, it is evolving into a one of important underwater acoustic technology. Under this background, we try to review recent progress in study on acoustic vector sensor signal processing, such as signal detection, DOA estimation, beamforming, and so on.

  20. HANFORD GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHARBONEAU, B; THOMPSON, M; WILDE, R.; FORD, B.; GERBER, M.S.

    2006-02-01

    geographically dispersed community is united in its desire to protect the Columbia River and have a voice in Hanford's future. This paper presents the challenges, and then discusses the progress and efforts underway to reduce the risk posed by contaminated groundwater at Hanford. While Hanford groundwater is not a source of drinking water on or off the Site, there are possible near-shore impacts where it flows into the Columbia River. Therefore, this remediation is critical to the overall efforts to clean up the Site, as well as protect a natural resource.

  1. Hanford Groundwater Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    united in its desire to protect the Columbia River and have a voice in Hanford's future. This paper presents the challenges, and then discusses the progress and efforts underway to reduce the risk posed by contaminated groundwater at Hanford. While Hanford groundwater is not a source of drinking water on or off the Site, there are possible near-shore impacts where it flows into the Columbia River. Therefore, this remediation is critical to the overall efforts to clean up the Site, as well as protect a natural resource. (authors)

  2. The benefits from environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental remediation projects inevitably take place against a backdrop of overall social goals and values. These goals can include, for example, full employment, preservation of the cultural, economic and archaeological resources, traditional patterns of land use, spiritual values, quality of life factors, biological diversity, environmental and socio-economic sustainability, protection of public health. Different countries will have different priorities, linked to the overall set of societal goals and the availability of resources, including funding, man-power and skills. These issues are embedded within both a national and local socio-cultural context, and will shape the way in which the remediation process is structured in any one country. The context will shape both the overall objectives of a remediation activity within the framework of competing societal goals, as well as generate constraints on the decision making process. Hence, the overall benefit of a remediation project is determined by its overall efficiency and effectiveness within the given legal, institutional, and governance framework, under the prevailing socio-economic boundary conditions, and balancing technology performance and risk reduction with fixed or limited budgetary resources, and is not simply the result of the technical remediation operation itself. (author)

  3. Grand Junction Remedial Action Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grand Junction Remedial Action Program (hereinafter referred to as the Program) originated in 1972 due to a recognized need to reduce the levels of radiation found in some of the structures identified in Grand Junction, Colorado that were constructed in part with uranium mill tailings. Out of over 640 locations eventually identified as qualifying for corrective action, the Program performed remedial construction on 594 of them. The owners of over 45 unremediated structures either did not wish to participate in the voluntary Program, or the structures were torn down, burned down, or were abandoned before the Program could take action on them. Because this was the first remedial action program of its type, and because its task was to reduce the radiation levels as soon as practical, there was no time for lengthly research and development of remedial methods or techniques. Trial and error combined with basic engineering and health physics produced a Program that learned as it progressed. At a cost of $22.7 million over a 15-year period, a substantial portion of the community had radiation exposure reduced because many public buildings such as schools, churches, and businesses, as well as private residences were remediated. 21 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Speaker verification using combined acoustic and EM sensor signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, L C; Gable, T J; Holzrichter, J F

    2000-11-10

    Low Power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference. This greatly enhances the quality and quantity of information for many speech related applications. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J. Acoustic. SOC. Am . 103 ( 1) 622 (1998). By combining the Glottal-EM-Sensor (GEMS) with the Acoustic-signals, we've demonstrated an almost 10 fold reduction in error rates from a speaker verification system experiment under a moderate noisy environment (-10dB).

  5. Kinetic effect of toroidal rotation on the geodesic acoustic mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, W., E-mail: wfguo@ipp.ac.cn; Ye, L.; Zhou, D.; Xiao, X. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Wang, S. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Kinetic effects of the toroidal rotation on the geodesic acoustic mode are theoretically investigated. It is found that when the toroidal rotation increases, the damping rate increases in the weak rotation regime due to the rotation enhancement of wave-particle interaction, and it decreases in the strong rotation regime due to the reduction of the number of resonant particles. Theoretical results are consistent with the behaviors of the geodesic acoustic mode recently observed in DIII-D and ASDEX-Upgrade. The kinetic damping effect of the rotation on the geodesic acoustic mode may shed light on the regulation of turbulence through the controlling the toroidal rotation.

  6. Chemical analysis of acoustically levitated drops by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckermann, Rudolf; Puskar, Ljiljana; Zavabeti, Mahta; Sekine, Ryo; McNaughton, Don

    2009-07-01

    An experimental apparatus combining Raman spectroscopy with acoustic levitation, Raman acoustic levitation spectroscopy (RALS), is investigated in the field of physical and chemical analytics. Whereas acoustic levitation enables the contactless handling of microsized samples, Raman spectroscopy offers the advantage of a noninvasive method without complex sample preparation. After carrying out some systematic tests to probe the sensitivity of the technique to drop size, shape, and position, RALS has been successfully applied in monitoring sample dilution and preconcentration, evaporation, crystallization, an acid-base reaction, and analytes in a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy colloidal suspension. PMID:19418043

  7. Acoustic streaming enhanced electrodeposition of nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Dahl; Møller, Per

    2003-01-01

    Electrochemical deposition of Ni from a Watts-type electrolyte under the influence of high frequency ultrasound at both high (250 W) and low (5–10 W) power sonication was investigated. An improvement in the material distribution of the deposited Ni in millimeter-sized groove-features on the catho...

  8. Acoustic comfort in eating establishments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, David; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The subjective concept of acoustic comfort in eating establishments has been investigated in this study. The goal was to develop a predictive model for the acoustic comfort, by means of simple objective parameters, while also examining which other subjective acoustic parameters could help explain...... the feeling of acoustic comfort. Through several layers of anal ysis, acoustic comfort was found to be rather complex, and could not be explained entirely by common subjective parameters such as annoyance, intelligibility or privacy. A predictive model for the mean acoustic comfort for an eating establishment...

  9. Micromachined silicon acoustic delay line with 3D-printed micro linkers and tapered input for improved structural stability and acoustic directivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y.; Kumar, A.; Xu, S.; Zou, J.

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that micromachined silicon acoustic delay lines can provide a promising solution to achieve real-time photoacoustic tomography without the need for complex transducer arrays and data acquisition electronics. To achieve deeper imaging depth and wider field of view, a longer delay time and therefore delay length are required. However, as the length of the delay line increases, it becomes more vulnerable to structural instability due to reduced mechanical stiffness. In this paper, we report the design, fabrication, and testing of a new silicon acoustic delay line enhanced with 3D printed polymer micro linker structures. First, mechanical deformation of the silicon acoustic delay line (with and without linker structures) under gravity was simulated by using finite element method. Second, the acoustic crosstalk and acoustic attenuation caused by the polymer micro linker structures were evaluated with both numerical simulation and ultrasound transmission testing. The result shows that the use of the polymer micro linker structures significantly improves the structural stability of the silicon acoustic delay lines without creating additional acoustic attenuation and crosstalk. In addition, the improvement of the acoustic acceptance angle of the silicon acoustic delay lines was also investigated to better suppress the reception of unwanted ultrasound signals outside of the imaging plane. These two improvements are expected to provide an effective solution to eliminate current limitations on the achievable acoustic delay time and out-of-plane imaging resolution of micromachined silicon acoustic delay line arrays.

  10. Coherent control of acoustic phonons in semiconductor superlattices

    OpenAIRE

    Bartels, Albrecht; Dekorsy, Thomas; Kurz, Heinrich; Köhler, Klaus

    1998-01-01

    Coherent acoustic phonons are generated in GaAs/AlAs superlattices by excitation with femtosecond laser pulses. Several modes of the acoustic phonon spectrum are observed, in agreement with the effect of zone folding in the mini-Brillouin zone of the superlattice. By applying successive pump pulses we are able to silence the first back-folded mode near q=0, while selectively enhancing the coherent amplitude of higher order backfolded modes. This increase in the spectroscopic sensitivity opens...

  11. Remedial Action Contacts Directory - 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This document, which was prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), is a directory of 2628 individuals interested or involved in environmental restoration and/or remedial actions at radioactively contaminated sites. This directory contains a list of mailing addresses and phone numbers of DOE operations, area, site, project, and contractor offices; an index of DOE operations, area, site, project, and contractor office sorted by state; a list of individuals, presented by last name, facsimile number, and e-mail address; an index of affiliations presented alphabetically, with individual contacts appearing below each affiliation name; and an index of foreign contacta sorted by country and affiliation. This document was generated from the Remedial Action Contacts Database, which is maintained by the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC).

  12. Bioelectrical Perchlorate Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrash, C.; Achenbach, L. A.; Coates, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    low-level perchlorate (100 μg.L-1) influent as well as mixed-waste influents more typically found in the environment containing both nitrate and perchlorate. Through extended periods of operation (>70 days), no loss in treatment efficiency was noted and no measurable growth in biomass was observed. Gas phase analysis indicated that low levels of H2 produced at the cathode surface through electrolysis can provide enough reducing equivalents to mediate this metabolism. The results of these studies demonstrate that perchlorate remediation can be facilitated through the use of a cathode as the primary electron donor, and that continuous treatment in such a system approaches current industry standards. This has important implications for the continuous treatment of this critical contaminant in industrial waste streams and drinking water. Such a process has the advantage of long-term, low-maintenance operation with ease of online monitoring and control while limiting the injection of additional chemicals into the water treatment process and outgrowth of the microbial populations. This would negate the need for the continual removal and disposal of biomass produced during treatment and also the downstream issues associated with corrosion and biofouling of distribution systems and the production of toxic disinfection byproducts.

  13. Remediation Technologies Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    groundwater tainted by chlorinated solvents once used to clean rocket engine components. The award-winning innovation (Spinoff 2010) is now NASA s most licensed technology to date. PCBs in paint presented a new challenge. Removing the launch stand for recycling proved a difficult operation; the toxic paint had to be fully stripped from the steel structure, a lengthy and costly process that required the stripped paint to be treated before disposal. Noting the lack of efficient, environmentally friendly options for dealing with PCBs, Quinn and her colleagues developed the Activated Metal Treatment System (AMTS). AMTS is a paste consisting of a solvent solution containing microscale particles of activated zero-valent metal. When applied to a painted surface, the paste extracts and degrades the PCBs into benign byproducts while leaving the paint on the structure. This provides a superior alternative to other methods for PCB remediation, such as stripping the paint or incinerating the structure, which prevents reuse and can release volatized PCBs into the air. Since its development, AMTS has proven to be a valuable solution for removing PCBs from paint, caulking, and various insulation and filler materials in older buildings, naval ships, and former munitions facilities where the presence of PCBs interferes with methods for removing trace explosive materials. Miles of potentially toxic caulking join sections of runways at airports. Any of these materials installed before 1979 potentially contain PCBs, Quinn says. "This is not just a NASA problem," she says. "It s a global problem."

  14. Using 3D Acoustic Telemetry to Assess the Response of Resident Salmonids to Strobe Lights in Lake Roosevelt, Washington; Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Feasibility Study, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Russlee; Farley, M.; Hansen, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    In 1995, the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was established to mitigate the loss of anadromous fish due to the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee dams. The objectives of the Chief Joseph Enhancement Project are to determine the status of resident kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee dams and to enhance kokanee and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations. Studies conducted at Grand Coulee Dam documented substantial entrainment of kokanee through turbines at the third powerhouse. In response to finding high entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam, the Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP) recommended investigating the use of strobe lights to repel fish from the forebay of the third powerhouse. Therefore, our study focused on the third powerhouse and how strobe lights affected fish behavior in this area. The primary objective of our study was to assess the behavioral response of kokanee and rainbow trout to strobe lights using 3D acoustic telemetry, which yields explicit spatial locations of fish in three dimensions. Our secondary objectives were to (1) use a 3D acoustic system to mobile track tagged fish in the forebay and upriver of Grand Coulee Dam and (2) determine the feasibility of detecting fish using a hydrophone mounted in the tailrace of the third powerhouse. Within the fixed hydrophone array located in the third powerhouse cul-de-sac, we detected 50 kokanee and 30 rainbow trout, accounting for 47% and 45% respectively, of the fish released. Kokanee had a median residence time of 0.20 h and rainbow trout had a median residence time of 1.07 h. We detected more kokanee in the array at night compared to the day, and we detected more rainbow trout during the day compared to the night. In general, kokanee and rainbow trout approached along the eastern shore and the relative frequency of kokanee and rainbow trout detections was highest along the eastern shoreline of the 3D array. However, because we

  15. Remediation of former industrial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The remediation of former industrial sites in now raising serious questions over the points of the sites investigation and of risk assessment, because it is necessary to take into account the ultimate aim of this process, being the reintegration of these sites into the surrounding social-economical context as well as their control. The case of the former uranium treatment units of Seelingstaedt (situated in the former East Germany) is a perfect illustration of the difficulties that may be encountered whilst important remediation projects take place. (author). 5 figs., 2 tabs

  16. On and Off Contract Remedies

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Richard; Stremitzer, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    A party dissatisfied with the contractual performance of a counterparty is typically able to pursue a variety of legal recourses. Within this apparent variety lurk two fundamental alternatives. The aggrieved party may (i) “affirm†the contract and seek money damages or specific performance; or (ii) “disaffirm†the contract with the remedy of rescission and restitution. This simple dichotomy of contract remedies applies broadly in both common law and civil law practice. We show here that...

  17. 水气含量对基于QEPAS甲烷气体探测性能的影响%Impact of Water on Quartz Enhanced Photo-Acoustic Absorption Spectroscopy Methane Senor Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙善文; 易红明; 王贵师; 汪磊; 谈图; 刘锟; 高晓明

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy of measurement is affected by the variation of water vapor concentration when a quartz enhanced photo-acoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) is used for real-time trace-gas monitoring. A QEPAS based methane sensor is developed at 1.653 pern and the influence of water vapor on the performances of QEPAS methane sensor including second harmonic signal, resonance frequency, Q factor are investigated experimentally. Measurements are carried out under different absolute humidities which are obtained by bubbling method combined with hygrometer at atmosphere pressure. The results suggest that the water vapor could impact both on relaxation time of methane and the parameters of quarts tuning fork in practical application. The smallest detective mass concentration of the sensor is found to be about 0.57 mg/m3 at different atmosphere pressures with an absolute humidity of 2.34%.%由于气体的湿度对分子振动弛豫有着较大的影响,利用石英音叉增强型光声光谱(QEPAS)技术作为甲烷气体传感,在实际应用中,空气的水气浓度变化将会使光声测量气体浓度的信号强度发生变化.实验中采用鼓泡法结合湿度计来改变探测气体中的湿度,测量了常压下1.653μm波长处甲烷的二次谐波信号,系统地研究了探测气体中水气浓度的变化对石英音叉Q值、共振频率f0等参数的影响.实验结果表明,水气对基于QEPAS技术甲烷气体传感器的实际应用有着很大的影响,主要表现在甲烷分子振动弛豫和探测系统性能两个方面.当实际大气中绝对湿度为2.34%时,获得的系统最小可探测质量浓度为0.57mg/m3.

  18. Nanocomposite Electrospun Nanofiber Membranes for Environmental Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Homaeigohar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid worldwide industrialization and population growth is going to lead to an extensive environmental pollution. Therefore, so many people are currently suffering from the water shortage induced by the respective pollution, as well as poor air quality and a huge fund is wasted in the world each year due to the relevant problems. Environmental remediation necessitates implementation of novel materials and technologies, which are cost and energy efficient. Nanomaterials, with their unique chemical and physical properties, are an optimum solution. Accordingly, there is a strong motivation in seeking nano-based approaches for alleviation of environmental problems in an energy efficient, thereby, inexpensive manner. Thanks to a high porosity and surface area presenting an extraordinary permeability (thereby an energy efficiency and selectivity, respectively, nanofibrous membranes are a desirable candidate. Their functionality and applicability is even promoted when adopting a nanocomposite strategy. In this case, specific nanofillers, such as metal oxides, carbon nanotubes, precious metals, and smart biological agents, are incorporated either during electrospinning or in the post-processing. Moreover, to meet operational requirements, e.g., to enhance mechanical stability, decrease of pressure drop, etc., nanofibrous membranes are backed by a microfibrous non-woven forming a hybrid membrane. The novel generation of nanocomposite/hybrid nanofibrous membranes can perform extraordinarily well in environmental remediation and control. This reality justifies authoring of this review paper.

