Scattering Of Nonplanar Acoustic Waves
Gillman, Judith M.; Farassat, F.; Myers, M. K.
1995-01-01
Report presents theoretical study of scattering of nonplanar acoustic waves by rigid bodies. Study performed as part of effort to develop means of predicting scattering, from aircraft fuselages, of noise made by rotating blades. Basic approach was to model acoustic scattering by use of boundary integral equation to solve equation by the Galerkin method.
Acoustic scattering by multiple elliptical cylinders using collocation multipole method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Wei-Ming
2012-01-01
This paper presents the collocation multipole method for the acoustic scattering induced by multiple elliptical cylinders subjected to an incident plane sound wave. To satisfy the Helmholtz equation in the elliptical coordinate system, the scattered acoustic field is formulated in terms of angular and radial Mathieu functions which also satisfy the radiation condition at infinity. The sound-soft or sound-hard boundary condition is satisfied by uniformly collocating points on the boundaries. For the sound-hard or Neumann conditions, the normal derivative of the acoustic pressure is determined by using the appropriate directional derivative without requiring the addition theorem of Mathieu functions. By truncating the multipole expansion, a finite linear algebraic system is derived and the scattered field can then be determined according to the given incident acoustic wave. Once the total field is calculated as the sum of the incident field and the scattered field, the near field acoustic pressure along the scatterers and the far field scattering pattern can be determined. For the acoustic scattering of one elliptical cylinder, the proposed results match well with the analytical solutions. The proposed scattered fields induced by two and three elliptical–cylindrical scatterers are critically compared with those provided by the boundary element method to validate the present method. Finally, the effects of the convexity of an elliptical scatterer, the separation between scatterers and the incident wave number and angle on the acoustic scattering are investigated.
Support minimized inversion of acoustic and elastic wave scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Safaeinili, A.
1994-01-01
This report discusses the following topics on support minimized inversion of acoustic and elastic wave scattering: Minimum support inversion; forward modelling of elastodynamic wave scattering; minimum support linearized acoustic inversion; support minimized nonlinear acoustic inversion without absolute phase; and support minimized nonlinear elastic inversion
Coherent scattering of CO2 light from ion-acoustic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peratt, A.L.; Watterson, R.L.; Derfler, H.
1977-01-01
Scattering of laser radiation from ion-acoustic waves in a plasma is investigated analytically and experimentally. The formulation predicts a coherent component of the scattered power on a largely incoherent background spectrum when the acoustic analog of Bragg's law and Doppler shift conditions are satisfied. The experiment consists of a hybrid CO 2 laser system capable of either low power continuous wave or high power pulsed mode operation. A heterodyne light mixing scheme is used to detect the scattered power. The proportionality predicted by the theory is verified by scattering from externally excited acoustic and ion-acoustic waves; continuous wave and pulsed modes in each case. Measurement of the ion-acoustic dispersion relation by continuous wave scattering is also presented
Inverse acoustic problem of N homogeneous scatterers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berntsen, Svend
2002-01-01
The three-dimensional inverse acoustic medium problem of N homogeneous objects with known geometry and location is considered. It is proven that one scattering experiment is sufficient for the unique determination of the complex wavenumbers of the objects. The mapping from the scattered fields...
Scattering of Acoustic Waves from Ocean Boundaries
2015-09-30
at the Target and Reverberation Experiment 2013 (TREX13),” in Proc. IEEE/OES Acoustics in Underwater Geosciences Symposium, Rio de Janeiro , Brazil...a Sandy Seabed at the Target and Reverberation Experiment 2013 (TREX13),” in Proc. IEEE/OES Acoustics in Underwater Geosciences Symposium, Rio de ... Janeiro , Brazil, July 2015. PRESENTATIONS Presenter: Isakson, M.J., Chotiros, N.P., Piper, J.N. and McNeese, A. “Acoustic Scattering from a Sandy Seabed
Acoustic characteristics of urban streets in relation to scattering caused by building facades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Onaga, Hiroshi; Rindel, Jens Holger
2007-01-01
The relationship between scattering and the acoustic characteristics of urban streets is examined by computer simulation. The simulation method is a combination of the image method for specular reflection and the radiosity method for scattering reflection. The findings are as follows: (1) the eff......The relationship between scattering and the acoustic characteristics of urban streets is examined by computer simulation. The simulation method is a combination of the image method for specular reflection and the radiosity method for scattering reflection. The findings are as follows: (1...
Acoustic scattering by arbitrary distributions of disjoint, homogeneous cylinders or spheres.
Hesford, Andrew J; Astheimer, Jeffrey P; Waag, Robert C
2010-05-01
A T-matrix formulation is presented to compute acoustic scattering from arbitrary, disjoint distributions of cylinders or spheres, each with arbitrary, uniform acoustic properties. The generalized approach exploits the similarities in these scattering problems to present a single system of equations that is easily specialized to cylindrical or spherical scatterers. By employing field expansions based on orthogonal harmonic functions, continuity of pressure and normal particle velocity are directly enforced at each scatterer using diagonal, analytic expressions to eliminate the need for integral equations. The effect of a cylinder or sphere that encloses all other scatterers is simulated with an outer iterative procedure that decouples the inner-object solution from the effect of the enclosing object to improve computational efficiency when interactions among the interior objects are significant. Numerical results establish the validity and efficiency of the outer iteration procedure for nested objects. Two- and three-dimensional methods that employ this outer iteration are used to measure and characterize the accuracy of two-dimensional approximations to three-dimensional scattering of elevation-focused beams.
Acoustic scattering on spheroidal shapes near boundaries
Miloh, Touvia
2016-11-01
A new expression for the Lamé product of prolate spheroidal wave functions is presented in terms of a distribution of multipoles along the axis of the spheroid between its foci (generalizing a corresponding theorem for spheroidal harmonics). Such an "ultimate" singularity system can be effectively used for solving various linear boundary-value problems governed by the Helmholtz equation involving prolate spheroidal bodies near planar or other boundaries. The general methodology is formally demonstrated for the axisymmetric acoustic scattering problem of a rigid (hard) spheroid placed near a hard/soft wall or inside a cylindrical duct under an axial incidence of a plane acoustic wave.
Axisymmetric scattering of an acoustical Bessel beam by a rigid fixed spheroid
Mitri, F. G.
2015-01-01
Based on the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in spherical coordinates, a formal analytical solution for the acoustic scattering of a zeroth-order Bessel acoustic beam centered on a rigid fixed (oblate or prolate) spheroid is provided. The unknown scattering coefficients of the spheroid are determined by solving a system of linear equations derived for the Neumann boundary condition. Numerical results for the modulus of the backscattered pressure (\\theta = \\pi) in the near-field an...
A Comprehensive Review of Boundary Integral Formulations of Acoustic Scattering Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.I. Zaman
2000-12-01
Full Text Available This is a review presenting an overview of the developments in boundary integral formulations of the acoustic scattering problems. Generally, the problem is formulated in one of two ways viz. Green’s representation formula, and the Layer-theoretic formulation utilizing either a simple-layer or a double-layer potential. The review presents and expounds the major contributions in this area over the last four decades. The need for a robust and improved formulation of the exterior scattering problem (Neumann or Dirichlet arose due to the fact that the classical formulation failed to yield a unique solution at (acoustic wave-numbers which correspond to eigenvalues (eigenfrequencies of the corresponding interior scattering problem. Moreover, this correlation becomes more pronounced as the wave-numbers become larger i.e. as the (acoustic frequency increases. The robust integral formulations which are discussed here yield Fredholms integral equations of the second kind which are more amenable to computation than the first kind. However, the integral equation involves a hypersingular kernel which creates ill-conditioning in the final matrix representation. This is circumvented by a regularisation technique. An extensive useful list of references is also presented here for researchers in this area.
Scattering from objects and surfaces in room acoustical simulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marbjerg, Gerd Høy; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho
2016-01-01
been implemented in the simulation tool PARISM (Phased Acoustical Radiosity and Image Source Method). Scattering from objects and surfaces is likely to be strongly frequency dependent and the frequency dependence can depend on their sizes, shapes and structure. The importance of the frequency...
Axisymmetric scattering of an acoustical Bessel beam by a rigid fixed spheroid.
Mitri, Farid G
2015-10-01
Based on the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in spherical coordinates, a formal analytical solution for the acoustic scattering of a zeroth-order Bessel acoustic beam centered on a rigid fixed (oblate or prolate) spheroid is provided. The unknown scattering coefficients of the spheroid are determined by solving a system of linear equations derived for the Neumann boundary condition. Numerical results for the modulus of the backscattered pressure (θ = π) in the near field and the backscattering form function in the far field for both prolate and oblate spheroids are presented and discussed, with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio (i.e., the ratio of the major axis over the minor axis of the spheroid), the half-cone angle of the Bessel beam, and the dimensionless frequency. The plots display periodic oscillations (versus the dimensionless frequency) because of the interference of specularly reflected waves in the backscattering direction with circumferential Franz' waves circumnavigating the surface of the spheroid in the surrounding fluid. Moreover, the 3-D directivity patterns illustrate the near- and far-field axisymmetric scattering. Investigations in underwater acoustics, particle levitation, scattering, and the detection of submerged elongated objects and other related applications utilizing Bessel waves would benefit from the results of the present study.
Tunneling effects in resonant acoustic scattering of an air bubble in unbounded water
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ANDRÉ G. SIMÃO
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract The problem of acoustic scattering of a gaseous spherical bubble immersed within unbounded liquid surrounding is considered in this work. The theory of partial wave expansion related to this problem is revisited. A physical model based on the analogy between acoustic scattering and potential scattering in quantum mechanics is proposed to describe and interpret the acoustical natural oscillation modes of the bubble, namely, the resonances. In this context, a physical model is devised in order to describe the air water interface and the implications of the high density contrast on the various regimes of the scattering resonances. The main results are presented in terms of resonance lifetime periods and quality factors. The explicit numerical calculations are undertaken through an asymptotic analysis considering typical bubble dimensions and underwater sound wavelengths. It is shown that the resonance periods are scaled according to the Minnaert’s period, which is the short lived resonance mode, called breathing mode of the bubble. As expected, resonances with longer lifetimes lead to impressive cavity quality Q-factor ranging from 1010 to 105. The present theoretical findings lead to a better understanding of the energy storage mechanism in a bubbly medium.
McLaren, Alexander
2011-11-01
Due to their great ecological significance, mesopelagic fishes are attracting a wider audience on account of the large biomass they represent. Data from the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) provided the opportunity to explore an unknown region of the North-West Atlantic, adjacent to one of the most productive fisheries in the world. Acoustic data collected during the cruise required the identification of acoustically distinct scattering types to make inferences on the migrations, distributions and biomass of mesopelagic scattering layers. Six scattering types were identified by the proposed method in our data and traces their migrations and distributions in the top 200m of the water column. This method was able to detect and trace the movements of three scattering types to 1000m depth, two of which can be further subdivided. This process of identification enabled the development of three physically-derived target-strength models adapted to traceable acoustic scattering types for the analysis of biomass and length distribution to 1000m depth. The abundance and distribution of acoustic targets varied closely in relation to varying physical environments associated with a warm core ring in the New England continental Shelf break region. The continental shelf break produces biomass density estimates that are twice as high as the warm core ring and the surrounding continental slope waters are an order of magnitude lower than either estimate. Biomass associated with distinct layers is assessed and any benefits brought about by upwelling at the edge of the warm core ring are shown not to result in higher abundance of deepwater species. Finally, asymmetric diurnal migrations in shelf break waters contrasts markedly with the symmetry of migrating layers within the warm ring, both in structure and density estimates, supporting a theory of predatorial and nutritional constraints to migrating pelagic species.
Guided Acoustic and Optical Waves in Silicon-on-Insulator for Brillouin Scattering and Optomechanics
2016-08-01
APL PHOTONICS 1, 071301 (2016) Guided acoustic and optical waves in silicon-on- insulator for Brillouin scattering and optomechanics Christopher J...is possible to simultaneously guide optical and acoustic waves in the technologically important silicon on insulator (SOI) material system. Thin...high sound velocity — makes guiding acoustic waves difficult, motivating the use of soft chalcogenide glasses and partial or complete releases (removal
Arbitrary scattering of an acoustical Bessel beam by a rigid spheroid with large aspect-ratio
Gong, Zhixiong; Li, Wei; Mitri, Farid G.; Chai, Yingbin; Zhao, Yao
2016-11-01
In this paper, the T-matrix (null-field) method is applied to investigate the acoustic scattering by a large-aspect-ratio rigid spheroid immersed in a non-viscous fluid under the illumination of an unbounded zeroth-order Bessel beam with arbitrary orientation. Based on the proposed method, a MATLAB software package is constructed accordingly, and then verified and validated to compute the acoustic scattering by a rigid oblate or prolate spheroid in the Bessel beam. Several numerical examples are carried out to investigate the novel phenomenon of acoustic scattering by spheroids in Bessel beams with arbitrary incidence, with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio (i.e. the ratio of the polar radius over the equatorial radius of the spheroid), the half-cone angle of Bessel beam, the dimensionless frequency, as well as the angle of incidence. The quasi-periodic oscillations are observed in the plots of the far-field backscattering form function modulus versus the dimensionless frequency, owing to the interference between the specular reflection and the Franz wave circumnavigating the spheroid in the surrounding fluid. Furthermore, the 3D far-field scattering directivity patterns at end-on incidence and 2D polar plots at arbitrary angles of incidence are exhibited, which could provide new insights into the physical mechanisms of Bessel beam scattering by flat or elongated spheroid. This research work may provide an impetus for the application of acoustic Bessel beam in engineering practices.
Characterizing riverbed sediment using high-frequency acoustics 1: spectral properties of scattering
Buscombe, Daniel D.; Grams, Paul E.; Kaplinski, Matt A.
2014-01-01
Bed-sediment classification using high-frequency hydro-acoustic instruments is challenging when sediments are spatially heterogeneous, which is often the case in rivers. The use of acoustic backscatter to classify sediments is an attractive alternative to analysis of topography because it is potentially sensitive to grain-scale roughness. Here, a new method is presented which uses high-frequency acoustic backscatter from multibeam sonar to classify heterogeneous riverbed sediments by type (sand, gravel,rock) continuously in space and at small spatial resolution. In this, the first of a pair of papers that examine the scattering signatures from a heterogeneous riverbed, methods are presented to construct spatially explicit maps of spectral properties from geo-referenced point clouds of geometrically and radiometrically corrected echoes. Backscatter power spectra are computed to produce scale and amplitude metrics that collectively characterize the length scales of stochastic measures of riverbed scattering, termed ‘stochastic geometries’. Backscatter aggregated over small spatial scales have spectra that obey a power-law. This apparently self-affine behavior could instead arise from morphological- and grain-scale roughnesses over multiple overlapping scales, or riverbed scattering being transitional between Rayleigh and geometric regimes. Relationships exist between stochastic geometries of backscatter and areas of rough and smooth sediments. However, no one parameter can uniquely characterize a particular substrate, nor definitively separate the relative contributions of roughness and acoustic impedance (hardness). Combinations of spectral quantities do, however, have the potential to delineate riverbed sediment patchiness, in a data-driven approach comparing backscatter with bed-sediment observations (which is the subject of part two of this manuscript).
