Sample records for acoustically controlled tetherless

  1. An acoustically controlled tetherless underwater vehicle for installation and maintenance of neutrino detectors in the deep ocean

    Ballou, Philip J.


    The task of installing and servicing high energy neutrino detectors in the deep ocean from a surface support vessel is problematic using conventional tethered systems. An array of multiple detector strings rising 500 m from the ocean floor, and forming a grid with 50 m spacing between the strings, presents a substantial entanglement hazard for equipment cables deployed from the surface. Such tasks may be accomplished with fewer risks using a tetherless underwater remotely operated vehicle that has a local acoustic telemetry link to send control commands and sensor data between the vehicle and a stationary hydrophone suspended above or just outside the perimeter of the work site. The Phase I effort involves the development of an underwater acoustic telemetry link for vehicle control and sensor feedback, the evaluation of video compression methods for real-time acoustic transmission of video through the water, and the defining of local control routines on board the vehicle to allow it to perform certain basic maneuvering tasks autonomously, or to initiate a self-rescue if the acoustic control link should be lost. In Phase II, a prototype tetherless vehicle system will be designed and constructed to demonstrate the ability to install cable interconnections within a detector array at 4 km depth. The same control technology could be used with a larger more powerful vehicle to maneuver the detector strings into desired positions as they are being lowered to the ocean floor.

  2. An acoustically controlled tetherless underwater vehicle for installation and maintenance of neutrino detectors in the deep ocean

    Ballou, P J


    The task of installing and servicing high energy neutrino detectors in the deep ocean from a surface support vessel is problematic using conventional tethered systems. An array of multiple detector strings rising 500 m from the ocean floor, and forming a grid with 50 m spacing between the strings, presents a substantial entanglement hazard for equipment cables deployed from the surface. Such tasks may be accomplished with fewer risks using a tetherless underwater remotely operated vehicle that has a local acoustic telemetry link to send control commands and sensor data between the vehicle and a stationary hydrophone suspended above or just outside the perimeter of the work site. The Phase I effort involves the development of an underwater acoustic telemetry link for vehicle control and sensor feedback, the evaluation of video compression methods for real-time acoustic transmission of video through the water, and the defining of local control routines on board the vehicle to allow it to perform certain basic m...

  3. Tetherless mobile micrograsping using a magnetic elastic composite material

    Zhang, Jiachen; Diller, Eric


    In this letter, we propose and characterize a new type of tetherless mobile microgripper for micrograsping that is made of a magnetic elastic composite material. Its magnetically-programmable material and structures make it the first three-dimensional (3D) mobile microgripper that is directly actuated and controlled by magnetic forces and torques. With a symmetric four-limb structure, the microgripper is 3.5 mm long from tip to tip when it is open and 30 μm thick. It forms an approximate 700 μm cube when it is closed. The orientation and 3D shape of the microgripper are determined by the direction and strength of the applied magnetic field, respectively. As a mobile device, the microgripper can be moved through aqueous environments for precise grasping and transportation of micro-objects, pulled by magnetic gradients directly or rolled in rotating magnetic fields. The deformation of the microgripper under magnetic actuation is characterized by modeling and confirmed experimentally. Being directly controlled by magnetic forces and torques, the microgripper is easier and more intuitive to control than other magnetic microgrippers that require other inputs such as thermal and chemical responses. In addition, the microgripper is capable of performing fast repeatable grasping motions, requiring no more than 25 ms to change from fully open to fully closed in water at room temperature. As a result of its large-amplitude 3D deformation, the microgripper can accommodate cargoes with a wide range of geometries and dimensions. A pick-and-place experiment demonstrates the efficacy of the microgripper and its potentials in biomedical, microfluidic, and microrobotic applications.

  4. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    Cummer, Steven A. ; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea


    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales....... The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create......-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview...

  5. Acoustic Resonance Reaction Control Thruster (ARCTIC) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop and demonstrate the innovative Acoustic Resonance Reaction Control Thruster (ARCTIC) to provide rapid and reliable in-space impulse...

  6. MTCI acoustic agglomeration particulate control

    Chandran, R.R.; Mansour, M.N. [Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Scaroni, A.W.; Koopmann, G.H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Loth, J.L. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)


    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate pulse combination induced acoustic enhancement of coal ash agglomeration and sulfur capture at conditions typical of direct coal-fired turbines and PFBC hot gas cleanup. MTCI has developed an advanced compact pulse combustor island for direct coal-firing in combustion gas turbines. This combustor island comprises a coal-fired pulse combustor, a combined ash agglomeration and sulfur capture chamber (CAASCC), and a hot cyclone. In the MTCI proprietary approach, the pulse combustion-induced high intensity sound waves improve sulfur capture efficiency and ash agglomeration. The resulting agglomerates allow the use of commercial cyclones and achieve very high particulate collection efficiency. In the MTCI proprietary approach, sorbent particles are injected into a gas stream subjected to an intense acoustic field. The acoustic field serves to improve sulfur capture efficiency by enhancing both gas film and intra-particle mass transfer rates. In addition, the sorbent particles act as dynamic filter foci, providing a high density of stagnant agglomerating centers for trapping the finer entrained (in the oscillating flow field) fly ash fractions. A team has been formed with MTCI as the prime contractor and Penn State University and West Virginia University as subcontractors to MTCI. MTCI is focusing on hardware development and system demonstration, PSU is investigating and modeling acoustic agglomeration and sulfur capture, and WVU is studying aerovalve fluid dynamics. Results are presented from all three studies.

  7. Controlling the acoustic streaming by pulsed ultrasounds.

    Hoyos, Mauricio; Castro, Angélica


    We propose a technique based on pulsed ultrasounds for controlling, reducing to a minimum observable value the acoustic streaming in closed ultrasonic standing wave fluidic resonators. By modifying the number of pulses and the repetition time it is possible to reduce the velocity of the acoustic streaming with respect to the velocity generated by the continuous ultrasound mode of operation. The acoustic streaming is observed at the nodal plane where a suspension of 800nm latex particles was focused by primary radiation force. A mixture of 800nm and 15μm latex particles has been also used for showing that the acoustic streaming is hardly reduced while primary and secondary forces continue to operate. The parameter we call "pulse mode factor" i.e. the time of applied ultrasound divided by the duty cycle, is found to be the adequate parameter that controls the acoustic streaming. We demonstrate that pulsed ultrasound is more efficient for controlling the acoustic streaming than the variation of the amplitude of the standing waves.

  8. Sustainable Acoustic Metasurfaces for Sound Control

    Paola Gori


    Full Text Available Sound attenuation with conventional acoustic materials is subject to the mass law and requires massive and bulky structures at low frequencies. A possible alternative solution is provided by the use of metamaterials, which are artificial materials properly engineered to obtain properties and characteristics that it is not possible to find in natural materials. Theory and applications of metamaterials, already consolidated in electromagnetism, can be extended to acoustics; in particular, they can be applied to improve the properties of acoustical panels. The design of acoustic metasurfaces that could effectively control transmitted sound in unconventional ways appears a significant subject to be investigated, given its wide-ranging possible applications. In this contribution, we investigate the application of a metasurface-inspired technique to achieve the acoustical insulation of an environment. The designed surface has subwavelength thickness and structuring and could be realized with cheap, lightweight and sustainable materials. We present a few examples of such structures and analyze their acoustical behavior by means of full-wave simulations.

  9. Analog circuit for controlling acoustic transducer arrays

    Drumheller, Douglas S. (Cedar Crest, NM)


    A simplified ananlog circuit is presented for controlling electromechanical transducer pairs in an acoustic telemetry system. The analog circuit of this invention comprises a single electrical resistor which replaces all of the digital components in a known digital circuit. In accordance with this invention, a first transducer in a transducer pair of array is driven in series with the resistor. The voltage drop across this resistor is then amplified and used to drive the second transducer. The voltage drop across the resistor is proportional and in phase with the current to the transducer. This current is approximately 90 degrees out of phase with the driving voltage to the transducer. This phase shift replaces the digital delay required by the digital control circuit of the prior art.

  10. Feedforward control of sound transmission using an active acoustic metamaterial

    Cheer, Jordan; Daley, Stephen; McCormick, Cameron


    Metamaterials have received significant interest in recent years due to their potential ability to exhibit behaviour not found in naturally occurring materials. This includes the generation of band gaps, which are frequency regions with high levels of wave attenuation. In the context of acoustics, these band gaps can be tuned to occur at low frequencies where the acoustic wavelength is large compared to the material, and where the performance of traditional passive noise control treatments is limited. Therefore, such acoustic metamaterials have been shown to offer a significant performance advantage compared to traditional passive control treatments, however, due to their resonant behaviour, the band gaps tend to occur over a relatively narrow frequency range. A similar long wavelength performance advantage can be achieved using active noise control, but the systems in this case do not rely on resonant behaviour. This paper demonstrates how the performance of an acoustic metamaterial, consisting of an array of Helmholtz resonators, can be significantly enhanced by the integration of an active control mechanism that is facilitated by embedding loudspeakers into the resonators. Crucially, it is then also shown how the active acoustic metamaterial significantly outperforms an equivalent traditional active noise control system. In both cases a broadband feedforward control strategy is employed to minimise the transmitted pressure in a one-dimensional acoustic control problem and a new method of weighting the control effort over a targeted frequency range is described.

  11. Nonlinear propagation and control of acoustic waves in phononic superlattices

    Jiménez, Noé; Picó, Rubén; García-Raffi, Lluís M; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor J


    The propagation of intense acoustic waves in a one-dimensional phononic crystal is studied. The medium consists in a structured fluid, formed by a periodic array of fluid layers with alternating linear acoustic properties and quadratic nonlinearity coefficient. The spacing between layers is of the order of the wavelength, therefore Bragg effects such as band-gaps appear. We show that the interplay between strong dispersion and nonlinearity leads to new scenarios of wave propagation. The classical waveform distortion process typical of intense acoustic waves in homogeneous media can be strongly altered when nonlinearly generated harmonics lie inside or close to band gaps. This allows the possibility of engineer a medium in order to get a particular waveform. Examples of this include the design of media with effective (e.g. cubic) nonlinearities, or extremely linear media (where distortion can be cancelled). The presented ideas open a way towards the control of acoustic wave propagation in nonlinear regime.

  12. Applied acoustics concepts, absorbers, and silencers for acoustical comfort and noise control alternative solutions, innovative tools, practical examples

    Fuchs, Helmut V


    The author gives a comprehensive overview of materials and components for noise control and acoustical comfort. Sound absorbers must meet acoustical and architectural requirements, which fibrous or porous material alone can meet. Basics and applications are demonstrated, with representative examples for spatial acoustics, free-field test facilities and canal linings. Acoustic engineers and construction professionals will find some new basic concepts and tools for developments in order to improve acoustical comfort. Interference absorbers, active resonators and micro-perforated absorbers of different materials and designs complete the list of applications.

  13. Finite element models applied in active structural acoustic control

    Oude Nijhuis, Marco H.H.; Boer, de André; Rao, Vittal S.


    This paper discusses the modeling of systems for active structural acoustic control. The finite element method is applied to model structures including the dynamics of piezoelectric sensors and actuators. A model reduction technique is presented to make the finite element model suitable for controll

  14. Performing Active Noise Control and Acoustic Experiments Remotely

    Imran Khan


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel and advanced remotely controlled laboratory for conducting Active Noise Control (ANC, acoustic and Digital Signal Processing (DSP experiments. The laboratory facility, recently developed by Blekinge Institute of Technology (BTH Sweden, supports remote learning through internet covering beginners level such as simple experimental measurements to advanced users and even researchers such as algorithm development and their performance evaluation on DSP. The required software development for ANC algorithms and equipment control are carried out anywhere in the world remotely from an internet-connected client PC using a standard web browser. The paper describes in detail how ANC, acoustic and DSP experiments can be performed remotely The necessary steps involved in an ANC experiment such as validity of ANC, forward path estimation and active control applied to a broad band random noise [0-200Hz] in a ventilation duct will be described in detail. The limitations and challenges such as the forward path and nonlinearities pertinent to the remote laboratory setup will be described for the guidance of the user. Based on the acoustic properties of the ventilation duct some of the possible acoustic experiments such as mode shapes analysis and standing waves analysis etc. will also be discussed in the paper.

  15. Feedback control of acoustic musical instruments: collocated control using physical analogs.

    Berdahl, Edgar; Smith, Julius O; Niemeyer, Günter


    Traditionally, the average professional musician has owned numerous acoustic musical instruments, many of them having distinctive acoustic qualities. However, a modern musician could prefer to have a single musical instrument whose acoustics are programmable by feedback control, where acoustic variables are estimated from sensor measurements in real time and then fed back in order to influence the controlled variables. In this paper, theory is presented that describes stable feedback control of an acoustic musical instrument. The presentation should be accessible to members of the musical acoustics community who may have limited or no experience with feedback control. First, the only control strategy guaranteed to be stable subject to any musical instrument mobility is described: the sensors and actuators must be collocated, and the controller must emulate a physical analog system. Next, the most fundamental feedback controllers and the corresponding physical analog systems are presented. The effects that these controllers have on acoustic musical instruments are described. Finally, practical design challenges are discussed. A proof explains why changing the resonance frequency of a musical resonance requires much more control power than changing the decay time of the resonance.

  16. Acoustic control in enclosures using optimally designed Helmholtz resonators

    Driesch, Patricia Lynne

    A virtual design methodology is developed to minimize the noise in enclosures with optimally designed, passive, acoustic absorbers (Helmholtz resonators). A series expansion of eigen functions is used to represent the acoustic absorbers as external volume velocities, eliminating the need for a solution of large matrix eigen value problems. A determination of this type (efficient model/reevaluation approach) significantly increases the design possibilities when optimization techniques are implemented. As a benchmarking exercise, this novel methodology was experimentally validated for a narrowband acoustic assessment of two optimally designed Helmholtz resonators coupled to a 2D enclosure. The resonators were tuned to the two lowest resonance frequencies of a 30.5 by 40.6 by 2.5 cm (12 x 16 x 1 inch) cavity with the resonator volume occupying only 2% of the enclosure volume. A maximum potential energy reduction of 12.4 dB was obtained at the second resonance of the cavity. As a full-scale demonstration of the efficacy of the proposed design method, the acoustic response from 90--190 Hz of a John Deere 7000 Ten series tractor cabin was investigated. The lowest cabin mode, referred to as a "boom" mode, proposes a significant challenge to a noise control engineer since its anti-node is located near the head of the operator and often generates unacceptable sound pressure levels. Exploiting the low frequency capability of Helmholtz resonators, lumped parameter models of these resonators were coupled to the enclosure via an experimentally determined acoustic model of the tractor cabin. The virtual design methodology uses gradient optimization techniques as a post processor for the modeling and analysis of the unmodified acoustic interior to determine optimal resonator characteristics. Using two optimally designed Helmholtz resonators; potential energy was experimentally reduced by 3.4 and 10.3 dB at 117 and 167 Hz, respectively.

  17. Development of Adaptive Acoustic Impedance Control Technologies of Acoustic Duct Liner

    Hiroshi Kobayashi


    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of adaptive acoustic impedance control (AAC technologies to achieve a larger fan noise reduction, by adaptively adjusting reactance and resistance of the acoustic liner impedance. For the actual proof of the AAC technology III performance, the advanced fan noise absorption control duct liner II was made on trial basis, with the simple control system and the plain device. And, then, the duct liner II was examined for the AAC technology I, II, and III models, using the high speed fan test facility. The test results made clear that the duct liner II of the AAC technology III model could achieve the fan noise reduction higher than O.A. SPL 10 dB (A at the maximum fan speed 6000 rpm, containing the reduction of fundamental BPF tone of 18 dB and 2nd BPF tone of 10 dB in response to the fan peed change from 3000 to 6000 rpm.

  18. Controlling acoustic wave with cylindrically-symmetric gradient-index system

    张哲; 李睿奇; 梁彬; 邹欣晔; 程建春


    We present a detailed theoretical description of wave propagation in an acoustic gradient-index system with cylindrical symmetry and demonstrate its potential numerically to control acoustic waves in different ways. The trajectory of acoustic wave within the system is derived by employing the theory of geometric acoustics, and the validity of the theoretical descriptions is verified numerically by using the finite element method simulation. The results show that by tailoring the distribution function of refractive index, the proposed system can yield tunable manipulation on acoustic waves, such as acoustic bending, trapping, and absorbing.

  19. A synthesis pattern of acoustic field produced by phased array based on the direct weighting of the controlled acoustic pressure

    HU Jiwen; QIAN Shengyou; DING Yajun


    To optimize the acoustic field produced by phased array effectively and quickly, the pseudo-inverse method proposed previously is simplified. An approximate weight formula of sound pressure using a method of compensation to the amplitude and phase of the controlled sound pressure was presented. A multiple-focus field patterns based on the pseudo-inverse matrix algorithm can be obtained by presetting the value of the controlled sound pressure. A phased array comprised of 16 x 16 square elements is used for numerical simulation. The results show that the acoustic energy can be effectively deposited at the desired points, and the acoustic field can be synthesized quickly using the direct weight formula of the sound pressure. This study may offer an effective way for controlling the distribution of acoustic field in ultrasound hyperthermia.

  20. Numerical Comparison of Active Acoustic and Structural Noise Control in a Stiffened Double Wall Cylinder

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.


    The active acoustic and structural noise control characteristics of a double wall cylinder with and without ring stiffeners were numerically evaluated. An exterior monopole was assumed to acoustically excite the outside of the double wall cylinder at an acoustic cavity resonance frequency. Structural modal vibration properties of the inner and outer shells were analyzed by post-processing the results from a finite element analysis. A boundary element approach was used to calculate the acoustic cavity response and the coupled structural-acoustic interaction. In the frequency region of interest, below 500 Hz, all structural resonant modes were found to be acoustically slow and the nonresonant modal response to be dominant. Active sound transmission control was achieved by control forces applied to the inner or outer shell, or acoustic control monopoles placed just outside the inner or outer shell. A least mean square technique was used to minimize the interior sound pressures at the nodes of a data recovery mesh. Results showed that single acoustic control monopoles placed just outside the inner or outer shells resulted in better sound transmission control than six distributed point forces applied to either one of the shells. Adding stiffeners to the double wall structure constrained the modal vibrations of the shells, making the double wall stiffer with associated higher modal frequencies. Active noise control obtained for the stiffened double wall configurations was less than for the unstiffened cylinder. In all cases, the acoustic control monopoles controlled the sound transmission into the interior better than the structural control forces.

  1. Acoustic Wake-Up Receivers for Home Automation Control Applications

    Amir Bannoura


    Full Text Available Automated home applications are to ease the use of technology and devices around the house. Most of the electronic devices, like shutters or entertainment products (Hifi, TV and even WiFi, are constantly in a standby mode, where they consume a considerable amount of energy. The standby mode is necessary to react to commands triggered by the user, but the time the device spends in a standby mode is considered long. In our work, we present a receiver that is attached to home appliances that allows the devices to be activated while they are completely turned off in order to reduce the energy consumed in the standby mode. The receiver contains a low power wake-up module that reacts to an addressable acoustic 20-kHz sound signal that controls home devices that are connected to it. The acoustic wake-up signal can be sent by any kind of speaker that is available in commercial smartphones. The smartphones will operate as transmitters to the signals. Our wake-up receiver consists of two parts: a low power passive circuit connected to a wake-up chip microcontroller and an active micro-electromechanical system (MEMS microphone that receives the acoustic signal. A duty cycle is required to reduce the power consumption of the receiver, because the signal reception occurs when the microphone is active. The current consumption was measured to be 15 μA in sleep mode and 140 μA in active mode. An average wake-up range of 10 m using a smartphone as a sender was achieved.

  2. On the acoustics of a circulation control airfoil

    Reger, R.; Nickels, A.; Ukeiley, L.; Cattafesta, L. N.


    A two-dimensional elliptical circulation control airfoil model is studied in the Florida State Aeroacoustic Tunnel. Far-field acoustics are obtained via a 55 microphone phased array. Single microphone spectra are also obtained, and it is shown that background noise is significant. In order to circumvent this problem, beamforming is employed. The primary sources of background noise are from the tunnel collector and jet/sidewall interaction. The deconvolution approach to mapping acoustic sources (DAMAS) is employed to remove the effects of the array point spread function. Spectra are acquired by integrating the DAMAS result over the source region. The resulting DAMAS spectral levels are significantly below single microphone levels. Although the DAMAS levels are reduced from those of a single microphone or delay and sum beamforming (DAS), they are still above those of a NACA 0012, estimated using NAFNoise, at the same geometric and free-stream conditions. A scaling analysis is performed on the processed array data. With a constant free-stream velocity and a varying jet velocity the data scale as jet Mach number to the 6th power. If the momentum coefficient is held constant and the free-stream velocity is varied the data scale as free-stream Mach number to the 7th power.

  3. Double aperture focusing transducer for controlling microparticle motions in trapezoidal microchannels with surface acoustic waves

    Tan, Ming K.; Tjeung, Ricky; Ervin, Hannah; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James


    We present a method for controlling the motion of microparticles suspended in an aqueous solution, which fills in a microchannel fabricated into a piezoelectric substrate, using propagating surface acoustic waves. The cross-sectional shape of this microchannel is trapezoidal, preventing the formation of acoustic standing waves across the channel width and therefore allowing the steering of microparticles. The induced acoustic streaming transports these particles to eliminate the use of external pumps for fluid actuation.

  4. Controlling cell-cell interactions using surface acoustic waves.

    Guo, Feng; Li, Peng; French, Jarrod B; Mao, Zhangming; Zhao, Hong; Li, Sixing; Nama, Nitesh; Fick, James R; Benkovic, Stephen J; Huang, Tony Jun


    The interactions between pairs of cells and within multicellular assemblies are critical to many biological processes such as intercellular communication, tissue and organ formation, immunological reactions, and cancer metastasis. The ability to precisely control the position of cells relative to one another and within larger cellular assemblies will enable the investigation and characterization of phenomena not currently accessible by conventional in vitro methods. We present a versatile surface acoustic wave technique that is capable of controlling the intercellular distance and spatial arrangement of cells with micrometer level resolution. This technique is, to our knowledge, among the first of its kind to marry high precision and high throughput into a single extremely versatile and wholly biocompatible technology. We demonstrated the capabilities of the system to precisely control intercellular distance, assemble cells with defined geometries, maintain cellular assemblies in suspension, and translate these suspended assemblies to adherent states, all in a contactless, biocompatible manner. As an example of the power of this system, this technology was used to quantitatively investigate the gap junctional intercellular communication in several homotypic and heterotypic populations by visualizing the transfer of fluorescent dye between cells.

  5. Near boundary acoustic streaming in Ni-Fe alloy electrodeposition control

    Pocwiardowski, Pawel; Lasota, H.; Ravn, Christian


    Alloy electrodeposition is strongly influenced by diffusion layer phenomena affecting the ion concentration distribution in a different way for each component. This paper presents the method of acoustic agitation leading to controlled uniform electrodeposition of alloys. The method consists...

  6. A closed-loop automatic control system for high-intensity acoustic test systems.

    Slusser, R. A.


    Sound at sound pressure levels in the range from 130 to 160 dB is used in the investigation. Random noise is passed through a series of parallel filters, generally 1/3-octave wide. A basic automatic system is investigated because of preadjustment inaccuracies and high costs found in a study of a typical manually controlled acoustic testing system. The unit described has been successfully used in automatic acoustic tests in connection with the spacecraft tests for the Mariner 1971 program.

  7. Active vibration and noise control by hybrid active acoustic panels

    Stoebener, U.; Gaul, L. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. A fuer Mechanik


    In the present paper a hybrid passive and active treatment for vibration and noise reduction of plate type structures is proposed. The treatment is manufactured as sandwich structure and is called hybrid active acoustic panel. The passive component is used to reduce the vibration and sound radiation for high frequencies whereas the active part of the system is designed for the low frequency range. By selecting the thickness of the passive damping layer a certain frequency limit is defined, which divides the high and low frequency range. The actuator and sensor layout of the active component is evaluated by using the mode shapes of the low frequency range. According to the evaluated layout a hybrid active acoustic panel is manufactured and experimentally tested. The experimental results validate the proposed concept. (orig.)

  8. Acoustic control study of turbofan nozzles with triangular chevrons

    Grigore CICAN


    Full Text Available This paper has a small part dealing with the notion of chevron and the process that helps reducing the noise pollution. Based on the gas dynamics and the geometrical parameters of the turbofan jet engine a model of CFD data processing is created. In this process the influence of chevrons on acoustic wave intensity produced by the jet is observed by analyzing this process. A series of tests have been made on 10 si 20 lobed chevrons. The combination between them and the 7 resulting cases have been studied, namely the triangular chevrons in order to settle the influence of the geometrical parameters on the flow and on the jet acoustics. Finally the contribution of the chevrons in noise pollution reduction has been highlighted.

  9. Controlling the spins angular momentum in ferromagnets with sequences of picosecond acoustic pulses.

    Kim, Ji-Wan; Vomir, Mircea; Bigot, Jean-Yves


    Controlling the angular momentum of spins with very short external perturbations is a key issue in modern magnetism. For example it allows manipulating the magnetization for recording purposes or for inducing high frequency spin torque oscillations. Towards that purpose it is essential to modify and control the angular momentum of the magnetization which precesses around the resultant effective magnetic field. That can be achieved with very short external magnetic field pulses or using intrinsically coupled magnetic structures, resulting in a transfer of spin torque. Here we show that using picosecond acoustic pulses is a versatile and efficient way of controlling the spin angular momentum in ferromagnets. Two or three acoustic pulses, generated by femtosecond laser pulses, allow suppressing or enhancing the magnetic precession at any arbitrary time by precisely controlling the delays and amplitudes of the optical pulses. A formal analogy with a two dimensional pendulum allows us explaining the complex trajectory of the magnetic vector perturbed by the acoustic pulses.

  10. Low frequency sound field control for loudspeakers in rectangular rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian


    Rectangular rooms are the most common shape for sound reproduction, but at low frequencies the reflections from the boundaries of the room cause large spatial variations in the sound pressure level.  Variations up to 30 dB are normal, not only at the room modes, but basically at all frequencies....... As sound propagates in time, it seems natural that the problems can best be analyzed and solved in the time domain. A time based room correction system named CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System) has been developed for sound reproduction in rectangular listening rooms. It can control the sound...... distribution in the room at low frequencies by using multiple loudspeakers together with an optimal placement of the loudspeakers.  At low frequencies CABS will create a plane wave from the front wall loudspeakers which will be absorbed by additional loudspeakers at the rear wall giving an almost homogeneous...

  11. Multifunctional and context-dependent control of vocal acoustics by individual muscles

    Srivastava, Kyle H; Elemans, Coen P H; Sober, Samuel J


    The relationship between muscle activity and behavioral output determines how the brain controls and modifies complex skills. In vocal control, ensembles of muscles are used to precisely tune single acoustic parameters such as fundamental frequency and sound amplitude. If individual vocal muscles...... a context-dependent scheme would require the brain to calculate different motor modifications in each case. We tested the hypothesis that single muscles control multiple acoustic parameters and that the function of single muscles varies across gestures using three complementary approaches. First, we...... recorded electromyographic data from vocal muscles in singing Bengalese finches. Second, we electrically perturbed the activity of single muscles during song. Third, we developed an ex vivo technique to analyze the biomechanical and acoustic consequences of single-muscle perturbations. We found that single...

  12. A State-Space Modeling Approach for Active Structural Acoustic Control

    Leopoldo P.R. de Oliveira


    Full Text Available The demands for improvement in sound quality and reduction of noise generated by vehicles are constantly increasing, as well as the penalties for space and weight of the control solutions. A promising approach to cope with this challenge is the use of active structural-acoustic control. Usually, the low frequency noise is transmitted into the vehicle's cabin through structural paths, which raises the necessity of dealing with vibro-acoustic models. This kind of models should allow the inclusion of sensors and actuators models, if accurate performance indexes are to be accessed. The challenge thus resides in deriving reasonable sized models that integrate structural, acoustic, electrical components and the controller algorithm. The advantages of adequate active control simulation strategies relies on the cost and time reduction in the development phase. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present a methodology for simulating vibro-acoustic systems including this coupled model in a closed loop control simulation framework that also takes into account the interaction between the system and the control sensors/actuators. It is shown that neglecting the sensor/actuator dynamics can lead to inaccurate performance predictions.

  13. Experimental characterization of active acoustic metamaterial cell with controllable dynamic density

    Akl, Wael; Baz, Amr


    Controlling wave propagation pattern within acoustic fluid domains has been the motivation for the acoustic metamaterials developments to target applications ranging from acoustic cloaking to passive noise control techniques. Currently, various numerical and analytical approaches exist to predict the fluid domain material properties necessary for specific propagation pattern. Physical attempts to realize such material properties have revealed engineered material constructions that are focused on predefined wave propagation patterns. In the current paper, coupled fluid-structure one-dimensional metamaterial cell, in which piezoelectric active ingredient has been introduced, is manufactured to achieve controllable dynamic density. The density-controllable cell has been manufactured by coupling a water-filled cavity with piezoelectric elements in a cell of 4.5 cm length and 4.1 cm diameter subject to impulse excitation. A finite element model of the cell has been developed and its predictions are validated against the experimental results. The validated model is utilized to predict the changes in the pressure gradient inside the developed cell which is a direct measure of the changes introduced to the dynamic density of the acoustic metamaterial domain. With such predictions, it is demonstrated that densities as high as 3.2 gm/cm3 and as low as 0.72 gm/cm3 can be achieved experimentally for excitation frequencies ranging between 100 Hz and 500 Hz.

  14. Low frequency sound reproduction in irregular rooms using CABS (Control Acoustic Bass System)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal


    Early investigations on low frequency sound reproduction in rectangular rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) have shown good results on simulations and measurements in real rooms. CABS takes the advantage of having a rectangular room with parallel walls. By using two low frequency l...

  15. Pseudo working-point control measurement scheme for acoustic sensitivity of interferometric fiber-optic hydrophones

    Zefeng Wang; Yongming Hu; Zhou Meng; Ming Ni


    A novel pseudo working-point control measurement scheme for the acoustic sensitivity of interferometric fiber-optic hydrophones is described and demonstrated.The measurement principle is introduced in detail.An experimental system,which interrogates an interferometric fiber-optic hydrophone with this method,is designed.The acoustic pressure phase sensitivity of the fiber-optic hydrophone is measured over the frequency range of 20-2500Hz.The measured acoustic sensitivity is about-156.5dB re 1rad/μPa with a fluctuation lower than ±1.2dB,which is in good agreement with the results obtained by the method of phase generated carrier.The experimental results testify the validity of this new method which has the advantages of no electric elements in the sensing head,the simplicity of signal processing,and wide working bandwidth.

  16. Multifunctional and Context-Dependent Control of Vocal Acoustics by Individual Muscles.

    Srivastava, Kyle H; Elemans, Coen P H; Sober, Samuel J


    The relationship between muscle activity and behavioral output determines how the brain controls and modifies complex skills. In vocal control, ensembles of muscles are used to precisely tune single acoustic parameters such as fundamental frequency and sound amplitude. If individual vocal muscles were dedicated to the control of single parameters, then the brain could control each parameter independently by modulating the appropriate muscle or muscles. Alternatively, if each muscle influenced multiple parameters, a more complex control strategy would be required to selectively modulate a single parameter. Additionally, it is unknown whether the function of single muscles is fixed or varies across different vocal gestures. A fixed relationship would allow the brain to use the same changes in muscle activation to, for example, increase the fundamental frequency of different vocal gestures, whereas a context-dependent scheme would require the brain to calculate different motor modifications in each case. We tested the hypothesis that single muscles control multiple acoustic parameters and that the function of single muscles varies across gestures using three complementary approaches. First, we recorded electromyographic data from vocal muscles in singing Bengalese finches. Second, we electrically perturbed the activity of single muscles during song. Third, we developed an ex vivo technique to analyze the biomechanical and acoustic consequences of single-muscle perturbations. We found that single muscles drive changes in multiple parameters and that the function of single muscles differs across vocal gestures, suggesting that the brain uses a complex, gesture-dependent control scheme to regulate vocal output.

  17. Acoustic-Modal Testing of the Ares I Launch Abort System Attitude Control Motor Valve

    Davis, R. Benjamin; Fischbach, Sean R.


    The Attitude Control Motor (ACM) is being developed for use in the Launch Abort System (LAS) of NASA's Ares I launch vehicle. The ACM consists of a small solid rocket motor and eight actuated pintle valves that directionally allocate.thrust_- 1t.has-been- predicted-that significant unsteady. pressure.fluctuations.will.exist. inside the-valves during operation. The dominant frequencies of these oscillations correspond to the lowest several acoustic natural frequencies of the individual valves. An acoustic finite element model of the fluid volume inside the valve has been critical to the prediction of these frequencies and their associated mode shapes. This work describes an effort to experimentally validate the acoustic finite model of the valve with an acoustic modal test. The modal test involved instrumenting a flight-like valve with six microphones and then exciting the enclosed air with a loudspeaker. The loudspeaker was configured to deliver broadband noise at relatively high sound pressure levels. The aquired microphone signals were post-processed and compared to results generated from the acoustic finite element model. Initial comparisons between the test data and the model results revealed that additional model refinement was necessary. Specifically, the model was updated to implement a complex impedance boundary condition at the entrance to the valve supply tube. This boundary condition models the frequency-dependent impedance that an acoustic wave will encounter as it reaches the end of the supply tube. Upon invoking this boundary condition, significantly improved agreement between the test data and the model was realized.


    Sonali Sen


    Full Text Available This paper utilizes acoustic parameters such as FS,NC, N, P, INC, FL, FH, W for acoustic signals S of different running conditions of a ballmill to deriveout the acoustic signatures and hence control signals, which is to be used for designing the control systems of the mill. The parameters FS, NC, N, P, INC, FL, FH and W are represented by sample rate in Hz, number of cepstral coefficients, length of frame in samples, number of filters in filter bank, frame increment, low end of the lowest filter, high end of highest filter and the window over which the analysis is to be performed respectively. The work establishes an appropriate theoretical background that helps to predict dynamic breakage characteristics with respect to particle size distribution of materials, adequately supported by experimental data. The signatures of different running conditions of grinding mill have been extracted from the captured signal in time frame these have been used as feedback signal to monitor the grinding operation. Condenser based microphones have been used for capturing acoustic signals in time domain directly in computers and stored for further analysis. Matlab R2010b has been used for different analysis of the experiment. On analyzing the signatures, it has been observed whether the fines are produced progressively to attain the desired size range or the mill producing undesired products. Thus, the approach has been used in this paper has the ability to arrive in the stage of optimum grinding by tuning parameters of the mill in real time, and also it can prevent the mill to enter into an erroneous state. Moreover, on study it has found that the present scheme can be used more accurately in comparison to the earlier work of the author. This paper presents an implementation scheme to use acoustic signal as the control signal to regulate the operation of a grinding mill.

  19. Comparison of STRUCTURAL-ACOUSTIC Control Designs on AN Active Composite Panel



    This work presents a comparison of three technologies for structural-acoustic control that, while prevalent in the literature, had not been compared on a single structure. The comparison is generalizable because the techniques are implemented on a panel structure representative of a more complex structure (e.g., an aircraft fuselage, a submarine vehicle hull, a satellite payload shroud, etc.). The test-bed used for this comparison is a carbon-fiber composite panel manufactured with embedded active fiber composite actuators. Since such integrated structures constitute a continued avenue of research, the manufacturing and performance of this structure is illustrated. The design of the test-bed is guided by an effort to achieve a dynamic response similar to a single panel in a typical aircraft or rotorcraft fuselage.Existing active control architectures for broadband acoustic radiation reduction are compared both analytically and experimentally on a representative structure to quantify the capabilities and limitations of the existing control methodologies. Specifically, three broad categories of control are compared: classical feedback (rate feedback), optimal feedback (linear quadratic Gaussian), and adaptive feedforward control (x -filtered least mean square). The control architectures implemented during this study are all single-input/single-output in order to allow a fair comparison of the issues involved in the design, as well as the use and performance of each approach. Both the vibration and the acoustic performance are recorded for each experiment under equivalent conditions to allow a generalizable comparison. Experimental results lead to conclusions pertaining to the application of active structural-based control to improve the acoustic performance of more complex structures.

  20. Birth Control Pills and Nonprofessional Voice: Acoustic Analyses

    Amir, Ofer; Biron-Shental, Tal; Shabtai, Esther


    Purpose: Two studies are presented here. Study 1 was aimed at evaluating whether the voice characteristics of women who use birth control pills that contain different progestins differ from the voice characteristics of a control group. Study 2 presents a meta-analysis that combined the results of Study 1 with those from 3 recent studies that…

  1. Researches on active structural acoustic control by radiation modes

    MAO Qibo; JIANG Zhe


    Based on the radiation modes, an active control strategy is presented for sound radiation from elastic structures with an example of simply supported rectangular panel. The physical characteristics and mathematical meaning of the radiation modes are analyzed. The radiation efficiency of radiation mode falls off very rapidly with the increase of modes order at low frequency. A new control strategy is developed in which by canceling the adjoint coefficient of the first k radiation modes, the sound powers of the first k radiation modes is zero theoretically. The numerical calculation is made by using point force actuators as control forces.

  2. Time domain acoustic contrast control implementation of sound zones for low-frequency input signals

    Schellekens, Daan H. M.; Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin


    Sound zones are two or more regions within a listening space where listeners are provided with personal audio. Acoustic contrast control (ACC) is a sound zoning method that maximizes the average squared sound pressure in one zone constrained to constant pressure in other zones. State-of-the-art t......Sound zones are two or more regions within a listening space where listeners are provided with personal audio. Acoustic contrast control (ACC) is a sound zoning method that maximizes the average squared sound pressure in one zone constrained to constant pressure in other zones. State......-of-the-art time domain broadband acoustic contrast control (BACC) methods are designed for anechoic environments. These methods are not able to realize a flat frequency response in a limited frequency range within a reverberant environment. Sound field control in a limited frequency range is a requirement...... to accommodate the effective working range of the loudspeakers. In this paper, a new BACC method is proposed which results in an implementation realizing a flat frequency response in the target zone. This method is applied in a bandlimited low-frequency scenario where the loudspeaker layout surrounds two...

  3. Odeon, a design tool for auditorium acoustics, noise control and loudspeaker systems

    Christensen, Claus Lynge


    The ODEON software was originally developed for prediction of auditorium acoustics. However current editions of the software are not limited to these fields, but also allow prediction in rooms such as churches and mosques, interior noise control, design of room acoustics and sound distribution...... systems in public rooms such as foyers, underground stations and airports. Some of the features in ODEON 5.0 Combined are; two methods for global estimation of reverberation time, various point response calculations providing decay curves, reflectograms, miscellaneous parameter graphs, 3D maps, multi......-source calculations including point, line and surface sources, facilities for noise control calculations and multi-channel auralization using fully filtered BRIR’s....

  4. Progress in animation of an EMA-controlled tongue model for acoustic-visual speech synthesis

    Steiner, Ingmar


    We present a technique for the animation of a 3D kinematic tongue model, one component of the talking head of an acoustic-visual (AV) speech synthesizer. The skeletal animation approach is adapted to make use of a deformable rig controlled by tongue motion capture data obtained with electromagnetic articulography (EMA), while the tongue surface is extracted from volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Initial results are shown and future work outlined.

  5. Materials for Adaptive Structural Acoustic Control. Volume 4


    August 1993). 20. Jiang, Q., E. C. Subbarao, and L. E. Cross. Field Induced Stress Concentration and Electrical Fatigue in Ferroelectric Ceramics. WEEE ...controlling electrode silver mipraraon. Consequently. NLC electrode Staced-sDisk Acgmatpri structures with slits or gaps have been introduced to...Processing flow chart of a co-fired multilayer actuator. 2 -lo V_/ m X3 X 10f WN m’]2 platinum (Pt) or gold (Au), while permitting the use of silver (Ag

  6. Canonical Acoustics and Its Application to Surface Acoustic Wave on Acoustic Metamaterials

    Shen, Jian Qi


    In a conventional formalism of acoustics, acoustic pressure p and velocity field u are used for characterizing acoustic waves propagating inside elastic/acoustic materials. We shall treat some fundamental problems relevant to acoustic wave propagation alternatively by using canonical acoustics (a more concise and compact formalism of acoustic dynamics), in which an acoustic scalar potential and an acoustic vector potential (Φ ,V), instead of the conventional acoustic field quantities such as acoustic pressure and velocity field (p,u) for characterizing acoustic waves, have been defined as the fundamental variables. The canonical formalism of the acoustic energy-momentum tensor is derived in terms of the acoustic potentials. Both the acoustic Hamiltonian density and the acoustic Lagrangian density have been defined, and based on this formulation, the acoustic wave quantization in a fluid is also developed. Such a formalism of acoustic potentials is employed to the problem of negative-mass-density assisted surface acoustic wave that is a highly localized surface bound state (an eigenstate of the acoustic wave equations). Since such a surface acoustic wave can be strongly confined to an interface between an acoustic metamaterial (e.g., fluid-solid composite structures with a negative dynamical mass density) and an ordinary material (with a positive mass density), it will give rise to an effect of acoustic field enhancement on the acoustic interface, and would have potential applications in acoustic device design for acoustic wave control.

  7. Real-time RNN-based acoustic thermometry with feedback control

    Hsu, Stephen J.; Nam, Joana H.; Fan, Liexiang; Brunke, Shelby S.; Sekins, K. Michael


    A major obstacle to the widespread adoption of HIFU therapy is the development of a suitable method of monitoring the a blation therapy in real-time. While MR-thermometry has emerged as a promising method for HIFU therapy monitoring, acoustic guidance has continuously been sought for reasons of cost and practicality. We have previously demonstrated the potential of acoustic thermometry, by using a recurrent neural network (RNN) to estimate changes in tissue temperature during HIFU ablation therapies. A limitation of this method is that an excessive therapeutic dose can cause multiple, non-linear changes within the ultrasound data, resulting in unreliable temperature estimates from the RNN. Accordingly, we propose a revised method of dosing wherein closed loop feedback is used to provide a controlled and specific dose; not only to ensure an efficacious lesion, but also to preserve the integrity of the ultrasound image, thereby producing accurate temperature estimates from the RNN. This investigation of controlling the thermal dose using feedback was performed on ex vivo bovine liver. The acoustic parameters used as inputs to the RNN were: changes in integrated backscatter intensity, thermal strain, and decorrelation. The therapeutic dose was delivered using a 1.1 MHz, 2D-array HIFU transducer transmitting at regular intervals during a 40-second dose. Interleaved between these regular HIFU dose intervals, volumetric ultrasound images were acquired on a Siemens ACUSON SC2000, with a 4Zlc probe. Feedback was introduced to the system by varying the HIFU duty cycle, in order to minimize the difference between a desired temperature curve (assigned a priori) and the estimated focal temperature values. Two methods were used for obtaining the focal temperature: the first was direct measurement using a 75-micron copper-constantan thermocouple embedded within the liver sample, and the second was temperature estimation as calculated from the RNN-based output temperatures

  8. Duct wall impedance control as an advanced concept for acoustic suppression enhancement. [engine noise reduction

    Dean, P. D.


    A systems concept procedure is described for the optimization of acoustic duct liner design for both uniform and multisegment types. The concept was implemented by the use of a double reverberant chamber flow duct facility coupled with sophisticated computer control and acoustic analysis systems. The optimization procedure for liner insertion loss was based on the concept of variable liner impedance produced by bias air flow through a multilayer, resonant cavity liner. A multiple microphone technique for in situ wall impedance measurements was used and successfully adapted to produce automated measurements for all liner configurations tested. The complete validation of the systems concept was prevented by the inability to optimize the insertion loss using bias flow induced wall impedance changes. This inability appeared to be a direct function of the presence of a higher order energy carrying modes which were not influenced significantly by the wall impedance changes.

  9. A Tool Measuring Remaining Thickness of Notched Acoustic Cavities in Primary Reaction Control Thruster NDI Standards

    Sun, Yushi; Sun, Changhong; Zhu, Harry; Wincheski, Buzz


    Stress corrosion cracking in the relief radius area of a space shuttle primary reaction control thruster is an issue of concern. The current approach for monitoring of potential crack growth is nondestructive inspection (NDI) of remaining thickness (RT) to the acoustic cavities using an eddy current or remote field eddy current probe. EDM manufacturers have difficulty in providing accurate RT calibration standards. Significant error in the RT values of NDI calibration standards could lead to a mistaken judgment of cracking condition of a thruster under inspection. A tool based on eddy current principle has been developed to measure the RT at each acoustic cavity of a calibration standard in order to validate that the standard meets the sample design criteria.

  10. Modelling and closed loop control of near-field acoustically levitated objects

    Ilssar, Dotan; Flashner, Henryk


    The present paper introduces a novel approach for modelling the governing, slow dynamics of near-field acoustically levitated objects. This model is sufficiently simple and concise to enable designing a closed-loop controller, capable of accurate vertical positioning of a carried object. The near-field acoustic levitation phenomenon exploits the compressibility, the nonlinearity and the viscosity of the gas trapped between a rapidly oscillating surface and a freely suspended planar object, to elevate its time averaged pressure above the ambient pressure. By these means, the vertical position of loads weighing up to several kilograms can be varied between dozens and hundreds of micrometers. The simplified model developed in this paper is a second order ordinary differential equation where the height-dependent stiffness and damping terms of the gas layer are derived explicitly. This simplified model replaces a traditional model consisting of the equation of motion of the levitated object, coupled to a nonlinear...

  11. Measurements of Acoustic Properties of Porous and Granular Materials and Application to Vibration Control

    Park, Junhong; Palumbo, Daniel L.


    For application of porous and granular materials to vibro-acoustic controls, a finite dynamic strength of the solid component (frame) is an important design factor. The primary goal of this study was to investigate structural vibration damping through this frame wave propagation for various poroelastic materials. A measurement method to investigate the vibration characteristics of the frame was proposed. The measured properties were found to follow closely the characteristics of the viscoelastic materials - the dynamic modulus increased with frequency and the degree of the frequency dependence was determined by its loss factor. The dynamic stiffness of hollow cylindrical beams containing porous and granular materials as damping treatment was measured also. The data were used to extract the damping materials characteristics using the Rayleigh-Ritz method. The results suggested that the acoustic structure interaction between the frame and the structure enhances the dissipation of the vibration energy significantly.

  12. Time domain acoustic contrast control implementation of sound zones for low-frequency input signals

    Schellekens, Daan H. M.; Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin


    -of-the-art time domain broadband acoustic contrast control (BACC) methods are designed for anechoic environments. These methods are not able to realize a flat frequency response in a limited frequency range within a reverberant environment. Sound field control in a limited frequency range is a requirement...... to accommodate the effective working range of the loudspeakers. In this paper, a new BACC method is proposed which results in an implementation realizing a flat frequency response in the target zone. This method is applied in a bandlimited low-frequency scenario where the loudspeaker layout surrounds two...

  13. Controllable Acoustic Mixing of Fluids in Microchannels for the Fabrication of Therapeutic Nanoparticles

    Christoph Westerhausen


    Full Text Available Fifteen years ago, surface acoustic waves (SAW were found to be able to drive fluids and numerous applications in microfluidics have been developed since. Here, we review the progress made and report on new approaches in setting-up microfluidic, continuous flow acoustic mixing. In a microchannel, chaotic advection is achieved by generation of a SAW driven fluid jet perpendicular to the mean flow direction. Using a high speed video camera and particle image velocimetry, we measure the flow velocities and show that mixing is achieved in a particularly controllable and fast way. The mixing quality is determined as a function of system parameters: SAW power, volume flux and fluid viscosity. Exploring the parameter space of mixing provides a practical guide for acoustic mixing in microchannels and allows for adopting conditions to different solvents, as e.g., required for the generation of nanoscale particles from alcoholic phases. We exemplarily demonstrate the potential of SAW based continuous flow mixing for the production of therapeutic nucleic acid nanoparticles assembled from polymer and lipid solutions.

  14. Vibroacoustic modeling of an acoustic resonator tuned by dielectric elastomer membrane with voltage control

    Yu, Xiang; Lu, Zhenbo; Cheng, Li; Cui, Fangsen


    This paper investigates the acoustic properties of a duct resonator tuned by an electro-active membrane. The resonator takes the form of a side-branch cavity which is attached to a rigid duct and covered by a pre-stretched Dielectric Elastomer (DE) in the neck area. A three-dimensional, analytical model based on the sub-structuring approach is developed to characterize the complex structure-acoustic coupling between the DE membrane and its surrounding acoustic media. We show that such resonator provides sound attenuation in the medium frequency range mainly by means of sound reflection, as a result of the membrane vibration. The prediction accuracy of the proposed model is validated against experimental test. The pre-stretched DE membrane with fixed edges responds to applied voltage change with a varying inner stress and, by the same token, its natural frequency and vibrational response can be tuned to suit particular frequencies of interest. The peaks in the transmission loss (TL) curves can be shifted towards lower frequencies when the voltage applied to the DE membrane is increased. Through simulations on the effect of increasing the voltage level, the TL shifting mechanism and its possible tuning range are analyzed. This paves the way for applying such resonator device for adaptive-passive noise control.