  19. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  20. Acoustic assessment of speech privacy curtains in two nursing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Diana S; Miller-Klein, Erik T

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals have complex soundscapes that create challenges to patient care. Extraneous noise and high reverberation rates impair speech intelligibility, which leads to raised voices. In an unintended spiral, the increasing noise may result in diminished speech privacy, as people speak loudly to be heard over the din. The products available to improve hospital soundscapes include construction materials that absorb sound (acoustic ceiling tiles, carpet, wall insulation) and reduce reverberation rates. Enhanced privacy curtains are now available and offer potential for a relatively simple way to improve speech privacy and speech intelligibility by absorbing sound at the hospital patient's bedside. Acoustic assessments were performed over 2 days on two nursing units with a similar design in the same hospital. One unit was built with the 1970s' standard hospital construction and the other was newly refurbished (2013) with sound-absorbing features. In addition, we determined the effect of an enhanced privacy curtain versus standard privacy curtains using acoustic measures of speech privacy and speech intelligibility indexes. Privacy curtains provided auditory protection for the patients. In general, that protection was increased by the use of enhanced privacy curtains. On an average, the enhanced curtain improved sound absorption from 20% to 30%; however, there was considerable variability, depending on the configuration of the rooms tested. Enhanced privacy curtains provide measureable improvement to the acoustics of patient rooms but cannot overcome larger acoustic design issues. To shorten reverberation time, additional absorption, and compact and more fragmented nursing unit floor plate shapes should be considered. PMID:26780959

  1. Acoustic assessment of speech privacy curtains in two nursing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Diana S; Miller-Klein, Erik T

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals have complex soundscapes that create challenges to patient care. Extraneous noise and high reverberation rates impair speech intelligibility, which leads to raised voices. In an unintended spiral, the increasing noise may result in diminished speech privacy, as people speak loudly to be heard over the din. The products available to improve hospital soundscapes include construction materials that absorb sound (acoustic ceiling tiles, carpet, wall insulation) and reduce reverberation rates. Enhanced privacy curtains are now available and offer potential for a relatively simple way to improve speech privacy and speech intelligibility by absorbing sound at the hospital patient's bedside. Acoustic assessments were performed over 2 days on two nursing units with a similar design in the same hospital. One unit was built with the 1970s' standard hospital construction and the other was newly refurbished (2013) with sound-absorbing features. In addition, we determined the effect of an enhanced privacy curtain versus standard privacy curtains using acoustic measures of speech privacy and speech intelligibility indexes. Privacy curtains provided auditory protection for the patients. In general, that protection was increased by the use of enhanced privacy curtains. On an average, the enhanced curtain improved sound absorption from 20% to 30%; however, there was considerable variability, depending on the configuration of the rooms tested. Enhanced privacy curtains provide measureable improvement to the acoustics of patient rooms but cannot overcome larger acoustic design issues. To shorten reverberation time, additional absorption, and compact and more fragmented nursing unit floor plate shapes should be considered.

  2. Acoustic assessment of speech privacy curtains in two nursing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana S Pope

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals have complex soundscapes that create challenges to patient care. Extraneous noise and high reverberation rates impair speech intelligibility, which leads to raised voices. In an unintended spiral, the increasing noise may result in diminished speech privacy, as people speak loudly to be heard over the din. The products available to improve hospital soundscapes include construction materials that absorb sound (acoustic ceiling tiles, carpet, wall insulation and reduce reverberation rates. Enhanced privacy curtains are now available and offer potential for a relatively simple way to improve speech privacy and speech intelligibility by absorbing sound at the hospital patient′s bedside. Acoustic assessments were performed over 2 days on two nursing units with a similar design in the same hospital. One unit was built with the 1970s′ standard hospital construction and the other was newly refurbished (2013 with sound-absorbing features. In addition, we determined the effect of an enhanced privacy curtain versus standard privacy curtains using acoustic measures of speech privacy and speech intelligibility indexes. Privacy curtains provided auditory protection for the patients. In general, that protection was increased by the use of enhanced privacy curtains. On an average, the enhanced curtain improved sound absorption from 20% to 30%; however, there was considerable variability, depending on the configuration of the rooms tested. Enhanced privacy curtains provide measureable improvement to the acoustics of patient rooms but cannot overcome larger acoustic design issues. To shorten reverberation time, additional absorption, and compact and more fragmented nursing unit floor plate shapes should be considered.

  3. Wavefront Modulation and Subwavelength Diffractive Acoustics with an Acoustic Metasurface

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yangbo; Wang, Wenqi; Chen, Huanyang; Konneker, Adam; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Metasurfaces are a family of novel wavefront shaping devices with planar profile and subwavelength thickness. Acoustic metasurfaces with ultralow profile yet extraordinary wave manipulating properties would be highly desirable for improving the performance of many acoustic wave-based applications. However, designing acoustic metasurfaces with similar functionality as their electromagnetic counterparts remains challenging with traditional metamaterial design approaches. Here we present a desig...

  4. ACOUSTICS IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DOELLE, LESLIE L.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS WAS--(1) TO COMPILE A CLASSIFIED BIBLIOGRAPHY, INCLUDING MOST OF THOSE PUBLICATIONS ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS, PUBLISHED IN ENGLISH, FRENCH, AND GERMAN WHICH CAN SUPPLY A USEFUL AND UP-TO-DATE SOURCE OF INFORMATION FOR THOSE ENCOUNTERING ANY ARCHITECTURAL-ACOUSTIC DESIGN…

  5. Practical acoustic emission testing

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book is intended for non-destructive testing (NDT) technicians who want to learn practical acoustic emission testing based on level 1 of ISO 9712 (Non-destructive testing – Qualification and certification of personnel) criteria. The essential aspects of ISO/DIS 18436-6 (Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines – Requirements for training and certification of personnel, Part 6: Acoustic Emission) are explained, and readers can deepen their understanding with the help of practice exercises. This work presents the guiding principles of acoustic emission measurement, signal processing, algorithms for source location, measurement devices, applicability of testing methods, and measurement cases to support not only researchers in this field but also and especially NDT technicians.

  6. Passive broadband acoustic thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anosov, A. A.; Belyaev, R. V.; Klin'shov, V. V.; Mansfel'd, A. D.; Subochev, P. V.

    2016-04-01

    The 1D internal (core) temperature profiles for the model object (plasticine) and the human hand are reconstructed using the passive acoustothermometric broadband probing data. Thermal acoustic radiation is detected by a broadband (0.8-3.5 MHz) acoustic radiometer. The temperature distribution is reconstructed using a priori information corresponding to the experimental conditions. The temperature distribution for the heated model object is assumed to be monotonic. For the hand, we assume that the temperature distribution satisfies the heat-conduction equation taking into account the blood flow. The average error of reconstruction determined for plasticine from the results of independent temperature measurements is 0.6 K for a measuring time of 25 s. The reconstructed value of the core temperature of the hand (36°C) generally corresponds to physiological data. The obtained results make it possible to use passive broadband acoustic probing for measuring the core temperatures in medical procedures associated with heating of human organism tissues.

  7. Acoustics waves and oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Parameters of acoustics presented in a logical and lucid style Physical principles discussed with mathematical formulations Importance of ultrasonic waves highlighted Dispersion of ultrasonic waves in viscous liquids explained This book presents the theory of waves and oscillations and various applications of acoustics in a logical and simple form. The physical principles have been explained with necessary mathematical formulation and supported by experimental layout wherever possible. Incorporating the classical view point all aspects of acoustic waves and oscillations have been discussed together with detailed elaboration of modern technological applications of sound. A separate chapter on ultrasonics emphasizes the importance of this branch of science in fundamental and applied research. In this edition a new chapter ''Hypersonic Velocity in Viscous Liquids as revealed from Brillouin Spectra'' has been added. The book is expected to present to its readers a comprehensive presentation of the subject matter...

  8. Acoustic detection of pneumothorax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansy, Hansen A.; Royston, Thomas J.; Balk, Robert A.; Sandler, Richard H.

    2003-04-01

    This study aims at investigating the feasibility of using low-frequency (pneumothorax detection were tested in dogs. In the first approach, broadband acoustic signals were introduced into the trachea during end-expiration and transmitted waves were measured at the chest surface. Pneumothorax was found to consistently decrease pulmonary acoustic transmission in the 200-1200-Hz frequency band, while less change was observed at lower frequencies (ppneumothorax states (pPneumothorax was found to be associated with a preferential reduction of sound amplitude in the 200- to 700-Hz range, and a decrease of sound amplitude variation (in the 300 to 600-Hz band) during the respiration cycle (pPneumothorax changed the frequency and decay rate of percussive sounds. These results imply that certain medical conditions may be reliably detected using appropriate acoustic measurements and analysis. [Work supported by NIH/NHLBI #R44HL61108.

  9. A Century of Acoustic Metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud

    1998-01-01

    The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect.......The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect....

  10. Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL) is a state-of-the-art Undersea Warfare (USW) acoustic data analysis facility capable of both active and passive underwater...

  11. Densitometry By Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Eugene H.

    1989-01-01

    "Static" and "dynamic" methods developed for measuring mass density of acoustically levitated solid particle or liquid drop. "Static" method, unknown density of sample found by comparison with another sample of known density. "Dynamic" method practiced with or without gravitational field. Advantages over conventional density-measuring techniques: sample does not have to make contact with container or other solid surface, size and shape of samples do not affect measurement significantly, sound field does not have to be know in detail, and sample can be smaller than microliter. Detailed knowledge of acoustic field not necessary.

  12. Acoustic classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardi, Umberto; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    insulation performance, national schemes for sound classification of dwellings have been developed in several European countries. These schemes define acoustic classes according to different levels of sound insulation. Due to the lack of coordination among countries, a significant diversity in terms...... of descriptors, number of classes, and class intervals occurred between national schemes. However, a proposal “acoustic classification scheme for dwellings” has been developed recently in the European COST Action TU0901 with 32 member countries. This proposal has been accepted as an ISO work item. This paper...

  13. Structural Acoustics and Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaigne, Antoine

    This structural chapter is devoted to vibrations of structures and to their coupling with the acoustic field. Depending on the context, the radiated sound can be judged as desirable, as is mostly the case for musical instruments, or undesirable, like noise generated by machinery. In architectural acoustics, one main goal is to limit the transmission of sound through walls. In the automobile industry, the engineers have to control the noise generated inside and outside the passenger compartment. This can be achieved by means of passive or active damping. In general, there is a strong need for quieter products and better sound quality generated by the structures in our daily environment.

  14. GROUND WATER REMEDIATION POWERED WITH RENEWABLE ENERGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical challenge: Resource conservation has become a critical concept in the remediation of contaminated ground water supplies. Ground water remedies which include surface discharge of treated ground water are often viewed as wasteful and non-sustainable....

  15. Variable-Position Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Stoneburner, J. D.; Jacobi, N.; Wang, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    Method of acoustic levitation supports objects at positions other than acoustic nodes. Acoustic force is varied so it balances gravitational (or other) force, thereby maintaining object at any position within equilibrium range. Levitation method applicable to containerless processing. Such objects as table-tennis balls, hollow plastic spheres, and balsa-wood spheres levitated in laboratory by new method.

  16. Antihistamines, Decongestants, and Cold Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but drying agents, aspirin (or aspirin substitutes), and cough suppressants may also be added. Therefore, consumers should choose remedies with ingredients best suited to combat their own symptoms. If the label does not clearly state the ingredients and their functions, ask the pharmacist to explain them. * May be available over the counter without a prescription, although often obtained at the counter itself. Read ...

  17. Green Chemistry and Environmental Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Nutrient remediation and recovery is a growing concern for two key reasons: (i) the prevention of harmful algal bloom proliferation, and (ii) the recycling of nutrients (e.g., phosphates) as they are non-renewable resources which are quickly being depleted. A wide range...

  18. Adolescent Literacy: More than Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancarosa, Gina

    2012-01-01

    The challenge of adolescent literacy involves more than providing remediation for students who have not mastered basic reading skills. To become successful learners, adolescents must master complex texts, understand the diverse literacy demands of the different content areas, and navigate digital texts. In this article, Biancarosa reviews what the…

  19. Electrodialytic Remediation of Copper Mine Tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Rojo, A.; Ottosen, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields.......This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields....

  20. Extraordinary transmission of gigahertz surface acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezil, Sylvain; Chonan, Kazuki; Otsuka, Paul H.; Tomoda, Motonobu; Matsuda, Osamu; Lee, Sam H.; Wright, Oliver B.

    2016-09-01

    Extraordinary transmission of waves, i.e. a transmission superior to the amount predicted by geometrical considerations of the aperture alone, has to date only been studied in the bulk. Here we present a new class of extraordinary transmission for waves confined in two dimensions to a flat surface. By means of acoustic numerical simulations in the gigahertz range, corresponding to acoustic wavelengths λ ~ 3–50 μm, we track the transmission of plane surface acoustic wave fronts between two silicon blocks joined by a deeply subwavelength bridge of variable length with or without an attached cavity. Several resonant modes of the structure, both one- and two-dimensional in nature, lead to extraordinary acoustic transmission, in this case with transmission efficiencies, i.e. intensity enhancements, up to ~23 and ~8 in the two respective cases. We show how the cavity shape and bridge size influence the extraordinary transmission efficiency. Applications include new metamaterials and subwavelength imaging.

  1. Extraordinary transmission of gigahertz surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezil, Sylvain; Chonan, Kazuki; Otsuka, Paul H; Tomoda, Motonobu; Matsuda, Osamu; Lee, Sam H; Wright, Oliver B

    2016-01-01

    Extraordinary transmission of waves, i.e. a transmission superior to the amount predicted by geometrical considerations of the aperture alone, has to date only been studied in the bulk. Here we present a new class of extraordinary transmission for waves confined in two dimensions to a flat surface. By means of acoustic numerical simulations in the gigahertz range, corresponding to acoustic wavelengths λ ~ 3-50 μm, we track the transmission of plane surface acoustic wave fronts between two silicon blocks joined by a deeply subwavelength bridge of variable length with or without an attached cavity. Several resonant modes of the structure, both one- and two-dimensional in nature, lead to extraordinary acoustic transmission, in this case with transmission efficiencies, i.e. intensity enhancements, up to ~23 and ~8 in the two respective cases. We show how the cavity shape and bridge size influence the extraordinary transmission efficiency. Applications include new metamaterials and subwavelength imaging. PMID:27640998

  2. Extraordinary transmission of gigahertz surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezil, Sylvain; Chonan, Kazuki; Otsuka, Paul H; Tomoda, Motonobu; Matsuda, Osamu; Lee, Sam H; Wright, Oliver B

    2016-09-19

    Extraordinary transmission of waves, i.e. a transmission superior to the amount predicted by geometrical considerations of the aperture alone, has to date only been studied in the bulk. Here we present a new class of extraordinary transmission for waves confined in two dimensions to a flat surface. By means of acoustic numerical simulations in the gigahertz range, corresponding to acoustic wavelengths λ ~ 3-50 μm, we track the transmission of plane surface acoustic wave fronts between two silicon blocks joined by a deeply subwavelength bridge of variable length with or without an attached cavity. Several resonant modes of the structure, both one- and two-dimensional in nature, lead to extraordinary acoustic transmission, in this case with transmission efficiencies, i.e. intensity enhancements, up to ~23 and ~8 in the two respective cases. We show how the cavity shape and bridge size influence the extraordinary transmission efficiency. Applications include new metamaterials and subwavelength imaging.

  3. Extraordinary transmission of gigahertz surface acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezil, Sylvain; Chonan, Kazuki; Otsuka, Paul H.; Tomoda, Motonobu; Matsuda, Osamu; Lee, Sam H.; Wright, Oliver B.