Fischell, Erin M; Schmidt, Henrik
2015-12-01
One of the long term goals of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) minehunting is to have multiple inexpensive AUVs in a harbor autonomously classify hazards. Existing acoustic methods for target classification using AUV-based sensing, such as sidescan and synthetic aperture sonar, require an expensive payload on each outfitted vehicle and post-processing and/or image interpretation. A vehicle payload and machine learning classification methodology using bistatic angle dependence of target scattering amplitudes between a fixed acoustic source and target has been developed for onboard, fully autonomous classification with lower cost-per-vehicle. To achieve the high-quality, densely sampled three-dimensional (3D) bistatic scattering data required by this research, vehicle sampling behaviors and an acoustic payload for precision timed data acquisition with a 16 element nose array were demonstrated. 3D bistatic scattered field data were collected by an AUV around spherical and cylindrical targets insonified by a 7-9 kHz fixed source. The collected data were compared to simulated scattering models. Classification and confidence estimation were shown for the sphere versus cylinder case on the resulting real and simulated bistatic amplitude data. The final models were used for classification of simulated targets in real time in the LAMSS MOOS-IvP simulation package [M. Benjamin, H. Schmidt, P. Newman, and J. Leonard, J. Field Rob. 27, 834-875 (2010)].
Temperature dependence of Brillouin light scattering spectra of acoustic phonons in silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olsson, Kevin S.; Klimovich, Nikita; An, Kyongmo; Sullivan, Sean; Weathers, Annie; Shi, Li; Li, Xiaoqin
2015-01-01
Electrons, optical phonons, and acoustic phonons are often driven out of local equilibrium in electronic devices or during laser-material interaction processes. The need for a better understanding of such non-equilibrium transport processes has motivated the development of Raman spectroscopy as a local temperature sensor of optical phonons and intermediate frequency acoustic phonons, whereas Brillouin light scattering (BLS) has recently been explored as a temperature sensor of low-frequency acoustic phonons. Here, we report the measured BLS spectra of silicon at different temperatures. The origins of the observed temperature dependence of the BLS peak position, linewidth, and intensity are examined in order to evaluate their potential use as temperature sensors for acoustic phonons
Acoustic scattering of a Bessel vortex beam by a rigid fixed spheroid
Mitri, F. G.
2015-12-01
Partial-wave series representation of the acoustic scattering field of high-order Bessel vortex beams by rigid oblate and prolate spheroids using the modal matching method is developed. The method, which is applicable to slightly elongated objects at low-to-moderate frequencies, requires solving a system of linear equations which depends on the partial-wave index n and the order of the Bessel vortex beam m using truncated partial-wave series expansions (PWSEs), and satisfying the Neumann boundary condition for a rigid immovable surface in the least-squares sense. This original semi-analytical approach developed for Bessel vortex beams is demonstrated for finite oblate and prolate spheroids, where the mathematical functions describing the spheroidal geometry are written in a form involving single angular (polar) integrals that are numerically computed. The transverse (θ = π / 2) and 3D scattering directivity patterns are evaluated in the far-field for both prolate and oblate spheroids, with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio (i.e., the ratio of the major axis over the minor axis of the spheroid) not exceeding 3:1, the half-cone angle β and order m of the Bessel vortex beam, as well as the dimensionless size parameter kr0. Periodic oscillations in the magnitude plots of the far-field scattering form function are observed, which result from the interference of the reflected waves with the circumferential (Franz') waves circumnavigating the surface of the spheroid in the surrounding fluid. Moreover, the 3D directivity patterns illustrate the far-field scattering from the spheroid, that vanishes in the forward (θ = 0) and backward (θ = π) directions. Particular applications in underwater acoustics and scattering, acoustic levitation and the detection of submerged elongated objects using Bessel vortex waves to name a few, would benefit from the results of the present investigation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ankita D. Jain
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Recently reported declines in the population of Atlantic cod have led to calls for additional survey methods for stock assessments. In combination with conventional line-transect methods that may have ambiguities in sampling fish populations, Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS has been shown to have a potential for providing accurate stock assessments (Makris N.C., et al. Science 2009, 323, 1,734–1,737; 54th Northeast Regional Stock Assessment Workshop (54th SAW US Department of Commerce, Northeast Fisheries Science Center, 2012. The use of OAWRS technology enables instantaneous wide-area sensing of fish aggregations over thousands of square kilometers. The ratio of the intensity of scattered returns from fish versus the seafloor in any resolution cell typically determines the maximum fish detection range of OAWRS, which then is a function of fish population density, scattering amplitude and depth distribution, as well as the level of seafloor scattering. With the knowledge of oceanographic parameters, such as bathymetry, sound speed structure and attenuation, we find that a Rayleigh–Born volume scattering approach can be used to efficiently and accurately estimate seafloor scattering over wide areas. From hundreds of OAWRS measurements of seafloor scattering, we determine the Rayleigh–Born scattering amplitude of the seafloor, which we find has a ƒ2,4 frequency dependence below roughly 2 kHz in typical continental shelf environments along the US northeast coast. We then find that it is possible to robustly detect cod aggregations across frequencies at and near swim bladder resonance for observed spawningconfigurations along the U.S. northeast coast, roughly the two octave range 150–600 Hzfor water depths up to roughly 100 m. This frequency range is also optimal for long-rangeocean acoustic waveguide propagation, because it enables multimodal acoustic waveguidepropagation with minimal acoustic absorption and forward
Interior and exterior resonances in acoustic scattering. pt. 1 - spherical targets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaunaurd, G.C.; Tanglis, E.; Uberall, H.; Brill, D.
1983-01-01
In acoustic scattering from elastic objects, resonance features appear in the returned echo at frequencies at which the object's eigenfrequencies are located, which are explained by the excitation of 'interior' creeping waves. Corresponding resonance terms may be split off from the total scattering amplitude, leaving behind an apparently nonresonant background amplitude. This is demonstrated here for scatterers of spherical geometry and in a companion paper also for scatterers of arbitrary geometry, by using the T-matrix approach. For the case of near-impenetrable spheres, it is subsequently shown that the background amplitude can be split further into specularly reflected contributions, plus highly attenuated resonance terms which are explained by the excitation of 'exterior' (Franz-type) creeping waves. The singularity structure of the scattering function is shown mathematically, by using the R-matrix approach of the nuclear-scattering theory, as that of a meromorphic function 'without' any additional 'entire function' (as had been postulated by the singularity expansion method)
Sound field reproduction as an equivalent acoustical scattering problem.
Fazi, Filippo Maria; Nelson, Philip A
2013-11-01
Given a continuous distribution of acoustic sources, the determination of the source strength that ensures the synthesis of a desired sound field is shown to be identical to the solution of an equivalent acoustic scattering problem. The paper begins with the presentation of the general theory that underpins sound field reproduction with secondary sources continuously arranged on the boundary of the reproduction region. The process of reproduction by a continuous source distribution is modeled by means of an integral operator (the single layer potential). It is then shown how the solution of the sound reproduction problem corresponds to that of an equivalent scattering problem. Analytical solutions are computed for two specific instances of this problem, involving, respectively, the use of a secondary source distribution in spherical and planar geometries. The results are shown to be the same as those obtained with analyses based on High Order Ambisonics and Wave Field Synthesis, respectively, thus bringing to light a fundamental analogy between these two methods of sound reproduction. Finally, it is shown how the physical optics (Kirchhoff) approximation enables the derivation of a high-frequency simplification for the problem under consideration, this in turn being related to the secondary source selection criterion reported in the literature on Wave Field Synthesis.
Multiple scattering formulation of two-dimensional acoustic and electromagnetic metamaterials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torrent, Daniel; Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose, E-mail: datorma1@upvnet.upv.es, E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.es [Grupo de Fenomenos Ondulatorios, Departamento de IngenierIa Electronica, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n (Edificio 7F), ES-46022 Valencia (Spain)
2011-09-15
A multiple scattering formulation of two-dimensional (2D) acoustic metamaterials is presented. This approach is comprehensive and can lead to frequency-dependent effective parameters (scalar bulk modulus and tensorial mass density), as it is possible to have not only positive or negative ellipsoidal refractive index, but also positive or negative hyperbolic refractive index. The correction due to multiple scattering interactions is included in the theory and it is demonstrated that its contribution is important only for lattices with high filling fractions. Since the surface fields on the scatterers are mainly responsible for the anomalous behavior of the resulting effective medium, complex scatterers can be used to engineer the frequency response. Anisotropic effects are also discussed within this formulation and some numerical examples are reported. A homogenization theory is also extended to electromagnetic wave propagation in 2D lattices of dielectric structures, where Mie resonances are found to be responsible for the metamaterial behavior.
Physics of the ion acoustic wave driven by the stimulated Brillouin scattering instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clayton, C.E.
1984-01-01
The ion acoustic wave excited in the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) instability is probed via collective ruby-laser Thomson scattering in order to understand the low saturation level observed in the instability. Many of the features observed in the Brillouin backscattered CO 2 laser light from the underdense gas-target plasma are also observed in the Thomson scattered ruby light - from which it is learned that the ion acoustic wave grows exponentially and then saturates as the CO 2 pump power is increased. The primary advantage of the ruby Thomson scattering diagnostic is in its capability of providing simultaneous space and time resolved measurements of the ion wave amplitude. From these first such detailed measurements, it was found that the ion wave grows exponentially in space at a rate that agrees with the linear convective SBS theory. However, at higher pump powers, the ion wave saturates at an inferred amplitude of anti-n/n 0 approx. = 5 to 10%. Further increases in the pump power appear to result in an increase in the length over which the ion wave is saturated. A nearly constant SBS reflectivity in this saturated regime, however, suggests that the saturated ion wave does not contribute as much to the scattered power as would be expected from Bragg scattering theory. This apparent contradiction can be resolved if ion trapping is responsible for the saturation of the ion wave
Ariza, A.
2016-01-21
Diel vertical migration (DVM) facilitates biogeochemical exchanges between shallow waters and the deep ocean. An effective way of monitoring the migrant biota is by acoustic observations although the interpretation of the scattering layers poses challenges. Here we combine results from acoustic observations at 18 and 38 kHz with limited net sampling in order to unveil the origin of acoustic phenomena around the Canary Islands, subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean. Trawling data revealed a high diversity of fishes, decapods and cephalopods (152 species), although few dominant species likely were responsible for most of the sound scattering in the region. We identified four different acoustic scattering layers in the mesopelagic realm: (1) at 400–500 m depth, a swimbladder resonance phenomenon at 18 kHz produced by gas-bearing migrant fish such as Vinciguerria spp. and Lobianchia dofleini, (2) at 500–600 m depth, a dense 38 kHz layer resulting primarily from the gas-bearing and non-migrant fish Cyclothone braueri, and to a lesser extent, from fluid-like migrant fauna also inhabiting these depths, (3) between 600 and 800 m depth, a weak signal at both 18 and 38 kHz ascribed either to migrant fish or decapods, and (4) below 800 m depth, a weak non-migrant layer at 18 kHz which was not sampled. All the dielly migrating layers reached the epipelagic zone at night, with the shorter-range migrations moving at 4.6 ± 2.6 cm s − 1 and the long-range ones at 11.5 ± 3.8 cm s − 1. This work reduces uncertainties interpreting standard frequencies in mesopelagic studies, while enhances the potential of acoustics for future research and monitoring of the deep pelagic fauna in the Canary Islands.
Ariza, A.; Landeira, J.M.; Escá nez, A.; Wienerroither, R.; Aguilar de Soto, N.; Rø stad, Anders; Kaartvedt, S.; Herná ndez-Leó n, S.
2016-01-01
Diel vertical migration (DVM) facilitates biogeochemical exchanges between shallow waters and the deep ocean. An effective way of monitoring the migrant biota is by acoustic observations although the interpretation of the scattering layers poses challenges. Here we combine results from acoustic observations at 18 and 38 kHz with limited net sampling in order to unveil the origin of acoustic phenomena around the Canary Islands, subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean. Trawling data revealed a high diversity of fishes, decapods and cephalopods (152 species), although few dominant species likely were responsible for most of the sound scattering in the region. We identified four different acoustic scattering layers in the mesopelagic realm: (1) at 400–500 m depth, a swimbladder resonance phenomenon at 18 kHz produced by gas-bearing migrant fish such as Vinciguerria spp. and Lobianchia dofleini, (2) at 500–600 m depth, a dense 38 kHz layer resulting primarily from the gas-bearing and non-migrant fish Cyclothone braueri, and to a lesser extent, from fluid-like migrant fauna also inhabiting these depths, (3) between 600 and 800 m depth, a weak signal at both 18 and 38 kHz ascribed either to migrant fish or decapods, and (4) below 800 m depth, a weak non-migrant layer at 18 kHz which was not sampled. All the dielly migrating layers reached the epipelagic zone at night, with the shorter-range migrations moving at 4.6 ± 2.6 cm s − 1 and the long-range ones at 11.5 ± 3.8 cm s − 1. This work reduces uncertainties interpreting standard frequencies in mesopelagic studies, while enhances the potential of acoustics for future research and monitoring of the deep pelagic fauna in the Canary Islands.
Electron-longitudinal-acoustic-phonon scattering in double-quantum-dot based quantum gates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Peiji; Woolard, Dwight L.
2008-01-01
We propose a nanostructure design which can significantly suppress longitudinal-acoustic-phonon-electron scattering in double-quantum-dot based quantum gates for quantum computing. The calculated relaxation rates vs. bias voltage exhibit a double-peak feature with a minimum approaching 10 5 s -1 . In this matter, the energy conservation law prohibits scattering contributions from phonons with large momenta; furthermore, increasing the barrier height between the double quantum dots reduces coupling strength between the dots. Hence, the joint action of the energy conservation law and the decoupling greatly reduces the scattering rates. The degrading effects of temperatures can be reduced simply by increasing the height of the barrier between the dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Follett, R. K., E-mail: rfollett@lle.rochester.edu; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Henchen, R. J.; Katz, J.; Myatt, J. F.; Froula, D. H. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)
2016-11-15
Collective Thomson scattering is a technique for measuring the plasma conditions in laser-plasma experiments. Simultaneous measurements of ion-acoustic and electron plasma-wave spectra were obtained using a 263.25-nm Thomson-scattering probe beam. A fully reflective collection system was used to record light scattered from electron plasma waves at electron densities greater than 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3}, which produced scattering peaks near 200 nm. An accurate analysis of the experimental Thomson-scattering spectra required accounting for plasma gradients, instrument sensitivity, optical effects, and background radiation. Practical techniques for including these effects when fitting Thomson-scattering spectra are presented and applied to the measured spectra to show the improvements in plasma characterization.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malhotra, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
1996-12-31
Finite-element discretizations of time-harmonic acoustic wave problems in exterior domains result in large sparse systems of linear equations with complex symmetric coefficient matrices. In many situations, these matrix problems need to be solved repeatedly for different right-hand sides, but with the same coefficient matrix. For instance, multiple right-hand sides arise in radiation problems due to multiple load cases, and also in scattering problems when multiple angles of incidence of an incoming plane wave need to be considered. In this talk, we discuss the iterative solution of multiple linear systems arising in radiation and scattering problems in structural acoustics by means of a complex symmetric variant of the BL-QMR method. First, we summarize the governing partial differential equations for time-harmonic structural acoustics, the finite-element discretization of these equations, and the resulting complex symmetric matrix problem. Next, we sketch the special version of BL-QMR method that exploits complex symmetry, and we describe the preconditioners we have used in conjunction with BL-QMR. Finally, we report some typical results of our extensive numerical tests to illustrate the typical convergence behavior of BL-QMR method for multiple radiation and scattering problems in structural acoustics, to identify appropriate preconditioners for these problems, and to demonstrate the importance of deflation in block Krylov-subspace methods. Our numerical results show that the multiple systems arising in structural acoustics can be solved very efficiently with the preconditioned BL-QMR method. In fact, for multiple systems with up to 40 and more different right-hand sides we get consistent and significant speed-ups over solving the systems individually.