  15. Comparison of Acoustic and Stroboscopic Findings and Voice Handicap Index between Allergic Rhinitis Patients and Controls

    Koç, Eltaf Ayça Özbal; Koç, Bülent; Erbek, Selim


    Background: In our experience Allergic Rhinitis (AR) patients suffer from voice problems more than health subjects. Aims: To investigate the acoustic analysis of voice, stroscopic findings of larynx and Voice Handicap Index scores in allergic rhinitis patients compared with healthy controls. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: Thirty adult patients diagnosed with perennial allergic rhinitis were compared with 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls without allergy. All assessments were performed in the speech physiology laboratory and the testing sequence was as follows: 1. Voice Handicap Index (VHI) questionnaire, 2. Laryngovideostroboscopy, 3. Acoustic analyses. Results: No difference was observed between the allergic rhinitis and control groups regarding mean Maximum Phonation Time (MPT) values, Fo values, and stroboscopic assessment (p>0.05). On the other hand, mean VHI score (p=0.001) and s/z ratio (p=0.011) were significantly higher in the allergic rhinitis group than in controls. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the presence of allergies could have effects on laryngeal dysfunction and voice-related quality of life. PMID:25667789

  16. Acoustic emission technique for monitoring the pyrolysis of composites for process control.

    Tittmann, B R; Yen, C E


    Carbonization is the first step in the heat and pressure treatment (pyrolysis) of composites in preparing carbon-carbon parts. These find many uses, including aircraft brakes, rocket nozzles and medical implants. This paper describes the acoustic emissions (AE) from various stages of the manufacturing process of carbon-carbon composites. This process involves carbonization at a high temperature and this results in both thermal expansion and volume change (due to pyrolysis in which a sacrificial polymer matrix is converted to carbon). Importantly the resultant matrix is porous and has a network of small intra-lamina cracks. The formation of these microcracks produces AE and this paper describes how this observation can be used to monitor (and eventually control) the manufacturing process. The aim is to speed up manufacture, which is currently time-consuming. The first section of the paper describes the design of unimodal waveguides to enable the AE to propagate to a cool environment where a transducer can be located. The second part of the paper describes various experimental observations of AE under a range of process conditions. In particular, this paper presents a technique based on detecting acoustic emissions and (1) uses wire waveguides to monitor parts within the autoclave to 800 degrees C, (2) monitors microcracking during pyrolysis, (3) uses a four-level threshold to distinguish between low- and high-amplitude cracking events, (4) recognizes the occurrence of harmful delaminations, and (5) guides the control of the heating rate for optimum efficiency of the pyrolysis process. In addition, supporting data are presented of in situ measurements of porosity, weight loss, cross-ply shrinkage, and mass spectroscopy of gases emitted. The process evolution is illustrated by the use of interrupted manufacturing cycle micrographs obtained by optical, scanning acoustic (SAM) and scanning electron (SEM) microscopy. The technique promotes in-process monitoring and

  17. The Influence of PZT Actuators Positioning in Active Structural Acoustic Control

    P. Švec


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the effect of secondary actuator positioning in an active structural acoustics control (ASAC experiment. The ASAC approach is based on minimizing the sound radiation from structures to the far field by controlling the structural vibrations. In this article a rectangular steel plate structure was assumed with one secondary actuator attached to it. As a secondary actuator, a specially designed piezoelectric stripe actuator was used. We studied the effect of the position of the actuator on the pattern and on the radiated sound field of the structural vibration, with and without active control. The total radiated power was also measured. The experimental data was confronted with the results obtained by a numerical solution of the mathematical model used. For the solution, the finite element method in the ANSYS software package was used. 

  18. Non-Hermitian acoustic metamaterial for the complete control of sound by accessing the exceptional points

    Zhu, Yi-Fan; Fan, Xu-Dong; Liang, Bin; Zou, Xin-Ye; Yang, Jing; Cheng, Jian-Chun


    Non-Hermitian systems always play a negative role in wave manipulations due to inherent non-conservation of energy as well as loss of information. Recently, however, there has been a paradigm shift on utilizing non-Hermitian systems to implement varied miraculous wave controlling. For example, parity-time symmetric media with well-designed loss and gain are presented to create a nontrivial effect of unidirectional diffraction, which is observed near the exceptional points (EPs) in the non-Hermitian systems. Here, we report the design and realization of non-Hermitian acoustic metamaterial (NHAM) and show that by judiciously tailoring the inherent loss, the phase and amplitude of reflection can possibly be tuned in a decoupled manner. Such decoupled tuning of phase and amplitude is closely related to the EPs. As a demonstration of functionality, we experimentally generate a high-quality acoustic hologram via NHAM. Our work may open a new degree of freedom for realizing the complete control of sound.

  19. Characterization of electro-acoustics impedance and its application to active noise control

    HOU Hong; YANG Jianhua


    Characteristics of radiation impedance and its inducing variation of electrical impedance for a controllable source have been investigated. An impedance-based error criterion has been proposed and its application to Active Noise Control is demonstrated through a coil driven loudspeaker. A general formula of radiation impedance is derived for two control strategies, according to the criterion of total acoustic power output. The radiation impedances of some commonly used sound sources are calculated. We discuss in detail the relation between variation of the input electrical impedance and radiation impedance for the two control strategies. The measured data of the input electrical impedance from a loudspeaker agree fairly well with theoretical analysis. An AC- bridge circuit is designed in order to measure the weak variation of electrical impedance resulted from radiation impedance. The bridge relative output is unique for a certain control strategy, from which an impedance-based error criterion is then proposed and the implementation of its application to an active control system is analyzed.Numerical results of such criterion are presented. An analogue control system is set up and experiments are carried out in a semi-anechoic chamber to verify the new control approach.

  20. An efficient feedback active noise control algorithm based on reduced-order linear predictive modeling of FMRI acoustic noise.

    Kannan, Govind; Milani, Ali A; Panahi, Issa M S; Briggs, Richard W


    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acoustic noise exhibits an almost periodic nature (quasi-periodicity) due to the repetitive nature of currents in the gradient coils. Small changes occur in the waveform in consecutive periods due to the background noise and slow drifts in the electroacoustic transfer functions that map the gradient coil waveforms to the measured acoustic waveforms. The period depends on the number of slices per second, when echo planar imaging (EPI) sequencing is used. Linear predictability of fMRI acoustic noise has a direct effect on the performance of active noise control (ANC) systems targeted to cancel the acoustic noise. It is shown that by incorporating some samples from the previous period, very high linear prediction accuracy can be reached with a very low order predictor. This has direct implications on feedback ANC systems since their performance is governed by the predictability of the acoustic noise to be cancelled. The low complexity linear prediction of fMRI acoustic noise developed in this paper is used to derive an effective and low-cost feedback ANC system.

  1. Control of acoustic absorption in 1D scattering by indirect coupled resonant scatterers

    Merkel, A; Richoux, O; Romero-García, V; Pagneux, V


    We experimentally report perfect acoustic absorption through the interplay of the inherent losses and transparent modes with high $Q$ factor. These modes are generated in a two-port, one-dimensional waveguide which is side-loaded by isolated resonators of moderate $Q$ factor. In symmetric structures, we show that in the presence of small inherent losses, these modes lead to coherent perfect absorption associated with one-sided absorption slightly larger than 0.5. In asymmetric structures, near perfect one-sided absorption is possible (96 \\%) with a deep sub-wavelength sample ($\\lambda/28$). The control of strong absorption by the proper tuning of few resonators with weak losses will open new possibilities in various wave-control devices.

  2. Controllable transmission and total reflection through an impedance-matched acoustic metasurface

    Mei, Jun


    A general design paradigm for a novel type of acoustic metasurface is proposed by introducing periodically repeated supercells on a rigid thin plate, where each supercell contains multiple cut-through slits that are filled with materials possessing different refractive indices but the same impedance as that of the host medium. When the wavelength of the incident wave is smaller than the periodicity, the direction of the transmitted wave with nearly unity transmittance can be chosen by engineering the phase discontinuities along the transverse direction. When the wavelength is larger than the periodicity, even though the metasurface is impedance matched to the host medium, most of the incident energy is reflected back and the remaining portion is converted into a surface-bound mode. We show that both the transmitted wave control and the high reflection with the surface mode excitation can be interpreted by a unified analytic model based on mode-coupling theory. Our general design principle not only supplies the functionalities of reflection-type acoustic metasurfaces, but also exhibits unprecedented flexibility and efficiency in various domains of wave manipulation for possible applications in fields like refracting, collimating, focusing or absorbing wave energy.

  3. Optimal virtual sensing for active noise control in a rigid-walled acoustic duct

    Petersen, Dick; Zander, Anthony C.; Cazzolato, Ben S.; Hansen, Colin H.


    The performance of local active noise control systems is generally limited by the small sizes of the zones of quiet created at the error sensors. This is often exacerbated by the fact that the error sensors cannot always be located close to an observer's ears. Virtual sensing is a method that can move the zone of quiet away from the physical location of the transducers to a desired location, such as an observer's ear. In this article, analytical expressions are derived for optimal virtual sensing in a rigid-walled acoustic duct with arbitrary termination conditions. The expressions are derived for tonal excitations, and are obtained by employing a traveling wave model of a rigid-walled acoustic duct. It is shown that the optimal solution for the virtual sensing microphone weights is independent of the source location and microphone locations. It is also shown that, theoretically, it is possible to obtain infinite reductions at the virtual location. The analytical expressions are compared with forward difference prediction techniques. The results demonstrate that the maximum attenuation, that theoretically can be obtained at the virtual location using forward difference prediction techniques, is expected to decrease for higher excitation frequencies and larger virtual distances.

  4. Springer Handbook of Acoustics

    Rossing, Thomas D


    Acoustics, the science of sound, has developed into a broad interdisciplinary field encompassing the academic disciplines of physics, engineering, psychology, speech, audiology, music, architecture, physiology, neuroscience, and others. The Springer Handbook of Acoustics is an unparalleled modern handbook reflecting this richly interdisciplinary nature edited by one of the acknowledged masters in the field, Thomas Rossing. Researchers and students benefit from the comprehensive contents spanning: animal acoustics including infrasound and ultrasound, environmental noise control, music and human speech and singing, physiological and psychological acoustics, architectural acoustics, physical and engineering acoustics, signal processing, medical acoustics, and ocean acoustics. This handbook reviews the most important areas of acoustics, with emphasis on current research. The authors of the various chapters are all experts in their fields. Each chapter is richly illustrated with figures and tables. The latest rese...

  5. High-frequency combustion instability control through acoustic modulation at the inlet boundary for liquid rocket engine applications

    Bennewitz, John William

    This research investigation encompasses experimental tests demonstrating the control of a high-frequency combustion instability by acoustically modulating the propellant flow. A model rocket combustor burned gaseous oxygen and methane using a single-element, pentad-style injector. Flow conditions were established that spontaneously excited a 2430 Hz first longitudinal combustion oscillation at an amplitude up to p'/pc ≈ 6%. An acoustic speaker was placed at the base of the oxidizer supply to modulate the flow and alter the oscillatory behavior of the combustor. Two speaker modulation approaches were investigated: (1) Bands of white noise and (2) Pure sinusoidal tones. The first approach adjusted 500 Hz bands of white noise ranging from 0-500 Hz to 2000-2500 Hz, while the second implemented single-frequency signals with arbitrary phase swept from 500-2500 Hz. The results showed that above a modulation signal amplitude threshold, both approaches suppressed 95+% of the spontaneous combustion oscillation. By increasing the applied signal amplitude, a wider frequency range of instability suppression became present for these two acoustic modulation approaches. Complimentary to these experiments, a linear modal analysis was undertaken to investigate the effects of acoustic modulation at the inlet boundary on the longitudinal instability modes of a dump combustor. The modal analysis employed acoustically consistent matching conditions with a specific impedance boundary condition at the inlet to represent the acoustic modulation. From the modal analysis, a naturally unstable first longitudinal mode was predicted in the absence of acoustic modulation, consistent with the spontaneously excited 2430 Hz instability observed experimentally. Subsequently, a detailed investigation involving variation of the modulation signal from 0-2500 Hz and mean combustor temperature from 1248-1685 K demonstrated the unstable to stable transition of a 2300-2500 Hz first longitudinal mode. The

  6. Mode control of guided wave in magnetic hollow cylinder using electromagnetic acoustic transducer array

    Furusawa, Akiniri; Kojima, Fumio; Morikawa, Atsushi [Dept. of Systems Science, Graduate School of System Informatics, Kobe University, Kobe (Japan)


    The aim of this work is to demonstrate a method for exciting and receiving torsional and longitudinal mode guided waves with an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) ring array. First of all, a three-dimensional guided wave simulator is developed in order to numerically analyze the propagation of the guided wave. The finite difference time domain method is used for the simulator. Second, two guided wave testing systems using an EMAT ring array are provided: one is for torsional mode (T-mode) guided wave and the other is for longitudinal mode (L-mode). The EMATs used in the both systems are the same in design. A method to generate and receive the T- and L-mode guided waves with the same EMAT is proposed. Finally, experimental and numerical results are compared and discussed. The results of experiments and simulation agree well, showing the potential of the EMAT ring array as a mode controllable guided wave transmitter and receiver.

  7. Low frequency sound reproduction in irregular rooms using CABS (Control Acoustic Bass System)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal


    loudspeakers well positioned at the end of the room a virtual array is formed propagating plane waves along the length of the room in one direction. This will correct the sound field distribution in the room. When plane wave arrives to the end wall two more loudspeakers have to be placed connected......Early investigations on low frequency sound reproduction in rectangular rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) have shown good results on simulations and measurements in real rooms. CABS takes the advantage of having a rectangular room with parallel walls. By using two low frequency...... with the same signal in counter phase and with a delay corresponding to approximately the length of the room. This is to cancel the reflection and maintain the plane wave propagating along the room. Real life rooms are not necessary rectangular and can be of different shapes. In this paper simulations...

  8. Room acoustic analysis of blower unit and noise control plan in the typical steel industry


    Full Text Available Introduction: In the steel industry,air blowers used to supply compressed air are considered as sources of annoying noise. This study aims to acoustics analysis of theairblower workroomand sound source characteristics in order to present noise controlmeasuresinthe steel industry. .Material and Method: Measurement of noiselevel and its frequency analysis was performed usingsound levelmetermodelof CASELLA-Cell.450. Distribution of noise level in the investigated workroom in form of noise map was provided using Surfer software. In addition, acoustic analysis of workroom and control room was performed in view point of soundabsorption andinsulation. Redesignofdoor and window of controlroom and installation of soundabsorbing materialson theceiling of the workroom were proposed and the efficiency of these interventionswasestimated. .Result: The totalsound pressurelevelin the blower workroom was 95.4 dB(L and the dominant frequency was 2000Hz. Sound pressure level inside the room control was 80.1dB(A. The average absorption coefficient and reverberation time in the blower workroom was estimated equal to 0.082 Sab.m2 and 3.9 seconds respectively. These value in control room was 0.04 Sab.m2 and 3/4 seconds respectively. In control room, sound transmission loss between the two parts of the wall dividing was 13.7 dB(A. The average of noise dose in blower operators was 230%. With the installation of sound absorber on ceiling of workroom, average of absorption coefficient can increase to 0.33 Sab.m2 and sound transmission loss of the new designed door and window was estimated equal to 20dB. . Conclusion: The main cause of noise leakage in the control room was insufficient insulation properties of door and windows. By replacing the door and window and installation of sound absorbing on ceiling of workroom, the noise dose can reduce to 49.6%. New Improved door and window of control room can reduce noise dose to 69.65% solely.

  9. Active structural acoustic control of noise from power transformers; Aktive Laermdaemmung von Leistungstransformatoren mit Gegenlaerm

    Brungardt, K.; Vierengel, J.; Weissmann, K. [Quiet Power Systems Inc., New York, NY (United States); Schemel, G.; Lorin, P. [ABB Secheron SA, Genf (Switzerland)


    Population growth and tougher zoning regulations mean transformer noise is a growing problem for electric utilities. Transformer noise is dominanted by low frequency tones which are difficult to control by passive means, but are effectively attenuated by active noise control. This paper details a novel noise control system that actively attenuates transformer noise using a combination of structural actuators mounted on the radiating surface of the transformer tank, and specially designed resonant acoustic devices located just off the tank surface. An adaptive selfcalibrating, multi-channel controller is used to automatically respond to changes in noise level during transformer operation. Performance results have been proven at a number of field installations in utility substations, and an installation case study is provided here as an example. (orig.) [Deutsch] Beim Betrieb von Leistungstransformatoren entstehen Geraeusche, die besonders in der Naehe von Wohngebieten als stoerend empfunden werden. Zunehmend strengere Laermschutzverordnungen erfordern daher Massnahmen um die Geraeuschentwicklung von Transformatoren zu reduzieren. Die passive Daempfung dieses `Brummens` durch Bauten ist oft mit hohen Kosten verbunden und bereitet Schwierigkeiten bei der Umsetzung. Fuer Abhilfe sorgt ein neuartiges System, das den Transformatorenlaerm aktiv daempft. Dabei setzt man zur Reduktion des Transformatorenlaerms neuartige, durch adaptive Algorythmen gesteuerte Aktuatoren ein, die den stoerenden Laerm direkt am Transformator selbst daempfen. (orig.)

  10. Use of acoustic vortices in acoustic levitation

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Juhl, Peter Møller


    Acoustic fields are known to exert forces on the surfaces of objects. These forces are noticeable if the sound pressure is sufficiently high. Two phenomena where acoustic forces are relevant are: i) acoustic levitation, where strong standing waves can hold small objects at certain positions......, counterbalancing their weight, and ii) acoustic vortices, spinning sound fields that can impinge angular momentum and cause rotation of objects. In this contribution, both force-creating sound fields are studied by means of numerical simulations. The Boundary Element Method is employed to this end. The simulation...... of acoustical vortices uses an efficient numerical implementation based on the superposition of two orthogonal sound fields with a delay of 90° between them. It is shown that acoustic levitation and the use of acoustic vortices can be combined to manipulate objects in an efficient and controlled manner without...

  11. An evaluation of fish behavior upstream of the water temperature control tower at Cougar Dam, Oregon, using acoustic cameras, 2013

    Adams, Noah S.; Smith, Collin; Plumb, John M.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Beeman, John W.


    This report describes the initial year of a 2-year study to determine the feasibility of using acoustic cameras to monitor fish movements to help inform decisions about fish passage at Cougar Dam near Springfield, Oregon. Specifically, we used acoustic cameras to measure fish presence, travel speed, and direction adjacent to the water temperature control tower in the forebay of Cougar Dam during the spring (May, June, and July) and fall (September, October, and November) of 2013. Cougar Dam is a high-head flood-control dam, and the water temperature control tower enables depth-specific water withdrawals to facilitate adjustment of water temperatures released downstream of the dam. The acoustic cameras were positioned at the upstream entrance of the tower to monitor free-ranging subyearling and yearling-size juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Because of the large size discrepancy, we could distinguish juvenile Chinook salmon from their predators, which enabled us to measure predators and prey in areas adjacent to the entrance of the tower. We used linear models to quantify and assess operational and environmental factors—such as time of day, discharge, and water temperature—that may influence juvenile Chinook salmon movements within the beam of the acoustic cameras. Although extensive milling behavior of fish near the structure may have masked directed movement of fish and added unpredictability to fish movement models, the acoustic-camera technology enabled us to ascertain the general behavior of discrete size classes of fish. Fish travel speed, direction of travel, and counts of fish moving toward the water temperature control tower primarily were influenced by the amount of water being discharged through the dam.

  12. Active Structural Acoustic Control in an Original A400M Aircraft Structure

    Koehne, C.; Sachau, D.; Renger, K.


    Low frequency noise has always been a challenge in propeller driven aircraft. At low frequencies passive noise treatments are not as efficient as active noise reduction systems. The Helmut-Schmidt-University has built up a full-scale test rig with an original A400M aircraft structure. This provides a good opportunity to develop and test active noise reduction systems in a realistic environment. The currently installed system consists of mechanical actuators and acoustical sensors. The actuators are called TVAs (Tuneable Vibration Absorber) and contain two spring-mass systems whose natural frequencies are adjusted to the BPFs (Blade Passage Frequency) of the propellers. The TVAs are mounted to the frames and the force direction is normal to the skin. The sensors are condenser microphones which are attached to the primary structure of the airframe. The TVAs are equipped with signal processing devices. These components carry out Fourier transforms and signal amplification for the sensor data and actuator signals. The communication between the TVAs and the central control unit is implemented by the CAN Bus protocol and mainly consists of complex coefficients for the sensor and actuator data. This paper describes the basic structure of the system, the hardware set-up and function tests of the controller.

  13. Acoustic neuroma risk in relation to mobile telephone use: Results of the INTERPHONE international case-control study

    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabi


    Background: The rapid increase in mobile telephone use has generated concern about possible health risks of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from these devices. Methods: A case-control study of 1105 patients with newly diagnosed acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma) and 2145 controls...... was conducted in 13 countries using a common protocol. Past mobile phone use was assessed by personal interview. In the primary analysis, exposure time was censored at one year before the reference date (date of diagnosis for cases and date of diagnosis of the matched case for controls); analyses censoring...... exposure at five years before the reference date were also done to allow for a possible longer latent period. Results: The odds ratio (OR) of acoustic neuroma with ever having been a regular mobile phone user was 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.69-1.04). The OR for ≥10 years after first regular mobile...

  14. Implementation of a self-sensing piezoelectric actuator for vibro-acoustic active control

    Pelletier, Anik; Micheau, Philippe; Berry, Alain


    Significant reduction of airplane interior noise may be obtained by active structural acoustic control (ASAC) of fuselage panels. This requires to accurately measure the vibrations of the aircraft panels while injecting anti-vibrations. Co-located piezoelectric sensors and actuators, spatially distributed on the structure, are an interesting avenue since they can lead to the implementation of distributed virtual impedances. When the same piezoelectric device is used to simultaneously measure and actuate, it is called a self-sensing piezoelectric actuator (SSPA). When a SSPA is submitted to a voltage, the measured current is the sum of the electric current due to the capacitive effect of the transducer plus the mechanical current induced by the strain of the structure. The latter is an order of magnitude smaller than the total current measured. Provided the measured current is digitized with sufficient accuracy, adequate numerical processing can subtract the capacitive current from the total measured current. A similar processing can also be used to subtract from the sensor information, near-field vibrations induced by the collocated actuator. Hence, information related to the global, vibrational flexural modes of the plate is extracted without complicated electronics. The numerical method of current separation has been programmed and validated with MATLAB/SimulinkR® and implemented on Speedgoat hardware. A shunt resistor is used to measure the current simultaneously with the voltage measurement. Strain-induced current has been successfully extracted from SSPA signal with this method. Numerical simulations show good agreement with experimental data.

  15. Grafting Acoustic Instruments and Signal Processing: Creative Control and Augmented Expressivity

    Overholt, Daniel; Freed, Adrian

    to explore interesting new timbres. Models can include everything from various violin bodies to guitars, sitars with their sympathetic strings, and even physically impossible acoustic bodies. The development also presents several practical approaches to sensor augmentation and gestural playing techniques...

  16. Acoustic evaluation and adjustment of an open-plan office through architectural design and noise control.

    Passero, Carolina Reich Marcon; Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta


    Arranging office space into a single open room offers advantages in terms of easy exchange of information and interaction among coworkers, but reduces privacy and acoustic comfort. Thus, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the acoustic quality of a real open-plan office and to propose changes in the room to improve the acoustic conditioning of this office. The computational model of the office under study was calibrated based on RT and STI measurements. Predictions were made of the RT and STI, which generated the radius of distraction r(D), and the rate of spatial decay of sound pressure levels per distance doubling DL(2) in the real conditions of the office and after modifications of the room. The insertion of dividers between work stations and an increase in the ceiling's sound absorption improved the acoustic conditions in the office under study.

  17. Active control of acoustic field-of-view in a biosonar system.

    Yossi Yovel


    Full Text Available Active-sensing systems abound in nature, but little is known about systematic strategies that are used by these systems to scan the environment. Here, we addressed this question by studying echolocating bats, animals that have the ability to point their biosonar beam to a confined region of space. We trained Egyptian fruit bats to land on a target, under conditions of varying levels of environmental complexity, and measured their echolocation and flight behavior. The bats modulated the intensity of their biosonar emissions, and the spatial region they sampled, in a task-dependant manner. We report here that Egyptian fruit bats selectively change the emission intensity and the angle between the beam axes of sequentially emitted clicks, according to the distance to the target, and depending on the level of environmental complexity. In so doing, they effectively adjusted the spatial sector sampled by a pair of clicks-the "field-of-view." We suggest that the exact point within the beam that is directed towards an object (e.g., the beam's peak, maximal slope, etc. is influenced by three competing task demands: detection, localization, and angular scanning-where the third factor is modulated by field-of-view. Our results suggest that lingual echolocation (based on tongue clicks is in fact much more sophisticated than previously believed. They also reveal a new parameter under active control in animal sonar-the angle between consecutive beams. Our findings suggest that acoustic scanning of space by mammals is highly flexible and modulated much more selectively than previously recognized.

  18. Dynamic control of the optical emission from GaN/InGaN nanowire quantum dots by surface acoustic waves

    Lazić, S., E-mail:; Chernysheva, E.; Meulen, H. P. van der; Calleja Pardo, J. M. [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Instituto “Nicolás Cabrera” and Instituto de Física de Materia Condensada (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gačević, Ž.; Calleja, E. [ISOM-DIE, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    The optical emission of InGaN quantum dots embedded in GaN nanowires is dynamically controlled by a surface acoustic wave (SAW). The emission energy of both the exciton and biexciton lines is modulated over a 1.5 meV range at ∼330 MHz. A small but systematic difference in the exciton and biexciton spectral modulation reveals a linear change of the biexciton binding energy with the SAW amplitude. The present results are relevant for the dynamic control of individual single photon emitters based on nitride semiconductors.

  19. Dynamic control of the optical emission from GaN/InGaN nanowire quantum dots by surface acoustic waves

    Lazić, S.; Chernysheva, E.; Gačević, Ž.; van der Meulen, H. P.; Calleja, E.; Calleja Pardo, J. M.


    The optical emission of InGaN quantum dots embedded in GaN nanowires is dynamically controlled by a surface acoustic wave (SAW). The emission energy of both the exciton and biexciton lines is modulated over a 1.5 meV range at ˜330 MHz. A small but systematic difference in the exciton and biexciton spectral modulation reveals a linear change of the biexciton binding energy with the SAW amplitude. The present results are relevant for the dynamic control of individual single photon emitters based on nitride semiconductors.

  20. Dynamic control of the optical emission from GaN/InGaN nanowire quantum dots by surface acoustic waves

    S. Lazić


    Full Text Available The optical emission of InGaN quantum dots embedded in GaN nanowires is dynamically controlled by a surface acoustic wave (SAW. The emission energy of both the exciton and biexciton lines is modulated over a 1.5 meV range at ∼330 MHz. A small but systematic difference in the exciton and biexciton spectral modulation reveals a linear change of the biexciton binding energy with the SAW amplitude. The present results are relevant for the dynamic control of individual single photon emitters based on nitride semiconductors.

  1. Analysis tools for the design of active structural acoustic control systems

    Oude Nijhuis, Marco Hendrikus Hermanus


    Acoustic noise is an important problem in the modern society and provides much of the impetus for the development of noise reduction techniques. Passive methods, such as the use of sound absorbing materials, provide an adequate solution to many noise problems, but for noise reduction at low frequenc

  2. AMELIA CESTOL Test: Acoustic Characteristics of Circulation Control Wing with Leading- and Trailing-Edge Slot Blowing

    Horne, William C.; Burnside, Nathan J.


    The AMELIA Cruise-Efficient Short Take-off and Landing (CESTOL) configuration concept was developed to meet future requirements of reduced field length, noise, and fuel burn by researchers at Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo and Georgia Tech Research Institute under sponsorship by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP), Subsonic Fixed Wing Project. The novel configuration includes leading- and trailing-edge circulation control wing (CCW), over-wing podded turbine propulsion simulation (TPS). Extensive aerodynamic measurements of forces, surfaces pressures, and wing surface skin friction measurements were recently measured over a wide range of test conditions in the Arnold Engineering Development Center(AEDC) National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Ft Wind Tunnel. Acoustic measurements of the model were also acquired for each configuration with 7 fixed microphones on a line under the left wing, and with a 48-element, 40-inch diameter phased microphone array under the right wing. This presentation will discuss acoustic characteristics of the CCW system for a variety of tunnel speeds (0 to 120 kts), model configurations (leading edge(LE) and/or trailing-edge(TE) slot blowing, and orientations (incidence and yaw) based on acoustic measurements acquired concurrently with the aerodynamic measurements. The flow coefficient, Cmu= mVSLOT/qSW varied from 0 to 0.88 at 40 kts, and from 0 to 0.15 at 120 kts. Here m is the slot mass flow rate, VSLOT is the slot exit velocity, q is dynamic pressure, and SW is wing surface area. Directivities at selected 1/3 octave bands will be compared with comparable measurements of a 2-D wing at GTRI, as will as microphone array near-field measurements of the right wing at maximum flow rate. The presentation will include discussion of acoustic sensor calibrations as well as characterization of the wind tunnel background noise environment.

  3. Characterization of acoustic droplet vaporization for control of bubble generation under flow conditions.

    Kang, Shih-Tsung; Huang, Yi-Luan; Yeh, Chih-Kuang


    This study investigated the manipulation of bubbles generated by acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) under clinically relevant flow conditions. Optical microscopy and high-frequency ultrasound imaging were used to observe bubbles generated by 2-MHz ultrasound pulses at different time points after the onset of ADV. The dependence of the bubble population on droplet concentration, flow velocity, fluid viscosity and acoustic parameters, including acoustic pressure, pulse duration and pulse repetition frequency, was investigated. The results indicated that post-ADV bubble growth spontaneously driven by air permeation markedly affected the bubble population after insonation. The bubbles can grow to a stable equilibrium diameter as great as twice the original diameter in 0.5-1 s, as predicted by the theoretical calculation. The growth trend is independent of flow velocity, but dependent on fluid viscosity and droplet concentration, which directly influence the rate of gas uptake by bubbles and the rate of gas exchange across the wall of the semipermeable tube containing the bubbles and, hence, the gas content of the host medium. Varying the acoustic pressure does not markedly change the formation of bubbles as long as the ADV thresholds of most droplets are reached. Varying pulse duration and pulse repetition frequency markedly reduces the number of bubbles. Lengthening pulse duration favors the production of large bubbles, but reduces the total number of bubbles. Increasing the PRF interestingly provides superior performance in bubble disruption. These results also suggest that an ADV bubble population cannot be assessed simply on the basis of initial droplet size or enhancement of imaging contrast by the bubbles. Determining the optimal acoustic parameters requires careful consideration of their impact on the bubble population produced for different application scenarios.

  4. Handbook of Engineering Acoustics

    Möser, Michael


    This book examines the physical background of engineering acoustics, focusing on empirically obtained engineering experience as well as on measurement techniques and engineering methods for prognostics. Its goal is not only to describe the state of art of engineering acoustics but also to give practical help to engineers in order to solve acoustic problems. It deals with the origin, the transmission and the methods of the abating different kinds of air-borne and structure-borne sounds caused by various mechanisms – from traffic to machinery and flow-induced sound. In addition the modern aspects of room and building acoustics, as well as psychoacoustics and active noise control, are covered.

  5. Controlled Acoustic Bass System (CABS) A Method to Achieve Uniform Sound Field Distribution at Low Frequencies in Rectangular Rooms

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal


    The sound field produced by loudspeakers at low frequencies in small- and medium-size rectangular listening rooms is highly nonuniform due to the multiple reflections and diffractions of sound on the walls and different objects in the room. A new method, called controlled acoustic bass system (CABS......), is introduced. The system utilizes front loudspeakers and extra loudspeakers on the opposite wall of the room processed to cancel out the rear-wall reflections, which effectively conveys a more uniform sound field. The system works in the time domain and presents good performance over the loudspeaker low...

  6. A process to control light in a micro resonator through a coupling modulation by surface acoustic waves

    Fan, Guofang; Li, Yuan; Hu, Chunguang; Lei, Lihua; Guo, Yanchuan


    A novel process to control light through the coupling modulation by surface acoustic wave (SAW) is presented in an optical micro resonator. An optical waveguide modulator of a racetrack resonator on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology is took as an example to explore the mechanism. A finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) is developed to simulate the acousto-optical (AO) modulator using the mechanism. An analytical method is presented to verify our proposal. The results show that the process can work well as an optical modulator by SAW.

  7. Coordinated Control of Acoustical Field of View and Flight in Three-Dimensional Space for Consecutive Capture by Echolocating Bats during Natural Foraging.

    Sumiya, Miwa; Fujioka, Emyo; Motoi, Kazuya; Kondo, Masaru; Hiryu, Shizuko


    Echolocating bats prey upon small moving insects in the dark using sophisticated sonar techniques. The direction and directivity pattern of the ultrasound broadcast of these bats are important factors that affect their acoustical field of view, allowing us to investigate how the bats control their acoustic attention (pulse direction) for advanced flight maneuvers. The purpose of this study was to understand the behavioral strategies of acoustical sensing of wild Japanese house bats Pipistrellus abramus in three-dimensional (3D) space during consecutive capture flights. The results showed that when the bats successively captured multiple airborne insects in short time intervals (less than 1.5 s), they maintained not only the immediate prey but also the subsequent one simultaneously within the beam widths of the emitted pulses in both horizontal and vertical planes before capturing the immediate one. This suggests that echolocating bats maintain multiple prey within their acoustical field of view by a single sensing using a wide directional beam while approaching the immediate prey, instead of frequently shifting acoustic attention between multiple prey. We also numerically simulated the bats' flight trajectories when approaching two prey successively to investigate the relationship between the acoustical field of view and the prey direction for effective consecutive captures. This simulation demonstrated that acoustically viewing both the immediate and the subsequent prey simultaneously increases the success rate of capturing both prey, which is considered to be one of the basic axes of efficient route planning for consecutive capture flight. The bat's wide sonar beam can incidentally cover multiple prey while the bat forages in an area where the prey density is high. Our findings suggest that the bats then keep future targets within their acoustical field of view for effective foraging. In addition, in both the experimental results and the numerical simulations

  8. Control of boundary layer transition location and plate vibration in the presence of an external acoustic field

    Maestrello, L.; Grosveld, F. W.


    The experiment is aimed at controlling the boundary layer transition location and the plate vibration when excited by a flow and an upstream sound source. Sound has been found to affect the flow at the leading edge and the response of a flexible plate in a boundary layer. Because the sound induces early transition, the panel vibration is acoustically coupled to the turbulent boundary layer by the upstream radiation. Localized surface heating at the leading edge delays the transition location downstream of the flexible plate. The response of the plate excited by a turbulent boundary layer (without sound) shows that the plate is forced to vibrate at different frequencies and with different amplitudes as the flow velocity changes indicating that the plate is driven by the convective waves of the boundary layer. The acoustic disturbances induced by the upstream sound dominate the response of the plate when the boundary layer is either turbulent or laminar. Active vibration control was used to reduce the sound induced displacement amplitude of the plate.

  9. Communication Acoustics

    Blauert, Jens

    Communication Acoustics deals with the fundamentals of those areas of acoustics which are related to modern communication technologies. Due to the advent of digital signal processing and recording in acoustics, these areas have enjoyed an enormous upswing during the last 4 decades. The book...... the book a source of valuable information for those who want to improve or refresh their knowledge in the field of communication acoustics - and to work their way deeper into it. Due to its interdisciplinary character Communication Acoustics is bound to attract readers from many different areas, such as......: acoustics, cognitive science, speech science, and communication technology....

  10. A Device for Fetal Monitoring by Means of Control Over Cardiovascular Parameters Based on Acoustic Data

    Khokhlova, L. A.; Seleznev, A. I.; Zhdanov, D. S.; Zemlyakov, I. Yu; Kiseleva, E. Yu


    The problem of monitoring fetal health is topical at the moment taking into account a reduction in the level of fertile-age women's health and changes in the concept of perinatal medicine with reconsideration of live birth criteria. Fetal heart rate monitoring is a valuable means of assessing fetal health during pregnancy. The routine clinical measurements are usually carried out by the means of ultrasound cardiotocography. Although the cardiotocography monitoring provides valuable information on the fetal health status, the high quality ultrasound devices are expensive, they are not available for home care use. The recommended number of measurement is also limited. The passive and fully non-invasive acoustic recording provides an alternative low-cost measurement method. The article describes a device for fetal and maternal health monitoring by analyzing the frequency and periodicity of heart beats by means of acoustic signal received on the maternal abdomen. Based on the usage of this device a phonocardiographic fetal telemedicine system, which will allow to reduce the antenatal fetal mortality rate significantly due to continuous monitoring over the state of fetus regardless of mother's location, can be built.

  11. Controlling acoustic streaming in an ultrasonic heptagonal tweezers with application to cell manipulation.

    Bernassau, A L; Glynne-Jones, P; Gesellchen, F; Riehle, M; Hill, M; Cumming, D R S


    Acoustic radiation force has been demonstrated as a method for manipulating micron-scale particles, but is frequently affected by unwanted streaming. In this paper the streaming in a multi-transducer quasi-standing wave acoustic particle manipulation device is assessed, and found to be dominated by a form of Eckart streaming. The experimentally observed streaming takes the form of two main vortices that have their highest velocity in the region where the standing wave is established. A finite element model is developed that agrees well with experimental results, and shows that the Reynolds stresses that give rise to the fluid motion are strongest in the high velocity region. A technical solution to reduce the streaming is explored that entails the introduction of a biocompatible agar gel layer at the bottom of the chamber so as to reduce the fluid depth and volume. By this means, we reduce the region of fluid that experiences the Reynolds stresses; the viscous drag per unit volume of fluid is also increased. Particle Image Velocimetry data is used to observe the streaming as a function of agar-modified cavity depth. It was found that, in an optimised structure, Eckart streaming could be reduced to negligible levels so that we could make a sonotweezers device with a large working area of up to 13 mm × 13 mm.

  12. Active control of passive acoustic fields: passive synthetic aperture/Doppler beamforming with data from an autonomous vehicle.

    D'Spain, Gerald L; Terrill, Eric; Chadwell, C David; Smith, Jerome A; Lynch, Stephen D


    The maneuverability of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) equipped with hull-mounted arrays provides the opportunity to actively modify received acoustic fields to optimize extraction of information. This paper uses ocean acoustic data collected by an AUV-mounted two-dimensional hydrophone array, with overall dimension one-tenth wavelength at 200-500 Hz, to demonstrate aspects of this control through vehicle motion. Source localization is performed using Doppler shifts measured at a set of receiver velocities by both single elements and a physical array. Results show that a source in the presence of a 10-dB higher-level interferer having exactly the same frequency content (as measured by a stationary receiver) is properly localized and that white-noise-constrained adaptive beamforming applied to the physical aperture data in combination with Doppler beamforming provides greater spatial resolution than physical-aperture-alone beamforming and significantly lower sidelobes than single element Doppler beamforming. A new broadband beamformer that adjusts for variations in vehicle velocity on a sample by sample basis is demonstrated with data collected during a high-acceleration maneuver. The importance of including the cost of energy expenditure in determining optimal vehicle motion is demonstrated through simulation, further illustrating how the vehicle characteristics are an integral part of the signal/array processing structure.

  13. Acoustic telemetry

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To determine movements of green turtles in the nearshore foraging areas, we deployed acoustic tags and determined their movements through active and passive acoustic...

  14. Does enriched acoustic environment in humans abolish chronic tinnitus clinically and electrophysiologically? A double blind placebo controlled study.

    Vanneste, Sven; van Dongen, Marijn; De Vree, Bjorn; Hiseni, Senad; van der Velden, Eddy; Strydis, Christos; Joos, Kathleen; Norena, Arnaud; Serdijn, Wouter; De Ridder, Dirk


    Animal research has shown that loss of normal acoustic stimulation can increase spontaneous firing in the central auditory system and induce cortical map plasticity. Enriched acoustic environment after noise trauma prevents map plasticity and abolishes neural signs of tinnitus. In humans, the tinnitus spectrum overlaps with the area of hearing loss. Based on these findings it can be hypothesized that stimulating the auditory system by presenting music compensating specifically for the hearing loss might also suppress chronic tinnitus. To verify this hypothesis, a study was conducted in three groups of tinnitus patients. One group listened just to unmodified music (i.e. active control group), one group listened to music spectrally tailored to compensate for their hearing loss, and a third group received music tailored to overcompensate for their hearing loss, associated with one (in presbycusis) or two notches (in audiometric dip) at the edge of hearing loss. Our data indicate that applying overcompensation to the hearing loss worsens the patients' tinnitus loudness, the tinnitus annoyance and their depressive feelings. No significant effects were obtained for the control group or for the compensation group. These clinical findings were associated with an increase in current density within the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in the alpha2 frequency band and within the left pregenual anterior cingulate cortex in beta1 and beta2 frequency band. In addition, a region of interest analysis also demonstrated an associated increase in gamma band activity in the auditory cortex after overcompensation in comparison to baseline measurements. This was, however, not the case for the control or the compensation groups. In conclusion, music therapy compensating for hearing loss is not beneficial in suppressing tinnitus, and overcompensating hearing loss actually worsens tinnitus, both clinically and electrophysiologically.

  15. Controlling light in scattering media noninvasively using the photo-acoustic transmission-matrix

    Chaigne, T; Boccara, A C; Fink, M; Bossy, E; Gigan, S


    Optical wavefront-shaping has emerged as a powerful tool to manipulate light in strongly scattering media. It enables diffraction-limited focusing and imaging at depths where conventional microscopy techniques fail. However, while most wavefront-shaping works to-date exploited direct access to the target or implanted probes, the challenge is to apply it non-invasively inside complex samples. Ultrasonic-tagging techniques have been recently demonstrated but these require a sequential point-by- point acquisition, a major drawback for imaging applications. Here, we introduce a novel approach to non-invasively measure the optical transmission-matrix inside a scattering medium, exploiting the photo-acoustic effect. Our approach allows for the first time to simultaneously discriminate, localize, and selectively focus light on multiple targets inside a scattering sample, as well as to recover and exploit the scattering medium properties. Combining the powerful approach of the transmission-matrix with the advantages ...

  16. Target spectrum matrix definition for multiple-input- multiple-output control strategies applied on direct-field- acoustic-excitation tests

    Alvarez Blanco, M.; Janssens, K.; Bianciardi, F.


    During the last two decades there have been several improvements on environmental acoustic qualification testing for launch and space vehicles. Direct field excitation (DFAX) tests using Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) control strategies seems to become the most cost-efficient way for component and subsystem acoustic testing. However there are still some concerns about the uniformity and diffusivity of the acoustic field produced by direct field testing. Lately, much of the documented progresses aimed to solve the non-uniformity of the field by altering the sound pressure level requirement, limiting responses and adding or modifying control microphones positions. However, the first two solutions imply modifying the qualification criteria, which could lead to under-testing, potentially risking the mission. Furthermore, adding or moving control microphones prematurely changes the system configuration, even if it is an optimal geometric layout in terms of wave interference patterns control. This research investigates the target definition as an initial condition for the acoustic MIMO control. Through experiments it is shown that for a given system configuration the performance of a DFAX test strongly depends on the target definition procedure. As output of this research a set of descriptors are presented describing a phenomenon defined as “Energy- sink”.

  17. Design and analysis of the trapeziform and flat acoustic cloaks with controllable invisibility performance in a quasi-space

    Jian Zhu


    Full Text Available We present the design, implementation and detailed performance analysis for a class of trapeziform and flat acoustic cloaks. An effective large invisible area is obtained compared with the traditional carpet cloak. The cloaks are realized with homogeneous metamaterials which are made of periodic arrangements of subwavelength unit cells composed of steel embedded in air. The microstructures and its effective parameters of the cloaks are determined quickly and precisely in a broadband frequency range by using the effective medium theory and the proposed parameters optimization method. The invisibility capability of the cloaks can be controlled by the variation of the key design parameters and scale factor which are proved to have more influence on the performance in the near field than that in the far field. Different designs are suitable for different application situations. Good cloaking performance demonstrates that such a device can be physically realized with natural materials which will greatly promote the real applications of invisibility cloak.

  18. Low frequency sound field control in rectangular listening rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) will also reduce sound transmission to neighbor rooms

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian


    at resonance frequencies, but more or less at all frequencies. A time based room correction system named CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) has been developed and is able to create a homogeneous sound field in the whole room at low frequencies by proper placement of multiple loudspeakers. A normal setup...... from the rear wall, and thereby leaving only the plane wave in the room. With a room size of (7.8 x 4.1 x 2.8) m. it is possible to prevent modal frequencies up to 100 Hz. An investigation has shown that the sound transmitted to a neighbour room also will be reduced if CABS is used. The principle...... and the understanding of why and how it works will also be discussed. CABS is controlled by a developed DSP (Digital Signal Processing) system....

  19. A film bulk acoustic resonator-based high-performance pressure sensor integrated with temperature control system

    Zhang, Mengying; Zhao, Zhan; Du, Lidong; Fang, Zhen


    This paper presented a high-performance pressure sensor based on a film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR). The support film of the FBAR chip was made of silicon nitride and the part under the resonator area was etched to enhance the sensitivity and improve the linearity of the pressure sensor. A micro resistor temperature sensor and a micro resistor heater were integrated in the chip to monitor and control the operating temperature. The sensor chip was fabricated, and packaged in an oscillator circuit for differential pressure detection. When the detected pressure ranged from  ‑100 hPa to 600 hPa, the sensitivity of the improved FBAR pressure sensor was  ‑0.967 kHz hPa‑1, namely  ‑0.69 ppm hPa‑1, which was 19% higher than that of existing sensors with a complete support film. The nonlinearity of the improved sensor was less than  ±0.35%, while that of the existing sensor was  ±5%. To eliminate measurement errors from humidity, the temperature control system integrated in the sensor chip controlled the temperature of the resonator up to 75 °C, with accuracy of  ±0.015 °C and power of 20 mW.

  20. Acoustical Imaging

    Litniewski, Jerzy; Kujawska, Tamara; 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging


    The International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging is a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place continuously since 1968. In the course of the years the proceedings volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have become a reference for cutting-edge research in the field. In 2011 the 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Warsaw, Poland, April 10-13. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art as well as  in-depth research contributions by the specialists in the field, this Volume 31 in the Series contains an excellent collection of papers in six major categories: Biological and Medical Imaging Physics and Mathematics of Acoustical Imaging Acoustic Microscopy Transducers and Arrays Nondestructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Underwater Imaging

  1. Acoustic textiles

    Nayak, Rajkishore


    This book highlights the manufacturing and applications of acoustic textiles in various industries. It also includes examples from different industries in which acoustic textiles can be used to absorb noise and help reduce the impact of noise at the workplace. Given the importance of noise reduction in the working environment in several industries, the book offers a valuable guide for companies, educators and researchers involved with acoustic materials.

  2. Acoustic biosensors

    Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice; Seshia, Ashwin A.


    Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of ...

  3. Passive Acoustic Detection of Wind Turbine In-Flow Conditions for Active Control and Optimization

    Murray, Nathan E.


    Wind is a significant source of energy; however, the human capability to produce electrical energy still has many hurdles to overcome. One of these is the unpredictability of the winds in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The ABL is highly turbulent in both stable and unstable conditions (based on the vertical temperature profile) and the resulting fluctuations can have a dramatic impact on wind turbine operation. Any method by which these fluctuations could be observed, estimated, or predicted could provide a benefit to the wind energy industry as a whole. Based on the fundamental coupling of velocity fluctuations to pressure fluctuations in the nearly incompressible flow in the ABL, This work hypothesizes that a ground-based array of infrasonic pressure transducers could be employed to estimate the vertical wind profile over a height relevant for wind turbines. To analyze this hypothesis, experiments and field deployments were conducted. Wind tunnel experiments were performed for a thick turbulent boundary layer over a neutral or heated surface. Surface pressure and velocity probe measurements were acquired simultaneously. Two field deployments yielded surface pressure data from a 49 element array. The second deployment at the Reese Technology Center in Lubbock, TX, also included data from a smaller aperture, 96-element array and a 200-meter tall meteorological tower. Analysis of the data successfully demonstrated the ability to estimate the vertical velocity profile using coherence data from the pressure array. Also, dynamical systems analysis methods were successful in identifying and tracking a gust type event. In addition to the passive acoustic profiling method, this program also investigated a rapid response Doppler SODAR system, the optimization of wind turbine blades for enhanced power with reduced aeroacoustic noise production, and the implementation of a wireless health monitoring system for the wind turbine blades. Each of these other objectives

  4. Active low frequency sound field control in a listening room using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) will also reduce the sound transmitted to neighbour rooms

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian


    Sound in rooms and transmission of sound between rooms gives the biggest problems at low frequencies. Rooms with rectangular boundaries have strong resonance frequencies and will give big spatial variations in sound pressure level (SPL) in the source room, and an increase in SPL of 20 dB at a wal...... shown a reduction in sound transmission of up to 10 dB at resonance frequencies and a reduction at broadband noise of 3 – 5 dB at frequencies up to 100 Hz. The ideas and understanding of the CABS system will also be given....... is possible at modal frequencies. For that reason the modal frequencies in the source room will also have big impact on the transmission to neighbour rooms. These low frequency resonance frequencies are very audible in the source room but also in neighbour rooms as a booming bass. CABS (Controlled Acoustic...

  5. Optical Mixing Controlled Stimulated Scattering instabilities: Suppression of SRS by the Controlled Introduction of Ion Acoustic and Electron Plasma Wave Turbulence

    Afeyan, Bedros; Won, K; Montgomery, D S; Hammer, J; Kirkwood, R K; Schmitt, A J


    In a series of experiments on the Omega laser facility at LLE, we have demonstrated the suppression of SRS in prescribed spectral windows due to the presence of externally controlled levels of ion acoustic waves (IAW, by crossing two blue beams at the Mach -1 surface) and electron plasma waves (EPW, by crossing a blue and a green beam around a tenth critical density plasma) generated via optical mixing. We have further observed SRS backscattering of a green beam when crossed with a blue pump beam, in whose absence, that (green beam) backscattering signature was five times smaller. This is direct evidence for green beam amplification when crossed with the blue. Additional proof comes from transmitted green beam measurements. A combination of these techniques may allow the suppression of unacceptable levels of SRS near the light entrance hole of large-scale hohlraums on the NIF or LMJ.

  6. Acoustic Imaging of Combustion Noise

    Ramohalli, K. N.; Seshan, P. K.