    2016-01-01

    Extraordinary transmission of waves, i.e. a transmission superior to the amount predicted by geometrical considerations of the aperture alone, has to date only been studied in the bulk. Here we present a new class of extraordinary transmission for waves confined in two dimensions to a flat surface. By means of acoustic numerical simulations in the gigahertz range, corresponding to acoustic wavelengths λ ~ 3–50 μm, we track the transmission of plane surface acoustic wave fronts between two silicon blocks joined by a deeply subwavelength bridge of variable length with or without an attached cavity. Several resonant modes of the structure, both one- and two-dimensional in nature, lead to extraordinary acoustic transmission, in this case with transmission efficiencies, i.e. intensity enhancements, up to ~23 and ~8 in the two respective cases. We show how the cavity shape and bridge size influence the extraordinary transmission efficiency. Applications include new metamaterials and subwavelength imaging. PMID:27640998

  4. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, A.; Ottpsen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4......, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2V/cm.The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20V using approximately 1.8kg mine tailing on dry basis....... In addition, experiments with acidic tailing show that the copper removal is proportional with time....

  5. Review of remediation practices regarding cadmium-enriched farmland soil with particular reference to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X; Li, Q; Wu, M; Lin, L; Scholz, M

    2016-10-01

    Cadmium-enrichment of farmland soil greatly threatens the sustainable use of soil resources and the safe cultivation of grain. This review paper briefly introduces the status of farmland soil as well as grain, which are both often polluted by cadmium (Cd) in China, and illustrates the major sources of Cd contaminants in farmland soil. In order to meet soil environmental quality standards and farmland environmental quality evaluation standards for edible agricultural products, Cd-enriched farmland soil is frequently remediated with the following prevailing techniques: dig and fill, electro-kinetic remediation, chemical elution, stabilisation and solidification, phytoremediation, field management and combined remediation. Most remediation techniques are still at the stage of small-scale trial experiments in China and few techniques are assessed in field trials. After comparing the technical and economical applicability among different Cd-enriched farmland soil remediation techniques, a novel ecological and hydraulic remediation technique has been proposed, which integrated the advantages of chemical elution, solidification and stabilisation, phytoremediation and field management. The ecological and hydraulic remediation concept is based on existing irrigation and drainage facilities, ecological ditches (ponds) and agronomic measures, which mainly detoxify the Cd-enriched soil during the interim period of crop cultivation, and guarantee the grain safety during its growth period. This technique may shift the challenge from soil to water treatment, and thus greatly enhances the remediation efficiency and shortens the remediation duration. Moreover, the proposed ecological and hydraulic remediation method matches well with the practical choice of cultivation while remediation for Cd-enriched soil in China, which has negligible impacts on the normal crop cultivation process, and thus shows great potential for large area applications. PMID:27562701

  6. 40 CFR 85.1803 - Remedial Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remedial Plan. 85.1803 Section 85.1803... POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Recall Regulations § 85.1803 Remedial Plan. (a) When any manufacturer is... manufacturer shall submit a plan to the Administrator to remedy such nonconformity. The plan shall contain...

  7. 40 CFR 92.705 - Remedial plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remedial plan. 92.705 Section 92.705... POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Recall Regulations § 92.705 Remedial plan. (a) When any... manufacturer or remanufacturer shall submit a plan to the Administrator to remedy such nonconformity. The...

  8. ELECTROCHEMICAL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES (ECRTS) DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ElectroChemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs) process was developed by P2-Soil Remediation, Inc. P-2 Soil Remediation, Inc. formed a partnership with Weiss Associates and ElectroPetroleum, Inc. to apply the technology to contaminated sites. The ECRTs process was evaluated ...

  9. Remediation: Higher Education's Bridge to Nowhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete College America, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The intentions were noble. It was hoped that remediation programs would be an academic bridge from poor high school preparation to college readiness. Sadly, remediation has become instead higher education's "Bridge to Nowhere." This broken remedial bridge is travelled by some 1.7 million beginning students each year, most of whom will…

  10. Removing Remediation Requirements: Effectiveness of Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Anne; Duggan, Mickle; Braddy, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Remediation of incoming college freshman students is a national concern because remediated students are at higher risk of failing to complete their degrees. Some Oklahoma higher education institutions are working to assist K-12 systems in finding ways to reduce the number of incoming college freshman students requiring remediation. This study…

  11. From Architectural Acoustics to Acoustical Architecture Using Computer Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2005-01-01

    Architectural acoustics design has in the past been based on simple design rules. However, with a growing complexity in architectural acoustics and the emergence of room acoustic simulation programmes with considerable potential, it is now possible to subjectively analyse and evaluate acoustic...... properties prior to the actual construction of a building. With the right tools applied, acoustic design can become an integral part of the architectural design process. The aim of this paper is to investigate the field of application that an acoustic simulation programme can have during an architectural...... acoustic design process and to set up a strategy to develop future programmes. The emphasis is put on the first three out of four phases in the working process of the architect and a case study is carried out in which each phase is represented by typical results ? as exemplified with reference...

  12. Underwater Acoustic Networking Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Otnes, Roald; Casari, Paolo; Goetz, Michael; Husøy, Thor; Nissen, Ivor; Rimstad, Knut; van Walree, Paul; Zorzi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This literature study presents an overview of underwater acoustic networking. It provides a background and describes the state of the art of all networking facets that are relevant for underwater applications. This report serves both as an introduction to the subject and as a summary of existing protocols, providing support and inspiration for the development of network architectures.

  13. Evoked acoustic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, C; Parbo, J; Johnsen, N J;

    1985-01-01

    Stimulated acoustic emissions were recorded in response to tonal stimuli at 60 dB p.e. SPL in a small group of normal-hearing adults. Power spectral analysis reveals that the evoked activity from each ear contains energy in preferential frequency bands and the change of stimulus frequency has only...

  14. Surface Acoustic Wave Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard

    The work of this project is concerned with the simulation of surface acoustic waves (SAW) and topology optimization of SAW devices. SAWs are elastic vibrations that propagate along a material surface and are extensively used in electromechanical filters and resonators in telecommunication. A new...

  15. Portable acoustic myography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Bartels, Else Marie

    2013-01-01

    Muscle sound gives a local picture of muscles involved in a particular movement and is independent of electrical signals between nerve and muscle. Sound recording (acoustic myography) is a well-known noninvasive technique that has suffered from not being easily applicable, as well as not being ab...

  16. The need for good acoustic design of schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Bridget

    2005-04-01

    This paper gives an overview of research into classroom acoustics, highlighting the importance of a good acoustic environment in schools to enhance teaching and learning. The paper is aimed at a general audience of people interested in education and school design. In the past 30 years there has been a great deal of research into the effects of noise and poor acoustics in schools on children and teachers. It has been shown in many studies that children have difficulty hearing and understanding their teachers in noise, and both external environmental noise and noise within a school affect children's academic performance. Furthermore many teachers suffer from voice and throat problems which may be attributable to a poor acoustic environment in the classroom. The acoustic design of a classroom has a direct influence upon noise levels and the intelligibility of speech. Poor sound insulation and excessive reverberation have the potential to increase noise levels and reduce speech intelligibility. However, despite the introduction in many countries of legislation or guidelines for acoustic design of schools, in general acoustics still has a low priority in school design and many schools, old and new, fail to meet the current standards.

  17. Current state of the radiological diagnosis of acoustic neuroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valavanis, A.; Dabir, K.; Hamdi, R.; Oguz, M.; Wellauer, J.

    1982-03-01

    Thin, overlapping section, contrast-enhanced, axial and coronal CT, with additional high-resulution (HR) treatment of the sections through the internal auditory canal, was performed on 31 patients clinically suspected of acoustic neuroma. With this technique 13 acoustic neuromas protruding more than 10 mm and eight acoustic neuromas protruding between 2 and 10 mm outside the internal auditory canal were unequivocally diagnosed. O/sub 2/CT cisternography was performed on ten patients. An intracanalicular neuroma was diagnosed in three cases with this technique, also a small extracanalicular neuroma in one case, and an acoustic neuroma was definitely excluded in six cases. It is concluded that O/sub 2/CT cisternography is the diagnostic procedure of choice for the detection of purely intracanalicular neuromas and the definite exclusion of acoustic neuroma. HR CT proved superior to polytomography for the evaluation of the internal auditory canal and should be performed in every case suspected of acoustic neuroma. A protocol for the radiological investigation of patients suspected of acoustic neuroma is given.

  18. Holograms for acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melde, Kai; Mark, Andrew G.; Qiu, Tian; Fischer, Peer

    2016-09-01

    Holographic techniques are fundamental to applications such as volumetric displays, high-density data storage and optical tweezers that require spatial control of intricate optical or acoustic fields within a three-dimensional volume. The basis of holography is spatial storage of the phase and/or amplitude profile of the desired wavefront in a manner that allows that wavefront to be reconstructed by interference when the hologram is illuminated with a suitable coherent source. Modern computer-generated holography skips the process of recording a hologram from a physical scene, and instead calculates the required phase profile before rendering it for reconstruction. In ultrasound applications, the phase profile is typically generated by discrete and independently driven ultrasound sources; however, these can only be used in small numbers, which limits the complexity or degrees of freedom that can be attained in the wavefront. Here we introduce monolithic acoustic holograms, which can reconstruct diffraction-limited acoustic pressure fields and thus arbitrary ultrasound beams. We use rapid fabrication to craft the holograms and achieve reconstruction degrees of freedom two orders of magnitude higher than commercial phased array sources. The technique is inexpensive, appropriate for both transmission and reflection elements, and scales well to higher information content, larger aperture size and higher power. The complex three-dimensional pressure and phase distributions produced by these acoustic holograms allow us to demonstrate new approaches to controlled ultrasonic manipulation of solids in water, and of liquids and solids in air. We expect that acoustic holograms will enable new capabilities in beam-steering and the contactless transfer of power, improve medical imaging, and drive new applications of ultrasound.

  19. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummer, Steven A. ; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales....... The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create......-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview...

  20. Improved surfactants formulation for remediation of oil sludge recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surfactant enhanced remediation based on mobilisation of the residual NAPLs (oil sludge) which is radioactive depends on the tendency of the surfactants to lower interfacial tension. Mobilisation has greater potential than solubilisation to increase the rate of remediation. Optimised surfactants formulation was determined with concentration of Aqua 2000 and D Bond of 1% wt respectively, sodium chloride concentration of 2 gmL-1 and addition of 3% wt butanol as cosolvent. The formulation was of benefit not only able to decrease further the interfacial tension of aqueous solution containing oil emulsion, but also to make possible to be more mobile and destruction of mixed liquid crystals that formed. Formation of liquid crystals can hinders significantly recovery efficiency of aqueous solution containing oil emulsion in field remediation work. In a 100 litres soil column experiment conducted containing oil emulsion in field sludge soil and using the surfactants formulation for flushing, miniemulsion formed sizes maintained at average size between 125 nm and 280 nm before and after remediation. Total oil and grease concentration removed from the soil were significant due to the decreased in oil emulsion sizes, increase mobility and solubility. (Author)

  1. New IAEA guidelines on environmental remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, Sergey [International Atomic Energy Agency, A2444, Seibersdorf (Austria); Howard, Brenda [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, LA1 4AP, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Kashparov, Valery [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, 08162, 7, Mashinobudivnykiv str., Chabany, Kyivo-Svyatoshin region, Kyiv (Ukraine); Sanzharova, Natalie [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Russian Federation, 249032, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Vidal, Miquel [Analytical Chemistry Department-Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    In response to the needs of its Member States, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has published many documents covering different aspects of remediation of contaminated environments. These documents range from safety fundamentals and safety requirements to technical documents describing remedial technologies. Almost all the documents on environmental remediation are related to uranium mining areas and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. IAEA radiation safety standards on remediation of contaminated environments are largely based on these two types of remediation. The exception is a document related to accidents, namely the IAEA TRS No. 363 'Guidelines for Agricultural Countermeasures Following an Accidental Release of Radionuclides'. Since the publication of TRS 363, there has been a considerable increase in relevant information. In response, the IAEA initiated the development of a new document, which incorporated new knowledge obtained during last 20 years, lessons learned and subsequent changes in the regulatory framework. The new document covers all aspects related to the environmental remediation from site characterisation to a description of individual remedial actions and decision making frameworks, covering urban, agricultural, forest and freshwater environments. Decisions taken to commence remediation need to be based on an accurate assessment of the amount and extent of contamination in relevant environmental compartments and how they vary with time. Major aspects of site characterisation intended for remediation are described together with recommendations on effective sampling programmes and data compilation for decision making. Approaches for evaluation of remedial actions are given in the document alongside the factors and processes which affect their implementation for different environments. Lessons learned following severe radiation accidents indicate that remediation should be considered with respect to many different

  2. Multipurpose Acoustic Sensor for Downhole Fluid Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantea, Cristian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-04

    The projects objectives and purpose are to: (1) development a multipurpose acoustic sensor for downhole fluid monitoring in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) reservoirs over typical ranges of pressures and temperatures and demonstrate its capabilities and performance for different EGS systems; (2) determine in real-time and in a single sensor package several parameters - temperature, pressure, fluid flow and fluid properties; (3) needed in nearly every phase of an EGS project, including Testing of Injection and Production Wells, Reservoir Validation, Inter-well Connectivity, Reservoir Scale Up and Reservoir Sustainability. (4) Current sensors are limited to operating at lower temperatures, but the need is for logging at high temperatures. The present project deals with the development of a novel acoustic-based sensor that can work at temperatures up to 374 C, in inhospitable environments.

  3. Measurements of shock-induced guided and surface acoustic waves along boreholes in poroelastic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chao, G.; Smeulders, D.M.J.; Van Dongen, M.E.H.

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic experiments on the propagation of guided waves along water-filled boreholes in water-saturated porous materials are reported. The experiments were conducted using a shock tube technique. An acoustic funnel structure was placed inside the tube just above the sample in order to enhance the ex

  4. Hanford Sitewide Groundwater Remediation Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document fulfills the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Milestone M-13-81, to develop a concise statement of strategy that describe show the Hanford Site groundwater remediation will be accomplished. The strategy addresses objectives and goals, prioritization of activities, and technical approaches for groundwater cleanup. The strategy establishes that the overall goal of groundwater remediation on the Hanford Site is to restore groundwater to its beneficial uses in terms of protecting human health and the environment, and its use as a natural resource. The Hanford Future Site Uses Working Group established two categories for groundwater commensurate with various proposed landuses: (1) restricted use or access to groundwater in the Central Plateau and in a buffer zone surrounding it and (2) unrestricted use or access to groundwater for all other areas. In recognition of the Hanford Future Site Uses Working Group and public values, the strategy establishes that the sitewide approach to groundwater cleanup is to remediate the major plumes found in the reactor areas that enter the Columbia River and to contain the spread and reduce the mass of the major plumes found in the Central Plateau

  5. THERMAL TECHNIQUES FOR THE IN-SITU CHARACTERIZATION AND REMEDIATION OF MERCURY: INSIGHTS FROM DEPLOYMENT OF THE MEMBRANE INTERFACE PROBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Dennis; Looney, Brian; Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.

    2013-08-07

    This presentation focuses on how thermal energy can effectively be used to enhance characterization, promote the remediation, and aid in delivering a sequestering agent to stabilize elemental mercury in subsurface soils. Slides and speaker notes are provided.

  6. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai

    2014-10-01

    We design a flat sub-wavelength lens that can focus acoustic wave. We analytically study the transmission through an acoustic grating with curled slits, which can serve as a material with tunable impedance and refractive index for acoustic waves. The effective parameters rely on the geometry of the slits and are independent of frequency. A flat acoustic focusing lens by such acoustic grating with gradient effective refractive index is designed. The focusing effect is clearly observed in simulations and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry-Perot resonance.

  7. Acoustic energy harvesting based on a planar acoustic metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shuibao; Oudich, Mourad; Li, Yong; Assouar, Badreddine

    2016-06-01

    We theoretically report on an innovative and practical acoustic energy harvester based on a defected acoustic metamaterial (AMM) with piezoelectric material. The idea is to create suitable resonant defects in an AMM to confine the strain energy originating from an acoustic incidence. This scavenged energy is converted into electrical energy by attaching a structured piezoelectric material into the defect area of the AMM. We show an acoustic energy harvester based on a meta-structure capable of producing electrical power from an acoustic pressure. Numerical simulations are provided to analyze and elucidate the principles and the performances of the proposed system. A maximum output voltage of 1.3 V and a power density of 0.54 μW/cm3 are obtained at a frequency of 2257.5 Hz. The proposed concept should have broad applications on energy harvesting as well as on low-frequency sound isolation, since this system acts as both acoustic insulator and energy harvester.