Chu, Dezhang; Lawson, Gareth L; Wiebe, Peter H
2016-05-01
The linear inversion commonly used in fisheries and zooplankton acoustics assumes a constant inversion kernel and ignores the uncertainties associated with the shape and behavior of the scattering targets, as well as other relevant animal parameters. Here, errors of the linear inversion due to uncertainty associated with the inversion kernel are quantified. A scattering model-based nonlinear inversion method is presented that takes into account the nonlinearity of the inverse problem and is able to estimate simultaneously animal abundance and the parameters associated with the scattering model inherent to the kernel. It uses sophisticated scattering models to estimate first, the abundance, and second, the relevant shape and behavioral parameters of the target organisms. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the abundance, size, and behavior (tilt angle) parameters of marine animals (fish or zooplankton) can be accurately inferred from the inversion by using multi-frequency acoustic data. The influence of the singularity and uncertainty in the inversion kernel on the inversion results can be mitigated by examining the singular values for linear inverse problems and employing a non-linear inversion involving a scattering model-based kernel.
Ramm, Alexander G
2013-01-01
The behavior of acoustic or electromagnetic waves reflecting off, and scattering from, intercepted bodies of any size and kind can make determinations about the materials of those bodies and help in better understanding how to manipulate such materials for desired characteristics. This book offers analytical formulas which allow you to calculate acoustic and electromagnetic waves, scattered by one and many small bodies of an arbitrary shape under various boundary conditions. Equations for the effective (self-consistent) field in media consisting of many small bodies are derived. These results and formulas are new and not available in the works of other authors. In particular, the theory developed in this book is different from the classical work of Rayleigh on scattering by small bodies: not only analytical formulas are derived for the waves scattered by small bodies of an arbitrary shape, but the amplitude of the scattered waves is much larger, of the order O(a 2-k), than in Rayleigh scattering, where the or...
Burov, V. A.; Morozov, S. A.
2001-11-01
Wave scattering by a point-like inhomogeneity, i.e., a strong inhomogeneity with infinitesimal dimensions, is described. This type of inhomogeneity model is used in investigating the point-spread functions of different algorithms and systems. Two approaches are used to derive the rigorous relationship between the amplitude and phase of a signal scattered by a point-like acoustic inhomogeneity. The first approach is based on a Marchenko-type equation. The second approach uses the scattering by a scatterer whose size decreases simultaneously with an increase in its contrast. It is shown that the retarded and advanced waves are scattered differently despite the relationship between the phases of the corresponding scattered waves.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saikia, P.
1981-01-01
The spectrum of stimulated Brillouin scattering from an inhomogeneous moving laser plasma is analyzed. The damping of acoustic waves and scattered electromagnetic waves is taken into account. Spectra are derived for various scattering angles and for various radii of the laser beam. For all observation angles the center of the spectral line is at an unshifted frequency. As the observation angle increases, the width of the red wing in the spectrum increases. The intensity of the scattered light is very anisotropic
Merlin , R.; Bajema , K.; Nagle , J.; Ploog , K.
1987-01-01
We report structural studies of incommensurate and random GaAs-AlAs superlattices using Raman scattering by acoustic phonons. Properties of the structure factor of Fibonacci and Thue-Morse superlattices are discussed in some detail.
Mitri, F. G.
2017-08-01
The multiple scattering effects occurring between two scatterers are described based upon the multipole expansion formalism as well as the addition theorem of cylindrical wave functions. An original approach is presented in which an effective incident acoustic field on a particular object, which includes both the primary and re-scattered waves from the other particle is determined first, and then used with the scattered field to derive closed-form analytical expressions for the inherent (i.e. intrinsic) cross-sections based on the far-field scattering. This method does not introduce any approximation in the calculation of the intrinsic cross-sections since the procedure is reduced to the one-body problem. The mathematical expressions for the intrinsic cross-sections are formulated in partial-wave series expansions (PWSEs) in cylindrical coordinates involving the angle of incidence, the addition theorem for the cylindrical wave functions, and the expansion coefficients of the scatterers. Numerical examples illustrate the analysis for two rigid circular cylindrical cross-sections with different radii immersed in a non-viscous fluid. Computations for the dimensionless extrinsic and intrinsic extinction cross-section factors are evaluated with particular emphasis on varying the angle of incidence, the interparticle distance, as well as the sizes of the particles. A symmetric behavior is observed for the dimensionless extrinsic extinction cross-section, while asymmetry arises for the intrinsic extinction cross-section of each particle with respect to the angle of incidence. The present analysis provides a complete analytical and computational method for the prediction of the intrinsic (local) scattering, absorption and extinction cross-sections in the multiple acoustic scatterings of plane progressive waves of arbitrary incidence by a pair of scatterers. The results and computational analyses can be used as a priori information for future applications to guide the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitri, F G
2017-01-01
The multiple scattering effects occurring between two scatterers are described based upon the multipole expansion formalism as well as the addition theorem of cylindrical wave functions. An original approach is presented in which an effective incident acoustic field on a particular object, which includes both the primary and re-scattered waves from the other particle is determined first, and then used with the scattered field to derive closed-form analytical expressions for the inherent (i.e. intrinsic) cross-sections based on the far-field scattering. This method does not introduce any approximation in the calculation of the intrinsic cross-sections since the procedure is reduced to the one-body problem. The mathematical expressions for the intrinsic cross-sections are formulated in partial-wave series expansions (PWSEs) in cylindrical coordinates involving the angle of incidence, the addition theorem for the cylindrical wave functions, and the expansion coefficients of the scatterers. Numerical examples illustrate the analysis for two rigid circular cylindrical cross-sections with different radii immersed in a non-viscous fluid. Computations for the dimensionless extrinsic and intrinsic extinction cross-section factors are evaluated with particular emphasis on varying the angle of incidence, the interparticle distance, as well as the sizes of the particles. A symmetric behavior is observed for the dimensionless extrinsic extinction cross-section, while asymmetry arises for the intrinsic extinction cross-section of each particle with respect to the angle of incidence. The present analysis provides a complete analytical and computational method for the prediction of the intrinsic (local) scattering, absorption and extinction cross-sections in the multiple acoustic scatterings of plane progressive waves of arbitrary incidence by a pair of scatterers. The results and computational analyses can be used as a priori information for future applications to guide the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batanov, G.M.; Kolik, L.V.; Sapozhnikov, A.V.; Sarksyan, K.A.; Skvortsova, N.N.
1984-01-01
The development and nonlinear saturation of ion-acoustic turbulent oscillat tions excited in a plasma by high frequency pumping wave have been experimentall investigated. As a result of investigations into the interaction between obliqu ue Langmuir waves and a magnetoactive plasma near the lower hybrid resonance performed under the regime of HF-pumping wave pulse generation the following c conclusions are drawn: 1) dynamic characteristics of the development of ion-acou tic turbulent oscillations point to the induced ls-scattering process and the de ependence of the rate of this process on the level of initial superthermal ion-acoustic noises, 2) a nonlinear process limiting the of ion-acoustic turbule ence intensity growth is probably the process of induced sound wave scattering on ions followed by the unstable wave energy transfer over the spectrum into the e lower frequency region. Various mechanisms are responsible for excitation of on acoustic waves and HF-waves near the pumping wave frequency (red satellite)
2015-09-30
an area important for acoustical testing and tactical exercises, the most abundant species by biomass is Pacific hake, Merluccius productus, a fish...scattering characteristics of the animal especially if the animal has eaten hard- shelled mollusc prey. Figure 7. A dorsal scan (similar to an x-ray) of a...kHz echogram. 11 In order to generate abundance and biomass estimates for organisms using active acoustics, one assumption that can be made is
Palasantzas, G.
2008-01-01
In this work we study the quality factor associated with dissipation due to scattering of shear horizontal surface acoustic waves by random self-affine roughness. It is shown that the quality factor is strongly influenced by both the surface roughness exponent H and the roughness amplitude w to
Neutron scattering investigation of the acoustic-mode Grüneisen parameters in RbBr
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ernst, G.; Krexner, G.; Quittner, G.
1984-01-01
The microscopic Grüneisen parameters in RbBr have been determined for 44 acoustic modes in the main symmetry directions Δ, Σ, and Λ by inelastic neutron scattering under hydrostatic pressure. The experimental data are well described within the framework of a breathing-shell model, which includes...
Support Minimized Inversion of Acoustic and Elastic Wave Scattering
Safaeinili, Ali
Inversion of limited data is common in many areas of NDE such as X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), Ultrasonic and eddy current flaw characterization and imaging. In many applications, it is common to have a bias toward a solution with minimum (L^2)^2 norm without any physical justification. When it is a priori known that objects are compact as, say, with cracks and voids, by choosing "Minimum Support" functional instead of the minimum (L^2)^2 norm, an image can be obtained that is equally in agreement with the available data, while it is more consistent with what is most probably seen in the real world. We have utilized a minimum support functional to find a solution with the smallest volume. This inversion algorithm is most successful in reconstructing objects that are compact like voids and cracks. To verify this idea, we first performed a variational nonlinear inversion of acoustic backscatter data using minimum support objective function. A full nonlinear forward model was used to accurately study the effectiveness of the minimized support inversion without error due to the linear (Born) approximation. After successful inversions using a full nonlinear forward model, a linearized acoustic inversion was developed to increase speed and efficiency in imaging process. The results indicate that by using minimum support functional, we can accurately size and characterize voids and/or cracks which otherwise might be uncharacterizable. An extremely important feature of support minimized inversion is its ability to compensate for unknown absolute phase (zero-of-time). Zero-of-time ambiguity is a serious problem in the inversion of the pulse-echo data. The minimum support inversion was successfully used for the inversion of acoustic backscatter data due to compact scatterers without the knowledge of the zero-of-time. The main drawback to this type of inversion is its computer intensiveness. In order to make this type of constrained inversion available for common use, work
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uberall, H.; Gaunaurd, G.C.; Tanglis, E.
1983-01-01
The T-matrix approach, which describes the scattering of acoustic waves (or of other waves) from objects of arbitrary shape and geometry, is here 'married' to the resonance scattering theory in order to obtain the (complex) resonance frequencies of an arbitrary shaped target. For the case of nearly impenetrable targets the partial-wave scattering amplitudes are splitted into terms corresponding to 'internal' resonances, plus an apparently nonresonant background amplitude which, however, contains the broad resonances caused by 'external' diffracted (or Franz-type, creeping) waves, in addition to geometrically reflected and refracted (ray) contributions
Guided acoustic and optical waves in silicon-on-insulator for Brillouin scattering and optomechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher J. Sarabalis
2016-10-01
Full Text Available We numerically study silicon waveguides on silica showing that it is possible to simultaneously guide optical and acoustic waves in the technologically important silicon on insulator (SOI material system. Thin waveguides, or fins, exhibit geometrically softened mechanical modes at gigahertz frequencies with phase velocities below the Rayleigh velocity in glass, eliminating acoustic radiation losses. We propose slot waveguides on glass with telecom optical frequencies and strong radiation pressure forces resulting in Brillouin gains on the order of 500 and 50 000 W−1m−1 for backward and forward Brillouin scattering, respectively.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Hui; Chou, Dean-Yi
2016-01-01
The solar acoustic waves are modified by the interaction with sunspots. The interaction can be treated as a scattering problem: an incident wave propagating toward a sunspot is scattered by the sunspot into different modes. The absorption cross section and scattering cross section are two important parameters in the scattering problem. In this study, we use the wavefunction of the scattered wave, measured with a deconvolution method, to compute the absorption cross section σ ab and the scattering cross section σ sc for the radial order n = 0–5 for two sunspots, NOAA 11084 and NOAA 11092. In the computation of the cross sections, the random noise and dissipation in the measured acoustic power are corrected. For both σ ab and σ sc , the value of NOAA 11092 is greater than that of NOAA 11084, but their overall n dependence is similar: decreasing with n . The ratio of σ ab of NOAA 11092 to that of NOAA 11084 approximately equals the ratio of sunspot radii for all n , while the ratio of σ sc of the two sunspots is greater than the ratio of sunspot radii and increases with n . This suggests that σ ab is approximately proportional to the sunspot radius, while the dependence of σ sc on radius is faster than the linear increase.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Hui [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 200012 (China); Chou, Dean-Yi, E-mail: chou@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Physics Department, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)
2016-05-01
The solar acoustic waves are modified by the interaction with sunspots. The interaction can be treated as a scattering problem: an incident wave propagating toward a sunspot is scattered by the sunspot into different modes. The absorption cross section and scattering cross section are two important parameters in the scattering problem. In this study, we use the wavefunction of the scattered wave, measured with a deconvolution method, to compute the absorption cross section σ {sub ab} and the scattering cross section σ {sub sc} for the radial order n = 0–5 for two sunspots, NOAA 11084 and NOAA 11092. In the computation of the cross sections, the random noise and dissipation in the measured acoustic power are corrected. For both σ {sub ab} and σ {sub sc}, the value of NOAA 11092 is greater than that of NOAA 11084, but their overall n dependence is similar: decreasing with n . The ratio of σ {sub ab} of NOAA 11092 to that of NOAA 11084 approximately equals the ratio of sunspot radii for all n , while the ratio of σ {sub sc} of the two sunspots is greater than the ratio of sunspot radii and increases with n . This suggests that σ {sub ab} is approximately proportional to the sunspot radius, while the dependence of σ {sub sc} on radius is faster than the linear increase.
Rajabi, Majid; Behzad, Mehdi
2014-04-01
In nonlinear acoustic regime, a body insonified by a sound field is known to experience a steady force that is called the acoustic radiation force (RF). This force is a second-order quantity of the velocity potential function of the ambient medium. Exploiting the sufficiency of linear solution representation of potential function in RF formulation, and following the classical resonance scattering theorem (RST) which suggests the scattered field as a superposition of the resonant field and a background (non-resonant) component, we will show that the radiation force is a composition of three components: background part, resonant part and their interaction. Due to the nonlinearity effects, each part contains the contribution of pure partial waves in addition to their mutual interaction. The numerical results propose the residue component (i.e., subtraction of the background component from the RF) as a good indicator of the contribution of circumferential surface waves in RF. Defining the modal series of radiation force function and its components, it will be shown that within each partial wave, the resonance contribution can be synthesized as the Breit-Wigner form for adequately none-close resonant frequencies. The proposed formulation may be helpful essentially due to its inherent value as a canonical subject in physical acoustics. Furthermore, it may make a tunnel through the circumferential resonance reducing effects on radiation forces. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Acoustic integrated extinction
Norris, Andrew N.
2015-01-01
The integrated extinction (IE) is defined as the integral of the scattering cross section as a function of wavelength. Sohl et al. (2007 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 3206–3210. (doi:10.1121/1.2801546)) derived an IE expression for acoustic scattering that is causal, i.e. the scattered wavefront in the forward direction arrives later than the incident plane wave in the background medium. The IE formula was based on electromagnetic results, for which scattering is causal by default. Here, we der...
Surface acoustic waves and elastic constants of InN epilayers determined by Brillouin scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jimenez-Rioboo, R.J.; Prieto, C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Cusco, R.; Domenech-Amador, N.; Artus, L. [Institut Jaume Almera, Consell Superior d' Investigacions Cientifiques (CSIC), Lluis Sole i Sabaris s.n., Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Yamaguchi, T.; Nanishi, Y. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan)
2012-06-15
The surface acoustic wave velocity in InN has been experimentally determined by means of Brillouin scattering experiments on c - and m -face epilayers. From simulations based on the Green's function formalism we determine the shear elastic constants c{sub 66} and c{sub 44} and propose a complete set of elastic constants for wurtzite InN. The analysis of the sagittal and azimuthal dependence of the surface acoustic wave velocity indicates a slightly different elastic behavior of the m -face sample that basically affects the c{sub 44} elastic constant. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
High-Frequency Seafloor Acoustics
Jackson, Darrell R
2007-01-01
High-Frequency Seafloor Acoustics is the first book in a new series sponsored by the Office of Naval Research on the latest research in underwater acoustics. This exciting new title provides ready access to experimental data, theory, and models relevant to high-frequency seafloor acoustics and will be of interest to sonar engineers and researchers working in underwater acoustics. The physical characteristics of the seafloor affecting acoustic propagation and scattering are covered, including physical and geoacoustic properties and surface roughness. Current theories for acoustic propagation in sediments are presented along with corresponding models for reflection, scattering, and seafloor penetration. The main text is backed up by an extensive bibliography and technical appendices.