    Elliposidal acoustic mirror used to measure sound emitted at discrete points in burning turbulent jets. Mirror deemphasizes sources close to target source and excludes sources far from target. At acoustic frequency of 20 kHz, mirror resolves sound from region 1.25 cm wide. Currently used by NASA for research on jet flames. Produces clearly identifiable and measurable variation of acoustic spectral intensities along length of flame. Utilized in variety of monitoring or control systems involving flames or other reacting flows.

  7. Radiation acoustics

    Lyamshev, Leonid M


    Radiation acoustics is a developing field lying at the intersection of acoustics, high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and condensed matter physics. Radiation Acoustics is among the first books to address this promising field of study, and the first to collect all of the most significant results achieved since research in this area began in earnest in the 1970s.The book begins by reviewing the data on elementary particles, absorption of penetrating radiation in a substance, and the mechanisms of acoustic radiation excitation. The next seven chapters present a theoretical treatment of thermoradiation sound generation in condensed media under the action of modulated penetrating radiation and radiation pulses. The author explores particular features of the acoustic fields of moving thermoradiation sound sources, sound excitation by single high-energy particles, and the efficiency and optimal conditions of thermoradiation sound generation. Experimental results follow the theoretical discussions, and these clearl...

  8. Acute and Chronic Effect of Acoustic and Visual Cues on Gait Training in Parkinson’s Disease: A Randomized, Controlled Study

    Roberto De Icco


    Full Text Available In this randomized controlled study we analyse and compare the acute and chronic effects of visual and acoustic cues on gait performance in Parkinson’s Disease (PD. We enrolled 46 patients with idiopathic PD who were assigned to 3 different modalities of gait training: (1 use of acoustic cues, (2 use of visual cues, or (3 overground training without cues. All patients were tested with kinematic analysis of gait at baseline (T0, at the end of the 4-week rehabilitation programme (T1, and 3 months later (T2. Regarding the acute effect, acoustic cues increased stride length and stride duration, while visual cues reduced the number of strides and normalized the stride/stance distribution but also reduced gait speed. As regards the chronic effect of cues, we recorded an improvement in some gait parameters in all 3 groups of patients: all 3 types of training improved gait speed; visual cues also normalized the stance/swing ratio, acoustic cues reduced the number of strides and increased stride length, and overground training improved stride length. The changes were not retained at T2 in any of the experimental groups. Our findings support and characterize the usefulness of cueing strategies in the rehabilitation of gait in PD.

  9. Control of deviations and prediction of surface roughness from micro machining of THz waveguides using acoustic emission signals

    Griffin, James M.; Diaz, Fernanda; Geerling, Edgar; Clasing, Matias; Ponce, Vicente; Taylor, Chris; Turner, Sam; Michael, Ernest A.; Patricio Mena, F.; Bronfman, Leonardo


    By using acoustic emission (AE) it is possible to control deviations and surface quality during micro milling operations. The method of micro milling is used to manufacture a submillimetre waveguide where micro machining is employed to achieve the required superior finish and geometrical tolerances. Submillimetre waveguide technology is used in deep space signal retrieval where highest detection efficiencies are needed and therefore every possible signal loss in the receiver has to be avoided and stringent tolerances achieved. With a sub-standard surface finish the signals travelling along the waveguides dissipate away faster than with perfect surfaces where the residual roughness becomes comparable with the electromagnetic skin depth. Therefore, the higher the radio frequency the more critical this becomes. The method of time-frequency analysis (STFT) is used to transfer raw AE into more meaningful salient signal features (SF). This information was then correlated against the measured geometrical deviations and, the onset of catastrophic tool wear. Such deviations can be offset from different AE signals (different deviations from subsequent tests) and feedback for a final spring cut ensuring the geometrical accuracies are met. Geometrical differences can impact on the required transfer of AE signals (change in cut off frequencies and diminished SNR at the interface) and therefore errors have to be minimised to within 1 μm. Rules based on both Classification and Regression Trees (CART) and Neural Networks (NN) were used to implement a simulation displaying how such a control regime could be used as a real time controller, be it corrective measures (via spring cuts) over several initial machining passes or, with a micron cut introducing a level plain measure for allowing setup corrective measures (similar to a spirit level).

  10. Control of low-frequency noise for piping systems via the design of coupled band gap of acoustic metamaterials

    Li, Yanfei; Shen, Huijie; Zhang, Linke; Su, Yongsheng; Yu, Dianlong


    Acoustic wave propagation and sound transmission in a metamaterial-based piping system with Helmholtz resonator (HR) attached periodically are studied. A transfer matrix method is developed to conduct the investigation. Calculational results show that the introduction of periodic HRs in the piping system could generate a band gap (BG) near the resonant frequency of the HR, such that the bandwidth and the attenuation effect of HR improved notably. Bragg type gaps are also exist in the system due to the systematic periodicity. By plotting the BG as functions of HR parameters, the effect of resonator parameters on the BG behavior, including bandwidth, location and attenuation performance, etc., is examined. It is found that Bragg-type gap would interplay with the resonant-type gap under some special situations, thereby giving rise to a super-wide coupled gap. Further, explicit formulation for BG exact coupling is extracted and some key parameters on modulating the width and the attenuation coefficient of coupled gaps are investigated. The coupled gap can be located to any frequency range as one concerned, thus rendering the low-frequency noise control feasible in a broad band range.

  11. Reflective echo tomographic imaging using acoustic beams

    Kisner, Roger; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J


    An inspection system includes a plurality of acoustic beamformers, where each of the plurality of acoustic beamformers including a plurality of acoustic transmitter elements. The system also includes at least one controller configured for causing each of the plurality of acoustic beamformers to generate an acoustic beam directed to a point in a volume of interest during a first time. Based on a reflected wave intensity detected at a plurality of acoustic receiver elements, an image of the volume of interest can be generated.

  12. An Experimental Investigation of the Acoustic and Fluid Dynamic Characteristics of a Circulation-Controlled Airfoil


    sound production from a hydrofoil and identified three mechanisms: (1) low frequency curvature noise associated with interaction of a turbulent...2002). 2 Technical Approach A two-dimensional, dual-slotted, elliptic circulation control airfoil based on the hydrofoil studied by Rogers...airfoil, shown in Figure 1A, is designed based on the geometry of the hydrofoil previously studied by Rogers & Donnelly (2004). The airfoil’s profile

  13. Hydrodynamic Controls on Acoustical and Optical Water Properties in Tropical Reefs


    change, coral bleaching and the future of the world’s coral reefs . Mar. Freshw. Res., 50, 839-866. McKee and Cunningham, 2005. Evidence for wavelength...the dominant hydrodynamic controls across different reef environments? Tropical coral health can be significantly affected by sedimentation that can...collaborative field work by the PIs, carried out in collaboration with UCSD SIO (PI: Terrill) and the Coral Reef Research Foundation in Koror (PI

  14. Thin broadband noise absorption through acoustic reactance control by electro-mechanical coupling without sensor.

    Zhang, Yumin; Chan, Yum-Ji; Huang, Lixi


    Broadband noise with profound low-frequency profile is prevalent and difficult to be controlled mechanically. This study demonstrates effective broadband sound absorption by reducing the mechanical reactance of a loudspeaker using a shunt circuit through electro-mechanical coupling, which induces reactance with different signs from that of loudspeaker. An RLC shunt circuit is connected to the moving coil to provide an electrically induced mechanical impedance which counters the cavity stiffness at low frequencies and reduces the system inertia above the resonance frequency. A sound absorption coefficient well above 0.5 is demonstrated across frequencies between 150 and 1200 Hz. The performance of the proposed device is superior to existing passive absorbers of the same depth (60 mm), which has lower frequency limits of around 300 Hz. A passive noise absorber is further proposed by paralleling a micro-perforated panel with shunted loudspeaker which shows potentials in absorbing band-limit impulse noise.

  15. Acoustic Neurinomas

    Mohammad Faraji Rad


    Full Text Available Acoustic neuromas (AN are schwann cell-derived tumors that commonly arise from the vestibular portion of the eighth cranial nerve also known as vestibular schwannoma(VS causes unilateral hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo and unsteadiness. In many cases, the tumor size may remain unchanged for many years following diagnosis, which is typically made by MRI. In the majority of cases the tumor is small, leaving the clinician and patient with the options of either serial scanning or active treatment by gamma knife radiosurgery (GKR or microneurosurgery. Despite the vast number of published treatment reports, comparative studies are few. The predominant clinical endpoints of AN treatment include tumor control, facial nerve function and hearing preservation. Less focus has been put on symptom relief and health-related quality of life (QOL. It is uncertain if treating a small tumor leaves the patient with a better chance of obtaining relief from future hearing loss, vertigo or tinnitus than by observing it without treatment.   In this paper we review the literature for the natural course, the treatment alternatives and the results of AN. Finally, we present our experience with a management strategy applied for more than 30 years.

  16. Acoustical Imaging

    Akiyama, Iwaki


    The 29th International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Shonan Village, Kanagawa, Japan, April 15-18, 2007. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place every two years since 1968 and forms a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. In the course of the years the volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have developed and become well-known and appreciated reference works. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art in the field as well as an in-depth look at its leading edge research, this Volume 29 in the Series contains again an excellent collection of seventy papers presented in nine major categories: Strain Imaging Biological and Medical Applications Acoustic Microscopy Non-Destructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Components and Systems Geophysics and Underwater Imaging Physics and Mathematics Medical Image Analysis FDTD method and Other Numerical Simulations Audience Researcher...

  17. Battlefield acoustics

    Damarla, Thyagaraju


    This book presents all aspects of situational awareness in a battlefield using acoustic signals. It starts by presenting the science behind understanding and interpretation of sound signals. The book then goes on to provide various signal processing techniques used in acoustics to find the direction of sound source, localize gunfire, track vehicles, and detect people. The necessary mathematical background and various classification and fusion techniques are presented. The book contains majority of the things one would need to process acoustic signals for all aspects of situational awareness in one location. The book also presents array theory, which is pivotal in finding the direction of arrival of acoustic signals. In addition, the book presents techniques to fuse the information from multiple homogeneous/heterogeneous sensors for better detection. MATLAB code is provided for majority of the real application, which is a valuable resource in not only understanding the theory but readers, can also use the code...

  18. Acoustics Research

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fisheries acoustics data are collected from more than 200 sea-days each year aboard the FRV DELAWARE II and FRV ALBATROSS IV (decommissioned) and the FSV Henry B....

  19. Room Acoustics

    Kuttruff, Heinrich; Mommertz, Eckard

    The traditional task of room acoustics is to create or formulate conditions which ensure the best possible propagation of sound in a room from a sound source to a listener. Thus, objects of room acoustics are in particular assembly halls of all kinds, such as auditoria and lecture halls, conference rooms, theaters, concert halls or churches. Already at this point, it has to be pointed out that these conditions essentially depend on the question if speech or music should be transmitted; in the first case, the criterion for transmission quality is good speech intelligibility, in the other case, however, the success of room-acoustical efforts depends on other factors that cannot be quantified that easily, not least it also depends on the hearing habits of the listeners. In any case, absolutely "good acoustics" of a room do not exist.

  20. Enhancement of acoustic evoked potentials and impairment of startle reflex induced by reduction of GABAergic control of the neural substrates of aversion in the inferior colliculus.

    Nobre, Manoel Jorge; Sandner, Guy; Brandão, Marcus Lira


    The neural network of the inferior colliculus (IC), implicated in the generation of defensive behavior to aversive acoustic stimuli, is under tonic GABAergic control. Dopamine also seems to have a modulatory role in these neural circuits. It is still unclear how such changes in transmission of acoustic information influence the motor expression of the defensive behavior. Startle reaction to a sudden noise has been used as an effective way to measure the motor reactivity of rats to fearful acoustic stimuli. In this work we examined the processing of sensorial information--assessed by the recording of auditory evoked potentials (AEP)--and the behavioral effects--evaluated by the freezing and startle responses--during the reduction of GABA levels caused by microinjections of semicarbazide (SMC, 6 microg/0.2 microl), a glutamic acid decarboxylase inhibitor, into the IC. These data were compared to the effects of the overall arousal elicited by apomorphine (APO, 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.). The results obtained show that IC microinjections of SMC induced freezing behavior, enhanced the AEP and impaired the startle reaction to a loud sound. On the other hand, APO changed neither the AEP nor the startle in the same experimental conditions. These results suggest that the release of GABAergic control of the neural substrates of aversion in the IC results in an increased processing of auditory information along with an inhibitory influence on the motor pathways responsible for the startle response.

  1. Correcting acoustic Doppler current profiler discharge measurement bias from moving-bed conditions without global positioning during the 2004 Glen Canyon Dam controlled flood on the Colorado River

    Gartner, J.W.; Ganju, N.K.


    Discharge measurements were made by acoustic Doppler current profiler at two locations on the Colorado River during the 2004 controlled flood from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona. Measurement hardware and software have constantly improved from the 1980s such that discharge measurements by acoustic profiling instruments are now routinely made over a wide range of hydrologic conditions. However, measurements made with instruments deployed from moving boats require reliable boat velocity data for accurate measurements of discharge. This is normally accomplished by using special acoustic bottom track pings that sense instrument motion over bottom. While this method is suitable for most conditions, high current flows that produce downstream bed sediment movement create a condition known as moving bed that will bias velocities and discharge to lower than actual values. When this situation exists, one solution is to determine boat velocity with satellite positioning information. Another solution is to use a lower frequency instrument. Discharge measurements made during the 2004 Glen Canyon controlled flood were subject to moving-bed conditions and frequent loss of bottom track. Due to site conditions and equipment availability, the measurements were conducted without benefit of external positioning information or lower frequency instruments. This paper documents and evaluates several techniques used to correct the resulting underestimated discharge measurements. One technique produces discharge values in good agreement with estimates from numerical model and measured hydrographs during the flood. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  2. A method for the frequency control in time-resolved two-dimensional gigahertz surface acoustic wave imaging

    Shogo Kaneko


    Full Text Available We describe an extension of the time-resolved two-dimensional gigahertz surface acoustic wave imaging based on the optical pump-probe technique with periodic light source at a fixed repetition frequency. Usually such imaging measurement may generate and detect acoustic waves with their frequencies only at or near the integer multiples of the repetition frequency. Here we propose a method which utilizes the amplitude modulation of the excitation pulse train to modify the generation frequency free from the mentioned limitation, and allows for the first time the discrimination of the resulted upper- and lower-side-band frequency components in the detection. The validity of the method is demonstrated in a simple measurement on an isotropic glass plate covered by a metal thin film to extract the dispersion curves of the surface acoustic waves.

  3. Occupation and risk of glioma, meningioma and acoustic neuroma: results from a German case-control study (interphone study group, Germany)

    Samkange-Zeeb, F; Schlehofer, B; Schüz, J;


    /electronic and transport, and the risk of glioma, meningioma and acoustic neuroma. METHODS: In a population-based case-control study involving a total of 844 cases and 1688 controls conducted from 2000 to 2003, detailed information on life-long job histories was collected during personal interviews and used to create job...... calendars for each participant. Job title, job activity, job number, and the starting and ending dates of the activity were recorded for all activities with duration of at least 1 year. Reported occupational activities were coded according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988...

  4. Low frequency sound field control in rectangular listening rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) will also reduce sound transmission to neighbor rooms

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian


    from the rear wall, and thereby leaving only the plane wave in the room. With a room size of (7.8 x 4.1 x 2.8) m. it is possible to prevent modal frequencies up to 100 Hz. An investigation has shown that the sound transmitted to a neighbour room also will be reduced if CABS is used. The principle......Sound reproduction is often taking place in small and medium sized rectangular rooms. As rectangular rooms have 3 pairs of parallel walls the reflections at especially low frequencies will cause up to 30 dB spatial variations of the sound pressure level in the room. This will take place not only...... at resonance frequencies, but more or less at all frequencies. A time based room correction system named CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) has been developed and is able to create a homogeneous sound field in the whole room at low frequencies by proper placement of multiple loudspeakers. A normal setup...

  5. 声屏障声学设计与计算机仿真应用%Acoustic Design of Sound Barriers and Simulation of Their Noise Control Performance

    陈永光; 袁启慧; 蔡伟明; 郑佰平


    In order to analyze the acoustic design process of sound barriers, survey analysis of traffic noise in the region around the residential buildings adjacent to an avenue was conducted. Based on the data obtained, three preliminary designs of sound insulation reflective barriers with different top structures were done for this region. To verify the result, acoustic software of Virtual. Lab Acoustic was applied to simulate the noise control performance of the three sound barriers. The simulation results show that the design of the vertical sound barrier can meet the practical noise reduction requirements effectively.%通过对重庆市某道路某处居民楼所存在的噪声污染情况进行实际监测,根据声屏障声学设计的步骤设计出适合该区域的三个不同顶部造型的声屏障,采用声学软件Virtual. Lab Acoustic对三种声屏障的降噪效果进行模拟,对模拟结果进行分析;确认直立型声屏障的设计可满足要求。

  6. Acoustic biosensors

    Fogel, Ronen; Seshia, Ashwin A.


    Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of cost, size and scalability, as well as potential additional features including integration with microfluidics and electronics, scaled sensitivities associated with smaller dimensions and higher operational frequencies, the ability to multiplex detection across arrays of hundreds of devices embedded in a single chip, increased throughput and the ability to interrogate a wider range of modes including within the same device. Additionally, device fabrication is often compatible with semiconductor volume batch manufacturing techniques enabling cost scalability and a high degree of precision and reproducibility in the manufacturing process. Integration with microfluidics handling also enables suitable sample pre-processing/separation/purification/amplification steps that could improve selectivity and the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Three device types are reviewed here: (i) bulk acoustic wave sensors, (ii) surface acoustic wave sensors, and (iii) micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) sensors. PMID:27365040

  7. Droplets Acoustics

    Dahan, Raphael; Carmon, Tal


    Contrary to their capillary resonances (Rayleigh, 1879) and their optical resonances (Ashkin, 1977), droplets acoustical resonances were rarely considered. Here we experimentally excite, for the first time, the acoustical resonances of a droplet that relies on sound instead of capillary waves. Droplets vibrations at 37 MHz rates and 100 quality factor are optically excited and interrogated at an optical threshold of 68 microWatt. Our vibrations span a spectral band that is 1000 times higher when compared with drops previously-studied capillary vibration.

  8. Enhancement and control of acoustic cavitation yield by low-level dual frequency sonication: a subharmonic analysis.

    Hasanzadeh, Hadi; Mokhtari-Dizaji, Manijhe; Bathaie, S Zahra; Hassan, Zuhair M; Nilchiani, Vahid; Goudarzi, H


    Evaluation of inertial cavitation is a significant problem where this mechanism of action is responsible for therapeutic applications such as drug delivery. It has shown that using multiple frequencies one is able to enhance and control induced cavitation. In this study, we used different sonication frequencies as 28 kHz, 130 kHz, 1 MHz, 3 MHz and their dual combinations to enhance acoustic cavitation. At each frequency, two different intensities were used and the subharmonic amplitude of each frequency in combinations was measured. It was observed that in combinations which include 28 kHz, the cavitation activity is enhanced. The 28 kHz subharmonic amplitude was used to compare these protocols in their ability to enhance cavitation. Besides, the area of cavitation damage was determined using an aluminum foil. Our results showed that the inertial cavitation activity increased at higher intensities and there is a significant correlation between the subharmonic amplitude and sonication intensity at each frequency (R>0.90). In addition, simultaneous combined dual-frequency orthogonal sonication at 28 kHz with other frequencies used can significantly increase the inertial cavitation activity as compared to the algebraic sum of the individual ultrasound irradiations in 28 kHz subharmonic frequency. The 28 kHz subharmonic amplitude for 28 kHz (0.04 W/cm(2)) and 3 MHz (2 and 1 W/cm(2)) combined dual frequency were about 4.6 and 1.5 times higher than that obtained from the algebraic sum of 28 kHz and 3 MHz irradiation, respectively. Also the 28 kHz subharmonic amplitude for combination of 28 kHz (0.04 W/cm(2)) and 1 MHz (2 and 1 W/cm(2)) were about 2.4 and 1.6 times higher than that obtained with their algebraic sum. Among different combinations, the continuous mode for two ultrasound sources of 28 kHz (0.04 W/cm(2)) and 3 MHz (2 W/cm(2)) is more effective than other combinations (p-value<0.05). The results of effective irradiation area showed no damaged aluminum foil in

  9. Stability monitoring system using acoustic emissions. Sistema de control de la estabilidad basado en la emision acustica

    Celada Tamames, B.; Varona Eraso, P.; Velasco Trivino, E. (Geocontrol, S.A., Madrid (Spain))


    In 1987, the ECSC decided to offer part funding to a research project being carried out by Geocontrol SA concerning the development of a system for monitoring stability by the use of acoustic emissions. The project focuses on predicting instability in coal pillars. The present article describes the first lines of investigation during 1988 and 1989 and the results so far. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Characteristics of acoustic-controlled arc in ultrasonic wave-assisted arc%超声复合电弧声调控特性研究

    谢伟峰; 范成磊; 杨春利; 林三宝; 张玉岐


    As a new welding method, ultrasound has been successfully introduced into the pool during ultrasonic wave-assisted arc welding process. However, the interaction mechanism between the ultrasound and the arc plasma is not clear, thus preventing the new technique from engineering applications. In this paper, the characteristic of arc regulation by external ultrasonic field is investigated based on the experimental data and the corresponding theory. In order to figure out the characteristics of arc, the arc images obtained by high-speed camera are processed. Compared with the conventional welding arc, ultrasonic wave-assisted arc is more contracted and becomes brighter, the high-temperature region in an arc column greatly expands, and there are internal particle agglomerations shaking up and down at a constant frequency. The arc shape varies with ultrasound excitation current and the height of ultrasonic radiator. In the vicinity of the resonance point, the straight-degree of the arc is the strongest and the ripple frequency is also the largest. Results show that the purpose of using external ultrasound field to regulate the thermal plasma has basically achieved. Analyzing the acoustic pressure wave equation for the neutral component shows that the spatial distribution of acoustic wave can be generated in the arc and its intensity is proportional to the local amplitude of acoustic waves. Acoustic pressure field can be calculated based on the dependence of the electron temperature and density on time and space. In addition to the action of acoustic field within the arc, the arc plasma is also controlled by the acoustic field structure. A two-cylinder model incorporating boundary element method is developed, establishing a relationship between the binding capability and the geometric parameters of an ultrasonic radiator with reference to wavelength. This model is successful in predicting resonant modes of the acoustic field and explaining the influences of the ultrasonic

  11. Holograms for acoustics

    Melde, Kai; Mark, Andrew G.; Qiu, Tian; Fischer, Peer


    Holographic techniques are fundamental to applications such as volumetric displays, high-density data storage and optical tweezers that require spatial control of intricate optical or acoustic fields within a three-dimensional volume. The basis of holography is spatial storage of the phase and/or amplitude profile of the desired wavefront in a manner that allows that wavefront to be reconstructed by interference when the hologram is illuminated with a suitable coherent source. Modern computer-generated holography skips the process of recording a hologram from a physical scene, and instead calculates the required phase profile before rendering it for reconstruction. In ultrasound applications, the phase profile is typically generated by discrete and independently driven ultrasound sources; however, these can only be used in small numbers, which limits the complexity or degrees of freedom that can be attained in the wavefront. Here we introduce monolithic acoustic holograms, which can reconstruct diffraction-limited acoustic pressure fields and thus arbitrary ultrasound beams. We use rapid fabrication to craft the holograms and achieve reconstruction degrees of freedom two orders of magnitude higher than commercial phased array sources. The technique is inexpensive, appropriate for both transmission and reflection elements, and scales well to higher information content, larger aperture size and higher power. The complex three-dimensional pressure and phase distributions produced by these acoustic holograms allow us to demonstrate new approaches to controlled ultrasonic manipulation of solids in water, and of liquids and solids in air. We expect that acoustic holograms will enable new capabilities in beam-steering and the contactless transfer of power, improve medical imaging, and drive new applications of ultrasound.

  12. Autonomous Adaptive Acoustic Relay Positioning


    equipment construction and repair tasks [51]. Commercial ROVs range from large, versatile work-class vehicles like Soil Machine Dynamics (SMD) QUANTUM and...range-only formation control using teams of heterogeneous vehicles with wifi and acoustic communications. Shankar and Chitre formulated the multi-armed...acoustic communication and sensing by marine robots. IEEE Journal of Oceanographic Engineering, 38:522–533, 2013. [43] S. Shankar and Chitre. Tuning

  13. Acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate.

    Duck, Francis


    Acoustic dose is defined as the energy deposited by absorption of an acoustic wave per unit mass of the medium supporting the wave. Expressions for acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate are given for plane-wave conditions, including temporal and frequency dependencies of energy deposition. The relationship between the acoustic dose-rate and the resulting temperature increase is explored, as is the relationship between acoustic dose-rate and radiation force. Energy transfer from the wave to the medium by means of acoustic cavitation is considered, and an approach is proposed in principle that could allow cavitation to be included within the proposed definitions of acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate.

  14. Acoustic Communications for UUVs


    through use of high-gain, error-control coding coupled with a modified decision feedback equalizer (DFE) which allows the gain to be exploited prior to...finished it wait for feedback from the receiver. At the host each packet is decoded and displayed if it is correct, or added to a list of bad packets if it...Systems Laboratory, Florida Alantic University, July 1998. L. Freitag el al: ‘A Bidriectional Coherent Acoustic Communications Systems for Underwater

  15. 水声传感器网络拓扑控制技术综述%Overview of Topology Control Techniques in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    孙力娟; 刘林峰; 杜晓玉; 肖甫


    As a new type of wireless sensor networks, underwater acoustic sensor networks ( UASN) will play an important role in many underwater monitoring applications. Because of the particularity and complexity of water medium, underwater acoustic sensor networks are quite different from the traditional sensor networks. Topology control is the key network composing technique. This paper summarizes and concludes the existing research of topology control techniques in UASN. Some problems attracting many researchers are introduced and solutions are pointed out. The main factors in the designing of topology control technique then are proposed. Finally,the problem in future research is discussed.%水声传感器网络作为一种新型的无线传感器网络,将在诸多水下监测应用中发挥重要作用.鉴于水介质的特殊性和复杂性,水声传感器网络与传统无线传感器网络存在很大的差异.拓扑控制技术是水声传感器网络的核心组网技术.文中总结和分析了水声传感器网络领域中拓扑控制技术的现有研究成果,阐述了多种受研究者关注较多的典型问题和解决方法,并指出其中有待解决的问题,进而归结了拓扑控制技术设计中需考虑的因素,最后探讨了今后应研究的问题,指明了该领域中下一步研究的重点和难点.

  16. A Martian acoustic anemometer.

    Banfield, Don; Schindel, David W; Tarr, Steve; Dissly, Richard W


    An acoustic anemometer for use on Mars has been developed. To understand the processes that control the interaction between surface and atmosphere on Mars, not only the mean winds, but also the turbulent boundary layer, the fluxes of momentum, heat and molecular constituents between surface and atmosphere must be measured. Terrestrially this is done with acoustic anemometers, but the low density atmosphere on Mars makes it challenging to adapt such an instrument for use on Mars. This has been achieved using capacitive transducers and pulse compression, and was successfully demonstrated on a stratospheric balloon (simulating the Martian environment) and in a dedicated Mars Wind Tunnel facility. This instrument achieves a measurement accuracy of ∼5 cm/s with an update rate of >20 Hz under Martian conditions.

  17. Opto-acoustic cell permeation

    Visuri, S R; Heredia, N


    Optically generated acoustic waves have been used to temporarily permeate biological cells. This technique may be useful for enhancing transfection of DNA into cells or enhancing the absorption of locally delivered drugs. A diode-pumped frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser operating at kHz repetition rates was used to produce a series of acoustic pulses. An acoustic wave was formed via thermoelastic expansion by depositing laser radiation into an absorbing dye. Generated pressures were measured with a PVDF hydrophone. The acoustic waves were transmitted to cultured and plated cells. The cell media contained a selection of normally- impermeable fluorescent-labeled dextran dyes. Following treatment with the opto-acoustic technique, cellular incorporation of dyes, up to 40,000 Molecular Weight, was noted. Control cells that did not receive opto-acoustic treatment had unremarkable dye incorporation. Uptake of dye was quantified via fluorescent microscopic analysis. Trypan Blue membrane exclusion assays and fluorescent labeling assays confirmed the vitality of cells following treatment. This method of enhanced drug delivery has the potential to dramatically reduce required drug dosages and associated side effects and enable revolutionary therapies.

  18. Experimental Verification of Acoustic Impedance Inversion

    郭永刚; 王宁; 林俊轩


    Well controlled model experiments were carried out to verify acoustic impedance inversion scheme, and different methods of extracting impulse responses were investigated by practical data. The acoustic impedance profiles reconstructed from impulse responses are in good agreement with the measured value and theoretical value.

  19. Acoustic cryocooler

    Swift, Gregory W.; Martin, Richard A.; Radenbaugh, Ray


    An acoustic cryocooler with no moving parts is formed from a thermoacoustic driver (TAD) driving a pulse tube refrigerator (PTR) through a standing wave tube. Thermoacoustic elements in the TAD are spaced apart a distance effective to accommodate the increased thermal penetration length arising from the relatively low TAD operating frequency in the range of 15-60 Hz. At these low operating frequencies, a long tube is required to support the standing wave. The tube may be coiled to reduce the overall length of the cryocooler. One or two PTR's are located on the standing wave tube adjacent antinodes in the standing wave to be driven by the standing wave pressure oscillations. It is predicted that a heat input of 1000 W at 1000 K will maintian a cooling load of 5 W at 80 K.

  20. Acoustic telemetry.

    Drumheller, Douglas Schaeffer; Kuszmaul, Scott S.


    Broadcasting messages through the earth is a daunting task. Indeed, broadcasting a normal telephone conversion through the earth by wireless means is impossible with todays technology. Most of us don't care, but some do. Industries that drill into the earth need wireless communication to broadcast navigation parameters. This allows them to steer their drill bits. They also need information about the natural formation that they are drilling. Measurements of parameters such as pressure, temperature, and gamma radiation levels can tell them if they have found a valuable resource such as a geothermal reservoir or a stratum bearing natural gas. Wireless communication methods are available to the drilling industry. Information is broadcast via either pressure waves in the drilling fluid or electromagnetic waves in the earth and well tubing. Data transmission can only travel one way at rates around a few baud. Given that normal Internet telephone modems operate near 20,000 baud, these data rates are truly very slow. Moreover, communication is often interrupted or permanently blocked by drilling conditions or natural formation properties. Here we describe a tool that communicates with stress waves traveling through the steel drill pipe and production tubing in the well. It's based on an old idea called Acoustic Telemetry. But what we present here is more than an idea. This tool exists, it's drilled several wells, and it works. Currently, it's the first and only acoustic telemetry tool that can withstand the drilling environment. It broadcasts one way over a limited range at much faster rates than existing methods, but we also know how build a system that can communicate both up and down wells of indefinite length.

  1. Experimental and theoretical characterization of acoustic noise from a 7.6 m diameter yaw controlled teetered rotor wind turbine

    Moroz, E. [Univ. of Texas at El Paso, Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, El Paso, TX (United States)


    An experimental investigation into the acoustic noise from a small (7.6 m diameter) teetered rotor wind turbine, set at various yaw angles up to 90 degrees of yaw, was conducted. The results revealed a 1/3 octave spectra which was dominated by a broad peak in the higher frequency range, at all yaw angles investigated. This prompted a theoretical investigation to reveal the mechanisms producing the dominant feature in the experimentally obtained noise spectra and resulted in the development of a wind turbine aerodynamic noise prediction coce, WTNOISE. The location near busy roads and the relatively rough terrain of the wind test site caused difficulties in obtaining useful noise spectral information below 500Hz. However, sufficiently good data was obtained above 500Hz to clearly show a dominant `hump` in the spectrum, centered between 3000 and 4000Hz. Although the local Reynolds number for the blade elements was around 500,000 and one might expect Laminar flow over a significant portion of the blade, the data did not match the noise spectra predicted when Laminar flow was assumed. Given the relatively poor surface quality of the rotor blades and the high turbulence of the test site it was therefore assumed that the boundary layer on the blade may have tripped relatively early and that the turbulent flow setting should be used. This assumption led to a much better correlation between experiment and predictions. The WTNOISE code indicated that the broad peak in the spectrum was most likely caused by trailing edge bluntness noise. Unfortunately time did not allow for modifications to the trailing edge to be investigated. (au)

  2. Acoustic resonance for nonmetallic mine detection

    Kercel, S.W.


    The feasibility of acoustic resonance for detection of plastic mines was investigated by researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Instrumentation and Controls Division under an internally funded program. The data reported in this paper suggest that acoustic resonance is not a practical method for mine detection. Representative small plastic anti-personnel mines were tested, and were found to not exhibit detectable acoustic resonances. Also, non-metal objects known to have strong acoustic resonances were tested with a variety of excitation techniques, and no practical non-contact method of exciting a consistently detectable resonance in a buried object was discovered. Some of the experimental data developed in this work may be useful to other researchers seeking a method to detect buried plastic mines. A number of excitation methods and their pitfalls are discussed. Excitation methods that were investigated include swept acoustic, chopped acoustic, wavelet acoustic, and mechanical shaking. Under very contrived conditions, a weak response that could be attributed to acoustic resonance was observed, but it does not appear to be practical as a mine detection feature. Transfer properties of soil were investigated. Impulse responses of several representative plastic mines were investigated. Acoustic leakage coupling, and its implications as a disruptive mechanism were investigated.

  3. Responsive acoustic surfaces

    Peters, Brady; Tamke, Martin; Nielsen, Stig Anton;


    Acoustic performance is defined by the parameter of reverberation time; however, this does not capture the acoustic experience in some types of open plan spaces. As many working and learning activities now take place in open plan spaces, it is important to be able to understand and design...... for the acoustic conditions of these spaces. This paper describes an experimental research project that studied the design processes necessary to design for sound. A responsive acoustic surface was designed, fabricated and tested. This acoustic surface was designed to create specific sonic effects. The design...... was simulated using custom integrated acoustic software and also using Odeon acoustic analysis software. The research demonstrates a method for designing space- and sound-defining surfaces, defines the concept of acoustic subspace, and suggests some new parameters for defining acoustic subspaces....

  4. Acoustic Spatiality

    Brandon LaBelle


    Full Text Available Experiences of listening can be appreciated as intensely relational, bringing us into contact with surrounding events, bodies and things. Given that sound propagates and expands outwardly, as a set of oscillations from a particular source, listening carries with it a sensual intensity, whereby auditory phenomena deliver intrusive and disruptive as well as soothing and assuring experiences. The physicality characteristic of sound suggests a deeply impressionistic, locational "knowledge structure" – that is, the ways in which listening affords processes of exchange, of being in the world, and from which we extend ourselves. Sound, as physical energy reflecting and absorbing into the materiality around us, and even one's self, provides a rich platform for understanding place and emplacement. Sound is always already a trace of location.Such features of auditory experience give suggestion for what I may call an acoustical paradigm – how sound sets in motion not only the material world but also the flows of the imagination, lending to forces of signification and social structure, and figuring us in relation to each other. The relationality of sound brings us into a steady web of interferences, each of which announces the promise or problematic of being somewhere.

  5. Placebo controlled, prospectively randomized, double-blinded study for the investigation of the effectiveness and safety of the acoustic wave therapy (AWT(®)) for cellulite treatment.

    Russe-Wilflingseder, Katharina; Russe-Wilfingsleder, Katharina; Russe, Elisabeth; Vester, Johannes C; Haller, Gerd; Novak, Pavel; Krotz, Alexander


    Placebo controlled double-blinded, prospectively randomized clinical trial with 17 patients (11 verum, 5 placebo) for evaluation of cellulite treatment with Acoustic Wave Therapy, (AWT(®)) was performed. The patients were treated once a week for 7 weeks, a total of 8 treatments with the D-ACTOR(®) 200 by Storz Medical AG. Data were collected at baseline, before 8th treatment, at 1 month (follow-up 1) and at 3 months (follow-up 2) after the last treatment with a patients' questionnaire, weight control, measurement of circumference and standardized photography. Treatment progress was further documented using a specially designed 3D imaging system (SkinSCAN(3D), 3D-Shape GmbH) providing an objective measure of cellulite (primary efficacy criteria). Patient's questionnaire in the verum group revealed an improvement in number and depth of dimples, skin firmness and texture, in shape and in reduction of circumference. The overall result (of skin waviness, Sq and Sz, surface and volume of depressions and elevations, Vvv and Vmp) at two follow-up visits indicates a more than medium sized superiority (MW = 0.6706) and is statistically significant (pWei-Lachin = 0.0106). The placebo group revealed no statistical significance. No side effects were seen. This indicates the efficacy and safety of AWT(®) for patients with cellulite.

  6. An Effective Quality Control of Pharmacologically Active Volatiles of Houttuynia cordata Thunb by Fast Gas Chromatography-Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor

    Se Yeon Oh


    Full Text Available Fast gas chromatography-surface acoustic wave sensor (GC/SAW has been applied for the detection of the pharmacological volatiles emanated from Houttuynia cordata Thunb which is from South Korea. H. cordata Thunb with unpleasant and fishy odors shows a variety of pharmacological activities such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and insect repellent. The aim of this study is to show a novel quality control by GC/SAW methodology for the discrimination of the three different parts of the plant such as leaves, aerial stems, and underground stems for H. cordata Thunb. Sixteen compounds were identified. β-Myrcene, cis-ocimene and decanal are the dominant volatiles for leaves (71.0% and aerial stems (50.1%. While, monoterpenes (74.6% are the dominant volatiles for underground stems. 2-Undecanone (1.3% and lauraldehyde (3.5% were found to be the characteristic components for leaves. Each part of the plant has its own characteristic fragrance pattern owing to its individual chemical compositions. Moreover, its individual characteristic fragrance patterns are conducive to discrimination of the three different parts of the plant. Consequently, fast GC/SAW can be a useful analytical method for quality control of the different parts of the plant with pharmacological volatiles as it provides second unit analysis, a simple and fragrant pattern recognition.

  7. Topology optimization for acoustic problems

    Dühring, Maria Bayard


    In this paper a method to control acoustic properties in a room with topology optimization is presented. It is shown how the squared sound pressure amplitude in a certain part of a room can be minimized by distribution of material in a design domain along the ceiling in 2D and 3D. Nice 0-1 design...

  8. Acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian


    An acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam includes a housing; a plurality of spaced apart piezo-electric layers disposed within the housing; and a non-linear medium filling between the plurality of layers. Each of the plurality of piezoelectric layers is configured to generate an acoustic wave. The non-linear medium and the plurality of piezo-electric material layers have a matching impedance so as to enhance a transmission of the acoustic wave generated by each of plurality of layers through the remaining plurality of layers.

  9. Acoustic design and research on the auditorium of Shanghai Grand Theatre

    ZHANG Kuisheng


    Shanghai Grand Theatre is a great modern theatre with the largest formula, the highest investment, the most advanced technique and excellent acoustic quality in China. This article mainly introduced Shanghai Grand Theatre's characteristics of formula, technical requirements of acoustic design of Auditorium, characteristics of figure design, reverberation control, acoustic simulation research, acoustic performance and subjective evaluation.

  10. Density-near-zero using the acoustically induced transparency of a Fano acoustic resonator

    Elayouch, A.


    We report experimental results of near-zero mass density involving an acoustic metamaterial supporting Fano resonance. For this, we designed and fabricated an acoustic resonator with two closely coupled modes and measured its transmission properties. Our study reveals that the phenomenon of acoustically induced transparency is accompanied by an effect of near-zero density. Indeed, the dynamic effective parameters obtained from experimental data show the presence of a frequency band where the effective mass density is close to zero, with high transmission levels reaching 0.7. Furthermore, we demonstrate that such effective parameters lead to wave guiding in a 90-degrees-bent channel. This kind of acoustic metamaterial can, therefore, give rise to acoustic functions like controlling the wavefront, which may lead to very promising applications in acoustic cloacking or imaging.

  11. Acoustically-Induced Electrical Signals

    Brown, S. R.


    We have observed electrical signals excited by and moving along with an acoustic pulse propagating in a sandstone sample. Using resonance we are now studying the characteristics of this acousto-electric signal and determining its origin and the controlling physical parameters. Four rock samples with a range of porosities, permeabilities, and mineralogies were chosen: Berea, Boise, and Colton sandstones and Austin Chalk. Pore water salinity was varied from deionized water to sea water. Ag-AgCl electrodes were attached to the sample and were interfaced to a 4-wire electrical resistivity system. Under computer control, the acoustic signals were excited and the electrical response was recorded. We see strong acoustically-induced electrical signals in all samples, with the magnitude of the effect for each rock getting stronger as we move from the 1st to the 3rd harmonics in resonance. Given a particular fluid salinity, each rock has its own distinct sensitivity in the induced electrical effect. For example at the 2nd harmonic, Berea Sandstone produces the largest electrical signal per acoustic power input even though Austin Chalk and Boise Sandstone tend to resonate with much larger amplitudes at the same harmonic. Two effects are potentially responsible for this acoustically-induced electrical response: one the co-seismic seismo-electric effect and the other a strain-induced resistivity change known as the acousto-electric effect. We have designed experimental tests to separate these mechanisms. The tests show that the seismo-electric effect is dominant in our studies. We note that these experiments are in a fluid viscosity dominated seismo-electric regime, leading to a simple interpretation of the signals where the electric potential developed is proportional to the local acceleration of the rock. Toward a test of this theory we have measured the local time-varying acoustic strain in our samples using a laser vibrometer.

  12. Impact of Acoustic Standing Waves on Structural Responses: Reverberant Acoustic Testing (RAT) vs. Direct Field Acoustic Testing (DFAT)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; Doty, Benjamin; Chang, Zensheu


    Loudspeakers have been used for acoustic qualification of spacecraft, reflectors, solar panels, and other acoustically responsive structures for more than a decade. Limited measurements from some of the recent speaker tests used to qualify flight hardware have indicated significant spatial variation of the acoustic field within the test volume. Also structural responses have been reported to differ when similar tests were performed using reverberant chambers. To address the impact of non-uniform acoustic field on structural responses, a series of acoustic tests were performed using a flat panel and a 3-ft cylinder exposed to the field controlled by speakers and repeated in a reverberant chamber. The speaker testing was performed using multi-input-single-output (MISO) and multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) control schemes with and without the test articles. In this paper the spatial variation of the acoustic field due to acoustic standing waves and their impacts on the structural responses in RAT and DFAT (both using MISO and MIMO controls for DFAT) are discussed in some detail.

  13. Liquid rocket combustion chamber acoustic characterization

    Cândido Magno de Souza


    Full Text Available Over the last 40 years, many solid and liquid rocket motors have experienced combustion instabilities. Among other causes, there is the interaction of acoustic modes with the combustion and/or fluid dynamic processes inside the combustion chamber. Studies have been showing that, even if less than 1% of the available energy is diverted to an acoustic mode, combustion instability can be generated. On one hand, this instability can lead to ballistic pressure changes, couple with other propulsion systems such as guidance or thrust vector control, and in the worst case, cause motor structural failure. In this case, measures, applying acoustic techniques, must be taken to correct/minimize these influences on the combustion. The combustion chamber acoustic behavior in operating conditions can be estimated by considering its behavior in room conditions. In this way, acoustic tests can be easily performed, thus identifying the cavity modes. This paper describes the procedures to characterize the acoustic behavior in the inner cavity of four different configurations of a combustion chamber. Simple analytical models are used to calculate the acoustic resonance frequencies and these results are compared with acoustic natural frequencies measured at room conditions. Some comments about the measurement procedures are done, as well as the next steps for the continuity of this research. The analytical and experimental procedures results showed good agreement. However, limitations on high frequency band as well as in the identification of specific kinds of modes indicate that numerical methods able to model the real cavity geometry and an acoustic experimental modal analysis may be necessary for a more complete analysis. Future works shall also consider the presence of passive acoustic devices such as baffles and resonators capable of introducing damping and avoiding or limiting acoustic instabilities.

  14. Atlantic Herring Acoustic Surveys

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Advanced Sampling Technologies Research Group conducts annual fisheries acoustic surveys using state-of-the-art acoustic, midwater trawling, and underwater...

  15. Sonification of acoustic emission data

    Raith, Manuel; Große, Christian


    While loading different specimens, acoustic emissions appear due to micro crack formation or friction of already existing crack edges. These acoustic emissions can be recorded using suitable ultrasonic transducers and transient recorders. The analysis of acoustic emissions can be used to investigate the mechanical behavior of different specimens under load. Our working group has undertaken several experiments, monitored with acoustic emission techniques. Different materials such as natural stone, concrete, wood, steel, carbon composites and bone were investigated. Also the experimental setup has been varied. Fire-spalling experiments on ultrahigh performance concrete and pullout experiments on bonded anchors have been carried out. Furthermore uniaxial compression tests on natural stone and animal bone had been conducted. The analysis tools include not only the counting of events but the analysis of full waveforms. Powerful localization algorithms and automatic onset picking techniques (based on Akaikes Information Criterion) were established to handle the huge amount of data. Up to several thousand events were recorded during experiments of a few minutes. More sophisticated techniques like moment tensor inversion have been established on this relatively small scale as well. Problems are related to the amount of data but also to signal-to-noise quality, boundary conditions (reflections) sensor characteristics and unknown and changing Greens functions of the media. Some of the acoustic emissions recorded during these experiments had been transferred into audio range. The transformation into the audio range was done using Matlab. It is the aim of the sonification to establish a tool that is on one hand able to help controlling the experiment in-situ and probably adjust the load parameters according to the number and intensity of the acoustic emissions. On the other hand sonification can help to improve the understanding of acoustic emission techniques for training

  16. International Conference on Acoustics and Vibration

    Chaari, Fakher; Walha, Lasaad; Abdennadher, Moez; Abbes, Mohamed; Haddar, Mohamed


    The book provides readers with a snapshot of recent research and industrial trends in field of industrial acoustics and vibration. Each chapter, accepted after a rigorous peer-review process, reports on a selected, original piece of work presented and discussed at International Conference on Acoustics and Vibration (ICAV2016), which was organized by the Tunisian Association of Industrial Acoustics and Vibration (ATAVI) and held March 21-23, in Hammamet, Tunisia. The contributions, mainly written by north African authors, covers advances in both theory and practice in a variety of subfields, such as: smart materials and structures; fluid-structure interaction; structural acoustics as well as computational vibro-acoustics and numerical methods. Further topics include: engines control, noise identification, robust design, flow-induced vibration and many others.This book provides a valuable resource for both academics and professionals dealing with diverse issues in applied mechanics. By combining advanced theori...

  17. GOATS 2008: Autonomous, Adaptive Multistatic Acoustic Sensing


    the concept of a network of AUVs as an array of Virtual Sensors, based on fully integrated sensing, modeling and control , reducing the inter- platform...acoustic modeling , platform dynamics and network communication and control . In regard to the environmental acoustic modeling , MIT continues to...adaptive, bi- and multi-static, passive and active sonar configurations for concurrent detection, classification and localization of subsea and bottom

  18. Simulation-based conceptual design of an acoustic metamaterial with full band gap using an air-based 1-3 piezoelectric composite for ultrasonic noise control

    Rezaei, Shahrokh; Eskandari-Ghadi, Morteza; Rahimian, Mohammad


    This paper aims at proposing a novel type of acoustic metamaterials with complete band gap composed of piezoelectric rods with square array as inclusions embedded in an air background (matrix). A modified plane wave expansion method accompanied with the principles of the Bloch-Floquet method with electromechanical coupling effect and also impedance spectra are used to get a band frequency and to investigate the passband for the selected cut of piezoelectric rods. We investigate both the electromechanical coupling coefficient and mechanical quality factor and their dependency to passband and bandwidth, which depends on both the density and the wave impedance of the matrix and the inclusions (rods). The ratio of the volume of inclusion to the matrix is used to define the fill factor or the so-called inclusion ratio, to introduce the bandwidth as a function of that. Furthermore, the fabrication method is presented in this paper. The results make a suitable foundation for design purposes and may develop an inherently passive ultrasonic noise control. In addition, the results provide the required guidance for a simulation-based design of elastic wave filters or wave guide that might be useful in high-precision mechanical systems operated in certain frequency ranges and switches made of piezoelectric materials; they also propose a novel type of elastic metamaterials, which is independent of the wave direction and has an equal sensitivity in all directions in which it reacts omnidirectionally and mitigates the occupational noise exposure.

  19. Frequency steerable acoustic transducers

    Senesi, Matteo

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is an active research area devoted to the assessment of the structural integrity of critical components of aerospace, civil and mechanical systems. Guided wave methods have been proposed for SHM of plate-like structures using permanently attached piezoelectric transducers, which generate and sense waves to evaluate the presence of damage. Effective interrogation of structural health is often facilitated by sensors and actuators with the ability to perform electronic, i.e. phased array, scanning. The objective of this research is to design an innovative directional piezoelectric transducer to be employed for the localization of broadband acoustic events, or for the generation of Lamb waves for active interrogation of structural health. The proposed Frequency Steerable Acoustic Transducers (FSATs) are characterized by a spatial arrangement of active material which leads to directional characteristics varying with frequency. Thus FSATs can be employed both for directional sensing and generation of guided waves without relying on phasing and control of a large number of channels. The analytical expression of the shape of the FSATs is obtained through a theoretical formulation for continuously distributed active material as part of a shaped piezoelectric device. The FSAT configurations analyzed in this work are a quadrilateral array and a geometry which corresponds to a spiral in the wavenumber domain. The quadrilateral array is experimentally validated, confirming the concept of frequency-dependent directionality. Its limited directivity is improved by the Wavenumber Spiral FSAT (WS-FSAT), which, instead, is characterized by a continuous frequency dependent directionality. Preliminary validations of the WS-FSAT, using a laser doppler vibrometer, are followed by the implementation of the WS-FSAT as a properly shaped piezo transducer. The prototype is first used for localization of acoustic broadband sources. Signal processing

  20. Acoustic Communications (ACOMMS) ATD


    develop and demonstrate emerging undersea acoustic communication technologies at operationally useful ranges and data rates. The secondary objective...Technology Demonstration program (ACOMMS ATD) was to demonstrate long range and moderate data rate underwater acoustic communications between a submarine...moderate data rate acoustic communications capability for tactical use between submarines, surface combatants, unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs), and other

  1. Tutorial on architectural acoustics

    Shaw, Neil; Talaske, Rick; Bistafa, Sylvio


    This tutorial is intended to provide an overview of current knowledge and practice in architectural acoustics. Topics covered will include basic concepts and history, acoustics of small rooms (small rooms for speech such as classrooms and meeting rooms, music studios, small critical listening spaces such as home theatres) and the acoustics of large rooms (larger assembly halls, auditoria, and performance halls).