  8. Acoustics Discipline Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Envia, Edmane; Thomas, Russell

    2007-01-01

    As part of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Annual Review, a summary of the progress made in 2007 in acoustics research under the Subsonic Fixed Wing project is given. The presentation describes highlights from in-house and external activities including partnerships and NRA-funded research with industry and academia. Brief progress reports from all acoustics Phase 1 NRAs are also included as are outlines of the planned activities for 2008 and all Phase 2 NRAs. N+1 and N+2 technology paths outlined for Subsonic Fixed Wing noise targets. NRA Round 1 progressing with focus on prediction method advancement. NRA Round 2 initiating work focused on N+2 technology, prediction methods, and validation. Excellent partnerships in progress supporting N+1 technology targets and providing key data sets.

  9. Acoustic Tractor Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Démoré, Christine E. M.; Dahl, Patrick M.; Yang, Zhengyi; Glynne-Jones, Peter; Melzer, Andreas; Cochran, Sandy; MacDonald, Michael P.; Spalding, Gabriel C.

    2014-05-01

    Negative radiation forces act opposite to the direction of propagation, or net momentum, of a beam but have previously been challenging to definitively demonstrate. We report an experimental acoustic tractor beam generated by an ultrasonic array operating on macroscopic targets (>1 cm) to demonstrate the negative radiation forces and to map out regimes over which they dominate, which we compare to simulations. The result and the geometrically simple configuration show that the effect is due to nonconservative forces, produced by redirection of a momentum flux from the angled sides of a target and not by conservative forces from a potential energy gradient. Use of a simple acoustic setup provides an easily understood illustration of the negative radiation pressure concept for tractor beams and demonstrates continuous attraction towards the source, against a net momentum flux in the system.

  10. Acoustic absorption by sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, D. C.; Labonte, B. J.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the initial results of a series of observations designed to probe the nature of sunspots by detecting their influence on high-degree p-mode oscillations in the surrounding photosphere. The analysis decomposes the observed oscillations into radially propagating waves described by Hankel functions in a cylindrical coordinate system centered on the sunspot. From measurements of the differences in power between waves traveling outward and inward, it is demonstrated that sunspots appear to absorb as much as 50 percent of the incoming acoustic waves. It is found that for all three sunspots observed, the amount of absorption increases linearly with horizontal wavenumber. The effect is present in p-mode oscillations with wavelengths both significantly larger and smaller than the diameter of the sunspot umbrae. Actual absorption of acoustic energy of the magnitude observed may produce measurable decreases in the power and lifetimes of high-degree p-mode oscillations during periods of high solar activity.

  11. Acoustic absorption by sunspots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, D.C.; Labonte, B.J.; Duvall, T.L. Jr.

    1987-08-01

    The paper presents the initial results of a series of observations designed to probe the nature of sunspots by detecting their influence on high-degree p-mode oscillations in the surrounding photosphere. The analysis decomposes the observed oscillations into radially propagating waves described by Hankel functions in a cylindrical coordinate system centered on the sunspot. From measurements of the differences in power between waves traveling outward and inward, it is demonstrated that sunspots appear to absorb as much as 50 percent of the incoming acoustic waves. It is found that for all three sunspots observed, the amount of absorption increases linearly with horizontal wavenumber. The effect is present in p-mode oscillations with wavelengths both significantly larger and smaller than the diameter of the sunspot umbrae. Actual absorption of acoustic energy of the magnitude observed may produce measurable decreases in the power and lifetimes of high-degree p-mode oscillations during periods of high solar activity. 10 references.

  12. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  13. Acoustic emission source modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hora P.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the acoustic emission (AE source modeling by means of FEM system COMSOL Multiphysics. The following types of sources are used: the spatially concentrated force and the double forces (dipole. The pulse excitation is studied in both cases. As a material is used steel. The computed displacements are compared with the exact analytical solution of point sources under consideration.

  14. The acoustics of snoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevernagie, Dirk; Aarts, Ronald M; De Meyer, Micheline

    2010-04-01

    Snoring is a prevalent disorder affecting 20-40% of the general population. The mechanism of snoring is vibration of anatomical structures in the pharyngeal airway. Flutter of the soft palate accounts for the harsh aspect of the snoring sound. Natural or drug-induced sleep is required for its appearance. Snoring is subject to many influences such as body position, sleep stage, route of breathing and the presence or absence of sleep-disordered breathing. Its presentation may be variable within or between nights. While snoring is generally perceived as a social nuisance, rating of its noisiness is subjective and, therefore, inconsistent. Objective assessment of snoring is important to evaluate the effect of treatment interventions. Moreover, snoring carries information relating to the site and degree of obstruction of the upper airway. If evidence for monolevel snoring at the site of the soft palate is provided, the patient may benefit from palatal surgery. These considerations have inspired researchers to scrutinize the acoustic characteristics of snoring events. Similarly to speech, snoring is produced in the vocal tract. Because of this analogy, existing techniques for speech analysis have been applied to evaluate snoring sounds. It appears that the pitch of the snoring sound is in the low-frequency range (noise-like', and has scattered energy content in the higher spectral sub-bands (>500 Hz). To evaluate acoustic properties of snoring, sleep nasendoscopy is often performed. Recent evidence suggests that the acoustic quality of snoring is markedly different in drug-induced sleep as compared with natural sleep. Most often, palatal surgery alters sound characteristics of snoring, but is no cure for this disorder. It is uncertain whether the perceived improvement after palatal surgery, as judged by the bed partner, is due to an altered sound spectrum. Whether some acoustic aspects of snoring, such as changes in pitch, have predictive value for the presence of

  15. Acoustics, computers and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchard, James J.

    2003-10-01

    The human ear has created a high standard for the requirements of acoustical measurements. The transient nature of most acoustical signals has limited the success of traditional volt meters. Professor Hixson's pioneering work in electroacoustical measurements at ARL and The University of Texas helped set the stage for modern computer-based measurements. The tremendous performance of modern PCs and extensive libraries of signal processing functions in virtual instrumentation application software has revolutionized the way acoustical measurements are made. Today's analog to digital converters have up to 24 bits of resolution with a dynamic range of over 120 dB and a single PC processor can process 112 channels of FFTs at 4 kHz in real time. Wavelet technology further extends the capabilities for analyzing transients. The tools available for measurements in speech, electroacoustics, noise, and vibration represent some of the most advanced measurement tools available. During the last 50 years, Professor Hixson has helped drive this revolution from simple oscilloscope measurements to the modern high performance computer-based measurements.

  16. Passive Wireless Temperature Sensors with Enhanced Sensitivity and Range Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the development of passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) temperature sensors with enhanced sensitivity and detection range for NASA...

  17. Fundamentals of Shallow Water Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Katsnelson, Boris; Lynch, James

    2012-01-01

    Shallow water acoustics (SWA), the study of how low and medium frequency sound propagates and scatters on the continental shelves of the world's oceans, has both technical interest and a large number of practical applications. Technically, shallow water poses an interesting medium for the study of acoustic scattering, inverse theory, and propagation physics in a complicated oceanic waveguide. Practically, shallow water acoustics has interest for geophysical exploration, marine mammal studies, and naval applications. Additionally, one notes the very interdisciplinary nature of shallow water acoustics, including acoustical physics, physical oceanography, marine geology, and marine biology. In this specialized volume, the authors, all of whom have extensive at-sea experience in U.S. and Russian research efforts, have tried to summarize the main experimental, theoretical, and computational results in shallow water acoustics, with an emphasis on providing physical insight into the topics presented.

  18. Latest Trends in Acoustic Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Caliendo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acoustics-based methods offer a powerful tool for sensing applications. Acoustic sensors can be applied in many fields ranging from materials characterization, structural health monitoring, acoustic imaging, defect characterization, etc., to name just a few. A proper selection of the acoustic wave frequency over a wide spectrum that extends from infrasound (<20 Hz up to ultrasound (in the GHz–band, together with a number of different propagating modes, including bulk longitudinal and shear waves, surface waves, plate modes, etc., allow acoustic tools to be successfully applied to the characterization of gaseous, solid and liquid environments. The purpose of this special issue is to provide an overview of the research trends in acoustic wave sensing through some cases that are representative of specific applications in different sensing fields.

  19. High-Frequency Seafloor Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Darrell R

    2007-01-01

    High-Frequency Seafloor Acoustics is the first book in a new series sponsored by the Office of Naval Research on the latest research in underwater acoustics. This exciting new title provides ready access to experimental data, theory, and models relevant to high-frequency seafloor acoustics and will be of interest to sonar engineers and researchers working in underwater acoustics. The physical characteristics of the seafloor affecting acoustic propagation and scattering are covered, including physical and geoacoustic properties and surface roughness. Current theories for acoustic propagation in sediments are presented along with corresponding models for reflection, scattering, and seafloor penetration. The main text is backed up by an extensive bibliography and technical appendices.

  20. Active Cancellation of Acoustical Resonances with an FPGA FIR Filter

    CERN Document Server

    Ryou, Albert

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel approach to enhancing the bandwidth of a feedback-controlled mechanical system by digitally canceling acoustical resonances (poles) and anti-resonances (zeros) in the open-loop response via an FPGA FIR filter. By performing a real-time convolution of the feedback error signal with an inverse filter, we can suppress arbitrarily many poles and zeros below 100 kHz, each with a linewidth down to 10 Hz. We demonstrate the efficacy of this technique by canceling the ten largest mechanical resonances and anti-resonances of a high-finesse optical resonator, thereby enhancing the unity gain frequency by more than an order of magnitude. This approach is applicable to a broad array of stabilization problems including optical resonators, external cavity diode lasers, and scanning tunneling microscopes, and points the way to applying modern optimal control techniques to intricate linear acoustical systems.es to intricate linear acoustical systems.

  1. Progress in remediation of groundwater at petroleum sites in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Thomas E; Kulkarni, Poonam R; Newell, Charles J; Connor, John A; Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the overall progress in remediation of contaminated groundwater has been a significant challenge. We utilized the GeoTracker database to evaluate the progress in groundwater remediation from 2001 to 2011 at over 12,000 sites in California with contaminated groundwater. This paper presents an analysis of analytical results from over 2.1 million groundwater samples representing at least $100 million in laboratory analytical costs. Overall, the evaluation of monitoring data shows a large decrease in groundwater concentrations of gasoline constituents. For benzene, half of the sites showed a decrease in concentration of 85% or more. For methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), this decrease was 96% and for TBE, 87%. At remediation sites in California, the median source attenuation rate was 0.18/year for benzene and 0.36/year for MTBE, corresponding to half-lives of 3.9 and 1.9 years, respectively. Attenuation rates were positive (i.e., decreasing concentration) for benzene at 76% of sites and for MTBE at 85% of sites. An evaluation of sites with active remediation technologies suggests differences in technology effectiveness. The median attenuation rates for benzene and MTBE are higher at sites with soil vapor extraction or air sparging compared with sites without these technologies. In contrast, there was little difference in attenuation rates at sites with or without soil excavation, dual phase extraction, or in situ enhanced biodegradation. The evaluation of remediation technologies, however, did not evaluate whether specific systems were well designed or implemented and did not control for potential differences in other site factors, such as soil type. PMID:24224563

  2. Acoustical coupling of lizard eardrums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Manley, Geoffrey A

    2008-01-01

    Lizard ears are clear examples of two-input pressure-difference receivers, with up to 40-dB differences in eardrum vibration amplitude in response to ipsi- and contralateral stimulus directions. The directionality is created by acoustical coupling of the eardrums and interaction of the direct...... is caused by the acoustic interaction of the two eardrums. The results can be largely explained by a simple acoustical model based on an electrical analog circuit....

  3. Room acoustic auralization with Ambisonics

    OpenAIRE

    Polack, Jean-Dominique; Leão Figueiredo, Fábio

    2012-01-01

    International audience During the year of 2009, the room acoustics group of the LAM (Équipe Lutheries, Acoustique, Musique de l’Institut Jean Le Rond d’Alembert - Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris) performed a series of acoustical measurements in music halls in Paris. The halls were chosen in regarding their importance to the historic, architectural or acoustic domains. The measured ensemble of fourteen rooms includes quite different architectural designs. The measurements were carri...

  4. Electroosmosis remediation of DNAPLS in low permeability soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, S V. [Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Electroosmosis is the movement of water through a soil matrix induced by a direct current (DC) electric field. The technique has been used since the 1930s for dewatering and stabilizing fine-grained soils. More recently, electroosmosis has been considered as an in-situ method for soil remediation in which water is injected into the soil at the anode region to flush the contaminants to the cathode side for further treatment or disposal. The major advantage of electroosmosis is its inherent ability to move water uniformly through clayey, silty soils at 100 to 1000 times faster than attainable by hydraulic means, and with very low energy usage. Drawbacks of electroosmosis as a stand-alone technology include slow speed, reliance on solubilizing the contaminants into the groundwater for removal, potentially an unstable process for long term operation, and necessary additional treatment and disposal of the collected liquid. Possible remediation applications of electroosmosis for DNAPLs would be primarily in the removal of residual DNAPLs in the soil pores by electroosmotic flushing. The future of electroosmosis as a broad remedial method lies in how well it can be coupled with complementary technologies. Examples include combining electroosmosis with vacuum extraction, with surfactant usage to deal with non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) through enhanced solubilization or mobilization, with permeability enhancing methods (hydrofracturing, pneumatic fracturing, etc.) to create recovery zones, and with in-situ degradation zones to eliminate aboveground treatment. 33 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Documenting cost and performance for environmental remediation projects: Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-08

    The purpose of this DOE guide is to facilitate the use of consistent procedures to document cost and performance information for projects involving the remediation of media contaminated with hazardous and radioactive wastes. It provides remedial action project managers with a standardized set of data to document completed remediation projects. Standardized reporting of data will broaden the utility of the information, increase confidence in the effectiveness of future remedial technologies, and enhance the organization, storage and retrieval of relevant information for future cleanup projects. The foundation for this guide was laid down by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR) in their publication, Guide to Documenting Cost and Performance for Remediation Projects, EPA-542-B- 95-002. Member agencies of the FRTR include the US EPA, the US DOD, the US DOE, and the US DOI. All the member agencies are involved in site remediation projects and anticipate following the guidance provided in the above reference. Therefore, there is much to be gained for DOE to be consistent with the other member agencies as it will be easier to compare projects across different agencies and also to learn from the experiences of a wider spectrum of prior completed projects.

  6. Combined Environment Acoustic Chamber (CEAC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The CEAC imposes combined acoustic, thermal and mechanical loads on aerospace structures. The CEAC is employed to measure structural response and determine...

  7. The antibacterial properties of an Aztec wound remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J R; Ortiz de Montellano, B R

    1983-08-01

    Wound treatment practices of the Aztecs are discussed. The use of concentrated maguey sap (Agave ssp.) was widely dispersed and has persisted in folk medicine. A possible reason may be that it is effective. Laboratory analysis of maguey syrup indicates that its utilization as a remedy by ancient and modern Mesoamericans could contribute to the healing process of aerobic wound infections. Both pyogenic and enteric bacteria appear to be susceptible to maguey syrup. The traditional addition of salt to the remedy seems to enhance the effectiveness of the material in inhibiting the growth of one of the major causes of pus-forming or pyogenic infective processes, Staphylococcus aureus. This finding is additional proof of the effectiveness of pre-Hispanic medicine, and of the skills of pre-Hispanic physicians. PMID:6645570

  8. ELECTROCHEMICAL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES (ECRTS) - IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED MARINE SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Innovative Technology Evaulation Report summarizes the results of the evaluation of the Electrochemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs) process, developed by P2-Soil Remediation, Inc. (in partnership with Weiss Associates and Electro-Petroleum, Inc.). This evaluation was co...

  9. Tank Waste Remediation System Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robershotte, M.A.; Dirks, L.L.; Seaver, D.A.; Bothers, A.J.; Madden, M.S.

    1995-06-01

    The scope, number and complexity of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) decisions require an integrated, consistent, and logical approach to decision making. TWRS has adopted a seven-step decision process applicable to all decisions. Not all decisions, however, require the same degree of rigor/detail. The decision impact will dictate the appropriate required detail. In the entire process, values, both from the public as well as from the decision makers, play a key role. This document concludes with a general discussion of the implementation process that includes the roles of concerned parties.

  10. Night blindness and ancient remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hajar Al Binali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A.

  11. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) mission analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieck, R.H.

    1996-10-03

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis provides program level requirements and identifies system boundaries and interfaces. Measures of success appropriate to program level accomplishments are also identified.