Yang, S A
2002-10-01
This paper presents an effective solution method for predicting acoustic radiation and scattering fields in two dimensions. The difficulty of the fictitious characteristic frequency is overcome by incorporating an auxiliary interior surface that satisfies certain boundary condition into the body surface. This process gives rise to a set of uniquely solvable boundary integral equations. Distributing monopoles with unknown strengths over the body and interior surfaces yields the simple source formulation. The modified boundary integral equations are further transformed to ordinary ones that contain nonsingular kernels only. This implementation allows direct application of standard quadrature formulas over the entire integration domain; that is, the collocation points are exactly the positions at which the integration points are located. Selecting the interior surface is an easy task. Moreover, only a few corresponding interior nodal points are sufficient for the computation. Numerical calculations consist of the acoustic radiation and scattering by acoustically hard elliptic and rectangular cylinders. Comparisons with analytical solutions are made. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the current solution method.
Analysis of a Cartesian PML approximation to acoustic scattering problems in and
Bramble, James H.
2013-08-01
We consider the application of a perfectly matched layer (PML) technique applied in Cartesian geometry to approximate solutions of the acoustic scattering problem in the frequency domain. The PML is viewed as a complex coordinate shift ("stretching") and leads to a variable complex coefficient equation for the acoustic wave posed on an infinite domain, the complement of the bounded scatterer. The use of Cartesian geometry leads to a PML operator with simple coefficients, although, still complex symmetric (non-Hermitian). The PML reformulation results in a problem whose solution coincides with the original solution inside the PML layer while decaying exponentially outside. The rapid decay of the PML solution suggests truncation to a bounded domain with a convenient outer boundary condition and subsequent finite element approximation (for the truncated problem). This paper provides new stability estimates for the Cartesian PML approximations both on the infinite and the truncated domain. We first investigate the stability of the infinite PML approximation as a function of the PML strength σ0. This is done for PML methods which involve continuous piecewise smooth stretching as well as piecewise constant stretching functions. We next introduce a truncation parameter M which determines the size of the PML layer. Our analysis shows that the truncated PML problem is stable provided that the product of Mσ0 is sufficiently large, in which case the solution of the problem on the truncated domain converges exponentially to that of the original problem in the domain of interest near the scatterer. This justifies the simple computational strategy of selecting a fixed PML layer and increasing σ0 to obtain the desired accuracy. The results of numerical experiments varying M and σ0 are given which illustrate the theoretically predicted behavior. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Acoustic holograms of active regions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chou, Dean-Yi
2008-01-01
We propose a method to study solar magnetic regions in the solar interior with the principle of optical holography. A magnetic region in the solar interior scatters the solar background acoustic waves. The scattered waves and background waves could form an interference pattern on the solar surface. We investigate the feasibility of detecting this interference pattern on the solar surface, and using it to construct the three-dimensional scattered wave from the magnetic region with the principle of optical holography. In solar acoustic holography, the background acoustic waves play the role of reference wave; the magnetic region plays the role of the target object; the interference pattern, acoustic power map, on the solar surface plays the role of the hologram.
Acoustic holograms of active regions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chou, Dean-Yi [Physics Department, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: chou@phys.nthu.edu.tw
2008-10-15
We propose a method to study solar magnetic regions in the solar interior with the principle of optical holography. A magnetic region in the solar interior scatters the solar background acoustic waves. The scattered waves and background waves could form an interference pattern on the solar surface. We investigate the feasibility of detecting this interference pattern on the solar surface, and using it to construct the three-dimensional scattered wave from the magnetic region with the principle of optical holography. In solar acoustic holography, the background acoustic waves play the role of reference wave; the magnetic region plays the role of the target object; the interference pattern, acoustic power map, on the solar surface plays the role of the hologram.
Ion-acoustic plasma turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bychenkov, V.Y.; Silin, V.P.
1982-01-01
A theory is developed of the nonlinear state that is established in a plasma as a result of development of ion-acoustic instability. Account is taken simultaneously of the linear induced scattering of the waves by the ions and of the quasilinear relaxation of the electrons by the ion-acoustic pulsations. The distribution of the ion-acoustic turbulence in frequency and in angle is obtained. An Ohm's law is established and expressions are obtained for the electronic heat flux and for the relaxation time of the electron temperature in a turbulent plasma. Anomalously large absorption and scattering of the electromagnetic waves by the ion-acoustic pulsations is predicted
Light penetration structures the deep acoustic scattering layers in the global ocean
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aksnes, Dag L.; Rostad, Anders; Kaartvedt, Stein
2017-01-01
The deep scattering layer (DSL) is a ubiquitous acoustic signature found across all oceans and arguably the dominant feature structuring the pelagic open ocean ecosystem. It is formed by mesopelagic fishes and pelagic invertebrates. The DSL animals are an important food source for marine megafauna...... distributions with hypoxic waters. In enhancing understanding of this phenomenon, our results should improve the ability to predict and model the dynamics of one of the largest animal biomass components on earth, with key roles in the oceanic biological carbon pump and food web....
The factorization method for inverse acoustic scattering in a layered medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bondarenko, Oleksandr; Kirsch, Andreas; Liu, Xiaodong
2013-01-01
In this paper, we consider a problem of inverse acoustic scattering by an impenetrable obstacle embedded in a layered medium. We will show that the factorization method can be applied to recover the embedded obstacle; that is, the equation F-tilde g =φ z is solvable if and only if the sampling point z is in the interior of the unknown obstacle. Here, F-tilde is a self-adjoint operator related to the far field operator and ϕ z is the far field pattern of the Green function with respect to the problem of scattering by the background medium for point z. The validity of the factorization method is proven with the help of a mixed reciprocity principle and an application of the scattering operator. Due to the established mixed reciprocity principle, knowledge of the Green function for the background medium is no longer required, which makes the method attractive from the computational point of view. The paper is only concerned with sound-soft obstacles, but the analysis can be easily extended for sound-hard obstacles, or obstacles with separated sound-soft and sound-hard parts. Finally, we provide an explicit example for a radially symmetric case and present some numerical examples. (paper)
Hesford, Andrew J.; Waag, Robert C.
2010-10-01
The fast multipole method (FMM) is applied to the solution of large-scale, three-dimensional acoustic scattering problems involving inhomogeneous objects defined on a regular grid. The grid arrangement is especially well suited to applications in which the scattering geometry is not known a priori and is reconstructed on a regular grid using iterative inverse scattering algorithms or other imaging techniques. The regular structure of unknown scattering elements facilitates a dramatic reduction in the amount of storage and computation required for the FMM, both of which scale linearly with the number of scattering elements. In particular, the use of fast Fourier transforms to compute Green's function convolutions required for neighboring interactions lowers the often-significant cost of finest-level FMM computations and helps mitigate the dependence of FMM cost on finest-level box size. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency of the composite method as the number of scattering elements in each finest-level box is increased.
Fundamentals of Shallow Water Acoustics
Katsnelson, Boris; Lynch, James
2012-01-01
Shallow water acoustics (SWA), the study of how low and medium frequency sound propagates and scatters on the continental shelves of the world's oceans, has both technical interest and a large number of practical applications. Technically, shallow water poses an interesting medium for the study of acoustic scattering, inverse theory, and propagation physics in a complicated oceanic waveguide. Practically, shallow water acoustics has interest for geophysical exploration, marine mammal studies, and naval applications. Additionally, one notes the very interdisciplinary nature of shallow water acoustics, including acoustical physics, physical oceanography, marine geology, and marine biology. In this specialized volume, the authors, all of whom have extensive at-sea experience in U.S. and Russian research efforts, have tried to summarize the main experimental, theoretical, and computational results in shallow water acoustics, with an emphasis on providing physical insight into the topics presented.
Yang, Yang; Li, Xiukun
2016-06-01
Separation of the components of rigid acoustic scattering by underwater objects is essential in obtaining the structural characteristics of such objects. To overcome the problem of rigid structures appearing to have the same spectral structure in the time domain, time-frequency Blind Source Separation (BSS) can be used in combination with image morphology to separate the rigid scattering components of different objects. Based on a highlight model, the separation of the rigid scattering structure of objects with time-frequency distribution is deduced. Using a morphological filter, different characteristics in a Wigner-Ville Distribution (WVD) observed for single auto term and cross terms can be simplified to remove any cross-term interference. By selecting time and frequency points of the auto terms signal, the accuracy of BSS can be improved. An experimental simulation has been used, with changes in the pulse width of the transmitted signal, the relative amplitude and the time delay parameter, in order to analyzing the feasibility of this new method. Simulation results show that the new method is not only able to separate rigid scattering components, but can also separate the components when elastic scattering and rigid scattering exist at the same time. Experimental results confirm that the new method can be used in separating the rigid scattering structure of underwater objects.
Hayashi, Neisei; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro; Set, Sze Yun; Yamashita, Shinji
2018-06-01
Spontaneous depolarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering (GAWBS) was experimentally observed in one of the side cores of an uncoated multicore fiber (MCF). The frequency bandwidth in the side core was up to ∼400 MHz, which is 0.5 times that in the central core. The GAWBS spectrum of the side core of the MCF included intrinsic peaks, which had different acoustic resonance frequencies from those of the central core. In addition, the spontaneous depolarized GAWBS in the central/side core was unaffected by that in the other core. These results will lead to the development of polarization/phase modulators using an MCF.
Saturation of ion-acoustic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bychenkov, V.Yu.; Gradov, O.M.
1985-01-01
The time evolution of ion-acoustic turbulence is investigated taking into consideration both the scattering of electrons and the induced scattering of waves by the ions. The growth rate of the ion-acoustic turbulence is studied as the function of the wave number, including the long-wave ion sound excitations. It is shown that the relaxation of the ion-acoustic turbulence leads to the quasistationary noise distributions, which are the products of distributions according to the wave number and to the angle. The spectra conform to the stationary theory. (D.Gy.)
Acoustic resonance scattering from a multilayered cylindrical shell with imperfect bonding.
Rajabi, M; Hasheminejad, Seyyed M
2009-12-01
The method of wave function expansion is adopted to study the three dimensional scattering of a time-harmonic plane progressive sound field obliquely incident upon a multi-layered hollow cylinder with interlaminar bonding imperfection. For the generality of solution, each layer is assumed to be cylindrically orthotropic. An approximate laminate model in the context of the modal state equations with variable coefficients along with the classical T-matrix solution technique is set up for each layer to solve for the unknown modal scattering and transmission coefficients. A linear spring model is used to describe the interlaminar adhesive bonding whose effects are incorporated into the global transfer matrix by introduction of proper interfacial transfer matrices. Following the classic acoustic resonance scattering theory (RST), the scattered field and response to surface waves are determined by constructing the partial waves and obtaining the non-resonance (backgrounds) and resonance components. The solution is first used to investigate the effect of interlayer imperfection of an air-filled and water submerged bilaminate aluminium cylindrical shell on the resonances associated with various modes of wave propagation (i.e., symmetric/asymmetric Lamb waves, fluid-borne A-type waves, Rayleigh and Whispering Gallery waves) appearing in the backscattered spectrum, according to their polarization and state of stress. An illustrative numerical example is also given for a multi-layered (five-layered) cylindrical shell for which the stiffness of the adhesive interlayers is artificially varied. The sensitivity of resonance frequencies associated with higher mode numbers to the stiffness coefficients is demonstrated to be a good measure of the bonding strength. Limiting cases are considered and fair agreements with solutions available in the literature are established.
Acoustic Scattering from Munitions in the Underwater Environment: Measurements and Modeling
Williams, K.; Kargl, S. G.; Espana, A.
2017-12-01
Acoustical scattering from elastic targets has been a subject of research for several decades. However, the introduction of those targets into the ocean environment brings new complexities to quantitative prediction of that scattering. The goal of our work has been to retain as much of the target physics as possible while also handling the propagation to and from the target in the multi-path ocean environment. Testing of the resulting predictions has been carried out via ocean experiments in which munitions are deployed on and within the sediment. We will present the overall philosophy used in the modeling and then compare model results to measurements. A 60 cm long 30 cd diameter aluminum cylinder will be used as a canonical example and then a sample of results for a variety of munitions will be shown. Finally, we will discuss the use of both the models and measurements in assessing the ability of sonar to discriminate munitions from other man-made targets. The difficulty of this challenge will be made apparent via results from a recent experiment in which both munitions and man-made "clutter" were deployed on a rippled sand interface.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giovanni Carlotti
2018-01-01
Full Text Available There is currently a renewed interest in the development of experimental methods to achieve the elastic characterization of thin films, multilayers and acoustic resonators operating in the GHz range of frequencies. The potentialities of surface Brillouin light scattering (surf-BLS for this aim are reviewed in this paper, addressing the various situations that may occur for the different types of structures. In particular, the experimental methodology and the amount of information that can be obtained depending on the transparency or opacity of the film material, as well as on the ratio between the film thickness and the light wavelength, are discussed. A generalization to the case of multilayered samples is also provided, together with an outlook on the capability of the recently developed micro-focused scanning version of the surf-BLS technique, which opens new opportunities for the imaging of the spatial profile of the acoustic field in acoustic resonators and in artificially patterned metamaterials, such as phononic crystals.
High frequency and pulse scattering physical acoustics
Pierce, Allan D
1992-01-01
High Frequency and Pulse Scattering investigates high frequency and pulse scattering, with emphasis on the phenomenon of echoes from objects. Geometrical and catastrophe optics methods in scattering are discussed, along with the scattering of sound pulses and the ringing of target resonances. Caustics and associated diffraction catastrophes are also examined.Comprised of two chapters, this volume begins with a detailed account of geometrically based approximation methods in scattering theory, focusing on waves transmitted through fluid and elastic scatterers and glory scattering; surface ray r
Time-domain Brillouin scattering assisted by diffraction gratings
Matsuda, Osamu; Pezeril, Thomas; Chaban, Ievgeniia; Fujita, Kentaro; Gusev, Vitalyi
2018-02-01
Absorption of ultrashort laser pulses in a metallic grating deposited on a transparent sample launches coherent compression/dilatation acoustic pulses in directions of different orders of acoustic diffraction. Their propagation is detected by delayed laser pulses, which are also diffracted by the metallic grating, through the measurement of the transient intensity change of the first-order diffracted light. The obtained data contain multiple frequency components, which are interpreted by considering all possible angles for the Brillouin scattering of light achieved through multiplexing of the propagation directions of light and coherent sound by the metallic grating. The emitted acoustic field can be equivalently presented as a superposition of plane inhomogeneous acoustic waves, which constitute an acoustic diffraction grating for the probe light. Thus the obtained results can also be interpreted as a consequence of probe light diffraction by both metallic and acoustic gratings. The realized scheme of time-domain Brillouin scattering with metallic gratings operating in reflection mode provides access to wide range of acoustic frequencies from minimal to maximal possible values in a single experimental optical configuration for the directions of probe light incidence and scattered light detection. This is achieved by monitoring the backward and forward Brillouin scattering processes in parallel. Potential applications include measurements of the acoustic dispersion, simultaneous determination of sound velocity and optical refractive index, and evaluation of samples with a single direction of possible optical access.
Concentric layered Hermite scatterers
Astheimer, Jeffrey P.; Parker, Kevin J.