  2. Design and implementation of an omni-directional underwater acoustic micro-modem based on a low-power micro-controller unit.

    Won, Tae-Hee; Park, Sung-Joon


    For decades, underwater acoustic communication has been restricted to the point-to-point long distance applications such as deep sea probes and offshore oil fields. For this reason, previous acoustic modems were typically characterized by high data rates and long working ranges at the expense of large size and high power consumption. Recently, as the need for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) has increased, the research and development of compact and low-power consuming communication devices has become the focus. From the consideration that the requisites of acoustic modems for UWSNs are low power consumption, omni-directional beam pattern, low cost and so on, in this paper, we design and implement an omni-directional underwater acoustic micro-modem satisfying these requirements. In order to execute fast digital domain signal processing and support flexible interfaces with other peripherals, an ARM Cortex-M3 is embedded in the micro-modem. Also, for the realization of small and omni-directional properties, a spherical transducer having a resonant frequency of 70 kHz and a diameter of 34 mm is utilized for the implementation. Physical layer frame format and symbol structure for efficient packet-based underwater communication systems are also investigated. The developed acoustic micro-modem is verified analytically and experimentally in indoor and outdoor environments in terms of functionality and performance. Since the modem satisfies the requirements for use in UWSNs, it could be deployed in a wide range of applications requiring underwater acoustic communication.

  3. Design and Implementation of an Omni-Directional Underwater Acoustic Micro-Modem Based on a Low-Power Micro-Controller Unit

    Sung-Joon Park


    Full Text Available For decades, underwater acoustic communication has been restricted to the point-to-point long distance applications such as deep sea probes and offshore oil fields. For this reason, previous acoustic modems were typically characterized by high data rates and long working ranges at the expense of large size and high power consumption. Recently, as the need for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs has increased, the research and development of compact and low-power consuming communication devices has become the focus. From the consideration that the requisites of acoustic modems for UWSNs are low power consumption, omni-directional beam pattern, low cost and so on, in this paper, we design and implement an omni-directional underwater acoustic micro-modem satisfying these requirements. In order to execute fast digital domain signal processing and support flexible interfaces with other peripherals, an ARM Cortex-M3 is embedded in the micro-modem. Also, for the realization of small and omni-directional properties, a spherical transducer having a resonant frequency of 70 kHz and a diameter of 34 mm is utilized for the implementation. Physical layer frame format and symbol structure for efficient packet-based underwater communication systems are also investigated. The developed acoustic micro-modem is verified analytically and experimentally in indoor and outdoor environments in terms of functionality and performance. Since the modem satisfies the requirements for use in UWSNs, it could be deployed in a wide range of applications requiring underwater acoustic communication.

  4. Acoustic elliptical cylindrical cloaks

    Ma Hua; Qu Shao-Bo; Xu Zhuo; Wang Jia-Fu


    By making a comparison between the acoustic equations and the 2-dimensional (2D) Maxwell equations, we obtain the material parameter equations (MPE) for acoustic elliptical cylindrical cloaks. Both the theoretical results and the numerical results indicate that an elliptical cylindrical cloak can realize perfect acoustic invisibility when the spatial distributions of mass density and bulk modulus are exactly configured according to the proposed equations. The present work is the meaningful exploration of designing acoustic cloaks that are neither sphere nor circular cylinder in shape, and opens up possibilities for making complex and multiplex acoustic cloaks with simple models such as spheres, circular or elliptic cylinders.

  5. Indoor acoustic gain design

    Concha-Abarca, Justo Andres


    The design of sound reinforcement systems includes many variables and usually some of these variables are discussed. There are criteria to optimize the performance of the sound reinforcement systems under indoor conditions. The equivalent acoustic distance, the necessary acoustic gain, and the potential acoustic gain are parameters which must be adjusted with respect to the loudspeaker array, electric power and directionality of loudspeakers, the room acoustics conditions, the distance and distribution of the audience, and the type of the original sources. The design and installation of front of the house and monitoring systems have individual criteria. This article is about this criteria and it proposes general considerations for the indoor acoustic gain design.

  6. Cyclones and attractive streaming generated by acoustical vortices

    Riaud, Antoine; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Matar, Olivier Bou


    Acoustical and optical vortices have attracted large interest due to their ability in capturing and manipulating particles with the use of the radiation pressure. Here we show that acoustical vortices can also induce axial vortical flow reminiscent of cyclones whose topology can be controlled by adjusting the properties of the acoustical beam. In confined geometry, the phase singularity enables generating attractive streaming with a flow directed toward the transducer. This opens perspectives for contact-less vortical flow control.

  7. Research on modal analysis of structural acoustic radiation using structural vibration modes and acoustic radiation modes

    LI Sheng; ZHAO Deyou


    Modal analysis of structural acoustic radiation from a vibrating structure is discussed using structural vibration modes and acoustic radiation modes based on the quadratic form of acoustic power. The finite element method is employed for discretisizing the structure.The boundary element method and Rayleigh integral are used for modeling the acoustic fluid.It is shown that the power radiated by a single vibration mode is to increase the radiated power and the effect of modal interaction can lead to an increase or a decrease or no change in the radiated power, moreover, control of vibration modes is a good way to reduce both vibration and radiated sound as long as the influence of interaction of vibration modes on sound radiation is insignificant. Stiffeners may change mode shapes of a plate and thus change radiation efficiency of the plate's modes. The CHIEF method is adopted to obtain an acoustic radiation mode formulation without the nonuniqueness difficulty at critical frequencies for three-dimensional structures by using Moore-Penrose inverse. A pulsating cube is involved to verify the formulation. Good agreement is obtained between the numerical and analytical solutions. The shapes and radiation efficiencies of acoustic radiation modes of the cube are discussed. The structural acoustic control using structural vibration modes and acoustic radiation modes are compared and studied.

  8. Reconfigurable origami-inspired acoustic waveguides.

    Babaee, Sahab; Overvelde, Johannes T B; Chen, Elizabeth R; Tournat, Vincent; Bertoldi, Katia


    We combine numerical simulations and experiments to design a new class of reconfigurable waveguides based on three-dimensional origami-inspired metamaterials. Our strategy builds on the fact that the rigid plates and hinges forming these structures define networks of tubes that can be easily reconfigured. As such, they provide an ideal platform to actively control and redirect the propagation of sound. We design reconfigurable systems that, depending on the externally applied deformation, can act as networks of waveguides oriented along one, two, or three preferential directions. Moreover, we demonstrate that the capability of the structure to guide and radiate acoustic energy along predefined directions can be easily switched on and off, as the networks of tubes are reversibly formed and disrupted. The proposed designs expand the ability of existing acoustic metamaterials and exploit complex waveguiding to enhance control over propagation and radiation of acoustic energy, opening avenues for the design of a new class of tunable acoustic functional systems.

  9. Reconfigurable origami-inspired acoustic waveguides

    Babaee, Sahab; Overvelde, Johannes T. B.; Chen, Elizabeth R.; Tournat, Vincent; Bertoldi, Katia


    We combine numerical simulations and experiments to design a new class of reconfigurable waveguides based on three-dimensional origami-inspired metamaterials. Our strategy builds on the fact that the rigid plates and hinges forming these structures define networks of tubes that can be easily reconfigured. As such, they provide an ideal platform to actively control and redirect the propagation of sound. We design reconfigurable systems that, depending on the externally applied deformation, can act as networks of waveguides oriented along one, two, or three preferential directions. Moreover, we demonstrate that the capability of the structure to guide and radiate acoustic energy along predefined directions can be easily switched on and off, as the networks of tubes are reversibly formed and disrupted. The proposed designs expand the ability of existing acoustic metamaterials and exploit complex waveguiding to enhance control over propagation and radiation of acoustic energy, opening avenues for the design of a new class of tunable acoustic functional systems. PMID:28138527

  10. Holographic acoustic elements for manipulation of levitated objects

    Marzo, Asier; Seah, Sue Ann; Drinkwater, Bruce W.; Sahoo, Deepak Ranjan; Long, Benjamin; Subramanian, Sriram


    Sound can levitate objects of different sizes and materials through air, water and tissue. This allows us to manipulate cells, liquids, compounds or living things without touching or contaminating them. However, acoustic levitation has required the targets to be enclosed with acoustic elements or had limited manoeuvrability. Here we optimize the phases used to drive an ultrasonic phased array and show that acoustic levitation can be employed to translate, rotate and manipulate particles using even a single-sided emitter. Furthermore, we introduce the holographic acoustic elements framework that permits the rapid generation of traps and provides a bridge between optical and acoustical trapping. Acoustic structures shaped as tweezers, twisters or bottles emerge as the optimum mechanisms for tractor beams or containerless transportation. Single-beam levitation could manipulate particles inside our body for applications in targeted drug delivery or acoustically controlled micro-machines that do not interfere with magnetic resonance imaging.

  11. The length control of focal line in the plano-concave line focusing acoustic lens%平凹线聚焦透镜焦线长度的控制方法

    王勇; 林书玉; 张小丽


    The way to control the length of focal line in the plano-concave line focusing acoustic lens is presented.The area of plano-concave cylindrical acoustic lens is changed into a new area formed from a circular arc of xOy plane rotating around the z-axis.Based on the Huygens′ principle,the sound model of the lens is established and the numerical simulation is finished.The conclusion shows that one could control the focal line length of the plano-concave line focusing acoustic lens by changing the radius of arc and the radius of rotation.This work could give some help in the design line focusing acoustic lens.%提出一种可以控制焦线长度的平凹线聚焦透镜的设计方法.将平凹柱面线聚焦透镜的柱面设计为xOy平面上一个圆弧线绕z轴旋转构成的曲面,利用惠更斯原理,对该形式的透镜建立声学模型,并对其进行数值模拟和仿真.结果表明:在透镜长和宽不变的情况下,可通过控制圆弧的半径和旋转半径两个参数实现对透镜焦线长度的控制.

  12. Vibro-acoustics

    Nilsson, Anders


    This three-volume book gives a thorough and comprehensive presentation of vibration and acoustic theories. Different from traditional textbooks which typically deal with some aspects of either acoustic or vibration problems, it is unique of this book to combine those two correlated subjects together. Moreover, it provides fundamental analysis and mathematical descriptions for several crucial phenomena of Vibro-Acoustics which are quite useful in noise reduction, including how structures are excited, energy flows from an excitation point to a sound radiating surface, and finally how a structure radiates noise to a surrounding fluid. Many measurement results included in the text make the reading interesting and informative. Problems/questions are listed at the end of each chapter and the solutions are provided. This will help the readers to understand the topics of Vibro-Acoustics more deeply. The book should be of interest to anyone interested in sound and vibration, vehicle acoustics, ship acoustics and inter...

  13. Springer handbook of acoustics


    Acoustics, the science of sound, has developed into a broad interdisciplinary field encompassing the academic disciplines of physics, engineering, psychology, speech, audiology, music, architecture, physiology, neuroscience, and electronics. The Springer Handbook of Acoustics is also in his 2nd edition an unparalleled modern handbook reflecting this richly interdisciplinary nature edited by one of the acknowledged masters in the field, Thomas Rossing. Researchers and students benefit from the comprehensive contents. This new edition of the Handbook features over 11 revised and expanded chapters, new illustrations, and 2 new chapters covering microphone arrays  and acoustic emission.  Updated chapters contain the latest research and applications in, e.g. sound propagation in the atmosphere, nonlinear acoustics in fluids, building and concert hall acoustics, signal processing, psychoacoustics, computer music, animal bioacousics, sound intensity, modal acoustics as well as new chapters on microphone arrays an...

  14. Annual Report for Ocean Acoustics


    feeding , diving) and social boundings (mum- calf , mum- calf and associated adult, adult-adult). Moreover, by cross- correlating the transmitted and received...such approach. In order to do so, we make use of existing numerical acoustic propagation methods, e.g. Vertex, feed these methods with different...transmission occurs. We also consider the cost of feeding this channel state information back and develop a controller that minimizes the number of both

  15. Deep Water Ocean Acoustics


    OASIS, INC. 1 Report No. QSR-14C0172-Ocean Acoustics-043016 Quarterly Progress Report Technical and Financial Deep Water Ocean Acoustics...understanding of the impact of the ocean and seafloor environmental variability on deep- water (long-range) ocean acoustic propagation and to...improve our understanding. During the past few years, the physics effects studied have been three-dimensional propagation on global scales, deep water

  16. Nearfield Acoustical Holography

    Hayek, Sabih I.

    Nearfield acoustical holography (NAH) is a method by which a set of acoustic pressure measurements at points located on a specific surface (called a hologram) can be used to image sources on vibrating surfaces on the acoustic field in three-dimensional space. NAH data are processed to take advantage of the evanescent wavefield to image sources that are separated less that one-eighth of a wavelength.

  17. Laboratory for Structural Acoustics

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where acoustic radiation, scattering, and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures are...

  18. Acoustic Technology Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains an electro-magnetic worldwide data collection and field measurement capability in the area of acoustic technology. Outfitted by NASA Langley...

  19. Localized acoustic surface modes

    Farhat, Mohamed; Chen, Pai-Yen; Bağcı, Hakan


    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes. We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  20. Shallow Water Acoustic Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where high-frequency acoustic scattering and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures...

  1. Localized Acoustic Surface Modes

    Farhat, Mohamed


    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes (ASMs). We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  2. Acoustic Signals and Systems


    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook...... will present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...

  3. Prediction and Measurement of the Vibration and Acoustic Radiation of Panels Subjected to Acoustic Loading

    Turner, Travis L.; Rizzi, Stephen A.


    Interior noise and sonic fatigue are important issues in the development and design of advanced subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Conventional aircraft typically employ passive treatments, such as constrained layer damping and acoustic absorption materials, to reduce the structural response and resulting acoustic levels in the aircraft interior. These techniques require significant addition of mass and only attenuate relatively high frequency noise transmitted through the fuselage. Although structural acoustic coupling is in general very important in the study of aircraft fuselage interior noise, analysis of noise transmission through a panel supported in an infinite rigid baffle (separating two semi-infinite acoustic domains) can be useful in evaluating the effects of active/adaptive materials, complex loading, etc. Recent work has been aimed at developing adaptive and/or active methods of controlling the structural acoustic response of panels to reduce the transmitted noise1. A finite element formulation was recently developed to study the dynamic response of shape memory alloy (SMA) hybrid composite panels (conventional composite panel with embedded SMA fibers) subject to combined acoustic and thermal loads2. Further analysis has been performed to predict the far-field acoustic radiation using the finite element dynamic panel response prediction3. The purpose of the present work is to validate the panel vibration and acoustic radiation prediction methods with baseline experimental results obtained from an isotropic panel, without the effect of SMA.

  4. Independent trapping and manipulation of microparticles using dexterous acoustic tweezers

    Courtney, Charles R. P.; Demore, Christine E. M.; Wu, Hongxiao; Grinenko, Alon; Wilcox, Paul D.; Cochran, Sandy; Drinkwater, Bruce W.


    An electronically controlled acoustic tweezer was used to demonstrate two acoustic manipulation phenomena: superposition of Bessel functions to allow independent manipulation of multiple particles and the use of higher-order Bessel functions to trap particles in larger regions than is possible with first-order traps. The acoustic tweezers consist of a circular 64-element ultrasonic array operating at 2.35 MHz which generates ultrasonic pressure fields in a millimeter-scale fluid-filled chambe...

  5. An Architecture for Cooperative Localization in Underwater Acoustic Networks


    Autonomous vehicles 1. INTRODUCTION Underwater acoustic communication enables subsea vehi- cles to broadcast and receive command , control, and health...Our backseat Linux host is responsible for all sensor processing and acoustic communication. Additionally, the backseat executes a state machine and...1b), which translates between UVC and the LCM network. Our topside vehicle executes sensor and acoustic communi- cation software on a Linux host. The

  6. Advanced Concepts for Underwater Acoustic Channel Modeling

    Etter, P. C.; Haas, C. H.; Ramani, D. V.


    This paper examines nearshore underwater-acoustic channel modeling concepts and compares channel-state information requirements against existing modeling capabilities. This process defines a subset of candidate acoustic models suitable for simulating signal propagation in underwater communications. Underwater-acoustic communications find many practical applications in coastal oceanography, and networking is the enabling technology for these applications. Such networks can be formed by establishing two-way acoustic links between autonomous underwater vehicles and moored oceanographic sensors. These networks can be connected to a surface unit for further data transfer to ships, satellites, or shore stations via a radio-frequency link. This configuration establishes an interactive environment in which researchers can extract real-time data from multiple, but distant, underwater instruments. After evaluating the obtained data, control messages can be sent back to individual instruments to adapt the networks to changing situations. Underwater networks can also be used to increase the operating ranges of autonomous underwater vehicles by hopping the control and data messages through networks that cover large areas. A model of the ocean medium between acoustic sources and receivers is called a channel model. In an oceanic channel, characteristics of the acoustic signals change as they travel from transmitters to receivers. These characteristics depend upon the acoustic frequency, the distances between sources and receivers, the paths followed by the signals, and the prevailing ocean environment in the vicinity of the paths. Properties of the received signals can be derived from those of the transmitted signals using these channel models. This study concludes that ray-theory models are best suited to the simulation of acoustic signal propagation in oceanic channels and identifies 33 such models that are eligible candidates.

  7. Acoustic fluidization for earthquakes?

    Sornette, D.; Sornette, A.


    Melosh [1996] has suggested that acoustic fluidization could provide an alternative to theories that are invoked as explanations for why some crustal faults appear to be weak. We show that there is a subtle but profound inconsistency in the theory that unfortunately invalidates the results. We propose possible remedies but must acknowledge that the relevance of acoustic fluidization remains an open question.

  8. Acoustic ground impedance meter

    Zuckerwar, A. J. (Inventor)


    A method and apparatus are presented for measuring the acoustic impedance of a surface in which the surface is used to enclose one end of the chamber of a Helmholz resonator. Acoustic waves are generated in the neck of the resonator by a piston driven by a variable speed motor through a cam assembly. The acoustic waves are measured in the chamber and the frequency of the generated acoustic waves is measured by an optical device. These measurements are used to compute the compliance and conductance of the chamber and surface combined. The same procedure is followed with a calibration plate having infinite acoustic impedance enclosing the chamber of the resonator to compute the compliance and conductance of the chamber alone. Then by subtracting, the compliance and conductance for the surface is obtained.

  9. Cochlear bionic acoustic metamaterials

    Ma, Fuyin; Wu, Jiu Hui; Huang, Meng; Fu, Gang; Bai, Changan


    A design of bionic acoustic metamaterial and acoustic functional devices was proposed by employing the mammalian cochlear as a prototype. First, combined with the experimental data in previous literatures, it is pointed out that the cochlear hair cells and stereocilia cluster are a kind of natural biological acoustic metamaterials with the negative stiffness characteristics. Then, to design the acoustic functional devices conveniently in engineering application, a simplified parametric helical structure was proposed to replace actual irregular cochlea for bionic design, and based on the computational results of such a bionic parametric helical structure, it is suggested that the overall cochlear is a local resonant system with the negative dynamic effective mass characteristics. There are many potential applications in the bandboard energy recovery device, cochlear implant, and acoustic black hole.

  10. Computational Ocean Acoustics

    Jensen, Finn B; Porter, Michael B; Schmidt, Henrik


    Since the mid-1970s, the computer has played an increasingly pivotal role in the field of ocean acoustics. Faster and less expensive than actual ocean experiments, and capable of accommodating the full complexity of the acoustic problem, numerical models are now standard research tools in ocean laboratories. The progress made in computational ocean acoustics over the last thirty years is summed up in this authoritative and innovatively illustrated new text. Written by some of the field's pioneers, all Fellows of the Acoustical Society of America, Computational Ocean Acoustics presents the latest numerical techniques for solving the wave equation in heterogeneous fluid–solid media. The authors discuss various computational schemes in detail, emphasizing the importance of theoretical foundations that lead directly to numerical implementations for real ocean environments. To further clarify the presentation, the fundamental propagation features of the techniques are illustrated in color. Computational Ocean A...

  11. Ocean acoustic reverberation tomography.

    Dunn, Robert A


    Seismic wide-angle imaging using ship-towed acoustic sources and networks of ocean bottom seismographs is a common technique for exploring earth structure beneath the oceans. In these studies, the recorded data are dominated by acoustic waves propagating as reverberations in the water column. For surveys with a small receiver spacing (e.g., ocean acoustic reverberation tomography, is developed that uses the travel times of direct and reflected waves to image ocean acoustic structure. Reverberation tomography offers an alternative approach for determining the structure of the oceans and advancing the understanding of ocean heat content and mixing processes. The technique has the potential for revealing small-scale ocean thermal structure over the entire vertical height of the water column and along long survey profiles or across three-dimensional volumes of the ocean. For realistic experimental geometries and data noise levels, the method can produce images of ocean sound speed on a smaller scale than traditional acoustic tomography.

  12. Independent trapping and manipulation of microparticles using dexterous acoustic tweezers

    Courtney, Charles R. P., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath (United Kingdom); Demore, Christine E. M.; Wu, Hongxiao; Cochran, Sandy [Institute of Medical Science and Technology, University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); Grinenko, Alon; Wilcox, Paul D.; Drinkwater, Bruce W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom)


    An electronically controlled acoustic tweezer was used to demonstrate two acoustic manipulation phenomena: superposition of Bessel functions to allow independent manipulation of multiple particles and the use of higher-order Bessel functions to trap particles in larger regions than is possible with first-order traps. The acoustic tweezers consist of a circular 64-element ultrasonic array operating at 2.35 MHz which generates ultrasonic pressure fields in a millimeter-scale fluid-filled chamber. The manipulation capabilities were demonstrated experimentally with 45 and 90-μm-diameter polystyrene spheres. These capabilities bring the dexterity of acoustic tweezers substantially closer to that of optical tweezers.


    Kok Hwa Yu


    Full Text Available Acoustics is the science concerned with the study of sound. The effects of sound on structures attract overwhelm interests and numerous studies were carried out in this particular area. Many of the preliminary investigations show that acoustic pressure produces significant influences on structures such as thin plate, membrane and also high-impedance medium like water (and other similar fluids. Thus, it is useful to investigate the structure response with the presence of acoustics on aircraft, especially on aircraft wings, tails and control surfaces which are vulnerable to flutter phenomena. The present paper describes the modeling of structural-acoustic interactions to simulate the external acoustic effect on binary flutter model. Here, the binary flutter model which illustrated as a rectangular wing is constructed using strip theory with simplified unsteady aerodynamics involving flap and pitch degree of freedom terms. The external acoustic excitation, on the other hand, is modeled using four-node quadrilateral isoparametric element via finite element approach. Both equations then carefully coupled and solved using eigenvalue solution. The mentioned approach is implemented in MATLAB and the outcome of the simulated result are later described, analyzed and illustrated in this paper.

  14. Active acoustic metamaterials reconfigurable in real-time

    Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Konneker, Adam; Cummer, Steven A


    A major limitation of current acoustic metamaterials is that their acoustic properties are either locked into place once fabricated or only modestly tunable, tying them to the particular application for which they are designed. We present in this paper a design approach that yields active metamaterials whose physical structure is fixed, yet their local acoustic response can be changed almost arbitrarily and in real-time by configuring the digital electronics that control the metamaterial acoustic properties. We demonstrate experimentally this approach by designing a metamaterial slab configured to act as a very thin acoustic lens that manipulates differently three identical, consecutive pulses incident on the lens. Moreover, we show that the slab can be configured to implement simultaneously various roles, such as that of a lens and beam steering device. Finally, we show that the metamaterial slab is suitable for efficient second harmonic acoustic imaging devices capable to overcome the diffraction limit of l...

  15. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    Peng, Pai; Xiao, Bingmu; Wu, Ying, E-mail:


    We design a flat sub-wavelength lens that can focus acoustic wave. We analytically study the transmission through an acoustic grating with curled slits, which can serve as a material with tunable impedance and refractive index for acoustic waves. The effective parameters rely on the geometry of the slits and are independent of frequency. A flat acoustic focusing lens by such acoustic grating with gradient effective refractive index is designed. The focusing effect is clearly observed in simulations and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry–Perot resonance. - Highlights: • Expression of transmission coefficient of an acoustic grating with curled slits. • Non-dispersive and tunable effective medium parameters for the acoustic grating. • A flat acoustic focusing lens with gradient index by using the acoustic grating.

  16. Acoustic communication in insect disease vectors

    Felipe de Mello Vigoder


    Full Text Available Acoustic signalling has been extensively studied in insect species, which has led to a better understanding of sexual communication, sexual selection and modes of speciation. The significance of acoustic signals for a blood-sucking insect was first reported in the XIX century by Christopher Johnston, studying the hearing organs of mosquitoes, but has received relatively little attention in other disease vectors until recently. Acoustic signals are often associated with mating behaviour and sexual selection and changes in signalling can lead to rapid evolutionary divergence and may ultimately contribute to the process of speciation. Songs can also have implications for the success of novel methods of disease control such as determining the mating competitiveness of modified insects used for mass-release control programs. Species-specific sound “signatures” may help identify incipient species within species complexes that may be of epidemiological significance, e.g. of higher vectorial capacity, thereby enabling the application of more focussed control measures to optimise the reduction of pathogen transmission. Although the study of acoustic communication in insect vectors has been relatively limited, this review of research demonstrates their value as models for understanding both the functional and evolutionary significance of acoustic communication in insects.

  17. Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ploskey, Gene R.


    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmonid (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower at Cougar Dam in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower for fisheries resource managers to use to make decisions on bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from February 1, 2010 through January 31, 2011 to evaluate juvenile salmonid behavior year-round in the immediate forebay surface layer of the WTC tower (within 20 m, depth 0-5 m). From October 28, 2010 through January 31, 2011 a BlueView acoustic camera was also deployed in an attempt to determine its usefulness for future studies as well as augment the DIDSON data. For the DIDSON data, we processed a total of 35 separate 24-h periods systematically covering every other week in the 12-month study. Two different 24-hour periods were processed for the BlueView data for the feasibility study. Juvenile salmonids were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout 2010. The juvenile salmonid abundance index was low in the spring (<200 fish per sample-day), began increasing in late April and peaked in mid-May. Fish abundance index began decreasing in early June and remained low in the summer months. Fish abundance increased again in the fall, starting in October, and peaked on November 8-9. A second peak occurred on December 22. Afterwards, abundance was low for the rest of the study (through January 2011). Average fish length for juvenile salmonids during early spring 2010 was 214 {+-} 86 mm (standard deviation). From May through early November

  18. Predicting Acoustics in Class Rooms

    Christensen, Claus Lynge; Rindel, Jens Holger


    Typical class rooms have fairly simple geometries, even so room acoustics in this type of room is difficult to predict using today's room acoustic computer modeling software. The reasons why acoustics of class rooms are harder to predict than acoustics of complicated concert halls might...

  19. Underwater Applications of Acoustical Holography

    P. C. Mehta


    Full Text Available The paper describes the basic technique of acoustical holography. Requirements for recording the acoustical hologram are discussed with its ability for underwater imaging in view. Some practical systems for short-range and medium-range imaging are described. The advantages of acoustical holography over optical imaging, acoustical imaging and sonars are outlined.

  20. Acoustic mapping velocimetry

    Muste, M.; Baranya, S.; Tsubaki, R.; Kim, D.; Ho, H.; Tsai, H.; Law, D.


    Knowledge of sediment dynamics in rivers is of great importance for various practical purposes. Despite its high relevance in riverine environment processes, the monitoring of sediment rates remains a major and challenging task for both suspended and bed load estimation. While the measurement of suspended load is currently an active area of testing with nonintrusive technologies (optical and acoustic), bed load measurement does not mark a similar progress. This paper describes an innovative combination of measurement techniques and analysis protocols that establishes the proof-of-concept for a promising technique, labeled herein Acoustic Mapping Velocimetry (AMV). The technique estimates bed load rates in rivers developing bed forms using a nonintrusive measurements approach. The raw information for AMV is collected with acoustic multibeam technology that in turn provides maps of the bathymetry over longitudinal swaths. As long as the acoustic maps can be acquired relatively quickly and the repetition rate for the mapping is commensurate with the movement of the bed forms, successive acoustic maps capture the progression of the bed form movement. Two-dimensional velocity maps associated with the bed form migration are obtained by implementing algorithms typically used in particle image velocimetry to acoustic maps converted in gray-level images. Furthermore, use of the obtained acoustic and velocity maps in conjunction with analytical formulations (e.g., Exner equation) enables estimation of multidirectional bed load rates over the whole imaged area. This paper presents a validation study of the AMV technique using a set of laboratory experiments.

  1. Origami acoustics: using principles of folding structural acoustics for simple and large focusing of sound energy

    Harne, Ryan L.; Lynd, Danielle T.


    Fixed in spatial distribution, arrays of planar, electromechanical acoustic transducers cannot adapt their wave energy focusing abilities unless each transducer is externally controlled, creating challenges for the implementation and portability of such beamforming systems. Recently, planar, origami-based structural tessellations are found to facilitate great versatility in system function and properties through kinematic folding. In this research we bridge the physics of acoustics and origami-based design to discover that the simple topological reconfigurations of a Miura-ori-based acoustic array yield many orders of magnitude worth of reversible change in wave energy focusing: a potential for acoustic field morphing easily obtained through deployable, tessellated architectures. Our experimental and theoretical studies directly translate the roles of folding the tessellated array to the adaptations in spectral and spatial wave propagation sensitivities for far field energy transmission. It is shown that kinematic folding rules and flat-foldable tessellated arrays collectively provide novel solutions to the long-standing challenges of conventional, electronically-steered acoustic beamformers. While our examples consider sound radiation from the foldable array in air, linear acoustic reciprocity dictates that the findings may inspire new innovations for acoustic receivers, e.g. adaptive sound absorbers and microphone arrays, as well as concepts that include water-borne waves.

  2. MAC scheduling in large-scale underwater acoustic networks

    Kleunen, van Wouter; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.


    The acoustic propagation speed under water poses significant challenges to the design of underwater sensor networks and their medium access control protocols. Scheduling allows reducing the effects of long propagation delay of the acoustic signal and has significant impacts on throughput, energy con

  3. RETRACTED: Size-controlled spherical polymer nanoparticles: synthesis with tandem acoustic emulsification followed by soap-free emulsion polymerization and one-step fabrication of colloidal crystal films of various colors.

    Hirai, Yuki; Nakabayashi, Koji; Kojima, Maya; Atobe, Mahito


    We have developed a novel synthesis method for size-controlled polymer nanoparticles using soap-free emulsion polymerization. This new synthetic method involves sequential ultrasonic irradiation (20kHz→500kHz→1.6MHz→2.4MHz) for acoustic emulsification of a water-insoluble monomer such as methylmethacrylate (MMA) in an aqueous medium, followed by emulsion polymerization in the obtained solution without using any surfactants. The sequential ultrasonication (tandem acoustic emulsification) could provide a clear and stable emulsified solution containing monomer droplets with relatively narrow size distribution in the nanometer range. The subsequent polymerization in this solution yielded size-controlled polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) nanoparticles and monodisperse PMMA nanoparticles of different sizes. Furthermore, colloidal crystal films could be easily prepared from the as-polymerized nanoparticle solution using the fluidic-cell method. Moreover, we succeeded to modify the structural color of colloidal crystal films by the addition of a small amount of organic solvent to the as-polymerized nanoparticle solution for the fluidic-cell method.

  4. Student design projects in applied acoustics.

    Bös, Joachim; Moritz, Karsten; Skowronek, Adam; Thyes, Christian; Tschesche, Johannes; Hanselka, Holger


    This paper describes a series of student projects which are intended to complement theoretical education in acoustics and engineering noise control with practical experience. The projects are also intended to enhance the students' ability to work in a team, to manage a project, and to present their results. The projects are carried out in close cooperation with industrial partners so that the students can get a taste of the professional life of noise control engineers. The organization of such a project, its execution, and some of the results from the most recent student project are presented as a demonstrative example. This latest project involved the creation of noise maps of a production hall, the acoustic analysis of a packaging machine, and the acoustic analysis of a spiral vibratory conveyor. Upon completion of the analysis, students then designed, applied, and verified some simple preliminary noise reduction measures to demonstrate the potential of these techniques.

  5. Acoustic Igniter Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An acoustic igniter eliminates the need to use electrical energy to drive spark systems to initiate combustion in liquid-propellant rockets. It does not involve the...

  6. Acoustic imaging system

    Kendall, J. M., Jr.


    Tool detects noise sources by scanning sound "scene" and displaying relative location of noise-producing elements in area. System consists of ellipsoidal acoustic mirror and microphone and a display device.

  7. Acoustic imaging system

    Smith, Richard W.


    An acoustic imaging system for displaying an object viewed by a moving array of transducers as the array is pivoted about a fixed point within a given plane. A plurality of transducers are fixedly positioned and equally spaced within a laterally extending array and operatively directed to transmit and receive acoustic signals along substantially parallel transmission paths. The transducers are sequentially activated along the array to transmit and receive acoustic signals according to a preestablished sequence. Means are provided for generating output voltages for each reception of an acoustic signal, corresponding to the coordinate position of the object viewed as the array is pivoted. Receptions from each of the transducers are presented on the same display at coordinates corresponding to the actual position of the object viewed to form a plane view of the object scanned.

  8. An acoustic invisible gateway

    Zhu, Yi-Fan; Liang, Bin; Kan, Wei-Wei; Yang, Jun; Cheng, Jian-Chun


    The recently-emerged concept of "invisible gateway" with the extraordinary capability to block the waves but allow the passage of other entities has attracted great attentions due to the general interests in illusion devices. However, the possibility to realize such a fascinating phenomenon for acoustic waves has not yet been explored, which should be of paramount significance for acoustical applications but would necessarily involve experimental difficulty. Here we design and experimentally demonstrate an acoustic invisible gateway (AIG) capable of concealing a channel under the detection of sound. Instead of "restoring" a whole block of background medium by using transformation acoustics that inevitably requires complementary or restoring media with extreme parameters, we propose an inherently distinct methodology that only aims at engineering the surface impedance at the "gate" to mimic a rigid "wall" and can be conveniently implemented by decorating meta-structures behind the channel. Such a simple yet ef...

  9. Acoustics Noise Test Cell

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Acoustic Noise Test Cell at the NASA/Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is located adjacent to the large vibration system; both are located in a class 10K...

  10. Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) is a progressive wave tube test facility that is used to test structures for dynamic response and sonic fatigue due to...

  11. Autonomous Acoustic Receiver System

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Collects underwater acoustic data and oceanographic data. Data are recorded onboard an ocean buoy and can be telemetered to a remote ship or shore station...

  12. Principles of musical acoustics

    Hartmann, William M


    Principles of Musical Acoustics focuses on the basic principles in the science and technology of music. Musical examples and specific musical instruments demonstrate the principles. The book begins with a study of vibrations and waves, in that order. These topics constitute the basic physical properties of sound, one of two pillars supporting the science of musical acoustics. The second pillar is the human element, the physiological and psychological aspects of acoustical science. The perceptual topics include loudness, pitch, tone color, and localization of sound. With these two pillars in place, it is possible to go in a variety of directions. The book treats in turn, the topics of room acoustics, audio both analog and digital, broadcasting, and speech. It ends with chapters on the traditional musical instruments, organized by family. The mathematical level of this book assumes that the reader is familiar with elementary algebra. Trigonometric functions, logarithms and powers also appear in the book, but co...

  13. Symptoms of Acoustic Neuroma

    ... Programs & Services Search Connect with us! Symptoms of Acoustic Neuroma Each heading slides to reveal more information. Early Symptoms Early Symptoms Early symptoms are easily overlooked, thus making diagnosis ...

  14. Mobile platform for acoustic mine detection applications

    Libbey, Brad; Fenneman, Douglas; Burns, Brian


    Researchers in academia have successfully demonstrated acoustic landmine detection techniques. These typically employ acoustic or seismic sources to induce vibration in the mine/soil system, and use vibration sensors such as laser vibrometers or geophones to measure the resultant surface motion. These techniques exploit the unique mechanical properties of landmines to discriminate the vibration response of a buried mine from an off-target measurement. The Army requires the ability to rapidly and reliably scan an area for landmines and is developing a mobile platform at NVESD to meet this requirement. The platform represents an initial step toward the implementation of acoustic mine detection technology on a representative field vehicle. The effort relies heavily on the acoustic mine detection cart system developed by researchers at the University of Mississippi and Planning Systems, Inc. The NVESD platform consists of a John Deere E-gator configured with a robotic control system to accurately position the vehicle. In its present design, the E-gator has been outfitted with an array of laser vibrometers and a bank of loudspeakers. Care has been taken to ensure that the vehicle"s mounting hardware and data acquisition algorithms are sufficiently robust to accommodate the implementation of other sensor modalities. A thorough discussion of the mobile platform from its inception to its present configuration will be provided. Specific topics to be addressed include the vehicle"s control and data acquisition systems. Preliminary results from acoustic mine detection experiments will also be presented.

  15. Manufacturing Methods and Technology (MANTECH) Program. Quality Control and Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques for Composites. Part VI. Acoustic Emission - A State-of-the-Art Review.


    basis of Acoustic Emission)." pp 12-35 in Journees d’Etudes sur l’Emiosion Acouetiquc. P. F. obin, P. Goutte , and C. Guillaud, Organizers. Institut...Material)." pp 144-162 in Journees d’Rtudes sur l’Emission Acoustique. P. F. Gobin, K. Goutte , and C. Guiilaud, Organizers. Institut National des Sciences...Fuwa et al. (1975) Dissolved matrix away by acid and then used SEM to find fiber bundle fractures. Harris and Ankara (1978) Used polarized light to

  16. Anal acoustic reflectometry

    Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Telford, Karen J;


    Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new technique of assessing anal sphincter function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, the opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis.......Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new technique of assessing anal sphincter function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, the opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis....

  17. A New Signaling Architecture THREP with Autonomous Radio-Link Control for Wireless Communications Systems

    Hirono, Masahiko; Nojima, Toshio

    This paper presents a new signaling architecture for radio-access control in wireless communications systems. Called THREP (for THREe-phase link set-up Process), it enables systems with low-cost configurations to provide tetherless access and wide-ranging mobility by using autonomous radio-link controls for fast cell searching and distributed call management. A signaling architecture generally consists of a radio-access part and a service-entity-access part. In THREP, the latter part is divided into two steps: preparing a communication channel, and sustaining it. Access control in THREP is thus composed of three separated parts, or protocol phases. The specifications of each phase are determined independently according to system requirements. In the proposed architecture, the first phase uses autonomous radio-link control because we want to construct low-power indoor wireless communications systems. Evaluation of channel usage efficiency and hand-over loss probability in the personal handy-phone system (PHS) shows that THREP makes the radio-access sub-system operations in a practical application model highly efficient, and the results of a field experiment show that THREP provides sufficient protection against severe fast CNR degradation in practical indoor propagation environments.

  18. Shape-adaptable hyperlens for acoustic magnifying imaging

    Zhang, Hongkuan; Zhou, Xiaoming; Hu, Gengkai


    Previous prototypes of acoustic hyperlens consist of rigid channels, which are unable to adapt in shape to the object under detection. We propose to overcome this limitation by employing soft plastic tubes that could guide acoustics with robustness against bending deformation. Based on the idea of soft-tube acoustics, acoustic magnifying hyperlens with planar input and output surfaces has been fabricated and validated experimentally. The shape-adaption capability of the soft-tube hyperlens is demonstrated by a controlled experiment, in which the magnifying super-resolution images remain stable when the lens input surface is curved. Our study suggests a feasible route toward constructing the flexible channel-structured acoustic metamaterials with the shape-adaption capability, opening then an additional degree of freedom for full control of sound.

  19. Acoustic vector sensor signal processing

    SUN Guiqing; LI Qihu; ZHANG Bin


    Acoustic vector sensor simultaneously, colocately and directly measures orthogonal components of particle velocity as well as pressure at single point in acoustic field so that is possible to improve performance of traditional underwater acoustic measurement devices or detection systems and extends new ideas for solving practical underwater acoustic engineering problems. Although acoustic vector sensor history of appearing in underwater acoustic area is no long, but with huge and potential military demands, acoustic vector sensor has strong development trend in last decade, it is evolving into a one of important underwater acoustic technology. Under this background, we try to review recent progress in study on acoustic vector sensor signal processing, such as signal detection, DOA estimation, beamforming, and so on.

  20. Acoustic comfort in eating establishments

    Svensson, David; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas


    The subjective concept of acoustic comfort in eating establishments has been investigated in this study. The goal was to develop a predictive model for the acoustic comfort, by means of simple objective parameters, while also examining which other subjective acoustic parameters could help explain...... the feeling of acoustic comfort. Through several layers of anal ysis, acoustic comfort was found to be rather complex, and could not be explained entirely by common subjective parameters such as annoyance, intelligibility or privacy. A predictive model for the mean acoustic comfort for an eating establishment...

  1. Interactions in an acoustic world

    Simaciu, Ion; Borsos, Zoltan; Bradac, Mariana


    The present paper aims to complete an earlier paper where the acoustic world was introduced. This is accomplished by analyzing the interactions which occur between the inhomogeneities of the acoustic medium, which are induced by the acoustic vibrations traveling in the medium. When a wave packet travels in a medium, the medium becomes inhomogeneous. The spherical wave packet behaves like an acoustic spherical lens for the acoustic plane waves. According to the principle of causality, there is an interaction between the wave and plane wave packet. In specific conditions the wave packet behaves as an acoustic black hole.

  2. Simplified scheduling for underwater acoustic networks

    Kleunen, van Wouter; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.


    The acoustic propagation speed under water poses significant challenges to the design of underwater sensor networks and their medium access control protocols. Similar to the air, scheduling transmissions under water has significant impact on throughput, energy consumption, and reliability. In this p

  3. A fundamental Lagrangian approach to transformation acoustics and spherical spacetime cloaking

    Tung, Michael M.


    Transformation acoustics centers on the construction of advanced acoustic devices by combining mathematical transformation techniques with the engineering of acoustic metamaterials. We show how differential-geometric methods together with a variational principle form the basis of a powerful framework to control acoustic waves as desired. This formalism is required to leave the acoustic wave equation invariant under coordinate transformations and is shown to consist of a proposed acoustic Lagrangian function on a smooth spacetime manifold. As an immediate consequence, we can derive the general constitutive relations between the acoustic parameters (bulk modulus and mass-density tensor) of the physical and virtual spaces under consideration. We conclude with a practical application of this theory by presenting acoustic spherical cloaking with time dilation.

  4. Virtual reflections in electronic acoustic architecture

    van Munster, Bjorn


    In the era of the ancient Greeks and Byzantines, the first attempts for increasing reverberation time are noted. In the 1950s, the Ambiophonic system accomplished this by means of an electronic device, for the first time. The early systems only increased the reverberation time by delaying the picked-up reverberation. With the introduction of multichannel feedback-based systems, the reverberation level also could be increased. Later, it was understood that it was important to also fill in the missing reflections, address reflection density, frequency dependence, etc. This resulted in the development of the SIAP concept. Current DSP technology led to the development of a processor whereby density, length, level, and the frequency content can be controlled for different areas in the same room or different rooms, leading to the concept of the acoustic server. electronic acoustic architecture has become the current state-of-the-art approach for solving acoustic deficiencies in, among others, rehearsal rooms, theaters, churches, and multipurpose venues. Incorporation of complementary passive acoustic solutions provides an optimum solution for all room problems. This paper discusses the utilization of virtual reflections in the new approach of electronic acoustic architecture for different environments. Measurements performed in the Sejong Performing Arts Centre, Seoul, South Korea, show the power of this approach.

  5. Tuned Chamber Core Panel Acoustic Test Results

    Schiller, Noah H.; Allen, Albert R.


    This report documents acoustic testing of tuned chamber core panels, which can be used to supplement the low-frequency performance of conventional acoustic treatment. The tuned chamber core concept incorporates low-frequency noise control directly within the primary structure and is applicable to sandwich constructions with a directional core, including corrugated-, truss-, and fluted-core designs. These types of sandwich structures have long, hollow channels (or chambers) in the core. By adding small holes through one of the facesheets, the hollow chambers can be utilized as an array of low-frequency acoustic resonators. These resonators can then be used to attenuate low-frequency noise (below 400 Hz) inside a vehicle compartment without increasing the weight or size of the structure. The results of this test program demonstrate that the tuned chamber core concept is effective when used in isolation or combined with acoustic foam treatments. Specifically, an array of acoustic resonators integrated within the core of the panels was shown to improve both the low-frequency absorption and transmission loss of the structure in targeted one-third octave bands.

  6. Broad-band acoustic hyperbolic metamaterial

    Shen, Chen; Sui, Ni; Wang, Wenqi; Cummer, Steven A; Jing, Yun


    Acoustic metamaterials (AMMs) are engineered materials, made from subwavelength structures, that exhibit useful or unusual constitutive properties. There has been intense research interest in AMMs since its first realization in 2000 by Liu et al. A number of functionalities and applications have been proposed and achieved using AMMs. Hyperbolic metamaterials are one of the most important types of metamaterials due to their extreme anisotropy and numerous possible applications, including negative refraction, backward waves, spatial filtering, and subwavelength imaging. Although the importance of acoustic hyperbolic metamaterials (AHMMs) as a tool for achieving full control of acoustic waves is substantial, the realization of a broad-band and truly hyperbolic AMM has not been reported so far. Here, we demonstrate the design and experimental characterization of a broadband AHMM that operates between 1.0 kHz and 2.5 kHz.

  7. Occupant satisfaction with the acoustical environment : green office buildings before and after treatment

    Hodgson, M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). School of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Acoustics and Noise Research Group


    Sustainable architecture is meant to preserve the environment and conserve natural resources, as well as provide an environment for the occupants that promotes wellbeing and productivity. Occupants generally claim that the acoustical environment is the least satisfactory aspect of green office buildings. They are dissatisfied with excessive noise and poor speech privacy. This paper reported on the results of 2 studies of the acoustical environments in green office buildings before and after acoustical-control measures were installed. Acoustical quality was evaluated by occupant-satisfaction surveys and acoustical-parameter measurements. The first study, which involved 6 green office buildings, showed that buildings designed to obtain LEED ratings are unlikely to have satisfactory acoustical environments. A naturally-ventilated, green university building with a poor acoustical environment was examined in the second study. The results of this study suggest that improving acoustical environments in green buildings requires good acoustical design, with input from an acoustical specialist from the beginning of the design process. The design should consider site selection and building orientation; external envelope and penetrations in it; building layout and internal partitions; HVAC systems; appropriate dimensioning of spaces; and the amount and location of sound absorbing treatments. The study also showed that a building's energy efficiency, lighting, ventilation, air-quality and acoustics are interconnected, and that no aspect can be successfully designed in isolation. It was concluded that optimized engineering-control measures can improve poor acoustical environments. 11 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  8. Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Ploskey, Gene R.


    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior at Cougar Dam on the south fork of the McKenzie River in Oregon in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower of the dam for USACE and fisheries resource managers use in making decisions about bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from March 1, 2010, through January 31, 2011. Juvenile salmonids (hereafter, called 'fish') were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout the study. Fish abundance index was low in early spring (<200 fish per sample-day), increased in late April, and peaked on May 19 (6,039 fish). A second peak was observed on June 6 (2904 fish). Fish abundance index decreased in early June and remained low in the summer months (<100 fish per sample-day). During the fall and winter, fish numbers varied with a peak on November 10 (1881 fish) and a minimum on December 7 (12 fish). A second, smaller, peak occurred on December 22 (607 fish). A univariate statistical analysis indicated fish abundance index (log10-transformed) was significantly (P<0.05) positively correlated with forebay elevation, velocity over the WTC tower intake gate weirs, and river flows into the reservoir. A subsequent multiple regression analysis resulted in a model (R2=0.70) predicting fish abundance (log-transformed index values) using two independent variables of mean forebay elevation and the log10 of the forebay elevation range. From the approximate fish length measurements made using the DIDSON imaging software, the average fish

  9. Advanced Acoustic Blankets for Improved Aircraft Interior Noise Reduction Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this project advanced acoustic blankets for improved low frequency interior noise control in aircraft will be developed and demonstrated. The improved performance...

  10. Acoustic chemometric prediction of total solids in bioslurry

    Ihunegbo, Felicia; Madsen, Michael; Esbensen, Kim


    Dry matter is an important process control parameter in the bioconversion application field. Acoustic chemometrics, as a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) modality for quantitative characterisation of dry matter in complex bioslurry systems (biogas fermentation), has not been successful despite...

  11. An introduction to acoustic emission

    Scruby, C. B.


    The technique of acoustic emission (AE) uses one or more sensors to 'listen' to a wide range of events that may take place inside a solid material. Depending on the source of this high frequency sound, there are broadly three application areas: structural testing and surveillance, process monitoring and control, and materials characterization. In the first case the source is probably a defect which radiates elastic waves as it grows. Provided these waves are detectable, AE can be used in conjunction with other NDT techniques to assess structural integrity. Advances in deterministic and statistical analysis methods now enable data to be interpreted in greater detail and with more confidence than before. In the second area the acoustic signature of processes is monitored, ranging from for instance the machining of metallic components to the mixing of foodstuffs, and changes correlated with variations in the process, with the potential for feedback and process control. In the third area, AE is used as an additional diagnostic technique for the study of, for instance, fracture, because it gives unique dynamic information on defect growth.