  12. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 394 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eleventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, (9) Remedial Action Program, and (10) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies

  13. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, N.P.; Webb, J.R.; Ferguson, S.D.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.

    1990-09-01

    The 394 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eleventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, (9) Remedial Action Program, and (10) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies.

  14. Electrokinetic remediation of oil-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Vladimir A; Romanyukha, Olga V; Abyzova, Anna M

    2008-07-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the factors influencing electrokinetic remediation of soils from petroleum pollutants. The remediation method was applied in two versions: (i) static and (ii) flowing, when a sample was washed with leaching solution. It was found that all the soils studied can be purified using this technique. It was also observed that the mineral and grain-size composition of soils, their properties, and other parameters affect the remediation efficiency. The static and flowing versions of the remediation method removed 25-75% and 90-95% of the petroleum pollutants, respectively from the soils under study.

  15. The role of gravity in ocean acoustics propagation and its implication to early tsunami detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tiago; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Kadri, Usama

    2016-04-01

    Oceanic low frequency sound generated by submarine earthquake travels much faster than tsunamis and leaves pressure signatures that can act as tsunami precursors. In this regard, it is anticipated that the correct measurement and analysis of low frequency acoustics would enhance current early tsunami detection systems. In this work we model the low frequency acoustics generated by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake using the "Method of Normal Modes" and the "Acoustics-Gravity Wave" theory. Ocean acoustic theories usually neglect the effect of gravity. However, we show for rigid and elastic bottom conditions how gravity influences the acoustic normal mode propagation speed. Practically, our results can help in the real time characterization of low frequency sources in the ocean. This will enhance the robustness of early tsunami detection systems.

  16. Acoustic transparency and slow sound using detuned acoustic resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that the phenomenon of acoustic transparency and slowsound propagation can be realized with detuned acoustic resonators (DAR), mimicking thereby the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in atomic physics. Sound propagation in a pipe with a series of side...

  17. Acoustic Emission Analysis Applet (AEAA) Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Charles T.; Roth, Don J.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research and NASA White Sands Test Facility have developed software supporting an automated pressure vessel structural health monitoring (SHM) system based on acoustic emissions (AE). The software, referred to as the Acoustic Emission Analysis Applet (AEAA), provides analysts with a tool that can interrogate data collected on Digital Wave Corp. and Physical Acoustics Corp. software using a wide spectrum of powerful filters and charts. This software can be made to work with any data once the data format is known. The applet will compute basic AE statistics, and statistics as a function of time and pressure (see figure). AEAA provides value added beyond the analysis provided by the respective vendors' analysis software. The software can handle data sets of unlimited size. A wide variety of government and commercial applications could benefit from this technology, notably requalification and usage tests for compressed gas and hydrogen-fueled vehicles. Future enhancements will add features similar to a "check engine" light on a vehicle. Once installed, the system will ultimately be used to alert International Space Station crewmembers to critical structural instabilities, but will have little impact to missions otherwise. Diagnostic information could then be transmitted to experienced technicians on the ground in a timely manner to determine whether pressure vessels have been impacted, are structurally unsound, or can be safely used to complete the mission.

  18. Finite-difference lattice Boltzmann simulation on acoustics-induced particle deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Sau-Chung; Yuen, Wai-Tung; Wu, Chili; Chao, Christopher Yu-Hang

    2015-10-01

    Particle manipulation by acoustics has been investigated for many years. By a proper design, particle deposition can be induced by the same principle. The use of acoustics can potentially be developed into an energy-efficient technique for particle removal or filtration system as the pressure drop due to acoustic effects is low and the flow velocity is not necessary to be high. Two nonlinear acoustic effects, acoustic streaming and acoustic radiation pressure, are important. Acoustic streaming introduces vortices and stagnation points on the surface of an air duct and removes the particles by deposition. Acoustic radiation pressure causes particles to form agglomerates and enhances inertial impaction and/or gravitational sedimentation. The objective of this paper is to develop a numerical model to investigate the particle deposition induced by acoustic effects. A three-step approach is adopted and lattice Boltzamnn technique is employed as the numerical method. This is because the lattice Boltzmann equation is hyperbolic and can be solved locally, explicitly, and efficiently on parallel computers. In the first step, the acoustic field and its mean square fluctuation values are calculated. Due to the advantage of the lattice Boltzmann technique, a simple, stable and fast lattice Boltzmann method is proposed and verified. The result of the first step is input into the second step to solve for acoustic streaming. Another finite difference lattice Boltzmann method, which has been validated by a number of flows and benchmark cases in the literature, is used. The third step consists in tracking the particle's motion by a Lagrangian approach where the acoustic radiation pressure is considered. The influence of the acoustics effects on particle deposition is explained. The numerical result matches with an experiment. The model is a useful tool for optimizing the design and helps to further develop the technique.

  19. Acoustic behavior of microbubbles and implications for drug delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooiman, K.; Vos, H.J.; Versluis, M.; Jong, de N.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents are valuable in diagnostic ultrasound imaging, and they increasingly show potential for drug delivery. This review focuses on the acoustic behavior of flexible-coated microbubbles and rigid-coated microcapsules and their contribution to enhanced drug delivery. Phenomena re

  20. Taming Acoustic Cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Rivas, David Fernandez; Enriquez, Oscar R; Versluis, Michel; Prosperetti, Andrea; Gardeniers, Han; Lohse, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video we show acoustic cavitation occurring from pits etched on a silicon surface. By immersing the surface in a liquid, gas pockets are entrapped in the pits which upon ultrasonic insonation, are observed to shed cavitation bubbles. Modulating the driving pressure it is possible to induce different behaviours based on the force balance that determines the interaction among bubbles and the silicon surface. This system can be used for several applications like sonochemical water treatment, cleaning of surfaces with deposited materials such as biofilms.

  1. Lecture Notes On Acoustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book mentions string vibration and wave, one-dimension wave and wave equation, characteristic impedance, governing equation of string, and wave energy from string, wave equation of wave and basic physical quantity like one-dimension wave equation, sound unit, sound intensity and energy, sound movement in a surface of discontinuity with transmission loss of sound by partition, and Snell's law, radiation, scatter and diffraction and sound in closed space with Sabine's theory, sound characteristic of closed space and duct acoustics.

  2. Dynamic acoustic tractor beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitri, F. G., E-mail: F.G.Mitri@ieee.org [Chevron, Area 52 Technology – ETC, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87508 (United States)

    2015-03-07

    Pulling a sphere and vibrating it around an equilibrium position by amplitude-modulation in the near-field of a single finite circular piston transducer is theoretically demonstrated. Conditions are found where a fluid hexane sphere (with arbitrary radius) chosen as an example, centered on the axis of progressive propagating waves and submerged in non-viscous water, experiences an attractive (steady) force pulling it towards the transducer, as well as an oscillatory force forcing it to vibrate back-and-forth. Numerical predictions for the dynamic force illustrate the theory and suggest an innovative method in designing dynamic acoustical tractor beams.

  3. Dynamic acoustic tractor beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2015-03-01

    Pulling a sphere and vibrating it around an equilibrium position by amplitude-modulation in the near-field of a single finite circular piston transducer is theoretically demonstrated. Conditions are found where a fluid hexane sphere (with arbitrary radius) chosen as an example, centered on the axis of progressive propagating waves and submerged in non-viscous water, experiences an attractive (steady) force pulling it towards the transducer, as well as an oscillatory force forcing it to vibrate back-and-forth. Numerical predictions for the dynamic force illustrate the theory and suggest an innovative method in designing dynamic acoustical tractor beams.

  4. In-situ remediation strategy for enhanced microbial de-acidification of geogenic sulphuric acid mining lakes - mesocosmic studies; In situ-Sanierungsstrategie zur Foerderung der mikrobiellen Entsaeuerung von geogen schwefelsauren Bergbaurestseen - Mesokosmosstudien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froemmichen, R.

    2001-07-01

    The author investigated whether neutralisation of acid mining lakes can be enhanced by adding low-cost, complex organic carbon sources. Subjects: Selection of a complex carbon source suited for stimulation of dissimilatory iron and sulfate reduction; design and observation of a near-natural landscape compartment (mesocosmos) at different scales as a preparation for the field study; Description of reactions in the mesocosmic lake water and sediment; Assessment of neutralisation equivalents and neutralisation rates on the basis of an identification of reduced iron and sulphur compounds. [German] Die Hypothese, dass durch Zugabe kostenguenstiger komplexer organischer Kohlenstoffquellen in die sedimentnahe Wasserzone eines sauren Tagebaurestsees seeinterne Neutralisierungsprozesse gefoerdert werden, liegt dieser Arbeit zu Grunde. Seeinterne Neutralisationsprozesse, wie die dissimilatorische Eisen- und Sulfatreduktion, fuehren ueber die Akkumulierung von reduzierten Eisen- und Schwefelverbindungen im Sediment zur Alkalinitaetsbildung im Gewaessersystem und im Seewasser zu hoeheren pH-Werten. Daher leiten sich folgende Ziele fuer diese Arbeit ab: - Auswahl einer geeigneten komplexen Kohlenstoffquelle zur Stimulierung der dissimilatorischen Eisen- und Sulfatreduktion - Design und Beobachtung eines naturnahen Landschaftsausschnittes (Mesokosmos) unterschiedlicher Massstabsebenen in Vorbereitung fuer die Fallstudie im Freiland - Beschreibung von Stoffumsetzungen im Seewasser und -sediment der Mesokosmen - Abschaetzung von Neutralisationsaequivalenten und Bestimmung von Neutralisationsraten anhand der Identifizierung reduzierter Eisen- und Schwefelverbindungen. (orig.)

  5. Use of surfactants for the remediation of contaminated soils: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Xuhui, E-mail: clab@whu.edu.cn [School of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Jiang, Rui; Xiao, Wei [School of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yu, Jiaguo, E-mail: jiaguoyu@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • The recent advances in use of surfactant for soil remediation are reviewed. • The mechanisms of surfactant-based soil remediation are discussed. • A review on the application of different types of surfactants is made. • The future research direction of surfactant-based technologies is suggested. - Abstract: Due to the great harm caused by soil contamination, there is an increasing interest to apply surfactants to the remediation of a variety of contaminated soils worldwide. This review article summarizes the findings of recent literatures regarding remediation of contaminated soils/sites using surfactants as an enhancing agent. For the surfactant-based remedial technologies, the adsorption behaviors of surfactants onto soil, the solubilizing capability of surfactants, and the toxicity and biocompatibility of surfactants are important considerations. Surfactants can enhance desorption of pollutants from soil, and promote bioremediation of organics by increasing bioavailability of pollutants. The removal of heavy metals and radionuclides from soils involves the mechanisms of dissolution, surfactant-associated complexation, and ionic exchange. In addition to the conventional ionic and nonionic surfactants, gemini surfactants and biosurfactants are also applied to soil remediation due to their benign features like lower critical micelle concentration (CMC) values and better biocompatibility. Mixed surfactant systems and combined use of surfactants with other additives are often adopted to improve the overall performance of soil washing solution for decontamination. Worldwide the field studies and full-scale remediation using surfactant-based technologies are yet limited, however, the already known cases reveal the good prospect of applying surfactant-based technologies to soil remediation.

  6. Electrodialytic remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls contaminated soil with iron nanoparticles and two different surfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Helena I.; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.;

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent organic pollutants (POP) that strongly adsorb in soils and sediments. There is a need to develop new and cost-effective solutions for the remediation of PCB contaminated soils. The suspended electrodialytic remediation combined with zero valent iron...... nanoparticles (nZVI) could be a competitive alternative to the commonly adapted solutions of incineration or landfilling. Surfactants can enhance the PCB desorption, dechlorination, and the contaminated soil cleanup. In this work, two different surfactants (saponin and Tween 80) were tested to enhance PCB...

  7. The Role of Motivation in Cognitive Remediation for People with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saperstein, Alice M; Medalia, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Motivation impairment is an often prominent component of schizophrenia symptomatology that impacts treatment engagement and reduces the functional benefit from psychosocial interventions. Intrinsic motivation in particular has been shown to be impaired in schizophrenia. Nowhere is the role of intrinsic motivation impairment more evident than in cognitive remediation for schizophrenia. This chapter describes the theoretical determinants of motivation to learn and illustrates how those determinants have been translated into therapeutic techniques that enhance intrinsic motivation in a clinical context. We review the extant research that indicates how motivation enhancing techniques yield treatment-related improvements within cognitive remediation therapy and, more broadly, in other behavioral skills-based interventions for schizophrenia.

  8. Acoustic Similarity and Dichotic Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Peter

    1978-01-01

    An experiment tests conjectures that right ear advantage (REA) has an auditory origin in competition or interference between acoustically similar stimuli and that feature-sharing effect (FSE) has its origin in assignment of features of phonetically similar stimuli. No effect on the REA for acoustic similarity, and a clear effect of acoustic…

  9. Acoustic Center or Time Origin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staffeldt, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses the acoustic center in relation to measurements of loudspeaker polar data. Also, it presents the related concept time origin and discusses the deviation that appears between positions of the acoustic center found by wavefront based and time based measuring methods....

  10. Digital Controller For Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, D. Kent

    1989-01-01

    Acoustic driver digitally controls sound fields along three axes. Allows computerized acoustic levitation and manipulation of small objects for such purposes as containerless processing and nuclear-fusion power experiments. Also used for controlling motion of vibration-testing tables in three dimensions.

  11. Propagation of Ion Acoustic Perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered.......Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered....

  12. 300-FF-1 remedial design report/remedial action work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 300 Area has been divided into three operable units 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-5 all of which are in various stages of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) process. The 300-FF-1 Operable Unit, the subject of this report, includes liquid waste disposal sites, landfills, and a burial ground. This Remedial Design Report/Remedial Action Work Plan (RDR/RAWP) provides a summary description of each waste site included in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit, the basis for remedial actions to be taken, and the remedial action approach and management process for implementing these actions. The remedial action approach and management sections provide a description of the remedial action process description, the project schedule, the project team, required planning documentation, the remedial action change process, the process for verifying attainment of the remedial action goals, and the required CERCLA and RCRA closeout documentation. Appendix A provides additional details on each waste site. In addition to remediation of the waste sites, waste generated during the remedial investigation/feasibility study portions of the project will also be disposed at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). Appendix B provides a summary of the modeling performed in the 300-FF-1 Phase 3 FS and a description of the modeling effort to be used to show attainment of the remedial action goals. Appendix C provides the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for all sampling and field-screening activities performed during remediation and for verification of attainment with the remedial action goals. Appendix D provides the public involvement plan, prepared to ensure information is provided to the public during remedial design and remedial action processes

  13. MEMS Based Acoustic Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheplak, Mark (Inventor); Nishida, Toshikaza (Inventor); Humphreys, William M. (Inventor); Arnold, David P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention described and shown in the specification aid drawings include a combination responsive to an acoustic wave that can be utilized as a dynamic pressure sensor. In one embodiment of the present invention, the combination has a substrate having a first surface and an opposite second surface, a microphone positioned on the first surface of the substrate and having an input and a first output and a second output, wherein the input receives a biased voltage, and the microphone generates an output signal responsive to the acoustic wave between the first output and the second output. The combination further has an amplifier positioned on the first surface of the substrate and having a first input and a second input and an output, wherein the first input of the amplifier is electrically coupled to the first output of the microphone and the second input of the amplifier is electrically coupled to the second output of the microphone for receiving the output sinual from the microphone. The amplifier is spaced from the microphone with a separation smaller than 0.5 mm.

  14. Acoustics and Hearing

    CERN Document Server

    Damaske, Peter

    2008-01-01

    When one listens to music at home, one would like to have an acoustic impression close to that of being in the concert hall. Until recently this meant elaborate multi-channelled sound systems with 5 or more speakers. But head-related stereophony achieves the surround-sound effect in living rooms with only two loudspeakers. By virtue of their slight directivity as well as an electronic filter the limitations previously common to two-speaker systems can be overcome and this holds for any arbitrary two-channel recording. The book also investigates the question of how a wide and diffuse sound image can arise in concert halls and shows that the quality of concert halls decisively depends on diffuse sound images arising in the onset of reverberation. For this purpose a strong onset of reverberation is modified in an anechoic chamber by electroacoustic means. Acoustics and Hearing proposes ideas concerning signal processing in the auditory system that explain the measured results and the resultant sound effects plea...