2018-05-01
The long wavelength limit of scattering from spheres has a rich history in optics, electromagnetics, and acoustics. Recently it was shown that a common integral kernel pertains to formulations of weak spherical scatterers in both acoustics and electromagnetic regimes. Furthermore, the relationship between backscattered amplitude and wavenumber k was shown to follow power laws higher than the Rayleigh scattering k2 power law, when the inhomogeneity had a material composition that conformed to a Gaussian weighted Hermite polynomial. Although this class of scatterers, called Hermite scatterers, are plausible, it may be simpler to manufacture scatterers with a core surrounded by one or more layers. In this case the inhomogeneous material property conforms to a piecewise continuous constant function. We demonstrate that the necessary and sufficient conditions for supra-Rayleigh scattering power laws in this case can be stated simply by considering moments of the inhomogeneous function and its spatial transform. This development opens an additional path for construction of, and use of scatterers with unique power law behavior.
Acoustic transparency in two-dimensional sonic crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose; Torrent, Daniel [Wave Phenomena Group, Department of Electronic Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, C/ Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Cai Liangwu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)], E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.es
2009-01-15
Acoustic transparency is studied in two-dimensional sonic crystals consisting of hexagonal distributions of cylinders with continuously varying properties. The transparency condition is achieved by selectively closing the acoustic bandgaps, which are governed by the structure factor of the cylindrical scatterers. It is shown here that cylindrical scatterers with the proposed continuously varying properties are physically realizable by using metafluids based on sonic crystals. The feasibility of this proposal is analyzed by a numerical experiment based on multiple scattering theory.
Localized Acoustic Surface Modes
Farhat, Mohamed
2015-08-04
We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes (ASMs). We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ondrej Slezak; Milan Kalal; Hon Jin Kong
2010-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Analytical description of an experimentally verified scheme leading to a phase-locked stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), used in a laser beam combination systems, is presented. The essential condition for the phase-locking effect for SBS is the fixation of the starting position and time of the acoustic Brillouin wave. It is shown that the starting position fixation of this acoustic wave may have its origin in a transient acoustic standing wave initiated by an arising optical interference field produced by the back-seeding concave mirror. This interference field leads to a stationary density modulation of the medium. However, the way to the formation of this density modulation leads via the acoustic standing wave. An appropriate solution, in the form of the standing wave, was obtained from solving the acoustic wave-equation using the electrostriction as a driving force. As a consequence of the damping term included in this equation the acoustic standing wave becomes gradually attenuated and contrary to the undamped solution published earlier, thus constitutes a truly transient phenomenon. Using a mathematical formalism similar to that which is used for the SBS description in the case of a random phase, the coupled equations describing the phase-locked SBS were derived. Contrary to the case without the back-seeding mirror, where the wave chosen from the thermal noise background subsequently plays the role of a trigger of the stimulated process, in this case it is replaced by the transient standing wave produced as a consequence of the presence of an optical interference field arisen in the focal region of the back-seeding concave mirror.
Time reversal invariance for a nonlinear scatterer exhibiting contact acoustic nonlinearity
Blanloeuil, Philippe; Rose, L. R. Francis; Veidt, Martin; Wang, Chun H.
2018-03-01
The time reversal invariance of an ultrasonic plane wave interacting with a contact interface characterized by a unilateral contact law is investigated analytically and numerically. It is shown analytically that despite the contact nonlinearity, the re-emission of a time reversed version of the reflected and transmitted waves can perfectly recover the original pulse shape, thereby demonstrating time reversal invariance for this type of contact acoustic nonlinearity. With the aid of finite element modelling, the time-reversal analysis is extended to finite-size nonlinear scatterers such as closed cracks. The results show that time reversal invariance holds provided that all the additional frequencies generated during the forward propagation, such as higher harmonics, sub-harmonics and zero-frequency component, are fully included in the retro-propagation. If the scattered waves are frequency filtered during receiving or transmitting, such as through the use of narrowband transducers, the recombination of the time-reversed waves will not exactly recover the original incident wave. This discrepancy due to incomplete time invariance can be exploited as a new method for characterizing damage by defining damage indices that quantify the departure from time reversal invariance. The sensitivity of these damage indices for various crack lengths and contact stress levels is investigated computationally, indicating some advantages of this narrowband approach relative to the more conventional measurement of higher harmonic amplitude, which requires broadband transducers.
Acoustic Tomography in the Canary Basin: Meddies and Tides
Dushaw, Brian D.; Gaillard, Fabienne; Terre, Thierry
2017-11-01
An acoustic propagation experiment over 308 km range conducted in the Canary Basin in 1997-1998 was used to assess the ability of ocean acoustic tomography to measure the flux of Mediterranean water and Meddies. Instruments on a mooring adjacent to the acoustic path measured the southwestward passage of a strong Meddy in temperature, salinity, and current. Over 9 months of transmissions, the acoustic arrival pattern was an initial broad stochastic pulse varying in duration by 250-500 ms, followed eight stable, identified-ray arrivals. Small-scale sound speed fluctuations from Mediterranean water parcels littered around the sound channel axis caused acoustic scattering. Internal waves contributed more modest acoustic scattering. Based on simulations, the main effect of a Meddy passing across the acoustic path is the formation of many early-arriving, near-axis rays, but these rays are thoroughly scattered by the small-scale Mediterranean-water fluctuations. A Meddy decreases the deep-turning ray travel times by 10-30 ms. The dominant acoustic signature of a Meddy is therefore the expansion of the width of the initial stochastic pulse. While this signature appears inseparable from the other effects of Mediterranean water in this region, the acoustic time series indicates the steady passage of Mediterranean water across the acoustic path. Tidal variations caused by the mode-1 internal tides were measured by the acoustic travel times. The observed internal tides were partly predicted using a recent global model for such tides derived from satellite altimetry.
Scattering of acoustic waves by small crustaceans
Andreeva, I. B.; Tarasov, L. L.
2003-03-01
Features of underwater sound scattering by small crustaceans are considered. The scattering data are obtained with the use of unique instrumentation that allows one to measure quantitative scattering characteristics (backscattering cross sections and angular scattering patterns) for crustaceans of different sizes, at different frequencies (20 200 kHz) and different insonification aspects. A computational model of crustaceans is considered with allowance for both the soft tissues of the main massive part of the animal's body and the stiff armour. The model proves to be advantageous for explaining some scattering features observed in the experiments. The scattering cross sections of crustaceans measured by other researchers are presented in a unified form appropriate for comparison. Based on such a quantitative comparison, relatively simple approximate empirical formulas are proposed for estimating the backscattering cross sections of small (within several centimeters) marine crustaceans in a broad frequency range.
Interaction of electromagnetic and acoustic waves in a stochastic atmosphere
Bhatnagar, N.; Peterson, A. M.
1979-01-01
In the Stanford radio acoustic sounding system (RASS) an electromagnetic signal is made to scatter from a moving acoustic pulse train. Under a Bragg-scatter condition maximum electromagnetic scattering occurs. The scattered radio signal contains temperature and wind information as a function of the acoustic-pulse position. In this investigation RASS performance is assessed in an atmosphere characterized by the presence of turbulence and mean atmospheric parameters. The only assumption made is that the electromagnetic wave is not affected by stochastic perturbations in the atmosphere. It is concluded that the received radio signal depends strongly on the intensity of turbulence for altitudes of the acoustic pulse greater than the coherence length of propagation. The effect of mean vertical wind and mean temperature on the strength of the received signal is also demonstrated to be insignificant. Mean horizontal winds, however, shift the focus of the reflected electromagnetic energy from its origin, resulting in a decrease in received signal level when a monostatic radio-frequency (RF) system is used. For a bistatic radar configuration with space diversified receiving antennas, the shifting of the acoustic pulse makes possible the remote measurement of the horizontal wind component.
Shallow Water Acoustic Laboratory
Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where high-frequency acoustic scattering and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures...
Laboratory for Structural Acoustics
Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where acoustic radiation, scattering, and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures are...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bowen, Patrick T; Urzhumov, Yaroslav A
2016-01-01
Acoustic metamaterial structures with discrete and continuous rotational symmetries attract interest of theorists and engineers due to the relative simplicity of their design and fabrication. They are also likely candidates for omnidirectional acoustic cloaking and other transformation-acoustical novelties. In this paper, we employ a stratified description of such structures, and develop the theory and an efficient symbolic/numerical algorithm for analyzing the scattering properties of such structures immersed in homogeneous fluid environments. The algorithm calculates the partial scattering amplitudes and the related scattering phases for an arbitrary layered distribution of acoustic material properties. The efficiency of the algorithm enables us to find approximate solutions to certain inverse scattering problems through quasi-global optimization. The scattering problems addressed here are the three forms of cloaking: (1) extinction cross-section suppression, the canonical form of cloaking, (2) monostatic sonar invisibility (backscattering suppression), and (3) acoustic force cloaking (transport cross-section suppression). We also address the efficiency-bandwidth tradeoff and design approximate cloaks with wider bandwidth using a new optimization formulation. (paper)
Bowen, Patrick T.; Urzhumov, Yaroslav A.
2016-04-01
Acoustic metamaterial structures with discrete and continuous rotational symmetries attract interest of theorists and engineers due to the relative simplicity of their design and fabrication. They are also likely candidates for omnidirectional acoustic cloaking and other transformation-acoustical novelties. In this paper, we employ a stratified description of such structures, and develop the theory and an efficient symbolic/numerical algorithm for analyzing the scattering properties of such structures immersed in homogeneous fluid environments. The algorithm calculates the partial scattering amplitudes and the related scattering phases for an arbitrary layered distribution of acoustic material properties. The efficiency of the algorithm enables us to find approximate solutions to certain inverse scattering problems through quasi-global optimization. The scattering problems addressed here are the three forms of cloaking: (1) extinction cross-section suppression, the canonical form of cloaking, (2) monostatic sonar invisibility (backscattering suppression), and (3) acoustic force cloaking (transport cross-section suppression). We also address the efficiency-bandwidth tradeoff and design approximate cloaks with wider bandwidth using a new optimization formulation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cai Li; Wen Ji-Hong; Yu Dian-Long; Lu Zhi-Miao; Wen Xi-Sen
2014-01-01
Acoustic cloak based on coordinate transformation is of great topical interest and has promise in potential applications such as sound transparency and insulation. The frequency response of acoustic cloaks with a quantity of discrete homogeneous layers is analyzed by the acoustic scattering theory. The effect of coordinate transformation function on the acoustic total scattering cross section is discussed to achieve low scattering with only a few layers of anisotropic metamaterials. Also, the physics of acoustic wave interaction with the interfaces between the discrete layers inside the cloak shell is discussed. These results provide a better way of designing a multilayered acoustic cloak with fewer layers. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))
Cai, Li; Wen, Ji-Hong; Yu, Dian-Long; Lu, Zhi-Miao; Wen, Xi-Sen
2014-09-01
Acoustic cloak based on coordinate transformation is of great topical interest and has promise in potential applications such as sound transparency and insulation. The frequency response of acoustic cloaks with a quantity of discrete homogeneous layers is analyzed by the acoustic scattering theory. The effect of coordinate transformation function on the acoustic total scattering cross section is discussed to achieve low scattering with only a few layers of anisotropic metamaterials. Also, the physics of acoustic wave interaction with the interfaces between the discrete layers inside the cloak shell is discussed. These results provide a better way of designing a multilayered acoustic cloak with fewer layers.
Bursting behaviours in cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Zhan-Jun; He Xian-Tu; Zheng Chun-Yang; Wang Yu-Gang
2012-01-01
Stimulated Brillouin scattering is studied by numerically solving the Vlasov—Maxwell system. A cascade of stimulated Brillouin scattering can occur when a linearly polarized laser pulse propagates in a plasma. It is found that a stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade can reduce the scattering and increase the transmission of light, as well as introduce a bursting behaviour in the evolution of the laser-plasma interaction. The bursting time in the reflectivity is found to be less than half the ion acoustic period. The ion temperature can affect the stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade, which can repeat several times at low ion temperatures and can be completely eliminated at high ion temperatures. For stimulated Brillouin scattering saturation, higher-harmonic generation and wave—wave interaction of the excited ion acoustic waves can restrict the amplitude of the latter. In addition, stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade can restrict the amplitude of the scattered light. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)
Acoustic Parametric Array for Identifying Standoff Targets
Hinders, M. K.; Rudd, K. E.
2010-02-01
An integrated simulation method for investigating nonlinear sound beams and 3D acoustic scattering from any combination of complicated objects is presented. A standard finite-difference simulation method is used to model pulsed nonlinear sound propagation from a source to a scattering target via the KZK equation. Then, a parallel 3D acoustic simulation method based on the finite integration technique is used to model the acoustic wave interaction with the target. Any combination of objects and material layers can be placed into the 3D simulation space to study the resulting interaction. Several example simulations are presented to demonstrate the simulation method and 3D visualization techniques. The combined simulation method is validated by comparing experimental and simulation data and a demonstration of how this combined simulation method assisted in the development of a nonlinear acoustic concealed weapons detector is also presented.
Choi, M S; Lee, S H
1999-01-01
The inherent background coefficients that exactly describe the background amplitudes in the scattered field have been presented for the scattering of plane acoustic waves by a system of concentrically multilayered solid and/or fluid shells submerged in a fluid. The coefficients have been obtained by replacing the mechanical surface admittance function with the zero-frequency limit of the admittance function for the analogous fluid system, where the shear wave speeds in the solid layers are set to zero. By taking advantage of the concept of incoming and outgoing waves, we find the surface admittance function for the fluid system in such a form that the analytical generalization for any number of layers and the physical interpretation are very easy. The background coefficients obtained are independent of the bulk wave speeds in the system: they depend on the mass densities and the thickness of the shells. With increasing frequency, the inherent background undergoes a transition from the soft to the rigid backgr...
Global effects of moon phase on nocturnal acoustic scattering layers
Prihartato, Perdana; Irigoien, Xabier; Genton, Marc G.; Kaartvedt, Stein
2016-01-01
© Inter-Research 2016. The impact of moon phase on the global nocturnal vertical distribution of acoustic scattering layers (SLs) in the upper 200 m was studied during the Malaspina expedition that circumnavigated the world. We assessed the nocturnal weighted mean depths and the vertical extension of the SL (the range between the upper 25th percentile and lower 75th percentile of the backscatter) and used a generalized additive model to reveal the relationship between the nocturnal vertical distribution of the SL and moon phase, as well as other environmental factors. Moon phase significantly affected the SL distribution on a global scale, in contrast to other factors such as dissolved oxygen, temperature and fluorescence, which each correlated with nocturnal SL distribution during the large geographic coverage. Full moon caused a deepening effect on the nocturnal SL. Contrary to expectations, the shallowest distribution was not observed during the darkest nights (new moon) and there was no difference in vertical distribution between new moon and intermediate moon phases. We conclude that the trend of deepening SL during approximately full moon (bright nights) is a global phenomenon related to anti-predator behavior.
Global effects of moon phase on nocturnal acoustic scattering layers
Prihartato, PK
2016-01-18
© Inter-Research 2016. The impact of moon phase on the global nocturnal vertical distribution of acoustic scattering layers (SLs) in the upper 200 m was studied during the Malaspina expedition that circumnavigated the world. We assessed the nocturnal weighted mean depths and the vertical extension of the SL (the range between the upper 25th percentile and lower 75th percentile of the backscatter) and used a generalized additive model to reveal the relationship between the nocturnal vertical distribution of the SL and moon phase, as well as other environmental factors. Moon phase significantly affected the SL distribution on a global scale, in contrast to other factors such as dissolved oxygen, temperature and fluorescence, which each correlated with nocturnal SL distribution during the large geographic coverage. Full moon caused a deepening effect on the nocturnal SL. Contrary to expectations, the shallowest distribution was not observed during the darkest nights (new moon) and there was no difference in vertical distribution between new moon and intermediate moon phases. We conclude that the trend of deepening SL during approximately full moon (bright nights) is a global phenomenon related to anti-predator behavior.