  12. A Century of Acoustic Metrology

    Rasmussen, Knud


    The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect.......The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect....

  13. Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL) is a state-of-the-art Undersea Warfare (USW) acoustic data analysis facility capable of both active and passive underwater...

  14. Laser-nucleated acoustic cavitation in focused ultrasound.

    Gerold, Bjoern; Kotopoulis, Spiros; McDougall, Craig; McGloin, David; Postema, Michiel; Prentice, Paul


    Acoustic cavitation can occur in therapeutic applications of high-amplitude focused ultrasound. Studying acoustic cavitation has been challenging, because the onset of nucleation is unpredictable. We hypothesized that acoustic cavitation can be forced to occur at a specific location using a laser to nucleate a microcavity in a pre-established ultrasound field. In this paper we describe a scientific instrument that is dedicated to this outcome, combining a focused ultrasound transducer with a pulsed laser. We present high-speed photographic observations of laser-induced cavitation and laser-nucleated acoustic cavitation, at frame rates of 0.5×10(6) frames per second, from laser pulses of energy above and below the optical breakdown threshold, respectively. Acoustic recordings demonstrated inertial cavitation can be controllably introduced to the ultrasound focus. This technique will contribute to the understanding of cavitation evolution in focused ultrasound including for potential therapeutic applications.

  15. Acoustic metamaterials: From local resonances to broad horizons.

    Ma, Guancong; Sheng, Ping


    Within a time span of 15 years, acoustic metamaterials have emerged from academic curiosity to become an active field driven by scientific discoveries and diverse application potentials. This review traces the development of acoustic metamaterials from the initial findings of mass density and bulk modulus frequency dispersions in locally resonant structures to the diverse functionalities afforded by the perspective of negative constitutive parameter values, and their implications for acoustic wave behaviors. We survey the more recent developments, which include compact phase manipulation structures, superabsorption, and actively controllable metamaterials as well as the new directions on acoustic wave transport in moving fluid, elastic, and mechanical metamaterials, graphene-inspired metamaterials, and structures whose characteristics are best delineated by non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. Many of the novel acoustic metamaterial structures have transcended the original definition of metamaterials as arising from the collective manifestations of constituent resonating units, but they continue to extend wave manipulation functionalities beyond those found in nature.

  16. Sound reduction by metamaterial-based acoustic enclosure

    Shanshan Yao


    Full Text Available In many practical systems, acoustic radiation control on noise sources contained within a finite volume by an acoustic enclosure is of great importance, but difficult to be accomplished at low frequencies due to the enhanced acoustic-structure interaction. In this work, we propose to use acoustic metamaterials as the enclosure to efficiently reduce sound radiation at their negative-mass frequencies. Based on a circularly-shaped metamaterial model, sound radiation properties by either central or eccentric sources are analyzed by numerical simulations for structured metamaterials. The parametric analyses demonstrate that the barrier thickness, the cavity size, the source type, and the eccentricity of the source have a profound effect on the sound reduction. It is found that increasing the thickness of the metamaterial barrier is an efficient approach to achieve large sound reduction over the negative-mass frequencies. These results are helpful in designing highly efficient acoustic enclosures for blockage of sound in low frequencies.

  17. Acoustic detection of pneumothorax

    Mansy, Hansen A.; Royston, Thomas J.; Balk, Robert A.; Sandler, Richard H.


    This study aims at investigating the feasibility of using low-frequency (pneumothorax detection were tested in dogs. In the first approach, broadband acoustic signals were introduced into the trachea during end-expiration and transmitted waves were measured at the chest surface. Pneumothorax was found to consistently decrease pulmonary acoustic transmission in the 200-1200-Hz frequency band, while less change was observed at lower frequencies (ppneumothorax states (pPneumothorax was found to be associated with a preferential reduction of sound amplitude in the 200- to 700-Hz range, and a decrease of sound amplitude variation (in the 300 to 600-Hz band) during the respiration cycle (pPneumothorax changed the frequency and decay rate of percussive sounds. These results imply that certain medical conditions may be reliably detected using appropriate acoustic measurements and analysis. [Work supported by NIH/NHLBI #R44HL61108.

  18. Practical acoustic emission testing


    This book is intended for non-destructive testing (NDT) technicians who want to learn practical acoustic emission testing based on level 1 of ISO 9712 (Non-destructive testing – Qualification and certification of personnel) criteria. The essential aspects of ISO/DIS 18436-6 (Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines – Requirements for training and certification of personnel, Part 6: Acoustic Emission) are explained, and readers can deepen their understanding with the help of practice exercises. This work presents the guiding principles of acoustic emission measurement, signal processing, algorithms for source location, measurement devices, applicability of testing methods, and measurement cases to support not only researchers in this field but also and especially NDT technicians.

  19. Passive broadband acoustic thermometry

    Anosov, A. A.; Belyaev, R. V.; Klin'shov, V. V.; Mansfel'd, A. D.; Subochev, P. V.


    The 1D internal (core) temperature profiles for the model object (plasticine) and the human hand are reconstructed using the passive acoustothermometric broadband probing data. Thermal acoustic radiation is detected by a broadband (0.8-3.5 MHz) acoustic radiometer. The temperature distribution is reconstructed using a priori information corresponding to the experimental conditions. The temperature distribution for the heated model object is assumed to be monotonic. For the hand, we assume that the temperature distribution satisfies the heat-conduction equation taking into account the blood flow. The average error of reconstruction determined for plasticine from the results of independent temperature measurements is 0.6 K for a measuring time of 25 s. The reconstructed value of the core temperature of the hand (36°C) generally corresponds to physiological data. The obtained results make it possible to use passive broadband acoustic probing for measuring the core temperatures in medical procedures associated with heating of human organism tissues.

  20. Acoustics of courtyard theatres

    WANG Jiqing


    The traditional Chinese theatre was often built with a courtyard. In such open-top space, the absence of a roof would mean little reverberation and non-diffused sound field.Acoustically the situation is quite different from that of any enclosed space. The refore, theclassic room acoustics, such as Sabine reverberation formula, would no longer be applicable due to the lack of sound reflections from the ceiling. As the parameter of reverberation time T30 shows the decay rate only, it would not properly characterize the prominent change in the fine structure of the echogram, particularly in case of a large reduction of reflections during the decay process. The sense of reverbrance in a courtyard space would differ noticeably from that of the equivalent 3D-T30 in an enclosed space. Based upon the characteristic analysis of the sound field in an open-top space, this paper presents a preliminary study on the acoustics of the courtyard theatres.

  1. Acoustics waves and oscillations

    Sen, S.N.


    Parameters of acoustics presented in a logical and lucid style Physical principles discussed with mathematical formulations Importance of ultrasonic waves highlighted Dispersion of ultrasonic waves in viscous liquids explained This book presents the theory of waves and oscillations and various applications of acoustics in a logical and simple form. The physical principles have been explained with necessary mathematical formulation and supported by experimental layout wherever possible. Incorporating the classical view point all aspects of acoustic waves and oscillations have been discussed together with detailed elaboration of modern technological applications of sound. A separate chapter on ultrasonics emphasizes the importance of this branch of science in fundamental and applied research. In this edition a new chapter ''Hypersonic Velocity in Viscous Liquids as revealed from Brillouin Spectra'' has been added. The book is expected to present to its readers a comprehensive presentation of the subject matter...

  2. 基于多主体系统的封闭空腔有源力控制技术%Active Structural Acoustic Control Technology of Enclosure Based on a Multi-agent System

    崔怀峰; 陈南


    The active structural acoustic control of enclosure is investigated based on the distributed cooperative control method of multi-agent system (MAS).The coordination problems between the complexity of overall control architecture and intelligent units are discussed by the method.A rectangular enclosure involving two simply supported flexible plates is considered.The characteristics of the coupled system with the two flexible plates are described by the modal superposition method.The feasibility of applying MAS to structural-acoustic coupled system is analyzed.The noise control problem is decomposed into several layers,and sub-controller agents for local control problems are defined as well as their operating regimes and inner functions.All sub-controller agents are coupled into an integral MAS by supervisor-like and competitive coordination mechanisms.The simulation results indicate that the better control performances are attained.At the same time,the active structural acoustic control system has the advantages of MAS,such as parallelism,scalability and robustness.%将多主体系统(Multi-agent system,MAS)分布协同控制的方法应用到封闭空腔结构声控制中,解决整体控制架构的复杂性和智能单元的协调问题.提出由两个相邻弹性板围成的封闭空腔模型,利用模态叠加法分析腔内耦合声场的分布.在此基础上研究基于MAS的智能控制方法处理复杂的封闭空腔耦合噪声场的基本理论和可行性.通过对噪声控制问题进行逐层分解,构建相应的MAS控制架构.定义具有针对性的子控制器主体及其操作域和内部功能函数,并采用协调体结构中的类监督和竞争协调机制将各子控制器主体耦合起来,建立一个完整的基于MAS的封闭空腔有源力控制系统.仿真结果表明该系统对封闭空腔噪声控制具有可行性且降噪效果较好;同时还体现了并行运算、“即插即用”和高度稳定性等MAS的优势.

  3. Acoustically Induced Vibration of Structures: Reverberant Vs. Direct Acoustic Testing

    Kolaini, Ali R.; O'Connell, Michael R.; Tsoi, Wan B.


    Large reverberant chambers have been used for several decades in the aerospace industry to test larger structures such as solar arrays and reflectors to qualify and to detect faults in the design and fabrication of spacecraft and satellites. In the past decade some companies have begun using direct near field acoustic testing, employing speakers, for qualifying larger structures. A limited test data set obtained from recent acoustic tests of the same hardware exposed to both direct and reverberant acoustic field testing has indicated some differences in the resulting structural responses. In reverberant acoustic testing, higher vibration responses were observed at lower frequencies when compared with the direct acoustic testing. In the case of direct near field acoustic testing higher vibration responses appeared to occur at higher frequencies as well. In reverberant chamber testing and direct acoustic testing, standing acoustic modes of the reverberant chamber or the speakers and spacecraft parallel surfaces can strongly couple with the fundamental structural modes of the test hardware. In this paper data from recent acoustic testing of flight hardware, that yielded evidence of acoustic standing wave coupling with structural responses, are discussed in some detail. Convincing evidence of the acoustic standing wave/structural coupling phenomenon will be discussed, citing observations from acoustic testing of a simple aluminum plate. The implications of such acoustic coupling to testing of sensitive flight hardware will be discussed. The results discussed in this paper reveal issues with over or under testing of flight hardware that could pose unanticipated structural and flight qualification issues. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the structural modal coupling with standing acoustic waves that has been observed in both methods of acoustic testing. This study will assist the community to choose an appropriate testing method and test setup in

  4. Room Acoustical Fields

    Mechel, Fridolin


    This book presents the theory of room acoustical fields and revises the Mirror Source Methods for practical computational use, emphasizing the wave character of acoustical fields.  The presented higher methods include the concepts of “Mirror Point Sources” and “Corner sources which allow for an excellent approximation of complex room geometries and even equipped rooms. In contrast to classical description, this book extends the theory of sound fields describing them by their complex sound pressure and the particle velocity. This approach enables accurate descriptions of interference and absorption phenomena.

  5. Acoustic black holes

    Visser, M


    Acoustic propagation in a moving fluid provides a conceptually clean and powerful analogy for understanding black hole physics. As a teaching tool, the analogy is useful for introducing students to both General Relativity and fluid mechanics. As a research tool, the analogy helps clarify what aspects of the physics are kinematics and what aspects are dynamics. In particular, Hawking radiation is a purely kinematical effect, whereas black hole entropy is intrinsically dynamical. Finally, I discuss the fact that with present technology acoustic Hawking radiation is almost experimentally testable.

  6. Research Advances In Medical Care For Polytrauma Injuries And Blast Injuries


    skin, including pores and hair follicles . WIRELESS AND TETHERLESS Controlled wirelessly and without tethers. Allows more freedom, versatility...2013 Aims • Identify vital mechanisms of neurodegeneration initiated by blast exposure thus defining novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets Approach

  7. Acoustically-Controlled Oil Well Pressure Switch Development and Testing%油井声控压差平衡式开关控制器的研制与试验

    陈江烨; 王一良; 侯庆春; 杨松


    为了克服传统油井找水工艺中施工复杂、生产周期长、费用高、准确性低等缺点,提高油井找水效率和准确性,研制了油井找堵水声控压差平衡式开关控制器。该开关控制器采用自适应动态压力平衡系统,其活塞阀开启和关闭时可承受20 M Pa压力差;采用油管传输声波信号的声波遥控技术,从地面遥控井下开关控制器开启、关闭,根据工艺要求进行分层开采或分段开采。室内静压试验表明,开关控制器在125℃、50 M Pa高温高压条件下,稳压30 min ,整体设备无渗漏无变形;耐压差试验表明,活塞在承受25 M Pa压差的情况下,压力平衡装置可以承受压差,电机驱动活塞做上下往复运动,动密封不渗不漏。现场试验表明,声波接收器接收地面指令后,可以控制电机驱动装置打开或关闭开关阀。试验结果表明,该开关控制器可为油井提高开采效率提供技术支持。%Conventional techniques for detecting in oil wells have been disadvantageous due to their complex process ,long production period ,high cost and low accuracy .In order to enhance the efficiency and accuracy of the techniques used for water detection and plugging ,an acoustic controlled pressure-bal-ance switch has been developed .With an adaptive dynamic pressure balance system ,piston valves in the switch can endure differential pressure up to 20 MPa during opening and closing processes .By means of re-mote acoustic controlled technique that transmits acoustic signals through tubing ,the down-hole switch can be controlled remotely on the ground to facilitate production in different layers (in vertical wells) or in different intervals (in horizontal wells) according to operational requirements .Laboratory static pressure testing shows that the switch can withstand high temperature up to 125 ℃ and high pressure up to 50 MPa for 30 min with no leak or deformation .Differential

  8. From Architectural Acoustics to Acoustical Architecture Using Computer Simulation

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning


    Architectural acoustics design has in the past been based on simple design rules. However, with a growing complexity in architectural acoustics and the emergence of room acoustic simulation programmes with considerable potential, it is now possible to subjectively analyse and evaluate acoustic...... properties prior to the actual construction of a building. With the right tools applied, acoustic design can become an integral part of the architectural design process. The aim of this paper is to investigate the field of application that an acoustic simulation programme can have during an architectural...... acoustic design process and to set up a strategy to develop future programmes. The emphasis is put on the first three out of four phases in the working process of the architect and a case study is carried out in which each phase is represented by typical results ? as exemplified with reference...

  9. Evoked acoustic emission

    Elberling, C; Parbo, J; Johnsen, N J;


    Stimulated acoustic emissions were recorded in response to tonal stimuli at 60 dB p.e. SPL in a small group of normal-hearing adults. Power spectral analysis reveals that the evoked activity from each ear contains energy in preferential frequency bands and the change of stimulus frequency has onl...

  10. Evoked acoustic emission

    Elberling, C; Parbo, J; Johnsen, N J;


    Stimulated acoustic emissions were recorded in response to tonal stimuli at 60 dB p.e. SPL in a small group of normal-hearing adults. Power spectral analysis reveals that the evoked activity from each ear contains energy in preferential frequency bands and the change of stimulus frequency has only...

  11. Indigenous Acoustic Detection.


    considerable distances, and they act as good sensors of human presence. Though singing insects are ubiquitous in warm areas, even in the desert ( Nevo and...methodology. DTIC. CD-58-PL. Lloyd, J. E. 1981. Personnel communication. Nevo , E. and S. A. Blondheim. 1972. Acoustic isolation in the speciation of

  12. Deep Water Ocean Acoustics


    sound speed profile is range-independent; since there is little expectation there will be significant mesoscale phenomenon given the lack of solar ...34 Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 93 (4), 1736-1742 (1993). 2 Chris H. Harrison and Martin Siderius, "Effective Parameters for Matched

  13. Acoustic field modulation in regenerators

    Hu, J. Y.; Wang, W.; Luo, E. C.; Chen, Y. Y.


    The regenerator is a key component that transfers energy between heat and work. The conversion efficiency is significantly influenced by the acoustic field in the regenerator. Much effort has been spent to quantitatively determine this influence, but few comprehensive experimental verifications have been performed because of difficulties in modulating and measuring the acoustic field. In this paper, a method requiring two compressors is introduced and theoretically investigated that achieves acoustic field modulation in the regenerator. One compressor outputs the acoustic power for the regenerator; the other acts as a phase shifter. A RC load dissipates the acoustic power out of both the regenerator and the latter compressor. The acoustic field can be modulated by adjusting the current in the two compressors and opening the RC load. The acoustic field is measured with pressure sensors instead of flow-field imaging equipment, thereby greatly simplifying the experiment.

  14. Particle manipulation by a non-resonant acoustic levitator

    Andrade, Marco A. B., E-mail: [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, CP 66318, 05314-970 São Paulo (Brazil); Pérez, Nicolás [Centro Universitario de Paysandú, Universidad de la República, Ruta 3 km 363, 60000 Paysandú (Uruguay); Adamowski, Julio C. [Department of Mechatronics and Mechanical Systems Engineering, Escola Politécnica, University of São Paulo, Av. Mello Moraes, 2231, 05508-030 São Paulo (Brazil)


    We present the analysis of a non-resonant acoustic levitator, formed by an ultrasonic transducer and a concave reflector. In contrast to traditional levitators, the geometry presented herein does not require the separation distance between the transducer and the reflector to be a multiple of half wavelength. The levitator behavior is numerically predicted by applying a numerical model to calculate the acoustic pressure distribution and the Gor'kov theory to obtain the potential of the acoustic radiation force that acts on a levitated particle. We also demonstrate that levitating particles can be manipulated by controlling the reflector position while maintaining the transducer in a fixed position.

  15. Metamaterial based embedded acoustic filters for structural applications

    Hongfei Zhu


    Full Text Available We investigate the use of acoustic metamaterials to design structural materials with frequency selective characteristics. By exploiting the properties of acoustic metamaterials, we tailor the propagation characteristics of the host structure to effectively filter the constitutive harmonics of an incoming broadband excitation. The design approach exploits the characteristics of acoustic waveguides coupled by cavity modes. By properly designing the cavity we can tune the corresponding resonant mode and, therefore, coupling the waveguide at a prescribed frequency. This structural design can open new directions to develop broadband passive vibrations and noise control systems fully integrated in structural components.

  16. Acoustic solitons: A robust tool to investigate the generation and detection of ultrafast acoustic waves

    Péronne, Emmanuel; Chuecos, Nicolas; Thevenard, Laura; Perrin, Bernard


    Solitons are self-preserving traveling waves of great interest in nonlinear physics but hard to observe experimentally. In this report an experimental setup is designed to observe and characterize acoustic solitons in a GaAs(001) substrate. It is based on careful temperature control of the sample and an interferometric detection scheme. Ultrashort acoustic solitons, such as the one predicted by the Korteweg-de Vries equation, are observed and fully characterized. Their particlelike nature is clearly evidenced and their unique properties are thoroughly checked. The spatial averaging of the soliton wave front is shown to account for the differences between the theoretical and experimental soliton profile. It appears that ultrafast acoustic experiments provide a precise measurement of the soliton velocity. It allows for absolute calibration of the setup as well as the response function analysis of the detection layer. Moreover, the temporal distribution of the solitons is also analyzed with the help of the inverse scattering method. It shows how the initial acoustic pulse profile which gives birth to solitons after nonlinear propagation can be retrieved. Such investigations provide a new tool to probe transient properties of highly excited matter through the study of the emitted acoustic pulse after laser excitation.

  17. Computational acoustic modeling of cetacean vocalizations

    Gurevich, Michael Dixon

    A framework for computational acoustic modeling of hypothetical vocal production mechanisms in cetaceans is presented. As a specific example, a model of a proposed source in the larynx of odontocetes is developed. Whales and dolphins generate a broad range of vocal sounds, but the exact mechanisms they use are not conclusively understood. In the fifty years since it has become widely accepted that whales can and do make sound, how they do so has remained particularly confounding. Cetaceans' highly divergent respiratory anatomy, along with the difficulty of internal observation during vocalization have contributed to this uncertainty. A variety of acoustical, morphological, ethological and physiological evidence has led to conflicting and often disputed theories of the locations and mechanisms of cetaceans' sound sources. Computational acoustic modeling has been used to create real-time parametric models of musical instruments and the human voice. These techniques can be applied to cetacean vocalizations to help better understand the nature and function of these sounds. Extensive studies of odontocete laryngeal morphology have revealed vocal folds that are consistently similar to a known but poorly understood acoustic source, the ribbon reed. A parametric computational model of the ribbon reed is developed, based on simplified geometrical, mechanical and fluid models drawn from the human voice literature. The physical parameters of the ribbon reed model are then adapted to those of the odontocete larynx. With reasonable estimates of real physical parameters, both the ribbon reed and odontocete larynx models produce sounds that are perceptually similar to their real-world counterparts, and both respond realistically under varying control conditions. Comparisons of acoustic features of the real-world and synthetic systems show a number of consistencies. While this does not on its own prove that either model is conclusively an accurate description of the source, it

  18. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    Peng, Pai


    We design a flat sub-wavelength lens that can focus acoustic wave. We analytically study the transmission through an acoustic grating with curled slits, which can serve as a material with tunable impedance and refractive index for acoustic waves. The effective parameters rely on the geometry of the slits and are independent of frequency. A flat acoustic focusing lens by such acoustic grating with gradient effective refractive index is designed. The focusing effect is clearly observed in simulations and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry-Perot resonance.

  19. Manipulate acoustic waves by impedance matched acoustic metasurfaces

    Wu, Ying; Mei, Jun; Aljahdali, Rasha

    We design a type of acoustic metasurface, which is composed of carefully designed slits in a rigid thin plate. The effective refractive indices of different slits are different but the impedances are kept the same as that of the host medium. Numerical simulations show that such a metasurface can redirect or reflect a normally incident wave at different frequencies, even though it is impedance matched to the host medium. We show that the underlying mechanisms can be understood by using the generalized Snell's law, and a unified analytic model based on mode-coupling theory. We demonstrate some simple realization of such acoustic metasurface with real materials. The principle is also extended to the design of planar acoustic lens which can focus acoustic waves. Manipulate acoustic waves by impedance matched acoustic metasurfaces.

  20. Observation of a single-beam gradient force acoustical trap for elastic particles: acoustical tweezers

    Baresch, Diego; Marchiano, Régis


    The ability to manipulate matter precisely is critical for the study and development of a large variety of systems. Optical tweezers are excellent tools to handle particles ranging in size from a few micrometers to hundreds of nanometers but become inefficient and damaging on larger objects. We demonstrate for the first reported time the trapping of elastic particles by the large gradient force of a single acoustical beam in three dimensions. We show that at equal power, acoustical forces overtake by 8 orders of magnitude that of optical ones on macroscopic objects. Acoustical tweezers can push, pull and accurately control both the position of the particle and the forces exerted under damage-free conditions. The large spectrum of frequencies covered by coherent ultrasonic sources will provide a wide variety of manipulation possibilities from macro- to microscopic length scales. We believe our observations improve the prospects for wider use of non-contact manipulation in biology, biophysics, microfluidics and...

  1. Acoustical studies on corrugated tubes

    Balaguru, Rajavel

    Corrugated tubes and pipes offer greater global flexibility combined with local rigidity. They are used in numerous engineering applications such as vacuum cleaner hosing, air conditioning systems of aircraft and automobiles, HVAC control systems of heating ducts in buildings, compact heat exchangers, medical equipment and offshore gas and oil transportation flexible riser pipelines. Recently there has been a renewed research interest in analyzing the flow through a corrugated tube to understand the underlying mechanism of so called whistling, although the whistling in such a tube was identified in early twentieth century. The phenomenon of whistling in a corrugated tube is interesting because an airflow through a smooth walled tube of similar dimensions will not generate any whistling tones. Study of whistling in corrugated tubes is important because, it not only causes an undesirable noise problem but also results in flow-acoustic coupling. Such a coupling can cause significant structural vibrations due to flow-acoustic-structure interaction. This interaction would cause flow-induced vibrations that could result in severe damage to mechanical systems having corrugated tubes. In this research work, sound generation (whistling) in corrugated tubes due to airflow is analyzed using experimental as well as Computational Fluid Dynamics-Large Eddy Simulation (CFD-LES) techniques. Sound generation mechanisms resulting in whistling have been investigated. The whistling in terms of frequencies and sound pressure levels for different flow velocities are studied. The analytical and experimental studies are carried out to understand the influence of various parameters of corrugated tubes such as cavity length, cavity width, cavity depth, pitch, Reynolds numbers and number of corrugations. The results indicate that there is a good agreement between theoretically calculated, computationally predicted and experimentally measured whistling frequencies and sound pressure levels

  2. Acoustic Seaglider: PhilSea10 Data Analysis


    currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES ...ABSTRACT Broadband acoustic source transmissions recorded on Seagliders at ranges up to 700 km are used to estimate subsurface glider position...error by up to 1000 m. 6 Figure 4: Circles indicate acoustically derived ranges from sources T1 (red, 275.6 km), T2 (orange, 115.4 km), T3 (green

  3. Acoustic absorption by sunspots

    Braun, D. C.; Labonte, B. J.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.


    The paper presents the initial results of a series of observations designed to probe the nature of sunspots by detecting their influence on high-degree p-mode oscillations in the surrounding photosphere. The analysis decomposes the observed oscillations into radially propagating waves described by Hankel functions in a cylindrical coordinate system centered on the sunspot. From measurements of the differences in power between waves traveling outward and inward, it is demonstrated that sunspots appear to absorb as much as 50 percent of the incoming acoustic waves. It is found that for all three sunspots observed, the amount of absorption increases linearly with horizontal wavenumber. The effect is present in p-mode oscillations with wavelengths both significantly larger and smaller than the diameter of the sunspot umbrae. Actual absorption of acoustic energy of the magnitude observed may produce measurable decreases in the power and lifetimes of high-degree p-mode oscillations during periods of high solar activity.


    J. J. Almeida-Pérez


    Full Text Available In this paper appears a solution for acoustic emission analysis commonly known as noise. For the accomplishmentof this work a personal computer is used, besides sensors (microphones and boards designed and built for signalconditioning. These components are part of a virtual instrument used for monitoring the acoustical emission. Themain goal of this work is to develop a virtual instrument that supplies many important data as the result of ananalysis allowing to have information in an easy and friendly way. Moreover this information is very useful forstudying and resolving several situations in planning, production and testing areas.The main characteristics of the virtual instrument are: signal analysis in time, effective power measurement inDecibels (dB, average intensity taken from the principle of paired microphones, as well as the data analysis infrequency. These characteristics are included to handle two information channels.

  5. Electromagnetic acoustic imaging.

    Emerson, Jane F; Chang, David B; McNaughton, Stuart; Jeong, Jong Seob; Shung, K K; Cerwin, Stephen A


    Electromagnetic acoustic imaging (EMAI) is a new imaging technique that uses long-wavelength RF electromagnetic (EM) waves to induce ultrasound emission. Signal intensity and image contrast have been found to depend on spatially varying electrical conductivity of the medium in addition to conventional acoustic properties. The resultant conductivity- weighted ultrasound data may enhance the diagnostic performance of medical ultrasound in cancer and cardiovascular applications because of the known changes in conductivity of malignancy and blood-filled spaces. EMAI has a potential advantage over other related imaging techniques because it combines the high resolution associated with ultrasound detection with the generation of the ultrasound signals directly related to physiologically important electrical properties of the tissues. Here, we report the theoretical development of EMAI, implementation of a dual-mode EMAI/ultrasound apparatus, and successful demonstrations of EMAI in various phantoms designed to establish feasibility of the approach for eventual medical applications.

  6. Acoustic emission source modeling

    Hora P.


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the acoustic emission (AE source modeling by means of FEM system COMSOL Multiphysics. The following types of sources are used: the spatially concentrated force and the double forces (dipole. The pulse excitation is studied in both cases. As a material is used steel. The computed displacements are compared with the exact analytical solution of point sources under consideration.

  7. Acoustic Characterization of Soil


    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Dept. of Electrical & Computer Enginnering Dept Natural Resources...same transduction device is used for transmit and receive, and the broad-band mechanical matching between the transduction device and the acoustic...has a direct influence over the imaging depth for a given dynamic range. Figure 10 demonstrated the influence of the roundtrip propagation loss as a

  8. Acoustically enhanced heat transport

    Ang, Kar M.; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming K., E-mail: [School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor (Malaysia); Yeo, Leslie Y. [Micro/Nanophysics Research Laboratory, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); Friend, James R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)


    We investigate the enhancement of heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime by inducing high frequency acoustic waves (f ∼ 10{sup 6} Hz) on the heated surface. In the experiments, liquid droplets (deionized water) are dispensed directly onto a heated, vibrating substrate. At lower vibration amplitudes (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −9} m), the improved heat transfer is mainly due to the detachment of vapor bubbles from the heated surface and the induced thermal mixing. Upon increasing the vibration amplitude (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −8} m), the heat transfer becomes more substantial due to the rapid bursting of vapor bubbles happening at the liquid-air interface as a consequence of capillary waves travelling in the thin liquid film between the vapor bubble and the air. Further increases then lead to rapid atomization that continues to enhance the heat transfer. An acoustic wave displacement amplitude on the order of 10{sup −8} m with 10{sup 6} Hz order frequencies is observed to produce an improvement of up to 50% reduction in the surface temperature over the case without acoustic excitation.

  9. Acoustics, computers and measurements

    Truchard, James J.


    The human ear has created a high standard for the requirements of acoustical measurements. The transient nature of most acoustical signals has limited the success of traditional volt meters. Professor Hixson's pioneering work in electroacoustical measurements at ARL and The University of Texas helped set the stage for modern computer-based measurements. The tremendous performance of modern PCs and extensive libraries of signal processing functions in virtual instrumentation application software has revolutionized the way acoustical measurements are made. Today's analog to digital converters have up to 24 bits of resolution with a dynamic range of over 120 dB and a single PC processor can process 112 channels of FFTs at 4 kHz in real time. Wavelet technology further extends the capabilities for analyzing transients. The tools available for measurements in speech, electroacoustics, noise, and vibration represent some of the most advanced measurement tools available. During the last 50 years, Professor Hixson has helped drive this revolution from simple oscilloscope measurements to the modern high performance computer-based measurements.

  10. Acoustically enhanced heat transport

    Ang, Kar M.; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming K.


    We investigate the enhancement of heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime by inducing high frequency acoustic waves (f ˜ 106 Hz) on the heated surface. In the experiments, liquid droplets (deionized water) are dispensed directly onto a heated, vibrating substrate. At lower vibration amplitudes (ξs ˜ 10-9 m), the improved heat transfer is mainly due to the detachment of vapor bubbles from the heated surface and the induced thermal mixing. Upon increasing the vibration amplitude (ξs ˜ 10-8 m), the heat transfer becomes more substantial due to the rapid bursting of vapor bubbles happening at the liquid-air interface as a consequence of capillary waves travelling in the thin liquid film between the vapor bubble and the air. Further increases then lead to rapid atomization that continues to enhance the heat transfer. An acoustic wave displacement amplitude on the order of 10-8 m with 106 Hz order frequencies is observed to produce an improvement of up to 50% reduction in the surface temperature over the case without acoustic excitation.

  11. Acoustic metamaterials with circular sector cavities and programmable densities.

    Akl, W; Elsabbagh, A; Baz, A


    Considerable interest has been devoted to the development of various classes of acoustic metamaterials that can control the propagation of acoustical wave energy throughout fluid domains. However, all the currently exerted efforts are focused on studying passive metamaterials with fixed material properties. In this paper, the emphasis is placed on the development of a class of composite one-dimensional acoustic metamaterials with effective densities that are programmed to adapt to any prescribed pattern along the metamaterial. The proposed acoustic metamaterial is composed of a periodic arrangement of cell structures, in which each cell consists of a circular sector cavity bounded by actively controlled flexible panels to provide the capability for manipulating the overall effective dynamic density. The theoretical analysis of this class of multilayered composite active acoustic metamaterials (CAAMM) is presented and the theoretical predictions are determined for a cascading array of fluid cavities coupled to flexible piezoelectric active boundaries forming the metamaterial domain with programmable dynamic density. The stiffness of the piezoelectric boundaries is electrically manipulated to control the overall density of the individual cells utilizing the strong coupling with the fluid domain and using direct acoustic pressure feedback. The interaction between the neighboring cells of the composite metamaterial is modeled using a lumped-parameter approach. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the performance characteristics of the proposed CAAMM and its potential for generating prescribed spatial and spectral patterns of density variation.

  12. High-Frequency Seafloor Acoustics

    Jackson, Darrell R


    High-Frequency Seafloor Acoustics is the first book in a new series sponsored by the Office of Naval Research on the latest research in underwater acoustics. This exciting new title provides ready access to experimental data, theory, and models relevant to high-frequency seafloor acoustics and will be of interest to sonar engineers and researchers working in underwater acoustics. The physical characteristics of the seafloor affecting acoustic propagation and scattering are covered, including physical and geoacoustic properties and surface roughness. Current theories for acoustic propagation in sediments are presented along with corresponding models for reflection, scattering, and seafloor penetration. The main text is backed up by an extensive bibliography and technical appendices.

  13. Latest Trends in Acoustic Sensing

    Cinzia Caliendo


    Full Text Available Acoustics-based methods offer a powerful tool for sensing applications. Acoustic sensors can be applied in many fields ranging from materials characterization, structural health monitoring, acoustic imaging, defect characterization, etc., to name just a few. A proper selection of the acoustic wave frequency over a wide spectrum that extends from infrasound (<20 Hz up to ultrasound (in the GHz–band, together with a number of different propagating modes, including bulk longitudinal and shear waves, surface waves, plate modes, etc., allow acoustic tools to be successfully applied to the characterization of gaseous, solid and liquid environments. The purpose of this special issue is to provide an overview of the research trends in acoustic wave sensing through some cases that are representative of specific applications in different sensing fields.

  14. Fundamentals of Shallow Water Acoustics

    Katsnelson, Boris; Lynch, James


    Shallow water acoustics (SWA), the study of how low and medium frequency sound propagates and scatters on the continental shelves of the world's oceans, has both technical interest and a large number of practical applications. Technically, shallow water poses an interesting medium for the study of acoustic scattering, inverse theory, and propagation physics in a complicated oceanic waveguide. Practically, shallow water acoustics has interest for geophysical exploration, marine mammal studies, and naval applications. Additionally, one notes the very interdisciplinary nature of shallow water acoustics, including acoustical physics, physical oceanography, marine geology, and marine biology. In this specialized volume, the authors, all of whom have extensive at-sea experience in U.S. and Russian research efforts, have tried to summarize the main experimental, theoretical, and computational results in shallow water acoustics, with an emphasis on providing physical insight into the topics presented.

  15. GOATS 2011 Adaptive and Collaborative Exploitation of 3-Dimensional Environmental Acoustics in Distributed Undersea Networks


    concept of a network of AUVs as an array of Virtual Sensors, based on fully integrated sensing, modeling and control , reducing the inter- platform...integrating high-fidelity acoustic modeling , platform dynamics and network communication and control . In regard to the environmental acoustic modeling ...static, passive and active sonar configurations for concurrent detection, classification and localization of subsea and bottom objects


    程恩; 余丽敏; 林耿超


    This paper describes the design of modulation, compression coding and transmissi on control in underwater acoustic color image transmission system. This design adap ts a special system of modulation and transmission control based on a DSP(Digital Signal Processing) chip, to cope with the complex underwater acoustic channel. The hardware block diagram and software flow chart are presented.


    程恩; 余丽敏; 林耿超


    This paper describes the design of modulation, compression coding and transmission control in underwater acoustic color image transmission system. This design adapts a special system of modulation and transmission control based on a DSP(Digital Signal Processing) chip, to cope with the complex underwater acoustic channel. The hardware block diagram and software flow chart are presented.

  18. Spacecraft Internal Acoustic Environment Modeling

    Chu, S. Reynold; Allen, Chris


    The objective of the project is to develop an acoustic modeling capability, based on commercial off-the-shelf software, to be used as a tool for oversight of the future manned Constellation vehicles. The use of such a model will help ensure compliance with acoustic requirements. Also, this project includes modeling validation and development feedback via building physical mockups and conducting acoustic measurements to compare with the predictions.

  19. Acoustic streaming with heat exchange

    Gubaidullin, A. A.; Pyatkova, A. V.


    Acoustic streaming in a cylindrical cavity with heat exchange is numerically investigated. The cavity is filled with air. The boundaries of the cavity are maintained at constant temperature. The features of acoustic streaming manifesting with the decrease in the frequency of vibration in comparison with the resonant frequency are determined. The influence of the nonlinearity of process on acoustic streaming is shown. The nonlinearity is caused by the increase of the vibration amplitude.

  20. Application of Microporous Fiber Composite Acoustic Board in the Noise Control Engineering of Urban Substations%微孔纤维复合吸声板在城市变电站降噪中的应用

    田一; 陈建胜; 刘主光; 卢卫疆; 陈新; 韩钰


    Due to the mismatch of noise reduction performance and the frequency feature of substation noise, the poor weather resistance and durability, most substation noise reduction material cannot limit the noise emission for a long time. Microporous fiber composite acoustic board, developed by the State Grid Corporation, conquers the shortcomings of traditional material. It consists of Aluminum fiber board and micro-perforated panel, with the sound absorption feature of large low-frequency absorption coefficient, good absorbing ability for wide frequency, environmental friendly performance and good weather resistance and durability. Microporous fiber composite acoustic board has been made into sound-absorbing wall, muffler, sound barrier and sound insulation cover and applied to the noise control engineering of substations, which makes the noise level of station boundary reach the GB12348—2008 Emission Standard for Industrial Enterprise Noise at Boundary. It has great potential in the area of noise control for urban substations.%现有的大多数变电站降噪材料,因降噪特性与变电站噪声频谱特征不匹配,以及耐候、耐久性不达标,很难长久限制噪声排放水平。由国网公司研发的新型吸声材料——微孔纤维复合吸声板克服了以上缺陷,该吸声板由铝纤维板和微穿孔板复合而成,具备“低频高效、宽频有效”的吸声特性,而且绿色环保、耐候耐久。微孔纤维复合吸声板加工而成的吸声壁面、消声器、声屏障和隔声罩已在多座变电站降噪工程中投入使用,将站界噪声控制在GB 12348—2008《工业企业厂界环境噪声排放标准》的限值要求之下,在城区变电站降噪领域中显示出广阔的应用前景。

  1. Broadband and stable acoustic vortex emitter with multi-arm coiling slits

    Jiang, Xue


    We present the analytical design and experimental realization of a scheme based on multi-arm coiling slits to generate the stable acoustic vortices in a broadband. The proposed structure is able to spiral the acoustic wave spatially and generate the twisted acoustic vortices with invariant topological charge for a long propagation distance. Compared with conventional methods which require the electronic control of a bulky loudspeaker, this scheme provides an effective and compact solution to generate acoustic vortices with controllable topological charge in the broadband, which offers more initiatives in the demanding applications.

  2. Acoustical experiment of yogurt fermentation process.

    Ogasawara, H; Mizutani, K; Ohbuchi, T; Nakamura, T


    One of the important factors through food manufacturing is hygienic management. Thus, food manufactures prove their hygienic activities by taking certifications like a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP). This concept also applies to food monitoring. Acoustical measurements have advantage for other measurement in food monitoring because they make it possible to measure with noncontact and nondestructive. We tried to monitor lactic fermentation of yogurt by a probing sensor using a pair of acoustic transducers. Temperature of the solution changes by the reaction heat of fermentation. Consequently the sound velocity propagated through the solution also changes depending on the temperature. At the same time, the solution change its phase from liquid to gel. The transducers usage in the solution indicates the change of the temperature as the change of the phase difference between two transducers. The acoustic method has advantages of nondestructive measurement that reduces contamination of food product by measuring instrument. The sensor was inserted into milk with lactic acid bacterial stain of 19 degrees C and monitored phase retardation of propagated acoustic wave and its temperature with thermocouples in the mild. The monitoring result of fermentation from milk to Caspian Sea yogurt by the acoustic transducers with the frequency of 3.7 MHz started to show gradient change in temperature caused by reaction heat of fermentation but stop the gradient change at the end although the temperature still change. The gradient change stopped its change because of phase change from liquid to gel. The present method will be able to measure indirectly by setting transducers outside of the measuring object. This noncontact sensing method will have great advantage of reduces risk of food contamination from measuring instrument because the measurement probes are set out of fermentation reactor or food containers. Our proposed method will contribute to the

  3. Combined Environment Acoustic Chamber (CEAC)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The CEAC imposes combined acoustic, thermal and mechanical loads on aerospace structures. The CEAC is employed to measure structural response and determine...

  4. Acoustic Communications Measurement Systems (ACOMMS)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Design and develop adaptive signal processing techniques to improve underwater acoustic communications and networking. Phase coherent and incoherent signal...

  5. Acoustic transparency and slow sound using detuned acoustic resonators

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.


    We demonstrate that the phenomenon of acoustic transparency and slowsound propagation can be realized with detuned acoustic resonators (DAR), mimicking thereby the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in atomic physics. Sound propagation in a pipe with a series of side...

  6. The Identification of Nanoscale Structures According to a Parameters of Acoustic Structuroscopy Method

    Ababkov, N. V.; Smirnov, A. N.; Bykova, N. V.


    The fracture surface of a destroyed steam turbine rotor is studied by acoustic structuroscopy method. The structural-phase state of the metal of the destroyed rotor of a steam turbine is studied using the methods of electron microscopy. It was established that in the areas of control, where the values of the acoustic characteristics have significant differences from the rest of the metal, detected nanocrystalline structure. The possibility of determining the structure of the nanoscale metal by acoustic structuroscopy is shown.

  7. Acoustic Mechanical Feedthroughs

    Sherrit, Stewart; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea


    Electromagnetic motors can have problems when operating in extreme environments. In addition, if one needs to do mechanical work outside a structure, electrical feedthroughs are required to transport the electric power to drive the motor. In this paper, we present designs for driving rotary and linear motors by pumping stress waves across a structure or barrier. We accomplish this by designing a piezoelectric actuator on one side of the structure and a resonance structure that is matched to the piezoelectric resonance of the actuator on the other side. Typically, piezoelectric motors can be designed with high torques and lower speeds without the need for gears. One can also use other actuation materials such as electrostrictive, or magnetostrictive materials in a benign environment and transmit the power in acoustic form as a stress wave and actuate mechanisms that are external to the benign environment. This technology removes the need to perforate a structure and allows work to be done directly on the other side of a structure without the use of electrical feedthroughs, which can weaken the structure, pipe, or vessel. Acoustic energy is pumped as a stress wave at a set frequency or range of frequencies to produce rotary or linear motion in a structure. This method of transferring useful mechanical work across solid barriers by pumping acoustic energy through a resonant structure features the ability to transfer work (rotary or linear motion) across pressure or thermal barriers, or in a sterile environment, without generating contaminants. Reflectors in the wall of barriers can be designed to enhance the efficiency of the energy/power transmission. The method features the ability to produce a bi-directional driving mechanism using higher-mode resonances. There are a variety of applications where the presence of a motor is complicated by thermal or chemical environments that would be hostile to the motor components and reduce life and, in some instances, not be

  8. Taming Acoustic Cavitation

    Rivas, David Fernandez; Enriquez, Oscar R; Versluis, Michel; Prosperetti, Andrea; Gardeniers, Han; Lohse, Detlef


    In this fluid dynamics video we show acoustic cavitation occurring from pits etched on a silicon surface. By immersing the surface in a liquid, gas pockets are entrapped in the pits which upon ultrasonic insonation, are observed to shed cavitation bubbles. Modulating the driving pressure it is possible to induce different behaviours based on the force balance that determines the interaction among bubbles and the silicon surface. This system can be used for several applications like sonochemical water treatment, cleaning of surfaces with deposited materials such as biofilms.

  9. Wind turbine acoustics

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.


    Available information on the physical characteristics of the noise generated by wind turbines is summarized, with example sound pressure time histories, narrow- and broadband frequency spectra, and noise radiation patterns. Reviewed are noise measurement standards, analysis technology, and a method of characterizing wind turbine noise. Prediction methods are given for both low-frequency rotational harmonics and broadband noise components. Also included are atmospheric propagation data showing the effects of distance and refraction by wind shear. Human perception thresholds, based on laboratory and field tests, are given. Building vibration analysis methods are summarized. The bibliography of this report lists technical publications on all aspects of wind turbine acoustics.

  10. A study on the media access control protocol for distributed multi-hop underwater acoustic network%分布式多跳水声通信网络的媒质控制协议研究

    李霞; 杨文; 苏阳


    Underwater Acoustic Network(UAN)technology has become attractive to the researchers in the field of underwater acoustic communication in recent years[1~4].One of the key technologies is the design of media access control(MAC)protocol.The focus of this paper is to design an energy and throughput efficient MAC protocol for multi-hop and long range acoustic sensor networks.A multi-hop T-Lohi protocol (MT-Lohi)is designed,which extends the T-Lohi protocol from single-hop networks to multi-hop networks by introducing dynamic contention round,pseudo tone,priority-based contention,new contenders counting mechanism.In order to gain a balance between good channel utilization and low probability of packet loss,the length of the duration of contention round is modified also.Simulation under OPNET platform is carried out to evaluate the performance in throughput,packet loss rate and fairness,and to verify the effectiveness of dynamic contention round.%水声通信网络由于可以弥补传统海洋探测技术的不足,在海洋信息采集、环境监测、灾难预报、辅助导航、水声反潜等民用、军事领域有诸多重要应用.因此,组网技术也成为近年来水声通信领域的研究热点之一.其中数据链路层的媒质控制协议关系到信道资源的有效分配及网络性能.结合能量及网络吞吐量效率因素,本文设计了一种用于分布式远距离多跳水声通信网络的媒质控制协议协议.已有的的新性能的水声调制解调器并没有开发相应的低功耗网络媒质控制协议.有人提出了一类分布式能量有效的竞争媒质控制协议,称为Tone-Lohi (T-Lohi)协议,该协议采用了信道预约机制,共有三个类型:时间同步的T-Lohi协议、保守非时间同步T-Lohi协议及主动非时间同步T-Lohi协议.本文在分析该类协议的基础上讨论了分布式多跳水声通信网络的竞争型媒质控制协议.设计了多跳式的T-Lohi协议,通过采用动态竞争回

  11. Acoustic Ground-Impedance Meter

    Zuckerwar, A. J.


    Helmoltz resonator used in compact, portable meter measures acoustic impedance of ground or other surfaces. Earth's surface is subject of increasing acoustical investigations because of its importance in aircraft noise prediction and measurment. Meter offers several advantages. Is compact and portable and set up at any test site, irrespective of landscape features, weather or other environmental condition.

  12. Propagation of Ion Acoustic Perturbations

    Pécseli, Hans


    Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered.......Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered....

  13. Acoustic Center or Time Origin?

    Staffeldt, Henrik


    The paper discusses the acoustic center in relation to measurements of loudspeaker polar data. Also, it presents the related concept time origin and discusses the deviation that appears between positions of the acoustic center found by wavefront based and time based measuring methods....

  14. Acoustic Absorption in Porous Materials

    Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Johnston, James C.


    An understanding of both the areas of materials science and acoustics is necessary to successfully develop materials for acoustic absorption applications. This paper presents the basic knowledge and approaches for determining the acoustic performance of porous materials in a manner that will help materials researchers new to this area gain the understanding and skills necessary to make meaningful contributions to this field of study. Beginning with the basics and making as few assumptions as possible, this paper reviews relevant topics in the acoustic performance of porous materials, which are often used to make acoustic bulk absorbers, moving from the physics of sound wave interactions with porous materials to measurement techniques for flow resistivity, characteristic impedance, and wavenumber.

  15. Acoustics and Hearing

    Damaske, Peter


    When one listens to music at home, one would like to have an acoustic impression close to that of being in the concert hall. Until recently this meant elaborate multi-channelled sound systems with 5 or more speakers. But head-related stereophony achieves the surround-sound effect in living rooms with only two loudspeakers. By virtue of their slight directivity as well as an electronic filter the limitations previously common to two-speaker systems can be overcome and this holds for any arbitrary two-channel recording. The book also investigates the question of how a wide and diffuse sound image can arise in concert halls and shows that the quality of concert halls decisively depends on diffuse sound images arising in the onset of reverberation. For this purpose a strong onset of reverberation is modified in an anechoic chamber by electroacoustic means. Acoustics and Hearing proposes ideas concerning signal processing in the auditory system that explain the measured results and the resultant sound effects plea...

  16. MEMS Based Acoustic Array

    Sheplak, Mark (Inventor); Nishida, Toshikaza (Inventor); Humphreys, William M. (Inventor); Arnold, David P. (Inventor)


    Embodiments of the present invention described and shown in the specification aid drawings include a combination responsive to an acoustic wave that can be utilized as a dynamic pressure sensor. In one embodiment of the present invention, the combination has a substrate having a first surface and an opposite second surface, a microphone positioned on the first surface of the substrate and having an input and a first output and a second output, wherein the input receives a biased voltage, and the microphone generates an output signal responsive to the acoustic wave between the first output and the second output. The combination further has an amplifier positioned on the first surface of the substrate and having a first input and a second input and an output, wherein the first input of the amplifier is electrically coupled to the first output of the microphone and the second input of the amplifier is electrically coupled to the second output of the microphone for receiving the output sinual from the microphone. The amplifier is spaced from the microphone with a separation smaller than 0.5 mm.

  17. Acoustic data transmission method

    Duckworth, A.