  15. Acoustic data transmission method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, A.

    1991-09-17

    This patent describes a method for transmitting time line data through a drillstring having drill pipe sections connected end-to-end by joints from a first location below the surface of the earth to a second location at or near the surface of the earth, the length and cross-sectional area of the drill pipe sections being different from the length and cross-sectional area of the joints. It comprises generating acoustic data signals having a single frequency content in at least one passband of the drillstring; transmitting the data signals through the drillstring from either the first location to the second location or from the second location to the first location during a time period prior to the onset of reflective interference caused by the data signals reflecting from along the length of the drillstring, the time period being equal to or less than the time for the data signals to travel three lengths of the drillstring; stopping the transmission of data signals at the onset of the reflective interference and allowing the acoustic signals to substantially attenuate; and detecting the data signals at the respective first or second location.

  16. 29 CFR 35.15 - Remedial action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Remedial action. 35.15 Section 35.15 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL... Remedial action. Even in the absence of a finding of discrimination, a recipient, in administering...

  17. Laboratory Experiment on Electrokinetic Remediation of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed-Ali, Alya H.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2011-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is a method of decontaminating soil containing heavy metals and polar organic contaminants by passing a direct current through the soil. An undergraduate chemistry laboratory is described to demonstrate electrokinetic remediation of soil contaminated with copper. A 30 cm electrokinetic cell with an applied voltage of 30…

  18. Foreword Special Issue on Electrokinetic remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loch, J.P.G.; Lima, A.T.

    2012-01-01

    Since the first symposium on Electro-remediation (EREM) in 1997 at the École des Mines d’Albi, in Albi, France, much international attention, interest and progress have been generated in the science and technology of electro-remediation of contaminated soils, sediments and construction materials...

  19. 14 CFR 1212.800 - Civil remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil remedies. 1212.800 Section 1212.800... Comply With Requirements of This Part § 1212.800 Civil remedies. Failure to comply with the requirements of the Privacy Act and this part could subject NASA to civil suit under the provisions of 5...

  20. 32 CFR 310.47 - Civil remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil remedies. 310.47 Section 310.47 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Privacy Act Violations § 310.47 Civil remedies. In addition to specific...

  1. 10 CFR 1008.15 - Civil remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil remedies. 1008.15 Section 1008.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) RECORDS MAINTAINED ON INDIVIDUALS (PRIVACY ACT) Requests for Access or Amendment § 1008.15 Civil remedies. Subsection (g) of the Act provides that an individual may bring...

  2. An Expert support model for ex situ soil remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okx, J.P.; Frankhuizen, E.M.; Wit, de J.C.; Pijls, C.G.J.M.; Stein, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an expert support model recombining knowledge and experience obtained during ex situ soil remediation. To solve soil remediation problems, an inter-disciplinary approach is required. Responsibilities during the soil remediation process, however, are increasingly decentralised, wh

  3. Remediation of Cu/Phenanthrene and Combined Contaminated Loess Soil by Chemical-enhanced Washing%化学强化洗脱修复铜、菲及其复合污染黄土

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟金魁; 赵保卫; 朱琨; 马锋锋; 杨兴春; 冉婧媛

    2011-01-01

    采用批平衡法研究了乙二胺四乙酸二钠(EDTA)或/和十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS)强化洗脱铜(Cu2+)或/和菲(PHE)污染的甘肃黄土.结果表明,EDTA或/和SDS能有效地去除单一或复合污染黄土中的Cu2+或/和PHE,当EDTA浓度〈0.1 mol/L时,共存PHE对Cu2+的去除有明显的促进作用,而当EDTA浓度〉0.1 mol/L时,共存PHE对Cu2+的去除有轻微的抑制.至于EDTA对PHE的去除,在所研究的浓度范围内,共存Cu2+促进了PHE的去除,在EDTA为0.01 mol/L时,复合菲的去除率比单一菲的高20.94%.在SDS强化洗脱中,在SDS〈4 000 mg/L时,Cu2+对PHE的去除有轻微抑制,而在SDS〉5 000 mg/L时,Cu2+对PHE的去除有促进作用.相反,在低浓度SDS时,PHE对Cu2+的去除有促进作用,而在高浓度时,PHE对Cu2+的去除有抑制作用.EDTA-SDS复合极大提高了污染物的去除率,在先EDTA后SDS、先SDS后EDTA和EDTA-SDS同时添加顺序中,Cu2+去除率分别为91.40%、95.10%和96.50%,比单独用EDTA对复合污染Cu2+的洗脱率62.94%分别高28.46%、32.16%和33.56%,PHE的去除率分别为68.30%、85.40%和84.95%,比单独用SDS对复合PHE的洗脱率52.16%分别高16.14%、33.24%、32.79%.因此,对PHE和Cu2+去除来说,试剂最佳添加顺序是先加SDS后加EDTA,或SDS-EDTA同时加入.%The chemical-enhanced washing of Cu2+ or/and phenanthrene(PHE) single or combined contaminated loess soil in Gansu Province was investigated with disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate(EDTA) or/and sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS) by the batch equilibrium experiments.The experimental results showed that EDTA or /and SDS could remove efficiently Cu2+ and/or PHE in single-contaminated or combined contaminated loess soils.The Cu2+ removal was significantly promoted by coexisting PHE with low concentration of EDTA(EDTA0.1 mol/L),however,the removal was slightly hindered with high concentration of EDTA(EDTA0.1 mol/L).As for the PHE removal

  4. Opto acoustical gravitational bar detector with cryogenic mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Kulagin, V V; Popov, S M; Rudenko, V N; Skvortsov, M N; Yudin, I S

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing of sensitivity of the opto-acoustical gravitational wave (GW) antenna OGRAN installed in the underground facilities of Baksan Neutrino Observatory is analyzed. Calculations are presented showing a sensitivity improving on two orders of value after a cooling the solid body acoustical part of the antenna to the nitrogen temperature. A possibility of keeping of the same optical scheme of the antenna at low temperature is discussed. Design of modernized construction for cryogenic version of the antenna OGRAN is described. Test experiments with cooled pilot model carrying cryogenic mirrors illuminated by the optical pump up to 0.5 W are presented.

  5. A numerically efficient damping model for acoustic resonances in microfluidic cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, P., E-mail: hahnp@ethz.ch; Dual, J. [Institute of Mechanical Systems (IMES), Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, Tannenstrasse 3, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    Bulk acoustic wave devices are typically operated in a resonant state to achieve enhanced acoustic amplitudes and high acoustofluidic forces for the manipulation of microparticles. Among other loss mechanisms related to the structural parts of acoustofluidic devices, damping in the fluidic cavity is a crucial factor that limits the attainable acoustic amplitudes. In the analytical part of this study, we quantify all relevant loss mechanisms related to the fluid inside acoustofluidic micro-devices. Subsequently, a numerical analysis of the time-harmonic visco-acoustic and thermo-visco-acoustic equations is carried out to verify the analytical results for 2D and 3D examples. The damping results are fitted into the framework of classical linear acoustics to set up a numerically efficient device model. For this purpose, all damping effects are combined into an acoustofluidic loss factor. Since some components of the acoustofluidic loss factor depend on the acoustic mode shape in the fluid cavity, we propose a two-step simulation procedure. In the first step, the loss factors are deduced from the simulated mode shape. Subsequently, a second simulation is invoked, taking all losses into account. Owing to its computational efficiency, the presented numerical device model is of great relevance for the simulation of acoustofluidic particle manipulation by means of acoustic radiation forces or acoustic streaming. For the first time, accurate 3D simulations of realistic micro-devices for the quantitative prediction of pressure amplitudes and the related acoustofluidic forces become feasible.

  6. MRI in acoustic neuroma: A review of 35 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curati, W.L.; Graif, M.; Steiner, R.E.; Kingsley, D.P.E.; King, T.; Scholtz, C.L.

    1986-05-01

    This retrospective study is aimed to assess the diagnostic efficacy of MRI in relation to contrast enhanced CT and air-CT-cisternography. MRI examinations were performed in 35 patients with suspected neurosensorial damage and suggestive of acoustic neuroma: 27 presented on MRI with unilateral tumors, 3 patients had a bilateral tumor and 5 patients were negative on all imaging modalities. The total number of acoustic neuromas detected was therefore 33. To date microscopic analysis has been performed on 12 tumors and histological data based on type Antoni A and Antoni B classification is available. Contrast enhanced CT detected 19 tumors, yielding an overall sensitivity rate of 58%. Air-CT cisternography identified an additional 5 tumors with a sensitivity rate of 100%. MRI identified 33 acoustic neuromas in 30 patients and was negative in 5 patients (sensitivity and accuracy 100%). Considering sensitivity in relation to location, MRI was much better than contrast enhanced CT for internal auditory canal (IAC) tumors (100% versus 36%) and better for cerebello-pontine angle tumors (CPA) tumors (100% versus 68%). The evolution of MRI technique, the various pulse sequences used and their actual selection is discussed. Seven patients received a paramagnetic contrast agent (Gadolinium-DTPA) with the additional benefit of a better demonstration of the tumor. The results suggest that MRI is the best non invasive technique for demonstrating acoustic neuromas.

  7. Light Pollution Responses and Remedies

    CERN Document Server

    Mizon, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Light pollution is a major threat to astronomy across the entire developed world. The night sky that most of us can see bears little relationship to the spectacular vistas that our ancestors have gazed at for tens of thousands of years. It is ironic that as our understanding of the universe has improved, our ability to see it has been dramatically reduced by the skyglow of our civilization. In the second edition of Light Pollution - Responses and Remedies, Bob Mizon delves into the history and practice of lighting and how its misue has not only stolen the stars, but blighted our lives and those of our fellow-creatures on this planet. This book suggests how we can win back the night sky and at the same time save energy and money, improve our health, and even lower crime rate! It also includes a list of targets for urban stargazers, and recommendations for ensuring sane lighting worldwide.

  8. Wind Turbine Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbine generators, ranging in size from a few kilowatts to several megawatts, are producing electricity both singly and in wind power stations that encompass hundreds of machines. Many installations are in uninhabited areas far from established residences, and therefore there are no apparent environmental impacts in terms of noise. There is, however, the potential for situations in which the radiated noise can be heard by residents of adjacent neighborhoods, particularly those neighborhoods with low ambient noise levels. A widely publicized incident of this nature occurred with the operation of the experimental Mod-1 2-MW wind turbine, which is described in detail elsewhere. Pioneering studies which were conducted at the Mod-1 site on the causes and remedies of noise from wind turbines form the foundation of much of the technology described in this chapter.

  9. Distributed acoustic sensing for pipeline monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, David; McEwen-King, Magnus [OptaSense, QinetiQ Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    existing buried optical cable can be extended to encircle facilities such as well heads and Block Valve Stations and be monitored to provide perimeter protection and condition monitoring. Out in the field, activity close to a buried pipeline can be significant with farming activity, roads, urban encroachment and rivers all creating significant noise. We will show how, through the use of a system with a high acoustic sensitivity, small spatial resolution and sophisticated signal processing we are able to differentiate between normal activity and unusual activity that can be a threat to the pipeline. Examples of the detection of people, vehicles and excavators at significant ranges laterally offset from a buried cable will be shown. The paper will refer to data recorded on field deployed systems and discuss the further enhancements to the technology including extending the range beyond 120 km and integration of the alert information into existing SCADA systems. Finally, this paper we will briefly discuss the use of Distributed Acoustic Sensing to monitor subsea pipelines and how the technology may also be used to listen to completion and production activity downhole. (author)

  10. Flow assurance intervention, hydrates remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, Christopher S. [Oceaneering International Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This paper addresses the issues of removing hydrates in sub sea flow lines and associated equipment with an Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) of opportunity and a multi-service-vessel (MSV). The paper is split into three topics: the equipment used with the ROV, assessing the interface points and handling fluids produced from drawing down the pressure. Each section is explained thoroughly and backed up with real world experience. The equipment section details information from actual jobs performed and why the particular components were utilized. The system is generally contained in an ROV mounted skid. Pumps are utilized to draw down the pressure inside the hydrated section of equipment, removing one of the three necessary components for hydrates formation. Once the section is pumped down, several options exist for handling the fluids pumped out of the system: pumping to surface, re-injection into the well, or injection into an operating flow line. This method of hydrates remediation is both economical and timely. Hydrate blockages form in low temperatures and high pressures. Reducing the pressure or increasing the temperature so the conditions lie to the right of the hydrate dissociation curve will slowly decompose the blockage. Depressurization and the use of MEG or methanol will give favorable conditions to remove the hydrate plug. Oceaneering has the capabilities to remove hydrates using the FRS in conjunction with an installation vessel to dispose of the gas and fluid removed from the flow line. Hydrate remediation techniques should be implemented into the initial design to reduce costs later. The cost of stopped production combined with the day rate for equipment needed for hydrate removal outweighs the costs if no technique is utilized. (author)

  11. Space Debris Environment Remediation Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.; Klinkrad, Heiner

    2009-01-01

    Long-term projections of the space debris environment indicate that even drastic measures, such as an immediate, complete halt of launch and release activities, will not result in a stable environment of man-made space objects. Collision events between already existing space hardware will within a few decades start to dominate the debris population, and result in a net increase of the space debris population, also in size regimes which may cause further catastrophic collisions. Such a collisional cascading will ultimately lead to a run-away situation ("Kessler syndrome"), with no further possibility of human intervention. The International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) has been investigating the status and the stability of the space debris environment in several studies by first looking into space traffic management possibilities and then investigating means of mitigating the creation of space debris. In an ongoing activity, an IAA study group looks at ways of active space debris environment remediation. In contrast to the former mitigation study, the current activity concentrates on the active removal of small and large objects, such as defunct spacecraft, orbital stages, and mission-related objects, which serve as a latent mass reservoir that fuels initial catastrophic collisions and later collisional cascading. The paper will outline different mass removal concepts, e.g. based on directed energy, tethers (momentum exchange or electrodynamic), aerodynamic drag augmentation, solar sails, auxiliary propulsion units, retarding surfaces, or on-orbit capture. Apart from physical principles of the proposed concepts, their applicability to different orbital regimes, and their effectiveness concerning mass removal efficiency will be analyzed. The IAA activity on space debris environment remediation is a truly international project which involves more than 23 contributing authors from 9 different nations.

  12. Policy and Strategies for Environmental Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the environmental remediation of a given site, concerned and interested parties have diverse and often conflicting interests with regard to remediation goals, the time frames involved, reuse of the site, the efforts necessary and cost allocation. An environmental remediation policy is essential for establishing the core values on which remediation is to be based. It incorporates a set of principles to ensure the safe and efficient management of remediation situations. Policy is mainly established by the national government and may become codified in the national legislative system. An environmental remediation strategy sets out the means for satisfying the principles and requirements of the national policy. It is normally established by the relevant remediation implementer or by the government in the case of legacy sites. Thus, the national policy may be elaborated in several different strategies. To ensure the safe, technically optimal and cost effective management of remediation situations, countries are advised to formulate an appropriate policy and strategies. Situations involving remediation include remediation of legacy sites (sites where past activities were not stringently regulated or adequately supervised), remediation after emergencies (nuclear and radiological) and remediation after planned ongoing operation and decommissioning. The environmental policy involves the principles of justification, optimization of protection, protection of future generations and the environment, efficiency in the use of resources, and transparent interaction with stakeholders. A typical policy will also take into account the national legal framework and institutional structure and applicable international conventions while providing for the allocation of responsibilities and resources, in addition to safety and security objectives and public information and participation in the decision making process. The strategy reflects and elaborates the goals and requirements set

  13. Acoustic Signal Feature Extraction of Vehicle Targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝金辉; 马宝华; 李科杰

    2002-01-01

    Acoustic signal feature extraction is an important part of target recognition. The mechanisms for producing acoustic signals and their propagation are analyzed to extract the features of the radiated noise from different targets. Analysis of the acoustic spectra of typical vehicle targets acquired outdoors shows that the vehicles can be classified based on the acoustic spectra and amplitudes.