Light scattering by surface phonons in crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albuquerque, D.L.
1980-01-01
Theory of inelastic light scattering by surface acoustic phonons homogeneous crystals is presented. The Green functions are determined by the use of a classical linear response method and used to evaluate the Brillouin cross section. The acoustic modes are found from solutions to the acoustical-wave equation and boundary conditions appropriated. Two light-scattering mechanisms, amely the surface corrugation and bulk elasto-optic effect are analyzed by deriving optical fields which satisfy both the acousto-optically driven wave equation and the electromagnetic boundary conditions. No restrictions are imposed concerning the angle of incidence of the light. Some representative computed Brillouin ineshapes are also presented and their features discussed. (author) [pt
Hesford, Andrew J; Astheimer, Jeffrey P; Greengard, Leslie F; Waag, Robert C
2010-02-01
A multiple-scattering approach is presented to compute the solution of the Helmholtz equation when a number of spherical scatterers are nested in the interior of an acoustically large enclosing sphere. The solution is represented in terms of partial-wave expansions, and a linear system of equations is derived to enforce continuity of pressure and normal particle velocity across all material interfaces. This approach yields high-order accuracy and avoids some of the difficulties encountered when using integral equations that apply to surfaces of arbitrary shape. Calculations are accelerated by using diagonal translation operators to compute the interactions between spheres when the operators are numerically stable. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Osterhoudt, Curtis F; Marston, Philip L
2007-01-01
.... The purpose of his research was to improve the understanding of the way that acoustic evanescent waves interact with targets buried in sediments in situations encountered in underwater acoustics...
Numerical modelling of multiple scattering between two elastical particles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø
1998-01-01
in suspension have been studied extensively since Foldy's formulation of his theory for isotropic scattering by randomly distributed scatterers. However, a number of important problems related to multiple scattering are still far from finding their solutions. A particular, but still unsolved, problem......Multiple acoustical signal interactions with sediment particles in the vicinity of the seabed may significantly change the course of sediment concentration profiles determined by inversion from acoustical backscattering measurements. The scattering properties of high concentrations of sediments...... is the question of proximity thresholds for influence of multiple scattering in terms of particle properties like volume fraction, average distance between particles or other related parameters. A few available experimental data indicate a significance of multiple scattering in suspensions where the concentration...
Kim, Seungil
2010-01-01
In this paper, we study the spectrum of the operator which results when the Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) is applied in Cartesian geometry to the Laplacian on an unbounded domain. This is often thought of as a complex change of variables or "complex stretching." The reason that such an operator is of interest is that it can be used to provide a very effective domain truncation approach for approximating acoustic scattering problems posed on unbounded domains. Stretching associated with polar or spherical geometry lead to constant coefficient operators outside of a bounded transition layer and so even though they are on unbounded domains, they (and their numerical approximations) can be analyzed by more standard compact perturbation arguments. In contrast, operators associated with Cartesian stretching are non-constant in unbounded regions and hence cannot be analyzed via a compact perturbation approach. Alternatively, to show that the scattering problem PML operator associated with Cartesian geometry is stable for real nonzero wave numbers, we show that the essential spectrum of the higher order part only intersects the real axis at the origin. This enables us to conclude stability of the PML scattering problem from a uniqueness result given in a subsequent publication. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Electrostatic ion acoustic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasegawa, A.
1983-01-01
In this paper, certain aspects of plasma physics are illustrated through a study of electrostatic ion acoustic waves. The paper consists of three Sections. Section II deals with linear properties of the ion acoustic wave including derivation of the dispersions relation with the effect of Landau damping and of an ambient magnetic field. The section also introduces the excitation processes of the ion acoustic wave due to an electron drift or to a stimulated Brillouin scattering. The nonlinear properties are introduced in Section III and IV. In Section III, incoherent nonlinear effects such as quasilinear and mode-coupling saturations of the instability are discussed. The coherent nonlinear effects such as the generation of ion acoustic solitons, shocks and weak double layers are presented in Section IV. (Auth.)
Acoustic discrimination of Southern Ocean zooplankton
Brierley, Andrew S.; Ward, Peter; Watkins, Jonathan L.; Goss, Catherine
Acoustic surveys in the vicinity of the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia during a period of exceptionally calm weather revealed the existence of a number of horizontally extensive yet vertically discrete scattering layers in the upper 250 m of the water column. These layers were fished with a Longhurst-Hardy plankton recorder (LHPR) and a multiple-opening 8 m 2 rectangular mid-water trawl (RMT8). Analysis of catches suggested that each scattering layer was composed predominantly of a single species (biovolume>95%) of either the euphausiids Euphausia frigida or Thysanöessa macrura, the hyperiid amphipod Themisto gaudichaudii, or the eucalaniid copepod Rhincalanus gigas. Instrumentation on the nets allowed their trajectories to be reconstructed precisely, and thus catch data to be related directly to the corresponding acoustic signals. Discriminant function analysis of differences between mean volume backscattering strength at 38, 120 and 200 kHz separated echoes originating from each of the dominant scattering layers, and other signals identified as originating from Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba), with an overall correct classification rate of 77%. Using echo intensity data alone, gathered using hardware commonly employed for fishery acoustics, it is therefore possible to discriminate in situ between several zooplanktonic taxa, taxa which in some instances exhibit similar gross morphological characteristics and have overlapping length- frequency distributions. Acoustic signals from the mysid Antarctomysis maxima could also be discriminated once information on target distribution was considered, highlighting the value of incorporating multiple descriptors of echo characteristics into signal identification procedures. The ability to discriminate acoustically between zooplankton taxa could be applied to provide improved acoustic estimates of species abundance, and to enhance field studies of zooplankton ecology, distribution and species interactions.
Electrical circuit modeling and analysis of microwave acoustic interaction with biological tissues.
Gao, Fei; Zheng, Qian; Zheng, Yuanjin
2014-05-01
Numerical study of microwave imaging and microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging utilizes finite difference time domain (FDTD) analysis for simulation of microwave and acoustic interaction with biological tissues, which is time consuming due to complex grid-segmentation and numerous calculations, not straightforward due to no analytical solution and physical explanation, and incompatible with hardware development requiring circuit simulator such as SPICE. In this paper, instead of conventional FDTD numerical simulation, an equivalent electrical circuit model is proposed to model the microwave acoustic interaction with biological tissues for fast simulation and quantitative analysis in both one and two dimensions (2D). The equivalent circuit of ideal point-like tissue for microwave-acoustic interaction is proposed including transmission line, voltage-controlled current source, envelop detector, and resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) network, to model the microwave scattering, thermal expansion, and acoustic generation. Based on which, two-port network of the point-like tissue is built and characterized using pseudo S-parameters and transducer gain. Two dimensional circuit network including acoustic scatterer and acoustic channel is also constructed to model the 2D spatial information and acoustic scattering effect in heterogeneous medium. Both FDTD simulation, circuit simulation, and experimental measurement are performed to compare the results in terms of time domain, frequency domain, and pseudo S-parameters characterization. 2D circuit network simulation is also performed under different scenarios including different sizes of tumors and the effect of acoustic scatterer. The proposed circuit model of microwave acoustic interaction with biological tissue could give good agreement with FDTD simulated and experimental measured results. The pseudo S-parameters and characteristic gain could globally evaluate the performance of tumor detection. The 2D circuit network
Light scattering by surface phonons in crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albuquerque, E.L. de
1981-01-01
A theory of inelastic light scattering by surface acoustic phonons in homogeneous crystals is presented. The Green functions are determined by the use of a classical linear response method and used to evaluate the Brillouin cross section. The acoustic modes are found from solutions to the acoustical-wave equation and boundary conditions appropriated. Two light-scattering mechanisms, namely the surface corrugation and bulk elasto-optic effect are analyzed by deriving optical fields which satisfy both the acousto-optically driven wave equation and the electromagnetic boundary conditions. No restrictions are imposed concerning the angle of incidence of the light. Some representative computed Brillouin lineshapes are also presented and their features discussed. (Author) [pt
Sound Scattering and Its Reduction by a Janus Sphere Type
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deliya Kim
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Sound scattering by a Janus sphere type is considered. The sphere has two surface zones: a soft surface of zero acoustic impedance and a hard surface of infinite acoustic impedance. The zones are arranged such that axisymmetry of the sound field is preserved. The equivalent source method is used to compute the sound field. It is shown that, by varying the sizes of the soft and hard zones on the sphere, a significant reduction can be achieved in the scattered acoustic power and upstream directivity when the sphere is near a free surface and its soft zone faces the incoming wave and vice versa for a hard ground. In both cases the size of the sphere’s hard zone is much larger than that of its soft zone. The boundary location between the two zones coincides with the location of a zero pressure line of the incoming standing sound wave, thus masking the sphere within the sound field reflected by the free surface or the hard ground. The reduction in the scattered acoustic power diminishes when the sphere is placed in free space. Variations of the scattered acoustic power and directivity with the sound frequency are also given and discussed.
A neutron scattering study of DCN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mackenzie, G.A.; Pawley, G.S.
1979-01-01
Phonons in deuterium cyanide have been measured by neutron coherent inelastic scattering. The main subject of study was the transverse acoustic mode in the (110) direction polarised along (110) which is associated with the first-order structural phase transition at 160 K. Measurements have shown that the frequency decreases by about 25% between about 225 and 160 K as the transition temperature is approached. The other acoustic modes observable in the a*b* scattering plane have been measured and show no anomalous temperature dependence. Optic modes were unobservable because of the small size of the single-crystal sample which gave insufficient scattered intensity. Apart from the 'soft' mode, the measured frequencies are in good agreement with lattice dynamics calculations. (author)
An assessment of the DORT method on simple scatterers using boundary element modelling.
Gélat, P; Ter Haar, G; Saffari, N
2015-05-07
The ability to focus through ribs overcomes an important limitation of a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) system for the treatment of liver tumours. Whilst it is important to generate high enough acoustic pressures at the treatment location for tissue lesioning, it is also paramount to ensure that the resulting ultrasonic dose on the ribs remains below a specified threshold, since ribs both strongly absorb and reflect ultrasound. The DORT (décomposition de l'opérateur de retournement temporel) method has the ability to focus on and through scatterers immersed in an acoustic medium selectively without requiring prior knowledge of their location or geometry. The method requires a multi-element transducer and is implemented via a singular value decomposition of the measured matrix of inter-element transfer functions. The efficacy of a method of focusing through scatterers is often assessed by comparing the specific absorption rate (SAR) at the surface of the scatterer, and at the focal region. The SAR can be obtained from a knowledge of the acoustic pressure magnitude and the acoustic properties of the medium and scatterer. It is well known that measuring acoustic pressures with a calibrated hydrophone at or near a hard surface presents experimental challenges, potentially resulting in increased measurement uncertainties. Hence, the DORT method is usually assessed experimentally by measuring the SAR at locations on the surface of the scatterer after the latter has been removed from the acoustic medium. This is also likely to generate uncertainties in the acoustic pressure measurement. There is therefore a strong case for assessing the efficacy of the DORT method through a validated theoretical model. The boundary element method (BEM) applied to exterior acoustic scattering problems is well-suited for such an assessment. In this study, BEM was used to implement the DORT method theoretically on locally reacting spherical scatterers, and to assess its focusing
Acoustic properties of a porous glass (vycor) at hypersonic frequencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levelut, C; Pelous, J
2007-01-01
Brillouin scattering experiments have been performed from 5 to 1600 K in vycor, a porous silica glass. The acoustic velocity and attenuation at hypersonic frequencies are compared to those of bulk silica and others porous silica samples. The experimental evidence for the influence of porosity on the scattering by acoustic waves is compared to calculations. The correlation between internal friction and thermal conductivity at low temperature is discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bugay, A. N.; Sazonov, S. V.
2008-01-01
A new mechanism is proposed for continuous frequency down-conversion of acoustic waves propagating in a paramagnetic crystal at a low temperature in an applied magnetic field. A transverse hypersonic pulse generating a carrier-free longitudinal strain pulse via nonlinear effects is scattered by the generated pulse. This leads to a Stokes shift in the transverse hypersonic wave proportional to its intensity, and both pulses continue to propagate in the form of a mode-locked soliton. As the transverse-pulse frequency is Stokes shifted, its spectrum becomes narrower. This process can be effectively implemented only if the linear group velocity of the transverse hypersonic pulse equals the phase velocity of the longitudinal strain wave. These velocities are renormalized by spin-phonon coupling and can be made equal by adjusting the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. The transverse structure of the soliton depends on the sign of the group velocity dispersion of the transverse component. When the dispersion is positive, planar solitons can develop whose transverse component has a topological defect of dark vortex type and longitudinal component has a hole. In the opposite case, the formation of two-component acoustic 'bullets' or vortices localized in all directions is possible
Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady
2011-01-01
The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...... both physical and digital models at three distinct scales. The results suggest hyperboloid geometry, while difficult to fabricate, facilitates sound scattering....
Visualization of acoustic particle interaction and agglomeration: Theory evaluation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoffmann, T.L.; Koopmann, G.H.
1997-01-01
In this paper experimentally observed trajectories of particles undergoing acoustically induced interaction and agglomeration processes are compared to and validated with numerically generated trajectories based on existing agglomeration theories. Models for orthokinetic, scattering, mutual radiation pressure, and hydrodynamic particle interaction are considered in the analysis. The characteristic features of the classical orthokinetic agglomeration hypothesis, such as collision processes and agglomerations due to the relative entrainment motion, are not observed in the digital images. The measured entrainment rates of the particles are found to be consistently lower than the theoretically predicted values. Some of the experiments reveal certain characteristics which may possibly be related to mutual scattering interaction. The study's most significant discovery is the so-called tuning fork agglomeration [T. L. Hoffmann and G. H. Koopmann, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 2130 endash 2141 (1996)]. It is shown that this phenomenon contradicts the theories for mutual scattering interaction and mutual radiation pressure interaction, but agrees with the acoustic wake effect model in its intrinsic feature of attraction between particles aligned along the acoustic axis. A model by Dianov et al. [Sov. Phys. Acoust. 13 (3), 314 endash 319 (1968)] is used to describe this effect based on asymmetric flow fields around particles under Oseen flow conditions. It is concluded that this model is consistent with the general characteristics of the tuning fork agglomerations, but lacks certain refinements with respect to accurate quantification of the effect. copyright 1997 Acoustical Society of America
Risk of a second cancer from scattered radiation in acoustic neuroma treatment
Yoon, Myonggeun; Lee, Hyunho; Sung, Jiwon; Shin, Dongoh; Park, Sungho; Chung, Weon Kuu; Jahng, Geon-Ho; Kim, Dong Wook
2014-06-01
The present study aimed to compare the risk of a secondary cancer from scattered and leakage doses in patients receiving intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Four acoustic neuroma patients were treated with IMRT, VMAT, or SRS. Their excess relative risk (ERR), excess absolute risk (EAR), and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of a secondary cancer were estimated using the corresponding secondary doses measured at various organs by using radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeters (RPLGD) placed inside a humanoid phantom. When a prescription dose was delivered in the planning target volume of the 4 patients, the average organ equivalent doses (OED) at the thyroid, lung, liver, bowel, bladder, prostate (or ovary), and rectum were 14.6, 1.7, 0.9, 0.8, 0.6, 0.6, and 0.6 cGy, respectively, for IMRT whereas they were 19.1, 1.8, 2.0, 0.6, 0.4, 0.4, and 0.4 cGy, respectively, for VMAT, and 22.8, 4.6, 1.4, 0.7, 0.5, 0.5, and 0.5 cGy, respectively, for SRS. The OED decreased as the distance from the primary beam increased. The thyroid received the highest OED compared to other organs. A lifetime attributable risk evaluation estimated that more than 0.03% of acoustic neuroma (AN) patients would get radiation-induced cancer within 20 years of receiving radiation therapy. The organ with the highest radiation-induced cancer risk after radiation treatment for AN was the thyroid. We found that the LAR could be increased by the transmitted dose from the primary beam. No modality-specific difference in radiation-induced cancer risk was observed in our study.