    This patent describes a method for transmitting time line data through a drillstring having drill pipe sections connected end-to-end by joints from a first location below the surface of the earth to a second location at or near the surface of the earth, the length and cross-sectional area of the drill pipe sections being different from the length and cross-sectional area of the joints. It comprises generating acoustic data signals having a single frequency content in at least one passband of the drillstring; transmitting the data signals through the drillstring from either the first location to the second location or from the second location to the first location during a time period prior to the onset of reflective interference caused by the data signals reflecting from along the length of the drillstring, the time period being equal to or less than the time for the data signals to travel three lengths of the drillstring; stopping the transmission of data signals at the onset of the reflective interference and allowing the acoustic signals to substantially attenuate; and detecting the data signals at the respective first or second location.

  18. Clear Speech Variants: An Acoustic Study in Parkinson's Disease

    Lam, Jennifer; Tjaden, Kris


    Purpose: The authors investigated how different variants of clear speech affect segmental and suprasegmental acoustic measures of speech in speakers with Parkinson's disease and a healthy control group. Method: A total of 14 participants with Parkinson's disease and 14 control participants served as speakers. Each speaker produced 18 different…

  19. A Comparative Study of Two Acoustic Measures of Hypernasality

    Vogel, Adam P.; Ibrahim, Hasherah M.; Reilly, Sheena; Kilpatrick, Nicky


    Purpose: This study aimed to compare 2 quantitative acoustic measures of nasality in children with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and healthy controls using formalized perceptual assessment as a guide. Method: Fifty participants (23 children with CLP and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls) aged between 4 and 12 years produced a variety of…

  20. Acoustic properties of biodegradable nonwovens

    Yilmaz, Nazire Deniz

    The purpose of this study is to provide a better understanding of acoustical properties of nonwovens, and to model the noise control behavior in terms of material and treatment parameters. A review of existing models on sound absorption of fibrous materials, coupled with experimental data will help in modeling sound absorption in multi-layer needle-punched nonwoven fabrics of different fibers: hemp, polylactide, polypropylene, and glassfiber. The effects of several treatments, which the materials may undergo during sound absorber manufacturing, namely alkalization, compression and heat treatments are investigated. The collected data is evaluated by experts. Expert evaluation further provides information about market demands for sound absorbers, and the perception of the designed nonwovens through the eyes of professionals. This research provides a contribution to the body of knowledge on the sound absorption properties of nonwovens, and provides a better understanding of the effects of some manufacturing processes on nonwovens' noise control performance and contributes to the wider adoption of nonwovens as sound absorbers.

  1. Formation of high-order acoustic Bessel beams by spiral diffraction gratings

    Jiménez, Noé; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor; Romero-García, Vicent; García-Raffi, Lluis M; Staliunas, Kestutis


    The formation of high-order Bessel beams by a passive acoustic device consisting of an Archimedes' spiral diffraction grating is theoretically, numerically and experimentally reported in this work. These beams are propagation-invariant solutions of the Helmholtz equation and are characterized by an azimuthal variation of the phase along its annular spectrum producing an acoustic vortex in the near field. In our system, the scattering of plane acoustic waves by the spiral grating leads to the formation of the acoustic vortex with zero pressure on-axis and the angular phase dislocations characterized by the spiral geometry. The order of the generated Bessel beam and, as a consequence, the size of the generated vortex can be fixed by the number of arms in the spiral diffraction grating. The obtained results allow to obtain Bessel beams with controllable vorticity by a passive device, which has potential applications in low-cost acoustic tweezers and acoustic radiation force devices.

  2. Formation of high-order acoustic Bessel beams by spiral diffraction gratings

    Jiménez, Noé; Picó, R.; Sánchez-Morcillo, V.; Romero-García, V.; García-Raffi, L. M.; Staliunas, K.


    The formation of high-order Bessel beams by a passive acoustic device consisting of an Archimedes' spiral diffraction grating is theoretically, numerically, and experimentally reported in this paper. These beams are propagation-invariant solutions of the Helmholtz equation and are characterized by an azimuthal variation of the phase along its annular spectrum producing an acoustic vortex in the near field. In our system, the scattering of plane acoustic waves by the spiral grating leads to the formation of the acoustic vortex with zero pressure on axis and the angular phase dislocations characterized by the spiral geometry. The order of the generated Bessel beam and, as a consequence, the size of the generated vortex can be fixed by the number of arms in the spiral diffraction grating. The obtained results allow for obtaining Bessel beams with controllable vorticity by a passive device, which has potential applications in low-cost acoustic tweezers and acoustic radiation force devices.


    Sergii Filonenko


    Full Text Available Purpose: The technological parameters of composite materials machining and also cutting tool state determine deforming and destruction of their surface layers conditions. Change of this conditions results to appearance of miscellaneous defects, loss of quality and produced items reliability. Therefore, optimization, control, diagnosis and monitoring of composite materials machining technological parameters are directed on obtaining the items given quality. For the solution of these problems tasks carry out researches of technological processes with usage of different methods. One of such methods is the acoustic emission method. Methods: The simulation and analysis of acoustic radiation energy parameters is carried out at change of composite material machining depth for prevailing mechanical destruction its surface layer. Results: We showed that to composite material machining the acoustic radiation energy has continuous nature. The ascending of composite material machining depth results to increase of acoustic emission statistical energy parameters. The regularity of acoustic emission energy parameters change are obtained and described. Is showed, that acoustic radiation most sensing parameter is the acoustic emission signals energy average level dispersion. Discussion: The outcomes researches demonstrate regularity influencing of composite material machining depth on acoustic emission energy parameters. Thus the analysis of acoustic emission signals energy average level dispersion can be used at mining methods of diagnostic, monitoring and control of composite materials machining technological parameters.

  4. Acoustic Signal Feature Extraction of Vehicle Targets

    蓝金辉; 马宝华; 李科杰


    Acoustic signal feature extraction is an important part of target recognition. The mechanisms for producing acoustic signals and their propagation are analyzed to extract the features of the radiated noise from different targets. Analysis of the acoustic spectra of typical vehicle targets acquired outdoors shows that the vehicles can be classified based on the acoustic spectra and amplitudes.

  5. Broadband Acoustic Cloak for Ultrasound Waves

    Zhang, Shu; Fang, Nicholas


    Invisibility devices based on coordinate transformation have opened up a new field of considerable interest. Such a device is proposed to render the hidden object undetectable under the flow of light or sound, by guiding and controlling the wave path through an engineered space surrounding the object. We present here the first practical realization of a low-loss and broadband acoustic cloak for underwater ultrasound. This metamaterial cloak is constructed with a network of acoustic circuit elements, namely serial inductors and shunt capacitors. Our experiment clearly shows that the acoustic cloak can effectively bend the ultrasound waves around the hidden object, with reduced scattering and shadow. Due to the non-resonant nature of the building elements, this low loss (~6dB/m) cylindrical cloak exhibits excellent invisibility over a broad frequency range from 52 to 64 kHz in the measurements. The low visibility of the cloaked object for underwater ultrasound shed a light on the fundamental understanding of ma...

  6. Quantifying acoustic damping using flame chemiluminescence

    Boujo, E.; Denisov, A.; Schuermans, B.; Noiray, N.


    Thermoacoustic instabilities in gas turbines and aeroengine combustors falls within the category of complex systems. They can be described phenomenologically using nonlinear stochastic differential equations, which constitute the grounds for output-only model-based system identification. It has been shown recently that one can extract the governing parameters of the instabilities, namely the linear growth rate and the nonlinear component of the thermoacoustic feedback, using dynamic pressure time series only. This is highly relevant for practical systems, which cannot be actively controlled due to a lack of cost-effective actuators. The thermoacoustic stability is given by the linear growth rate, which results from the combination of the acoustic damping and the coherent feedback from the flame. In this paper, it is shown that it is possible to quantify the acoustic damping of the system, and thus to separate its contribution to the linear growth rate from the one of the flame. This is achieved by post-processing in a simple way simultaneously acquired chemiluminescence and acoustic pressure data. It provides an additional approach to further unravel from observed time series the key mechanisms governing the system dynamics. This straightforward method is illustrated here using experimental data from a combustion chamber operated at several linearly stable and unstable operating conditions.

  7. Acoustics in Halls for Speech and Music

    Gade, Anders C.

    This chapter deals specifically with concepts, tools, and architectural variables of importance when designing auditoria for speech and music. The focus will be on cultivating the useful components of the sound in the room rather than on avoiding noise from outside or from installations, which is dealt with in Chap. 11. The chapter starts by presenting the subjective aspects of the room acoustic experience according to consensus at the time of writing. Then follows a description of their objective counterparts, the objective room acoustic parameters, among which the classical reverberation time measure is only one of many, but still of fundamental value. After explanations on how these parameters can be measured and predicted during the design phase, the remainder of the chapter deals with how the acoustic properties can be controlled by the architectural design of auditoria. This is done by presenting the influence of individual design elements as well as brief descriptions of halls designed for specific purposes, such as drama, opera, and symphonic concerts. Finally, some important aspects of loudspeaker installations in auditoria are briefly touched upon.

  8. Acoustic Variations in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia as a Function of Speech Task.

    Sapienza, Christine M.; Walton, Suzanne; Murry, Thomas


    Acoustic phonatory events were identified in 14 women diagnosed with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD), a focal laryngeal dystonia that disturbs phonatory function, and compared with those of 14 age-matched women with no vocal dysfunction. Findings indicated ADSD subjects produced more aberrant acoustic events than controls during tasks of…

  9. Diagnostic System of Wireless Acoustic Emission Signal Transfer for Monitoring Oil-and-Gas Facilities

    Skalsky, V.R.


    Full Text Available The structure of diagnostic 8-channel system for wireless transfer of acoustic emission information during monitoring the objects of long operation is revealed. The results of the development of algorithmic software for hardware system and personal computer, which performs system control and post-processing of acoustic emission information. are presented. The basic specifications of the system are described.

  10. Acoustic classification of dwellings

    Berardi, Umberto; Rasmussen, Birgit


    Schemes for the classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particular, focusing on soun...... exchanging experiences about constructions fulfilling different classes, reducing trade barriers, and finally increasing the sound insulation of dwellings.......Schemes for the classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particular, focusing on sound...... insulation performance, national schemes for sound classification of dwellings have been developed in several European countries. These schemes define acoustic classes according to different levels of sound insulation. Due to the lack of coordination among countries, a significant diversity in terms...

  11. Acoustic cavitation movies

    Crum, Lawrence A.


    Acoustic cavitation is a phenomenon that occurs on microsecond time scales and micron length scales, yet, it has many macroscopic manifestations. Accordingly, it is often difficult, at least for the author, to form realistic physical descriptions of the specific mechanisms through which it expresses itself in our macroscopic world. For example, there are still many who believe that cavitation erosion is due to the shock wave that is emitted by bubble implosion, rather than the liquid jet created on asymmetric collapse...and they may be right. Over the years, the author has accumulated a number of movies and high-speed photographs of cavitation activity, which he uses to form his own visual references. In the time allotted, he will show a number of these movies and photographs and discuss their relevance to existing technological problems. A limited number of CDs containing the presented materials will be available to interested individuals. [Work supported in part by the NIH, USAMRMC, and the ONR.

  12. Acoustic/Magnetic Stress Sensor

    Heyman, J. S.; Namkung, M.


    High-resolution sensor fast, portable, does not require permanent bonding to structure. Sensor measures nondestructively type (compressive or tensile) and magnitude of stresses and stress gradients present in class of materials. Includes precise high-resolution acoustic interferometer, sending acoustic transducer, receiving acoustic transducer, electromagnet coil and core, power supply, and magnetic-field-measuring device such as Hall probe. This measurement especially important for construction and applications where steel is widely used. Sensor useful especially for nondestructive evaluation of stress in steel members because of portability, rapid testing, and nonpermanent installation.

  13. Acoustics of friction.

    Akay, Adnan


    This article presents an overview of the acoustics of friction by covering friction sounds, friction-induced vibrations and waves in solids, and descriptions of other frictional phenomena related to acoustics. Friction, resulting from the sliding contact of solids, often gives rise to diverse forms of waves and oscillations within solids which frequently lead to radiation of sound to the surrounding media. Among the many everyday examples of friction sounds, violin music and brake noise in automobiles represent the two extremes in terms of the sounds they produce and the mechanisms by which they are generated. Of the multiple examples of friction sounds in nature, insect sounds are prominent. Friction also provides a means by which energy dissipation takes place at the interface of solids. Friction damping that develops between surfaces, such as joints and connections, in some cases requires only microscopic motion to dissipate energy. Modeling of friction-induced vibrations and friction damping in mechanical systems requires an accurate description of friction for which only approximations exist. While many of the components that contribute to friction can be modeled, computational requirements become prohibitive for their contemporaneous calculation. Furthermore, quantification of friction at the atomic scale still remains elusive. At the atomic scale, friction becomes a mechanism that converts the kinetic energy associated with the relative motion of surfaces to thermal energy. However, the description of the conversion to thermal energy represented by a disordered state of oscillations of atoms in a solid is still not well understood. At the macroscopic level, friction interacts with the vibrations and waves that it causes. Such interaction sets up a feedback between the friction force and waves at the surfaces, thereby making friction and surface motion interdependent. Such interdependence forms the basis for friction-induced motion as in the case of

  14. 基于功率控制的水下声学传感器网络部署%The Study of Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networking Deployment Based on Power Control

    钟德欢; 曾斌; 姚路


    As we know, deployment of Underwater acoustic Sensor Networking (USN) is very important, however, most of researches of deployment optimization for sensor network focus on two-dimensional space at the present time. In order to solve this problem, especially the asymmetric deployment for USN, a sensor sensing model is proposed to optimize the network resource and prolong the network's life time. Based on body-centered cubic lattice, the asymmetric deployment model for USN is proposed by improving the connection between sensing power and sensing radial. The simulation results show that the model can control the density of the sensor and balance the energy of different area effectively. Furthermore, the conclusion can be drawn that the asymmetric deployment model can prolong the network's life time remarkable compared to uniform deployment networking.%目前对在传感器网络部署优化的研究中,主要集中在二维传感器部署优化的研究上,对水下三维传感器网络的部署研究特别是以优化网络资源、延长网络寿命为目的水下传感器网络非均匀部署的研究较少.改进了现有传感器探测模型,建立探测功率与传感半径的关系,结合体心立方格覆盖方案,建立了水下传感器网络非均匀部署模型,仿真实验表明,非均匀部署模型有效地控制了节点部署密度,平衡了网络能量,相对于均匀部署模型显著提高了网络寿命.

  15. Development of an acoustic actuator for launch vehicle noise reduction.

    Henderson, Benjamin K; Lane, Steven A; Gussy, Joel; Griffin, Steve; Farinholt, Kevin M


    In many active noise control applications, it is necessary that acoustic actuators be mounted in small enclosures due to volume constraints and in order to remain unobtrusive. However, the air spring of the enclosure is detrimental to the low-frequency performance of the actuator. For launch vehicle noise control applications, mass and volume constraints are very limiting, but the low-frequency performance of the actuator is critical. This work presents a novel approach that uses a nonlinear buckling suspension system and partial evacuation of the air within the enclosure to yield a compact, sealed acoustic driver that exhibits a very low natural frequency. Linear models of the device are presented and numerical simulations are given to illustrate the advantages of this design concept. An experimental prototype was built and measurements indicate that this design can significantly improve the low-frequency response of compact acoustic actuators.

  16. Combination of acoustical radiosity and the image source method

    Koutsouris, Georgios I; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho;


    A combined model for room acoustic predictions is developed, aiming to treat both diffuse and specular reflections in a unified way. Two established methods are incorporated: acoustical radiosity, accounting for the diffuse part, and the image source method, accounting for the specular part....... The model is based on conservation of acoustical energy. Losses are taken into account by the energy absorption coefficient, and the diffuse reflections are controlled via the scattering coefficient, which defines the portion of energy that has been diffusely reflected. The way the model is formulated...... allows for a dynamic control of the image source production, so that no fixed maximum reflection order is required. The model is optimized for energy impulse response predictions in arbitrary polyhedral rooms. The predictions are validated by comparison with published measured data for a real music...

  17. Active Cancellation of Acoustical Resonances with an FPGA FIR Filter

    Ryou, Albert


    We present a novel approach to enhancing the bandwidth of a feedback-controlled mechanical system by digitally canceling acoustical resonances (poles) and anti-resonances (zeros) in the open-loop response via an FPGA FIR filter. By performing a real-time convolution of the feedback error signal with an inverse filter, we can suppress arbitrarily many poles and zeros below 100 kHz, each with a linewidth down to 10 Hz. We demonstrate the efficacy of this technique by canceling the ten largest mechanical resonances and anti-resonances of a high-finesse optical resonator, thereby enhancing the unity gain frequency by more than an order of magnitude. This approach is applicable to a broad array of stabilization problems including optical resonators, external cavity diode lasers, and scanning tunneling microscopes, and points the way to applying modern optimal control techniques to intricate linear acoustical to intricate linear acoustical systems.


    LI Weibing; CHEN Jian; YU Fei; CHEN Xinzhao


    In the semi-free acoustic field, the actual acoustic pressure at any point is composed of two parts: The direct acoustic pressure and the reflected acoustic pressure. The general acoustic holographic theories and algorithms request that there is only the direct acoustic pressure contained in the pressure at any point on the hologram surface, consequently, they cannot be used to reconstruct acoustic source and predict acoustic field directly. To take the reflected pressure into consideration, near-field acoustic holography for semi-free acoustic field based on wave superposition approach is proposed to realize the holographic reconstruction and prediction of the semi-free acoustic field, and the wave superposition approach is adopted as a holographic transform algorithm. The proposed theory and algorithm are realized and verified with a numerical example,and the drawbacks of the general theories and algorithms in the holographic reconstruction and prediction of the semi-free acoustic field are also demonstrated by this numerical example.

  19. Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility (RATF)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The very large Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility (RATF) at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), Plum Brook Station, is currently under construction and is due to...

  20. Frequency Steered Acoustic Transducer Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is to develop, fabricate, and characterize a novel frequency steered acoustic transducer (FSAT) for the...

  1. Cryogenic Acoustic Suppression Testing Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project will explore and test the feasibility and effectiveness of using a cryogenic fluid (liquid nitrogen) to facilitate acoustic suppression in a...


    Yang Ruiliang; Wang Hongzhen


    It is shown that the basis of the ellipsoidal acoustic infinite element Burnett method,the multipole expansion,cannot represent real ellipsoidal acoustic field exactly.To solve the problem,a weight of angular direction is added to the multipole expansion.The comparison of the modified method and the prime method shows that the modified method can describe and solve the ellipsoidal acoustic field more accurately than ever.A dilating sphere is used to test the new method further.Unlike other infinite element methods,varied ratio of the ellipsoidal artificial boundary instead of sphere is used.The pressure value of the artificial boundary is utilized as the initial value of the new method.Then the radiating phenomena of the ellipsoidal acoustic field can be researched using the new method.These examples show the feasibility of the adaptive method.

  3. Frequency Steered Acoustic Transducer Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase II project is to fabricate, characterize, and verify performance of a new type of frequency steered acoustic transducer...

  4. Acoustically-driven microfluidic systems

    Wang, A W; Benett, W J; Tarte, L R


    We have demonstrated a non-contact method of concentrating and mixing particles in a plastic microfluidic chamber employing acoustic radiation pressure. A flaw cell package has also been designed that integrates liquid sample interconnects, electrical contacts and a removable sample chamber. Experiments were performed on 1, 3, 6, and 10 {micro}m polystyrene beads. Increased antibody binding to a solid-phase substrate was observed in the presence of acoustic mixing due to improve mass transport.

  5. Biological Effects of Acoustic Cavitation


    rectified diffusion. 56 III. STABLE CAVITATION A. Introduction There are manv areas associated with the biological effects of ultrasound in which the...used said as cavitation indicators. Further, if clinical ultrasound systems are found to be inducing cavitation , either stable or transient, it will...O BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ACOUSTIC CAVITATION by Lawrence A. Crum -- Physical Acoustics Research Laboratory Department of Physics and Astronomy ’ CTE

  6. Acoustic Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    Baccus, Shelley


    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) are designed to be the same external volume as a regular cargo transfer bag, the common logistics carrier for the International Space Station. After use as a cargo bag, the MCTB can be unzipped and unfolded to be reused. This Acoustic MCTBs transform into acoustic blankets after the initial logistics carrying objective is complete.

  7. Acoustic Rectification in Dispersive Media

    Cantrell, John H.


    It is shown that the shapes of acoustic radiation-induced static strain and displacement pulses (rectified acoustic pulses) are defined locally by the energy density of the generating waveform. Dispersive properties are introduced analytically by assuming that the rectified pulses are functionally dependent on a phase factor that includes both dispersive and nonlinear terms. The dispersion causes an evolutionary change in the shape of the energy density profile that leads to the generation of solitons experimentally observed in fused silica.

  8. Study Acoustic Emissions from Composites

    Walker, James; Workman,Gary


    The purpose of this work will be to develop techniques for monitoring the acoustic emissions from carbon epoxy composite structures at cryogenic temperatures. Performance of transducers at temperatures ranging from ambient to cryogenic and the characteristics of acoustic emission from composite structures will be studied and documented. This entire effort is directed towards characterization of structures used in NASA propulsion programs such as the X-33.


    Bi Chuanxing; Chen Xinzhao; Zhou Rong; Chen Jian


    The distributed source boundary point method (DSBPM) is used as the spatial transform algorithm for realizing nearfield acoustic holography (NAH), the sensitivity of the reconstructed solution to the measurement errors is analyzed, and the regularization method is proposed to stabilize the reconstruction process, control the influence of the measurement errors and get a better approximate solution. An oscillating sphere is investigated as a numerical example, the influence of the measurement errors on the reconstruction solution is demonstrated, and the feasibility and validity of the regularization method are validated.

  10. Acoustic imaging for temperature distribution reconstruction

    Jia, Ruixi; Xiong, Qingyu; Liang, Shan


    For several industrial processes, such as burning and drying, temperature distribution is important because it can reflect the internal running state of industrial equipment and assist to develop control strategy and ensure safety in operation of industrial equipment. The principle of this technique is mainly based on the relationship between acoustic velocity and temperature. In this paper, an algorithm for temperature distribution reconstruction is considered. Compared with reconstruction results of simulation experiments with the least square algorithm and the proposed one, the latter indicates a better information reflection of temperature distribution and relatively higher reconstruction accuracy.

  11. Acoustic imaging for temperature distribution reconstruction

    Ruixi Jia


    Full Text Available For several industrial processes, such as burning and drying, temperature distribution is important because it can reflect the internal running state of industrial equipment and assist to develop control strategy and ensure safety in operation of industrial equipment. The principle of this technique is mainly based on the relationship between acoustic velocity and temperature. In this paper, an algorithm for temperature distribution reconstruction is considered. Compared with reconstruction results of simulation experiments with the least square algorithm and the proposed one, the latter indicates a better information reflection of temperature distribution and relatively higher reconstruction accuracy.

  12. Surface acoustic wave propagation in graphene film

    Roshchupkin, Dmitry, E-mail:; Plotitcyna, Olga; Matveev, Viktor; Kononenko, Oleg; Emelin, Evgenii; Irzhak, Dmitry [Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High-Purity Materials Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka 142432 (Russian Federation); Ortega, Luc [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS, UMR 8502, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Zizak, Ivo; Erko, Alexei [Institute for Nanometre Optics and Technology, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Tynyshtykbayev, Kurbangali; Insepov, Zinetula [Nazarbayev University Research and Innovation System, 53 Kabanbay Batyr St., Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan)


    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in a graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. Talbot effect enabled the visualization of the SAW propagation on the crystal surface with the graphene film in a real time mode, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction permitted the determination of the SAW amplitude in the graphene/piezoelectric crystal system. The influence of the SAW on the electrical properties of the graphene film was examined. It was shown that the changing of the SAW amplitude enables controlling the magnitude and direction of current in graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals.

  13. Radiation directivity rotation by acoustic metamaterials

    Jiang, Xue; Liang, Bin, E-mail:, E-mail:; Zou, Xin-ye; Cheng, Jian-chun, E-mail:, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Department of Physics, Institute of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Likun [Department of Physics and Center for Nonlinear Dynamics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)


    We use a metamaterial-based scheme to rotate the radiation directivity of sound radiated by a source surrounded by the structure. The rotation is demonstrated through both numerical simulations and experiments. The performance persists within a broadband and is entirely independent of the location and pattern of source inside, suggesting great potential in various practical scenarios where both the signal frequency and source position may vary significantly. We have also investigated the possibility to realize versatile controls of radiation direction by tailoring the structural parameters. Our design with special directivity-steering capability may open route to loudspeaker and auditorium acoustics designs and medical ultrasound applications.

  14. The Overtone Fiddle: an Actuated Acoustic Instrument

    Overholt, Daniel


    The Overtone Fiddle is a new violin-family instrument that incorporates electronic sensors, integrated DSP, and physical actuation of the acoustic body. An embedded tactile sound transducer creates extra vibrations in the body of the Overtone Fiddle, allowing performer control and sensation via b...... vibrations from the full body of the instrument. This focused sensing approach allows less restrained use of DSP-generated feedback signals, as there is very little direct leakage from the actuator embedded in the body of the instrument back to the pickup....

  15. Covert underwater acoustic communications.

    Ling, Jun; He, Hao; Li, Jian; Roberts, William; Stoica, Petre


    Low probability of detection (LPD) communications are conducted at a low received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to deter eavesdroppers to sense the presence of the transmitted signal. Successful detection at intended receiver heavily relies on the processing gain achieved by employing the direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS) technique. For scenarios that lack a sufficiently low SNR to maintain LPD, another metric, referred to as low probability of interception (LPI), is of interest to protect the privacy of the transmitted information. If covert communications take place in underwater acoustic (UWA) environments, then additional challenges are present. The time-varying nature of the UWA channel prevents the employment of a long spreading waveform. Furthermore, UWA environments are frequency-selective channels with long memory, which imposes challenges to the design of the spreading waveform. In this paper, a covert UWA communication system that adopts the DSSS technique and a coherent RAKE receiver is investigated. Emphasis is placed on the design of a spreading waveform that not only accounts for the transceiver structure and frequency-selective nature of the UWA channel, but also possesses a superior LPI. The proposed techniques are evaluated using both simulated and SPACE'08 in-water experimental data.

  16. Passive Acoustic Vessel Localization

    Suwal, Pasang Sherpa

    This thesis investigates the development of a low-cost passive acoustic system for localizing moving vessels to monitor areas where human activities such as fishing, snorkeling and poaching are restricted. The system uses several off-the-shelf sensors with unsynchronized clocks where the Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) or time delay is extracted by cross-correlation of the signal between paired sensors. The cross-correlation function uses phase correlation or Phase Transform (PHAT) which whitens the cross-spectrum in order to de-emphasize dominant frequency components. Using the locations of pairs of sensors as foci, hyperbolic equations can be defined using the time delay between them. With three or more sensors, multiple hyperbolic functions can be calculated which intersect at a unique point: the boat's location. It is also found that increasing separation distances between sensors decreased the correlation between the signals. However larger separation distances have better localization capability than with small distances. Experimental results from the Columbia and Willamette Rivers are presented to demonstrate performance.

  17. Acoustic Signal Processing

    Hartmann, William M.; Candy, James V.

    Signal processing refers to the acquisition, storage, display, and generation of signals - also to the extraction of information from signals and the re-encoding of information. As such, signal processing in some form is an essential element in the practice of all aspects of acoustics. Signal processing algorithms enable acousticians to separate signals from noise, to perform automatic speech recognition, or to compress information for more efficient storage or transmission. Signal processing concepts are the building blocks used to construct models of speech and hearing. Now, in the 21st century, all signal processing is effectively digital signal processing. Widespread access to high-speed processing, massive memory, and inexpensive software make signal processing procedures of enormous sophistication and power available to anyone who wants to use them. Because advanced signal processing is now accessible to everybody, there is a need for primers that introduce basic mathematical concepts that underlie the digital algorithms. The present handbook chapter is intended to serve such a purpose.

  18. Controlling of Hydrocarbons Expulsion of Source Rock on Buried Hill Hydrocarbon Reservoir in Nanpu Depression by Acoustic Logging Methodology%测井-地化结合法探讨南堡凹陷潜山源控藏作用

    董月霞; 李素梅; 陈安定; 王政军; 张鹏; 陈君


    Industrial petroleum was discovered from Palaeozoic deep horizons in the Nanpu Depression,Bohai Bay Basin,which suggests significant deep petroleum potential in the area.One of the issues in exploration is forecasting favorable place for prospecting in the area.Hydrocarbons expulsion downward from the source rocks immediately overlapped buried hill should be useful in this aspect.Acoustic logging combined with geochemical approaches was utilized in this study to identify hydrocarbons expulsion and evaluate hydrocarbon potential.Af-ter a detailed correlative acoustic logging and geochemical study,a combined hydrocarbons expulsion model of the source rocks in the Nanpu Depression was established,which was used to investigate hydrocarbons expulsion of the source rocks from 33 wells in the Nanpu Depression.The results suggest that the average depths of the source rocks with the hydrocarbons expelled downward into the burial hill in the No.2 and 3 Tectonic Belts are about 248 m and 358 m,respectively,and only 35 m for the No.1 Tectonic Belt.No obvious hydrocarbons ex-pulsion into burial hill was observed in the No.4 and 5 Tectonic Belts in the depression.This result coincides with the hydrocarbons discovered up to now in the burial hills.We suggest that these factors including contact style between the source rock and the burial hill,the position of the hydrocarbon kitchen,the thermal maturity of the source rocks,the volcanic rock acting as barrier bed and faults developed,have a controlling of the amounts and characteristics of the hydrocarbons expelled by the source rocks and charged into the burial hill in the Nanpu Depression.A comprehensive study of hydrocarbons expulsion,migration and accumulation indicate that the No.2 and 3 Tectonic Belts and next the No.1 Tectonic Belt are prospective areas with burial hill hydro-carbons reservoir developed.This study also indicated that acoustic logging could be an important tool identif-ying hydrocarbons expulsion and would

  19. Focusing of Acoustic Waves through Acoustic Materials with Subwavelength Structures

    Xiao, Bingmu


    In this thesis, wave propagation through acoustic materials with subwavelength slits structures is studied. Guided by the findings, acoustic wave focusing is achieved with a specific material design. By using a parameter retrieving method, an effective medium theory for a slab with periodic subwavelength cut-through slits is successfully derived. The theory is based on eigenfunction solutions to the acoustic wave equation. Numerical simulations are implemented by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for the two-dimensional acoustic wave equation. The theory provides the effective impedance and refractive index functions for the equivalent medium, which can reproduce the transmission and reflection spectral responses of the original structure. I analytically and numerically investigate both the validity and limitations of the theory, and the influences of material and geometry on the effective spectral responses are studied. Results show that large contrasts in impedance and density are conditions that validate the effective medium theory, and this approximation displays a better accuracy for a thick slab with narrow slits in it. Based on the effective medium theory developed, a design of a at slab with a snake shaped" subwavelength structure is proposed as a means of achieving acoustic focusing. The property of focusing is demonstrated by FDTD simulations. Good agreement is observed between the proposed structure and the equivalent lens pre- dicted by the theory, which leads to robust broadband focusing by a thin at slab.

  20. Materials for Adaptive Structural Acoustic Controls


    found in ing atoms collapse systematically around ultrasonic motors . Electrooptic materials the small B ions. will become future key components in dis...electromechanical devices (piezoelectric ac- aries by thermal treatment so as to make tuators, ultrasonic motors ) the boundary layer highly-resistive

  1. Acoustic loading effects on oscillating rod bundles

    Lin, W.H.


    An analytical study of the interaction between an infinite acoustic medium and a cluster of circular rods is described. The acoustic field due to oscillating rods and the acoustic loading on the rods are first solved in a closed form. The acoustic loading is then used as a forcing function for rod responses, and the acousto-elastic couplings are solved simultaneously. Numerical examples are presented for several cases to illustrate the effects of various system parameters on the acoustic reaction force coefficients. The effect of the acoustic loading on the coupled eigenfrequencies are discussed.

  2. Modelling of acoustic transmission through perforated layer

    Lukeš V.


    Full Text Available The paper deals with modeling the acoustic transmission through a perforated interface plane separating two halfspaces occupied by the acoustic medium. We considered the two-scale homogenization limit of the standard acoustic problem imposed in the layer with the perforated periodic structure embedded inside. The homogenized transmission conditions govern the interface discontinuity of the acoustic pressure associated with the two halfspaces and the magnitude of the fictitious transversal acoustic velocity. By numerical examples we illustrate this novel approach of modeling the acoustic impedance of perforated interfaces.




    A new recording method for the acoustical detection of intracranial aneurysms is presented. A study examining the capability of the method to discriminate between patients with an aneurysm and control patients by a simple, objective parameter is reported. Sound signals were recorded over the eyes, a

  4. Acoustic Markers of Prosodic Boundaries in Spanish Spontaneous Alaryngeal Speech

    Cuenca, M. H.; Barrio, M. M.


    Prosodic information aids segmentation of the continuous speech signal and thereby facilitates auditory speech processing. Durational and pitch variations are prosodic cues especially necessary to convey prosodic boundaries, but alaryngeal speakers have inconsistent control over acoustic parameters such as F0 and duration, being as a result noisy…

  5. Precessional magnetization switching by a surface acoustic wave

    Thevenard, L.; Camara, I. S.; Majrab, S.; Bernard, M.; Rovillain, P.; Lemaître, A.; Gourdon, C.; Duquesne, J.-Y.


    Precessional switching allows subnanosecond and deterministic reversal of magnetic data bits. It relies on triggering a large-angle, highly nonlinear precession of magnetic moments around a bias field. Here we demonstrate that a surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagating on a magnetostrictive semiconducting material produces an efficient torque that induces precessional switching. This is evidenced by Kerr microscopy and acoustic behavior analysis in a (Ga,Mn)(As,P) thin film. Using SAWs should therefore allow remote and wave control of individual magnetic bits at potentially GHz frequencies.

  6. Study of Porous Materials Acoustic Signatures Behaviour in Dark Field

    Bouhedja, S; Hamdi, F [Laboratoires des Hyperfrequences et Semi-conducteurs, Universite de Constantine, B.P. 125, DZ-25000 (Algeria); Doghmane, A; Hadjoub, Z, E-mail:, E-mail: [Laboratoire des Semi-Conducteurs, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Badji-Mokhtar, BP 12, Annaba, DZ-23000 (Algeria)


    Several kinds of lens-transducer system exist in the scanning acoustic microscope. In this work, annular lenses are chosen in order to quantify the occultation limiting angle to suppress Rayleigh mode generation. Hence, we have numerically simulated, through variable occultation of generated rays at the lens center, the porous silicon acoustic signatures at an operating frequency of 142 MHz. In non destructive control, this investigation is of a great importance in the measurement of the surface waves attenuation. The obtained results enabled us to evaluate the maximum relative occultation at Rayleigh waves.

  7. Explicit Mapping of Acoustic Regimes For Wind Instruments

    Missoum, Samy; Doc, Jean-Baptiste


    This paper proposes a methodology to map the various acoustic regimes of wind instruments. The maps can be generated in a multi-dimensional space consisting of design, control parameters, and initial conditions. The bound- aries of the maps are obtained explicitly in terms of the parameters using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier as well as a dedicated adaptive sam- pling scheme. The approach is demonstrated on a simplified clarinet model for which several maps are generated based on different criteria. Examples of computation of the probability of occurrence of a specific acoustic regime are also provided. In addition, the approach is demonstrated on a design optimization example for optimal intonation.

  8. Acoustic user interfaces for ambient-assisted living technologies.

    Goetze, Stefan; Moritz, Niko; Appell, Jens-E; Meis, Markus; Bartsch, Christian; Bitzer, Jörg


    This contribution discusses technologies for acoustic user interaction in ambient-assisted living (AAL) scenarios. Acoustic user interfaces allow for a natural and convenient way to interact with technical systems e.g. via sound or speech presentation or via speech input by means of automatic speech recognition (ASR) as well as by detection and classification of acoustic events. Older persons targeted by AAL technologies especially need more easy-to-use methods to interact with inherently complex supporting technology. As an example we designed and evaluated an application for acoustic user interaction with a multi-media reminder and calendar system. For this purpose, mainly older participants were involved in user studies to continuously evaluate and support the development strictly following a user-centred design process. The results suggest a wide acceptance of acoustic user interfaces by older users either for controlling inherently complex AAL systems by using robust ASR technologies or as a natural and ambient way of presenting information to the user. However, further research is needed to increase the robustness of ASR systems when using hands-free equipment, i.e. to provide a real ambient way of interaction, and to introduce personalised speech and sound presentation schemes accounting for the individual hearing capabilities and sound preferences.

  9. Acoustically trapped colloidal crystals that are reconfigurable in real time.

    Caleap, Mihai; Drinkwater, Bruce W


    Photonic and phononic crystals are metamaterials with repeating unit cells that result in internal resonances leading to a range of wave guiding and filtering properties and are opening up new applications such as hyperlenses and superabsorbers. Here we show the first, to our knowledge, 3D colloidal phononic crystal that is reconfigurable in real time and demonstrate its ability to rapidly alter its frequency filtering characteristics. Our reconfigurable material is assembled from microspheres in aqueous solution, trapped with acoustic radiation forces. The acoustic radiation force is governed by an energy landscape, determined by an applied high-amplitude acoustic standing wave field, in which particles move swiftly to energy minima. This creates a colloidal crystal of several milliliters in volume with spheres arranged in an orthorhombic lattice in which the acoustic wavelength is used to control the lattice spacing. Transmission acoustic spectroscopy shows that the new colloidal crystal behaves as a phononic metamaterial and exhibits clear band-pass and band-stop frequencies which are adjusted in real time.

  10. Acoustical design of the new Cathay Pacific first class lounge

    Hong, Westwood K. W.

    Cathay Pacific Airways' requirement of a first class lounge for attracting the high-yield passenger market to Hong Kong presented a special challenge for the Acoustical consultant. The 500-seating lounge covers more than 2000 square meters and is claimed by Cathay to be the biggest in Asia for its first class passengers. Arup acoustics was required to design a space that provided a quiet and relaxed environment for the Commercial Important Persons after a 16 to 17-hour flight. Arup Acoustics has designed the acoustics of the Lounge in meeting a stringent low noise specification requested by the user. The design work gave a comprehensive service both to support the lead consultant Ova Arup & Partners in controlling the external aircraft noise and internal noise and to assist the architect and interior designer in providing an excellent acoustical atmosphere for the passengers to rest while waiting for an onward connection. This paper will discuss the design of the lightweight roof and special double glazing system, featured by a 20-mm-thick laminated glass for the outer pane and a 600 to 1000-mm air gap to combat aircraft noise at the Hong Kong International Airport.

  11. Acoustic carpet cloak based on an ultrathin metasurface

    Esfahlani, Hussein; Karkar, Sami; Lissek, Herve; Mosig, Juan R.


    An acoustic metasurface carpet cloak based on membrane-capped cavities is proposed and investigated numerically. This design has been chosen for allowing ultrathin geometries, although adapted to airborne sound frequencies in the range of 1 kHz (λ ≈30 cm), surpassing the designs reported in the literature in terms of thinness. A formulation of generalized Snell's laws is first proposed, mapping the directions of the incident and reflected waves to the metasurface phase function. This relation is then applied to achieve a prescribed wavefront reflection direction, for a given incident direction, by controlling the acoustic impedance grading along the metasurface. The carpet cloak performance of the proposed acoustic metasurface is then assessed on a triangular bump obstacle, generally considered as a baseline configuration in the literature.

  12. Analysis of acoustic radiation mode in time domain


    The acoustic radiation mode of plane, whose radiating operator is constructed by Rayleigh integral, is investigated in the time domain and its physical meaning is given. The relationship between the acoustic radiation modes of time domain and frequency domain is discussed. It is verified that the acoustic radiation modes are the natural property of the radiator and they can be obtained by different methods. These time domain radiation modes, whose shapes are only dependent on the geometry size and shape of the radiator, can radiate sound power independently. Especially, the first time domain radiation mode accounts for most of the sound radiation. All these simplify the calculation and control of the structure-borne sound power. Based on these observations, the sound power radiated from the vibrating plate is estimated by the time domain radiation mode for verifying the proposed method. The influence factors on the estimating accuracy in different conditions are discussed.

  13. The Tibetan singing bowl : an acoustics and fluid dynamics investigation

    Terwagne, Denis


    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the acoustics and fluid dynamics of Tibetan singing bowls. Their acoustic behavior is rationalized in terms of the related dynamics of standing bells and wine glasses. Striking or rubbing a fluid-filled bowl excites wall vibrations, and concomitant waves at the fluid surface. Acoustic excitation of the bowl's natural vibrational modes allows for a controlled study in which the evolution of the surface waves with increasing forcing amplitude is detailed. Particular attention is given to rationalizing the observed criteria for the onset of edge-induced Faraday waves and droplet generation via surface fracture. Our study indicates that drops may be levitated on the fluid surface, induced to bounce on or skip across the vibrating fluid surface.

  14. Retention of acoustic conditioning in St Peter's fish Sarotherodon galilaeus.

    Zion, B; Barki, A; Grinshpon, J; Rosenfeld, L; Karplus, I


    Groups of St Peter's fish Sarotherodon galilaeus were trained during 28 days of classical conditioning to respond to an acoustic signal by approaching a feeder. Their ability to retain the acoustically conditioned behaviour was tested after eight different intervals ranging from 12 to 188 days from termination of training. Retention tests comprised 7 consecutive days of retraining and the fish response was compared with that of naive fish. Fish response drastically diminished with time. After 55 days, there was no apparent expression of memory on the first test day but fish response was restored on subsequent retraining days, indicating the existence of latent memory. Six months from the end of training, there was no indication of behavioural retention and the response completely vanished. The study was conducted in the context of sea ranching, with classical conditioning used to gain control over fish location. In light of the present results, it is suggested that periodic reinforcement of the acoustically conditioned behaviour should be used.

  15. Acoustic constituents of prosodic typology

    Komatsu, Masahiko

    Different languages sound different, and considerable part of it derives from the typological difference of prosody. Although such difference is often referred to as lexical accent types (stress accent, pitch accent, and tone; e.g. English, Japanese, and Chinese respectively) and rhythm types (stress-, syllable-, and mora-timed rhythms; e.g. English, Spanish, and Japanese respectively), it is unclear whether these types are determined in terms of acoustic properties, The thesis intends to provide a potential basis for the description of prosody in terms of acoustics. It argues for the hypothesis that the source component of the source-filter model (acoustic features) approximately corresponds to prosody (linguistic features) through several experimental-phonetic studies. The study consists of four parts. (1) Preliminary experiment: Perceptual language identification tests were performed using English and Japanese speech samples whose frequency spectral information (i.e. non-source component) is heavily reduced. The results indicated that humans can discriminate languages with such signals. (2) Discussion on the linguistic information that the source component contains: This part constitutes the foundation of the argument of the thesis. Perception tests of consonants with the source signal indicated that the source component carries the information on broad categories of phonemes that contributes to the creation of rhythm. (3) Acoustic analysis: The speech samples of Chinese, English, Japanese, and Spanish, differing in prosodic types, were analyzed. These languages showed difference in acoustic characteristics of the source component. (4) Perceptual experiment: A language identification test for the above four languages was performed using the source signal with its acoustic features parameterized. It revealed that humans can discriminate prosodic types solely with the source features and that the discrimination is easier as acoustic information increases. The


    Aleksandr Skvortsov


    Full Text Available The research of influence of life environment adverse factors on physical development and health of population is an actual problem of ecology. The aspects of the most actual problems of the modern world, namely environmental industrial noise pollution are considered in the article. Industrial facilities everywhere have noisy equipment. Noise is a significant factors of negative influenceon people and environment. Combined effects of noise and of other physical pollutions on people may cause amplification of their negative impact. If the noise pollution level from the object in a residential area exceeds the permissible levels (MPL, noise protection measures can be initiated. Today, the most common design decisions for noise protection are sound absorbing construction, noise screens and barriers, acousting housings, soundproff cabins. Many of them are popular, others are less known. The article deals with one of the most wide spread means of noise protection – a portable acoustic screen. The aim of the research is to determine the efficiency of portable acoustic screens. It is shown that the installation of such structures can reduce the average value of the sound level. The authors analyzed acoustic screens as device to reduce noise pollution. The authors offer a potable acoustic screen differing from the used easyness, mobility, minimum price and good sound protective properties. Effectiveness, a sound absorption coefficient and sound conductivity coefficient of a portable acoustic screen are evaluated. The descriptions of the algorithm calculations and the combination of technical solutions have practical originality. The results of the research demonstrate the advantages of the proposed solutions for reducing noise levels in the agro-industrial complex.

  17. Virtual acoustic displays

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.


    A 3D auditory display can potentially enhance information transfer by combining directional and iconic information in a quite naturalistic representation of dynamic objects in the interface. Another aspect of auditory spatial clues is that, in conjunction with other modalities, it can act as a potentiator of information in the display. For example, visual and auditory cues together can reinforce the information content of the display and provide a greater sense of presence or realism in a manner not readily achievable by either modality alone. This phenomenon will be particularly useful in telepresence applications, such as advanced teleconferencing environments, shared electronic workspaces, and monitoring telerobotic activities in remote or hazardous situations. Thus, the combination of direct spatial cues with good principles of iconic design could provide an extremely powerful and information-rich display which is also quite easy to use. An alternative approach, recently developed at ARC, generates externalized, 3D sound cues over headphones in realtime using digital signal processing. Here, the synthesis technique involves the digital generation of stimuli using Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTF's) measured in the two ear-canals of individual subjects. Other similar approaches include an analog system developed by Loomis, et. al., (1990) and digital systems which make use of transforms derived from normative mannikins and simulations of room acoustics. Such an interface also requires the careful psychophysical evaluation of listener's ability to accurately localize the virtual or synthetic sound sources. From an applied standpoint, measurement of each potential listener's HRTF's may not be possible in practice. For experienced listeners, localization performance was only slightly degraded compared to a subject's inherent ability. Alternatively, even inexperienced listeners may be able to adapt to a particular set of HRTF's as long as they provide adequate

  18. A combination of the acoustic radiosity and the image source method

    Koutsouris, Georgios I.; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho;


    A combined model for room acoustic predictions is developed, aiming to treat both diffuse and specular reflections in a unified way. Two established methods are incorporated: acoustical radiosity, accounting for the diffuse part, and the image source method, accounting for the specular part....... The model is based on conservation of acoustical energy. Losses are taken into account by the energy absorption coefficient, and the diffuse reflections are controlled via the scattering coefficient, which defines the portion of energy that has been diffusely reflected. The way the model is formulated...... allows for a dynamic control of the image source production, so that no fixed maximum order is required....

  19. Systematic treatment of non-linear effects in Baryon Acoustic Oscillations

    Ivanov, Mikhail M


    In this contribution we will discuss the non-linear effects in the baryon acoustic oscillations and present a systematic and controllable way to account for them within time-sliced perturbation theory.

  20. Acoustic Issues in Human Spaceflight

    Clark, Jonathan B.


    NASA is concerned about acute effect of sound on crew performance on International Space Station (ISS), and is developing strategies to assess and reduce acute, chronic, and delayed effects of sound. High noise levels can cause headaches, irritation, fatigue, impaired sleep, headache, and tinnitus and have resulted in an inability to hear alarms. Speech intelligibility may be more impaired for crew understanding non-native language in a noisy environment. No hearing loss occurred, but significant effects on crew performance and communication occurred. Permanent Threshold Shifts (PTS) have not been observed in the US shuttle program. Russian specification for noise in spacecraft is 60 dBA (awake) and 50 dBA (asleep) while the U.S. noise specification on ISS is NC 50 (awake) and NC 40 (asleep) with a 85 dBA hazard limit. Background noise levels of ISS modules have measured 56-69 dBA. Treadmill exercise operations measure 77 dBA. Alarms are required to be 20 dBA above ambient. Hearing protection is recommended when noise exceeds 60 dB 24 hour Leq. Countermeasures include hearing protection and design/ engineering controls. Advanced composite materials with excellent low frequency attenuation properties could be applied as a barrier protection around noisy equipment, or used on personal protective equipment worn by the crew. Hearing protection countermeasures include foam ear inserts, passive muff headsets, and active noise reduction headsets. Oto-acoustic emissions (OAE) could be used to monitor effectiveness of hearing protection countermeasures and tailor hearing protection countermeasures to individual crewmembers. Micro-gravity, vibration, toxic fumes, air quality/composition, stress, temperature, physical exertion or some combination of the above factors may have interacted with moderate long-term noise exposure to cause significant hearing loss. Longitudinal studies will need to address what co-morbidity factors, such as radiation, toxicology, microgravity

  1. On Architectural Acoustics Design using Computer Simulation

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning


    is to investigate the field of application an acoustic simulation program can have during an architectural acoustics design process. A case study is carried out in order to represent the iterative working process of an architect. The working process is divided into five phases and represented by typical results......The acoustical quality of a given building, or space within the building, is highly dependent on the architectural design. Architectural acoustics design has in the past been based on simple design rules. However, with a growing complexity in the architectural acoustic and the emergence of potent...... room acoustic simulation programs it is now possible to subjectively analyze and evaluate acoustic properties prior to the actual construction of a facility. With the right tools applied, the acoustic design can become an integrated part of the architectural design process. The aim of the present paper...

  2. Acoustic remote sensing of ocean flows

    Joseph, A.; Desa, E.

    Acoustic techniques have become powerful tools for measurement of ocean circulation mainly because of the ability of acoustic signals to travel long distances in water, and the inherently non-invasive nature of measurement. The satellite remote...

  3. Golden Gate and Pt. Reyes Acoustic Detections

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains detections of acoustic tagged fish from two general locations: Golden Gate (east and west line) and Pt. Reyes. Several Vemco 69khz acoustic...