  14. Acoustic cavitation movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Lawrence A.

    2003-04-01

    Acoustic cavitation is a phenomenon that occurs on microsecond time scales and micron length scales, yet, it has many macroscopic manifestations. Accordingly, it is often difficult, at least for the author, to form realistic physical descriptions of the specific mechanisms through which it expresses itself in our macroscopic world. For example, there are still many who believe that cavitation erosion is due to the shock wave that is emitted by bubble implosion, rather than the liquid jet created on asymmetric collapse...and they may be right. Over the years, the author has accumulated a number of movies and high-speed photographs of cavitation activity, which he uses to form his own visual references. In the time allotted, he will show a number of these movies and photographs and discuss their relevance to existing technological problems. A limited number of CDs containing the presented materials will be available to interested individuals. [Work supported in part by the NIH, USAMRMC, and the ONR.

  15. Acoustic emission testing

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse, Christian U

    2008-01-01

    Acoustic Emission (AE) techniques have been studied in civil engineering for a long time. The techniques are recently going to be more and more applied to practical applications and to be standardized in the codes. This is because the increase of aging structures and disastrous damages due to recent earthquakes urgently demand for maintenance and retrofit of civil structures in service for example. It results in the need for the development of advanced and effective inspection techniques. Thus, AE techniques draw a great attention to diagnostic applications and in material testing. The book covers all levels from the description of AE basics for AE beginners (level of a student) to sophisticated AE algorithms and applications to real large-scale structures as well as the observation of the cracking process in laboratory specimen to study fracture processes.

  16. Optimization of remediation strategies using vadose zone monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Ofer

    2016-04-01

    the unsaturated zone including enhanced bioremediation of contaminated deep vadose zone (40 m depth). Manipulating subsurface conditions for enhanced bioremediation was demonstrated through two remediation projects. One site is characterized by 20 m deep vadose zone that is contaminated with gasoline products and the other is a 40 m deep vadose zone that is contaminated with perchlorate. In both cases temporal variation of the sediment water content as well as the variations in the vadose zone chemical and isotopic composition allowed real time detection of water flow velocities, contaminants transport rates and bio-degradation degree. Results and conclusions from each wetting cycle were used to improve the following wetting cycles in order to optimize contaminants degradation conditions while minimizing leaching of contaminants to the groundwater.

  17. Integrating GIS and GPS in environmental remediation oversight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents findings on Ohio EPA Office of Federal Facilities Oversight's (OFFO) use of GIS and GPS for environmental remediation oversight at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Fernald Site. The Fernald site is a former uranium metal production facility within DOE's nuclear weapons complex. Significant uranium contamination of soil and groundwater is being remediated under state and federal regulations. OFFO uses GIS/GPS to enhance environmental monitoring and remediation oversight. These technologies are utilized within OFFO's environmental monitoring program for sample location and parameter selection, data interpretation and presentation. GPS is used to integrate sample data into OFFO's GIS and for permanently linking precise and accurate geographic data to samples and waste units. It is important to identify contamination geographically as all visual references (e.g., buildings, infrastructure) will be removed during remediation. Availability of the GIS allows OFFO to perform independent analysis and review of DOE contractor generated data, models, maps, and designs. This ability helps alleviate concerns associated with open-quotes black boxclose quotes models and data interpretation. OFFO's independent analysis has increased regulatory confidence and the efficiency of design reviews. GIS/GPS technology allows OFFO to record and present complex data in a visual format aiding in stakeholder education and awareness. Presented are OFFO's achievements within the aforementioned activities and some reasons learned in implementing the GIS/GPS program. OFFO's two years of GIS/GPS development have resulted in numerous lessons learned and ideas for increasing effectiveness through the use of GIS/GPS

  18. Remediation of Diesel Fuel Contaminated Sandy Soil using Ultrasonic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulandari P.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic cleaning has been used in industry for some time, but the application of ultrasonic cleaning in contaminated soil is just recently received considerable attention, it is a very new technique, especially in Indonesia. An ultrasonic cleaner works mostly by energy released from the collapse of millions of microscopic cavitations near the dirty surface. This paper investigates the use of ultrasonic wave to enhance remediation of diesel fuel contaminated sandy soil considering the ultrasonic power, soil particle size, soil density, water flow rate, and duration of ultrasonic waves application.

  19. Effects of different remediation treatments on crude oil contaminated saline soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong-Chao; Guo, Shu-Hai; Wang, Jia-Ning; Li, Dan; Wang, Hui; Zeng, De-Hui

    2014-12-01

    Remediation of the petroleum contaminated soil is essential to maintain the sustainable development of soil ecosystem. Bioremediation using microorganisms and plants is a promising method for the degradation of crude oil contaminants. The effects of different remediation treatments, including nitrogen addition, Suaeda salsa planting, and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi inoculation individually or combined, on crude oil contaminated saline soil were assessed using a microcosm experiment. The results showed that different remediation treatments significantly affected the physicochemical properties, oil contaminant degradation and bacterial community structure of the oil contaminated saline soil. Nitrogen addition stimulated the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon significantly at the initial 30d of remediation. Coupling of different remediation techniques was more effective in degrading crude oil contaminants. Applications of nitrogen, AM fungi and their combination enhanced the phytoremediation efficiency of S. salsa significantly. The main bacterial community composition in the crude oil contaminated saline soil shifted with the remediation processes. γ-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the pioneer oil-degraders at the initial stage, and Firmicutes were considered to be able to degrade the recalcitrant components at the later stage.

  20. Research Plan: Foam Delivery of Remedial Amendments to Deep Vadose Zone for Metals and Radionuclides Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Lirong; Hart, Andrea T.; Szecsody, James E.; Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Ankeny, Mark; Hull, Laurence; Oostrom, Martinus; Freshley, Mark D.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2009-01-16

    Research proposals were submitted to the Scientific and Technical Basis for In Situ Treatment of Metals and Radionuclides Technical Working Group under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management Office (specifically, EM-22). After a peer review and selection process, the proposal, “Foam Delivery of Remedial Amendments to Deep Vadose Zone for Metals and Radionuclides Remediation,” submitted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was selected for support by the program. A research plan was requested for this EM funded project. The overall objective of this project is to develop foam delivery technology for the distribution of remedial amendments to deep vadose zone sediments for in situ immobilization of metal and radionuclide contaminants. The focus of this research in FY 2009 is on the physical aspects of the foam delivery approach. Specific objectives are to 1) study the foam quality (i.e. the gas volume fraction in foam) influence on injection pressure, 2) study the sediment air permeability influence on injection pressure, 3) investigate liquid uptake in sediment and determine whether a water front will be formed during foam delivery, 4) test amendment distance (and mass) delivery by foam from the injection point, 5) study the enhanced sweeping over heterogeneous systems (i.e., low K zones) by foam delivery relative to water-based delivery under vadose zone conditions, and 6) numerically simulate foam delivery processes in the vadose zone. Laboratory scale experiments will be conducted at PNNL to study a range of basic physical aspects of the foam propagation in sediments, including foam quality and sediment permeability influence on injection pressure, liquid uptake, and foam sweeping across heterogeneous systems. This study will be augmented with separate studies to be conducted at MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) to evaluate foam transport and amendment delivery at the intermediate-scale. The results of intermediate

  1. Research Plan: Foam Delivery of Remedial Amendments to Deep Vadose Zone for Metals and Radionuclides Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research proposals were submitted to the Scientific and Technical Basis for In Situ Treatment of Metals and Radionuclides Technical Working Group under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management Office (specifically, EM-22). After a peer review and selection process, the proposal, 'Foam Delivery of Remedial Amendments to Deep Vadose Zone for Metals and Radionuclides Remediation,' submitted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was selected for support by the program. A research plan was requested for this EM funded project. The overall objective of this project is to develop foam delivery technology for the distribution of remedial amendments to deep vadose zone sediments for in situ immobilization of metal and radionuclide contaminants. The focus of this research in FY 2009 is on the physical aspects of the foam delivery approach. Specific objectives are to (1) study the foam quality (i.e. the gas volume fraction in foam) influence on injection pressure, (2) study the sediment air permeability influence on injection pressure, (3) investigate liquid uptake in sediment and determine whether a water front will be formed during foam delivery, (4) test amendment distance (and mass) delivery by foam from the injection point, (5) study the enhanced sweeping over heterogeneous systems (i.e., low K zones) by foam delivery relative to water-based delivery under vadose zone conditions, and (6) numerically simulate foam delivery processes in the vadose zone. Laboratory scale experiments will be conducted at PNNL to study a range of basic physical aspects of the foam propagation in sediments, including foam quality and sediment permeability influence on injection pressure, liquid uptake, and foam sweeping across heterogeneous systems. This study will be augmented with separate studies to be conducted at MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) to evaluate foam transport and amendment delivery at the intermediate-scale. The results of intermediate

  2. Is there an environmental benefit from remediation of a contaminated site? Combined assessments of the risk reduction and life cycle impact of remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Binning, Philip John;

    2012-01-01

    A comparative life cycle assessment is presented for four different management options for a trichloroethene-contaminated site with a contaminant source zone located in a fractured clay till. The compared options are (i) long-term monitoring (ii) in-situ enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD...... impacts due to contaminant leaching into groundwater that is used for drinking water, whereas the secondary environmental impacts are related to remediation activities such as monitoring, drilling and construction of wells and use of remedial amendments. The primary impacts for the compared scenarios were...... determined by a numerical risk assessment and remedial performance model, which predicted the contaminant mass discharge over time at a point of compliance in the aquifer and at the waterworks. The combined assessment of risk reduction and life cycle impacts showed that all management options result...

  3. Raising Photoemission Efficiency with Surface Acoustic Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Afanasev, F. Hassani, C.E. Korman, V.G. Dudnikov, R.P. Johnson, M. Poelker, K.E.L. Surles-Law

    2012-07-01

    We are developing a novel technique that may help increase the efficiency and reduce costs of photoelectron sources used at electron accelerators. The technique is based on the use of Surface Acoustic Waves (SAW) in piezoelectric materials, such as GaAs, that are commonly used as photocathodes. Piezoelectric fields produced by the traveling SAW spatially separate electrons and holes, reducing their probability of recombination, thereby enhancing the photoemission quantum efficiency of the photocathode. Additional advantages could be increased polarization provided by the enhanced mobility of charge carriers that can be controlled by the SAW and the ionization of optically-generated excitons resulting in the creation of additional electron-hole pairs. It is expected that these novel features will reduce the cost of accelerator operation. A theoretical model for photoemission in the presence of SAW has been developed, and experimental tests of the technique are underway.

  4. Neural correlates of cognitive improvements following cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: a systematic review of randomized trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémence Isaac

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive impairments are a core feature in schizophrenia and are linked to poor social functioning. Numerous studies have shown that cognitive remediation can enhance cognitive and functional abilities in patients with this pathology. The underlying mechanism of these behavioral improvements seems to be related to structural and functional changes in the brain. However, studies on neural correlates of such enhancement remain scarce. Objectives: We explored the neural correlates of cognitive enhancement following cognitive remediation interventions in schizophrenia and the differential effect between cognitive training and other therapeutic interventions or patients’ usual care. Method: We searched MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and ScienceDirect databases for studies on cognitive remediation therapy in schizophrenia that used neuroimaging techniques and a randomized design. Search terms included randomized controlled trial, cognitive remediation, cognitive training, rehabilitation, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography, near infrared spectroscopy, and diffusion tensor imaging. We selected randomized controlled trials that proposed multiple sessions of cognitive training to adult patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder and assessed its efficacy with imaging techniques. Results: In total, 15 reports involving 19 studies were included in the systematic review. They involved a total of 455 adult patients, 271 of whom received cognitive remediation. Cognitive remediation therapy seems to provide a neurobiological enhancing effect in schizophrenia. After therapy, increased activations are observed in various brain regions mainly in frontal – especially prefrontal – and also in occipital and anterior cingulate regions during working memory and executive tasks. Several studies provide evidence of an improved functional connectivity after cognitive training, suggesting a

  5. Carcinomatous meningitis appearing as acoustic neuromas. Two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astner, S.T.; Nieder, C.; Grosu, A.L. [Technical Univ. of Munich (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Stock, K. [Technical Univ. of Munich (Germany). Dept. of Internal Medicine; Gaa, J. [Technical Univ. of Munich (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2007-05-15

    Background: For acoustic neuromas, stereotactic radiotherapy (radiosurgery or stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy) has been established as an important alternative to microsurgery. In most cases initial symptoms are slow progression of unilateral hearing loss, tinnitus or vertigo or acute hearing loss with vertigo. MRI scan shows a contrast-enhancing tumor within the inner auditory channel. If the patient undergoes primary radiotherapy, diagnosis is usually not verified histologically. Therefore, careful evaluation of the medical history is mandatory despite a typical appearance on the MRI scan. If medical history does not match with acoustic neuroma, further diagnostics are necessary to rule out infectious disease or carcinomatous meningitis. Case Report: Two patients with hearing loss, vertigo and the diagnosis of acoustic neuromas by MRI scan were referred for radiotherapy. In both cases the symptoms progressed very rapidly, not typical of acoustic neuromas, and in both patients repeated liquor puncture finally revealed carcinomatous meningitis. One patient died during therapy; in the second patient intrathecal chemotherapy and additional radiotherapy of the skull base led to partial remission continuing for several months. Conclusion: Before primary radiotherapy of small intrameatal lesions diagnosis must be reassessed carefully. This is especially true for bilateral lesions suspicious for acoustic neuromas and rapid progression and persistence of clinical symptoms where carcinomatous meningitis has to be taken into account. (orig.)

  6. Effects of subsampling of passive acoustic recordings on acoustic metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomisch, Karolin; Boebel, Olaf; Zitterbart, Daniel P; Samaran, Flore; Van Parijs, Sofie; Van Opzeeland, Ilse

    2015-07-01

    Passive acoustic monitoring is an important tool in marine mammal studies. However, logistics and finances frequently constrain the number and servicing schedules of acoustic recorders, requiring a trade-off between deployment periods and sampling continuity, i.e., the implementation of a subsampling scheme. Optimizing such schemes to each project's specific research questions is desirable. This study investigates the impact of subsampling on the accuracy of two common metrics, acoustic presence and call rate, for different vocalization patterns (regimes) of baleen whales: (1) variable vocal activity, (2) vocalizations organized in song bouts, and (3) vocal activity with diel patterns. To this end, above metrics are compared for continuous and subsampled data subject to different sampling strategies, covering duty cycles between 50% and 2%. The results show that a reduction of the duty cycle impacts negatively on the accuracy of both acoustic presence and call rate estimates. For a given duty cycle, frequent short listening periods improve accuracy of daily acoustic presence estimates over few long listening periods. Overall, subsampling effects are most pronounced for low and/or temporally clustered vocal activity. These findings illustrate the importance of informed decisions when applying subsampling strategies to passive acoustic recordings or analyses for a given target species. PMID:26233026

  7. Hybrid optical and acoustic force based sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahoney, Paul; Brodie, Graham W.; Wang, Han; Demore, Christine E. M.; Cochran, Sandy; Spalding, Gabriel C.; MacDonald, Michael P.

    2014-09-01

    We report the combined use of optical sorting and acoustic levitation to give particle sorting. Differing sizes of microparticles are sorted optically both with and without the aid of acoustic levitation, and the results compared to show that the use of acoustic trapping can increase sorting efficiency. The use of a transparent ultrasonic transducer is also shown to streamline the integration of optics and acoustics. We also demonstrate the balance of optical radiation pressure and acoustic levitation to achieve vertical sorting.

  8. Technologies for remediation of radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents particulars on environmental restoration technologies (control and treatment) which can be applied to land based, radioactively contaminated sites. The media considered include soils, groundwater, surface water, sediments, air, and terrestrial and aquatic vegetation. The technologies addressed in this report can be categorized as follows: self-attenuation (natural restoration); in-situ treatment; removal of contamination; ex-situ treatment; and transportation and final disposal. The report provides also background information about and a general approach to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites as well as some guidance for the selection of a preferred remediation technology. Examples of remediation experience in Australia and Canada are given it annexes

  9. Remedial investigations for quarry bulk wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy proposes, as a separate operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, to remove contaminated bulk wastes from the Weldon Spring quarry and transport them approximately four miles to the chemical plant portion of the raffinate pits and chemical plant area. The wastes will be held in temporary storage prior to the record of decision for the overall remedial action. The decision on the ultimate disposal of these bulk wastes will be included as part of the decision for management of the waste materials resulting from remedial action activities at the raffinate pits and chemical plant area. 86 refs., 71 figs., 83 tabs

  10. Frequency Steered Acoustic Transducer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase II project is to fabricate, characterize, and verify performance of a new type of frequency steered acoustic...