Risk of a second cancer from scattered radiation in acoustic neuroma treatment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoon, Myonggeun; Lee, Hyunho; Sung, Jiwon [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dongoh [Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sungho [Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Weonkuu; Jahng, Geonho; Kim, Dongwook [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-06-15
The present study aimed to compare the risk of a secondary cancer from scattered and leakage doses in patients receiving intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Four acoustic neuroma patients were treated with IMRT, VMAT, or SRS. Their excess relative risk (ERR), excess absolute risk (EAR), and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of a secondary cancer were estimated using the corresponding secondary doses measured at various organs by using radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeters (RPLGD) placed inside a humanoid phantom. When a prescription dose was delivered in the planning target volume of the 4 patients, the average organ equivalent doses (OED) at the thyroid, lung, liver, bowel, bladder, prostate (or ovary), and rectum were 14.6, 1.7, 0.9, 0.8, 0.6, 0.6, and 0.6 cGy, respectively, for IMRT whereas they were 19.1, 1.8, 2.0, 0.6, 0.4, 0.4, and 0.4 cGy, respectively, for VMAT, and 22.8, 4.6, 1.4, 0.7, 0.5, 0.5, and 0.5 cGy, respectively, for SRS. The OED decreased as the distance from the primary beam increased. The thyroid received the highest OED compared to other organs. A lifetime attributable risk evaluation estimated that more than 0.03% of acoustic neuroma (AN) patients would get radiation-induced cancer within 20 years of receiving radiation therapy. The organ with the highest radiation-induced cancer risk after radiation treatment for AN was the thyroid. We found that the LAR could be increased by the transmitted dose from the primary beam. No modality-specific difference in radiation-induced cancer risk was observed in our study.
NORSTAR Project: Norfolk public schools student team for acoustical research
Fortunato, Ronald C.
1987-01-01
Development of the NORSTAR (Norfolk Public Student Team for Acoustical Research) Project includes the definition, design, fabrication, testing, analysis, and publishing the results of an acoustical experiment. The student-run program is based on a space flight organization similar to the Viking Project. The experiment will measure the scattering transfer of momentum from a sound field to spheres in a liquid medium. It is hoped that the experimental results will shed light on a difficult physics problem - the difference in scattering cross section (the overall effect of the sound wave scattering) for solid spheres and hollow spheres of differing wall thicknesses.
Ultrasonic superlensing jets and acoustic-fork sheets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitri, F.G., E-mail: F.G.Mitri@ieee.org
2017-05-18
Focusing acoustical (and optical) beams beyond the diffraction limit has remained a major challenge in imaging instruments and systems, until recent advances on “hyper” or “super” lensing and higher-resolution imaging techniques have shown the counterintuitive violation of this rule under certain circumstances. Nonetheless, the proposed technologies of super-resolution acoustical focusing beyond the diffraction barrier require complex tools such as artificially engineered metamaterials, and other hardware equipment that may not be easily synthesized or manufactured. The present contribution therefore suggests a simple and reliable method of using a sound-penetrable circular cylinder lens illuminated by a nonparaxial Gaussian acoustical sheet (i.e. finite beam in 2D) to produce non-evanescent ultrasonic superlensing jets (or bullets) and acoustical ‘snail-fork’ shaped wavefronts with limited diffraction. The generalized (near-field) scattering theory for acoustical sheets of arbitrary wavefronts and incidence is utilized to synthesize the incident beam based upon the angular spectrum decomposition method and the multipole expansion method in cylindrical wave functions to compute the scattered pressure around the cylinder with particular emphasis on its physical properties. The results show that depending on the beam and lens parameters, a tight focusing (with dimensions much smaller than the beam waist) can be achieved. Subwavelength resolution can be also achieved by selecting a lens material with a speed of sound exceeding that of the host fluid medium. The ultrasonic superlensing jets provide the impetus to develop improved subwavelength microscopy and acoustical image-slicing systems, cell lysis and surgery, and photoacoustic imaging to name a few examples. Moreover, an acoustical fork-sheet generation may open innovative avenues in reconfigurable on-chip micro/nanoparticle tweezers and surface acoustic waves devices. - Highlights: • Ultrasonic
Study on the scattering law and scattering kernel of hydrogen in zirconium hydride
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang Xinbiao; Chen Wei; Chen Da; Yin Banghua; Xie Zhongsheng
1999-01-01
The nuclear analytical model of calculating scattering law and scattering kernel for the uranium zirconium hybrid reactor is described. In the light of the acoustic and optic model of zirconium hydride, its frequency distribution function f(ω) is given and the scattering law of hydrogen in zirconium hydride is obtained by GASKET. The scattering kernel σ l (E 0 →E) of hydrogen bound in zirconium hydride is provided by the SMP code in the standard WIMS cross section library. Along with this library, WIMS is used to calculate the thermal neutron energy spectrum of fuel cell. The results are satisfied
Scattering of electromagnetic waves by anomalous fluctuations of a magnetized plasma
Pavlenko, V. N.; Panchenko, V. G.
1990-04-01
Fluctuations and scattering of transverse electromagnetic waves by density fluctuations in a magnetized plasma in the presence of parametric decay of the pump wave are investigated. The spectral density of electron-density fluctuations is calculated. It is shown that the differential scattering cross-section has sharp maxima at the ion-acoustic and lower-hybrid frequencies when parametric decay of the lower-hybrid pump wave occurs. We note that scattering at the ion-acoustic frequency is dominant. When the pump-wave amplitude tends to the threshold strength of the electric field the scattering cross-section increases anomalously, i.e. there is critical opalescence.
Acoustic interaction forces between small particles in an ideal fluid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Silva, Glauber T.; Bruus, Henrik
2014-01-01
We present a theoretical expression for the acoustic interaction force between small spherical particles suspended in an ideal fluid exposed to an external acoustic wave. The acoustic interaction force is the part of the acoustic radiation force on one given particle involving the scattered waves...... from the other particles. The particles, either compressible liquid droplets or elastic microspheres, are considered to be much smaller than the acoustic wavelength. In this so-called Rayleigh limit, the acoustic interaction forces between the particles are well approximated by gradients of pair...
Momentum transfer in a Brillouin surface scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khater, A.F.
1980-01-01
The theory of acoustic excitation scattering in the surface of Brilloiun of opaque materials, is related to the question of momentum transfexed from radiation fields to the material when the incident eight is scattered in a measurable spectrum. (A.C.A.S.) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Futterman, J.A.H.; Handler, F.A.; Matzner, R.A.
1987-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the propagation of waves in the presence of black holes. While emphasizing intuitive physical thinking in their treatment of the techniques of analysis of scattering, the authors also include chapters on the rigorous mathematical development of the subject. Introducing the concepts of scattering by considering the simplest, scalar wave case of scattering by a spherical (Schwarzschild) black hole, the book then develops the formalism of spin weighted spheroidal harmonics and of plane wave representations for neutrino, electromagnetic, and gravitational scattering. Details and results of numerical computations are given. The techniques involved have important applications (references are given) in acoustical and radar imaging
Mitri, F G
2010-03-01
Acoustic scattering properties of ultrasound contrast agents are useful in extending existing or developing new techniques for biomedical imaging applications. A useful first step in this direction is to investigate the acoustic scattering of a new class of acoustic beams, known as helicoidal high-order Bessel beams, to improve the understanding of their scattering characteristics by an ultrasound contrast agent, which at present is very limited. The transverse acoustic scattering of a commercially available albuminoidal ultrasound contrast agent shell filled with air or a denser gas such as perfluoropropane and placed in a helicoidal Bessel beam of any order is examined numerically. The shell is assumed to possess an outer radius a=3.5 microns and a thickness of approximately 105 nm. Moduli of the total and resonance transverse acoustic scattering form functions are numerically evaluated in the bandwidth 0scattering of a helicoidal Bessel beam of order m1 so that the dynamics of contrast agents would be significantly altered. The main finding of the present theory is the suppression or enhancement for a particular resonance that may be used to advantage in imaging with ultrasound contrast agents for clinical applications. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cristiglio, Viviana; Grillo, Isabelle; Fomina, Margarita; Wien, Frank; Shalaev, Evgenyi; Novikov, Alexey; Brassamin, Séverine; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Pérez, Javier; Hennet, Louis
2017-01-01
The acoustic levitation technique is a useful sample handling method for small solid and liquids samples, suspended in air by means of an ultrasonic field. This method was previously used at synchrotron sources for studying pharmaceutical liquids and protein solutions using x-ray diffraction and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). In this work we combined for the first time this containerless method with small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) to study the structural behavior of proteins in solutions during the water evaporation. SANS results are also compared with SAXS experiments. The aggregation behavior of 45μl droplets of lysozyme protein diluted in water was followed during the continuous increase of the sample concentration by evaporating the solvent. The evaporation kinetics was followed at different drying stage by SANS and SAXS with a good data quality. In a prospective work using SRCD, we also studied the evolution of the secondary structure of the myoglobin protein in water solution in the same evaporation conditions. Acoustic levitation was applied for the first time with SANS and the high performances of the used neutron instruments made it possible to monitor fast container-less reactions in situ. A preliminary work using SRCD shows the potentiality of its combination with acoustic levitation for studying the evolution of the protein structure with time. This multi-techniques approach could give novel insights into crystallization and self-assembly phenomena of biological compound with promising potential applications in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industry. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Science for Life" Guest Editor: Dr. Austen Angell, Dr. Salvatore Magazù and Dr. Federica Migliardo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Agounad, Said; Aassif, El Houcein; Khandouch, Younes; Maze, Gérard; Décultot, Dominique
2018-01-01
The time and frequency analyses of the acoustic scattering by an elastic cylindrical shell in bistatic method show that the arrival times of the echoes and the resonance frequencies of the elastic waves propagating in and around the cylindrical shell are a function of the bistatic angle, β, between the emitter and receiver transducers. The aim of this work is to explain the observed results in time and frequency domains using time-frequency analysis and graphical interpretations. The performance of four widely used time-frequency representations, the Smoothed Pseudo Wigner-Ville (SPWV), the Spectrogram (SP), the reassignment SPWV, and the reassignment SP, are studied. The investigation into the evolution of the time-frequency plane as a function of the bistatic angle β shows that there are the waves propagating in counter-clockwise direction (labeled wave+) and the waves which propagate in clockwise direction (labeled waves-). In this paper the A, S0, and A1 circumferential waves are investigated. The graphical interpretations are used to explain the formation mechanism of these waves and the acoustic scattering in monostatic and bistatic configurations. The delay between the echoes of the waves+ and those of the waves- is expressed in the case of the circumnavigating wave (Scholte-Stoneley wave). This study shows that the observed waves at β = 0 ° and β = 18 0 ° are the result of the constructive interferences between the waves+ and the waves-. A comparative study of the physical properties (group velocity dispersion and cut-off frequency) of the waves+, the waves- and the waves observed in monostatic configuration is conducted. Furthermore, it is shown that the ability of the time-frequency representation to highlight the waves+ and the waves- is very useful, for example, for the detection and the localization of defaults, the classification purposes, etc.
Wapenaar, Kees; Thorbecke, Jan; van der Neut, Joost
2016-04-01
Green's theorem plays a fundamental role in a diverse range of wavefield imaging applications, such as holographic imaging, inverse scattering, time-reversal acoustics and interferometric Green's function retrieval. In many of those applications, the homogeneous Green's function (i.e. the Green's function of the wave equation without a singularity on the right-hand side) is represented by a closed boundary integral. In practical applications, sources and/or receivers are usually present only on an open surface, which implies that a significant part of the closed boundary integral is by necessity ignored. Here we derive a homogeneous Green's function representation for the common situation that sources and/or receivers are present on an open surface only. We modify the integrand in such a way that it vanishes on the part of the boundary where no sources and receivers are present. As a consequence, the remaining integral along the open surface is an accurate single-sided representation of the homogeneous Green's function. This single-sided representation accounts for all orders of multiple scattering. The new representation significantly improves the aforementioned wavefield imaging applications, particularly in situations where the first-order scattering approximation breaks down.
INTERFERENCE FRINGES OF SOLAR ACOUSTIC WAVES AROUND SUNSPOTS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chou, Dean-Yi; Zhao Hui; Yang, Ming-Hsu; Liang, Zhi-Chao, E-mail: chou@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Physics Department, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)
2012-10-20
Solar acoustic waves are scattered by a sunspot due to the interaction between the acoustic waves and the sunspot. The sunspot, excited by the incident wave, generates the scattered wave. The scattered wave is added to the incident wave to form the total wave around the sunspot. The interference fringes between the scattered wave and the incident wave are visible in the intensity of the total wave because the coherent time of the incident wave is of the order of a wave period. The strength of the interference fringes anti-correlates with the width of temporal spectra of the incident wave. The separation between neighboring fringes increases with the incident wavelength and the sunspot size. The strength of the fringes increases with the radial order n of the incident wave from n = 0 to n = 2, and then decreases from n = 2 to n = 5. The interference fringes play a role analogous to holograms in optics. This study suggests the feasibility of using the interference fringes to reconstruct the scattered wavefields of the sunspot, although the quality of the reconstructed wavefields is sensitive to the noise and errors in the interference fringes.
Sound Scattering by a Flexible Plate Embedded on Free Surface
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eldad J. Avital
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Sound wave scattering by a flexible plate embedded on water surface is considered. Linear acoustics and plate elasticity are assumed. The aim is to assess the effect of the plate’s flexibility on sound scattering and the potential in using that flexibility for this purpose. A combined sound-structure solution is used, which is based on a Fourier transform of the sound field and a finite-difference numerical-solution of the plate’s dynamics. The solution is implemented for a circular plate subject to a perpendicular incoming monochromatic sound wave. A very good agreement is achieved with a finite-difference solution of the sound field. It is shown that the flexibility of the plate dampens its scattered sound wave regardless of the type of the plate’s edge support. A hole in the plate is shown to further scatter the sound wave to form maxima in the near sound field. It is suggested that applying an external oscillatory pressure on the plate can reduce significantly and even eliminate its scattered wave, thus making the plate close to acoustically invisible. A uniformly distributed external pressure is found capable of achieving that aim as long as the plate is free edged or is not highly acoustically noncompact.
Low-Field Mobility and Galvanomagnetic Properties of Holes in Germanium with Phonon Scattering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lawætz, Peter
1968-01-01
acoustic scattering, no overall consistency is found between available galvanomagnetic data and deformation potentials derived directly from experiments on strained Ge. The discrepancies may be ascribed to ionized-impurity scattering, but at higher temperatures where optical phonon scattering is operative......A theoretical calculation of the low-field galvanomagnetic properties of holes in Ge has been carried out incorporating all relevant details of the band structure. The scattering is limited to acoustic and optical phonons and is described by the deformation potentials a, b, d, and d0. For pure......, the deviations are still appreciable. We are led to conclude that the deformation-potential theory of phonon scattering needs reconsideration, and a nontrivial correction is pointed out....
Raman scattering from epitaxial HfN layers grown on MgO(001)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoehr, M.; Seo, H.-S.; Petrov, I.; Greene, J.E.