  4. Acoustic network event classification using swarm optimization

    Burman, Jerry


    Classifying acoustic signals detected by distributed sensor networks is a difficult problem due to the wide variations that can occur in the transmission of terrestrial, subterranean, seismic and aerial events. An acoustic event classifier was developed that uses particle swarm optimization to perform a flexible time correlation of a sensed acoustic signature to reference data. In order to mitigate the effects from interference such as multipath, the classifier fuses signatures from multiple sensors to form a composite sensed acoustic signature and then automatically matches the composite signature with reference data. The approach can classify all types of acoustic events but is particularly well suited to explosive events such as gun shots, mortar blasts and improvised explosive devices that produce an acoustic signature having a shock wave component that is aperiodic and non-linear. The classifier was applied to field data and yielded excellent results in terms of reconstructing degraded acoustic signatures from multiple sensors and in classifying disparate acoustic events.

  5. Brain Metabolic Changes in Rats following Acoustic Trauma

    He, Jun; Zhu, Yejin; Aa, Jiye; Smith, Paul F.; De Ridder, Dirk; Wang, Guangji; Zheng, Yiwen


    Acoustic trauma is the most common cause of hearing loss and tinnitus in humans. However, the impact of acoustic trauma on system biology is not fully understood. It has been increasingly recognized that tinnitus caused by acoustic trauma is unlikely to be generated by a single pathological source, but rather a complex network of changes involving not only the auditory system but also systems related to memory, emotion and stress. One obvious and significant gap in tinnitus research is a lack of biomarkers that reflect the consequences of this interactive “tinnitus-causing” network. In this study, we made the first attempt to analyse brain metabolic changes in rats following acoustic trauma using metabolomics, as a pilot study prior to directly linking metabolic changes to tinnitus. Metabolites in 12 different brain regions collected from either sham or acoustic trauma animals were profiled using a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based metabolomics platform. After deconvolution of mass spectra and identification of the molecules, the metabolomic data were processed using multivariate statistical analysis. Principal component analysis showed that metabolic patterns varied among different brain regions; however, brain regions with similar functions had a similar metabolite composition. Acoustic trauma did not change the metabolite clusters in these regions. When analyzed within each brain region using the orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis sub-model, 17 molecules showed distinct separation between control and acoustic trauma groups in the auditory cortex, inferior colliculus, superior colliculus, vestibular nucleus complex (VNC), and cerebellum. Further metabolic pathway impact analysis and the enrichment overview with network analysis suggested the primary involvement of amino acid metabolism, including the alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolic pathways, the arginine and proline metabolic pathways and the purine

  6. Metamaterial buffer for broadband non-resonant impedance matching of obliquely incident acoustic waves.

    Fleury, Romain; Alù, Andrea


    Broadband impedance matching and zero reflection of acoustic waves at a planar interface between two natural materials is a rare phenomenon, unlike its optical counterpart, frequently observed for polarized light incident at the Brewster angle. In this article, it is shown that, by inserting a metamaterial layer between two acoustic materials with different impedance, it is possible to artificially realize an extremely broadband Brewster-like acoustic intromission angle window, in which energy is totally transmitted from one natural medium to the other. The metamaterial buffer, composed of acoustically hard materials with subwavelength tapered apertures, provides an interesting way to match the impedances of two media in a broadband fashion, different from traditional methods like quarter-wave matching or Fabry-Pérot resonances, inherently narrowband due to their resonant nature. This phenomenon may be interesting for a variety of applications including energy harvesting, acoustic imaging, ultrasonic transducer technology, and noise control.

  7. A survey of acoustic conditions in semi-open plan classrooms in the United Kingdom.

    Greenland, Emma E; Shield, Bridget M


    This paper reports the results of a large scale, detailed acoustic survey of 42 open plan classrooms of varying design in the UK each of which contained between 2 and 14 teaching areas or classbases. The objective survey procedure, which was designed specifically for use in open plan classrooms, is described. The acoustic measurements relating to speech intelligibility within a classbase, including ambient noise level, intrusive noise level, speech to noise ratio, speech transmission index, and reverberation time, are presented. The effects on speech intelligibility of critical physical design variables, such as the number of classbases within an open plan unit and the selection of acoustic finishes for control of reverberation, are examined. This analysis enables limitations of open plan classrooms to be discussed and acoustic design guidelines to be developed to ensure good listening conditions. The types of teaching activity to provide adequate acoustic conditions, plus the speech intelligibility requirements of younger children, are also discussed.

  8. Experimental Study of Rock Drill-ability Anisotropy by Acoustic Velocity


    Rock drill-ability anisotropy has significant effects on directional drilling and deviation control. Its evaluation is an important but difficult research subject. Definitions of drill-ability anisotropy and acoustic anisotropy of rock are given in this paper. The acoustic velocities and the drill-ability parameters of several rock samples from the Engineering Center for Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) are respectively measured with the device for testing the rock drill-ability and the ultrasonic testing system in laboratory, so that their drill-ability anisotropy and acoustic anisotropy are respectively calculated and discussed in detail by using the experimental data. On the basis of these experimental results and calculations, correlations between drill-ability anisotropy and acoustic anisotropy of the rock samples are illustrated through regression analyses. Thus, a mathematical model developed may be used to evaluate the rock drill-ability anisotropy with the acoustic logging or seismic data to a certain extent.

  9. Acoustic Localization with Infrasonic Signals

    Threatt, Arnesha; Elbing, Brian


    Numerous geophysical and anthropogenic events emit infrasonic frequencies (wind turbines and tornadoes. These sounds, which cannot be heard by the human ear, can be detected from large distances (in excess of 100 miles) due to low frequency acoustic signals having a very low decay rate in the atmosphere. Thus infrasound could be used for long-range, passive monitoring and detection of these events. An array of microphones separated by known distances can be used to locate a given source, which is known as acoustic localization. However, acoustic localization with infrasound is particularly challenging due to contamination from other signals, sensitivity to wind noise and producing a trusted source for system development. The objective of the current work is to create an infrasonic source using a propane torch wand or a subwoofer and locate the source using multiple infrasonic microphones. This presentation will present preliminary results from various microphone configurations used to locate the source.

  10. Classroom acoustics: Three pilot studies

    Smaldino, Joseph J.


    This paper summarizes three related pilot projects designed to focus on the possible effects of classroom acoustics on fine auditory discrimination as it relates to language acquisition, especially English as a second language. The first study investigated the influence of improving the signal-to-noise ratio on the differentiation of English phonemes. The results showed better differentiation with better signal-to-noise ratio. The second studied speech perception in noise by young adults for whom English was a second language. The outcome indicated that the second language learners required a better signal-to-noise ratio to perform equally to the native language participants. The last study surveyed the acoustic conditions of preschool and day care classrooms, wherein first and second language learning occurs. The survey suggested an unfavorable acoustic environment for language learning.

  11. Acoustic Communication for Medical Nanorobots

    Hogg, Tad


    Communication among microscopic robots (nanorobots) can coordinate their activities for biomedical tasks. The feasibility of in vivo ultrasonic communication is evaluated for micron-size robots broadcasting into various types of tissues. Frequencies between 10MHz and 300MHz give the best tradeoff between efficient acoustic generation and attenuation for communication over distances of about 100 microns. Based on these results, we find power available from ambient oxygen and glucose in the bloodstream can readily support communication rates up to 10,000 bits/second between micron-sized robots. We discuss techniques, such as directional acoustic beams, that can increase this rate. The acoustic pressure fields enabling this communication are unlikely to damage nearby tissue, and short bursts at considerably higher power could be of therapeutic use.

  12. Acoustic multivariate condition monitoring - AMCM

    Rosenhave, P.E. [Vestfold College, Maritime Dept., Toensberg (Norway)


    In Norway, Vestfold College, Maritime Department presents new opportunities for non-invasive, on- or off-line acoustic monitoring of rotating machinery such as off-shore pumps and diesel engines. New developments within acoustic sensor technology coupled with chemometric data analysis of complex signals now allow condition monitoring of hitherto unavailable flexibility and diagnostic specificity. Chemometrics paired with existing knowledge yields a new and powerful tool for condition monitoring. By the use of multivariate techniques and acoustics it is possible to quantify wear and tear as well as predict the performance of working components in complex machinery. This presentation describes the AMCM method and one result of a feasibility study conducted onboard the LPG/C `Norgas Mariner` owned by Norwegian Gas Carriers as (NGC), Oslo. (orig.) 6 refs.

  13. Boundary layer control device for duct silencers

    Schmitz, Fredric H. (Inventor); Soderman, Paul T. (Inventor)


    A boundary layer control device includes a porous cover plate, an acoustic absorber disposed under the porous cover plate, and a porous flow resistive membrane interposed between the porous cover plate and the acoustic absorber. The porous flow resistive membrane has a flow resistance low enough to permit sound to enter the acoustic absorber and high enough to damp unsteady flow oscillations.

  14. Particle analysis in an acoustic cytometer

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Ward, Michael D


    The present invention is a method and apparatus for acoustically manipulating one or more particles. Acoustically manipulated particles may be separated by size. The particles may be flowed in a flow stream and acoustic radiation pressure, which may be radial, may be applied to the flow stream. This application of acoustic radiation pressure may separate the particles. In one embodiment, the particles may be separated by size, and as a further example, the larger particles may be transported to a central axis.

  15. Absorption boundary conditions for geomertical acoustics

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho


    Defining accurate acoustical boundary conditions is of crucial importance for room acoustic simulations. In predicting sound fields using phased geometrical acoustics methods, the absorption coefficients or surface impedances of the boundary surfaces can be used, but no guideline has been developed...... solutions. Two rectangular rooms with uniform and non-uniform absorption distributions are tested. It is concluded that the impedance and random incidence absorption boundary conditions produce reasonable results with some exceptions at low frequencies for acoustically soft materials....

  16. Acoustic behaviors of unsaturated soils

    Lu, Z.


    Soils are unconsolidated granular materials, consisting of solid particles, water and air. Their mechanical and dynamic behaviors are determined by the discrete nature of the media as well as external and inter-particle forces. For unsaturated soils, two factors significantly affect soils acoustic/seismic responses: external pressure and internal water potential/matric suction. In triaxial cell tests, unsaturated soils were subjected to predefined stress paths to undergo stages of normal consolidation, unload-reload cycles, and failure. The stress deformation curve and stress-P-wave velocity were measured and compared. The study revealed that soil's dynamic response to external pressure are similar to those of the load-deformation behaviors and demonstrated that acoustic velocity can be used to monitor the state of stress of soils. In a long term field soil survey, the P-wave velocities were found to be correlated with water potential as expressed as a power-law relationship. The above phenomena can be understood by using the Terzaghi' s the principle of effective stress. The measured results were in good agreement with Brutsaert theory. The effective stress concept can also be applied to explain the observations in a soil pipe flow study in which soil internal erosion processes were monitored and interpreted by the temporal evolution of the P-wave velocity. In addition to above linear acoustic behaviors, soils, like other earth materials, exhibit astonishing non-classical nonlinear behaviors such as end-point memory, hysteresis, strain -dependent shear modulus, resonant frequency shift, and phase shift, harmonics generation, etc. A nonlinear acoustic study of a soil as a function of water content showed that the nonlinear acoustic parameter are much sensitive to the variations of soil water content than that of the acoustic velocity.

  17. CT findings of acoustic neuroma

    Sim, Do Choul; Lee, Jae Mun; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Computed Tomography (CT) is very accurate in evaluating the location, size, shape and extension of acoustic neuroma. We analysed CT findings of 23 acoustic neuromas seen at Department of Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University Medical College during the period of from January 1981 to June 1987. 1. Five (22%) were men and 18 (78%) were women with the high incidence occurring in the 4th and 5th decades. 2. Twenty two cases were diagnosed satisfactorily by CT examinations which included axial, coronal and reconstruction images. One with the smallest dimension of 8 mm in diameter could not be detected by the conventional CT scan. But is could be seen after metrizamide cisternography. mean size of the tumor masses was estimated 3.6 cm in diameter. 3. The shape of the tumor was oval in 50%, round in 27% and lobulated in 23%. The masses were presented as hypodense in 50%, isodense in 32% and hyperdense in 18%. All tumors were extended from the internal acoustic and toward the cerebellopontine angle. The internal acoustic canal was widened in 77%. Hydrocephalus was associated in 45%. Widening of cerebellopontine angle cistern was noted in 50%. 4. After contrast infusion the tumors were enhanced markedly in 45%, moderately in 32% and mildly in 23%. The enhanced pattern was homogeneous in 41%, mixed in 41% and rim in 18%. The margin of the tumors was sharply defined in 82%. The tumors were attached to the petrous bone with acute angle in 73%. Cystic change within the tumor was found in 27%. The peritumoral edema was noted in 45%. In conclusion, CT is of most effective modalities to evaluate size, shape, extent and internal architecture of acoustic neuroma as well as relationship with adjacent anatomic structures including the internal acoustic canal.

  18. Acoustic Test Characterization of Melamine Foam for Usage in NASA's Payload Fairing Acoustic Attenuation Systems

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.; McNelis, Mark E.


    The external acoustic liftoff levels predicted for NASA's future heavy lift launch vehicles are expected to be significantly higher than the environment created by today's commercial launch vehicles. This creates a need to develop an improved acoustic attenuation system for future NASA payload fairings. NASA Glenn Research Center initiated an acoustic test series to characterize the acoustic performance of melamine foam, with and without various acoustic enhancements. This testing was denoted as NEMFAT, which stands for NESC Enhanced Melamine Foam Acoustic Test, and is the subject of this paper. Both absorption and transmission loss testing of numerous foam configurations were performed at the Riverbank Acoustical Laboratory in July 2013. The NEMFAT test data provides an initial acoustic characterization and database of melamine foam for NASA. Because of its acoustic performance and lighter mass relative to fiberglass blankets, melamine foam is being strongly considered for use in the acoustic attenuation systems of NASA's future launch vehicles.

  19. Physical foundations of technical acoustics

    Malecki, I


    Physical Foundations of Technical Acoustics discusses theoretical foundations of acoustical engineering. It is not so much a technical compendium as a systematic statement of physical laws so conceived that technologists might find in it all the information they need to become acquainted with the physical meaning and mathematical expression of phenomena they encounter in their work. To facilitate the acquirement of notions, which lie beyond a layman's grasp, the plan of narration adopted consists in beginning with the simplest idealized cases and then gradually moving on to the truest possibl

  20. Oscillating nonlinear acoustic shock waves

    Gaididei, Yuri; Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Christiansen, Peter Leth


    We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show that at resona......We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show...

  1. Location of an acoustic window in dolphins.

    Popov, V V; Supin, A Y


    Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) to sound clicks from sources in different positions were recorded in dolphins Inia geoffrensis. The position of the acoustic window was determined by measurement of acoustic delays. The acoustic window was found to lie close to the auditory meatus and the bulla rather than on the lower jaw.

  2. Predicting and auralizing acoustics in classrooms

    Christensen, Claus Lynge


    Although classrooms have fairly simple geometries, this type of room is known to cause problems when trying to predict their acoustics using room acoustics computer modeling. Some typical features from a room acoustics point of view are: Parallel walls, low ceilings (the rooms are flat), uneven...

  3. Outdoor Acoustics as a General Discipline

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo


    A tutorial paper exploring the characteristics of sound outdoors. Outdoor acoustics is contrasted to room acoustics. A number of important aspects of outdoor acoustics are exemplified and theoretical approaches are outlined. These are influence of ground impedance, influence of weather, screening...

  4. Aero-acoustic Computations of Wind Turbines

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Michelsen, Jess; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær


    A numerical algorithm for acoustic noise generation is extended to 3D flows. The approach involves two parts comprising a viscous incompressible flow part and an inviscid acoustic part. In order to simulate noise generated from a wind turbine, the incompressible and acoustic equations are written...

  5. Laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers.

    Hamdan, Abdul-latif; Sibai, Abla; Oubari, Dima; Ashkar, Jihad; Fuleihan, Nabil


    The purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers. A total of 42 subjects with history of hubble-bubble smoking were recruited for this study. A corresponding group with a history of cigarette smoking and controls were matched. All subjects underwent laryngeal video-endostroboscopic evaluation and acoustic analysis. In the hubble-bubble smoking group, 61.9% were males. The average age was 30.02 +/- 9.48 years and the average number of years of smoking was 8.09 +/- 6.45 years. Three subjects had dysphonia at the time of examination. The incidence of benign lesions of the vocal folds in the hubble-bubble group was 21.5%, with edema being the most common at 16.7% followed by cyst at 4.8%. The incidence of laryngeal findings was significantly higher in the hubble-bubble group compared to controls. In the cigarette-smoking group, the most common finding was vocal fold cyst in 14.8% followed by polyps in 7.4%, and edema, sulcus vocalis and granuloma. These findings were not significantly different from the hubble-bubble group except for the thick mucus, which was significantly higher in the latter. There were no significant changes in any of the acoustic parameters between hubble-bubble smokers and controls except for the VTI and MPT, which were significantly lower in the hubble-bubble group. In comparison with the cigarette-smoking group, hubble-bubble smokers had significantly higher Fundamental frequency and habitual pitch (p value 0.042 and 0.008, respectively). The laryngeal findings in hubble-bubble smokers are comparable to cigarette smokers. These laryngeal findings are not translated acoustically, as all the acoustic parameters are within normal range compared to controls.

  6. Landweber iterative regularization for nearfield acoustic holography

    BI Chuanxing; CHEN Xinzhao; ZHOU Rong; CHEN Jian


    On the basis of the distributed source boundary point method (DSBPM)-based nearfield acoustic holography (NAH), Landweber iterative regularization method is proposed to stabilize the NAH reconstruction process, control the influence of measurement errors on the reconstructed results and ensure the validity of the reconstructed results. And a new method, the auxiliary surface method, is proposed to determine the optimal iterative number for optimizing the regularization effect. Here, the optimal number is determined by minimizing the relative error between the calculated pressure on the auxiliary surface corresponding to each iterative number and the measured pressure. An experiment on a speaker is investigated to demonstrate the high sensitivity of the reconstructed results to measurement errors and to validate the chosen method of the optimal iterative number and the Landweber iterative regularization method for controlling the influence of measurement errors on the reconstructed results.

  7. First description of underwater acoustic diversity in three temperate ponds

    Camille Desjonquères


    Full Text Available The past decade has produced an increased ecological interest in sonic environments, or soundscapes. However, despite this rise in interest and technological improvements that allow for long-term acoustic surveys in various environments, some habitats’ soundscapes remain to be explored. Ponds, and more generally freshwater habitats, are one of these acoustically unexplored environments. Here we undertook the first long term acoustic monitoring of three temperate ponds in France. By aural and visual inspection of a selection of recordings, we identified 48 different sound types, and according to the rarefaction curves we calculated, more sound types are likely present in one of the three ponds. The richness of sound types varied significantly across ponds. Surprisingly, there was no pond-to-pond daily consistency of sound type richness variation; each pond had its own daily patterns of activity. We also explored the possibility of using six acoustic diversity indices to conduct rapid biodiversity assessments in temperate ponds. We found that all indices were sensitive to the background noise as estimated through correlations with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. However, we determined that the AR index could be a good candidate to measure acoustic diversities using partial correlations with the SNR as a control variable. Yet, research is still required to automatically compute the SNR in order to apply this index on a large data set of recordings. The results showed that these three temperate ponds host a high level of acoustic diversity in which the soundscapes were variable not only between but also within the ponds. The sources producing this diversity of sounds and the drivers of difference in daily song type richness variation both require further investigation. Such research would yield insights into the biodiversity and ecology of temperate ponds.

  8. 4th Pacific Rim Underwater Acoustics Conference

    Xu, Wen; Cheng, Qianliu; Zhao, Hangfang


    These proceedings are a collection of 16 selected scientific papers and reviews by distinguished international experts that were presented at the 4th Pacific Rim Underwater Acoustics Conference (PRUAC), held in Hangzhou, China in October 2013. The topics discussed at the conference include internal wave observation and prediction; environmental uncertainty and coupling to sound propagation; environmental noise and ocean dynamics; dynamic modeling in acoustic fields; acoustic tomography and ocean parameter estimation; time reversal and matched field processing; underwater acoustic localization and communication as well as measurement instrumentations and platforms. These proceedings provide insights into the latest developments in underwater acoustics, promoting the exchange of ideas for the benefit of future research.

  9. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja


    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10(-15) g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise i...

  10. Acoustics SIMOPS: managing the unnecessary

    Hanton, Samuel John [Nautronix Marine Technology Solutions, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Time is money, and offshore operations are expensive. The desire therefore, is to increase efficiency through the condensing of schedules. This inevitably leads to SIMOPS of some degree, and this paper discusses SIMOPS along with, more specifically, the challenges they provide to acoustic positioning. (author)

  11. Acoustic Microscopy at Cryogenic Temperatures.


    intensities are used, and quantitatitvely acount for the onset of nonlinear excess attenuation. Aooeuuaiol For DTIC TAB Unaranounc ed Just if icat to acoustic power is a reasonable value and can be acounted for by assuming a one-way transducer conversion loss of 5 dB, a lens illumination loss of

  12. APL - North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory


    the roles of internal waves, ocean spice, internal tides, fronts and eddies in causing fluctuations in acoustic receptions. 5. To improve basin-scale...Farmer, R. Gentry, T. Gross, A. Hawkins, F.~Li, K. Metcalf , J.H. Miller, D. Moretti, C. Rodrigo, and T. Shinke, (2011). “An International Quiet

  13. Acoustic Climb to Cruise Test


    Flight test film footage of three different aircraft testing the acoustical noise levels during take-off, climb, maneuvers, and touch and go landings are described. These sound tests were conducted on two fighter aircraft and one cargo aircraft. Results from mobile test vehicle are shown.

  14. Acoustic Absorption Characteristics of People.

    Kingsbury, H. F.; Wallace, W. J.


    The acoustic absorption characteristics of informally dressed college students in typical classroom seating are shown to differ substantially from data for formally dressed audiences in upholstered seating. Absorption data, expressed as sabins per person or absorption coefficient per square foot, shows that there is considerable variation between…

  15. Fundamentals of Acoustic Backscatter Imagery


    41 6.12 Geocoding ...47 7.6 Errors in Geocoding .............................................................................................................. 47...h = z - R cos6 (39a) and x = rt sin6. (39b) 6.12 Geocoding Acoustic backscatter imagery data are collected by recording the across-track signals

  16. Numerical investigation of acoustic solitons

    Lombard, Bruno; Richoux, Olivier


    Acoustic solitons can be obtained by considering the propagation of large amplitude sound waves across a set of Helmholtz resonators. The model proposed by Sugimoto and his coauthors has been validated experimentally in previous works. Here we examine some of its theoretical properties: low-frequency regime, balance of energy, stability. We propose also numerical experiments illustrating typical features of solitary waves.

  17. Acoustic Liner for Turbomachinery Applications

    Huff, Dennis L.; Sutliff, Daniel L.; Jones, Michael G.; Hebsur, Mohan G.


    The purpose of this innovation is to reduce aircraft noise in the communities surrounding airports by significantly attenuating the noise generated by the turbomachinery, and enhancing safety by providing a containment barrier for a blade failure. Acoustic liners are used in today's turbofan engines to reduce noise. The amount of noise reduction from an acoustic liner is a function of the treatment area, the liner design, and the material properties, and limited by the constraints of the nacelle or casement design. It is desirable to increase the effective area of the acoustic treatment to increase noise suppression. Modern turbofan engines use wide-chord rotor blades, which means there is considerable treatment area available over the rotor tip. Turbofan engines require containment over the rotors for protection from blade failure. Traditional methods use a material wrap such as Kevlar integrated with rub strips and sometimes metal layers (sandwiches). It is possible to substitute the soft rub-strip material with an open-cell metallic foam that provides noise-reduction benefits and a sacrificial material in the first layer of the containment system. An open-cell foam was evaluated that behaves like a bulk acoustic liner, serves as a tip rub strip, and can be integrated with a rotor containment system. Foams can be integrated with the fan-containment system to provide sufficient safety margins and increased noise attenuation. The major innovation is the integration of the foam with the containment.

  18. Satellite and acoustic tracking device

    Berumen, Michael L.


    The present invention relates a method and device for tracking movements of marine animals or objects in large bodies of water and across significant distances. The method and device can track an acoustic transmitter attached to an animal or object beneath the ocean surface by employing an unmanned surface vessel equipped with a hydrophone array and GPS receiver.

  19. Acoustic design by topology optimization

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole


    To bring down noise levels in human surroundings is an important issue and a method to reduce noise by means of topology optimization is presented here. The acoustic field is modeled by Helmholtz equation and the topology optimization method is based on continuous material interpolation functions...

  20. Recent developments of film bulk acoustic resonators

    Gao, Junning; Liu, Guorong; Li, Jie; Li, Guoqiang


    Film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAR) experienced skyrocketing development in the past 15 years, owing to the explosive development of mobile communication. It stands out in acoustic filters mainly because of high quality factor, which enables low insertion loss and sharp roll off. Except for the massive application in wireless communication, FBARs are also promising sensors because of the high sensitivity and readily integration ability to miniaturize circuits. On the ground of summarizing FBAR’s application in wireless communication as filters and in sensors including electronic nose, bio field, and pressure sensing, this paper review the main challenges of each application faced. The number of filters installed in the mobile phone has being grown explosively, which leads to overcrowded bands and put harsh requirements on component size and power consumption control for each unit. Data flow and rate are becoming increasingly demanding as well. This paper discusses three promising technical strategies addressing these issues. Among which coupled resonator filter is given intense attention because it is able to vigorously reduce the filter size by stacking two or more resonators together, and it is a great technique to increase data flow and rate. Temperature compensation methods are discussed considering their vital influence on frequency stability. Finally, materials improvement and novel materials exploration for band width modulation, tunable band acquisition, and quality factor improvement are discussed. The authors appeal attention of the academic society to bring AlN epitaxial thin film into the FBAR fabrication and have proposed a configuration to implement this idea.

  1. Damping of acoustic vibrations in gold nanoparticles

    Pelton, Matthew; Sader, John E.; Burgin, Julien; Liu, Mingzhao; Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe; Gosztola, David


    Studies of acoustic vibrations in nanometre-scale particles can provide fundamental insights into the mechanical properties of materials because it is possible to precisely characterize and control the crystallinity and geometry of such nanostructures. Metal nanoparticles are of particular interest because they allow the use of ultrafast laser pulses to generate and probe high-frequency acoustic vibrations, which have the potential to be used in a variety of sensing applications. So far, the decay of these vibrations has been dominated by dephasing due to variations in nanoparticle size. Such inhomogeneities can be eliminated by performing measurements on single nanoparticles deposited on a substrate, but unknown interactions between the nanoparticles and the substrate make it difficult to interpret the results of such experiments. Here, we show that the effects of inhomogeneous damping can be reduced by using bipyramidal gold nanoparticles with highly uniform sizes. The inferred homogeneous damping is due to the combination of damping intrinsic to the nanoparticles and the surrounding solvent; the latter is quantitatively described by a parameter-free model.

  2. Simplified Scheduling for Underwater Acoustic Networks

    Wouter van Kleunen


    Full Text Available The acoustic propagation speed under water poses significant challenges to the design of underwater sensor networks and their medium access control protocols. Similar to the air, scheduling transmissions under water has significant impact on throughput, energy consumption, and reliability. In this paper we present an extended set of simplified scheduling constraints which allows easy scheduling of underwater acoustic communication. We also present two algorithms for scheduling communications, i.e. a centralized scheduling approach and a distributed scheduling approach. The centralized approach achieves the highest throughput while the distributed approach aims to minimize the computation and communication overhead. We further show how the centralized scheduling approach can be extended with transmission dependencies to reduce the end-to-end delay of packets. We evaluate the performance of the centralized and distributed scheduling approaches using simulation. The centralized approach outperforms the distributed approach in terms of throughput, however we also show the distributed approach has significant benefits in terms of communication and computational overhead required to setup the schedule. We propose a novel way of estimating the performance of scheduling approaches using the ratio of modulation time and propagation delay. We show the performance is largely dictated by this ratio, although the number of links to be scheduled also has a minor impact on the performance.

  3. Smart Materials and Active Noise and Vibration Control in Vehicles

    Doppenberg, E.J.J.; Berkhoff, A.P.; Overbeek, van M.


    The paper presents the results for the reduction of sound radiated from a structure using different control methodologies, and discusses two approaches for active structural acoustic control: the acoustic approach or the vibro-acoustic approach. Integrated actuators in structure material are necessa

  4. On architectural acoustic design using computer simulation

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning


    acoustic design process. The emphasis is put on the first three out of five phases in the working process of the architect and a case study is carried out in which each phase is represented by typical results ? as exemplified with reference to the design of Bagsværd Church by Jørn Utzon. The paper......Architectural acoustics design has in the past been based on simple design rules. However, with a growing complexity in architectural acoustics and the emergence of room acoustic simulation programmes with considerable potential, it is now possible to subjectively analyse and evaluate acoustic...... properties prior to the actual construction of a building. With the right tools applied, acoustic design can become an integral part of the architectural design process. The aim of this paper is to investigate the field of application that an acoustic simulation programme can have during an architectural...

  5. Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics

    Havelock, David; Vorländer, Michael


    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics presents signal processing as it is practiced in the field of acoustics. The Handbook is organized by areas of acoustics, with recognized leaders coordinating the self-contained chapters of each section. It brings together a wide range of perspectives from over 100 authors to reveal the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Success in acoustic applications often requires juggling both the acoustic and the signal processing parameters of the problem. This handbook brings the key issues from both into perspective and is complementary to other reference material on the two subjects. It is a unique resource for experts and practitioners alike to find new ideas and techniques within the diversity of signal processing in acoustics.

  6. Assessing the variability in respiratory acoustic thoracic imaging (RATHI).

    Charleston-Villalobos, S; Torres-Jiménez, A; González-Camarena, R; Chi-Lem, G; Aljama-Corrales, T


    Multichannel analysis of lung sounds (LSs) has enabled the generation of a functional image for the temporal and spatial study of LS intensities in healthy and diseased subjects; this method is known as respiratory acoustic thoracic imaging (RATHI). This acoustic imaging technique has been applied to diverse pulmonary conditions, but it is important to contribute to the understanding of RATHI characteristics, such as acoustic spatial distribution, dependence on airflow and variability. The purpose of the current study is to assess the intra-subject and inter-subject RATHI variabilities in a cohort of 12 healthy male subjects (24.3±1.5 years) using diverse quantitative indices. The indices were obtained directly from the acoustic image and did not require scores from human raters, which helps to prevent inter-observer variability. To generate the acoustic image, LSs were acquired at 25 positions on the posterior thoracic surface by means of airborne sound sensors with a wide frequency band from 75 up to 1000 Hz under controlled airflow conditions at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 L/s. To assess intra-subject variability, the degree of similitude between inspiratory acoustic images was evaluated through quadratic mutual information based on the Cauchy-Schwartz inequality (I(CS)). The inter-subject variability was assessed by an image registration procedure between RATHIs and X-ray images to allow the computation of average and variance acoustic image in the same coordinate space. The results indicated that intra-subject RATHI similitude, reflected by I(CS-global), averaged 0.960±0.008, 0.958±0.008 and 0.960±0.007 for airflows of 1.0, 1.5, and 2L/s, respectively. As for the inter-subject variability, the variance image values for three airflow conditions indicated low image variability as they ranged from 0.01 to 0.04. In conclusion, the assessment of intra-subject and inter-subject variability by similitude indices indicated that the acoustic image pattern is repeatable along

  7. Acoustic droplet vaporization

    Shpak, O.


    Current tumor chemotherapy is associated with severe side effects caused by adverse effects of the drugs on healthy tissue. A local delivery of the drug has the advantage of a more controlled biodistribution of the therapeutic agent, which will reduce the side-effects, and offers the potential to us

  8. High-overtone Bulk-Acoustic Resonator gravimetric sensitivity: towards wideband acoustic spectroscopy

    Rabus, D; Ballandras, S; Baron, T; Lebrasseur, E; Carry, E


    In the context of direct detection sensors with compact dimensions, we investigate the gravimetric sensitivity of High-overtone Bulk Acoustic Resonators, through modeling of their acoustic characteristics and experiment. The high frequency characterizing such devices is expected to induce a significant effect when the acoustic field boundary conditions are modified by a thin adlayer. Furthermore, the multimode spectral characteristics is considered for wideband acoustic spectroscopy of the adlayer, once the gravimetric sensitivity dependence of the various overtones is established. Finally, means of improving the gravimetric sensitivity by confining the acoustic field in a low acoustic-impedance layer is theoretically established.

  9. [Application of acoustic analysis of the voice to diagnosis and treatment of functional dysphonia].

    Chernobel'skiĭ, S I


    Acoustic analysis of the voice was used to facilitate diagnosis and to objectively evaluate results of the treatment of psychogenic dysphonia (PD) in 20 women. The control group comprised 20 women showing no signs of laryngeal pathology. The following parameters were measure: jitter, shimmer, signal to noise ratio, and response in the voicing test. Other methods applied included laryngoscopy, videolaryngoscopy, and laryngostroboscopy. It was shown that hoarseness in patients with PD results from the disturbances of mechanisms controlling stability of phonation. This observation is confirmed by the results of the acoustic test. It is concluded that dysphonia confirmed in the acoustic test in the absence of organic changes in the larynx is caused by psychogenic factors. Acoustic analysis of the voice is indicated to objectively evaluate results of the treatment of psychogenic dysphonia.

  10. Acoustic spin pumping in magnetoelectric bulk acoustic wave resonator

    N. I. Polzikova


    Full Text Available We present the generation and detection of spin currents by using magnetoelastic resonance excitation in a magnetoelectric composite high overtone bulk acoustic wave (BAW resonator (HBAR formed by a Al-ZnO-Al-GGG-YIG-Pt structure. Transversal BAW drives magnetization oscillations in YIG film at a given resonant magnetic field, and the resonant magneto-elastic coupling establishes the spin-current generation at the Pt/YIG interface. Due to the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE this BAW-driven spin current is converted to a dc voltage in the Pt layer. The dependence of the measured voltage both on magnetic field and frequency has a resonant character. The voltage is determined by the acoustic power in HBAR and changes its sign upon magnetic field reversal. We compare the experimentally observed amplitudes of the ISHE electrical field achieved by our method and other approaches to spin current generation that use surface acoustic waves and microwave resonators for ferromagnetic resonance excitation, with the theoretically expected values.



    Conventional element based methods for modeling acoustic problems are limited to low-frequency applications due to the huge computational efforts. For high-frequency applications, probabilistic techniques, such as statistical energy analysis (SEA), are used. For mid-frequency range, currently no adequate and mature simulation methods exist. Recently, wave based method has been developed which is based on the indirect TREFFTZ approach and has shown to be able to tackle problems in the mid-frequency range. In contrast with the element based methods, no discretization is required. A sufficient, but not necessary, condition for convergence of this method is that the acoustic problem domain is convex. Non-convex domains have to be partitioned into a number of (convex) subdomains. At the interfaces between subdomains, specific coupling conditions have to be imposed. The considered two-dimensional coupled vibro-acoustic problem illustrates the beneficial convergence rate of the proposed wave based prediction technique with high accuracy. The results show the new technique can be applied up to much higher frequencies.

  12. Perceptual Fidelity vs. Engineering Compromises In Virtual Acoustic Displays

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Ahumada, Albert (Technical Monitor)


    Immersive, three-dimensional displays are increasingly becoming a goal of advanced human-machine interfaces. While the technology for achieving truly useful multisensory environments is still being developed, techniques for generating three-dimensional sound are now both sophisticated and practical enough to be applied to acoustic displays. The ultimate goal of virtual acoustics is to simulate the complex acoustic field experienced by a listener freely moving around within an environment. Of course, such complexity, freedom of movement and interactively is not always possible in a "true" virtual environment, much less in lower-fidelity multimedia systems. However, many of the perceptual and engineering constraints (and frustrations) that researchers, engineers and listeners have experienced in virtual audio are relevant to multimedia. In fact, some of the problems that have been studied will be even more of an issue for lower fidelity systems that are attempting to address the requirements of a huge, diverse and ultimately unknown audience. Examples include individual differences in head-related transfer functions, a lack of real interactively (head-tracking) in many multimedia displays, and perceptual degradation due to low sampling rates and/or low-bit compression. This paper discusses some of the engineering Constraints faced during implementation of virtual acoustic environments and the perceptual consequences of these constraints. Specific examples are given for NASA applications such as telerobotic control, aeronautical displays, and shuttle launch communications. An attempt will also be made to relate these issues to low-fidelity implementations such as the internet.

  13. Perceptual Fidelity Versus Engineering Compromises in Virtual Acoustic Displays

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Ellis, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor); Frey, Mary Anne (Technical Monitor); Schneider, Victor S. (Technical Monitor)


    Immersive, three-dimensional displays are increasingly becoming a goal of advanced human-machine interfaces. While the technology for achieving truly useful multisensory environments is still being developed, techniques for generating three-dimensional sound are now both sophisticated and practical enough to be applied to acoustic displays. The ultimate goal of virtual acoustics is to simulate the complex acoustic field experienced by a listener freely moving around within an environment. Of course, such complexity, freedom of movement and interactivity is not always possible in a 'true' virtual environment, much less in lower-fidelity multimedia systems. However, many of the perceptual and engineering constraints (and frustrations) that researchers, engineers and listeners have experienced in virtual audio are relevant to multimedia. In fact, some of the problems that have been studied will be even more of an issue for lower fidelity systems that are attempting to address the requirements of a huge, diverse and ultimately unknown audience. Examples include individual differences in head-related transfer functions, A lack of real interactively (head-tracking) in many multimedia displays, and perceptual degradation due to low sampling rates and/or low-bit compression. This paper discusses some of the engineering constraints faced during implementation of virtual acoustic environments and the perceptual consequences of these constraints. Specific examples are given for NASA applications such as telerobotic control, aeronautical displays, and shuttle launch communications. An attempt will also be made to relate these issues to low-fidelity implementations such as the internet.

  14. Gait instability in patients with small acoustic neuroma

    WANG Yan; JIANG Hai-yang; GUAN Chao; JIANG Xue-jun; Ishikawa Kazuo; ZHOU Hong-wu


    Background Small acoustic neuromas seldom result in typical vestibular symptoms, despite the tumor arising from the vestibular nerve. In this study, we have shown that abnormal gait in eleven patients with small acoustic neuroma could be detected in gait analysis by the use of tactile sensor. Patients displayed no oculomotor abnormality and had tumors less than 10 mm from the porus acoustics.Methods Gait related parameters including the coefficients of variations (CV) of stance, swing, double support, area ratio of trajectories of center of force (TCOF), in addition to the foot pressure difference between both feet, were used for assessment of gait.Results The CV of swing and the area ratio of TCOF were greater in patients than those in the control group (P <0.05).The values of these two parameters became greater under an eyes closed condition compared to eyes open (P<0.05) in the patient group.Conclusion These results indicate that gait analysis may be helpful to assess vestibulospinal function of patients with small acoustic neuroma, the slight vestibular deficits of which can not be detected by visual observation.

  15. Acoustic analyses of diadochokinesis in fluent and stuttering children

    Fabiola Staróbole Juste


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to acoustically compare the performance of children who do and do not stutter on diadochokinesis tasks in terms of syllable duration, syllable periods, and peak intensity. METHODS: In this case-control study, acoustical analyses were performed on 26 children who stutter and 20 agedmatched normally fluent children (both groups stratified into preschoolers and school-aged children during a diadochokinesis task: the repetition of articulatory segments through a task testing the ability to alternate movements. Speech fluency was assessed using the Fluency Profile and the Stuttering Severity Instrument. RESULTS: The children who stutter and those who do not did not significantly differ in terms of the acoustic patterns they produced in the diadochokinesis tasks. Significant differences were demonstrated between age groups independent of speech fluency. Overall, the preschoolers performed poorer. These results indicate that the observed differences are related to speech-motor age development and not to stuttering itself. CONCLUSIONS: Acoustic studies demonstrate that speech segment durations are most variable, both within and between subjects, during childhood and then gradually decrease to adult levels by the age of eleven to thirteen years. One possible explanation for the results of the present study is that children who stutter presented higher coefficients of variation to exploit the motor equivalence to achieve accurate sound production (i.e., the absence of speech disruptions.

  16. Acoustic emission and released seismic energy

    G. P. Gregori


    Full Text Available Intense crises of crustal stress appear to cross large regions, and to precede by several months the eventual occurrence of some strong earthquake within them. The phenomenon is not linear, and the stress control reflects some wide scale-size rather than local effects. The stress propagation through the crust can be effectively monitored by means of acoustic emission (AE techniques (ultrasounds. The correlation is here investigated between crustal stress crises and the total release of seismic energy within some space domain around the AE recording site. Some clear inferences can be envisaged, although a significant diagnosis of the state of the crust within a given region ought to request arrays of simultaneously operated AE recorders. Some case histories are described dealing with the Italian peninsula and with the Cephallonia Island.

  17. Detecting and identifying damage in sandwich polymer composite by using acoustic emission

    McGugan, M.; Soerensen, Bent F.; Oestergaard, R.; Bech, T.


    Acoustic emission is a useful monitoring tool for extracting extra information during mechanical testing of polymer composite sandwich materials. The study of fracture mechanics within test specimens extracted from wind turbine blade material is presented. The contribution of the acoustic emission monitoring technique in defining different failure modes identified during the testing is discussed. The development of in-situ structural monitoring and control systems is considered. (au)

  18. Acoustic gain in piezoelectric semiconductors at ε-near-zero response

    Willatzen, Morten; Christensen, Johan


    We demonstrate strong acoustic gain in electric-field biased piezoelectric semiconductors at frequencies near the plasmon frequency in the terahertz range. When the electron drift velocity produced by an external electric field is higher than the speed of sound, Cherenkov radiation of phonons...... an electrically controlled piezoelectric slab waveguide. This extreme sound field enhancement in an active piezo material shows potential for acoustic sensing and loss compensation in metamaterials and nonlinear devices....

  19. The Influence of the Shallow Water Internal Tide on the Properties of Acoustic Signals


    LONG-TERM GOAL Quantitatively relate the temporal and spatial properties of shallow water acoustic signals to the physical processes that cause the... quantitative measure of the tidally controlled water column variability on acoustic systems the response of a Bartlett matched field processor (vertical array...moved from shallow water (~ 35 m) to deeper water (~ 60 m). Shipboard ADCP data indicated the flow conditions to be caused by an ebb barotropic tide

  20. Study of the onset of the acoustic streaming in parallel plate resonators with pulse ultrasound.

    Castro, Angelica; Hoyos, Mauricio


    In a previous study, we introduced pulse mode ultrasound as a new method for reducing and controlling the acoustic streaming in parallel plate resonators (Hoyos and Castro, 2013). Here, by modifying other parameters such as the resonator geometry and the particle size, we have found a threshold for particle manipulation with ultrasonic standing waves in confined resonators without the influence of the acoustic streaming. We demonstrate that pulse mode ultrasound open the possibility of manipulating particles smaller than 1 μm size.

  1. Acoustic modes in fluid networks

    Michalopoulos, C. D.; Clark, Robert W., Jr.; Doiron, Harold H.

    Pressure and flow rate eigenvalue problems for one-dimensional flow of a fluid in a network of pipes are derived from the familiar transmission line equations. These equations are linearized by assuming small velocity and pressure oscillations about mean flow conditions. It is shown that the flow rate eigenvalues are the same as the pressure eigenvalues and the relationship between line pressure modes and flow rate modes is established. A volume at the end of each branch is employed which allows any combination of boundary conditions, from open to closed, to be used. The Jacobi iterative method is used to compute undamped natural frequencies and associated pressure/flow modes. Several numerical examples are presented which include acoustic modes for the Helium Supply System of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Main Propulsion System. It should be noted that the method presented herein can be applied to any one-dimensional acoustic system involving an arbitrary number of branches.

  2. Acoustic reflex and general anaesthesia.

    Farkas, Z


    Infant and small children are not always able to cooperate in impedance measurements. For this reason it was decided, -in special cases, -to perform acoustic reflex examination under general anaesthesia. The first report on stapedius reflex and general anaesthesia was published by Mink et al. in 1981. Under the effect of Tiobutabarbital, Propanidid and Diazepam there is no reflex response. Acoustic reflex can be elicited with Ketamin-hydrochlorid and Alphaxalone-alphadolone acetate narcosis. The reflex threshold remains unchanged and the amplitude of muscle contraction is somewhat increased. The method was used: 1. to assess the type and degree of hearing loss in children with cleft palate and/or lip prior to surgery. 2. to exclude neuromuscular disorders with indication of pharyngoplasties. 3. to quantify hearing level in children--mostly multiply handicapped--with retarded speech development. The results of Behavioral Observation and Impedance Audiometry are discussed and evaluated.

  3. Cooperative OFDM underwater acoustic communications

    Cheng, Xilin; Cheng, Xiang


    Following underwater acoustic channel modeling, this book investigates the relationship between coherence time and transmission distances. It considers the power allocation issues of two typical transmission scenarios, namely short-range transmission and medium-long range transmission. For the former scenario, an adaptive system is developed based on instantaneous channel state information. The primary focus is on cooperative dual-hop orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). This book includes the decomposed fountain codes designed to enable reliable communications with higher energy efficiency. It covers the Doppler Effect, which improves packet transmission reliability for effective low-complexity mirror-mapping-based intercarrier interference cancellation schemes capable of suppressing the intercarrier interference power level. Designed for professionals and researchers in the field of underwater acoustic communications, this book is also suitable for advanced-level students in electrical enginee...

  4. Using Simulation to Analyze Acoustic Environments

    Wood, Eric J.


    including push-to-talk buttons and volume control. With this project, an existing design was modified based on prior feedback that had been received. With the modified design, I created a 3D printed prototype, shown in Figure 4, which was then used in suited evaluations performed by crew members. The feedback received from those evaluations will be utilized to help create the best possible Orion AIU. As a whole, a number of different interesting engineering projects were worked on over the course of this semester. For many of these projects, acoustic simulations provided valuable insight into how different environments would respond to sound. While work is still underway to verify the results of these simulations, the results are fascinating because of the interesting ways that sound waves interact with the environment. Going forward, it will be interesting to see how closely these results can be matched by real-world test data.

  5. Operational monitoring of acoustic sensor networks

    Boltenkov V.A.


    Full Text Available Acoustic sensor networks (ASN are widely used to monitor water leaks in the power generating systems. Since the ASN are used in harsh climatic conditions the failures of microphone elements of ASN are inevitable. That's why the failure detection of ASN elements is a problem of current interest. Two techniques of operational monitoring ASN are developed. Both of them are based on the placement of the test sound source within a network. The signal processing for ASN sensors had to detect the failed element. Techniques are based time difference of arrival (TDOA estimating at the each pair of ASN elements. TDOA estimates as argmaximum of cross-correlation function (CCF for signals on each microphone sensors pair. The M-sequence phase-shift keyed signal is applied as a test acoustic signal to ensure high accuracy of the CCF maximum estimation at low signal/noise ratio (SNR. The first technique is based on the isolation principle for TDOA sum at three points. It require to locate the test sound source in the far field. This is not always possible due to technological reasons. For the second proposed technique test sound source can be located near the ASN. It is based on a system of hyperbolic equations solving for each of the four elements of the ASN. Both techniques has been tested in the computer imitation experiment. It was found that for the SNR to –5 dB both techniques show unmistakable indicators of control quality. The second method requires significantly more time control.

  6. Acoustic Propagation Modeling Using MATLAB


    Acoustic propagation, transient waves, transfer function, linear systems theory 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 13. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 1...method of diffraction prediction. This report describes an ap- proach based on linear systems theory and the Fourier transform. The goal was to achieve a...differed by the use of linear systems theory . Linear systems theory revealed the importance of the total impulse response and its equivalence to the

  7. Uncertainty analysis in acoustic investigations


    The problem of uncertainty assessment in acoustic investigations is presented in the hereby paper. The aspect of the uncertainty asymmetry in processing of data obtained in the measuring test of sound levels, determined in decibels, was sketched. On the basis of the analysis of data obtained in the continuous monitoring of road traffic noise in Krakow typical probability distributions for a day, evening and night were determined. The method of the uncertainty assessment based on the propagati...

  8. Acoustical characterization of portuguese libraries

    António Pedro Oliveira de Carvalho; António Eduardo Batista da Costa


    This paper presents the acoustical characterization of the main reading room of 28 public li-braries in Portugal. In situ measurements were held regarding the interior sound pressure lev-els (background noise, with and without the HVAC equipment working), the Noise Criteria and Noise Rating values (NC/NR), the objective speech intelligibility using the Rapid Speech Transmission Index (RASTI) and Reverberation Time (125 to 4k Hz). Two groups of librar-ies were formed (Classic and Modern librar...

  9. APL - North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory


    Flatté’s statistical acoustic code to Mike Porter at HLS Research for inclusion in the OALIB website. PUBLICATIONS Andrew, Rex K., James the MCPE confidence intervals and curves with diamonds show confidence intervals on the measured values. Diamonds indicate the depths at which...left, except that only depths from 800 to 1400 m are shown. The diamond -shaped symbols show the arrival depth and corresponding intensity of rays with

  10. Heart rate responses induced by acoustic tempo and its interaction with basal heart rate

    Watanabe, Ken; Ooishi, Yuuki; Kashino, Makio


    Many studies have revealed the influences of music on the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Since previous studies focused on the effects of acoustic tempo on the ANS, and humans have their own physiological oscillations such as the heart rate (HR), the effects of acoustic tempo might depend on the HR. Here we show the relationship between HR elevation induced by acoustic tempo and individual basal HR. Since high tempo-induced HR elevation requires fast respiration, which is based on sympatho-respiratory coupling, we controlled the participants’ respiration at a faster rate (20 CPM) than usual (15 CPM). We found that sound stimuli with a faster tempo than the individual basal HR increased the HR. However, the HR increased following a gradual increase in the acoustic tempo only when the extent of the gradual increase in tempo was within a specific range (around + 2%/min). The HR did not follow the increase in acoustic tempo when the rate of the increase in the acoustic tempo exceeded 3% per minute. These results suggest that the effect of the sympatho-respiratory coupling underlying the HR elevation caused by a high acoustic tempo depends on the basal HR, and the strength and the temporal dynamics of the tempo. PMID:28266647

  11. Optimal Acoustic Attenuation of Weakly Compressible Media Permeated with Air Bubbles

    LIANG Bin; CHENG Jian-Chun


    Based on fuzzy logic (FL) and genetic algorithm (GA), we present an optimization method to obtain the optimal acoustic attenuation of a longitudinal acoustic wave propagating in a weakly compressible medium permeated with air bubbles. In the optimization, the parameters of the size distribution of bubbles in the medium are optimized for providing uniformly high acoustic attenuation in the frequency band of interest. Compared with other traditional optimization methods, the unique advantage of the present method is that it can locate the global optimum quickly and effectively in need of knowing the mathematical model precisely. As illustrated by a numerical simulation, the method is effective and essential in enhancing the acoustic attenuation of such a medium in an optimal manner. The bubbly medium with optimized structural parameters can effectively attenuate longitudinal waves at intermediate frequencies with an acoustic attenuation approximating a constant value of 10(dB/cm). Such bubbly media with optimal acoustic attenuations may be applied to design acoustic absorbent by controlling broader attenuation band and higher efficiency.