  11. Frequency Steered Acoustic Transducer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is to develop, fabricate, and characterize a novel frequency steered acoustic transducer (FSAT) for the...

  12. Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility (RATF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The very large Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility (RATF) at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), Plum Brook Station, is currently under construction and is due to...

  13. Cryogenic Acoustic Suppression Testing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project will explore and test the feasibility and effectiveness of using a cryogenic fluid (liquid nitrogen) to facilitate acoustic suppression in a...

  14. Case study of restaurant successfully designed, constructed, and operated for excellent dining acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollard, Paul; Des Jardins, Stephen

    2005-09-01

    Prior to the construction of La Provence Restaurant in Roseville, California in 2004, the owner, Stephen Des Jardins, traveled with his cook, architect, and engineer to the Provence Region of France to study the cuisine, architecture, and acoustics of the local restaurants. This information was incorporated into the design, construction, and operation of his restaurant, with acoustical design assistance provided by the author, Paul Bollard. The result of the owner's painstaking attention to detail is a restaurant which has received very positive reviews for its architecture, quality of food, service, and acoustic ambience. This paper documents the measures included in the construction of the restaurant to ensure that the building acoustics enhance the dining experience, rather than detract from it. Photographs of acoustic treatments are included, as are reverberation time (RT60) test results and ambient noise level measurement results.

  15. A novel phytoremediation technology shown to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons from soils in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, X.D.; Yu, X.M.; Gerhardt, K.; Glick, B.; Greenberg, B [Waterloo Environmental Biotechnology Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada); Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2009-04-01

    This article described a newly developed, advanced microbe-enhanced phytoremediation system that can be used to remediate lands polluted by hydrocarbons, salts and metals. The technology uses 3 complementary processes to achieve effective remediation of strongly bound persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from soil. The remediation process involves physical soil treatment, photochemical photooxidation, microbial remediation and growth of plants treated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The PGPR-enhanced phytoremediation system (PEPS) alleviates plant stress and increases biodegradation activities, thereby accelerating plant growth in the presence of POPs or poor soils. The PEPS has been used successfully to remove petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) from impacted soils in situ at several sites across Canada. Studies have shown that the PHCs are degraded in the rhizosphere. This article also presented a summary of the work conducted at 3 sites in Alberta. It took only 2 years to remediate the 3 sites to levels required for site closure under Alberta Tier 1 guidelines. It was concluded that PEPS is equally effective for total PHC and Fraction 3 CCME hydrocarbons. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  16. Remediation of DNAPLs in Low Permeability Soils. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-09-01

    Dense, non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) compounds like trichloroethene (TCE) and perchloroethene (PCE) are prevalent at U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), other government, and industrial sites. Their widespread presence in low permeability media (LPM) poses severe challenges for assessment of their behavior and implementation of effective remediation technologies. Most remedial methods that involve fluid flow perform poorly in LPM. Hydraulic fracturing can improve the performance of remediation methods such as vapor extraction, free-product recovery, soil flushing, steam stripping, bioremediation, bioventing, and air sparging in LPM by enhancing formation permeability through the creation of fractures filled with high-permeability materials, such as sand. Hydraulic fracturing can improve the performance of other remediation methods such as oxidation, reductive dechlorination, and bioaugmentation by enhancing delivery of reactive agents to the subsurface. Hydraulic fractures are typically created using a 2-in. steel casing and a drive point pushed into the subsurface by a pneumatic hammer. Hydraulic fracturing has been widely used for more than 50 years to stimulate the yield of wells recovering oil from rock at great depth and has recently been shown to stimulate the yield of wells recovering contaminated liquids and vapors from LPM at shallow depths. Hydraulic fracturing is an enabling technology for improving the performance of some remedial methods and is a key element in the implementation of other methods. This document contains information on the above-mentioned technology, including description, applicability, cost, and performance data.

  17. ''Dural tail'' adjacent to acoustic neuroma on MRI: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunardi, P. (Dept. of Neurological Sciences-Neurosurgery, Univ. ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy)); Mastronardi, L. (Dept. of Neurological Sciences-Neurosurgery, Univ. ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy)); Nardacci, B. (Dept. of Neurological Sciences-Neurosurgery, Univ. ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy)); Acqui, M. (Dept. of Neurological Sciences-Neurosurgery, Univ. ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy)); Fortuna, A. (Dept. of Neurological Sciences-Neurosurgery, Univ. ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy))

    1993-04-01

    A 'dural tail' on Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI has been often observed adjacent to meningiomas and considered to be useful in distinguishing meningioma of the cerebellopontine angle from acoustic neuroma. However, demonstration of a dural tail adjacent to an acoustic neuroma indicates that this sign is not specific. (orig.)

  18. USING PHASE DIAGRAMS TO PREDICT THE PERFORMANCE OF COSOLVENT FLOODS FOR NAPL REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosolvent flooding using water miscible solvents such as alcohols has been proposed as an in-situ NAPL remediation technique. This process is conceptually similar to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using alcohols and some surfactant formulations. As a result of interest in the EOR ...

  19. 78 FR 69793 - Voluntary Remedial Actions and Guidelines for Voluntary Recall Notices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... with regulated companies on more than 1,000 voluntary corrective action programs and the associated... ``electronic medium'' forms of the press release is intended to promote the use of communications using digital... designed to enhance the likelihood that customers will learn about the recall and pursue the remedy...

  20. NEAR-FIELD ACOUSTIC HOLOGRAPHY FOR SEMI-FREE ACOUSTIC FIELD BASED ON WAVE SUPERPOSITION APPROACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Weibing; CHEN Jian; YU Fei; CHEN Xinzhao

    2006-01-01

    In the semi-free acoustic field, the actual acoustic pressure at any point is composed of two parts: The direct acoustic pressure and the reflected acoustic pressure. The general acoustic holographic theories and algorithms request that there is only the direct acoustic pressure contained in the pressure at any point on the hologram surface, consequently, they cannot be used to reconstruct acoustic source and predict acoustic field directly. To take the reflected pressure into consideration, near-field acoustic holography for semi-free acoustic field based on wave superposition approach is proposed to realize the holographic reconstruction and prediction of the semi-free acoustic field, and the wave superposition approach is adopted as a holographic transform algorithm. The proposed theory and algorithm are realized and verified with a numerical example,and the drawbacks of the general theories and algorithms in the holographic reconstruction and prediction of the semi-free acoustic field are also demonstrated by this numerical example.

  1. Acoustic Rectification in Dispersive Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that the shapes of acoustic radiation-induced static strain and displacement pulses (rectified acoustic pulses) are defined locally by the energy density of the generating waveform. Dispersive properties are introduced analytically by assuming that the rectified pulses are functionally dependent on a phase factor that includes both dispersive and nonlinear terms. The dispersion causes an evolutionary change in the shape of the energy density profile that leads to the generation of solitons experimentally observed in fused silica.

  2. Simplified Rotation In Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Gaspar, M. S.; Trinh, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    New technique based on old discovery used to control orientation of object levitated acoustically in axisymmetric chamber. Method does not require expensive equipment like additional acoustic drivers of precisely adjustable amplitude, phase, and frequency. Reflecting object acts as second source of sound. If reflecting object large enough, close enough to levitated object, or focuses reflected sound sufficiently, Rayleigh torque exerted on levitated object by reflected sound controls orientation of object.

  3. Stable And Oscillating Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Garrett, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    Sample stability or instability determined by levitating frequency. Degree of oscillation of acoustically levitated object along axis of levitation chamber controlled by varying frequency of acoustic driver for axis above or below frequency of corresponding chamber resonance. Stabilization/oscillation technique applied in normal Earth gravity, or in absence of gravity to bring object quickly to rest at nominal levitation position or make object oscillate in desired range about that position.

  4. Study Acoustic Emissions from Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James; Workman,Gary

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this work will be to develop techniques for monitoring the acoustic emissions from carbon epoxy composite structures at cryogenic temperatures. Performance of transducers at temperatures ranging from ambient to cryogenic and the characteristics of acoustic emission from composite structures will be studied and documented. This entire effort is directed towards characterization of structures used in NASA propulsion programs such as the X-33.

  5. Cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia: pharmacological and cognitive remediation approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Philip D; Bowie, Christopher R

    2012-09-01

    This article discusses the measurement of cognition in schizophrenia, its role as a determinant of disability, and treatment efforts to date, including pharmacological and behavioral interventions as well as effective treatments that lead to improved outcomes. The measurement of functioning when patients with schizophrenia receive treatment in the office is addressed. The review focuses on new developments in the creation and adoption of a consensus method for the assessment of cognitive functioning in treatment studies, on the increased appreciation for assessment of functional skills in the prediction of everyday outcomes, and on developments in the basic neuroscience of cognition.

  6. SURFACTANT ENHANCED REMEDIATION OF SOIL COLUMNS CONTAMINATED BY RESIDUAL TETRACHLOROETHYLENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of aqueous surfactant solutions to recover tetrachloroethylene (PCE) entrapped in Ottawa sand was evaluated in four column experiments. Residual PCE was emplaced by injecting 14C-labeled PCE into water-saturated soil columns and displacing the free product ...

  7. Electrodialytic soil remediation enhanced by low frequency pulse current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tian R.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Mortensen, John

    2013-01-01

    controlling step both in constant and pulse current experiments, thus responsible for the major energy consumption. After 180. h, a decrease in both the initial ohmic resistance in each pulse cycle and the resistance caused by concentration polarization of the anion exchange membrane were seen in the pulse...... current experiment compared to the constant current experiment. At the cation exchange membrane, only the resistance caused by concentration polarization decreased. In the soil compartment, an average of +60. mV overpotential caused by the polarization of the electric double layer of the clay particles...... was obtained from the Nernstian behavior simulation of the relaxation process, which was significantly lower than the ohmic voltage drop induced by pore fluid resistance. Therefore, the ohmic polarization was the major contributor to the energy consumption in the soil compartment and diminished by pulse...

  8. Prediction of acoustic comfort and acoustic silence in Goan Catholic churches

    OpenAIRE

    Menino A. S. M. P. Tavares; S. Rajagopalan; Satish J. Sharma; António P. O. Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic Comfort and Acoustic Silence are determinants of tranquility in a worship space. The results presented here are part of a study that investigates the behaviour of acoustically constituted worship parameters in six Catholic churches (Goa, India). Acoustic comfort is quantified through an Acoustic Comfort Impression Index which measures the net comfort induced through the optimization of the desired subjective acoustic impressions for different types of music and different music source...

  9. Luminescence study of homeopathic remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobyshev, Valentin I.; Tomkevitch, Marie

    2001-06-01

    It was shown in our recent papers that distilled water possesses intrinsic luminescence at wavelength of about 400 nm with excitation wavelength 300 nm, which is very sensitive to small amount of dissolved substances. This phenomena was chosen to study homeopathic remedies. Pronounced difference in the intensity of luminescence between several commercial preparations with the same potency and one preparation with various potencies was obtained. Long scale evolution of the spectra was registered and final result was dependent on preparation and its potency. Systematic study of homeopathic preparations of halit (natural sodium chloride) from 1 to 30 decimal dilution was done. A stepwise dilution with mechanical agitation between the dilution steps, the so-called potentisation, was produced specially by homeopathic company Weleda. Luminescence intensity against concentration (potency) of halit is non monotonous function with several maxima, the main maximum is located at 13-14-th dilution. Evolution of the spectra was registered during several months. The analogous potentisation treatment of water without additional substances results also in changes of the luminescence spectra, depending on the number of potentisation. The obtained differences of luminescence spectra at ultra high dilutions and potentisation show that the collective properties of water are really changed in homeopathic preparations.

  10. Compliance monitoring for remediated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout the world, many countries have experienced problems associated with pollution of the environment. Poorly managed practices in nuclear fuel cycle, medicine, industry, weapons production and testing, research and development activities, as well as accidents, and poor disposal practices have produced a large array of radioactively contaminated facilities and sites. Structures, biota, soils, rocks, and both surface and groundwaters have become contaminated with radionuclides and other associated contaminants, a condition that raises serious concern due to potential health effects to the exposed human populations and the environment. In response to the needs of its Member States in dealing with the problems of radioactive contamination in the environment, the IAEA has established an Environmental Restoration Project. The principal aspects of current IAEA efforts in this area include (1) gathering information and data, performing analyses, and publishing technical summaries, and other documents on key technical aspects of environmental restoration; (2) conducting a Co-ordinated Research Project on Environmental Restoration; and (3) providing direct technical assistance to Member States through technical co-operation programmes. The transfer of technologies to Member States in need of applicable methodologies and techniques for the remediation of contaminated sites is a principal objective of this project

  11. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hnat, J.G. [Vortec Corp., Collegeville, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase I consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project.

  12. List of Contractors to Support Anthrax Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2010-05-14

    This document responds to a need identified by private sector businesses for information on contractors that may be qualified to support building remediation efforts following a wide-area anthrax release.

  13. Civil Remedies Division Administrative Law Judge Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by Administrative Law Judges of the Departmental Appeals Board's Civil Remedies Division concerning fraud and abuse determinations by the Office of...

  14. Porous graphene materials for water remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Li; Chen, Xiaodong

    2014-09-10

    Water remediation has been a critical issue over the past decades due to the expansion of wastewater discharge to the environment. Currently, a variety of functional materials have been successfully prepared for water remediation applications. Among them, graphene is an attractive candidate due to its high specific surface area, tunable surface behavior, and high strength. This Concept paper summarizes the design strategy of porous graphene materials and their applications in water remediation, such as the cleanup of oil, removal of heavy metal ions, and elimination of water soluble organic contaminants. The progress made so far will guide further development in structure design strategy of porous materials based on graphene and exploration of such materials in environmental remediation.

  15. Green PCB Remediation from Sediment Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPRSS technology is an in situ remediation technique for PCB-contaminated sediments. The technique provides an effective and safe method for sediment cleanup...

  16. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION: BASICS AND TECHNOLOGY STATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrokinetic remediation, variably named as electrochemical soil processing, electromigration, electrokinetic decontamination or electroreclamation uses electric currents to extract radionuclides, heavy metals, certain organic compounds, or mixed inorganic species and some orga...

  17. Corporate governance: remedying and ratifying directors' breaches

    OpenAIRE

    Worthington, Sarah

    2000-01-01

    Extent to which company may relax scope and content of directors' duties, whether it can exonerate directors who default on their duties and whether it can ratify actions of defaulting directors and determine remedy for breach of duty.

  18. REAL TIME DATA FOR REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES (11505)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health physicists from the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company collaborated with Berkeley Nucleonics Corporation to modify the SAM 940 isotope identifier instrument to be used for nuclear waste remediation. These modifications coupled with existing capabilities of the SAM 940 have proven to be invaluable during remediation activities, reducing disposal costs by allowing swift remediation of targeted areas that have been identified as having isotopes of concern (IOC), and eliminating multiple visits to sites by declaring an excavation site clear of IOCs before demobilizing from the site. These advantages are enabled by accumulating spectral data for specific isotopes that is nearly 100 percent free of false positives, which are filtered out in 'real time.'

  19. Polarization independent, integrated optical, acoustically tunable wavelength filters/switches with tapered acoustical directional coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, H.; Schaefer, K.; Sohler, W.

    1994-11-01

    Enhanced sidelobe suppression of the filter characteristics of tunable acousto-optical mode converters in LiNbO3 has been achieved using for the first time tapered acoustical directional couplers. A sidelobe suppression of more than 15.5 dB could be demonstrated in a single stage device. By combining the mode converter with two integrated optical polarization splitters a polarization independent filter/wavelength selective switch has been fabricated with less than 3 dB intrinsic insertion loss, a polarization dependence of less than 1 dB, and a sidelobe suppression exceeding 14 dB.

  20. Water as a Reagent for Soil Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaweera, Indira S.; Marti-Perez, Montserrat; Diaz-Ferrero, Jordi; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2003-03-06

    SRI International conducted experiments in a two-year, two-phase process to develop and evaluate hydrothermal extraction technology, also known as hot water extraction (HWE) technology, for remediating petroleum-contaminated soils. The bench-scale demonstration of the process has shown great promise, and the implementation of this technology will revolutionize the conventional use of water in soil remediation technologies and provide a standalone technology for removal of both volatile and heavy components from contaminated soil.