  12. First trial postural reactions to unexpected balance disturbances: a comparison with the acoustic startle reaction.

    Oude Nijhuis, Lars B; Allum, John H J; Valls-Solé, Josep; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Bloem, Bastiaan R


    Unexpected support-surface movements delivered during stance elicit "first trial" postural reactions, which are larger and cause greater instability compared with habituated responses. The nature of this first trial reaction remains unknown. We hypothesized that first trial postural reactions consist of a generalized startle reaction, with a similar muscle synergy as the acoustic startle response, combined with an automatic postural reaction. Therefore we compared acoustic startle responses to first trial postural reactions. Eight healthy subjects stood on a support surface that unexpectedly rotated backwards 10 times, followed by 10 startling acoustic stimuli, or vice versa. Outcome measures included full body kinematics and surface EMG from muscles involved in startle reactions or postural control. Postural perturbations and startling acoustic stimuli both elicited a clear first trial reaction, as reflected by larger kinematic and EMG responses. The ensuing habituation rate to repeated identical stimuli was comparable for neck and trunk muscles in both conditions. Onset latencies in neck muscles occurred significantly later for first trial perturbations compared with startle responses, but earlier in trunk muscles. Our results show that platform tilting initially induces reactions larger than needed to maintain equilibrium. For neck and trunk muscles, these first trial postural reactions resembled acoustic startle reflexes. First trial postural reactions may be triggered by interaction of afferent volleys formed by somatosensory and vestibular inputs. Acoustic startle reactions may also be partially triggered by vestibular inputs. Similar muscle activation driven by vestibular inputs may be the common element of first trial postural responses and acoustic startle reactions.

  13. Accessing the exceptional points of parity-time symmetric acoustics

    Shi, Chengzhi; Dubois, Marc; Chen, Yun; Cheng, Lei; Ramezani, Hamidreza; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang


    Parity-time (PT) symmetric systems experience phase transition between PT exact and broken phases at exceptional point. These PT phase transitions contribute significantly to the design of single mode lasers, coherent perfect absorbers, isolators, and diodes. However, such exceptional points are extremely difficult to access in practice because of the dispersive behaviour of most loss and gain materials required in PT symmetric systems. Here we introduce a method to systematically tame these exceptional points and control PT phases. Our experimental demonstration hinges on an active acoustic element that realizes a complex-valued potential and simultaneously controls the multiple interference in the structure. The manipulation of exceptional points offers new routes to broaden applications for PT symmetric physics in acoustics, optics, microwaves and electronics, which are essential for sensing, communication and imaging.

  14. Active cancellation of acoustical resonances with an FPGA FIR filter.

    Ryou, Albert; Simon, Jonathan


    We present a novel approach to enhancing the bandwidth of a feedback-controlled mechanical system by digitally canceling acoustical resonances (poles) and anti-resonances (zeros) in the open-loop response via an FPGA FIR filter. By performing a real-time convolution of the feedback error signal with an inverse filter, we can suppress arbitrarily many poles and zeros below 100 kHz, each with a linewidth down to 10 Hz. We demonstrate the efficacy of this technique by canceling the ten largest mechanical resonances and anti-resonances of a high-finesse optical resonator, thereby enhancing the unity gain frequency by more than an order of magnitude. This approach is applicable to a broad array of stabilization problems including optical resonators, external cavity diode lasers, and scanning tunneling microscopes and points the way to applying modern optimal control techniques to intricate linear acoustical systems.

  15. Acoustic telemetry and fisheries management

    Crossin, Glenn T.; Heupel, Michelle R.; Holbrook, Christopher; Hussey, Nigel E.; Lowerre-Barbieri, Susan K; Nguyen, Vivian M.; Raby, Graham D.; Cooke, Steven J.


    This paper reviews the use of acoustic telemetry as a tool for addressing issues in fisheries management, and serves as the lead to the special Feature Issue of Ecological Applications titled “Acoustic Telemetry and Fisheries Management”. Specifically, we provide an overview of the ways in which acoustic telemetry can be used to inform issues central to the ecology, conservation, and management of exploited and/or imperiled fish species. Despite great strides in this area in recent years, there are comparatively few examples where data have been applied directly to influence fisheries management and policy. We review the literature on this issue, identify the strengths and weaknesses of work done to date, and highlight knowledge gaps and difficulties in applying empirical fish telemetry studies to fisheries policy and practice. We then highlight the key areas of management and policy addressed, as well as the challenges that needed to be overcome to do this. We conclude with a set of recommendations about how researchers can, in consultation with stock assessment scientists and managers, formulate testable scientific questions to address and design future studies to generate data that can be used in a meaningful way by fisheries management and conservation practitioners. We also urge the involvement of relevant stakeholders (managers, fishers, conservation societies, etc.) early on in the process (i.e. in the co-creation of research projects), so that all priority questions and issues can be addressed effectively.

  16. Vibro-acoustic analysis of the acoustic-structure interaction of flexible structure due to acoustic excitation

    Djojodihardjo, Harijono


    The application of BE-FE acoustic-structure interaction on a structure subject to acoustic load is elaborated using the boundary element-finite element acoustic structural coupling and the utilization of the computational scheme developed earlier. The plausibility of the numerical treatment is investigated and validated through application to generic cases. The analysis carried out in the work is intended to serve as a baseline in the analysis of acoustic structure interaction for lightweight structures. Results obtained thus far exhibit the robustness of the method developed.

  17. Measuring Acoustic Wave Transit Time in Furnace Based on Active Acoustic Source Signal

    Zhen Luo; Feng Tian; Xiao-Ping Sun


    Accurate measurement of transit time for acoustic wave between two sensors installed on two sides of a furnace is a key to implementing the temperature field measurement technique based on acoustical method. A new method for measuring transit time of acoustic wave based on active acoustic source signal is proposed in this paper, which includes the followings: the time when the acoustic source signal arrives at the two sensors is measured first; then, the difference of two arriving time arguments is computed, thereby we get the transit time of the acoustic wave between two sensors installed on the two sides of the furnace. Avoiding the restriction on acoustic source signal and background noise, the new method can get the transit time of acoustic wave with higher precision and stronger ability of resisting noise interference.

  18. Integration of Acoustic Detection Equipment into ANTARES

    Lahmann, R; Graf, K; Hoessl, J; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Katz, U; Naumann, C; Salomon, K


    The ANTARES group at the University of Erlangen is working towards the integration of a set of acoustic sensors into the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope. With this setup, tests of acoustic particle detection methods and background studies shall be performed. The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope, which is currently being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea, will be equipped with the infrastructure to accommodate a 3-dimensional array of photomultipliers for the detection of Cherenkov light. Within this infrastructure, the required resources for acoustic sensors are available: Bandwidth for the transmission of the acoustic data to the shore, electrical power for the off-shore electronics and physical space to install the acoustic sensors and to route the connecting cables (transmitting signals and power) into the electronics containers. It will be explained how the integration will be performed with minimal modifications of the existing ANTARES design and which setup is foreseen for the acquisition of the acoustic data.

  19. High-sensitivity fiber optic acoustic sensors

    Lu, Ping; Liu, Deming; Liao, Hao


    Due to the overwhelming advantages compared with traditional electronicsensors, fiber-optic acoustic sensors have arisen enormous interest in multiple disciplines. In this paper we present the recent research achievements of our group on fiber-optic acoustic sensors. The main point of our research is high sensitivity interferometric acoustic sensors, including Michelson, Sagnac, and Fabry-Pérot interferometers. In addition, some advanced technologies have been proposed for acoustic or acoustic pressure sensing such as single-mode/multimode fiber coupler, dual FBGs and multi-longitudinal mode fiber laser based acoustic sensors. Moreover, our attention we have also been paid on signal demodulation schemes. The intensity-based quadrature point (Q-point) demodulation, two-wavelength quadrature demodulation and symmetric 3×3 coupler methodare discussed and compared in this paper.

  20. Coupling between plate vibration and acoustic radiation

    Frendi, Abdelkader; Maestrello, Lucio; Bayliss, Alvin


    A detailed numerical investigation of the coupling between the vibration of a flexible plate and the acoustic radiation is performed. The nonlinear Euler equations are used to describe the acoustic fluid while the nonlinear plate equation is used to describe the plate vibration. Linear, nonlinear, and quasi-periodic or chaotic vibrations and the resultant acoustic radiation are analyzed. We find that for the linear plate response, acoustic coupling is negligible. However, for the nonlinear and chaotic responses, acoustic coupling has a significant effect on the vibration level as the loading increases. The radiated pressure from a plate undergoing nonlinear or chaotic vibrations is found to propagate nonlinearly into the far field. However, the nonlinearity due to wave propagation is much weaker than that due to the plate vibrations. As the acoustic wave propagates into the far field, the relative difference in level between the fundamental and its harmonics and subharmonics decreases with distance.

  1. Acoustic levitation of a large solid sphere

    Andrade, Marco A. B.; Bernassau, Anne L.; Adamowski, Julio C.


    We demonstrate that acoustic levitation can levitate spherical objects much larger than the acoustic wavelength in air. The acoustic levitation of an expanded polystyrene sphere of 50 mm in diameter, corresponding to 3.6 times the wavelength, is achieved by using three 25 kHz ultrasonic transducers arranged in a tripod fashion. In this configuration, a standing wave is created between the transducers and the sphere. The axial acoustic radiation force generated by each transducer on the sphere was modeled numerically as a function of the distance between the sphere and the transducer. The theoretical acoustic radiation force was verified experimentally in a setup consisting of an electronic scale and an ultrasonic transducer mounted on a motorized linear stage. The comparison between the numerical and experimental acoustic radiation forces presents a good agreement.

  2. Acoustic and Perceptual Cues to Contrastive Stress in Dysarthria

    Patel, Rupal; Campellone, Pamela


    Purpose: In this study, the authors sought to understand acoustic and perceptual cues to contrastive stress in speakers with dysarthria (DYS) and healthy controls (HC). Method: The production experiment examined the ability of 12 DYS (9 male, 3 female; M = 39 years of age) and 12 age- and gender-matched HC (9 male, 3 female; M = 37.5 years of age)…

  3. North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory: Deep Water Acoustic Propagation in the Philippine Sea


    and Yuen, M. Y. (2015). "Multipurpose acoustic networks in the Integrated Arctic Ocean Observing System," Arctic 68, 11-27. 2. Publications...the "Special Issue on Deep-water Ocean Acoustics" in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America (Vol. 134, No . 4, Pt. 2 of 2 , October20 13...15. SUBJECT TERMS ocean acoustics, deep water acousti c propagati on 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c

  4. Acoustic Characterization of Grass-cover Ground


    absorption in the higher frequency limits of the acoustic impedance measurements system compared to dried soil . THE CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF AMERICA ...Catholic University of America In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree Master of Science By Chelsea Good Washington, D.C 2014...and Hadj Benkreira. Acoustic properties of low grow- ing plants. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America , 133(5):2554–2565, 2013. [4] Jq

  5. Acoustic Casimir Pressure for Arbitrary Media

    Barcenas, J; Esquivel-Sirvent, R


    In this paper we derive a general expression for the acoustic Casimir pressure between two parallel slabs made of arbitrary materials and whose acoustic reflection coefficients are not equal. The formalism is based on the calculation of the local density of modes using a Green's function approach. The results for the Casimir acoustic pressure are generalized to a sphere/plate configuration using the proximity theorem

  6. Detecting the Nonlinearity of Fish Acoustic Signals

    REN Xinmin; YIN Li


    This paper discusses the nonlinearity of fish acoustic signals by using the surrogate data method.We compare the difference of three test statistics - time-irreversibility Trey, correlation dimension D2 and auto mutual information function Ⅰbetween the original data and the surrogate data.We come to the conclusion that there exists nonlinearity in the fish acoustic signals and there exist deterministic nonlinear components; therefore nonlinear dynamic theory can be used to analyze fish acoustic signals.

  7. Memory-Effect on Acoustic Cavitation

    Yavaṣ, Oğuz; Leiderer, Paul; Park, Hee K.; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Poon, Chie C.; Tam, Andrew C.


    The formation of bubbles at a liquid-solid interface due to acoustic cavitation depends particularly on the preconditions of the interface. Here, it wiIl be shown that following laser-induced bubble formation at the interface the acoustic cavitation efficiency is strongly enhanced. Optical reflectance measurements reveal that this observed enhancement of acoustic cavitation due to preceding laser-induced bubble formation, which could be termed as memory effect, decays in a few hundred microse...

  8. Outdoor Synthetic Aperture Acoustic Ground Target Measurements


    1341 (2003). [11] C. A. Dimarzio, T. Shi, F. J. Blonigen et al., “ Laser -Induced Acoustic Landmine Detection,” The Journal Of The Acoustical Society...High Frequency A/S Coupling For Ap Buried Landmine Detection Using Laser Doppler Vibrometers,” Proc. SPIE 5415(1), 35-41 (2004). [16] Bishop, S... Dolphin Echolocation Clicks For Target Discrimination,” The Journal Of The Acoustical Society Of America 124(1), 657-666 (2008). [20] Y. Nakamura

  9. Acoustic 3D imaging of dental structures

    Lewis, D.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hume, W.R. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Douglass, G.D. [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States)


    Our goals for the first year of this three dimensional electodynamic imaging project was to determine how to combine flexible, individual addressable; preprocessing of array source signals; spectral extrapolation or received signals; acoustic tomography codes; and acoustic propagation modeling code. We investigated flexible, individually addressable acoustic array material to find the best match in power, sensitivity and cost and settled on PVDF sheet arrays and 3-1 composite material.

  10. Experimental Acoustic Evaluation of an Auditorium

    Marina Dana Ţopa


    Full Text Available The paper presents a case history: the acoustical analysis of a rectangular auditorium. The following acoustical parameters were evaluated: early decay time, reverberation time, clarity, definition, and center time. The excitation signal was linear sweep sine and additional analysis was carried out: peak-to-noise ratio, reverberation time for empty and occupied room, standard deviation of acoustical parameters, diffusion, and just noticeable differences analysis. Conclusions about room’s destination and modeling were drawn in the end.

  11. Acoustic resonance phase locked photoacoustic spectrometer

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Bomse, David S.; Silver, Joel A.


    A photoacoustic spectroscopy method and apparatus for maintaining an acoustic source frequency on a sample cell resonance frequency comprising: providing an acoustic source to the sample cell to generate a photoacoustic signal, the acoustic source having a source frequency; continuously measuring detection phase of the photoacoustic signal with respect to source frequency or a harmonic thereof; and employing the measured detection phase to provide magnitude and direction for correcting the source frequency to the resonance frequency.

  12. Acoustic resonance frequency locked photoacoustic spectrometer

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Bomse, David S.; Silver, Joel A.


    A photoacoustic spectroscopy method and apparatus for maintaining an acoustic source frequency on a sample cell resonance frequency comprising: providing an acoustic source to the sample cell, the acoustic source having a source frequency; repeatedly and continuously sweeping the source frequency across the resonance frequency at a sweep rate; and employing an odd-harmonic of the source frequency sweep rate to maintain the source frequency sweep centered on the resonance frequency.

  13. Micromachined fiber optic Fabry-Perot underwater acoustic probe

    Wang, Fuyin; Shao, Zhengzheng; Hu, Zhengliang; Luo, Hong; Xie, Jiehui; Hu, Yongming


    One of the most important branches in the development trend of the traditional fiber optic physical sensor is the miniaturization of sensor structure. Miniature fiber optic sensor can realize point measurement, and then to develop sensor networks to achieve quasi-distributed or distributed sensing as well as line measurement to area monitoring, which will greatly extend the application area of fiber optic sensors. The development of MEMS technology brings a light path to address the problems brought by the procedure of sensor miniaturization. Sensors manufactured by MEMS technology possess the advantages of small volume, light weight, easy fabricated and low cost. In this paper, a fiber optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric underwater acoustic probe utilizing micromachined diaphragm collaborated with fiber optic technology and MEMS technology has been designed and implemented to actualize underwater acoustic sensing. Diaphragm with central embossment, where the embossment is used to anti-hydrostatic pressure which would largely deflect the diaphragm that induce interferometric fringe fading, has been made by double-sided etching of silicon on insulator. By bonding the acoustic-sensitive diaphragm as well as a cleaved fiber end in ferrule with an outer sleeve, an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer has been constructed. The sensor has been interrogated by quadrature-point control method and tested in field-stable acoustic standing wave tube. Results have been shown that the recovered signal detected by the sensor coincided well with the corresponding transmitted signal and the sensitivity response was flat in frequency range from 10 Hz to 2kHz with the value about -154.6 dB re. 1/μPa. It has been manifest that the designed sensor could be used as an underwater acoustic probe.

  14. Sonic effervescence: A tutorial on acoustic cavitation

    Apfel, R.E. [Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8286 (United States)


    This article on acoustic cavitation is a revision of a tutorial lecture presented at the Acoustical Society of America meeting in Austin, Texas, on 28 November 1994. The general approach adopted here differs from a review article in stressing the overarching themes that come under the category of acoustic cavitation, rather than being an encyclopedic reference on the topic. When possible, specific order-of-magnitude estimates have been given so that the reader can better understand the particular phenomena being described. The basic physics is discussed, and applications are reviewed with the goal of putting them in a useful context. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}

  15. Propagation behavior of acoustic wave in wood

    Huadong Xu; Guoqi Xu; Lihai Wang; Lei Yu


    We used acoustic tests on a quarter-sawn poplar timbers to study the effects of wood anisotropy and cavity defects on acoustic wave velocity and travel path, and we investigated acoustic wave propagation behavior in wood. The timber specimens were first tested in unmodified condition and then tested after introduction of cavity defects of varying sizes to quantify the transmitting time of acoustic waves in laboratory conditions. Two-dimensional acoustic wave contour maps on the radial section of specimens were then simulated and analyzed based on the experimental data. We tested the relationship between wood grain and acoustic wave velocity as waves passed in various directions through wood. Wood anisotropy has significant effects on both velocity and travel path of acoustic waves, and the velocity of waves passing longitudinally through timbers exceeded the radial velocity. Moreover, cavity defects altered acoustic wave time contours on radial sections of timbers. Acous-tic wave transits from an excitation point to the region behind a cavity in defective wood more slowly than in intact wood.

  16. Acoustic concerns related to multi cultural societies

    Gade, Anders Christian


    Immigration has increased cultural diversity in western societies. The process of integrating immigrants into their host countries can be smoothed if acousticians learn to recognize (1) the acoustic traditions of immigrant cultures and (2) the specific acoustic needs of the new society members. Two...... related projects are discussed. The ``Cahrisma'' project (Conservation of Acoustical Heritage by the Revival and Identification of the Sinan's Mosque Acoustics) is sponsored by the European Commission and carried out in cooperation among researchers in Turkey, Malta, Italy, France, Switzerland...

  17. Acoustics of finite-aperture vortex beams

    Mitri, F G


    A method based on the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld surface integral is provided, which makes it feasible to rigorously model, evaluate and compute the acoustic scattering and other mechanical effects of finite-aperture vortex beams such as the acoustic radiation force and torque on a viscoelastic sphere in various applications in acoustic tweezers and microfluidics, particle entrapment, manipulation and rotation. Partial-wave series expansions are derived for the incident field of acoustic spiraling (vortex) beams, comprising high-order Bessel and Bessel-Gauss beams.

  18. Theory of Acoustic Raman Modes in Proteins

    DeWolf, Timothy; Gordon, Reuven


    We present a theoretical analysis that associates the resonances of extraordinary acoustic Raman (EAR) spectroscopy [Wheaton et al., Nat. Photonics 9, 68 (2015)] with the collective modes of proteins. The theory uses the anisotropic elastic network model to find the protein acoustic modes, and calculates Raman intensity by treating the protein as a polarizable ellipsoid. Reasonable agreement is found between EAR spectra and our theory. Protein acoustic modes have been extensively studied theoretically to assess the role they play in protein function; this result suggests EAR spectroscopy as a new experimental tool for studies of protein acoustic modes.

  19. Monitoring of Robot Assisted Polishing through parameters of acoustic emission

    Lazarev, Ruslan; Top, Søren; Bilberg, Arne

    , the duration of each process stage and predict the end of process in a precise and unmanned way. This paper presents and analyses the utilization of acoustic emission for generation of control signals in the stone polishing process for achieving these control objectives in an industrial set-up prototype........ The determination of the point in time to change a polishing media or stop the process is needed for computer controlled functional surface generation. During the last years, several research works have been done in order to build grinding/polishing monitoring systems to determine process characteristics...

  20. Acoustic characteristics of the water of the Bay of Bengal

    Murty, T.V.R.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Chodankar, P.V.; Murty, C.S.

    Acoustic eigen rays (rays connecting the source and receiver) have been indentified and their turning depth, path length, travel time etc. evaluated. Acoustic intensity loss due to mean environmental conditions, vergence along acoustic rays...

  1. Identification of Acoustic-Vibratory System by Acoustic Measurement

    Takuzo Iwatsubo


    Full Text Available A new method for reducing ill-conditioning in a class of identification problems is proposed. The key point of the method is that the identified vibration of the sound source is expressed as a superposition of vibration modes. The mathematical property of the coefficient matrix, the practical error expanding ratio, and the stochastic error expanding ratio are investigated in a numerical example. The mode-superposition method is shown to be an effective tool for acoustic-vibratory inverse analysis.

  2. Effect of Coversheet Materials on the Acoustic Performance of Melamine Foam

    McNelis, Anne M.; Hughes, William O.


    Melamine foam is a highly absorptive material that is often used inside the payload fairing walls of a launch vehicle. This foam reduces the acoustic excitation environment that the spacecraft experiences during launch. Often, the melamine foam is enclosed by thin coversheet materials for contamination protection, thermal protection, and electrostatic discharge control. Previous limited acoustic testing by NASA Glenn Research Center has shown that the presence of a coversheet material on the melamine foam can have a significant impact on the absorption coefficient and the transmission loss. As a result of this preliminary finding a more extensive acoustic test program using several different coversheet materials on melamine foam was performed. Those test results are summarized in this paper. Additionally, a method is provided to use the acoustic absorption and transmission loss data obtained from panel level testing to predict their combined effect for the noise reduction of a launch vehicle payload fairing.

  3. Acoustic imaging and mirage effects with high transmittance in a periodically perforated metal slab

    Zhao, Sheng-Dong; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Zhang, Chuanzeng


    In this paper, we present a high-quality superlens to focus acoustic waves using a periodically perforated metallic structure which is made of zinc and immersed in water. By changing a geometrical parameter gradually, a kind of gradient-index phononic crystal lens is designed to attain the mirage effects. The acoustic waves can propagate along an arc-shaped trajectory which is precisely controlled by the angle and frequency of the incident waves. The negative refraction imaging effect depends delicately on the transmittance of the solid structure. The acoustic impedance matching between the solid and the liquid proposed in this article, which is determined by the effective density and group velocity of the unit-cell, is significant for overcoming the inefficiency problem of acoustic devices. This study focuses on how to obtain the high transmittance imaging and mirage effects based on the adequate material selection and geometrical design.

  4. Perceptual and acoustic analysis of lexical stress in Greek speakers with dysarthria.

    Papakyritsis, Ioannis; Müller, Nicole


    The study reported in this paper investigated the abilities of Greek speakers with dysarthria to signal lexical stress at the single word level. Three speakers with dysarthria and two unimpaired control participants were recorded completing a repetition task of a list of words consisting of minimal pairs of Greek disyllabic words contrasted by lexical stress location only. Fourteen listeners were asked to determine the attempted stress location for each word pair. Acoustic analyses of duration and intensity ratios, both within and across words, were undertaken to identify possible acoustic correlates of the listeners' judgments concerning stress location. Acoustic and perceptual data indicate that while each participant with dysarthria in this study had some difficulty in signaling stress unambiguously, the pattern of difficulty was different for each speaker. Further, it was found that the relationship between the listeners' judgments of stress location and the acoustic data was not conclusive.

  5. Echo-acoustic flow dynamically modifies the cortical map of target range in bats

    Bartenstein, Sophia K.; Gerstenberg, Nadine; Vanderelst, Dieter; Peremans, Herbert; Firzlaff, Uwe


    Echolocating bats use the delay between their sonar emissions and the reflected echoes to measure target range, a crucial parameter for avoiding collisions or capturing prey. In many bat species, target range is represented as an orderly organized map of echo delay in the auditory cortex. Here we show that the map of target range in bats is dynamically modified by the continuously changing flow of acoustic information perceived during flight (‘echo-acoustic flow’). Combining dynamic acoustic stimulation in virtual space with extracellular recordings, we found that neurons in the auditory cortex of the bat Phyllostomus discolor encode echo-acoustic flow information on the geometric relation between targets and the bat’s flight trajectory, rather than echo delay per se. Specifically, the cortical representation of close-range targets is enlarged when the lateral passing distance of the target decreases. This flow-dependent enlargement of target representation may trigger adaptive behaviours such as vocal control or flight manoeuvres.

  6. Cracked structure-acoustic coupling problems by hybrid fractal FE and BE methods

    吴国荣; 仲伟芳


    Evaluation of the sound-structure interaction is important for effective control of noise and vibration in structural acoustic systems. Cracked elastic structure-sound interaction problems are studied by employing the hybrid fractal FEM and BEM. The degrees of freedom of the system can be reduced greatly through adopting fractal FEM in discretizing the cracked elastic structure; while the exterior acoustic field is calculated by BEM, which automatically satisfies Sommerfeld's radiation condition. Numerical examples are given and show that the resonant frequencies of the structure-acoustic coupled system decrease as the depth of the crack increases, and that the crack has a significant effect on the acoustical field in the vicinity of the crack tip.

  7. Microcrack Identification in Cement-Based Materials Using Nonlinear Acoustic Waves

    Chen, X. J.; Kim, J.-Y.; Qu, J.; Kurtis, K. E.; Wu, S. C.; Jacobs, L. J.


    This paper presents results from tests that use nonlinear acoustic waves to distinguish microcracks in cement-based materials. Portland cement mortar samples prepared with alkali-reactive aggregate were exposed to an aggressive environment to induce cracking were compared to control samples, of the same composition, but which were not exposed to aggressive conditions. Two nonlinear ultrasonic methods were used to characterize the samples, with the aim of identifying the time and extent of microcracking; these techniques were a nonlinear acoustical modulation (NAM) method and a harmonic amplitude relation (HAR) method. These nonlinear acoustic results show that both methods can distinguish damaged samples from undamaged ones, demonstrating the potential of nonlinear acoustic waves to provide a quantitative evaluation of the deterioration of cement-based materials.

  8. Airy acoustical-sheet spinner tweezers

    Mitri, F. G.


    The Airy acoustical beam exhibits parabolic propagation and spatial acceleration, meaning that the propagation bending angle continuously increases before the beam trajectory reaches a critical angle where it decays after a propagation distance, without applying any external bending force. As such, it is of particular importance to investigate its properties from the standpoint of acoustical radiation force, spin torque, and particle dynamics theories, in the development of novel particle sorting techniques and acoustically mediated clearing systems. This work investigates these effects on a two-dimensional (2D) circular absorptive structure placed in the field of a nonparaxial Airy "acoustical-sheet" (i.e., finite beam in 2D), for potential applications in surface acoustic waves and acousto-fluidics. Based on the characteristics of the acoustic field, the beam is capable of manipulating the circular cylindrical fluid cross-section and guides it along a transverse or parabolic trajectory. This feature of Airy acoustical beams could lead to a unique characteristic in single-beam acoustical tweezers related to acoustical sieving, filtering, and removal of particles and cells from a section of a small channel. The analysis developed here is based on the description of the nonparaxial Airy beam using the angular spectrum decomposition of plane waves in close association with the partial-wave series expansion method in cylindrical coordinates. The numerical results demonstrate the ability of the nonparaxial Airy acoustical-sheet beam to pull, propel, or accelerate a particle along a parabolic trajectory, in addition to particle confinement in the transverse direction of wave propagation. Negative or positive radiation force and spin torque causing rotation in the clockwise or the anticlockwise direction can occur depending on the nondimensional parameter ka (where k is the wavenumber and a is the radius) and the location of the cylinder in the beam. Applications in

  9. Investigation of acoustic scale effects and boundary effects for the similitude model of underwater complex shell-structure

    WANG San-de; YANG De-sen; LIU Ning


    In this paper, the acoustic scale effects and boundary effects for the similitude model of underwater complex shell-structure are investigated. The similitude conditions and relations between the similitude model and its prototype were studied in the references This paper investigates the acoustic scale effects for the similitude model, which are influenced by loss factor, shear and rotatory inertia. At the same time, the boundary effects which are influenced by surface sound reflection are investigated in the experiment of similitude model. The results show that the acoustic scale effects may be controlled with model designing, the boundary effects can be controlled with experimental designing between the similitude model and its prototype.

  10. Identification of Turbomachinery Noise Sources Using Acoustical Holography Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Evaluation and enhancement of the acoustical performance of turbomachinery requires knowledge of the acoustic sources. However, the noise generation mechanisms...

  11. Storability evaluation of Golab apple with acoustic and penetration methods

    M. R Bayati


    mechanical and acoustic response of the flesh tissue to compression, using a texture analyzer coupled with an acoustic device. The methodology was applied to a 86 different apple cultivars, measured after two months postharvest cold storage and characterised by 16 acoustic and mechanical parameters. The results demonstrate the good performance of our combined acoustic-mechanical strategy in measuring apple crispness as it is perceived by human senses (costa et al, 2011. Hence, present study was about postharvest durability evaluation of this apple in cold storage and effect of methylcellulose coating on durability of this sensitive apple for both intact and damaged ones. Materials and Methods: After obtaining Golab apples, from one of the gardens of Karaj (Alborz province, Iran, 240 of them were selected. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the firmness of apples with two methods: penetration (destructive and acoustic (non destructive. The tests were performed in Agricultural Engineering Research Institute in Karaj. Firmness is one of the fruit characteristics that changes during storage. In present study, this characteristic of the apple fruit was assessed by two mentioned methods. Half of the apples were damaged with identified and controlled impact. In the next stage, another half of apples in both groups (the intact apples and the bruised apples were coated with methylcellulose. Effect storage on apple in four groups, including: Intact and uncoated apples, intact and coated (with methylcellulose apples, bruised and uncoated apples and bruised and coated apples during about ten weeks of cold storage at 2˚C and 85% RH was studied by the acoustic and the penetration tests. Acoustic parameters including: natural frequency, firmness index, elasticity coefficient were measured by recording audio signals resulting from non destructive impacts of a pendulum using a sound analyzer microphone and then the conversion of those parameters were performed from the time domain to the

  12. An overview of acoustic telemetry

    Drumheller, D.S.


    Acoustic telemetry has been a dream of the drilling industry for the past 50 years. It offers the promise of data rates which are one-hundred times greater than existing technology. Such a system would open the door to true logging-while-drilling technology and bring enormous profits to its developers. The basic idea is to produce an encoded sound wave at the bottom of the well, let it propagate up the steel drillpipe, and extract the data from the signal at the surface. Unfortunately, substantial difficulties arise. The first difficult problem is to produce the sound wave. Since the most promising transmission wavelengths are about 20 feet, normal transducer efficiencies are quire low. Compounding this problem is the structural complexity of the bottomhole assembly and drillstring. For example, the acoustic impedance of the drillstring changes every 30 feet and produces an unusual scattering pattern in the acoustic transmission. This scattering pattern causes distortion of the signal and is often confused with signal attenuation. These problems are not intractable. Recent work has demonstrated that broad frequency bands exist which are capable of transmitting data at rates up to 100 bits per second. Our work has also identified the mechanism which is responsible for the observed anomalies in the patterns of signal attenuation. Furthermore in the past few years a body of experience has been developed in designing more efficient transducers for application to metal waveguides. The direction of future work is clear. New transducer designs which are more efficient and compatible with existing downhole power supplies need to be built and tested; existing field test data need to be analyzed for transmission bandwidth and attenuation; and the new and less expensive methods of collecting data on transmission path quality need to be incorporated into this effort. 11 refs.

  13. Superhigh Temperatures and Acoustic Cavitation

    Belyaev, V B; Miller, M B; Sermyagin, A V; Topolnikov, A S


    The experimental results on thermonuclear synthesis under acoustic cavitation have been analyzed with the account of the latest data and their discussion. The analysis testifies that this avenue of research is a very promising one. The numerical calculations of the D(d, n)^{3}He reaction rate in the deuterated acetone (C_{3}D_{6}O) under the influence of ultrasound depending on T environment temperature within the range T=249-295 K have been carried out within the framework of hydrodynamic model. The results show that it is possible to improve substantially the effect/background relationship in experiments by decreasing the fluid temperature twenty-thirty degrees below zero.

  14. Surface Acoustic Wave Frequency Comb

    Savchenkov, A A; Ilchenko, V S; Seidel, D; Maleki, L


    We report on realization of an efficient triply-resonant coupling between two long lived optical modes and a high frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) mode of the same monolithic crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator. The coupling results in an opto-mechanical oscillation and generation of a monochromatic SAW. A strong nonlinear interaction of this mechanical mode with other equidistant SAW modes leads to mechanical hyper-parametric oscillation and generation of a SAW pulse train and associated frequency comb in the resonator. We visualized the comb observing the modulation of the modulated light escaping the resonator.

  15. Acoustic emission methodology and application

    Nazarchuk, Zinoviy; Serhiyenko, Oleh


    This monograph analyses in detail the physical aspects of the elastic waves radiation during deformation or fracture of materials. I presents the  methodological bases for the practical use of acoustic emission device, and describes the results of theoretical and experimental researches of evaluation of the crack growth resistance of materials, selection of the useful AE signals. The efficiency of this methodology is shown through the diagnostics of various-purpose industrial objects. The authors obtain results of experimental researches with the help of the new methods and facilities.

  16. Physical acoustics principles and methods

    Mason, Warren P


    Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods, Volume l-Part A focuses on high frequency sound waves in gases, liquids, and solids that have been proven as powerful tools in analyzing the molecular, defect, domain wall, and other types of motions. The selection first tackles wave propagation in fluids and normal solids and guided wave propagation in elongated cylinders and plates. Discussions focus on fundamentals of continuum mechanics; small-amplitude waves in a linear viscoelastic medium; representation of oscillations and waves; and special effects associated with guided elastic waves in plat

  17. OFDM for underwater acoustic communications

    Zhou, Shengli


    A blend of introductory material and advanced signal processing and communication techniques, of critical importance to underwater system and network development This book, which is the first to describe the processing techniques central to underwater OFDM, is arranged into four distinct sections: First, it describes the characteristics of underwater acoustic channels, and stresses the difference from wireless radio channels. Then it goes over the basics of OFDM and channel coding. The second part starts with an overview of the OFDM receiver, and develops various modules for the receiver des

  18. Sonochemistry and the acoustic bubble

    Grieser, Franz; Enomoto, Naoya; Harada, Hisashi; Okitsu, Kenji; Yasui, Kyuichi


    Sonochemistry and the Acoustic Bubble provides an introduction to the way ultrasound acts on bubbles in a liquid to cause bubbles to collapse violently, leading to localized 'hot spots' in the liquid with temperatures of 5000° celcius and under pressures of several hundred atmospheres. These extreme conditions produce events such as the emission of light, sonoluminescence, with a lifetime of less than a nanosecond, and free radicals that can initiate a host of varied chemical reactions (sonochemistry) in the liquid, all at room temperature. The physics and chemistry behind the p

  19. Introducing passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring: Motor bike piston-bore fault identification

    Jena, D. P.; Panigrahi, S. N.


    Requirement of designing a sophisticated digital band-pass filter in acoustic based condition monitoring has been eliminated by introducing a passive acoustic filter in the present work. So far, no one has attempted to explore the possibility of implementing passive acoustic filters in acoustic based condition monitoring as a pre-conditioner. In order to enhance the acoustic based condition monitoring, a passive acoustic band-pass filter has been designed and deployed. Towards achieving an efficient band-pass acoustic filter, a generalized design methodology has been proposed to design and optimize the desired acoustic filter using multiple filter components in series. An appropriate objective function has been identified for genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique with multiple design constraints. In addition, the sturdiness of the proposed method has been demonstrated in designing a band-pass filter by using an n-branch Quincke tube, a high pass filter and multiple Helmholtz resonators. The performance of the designed acoustic band-pass filter has been shown by investigating the piston-bore defect of a motor-bike using engine noise signature. On the introducing a passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring reveals the enhancement in machine learning based fault identification practice significantly. This is also a first attempt of its own kind.

  20. Sound transmission of an active acoustic structure with porous materials based on the (u,p) formulation

    HU Ying; CHEN Ke'an; M. A. Galland; C. Batifol


    A method based on the combination of the (u,p) formulation and finite element method was applied to calcu~ati~g the acoust~cM performance of a double-wall active acoustic structure with porous materials. The (u, p) formulation based on the displacement in solid phase and the pressure in fluid phase was developed to investigate the sound propagation in porous materials. The acoustic performance of the double-wM1 active acoustic structure having porous materials was calculated and the measurement was taken. The numerical results matched well with the measured data. More than 10 dB transmission loss of the double-wall active acoustic structure can be improved in the resonance frequency with active control, and its absorption coefficient is up to 0.6 over 500 Hz. The relative error between the prediction and measurement is less than 5% at the resonance frequency of the porous materials.

  1. Compact transformable acoustic logic gates for broadband complex Boolean operations based on density-near-zero metamaterials

    Zhang, Ting; Cheng, Ying; Yuan, Bao-Guo; Guo, Jian-Zhong; Liu, Xiao-Jun


    The extraordinary transmission in density-near-zero (DNZ) acoustic metamaterials (AMs) provides possibilities to manipulate acoustic signals with extremely large effective phase velocity and wavelength. Here, we report compact transformable acoustic logic gates with a subwavelength size as small as 0.82λ based on DNZ AMs. The basic acoustic logic gates, composed of a tri-port structure filled with space-coiling DNZ AMs, enable precise direct linear interference of input signals with considerably small phase lag and wavefront distortion. We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally the basic Boolean logic operations such as OR, AND, XOR, and NOT with wide operational frequency ranges and controllability, by adjusting the phase difference between two input signals. More complex logic calculus, such as "I1 + I2 × I3," are also realized by cascading of the basic logic gates. Our proposal provides diverse routes to construct devices for acoustic signal computing and manipulations.

  2. Enhanced Acoustic Emission in Relation to the Acoustic Halo Surrounding Active Region 11429

    Hanson, Chris S; Leka, K D


    The use of acoustic holography in the high-frequency $p$-mode spectrum can resolve the source distributions of enhanced acoustic emissions within halo structures surrounding active regions. In doing so, statistical methods can then be applied to ascertain relationships with the magnetic field. This is the focus of this study. The mechanism responsible for the detected enhancement of acoustic sources around solar active regions has not yet been explained. Furthermore the relationship between the magnetic field and enhanced acoustic emission has not yet been comprehensively examined. We have used vector magnetograms from the \\Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to image the magnetic-field properties in the halo. We have studied the acoustic morphology of an active region, with a complex halo and "glories," and we have linked some acoustic properties to the magnetic-field configuration. In particular, we find that acoustic sources are significantly enhanced in reg...

  3. Design of a cross-dipole array acoustic logging tool

    Lu Junqiang; Ju Xiaodong; Cheng Xiangyang


    When entering an anisotropic formation,a shear wave splits into a fast wave and a slow wave.Based on the principle of four-component cross-dipole acoustic wave measurement,the anisotropy of HTI (Horizontal Transverse Isotropy) formation can be determined.The method of calculating the fast and slow wave data when a shear wave propagates along the borehole axis in anisotropic formation was analyzed,and the implementation of a cross-dipole acoustic logging tool was demonstrated.The tool was composed of transmitter electronics,transmitter mandrel,acoustic isolator,receiver mandrel and main control electronics.Sonde,transmitter circuit,signal receiving and processing circuit,data acquisition system,system control circuit and telemetry interface circuit were presented and analyzed.The test model was used in production wells and standard wells in various areas and the four-component cross-dipole waves were acquired and processed.The waves had good signal-to-noise ratio and clear characteristics,and the fast and slow waveforms,processed slowness curves,anisotropy and fast shear wave azimuth well matched with each other.

  4. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Acoustic Neuromas: What Happens Long Term?

    Roos, Daniel E., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); University of Adelaide School of Medicine, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Potter, Andrew E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Brophy, Brian P. [Department of Neurosurgery, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); University of Adelaide School of Medicine, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia)


    Purpose: To determine the clinical outcomes for acoustic neuroma treated with low-dose linear accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) >10 years earlier at the Royal Adelaide Hospital using data collected prospectively at a dedicated SRS clinic. Methods and Materials: Between November 1993 and December 2000, 51 patients underwent SRS for acoustic neuroma. For the 44 patients with primary SRS for sporadic (unilateral) lesions, the median age was 63 years, the median of the maximal tumor diameter was 21 mm (range, 11-34), and the marginal dose was 14 Gy for the first 4 patients and 12 Gy for the other 40. Results: The crude tumor control rate was 97.7% (1 patient required salvage surgery for progression at 9.75 years). Only 8 (29%) of 28 patients ultimately retained useful hearing (interaural pure tone average {<=}50 dB). Also, although the Kaplan-Meier estimated rate of hearing preservation at 5 years was 57% (95% confidence interval, 38-74%), this decreased to 24% (95% confidence interval, 11-44%) at 10 years. New or worsened V and VII cranial neuropathy occurred in 11% and 2% of patients, respectively; all cases were transient. No case of radiation oncogenesis developed. Conclusions: The long-term follow-up data of low-dose (12-14 Gy) linear accelerator SRS for acoustic neuroma have confirmed excellent tumor control and acceptable cranial neuropathy rates but a continual decrease in hearing preservation out to {>=}10 years.

  5. Clinical Study of Acoustic Densitometry Technique in Detecting Atherosclerotic Plaque


    Objective: To investigate the effect of Quyu Xiaoban Capsule (祛瘀消斑, QYXB) on the regressive treatment of atherosclerosis (AS) with acoustic densitometry (AD) technique. Methods: Eighty patients with AS were randomly divided into two groups, trial group was treated with QYXB and conventional medicine, and control group was treated with conventional medicine alone. Normal arterial wall and different types of atherosclerotic plaques were detected with AD technique before treatment and 10 months later. Resuits: The corrected averages in intimal echo intensity (AIIc%) were elevated in both groups but without significant difference, AIIc% of fatty plaques were increased in both groups and the value after treatment was significantly higher than that of pre-treatment in the trial group (68.12±5.54 vs 61.43±5.37, P<0.05).The increment rate of AIIc% in trial group was significantly higher than that in control group (10.9±5.1% vs2.5±5.5%, P<0.05). Conclusion: QYXB can stabilize the atherosclerotic plaque by increasing its acoustic density. Acoustic densitometry technique can differentiate the different histological plaques and monitor the histological changes of plaques during treatment.

  6. On Collisionless Damping of Ion Acoustic Waves

    Jensen, Vagn Orla; Petersen, P.I.


    Exact theoretical treatments show that the damping of ion acoustic waves in collisionless plasmas does not vanish when the derivative of the undisturbed distribution function at the phase velocity equals zero.......Exact theoretical treatments show that the damping of ion acoustic waves in collisionless plasmas does not vanish when the derivative of the undisturbed distribution function at the phase velocity equals zero....

  7. Room acoustic properties of concert halls

    Gade, Anders Christian


    A large database of values of various room acoustic parameters has provided the basis for statistical analyses of how and how much the acoustic properties of concert halls are influenced by their size, shape, and absorption area (as deduced from measured reverberation time). The data have been...

  8. An Optimisation Approach for Room Acoustics Design

    Holm-Jørgensen, Kristian; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, Lars


    This paper discuss on a conceptual level the value of optimisation techniques in architectural acoustics room design from a practical point of view. It is chosen to optimise one objective room acoustics design criterium estimated from the sound field inside the room. The sound field is modeled...

  9. Acoustics in rock and pop music halls

    Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian


    The existing body of literature regarding the acoustic design of concert halls has focused almost exclusively on classical music, although there are many more performances of rhythmic music, including rock and pop. Objective measurements were made of the acoustics of twenty rock music venues...

  10. Design basis of industrial acoustic separators

    Cappon, H.J.; Keesman, K.J.


    This study presents the process of obtaining a basic design for an industrial scale acoustic separator based on flow characteristics inside the separation chamber, on acoustic analysis within the chamber and calculated particle trajectories combining these two analyses. Adequate criteria for subsequ

  11. An acoustical model based monitoring network

    Wessels, P.W.; Basten, T.G.H.; Eerden, F.J.M. van der


    In this paper the approach for an acoustical model based monitoring network is demonstrated. This network is capable of reconstructing a noise map, based on the combination of measured sound levels and an acoustic model of the area. By pre-calculating the sound attenuation within the network the noi

  12. Environmental Fluctuations and Acoustic Data Communications


    GOALS Couple together analytical and numerical modeling of oceanographic and surface wave processes, acoustic propagation modeling, statistical...acoustic digital data communication systems in shallow water. OBJECTIVES Develop analytical /numerical models, validated with experimental data...simplified geometry simulated. An asymmetric source- receiver geometry results in a striation pattern that is dominated by upward or downward

  13. Nonadhesive acoustic membranes based on polyimide

    Vorob'ev A.V.


    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of technical characteristics of acoustic membranes with an adhesive layer and nonadhesive membranes. The authors present the manufacturing technology for acoustic membranes based on aluminum-polyimide film dielectrics and analyze the advantages of such membranes in comparison to other sound emitters.

  14. Acoustic characteristics of Danish infant directed speech

    Bohn, Ocke-Schwen


    Danish presents several challenges for language learners, such as a very densely packed upper portion of the acoustic vowel space, and a sibilant contrast that is acoustically less distinct than in e.g. English. The present study examined whether Danish caregivers enhance Danish contrasts when......'s receptive vocabulary knowledge....

  15. Acoustic power measurements of oscillating flames

    Valk, M.


    The acoustic power of an oscillating flame is measured. A turbulent premixed propane/air flame is situated near a pressure antinode of a standing wave in a laboratory combustion chamber. This standing wave is generated by a piston. The fluctuating heat release of the flame will supply acoustic power

  16. Spectral statistics of the acoustic stadium

    Méndez-Sánchez, R. A.; Báez, G.; Leyvraz, F.; Seligman, T. H.


    We calculate the normal-mode frequencies and wave amplitudes of the two-dimensional acoustical stadium. We also obtain the statistical properties of the acoustical spectrum and show that they agree with the results given by random matrix theory. Some normal-mode wave amplitudes showing scarring are presented.

  17. Performance of several viscothermal acoustic finite elements

    Kampinga, W.R.; Wijnant, Y.H.; Boer, de A.


    Viscothermal acoustics can be described by the linearized Navier Stokes equations. Besides inertia and compressibility, these equations take the heat conductivity and the viscosity of the medium (air) into account. These 'viscothermal' effects are significant in, for example, miniature acoustic tran

  18. Acoustic Pattern Recognition on Android Devices

    Møller, Maiken Bjerg; Gaarsdal, Jesper; Steen, Kim Arild


    an Android application developed for acoustic pattern recognition of bird species. The acoustic data is recorded using a built-in microphone, and pattern recognition is performed on the device, requiring no network connection. The algorithm is implemented in C++ as a native Android module and the Open...

  19. Analysis of acoustic emission data for bearings subject to unbalance

    Rapinder Sawhney


    Full Text Available Acoustic Emission (AE is an effective nondestructive method for investigating the behavior of materials under stress. In recent decades, AE applications in structural health monitoring have been extended to other areas such as rotating machineries and cutting tools. This research investigates the application of acoustic emission data for unbalance analysis and detection in rotary systems. The AE parameter of interest in this study is a discrete variable that covers the significance of count, duration and amplitude of AE signals. A statistical model based on Zero-Inflated Poisson (ZIP regression is proposed to handle over-dispersion and excess zeros of the counting data. The ZIP model indicates that faulty bearings can generate more transient wave in the AE waveform. Control charts can easily detect the faulty bearing using the parameters of the ZIP model. Categorical data analysis based on generalized linear models (GLM is also presented. The results demonstrate the significance of the couple unbalance.

  20. International Symposium on Recent Advances in Aerodynamics and Acoustics

    Smith, Charles


    The Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics at Stanford University was established in October 1973 to provide an academic environment for long-term cooperative research between Stanford and NASA Ames Research Center. Since its establishment, the Institute has conducted theoretical and experimental work in the areas of aerodynamics, acoustics, fluid mechanics, flight dynamics, guidance and control, and human factors. This research has involved Stanford faculty, research associates, graduate students, and many distinguished visitors in collaborative efforts with the research staff of NASA Ames Research Center. The occasion of the Institute's tenth anniversary was used to reflect back on where that research has brought us, and to consider where our endeavors should be directed next. Thus, an International Symposium was held to review recent advances in the fields relevant to the activities of the Institute and to discuss the areas of research to be undertaken in the future. This anniversary was also chosen...