2006-01-01
Stoichiometric single-crystal HfN layers grown on MgO(001) are analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Second-order Raman scattering predominates, but first-order modes in the acoustic and optical ranges are also visible. The latter indicates that the O h symmetry of NaCl-structure HfN is broken. The large mass difference between Hf and N leads to a correspondingly large separation, 250 cm -1 , between the first-order acoustic and optical bands. Within this gap, four Raman lines are clearly observed. The first three are the second-order transverse acoustic mode (240 cm -1 ), the sum of the first-order transverse and longitudinal acoustic modes (280 cm -1 ), and the second-order longitudinal acoustic mode (325 cm -1 ). The fourth line at 380 cm -1 is identified as the difference between the first-order optical and acoustic modes. The observed first-order Raman scattering, as well as the width of the gap between the first-order acoustic and optical modes, is in good agreement with previously calculated HfN phonon density of states
Long-Wavelength Phonon Scattering in Nonpolar Semiconductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lawætz, Peter
1969-01-01
The long-wavelength acoustic- and optical-phonon scattering of carriers in nonpolar semiconductors is considered from a general point of view. The deformation-potential approximation is defined and it is shown that long-range electrostatic forces give a nontrivial correction to the scattering...... of the very-short-range nature of interactions in a covalent semiconductor....
Anomalous acoustic dispersion in architected microlattice metamaterials
KröDel, Sebastian; Palermo, Antonio; Daraio, Chiara
The ability to control dispersion in acoustic metamaterials is crucial to realize acoustic filtering and rectification devices as well as perfect imaging using negative refractive index materials. Architected microlattice metamaterials immersed in fluid constitute a versatile platform for achieving such control. We investigate architected microlattice materials able to exploit locally resonant modes of their fundamental building blocks that couple with propagating acoustic waves. Using analytical, numerical and experimental methods we find that such lattice materials show a hybrid dispersion behavior governed by Biot's theory for long wavelengths and multiple scattering theory when wave frequency is close to the resonances of the building block. We identify the relevant geometric parameters to alter and control the group and phase velocities in this class of acoustic metamaterials. Furthermore, we fabricate small-scale acoustic metamaterial samples using high precision SLA additive manufacturing and test the resulting materials experimentally using a customized ultrasonic setup. This work paves the way for new acoustic devices based on microlattice metamaterials.
Controllable asymmetric transmission via gap-tunable acoustic metasurface
Liu, Bingyi; Jiang, Yongyuan
2018-04-01
In this work, we utilize the acoustic gradient metasurface (AGM) of a bilayer configuration to realize the controllable asymmetric transmission. Relying on the adjustable gap between the two composing layers, the metasurface could switch from symmetric transmission to asymmetric transmission at a certain gap value. The underlying mechanism is attributed to the interference between the forward diffracted waves scattered by the surface bound waves at two air-AGM interfaces, which is apparently influenced by the interlayer distance. We further utilize the hybrid acoustic elements to construct the desired gradient metasurface with a tunable gap and validate the controllable asymmetric transmission with full-wave simulations. Our work provides the solution for actively controlling the transmission property of an acoustic element, which shows potential application in acoustic communication as a dynamic tunable acoustic diode.
Mamou, Jonathan M.
This dissertation investigated how three-dimensional (3D) tissue models can be used to improve ultrasonic tissue characterization (UTC) techniques. Anatomic sites in tissue responsible for ultrasonic scattering are unknown, which limits the potential applications of ultrasound for tumor diagnosis. Accurate 3D models of tumor tissues may help identify the scattering sites. Three mammary tumors were investigated: a rat fibroadenoma, a mouse carcinoma, and a mouse sarcoma. A 3D acoustic tissue model, termed 3D impedance map (3DZM), was carefully constructed from consecutive histologic sections for each tumor. Spectral estimates (scatterer size and acoustic concentration) were obtained from the 3DZMs and compared to the same estimates obtained with ultrasound. Scatterer size estimates for three tumors were found to be similar (within 10%). The 3DZMs were also used to extract tissue-specific scattering models. The scattering models were found to allow clear distinction between the three tumors. This distinction demonstrated that UTC techniques may be helpful for noninvasive clinical tumor diagnosis.
Acoustic study of YBa2Cu3Ox thin films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, S.; Chi, C.; Koren, G.; Gupta, A.
1991-01-01
The attenuation of surface acoustic waves by epitaxial YBa 2 Cu 3 O x films has been studied for x congruent 6 to 7. For fully oxygenated samples, the acoustic attenuation as a function of temperature shows two broad peaks at about 135 and 240 K, and decreases monotonically below the lower peak temperature. The cause of attenuation peaks is attributed to scattering by optical phonons. Our data do not show any gap structure at T c due to relatively weak electron-phonon interactions at the acoustic frequencies. As the oxygen deficiency increases, the temperature dependence of the dc resistance changes from metallic to semiconducting and finally to insulating behavior. Acoustic attenuation data correspondingly show a drastic change due to different attenuation mechanisms: from the phonon scattering loss in the metallic regime to the electric-field coupling loss in the semiconducting and insulating regimes. In the latter regimes, the temperature dependence of low-frequency resistance calculated from the attenuation data can be fitted to a three-dimensional Mott variable-range-hopping model
Stimulated brillouin scattering of electromagnetic waves in a dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salimullah, M.; Sen, A.
1991-08-01
The stimulated Brilluoin scattering of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous, unmagnetized and collisionless dusty plasma has been investigated theoretically. The Vlasov equation has been solved perturbatively to find the nonlinear response of the plasma particles. The presence of the dust particles introduces a background inhomogeneous electric field which significantly influences the dispersive properties of the plasma. At the ion acoustic branch we find the usual scattering slightly modified by the charged dust grains. However, at the frequency lower than the ion acoustic branch we find a new mode of the plasma arising from the oscillations of the ions in the static structure of the dust distribution. This low frequency branch causes enhanced stimulated Brillouin scattering of electromagnetic waves in a dusty plasma. (author). 15 refs
Sound extinction by fish schools: forward scattering theory and data analysis.
Raveau, M; Feuillade, C
2015-02-01
A model used previously to study collective back scattering from fish schools [Feuillade et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99(1), 196-208 (1996)], is used to analyze the forward scattering properties of these objects. There is an essential physical difference between back and forward scattering from fish schools. Strong frequency dependent interference effects, which affect the back scattered field amplitude, are absent in the forward scattering case. This is critically important for data analysis. There is interest in using back scattering and transmission data from fish schools to study their size, the species and abundance of fish, and fish behavior. Transmission data can be processed to determine the extinction of the field by a school. The extinction of sound depends on the forward scattering characteristics of the school, and data inversion to provide information about the fish should be based upon a forward scattering paradigm. Results are presented of an analysis of transmission data obtained in September 1995 during an experiment performed in the Gulf of Lion in the Mediterranean Sea [Diachok, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105(4), 2107-2128 (1999)]. The analysis shows that using forward scattering leads to significantly larger estimates of fish abundance than previous analysis based upon back scattering approaches.
Measurement of sound velocity on metal surfaces by impulsive stimulated Brillouin scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimada, Yukihiro; Murakami, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Akihiko
2005-01-01
Impulsive stimulated Brillouin Scattering (ISBS) experiment was performed in order to measure acoustic waves on metal surfaces. The ISBS technique offers robust method of obtaining acoustic velocities without physical contact. The generation and detection mechanism were discussed. (author)
Non-Invasive Acoustic-Based Monitoring of Heavy Water and Uranium Process Solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pantea, Cristian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sinha, Dipen N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lakis, Rollin Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Beedle, Christopher Craig [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Davis, Eric Sean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-10-20
This presentation includes slides on Project Goals; Heavy Water Production Monitoring: A New Challenge for the IAEA; Noninvasive Measurements in SFAI Cell; Large Scatter in Literature Values; Large Scatter in Literature Values; Highest Precision Sound Speed Data Available: New Standard in H/D; ~400 pts of data; Noninvasive Measurements in SFAI Cell; New funding from NA241 SGTech; Uranium Solution Monitoring: Inspired by IAEA Challenge in Kazakhstan; Non-Invasive Acoustic-Based Monitoring of Uranium in Solutions; Non-Invasive Acoustic-Based Monitoring of Uranium in Solutions; and finally a summary.
NEUTRON-SCATTERING STUDY OF DCN
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Pawley, G. S.
1979-01-01
Phonons in deuterium cyanide have been measured by neutron coherent inelastic scattering. The main subject of study was the transverse acoustic mode in the (110) direction polarised along (110) which is associated with the first-order structural phase transition at 160K. Measurements have shown...
Rui, Wei; Tao, Chao; Liu, Xiaojun
2017-09-18
Acoustic scattering medium is a fundamental challenge for photoacoustic imaging. In this study, we reveal the different coherent properties of the scattering photoacoustic waves and the direct photoacoustic waves in a matrix form. Direct waves show a particular coherence on the antidiagonals of the matrix, whereas scattering waves do not. Based on this property, a correlation matrix filter combining with a time reversal operator is proposed to preserve the direct waves and recover the image behind a scattering layer. Both numerical simulations and photoacoustic imaging experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach effectively increases the image contrast and decreases the background speckles in a scattering medium. This study might improve the quality of photoacoustic imaging in an acoustic scattering environment and extend its applications.
Integrating Sound Scattering Measurements in the Design of Complex Architectural Surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Peters, Brady
2010-01-01
Digital tools present the opportunity for incorporating performance analysis into the architectural design process. Acoustic performance is an important criterion for architectural design. There is much known about sound absorption but little about sound scattering, even though scattering is reco...
Iskandar, A.; Abou-Khalil, A.; Kazan, M.; Kassem, W.; Volz, S.
2015-03-01
This paper provides theoretical understanding of the interplay between the scattering of phonons by the boundaries and point-defects in SiGe thin films. It also provides a tool for the design of SiGe-based high-efficiency thermoelectric devices. The contributions of the alloy composition, grain size, and film thickness to the phonon scattering rate are described by a model for the thermal conductivity based on the single-mode relaxation time approximation. The exact Boltzmann equation including spatial dependence of phonon distribution function is solved to yield an expression for the rate at which phonons scatter by the thin film boundaries in the presence of the other phonon scattering mechanisms. The rates at which phonons scatter via normal and resistive three-phonon processes are calculated by using perturbation theories with taking into account dispersion of confined acoustic phonons in a two dimensional structure. The vibrational parameters of the model are deduced from the dispersion of confined acoustic phonons as functions of temperature and crystallographic direction. The accuracy of the model is demonstrated with reference to recent experimental investigations regarding the thermal conductivity of single-crystal and polycrystalline SiGe films. The paper describes the strength of each of the phonon scattering mechanisms in the full temperature range. Furthermore, it predicts the alloy composition and film thickness that lead to minimum thermal conductivity in a single-crystal SiGe film, and the alloy composition and grain size that lead to minimum thermal conductivity in a polycrystalline SiGe film.
Omnidirectional ventilated acoustic barrier
Zhang, Hai-long; Zhu, Yi-fan; Liang, Bin; Yang, Jing; Yang, Jun; Cheng, Jian-chun
2017-11-01
As an important problem in acoustics, sound insulation finds applications in a great variety of situations. In the existing schemes, however, there has always been a trade-off between the thinness of sound-insulating devices and their ventilating capabilities, limiting their potentials in the control of low-frequency sound in high ventilation environments. Here, we design and experimentally implement an omnidirectional acoustic barrier with a planar profile, subwavelength thickness ( 0.18 λ ), yet high ventilation. The proposed mechanism is based on the interference between the resonant scattering of discrete states and the background scattering of continuous states which induces a Fano-like asymmetric transmission profile. Benefitting from the binary-structured design of the coiled unit and hollow pipe, it maximally simplifies the design and fabrication while ensuring the ventilation for all the non-resonant units with open tubes. The simulated and measured results agree well, showing the effectiveness of our proposed mechanism to block low frequency sound coming from various directions while allowing 63% of the air flow to pass. We anticipate our design to open routes to design sound insulators and to enable applications in traditionally unattainable cases such as those calling for noise reduction and cooling simultaneously.
Hermite scatterers in an ultraviolet sky
Parker, Kevin J.
2017-12-01
The scattering from spherical inhomogeneities has been a major historical topic in acoustics, optics, and electromagnetics and the phenomenon shapes our perception of the world including the blue sky. The long wavelength limit of ;Rayleigh scattering; is characterized by intensity proportional to k4 (or λ-4) where k is the wavenumber and λ is the wavelength. With the advance of nanotechnology, it is possible to produce scatterers that are inhomogeneous with material properties that are functions of radius r, such as concentric shells. We demonstrate that with proper choice of material properties linked to the Hermite polynomials in r, scatterers can have long wavelength scattering behavior of higher powers: k8, k16, and higher. These ;Hermite scatterers; could be useful in providing unique signatures (or colors) to regions where they are present. If suspended in air under white light, the back-scattered spectrum would be shifted from blue towards violet and then ultraviolet as the higher order Hermite scatterers were illuminated.
Light penetration structures the deep acoustic scattering layers in the global ocean.
Aksnes, Dag L.; Rø stad, Anders; Kaartvedt, Stein; Martinez, Udane; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier
2017-01-01
The deep scattering layer (DSL) is a ubiquitous acoustic signature found across all oceans and arguably the dominant feature structuring the pelagic open ocean ecosystem. It is formed by mesopelagic fishes and pelagic invertebrates. The DSL animals are an important food source for marine megafauna and contribute to the biological carbon pump through the active flux of organic carbon transported in their daily vertical migrations. They occupy depths from 200 to 1000 m at daytime and migrate to a varying degree into surface waters at nighttime. Their daytime depth, which determines the migration amplitude, varies across the global ocean in concert with water mass properties, in particular the oxygen regime, but the causal underpinning of these correlations has been unclear. We present evidence that the broad variability in the oceanic DSL daytime depth observed during the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition is governed by variation in light penetration. We find that the DSL depth distribution conforms to a common optical depth layer across the global ocean and that a correlation between dissolved oxygen and light penetration provides a parsimonious explanation for the association of shallow DSL distributions with hypoxic waters. In enhancing understanding of this phenomenon, our results should improve the ability to predict and model the dynamics of one of the largest animal biomass components on earth, with key roles in the oceanic biological carbon pump and food web.
Light penetration structures the deep acoustic scattering layers in the global ocean.
Aksnes, Dag L.
2017-05-01
The deep scattering layer (DSL) is a ubiquitous acoustic signature found across all oceans and arguably the dominant feature structuring the pelagic open ocean ecosystem. It is formed by mesopelagic fishes and pelagic invertebrates. The DSL animals are an important food source for marine megafauna and contribute to the biological carbon pump through the active flux of organic carbon transported in their daily vertical migrations. They occupy depths from 200 to 1000 m at daytime and migrate to a varying degree into surface waters at nighttime. Their daytime depth, which determines the migration amplitude, varies across the global ocean in concert with water mass properties, in particular the oxygen regime, but the causal underpinning of these correlations has been unclear. We present evidence that the broad variability in the oceanic DSL daytime depth observed during the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition is governed by variation in light penetration. We find that the DSL depth distribution conforms to a common optical depth layer across the global ocean and that a correlation between dissolved oxygen and light penetration provides a parsimonious explanation for the association of shallow DSL distributions with hypoxic waters. In enhancing understanding of this phenomenon, our results should improve the ability to predict and model the dynamics of one of the largest animal biomass components on earth, with key roles in the oceanic biological carbon pump and food web.
Mitri, Farid G
2012-08-01
This work presents the general theory of resonance scattering (GTRS) by an elastic spherical shell immersed in a nonviscous fluid and placed arbitrarily in an acoustic beam. The GTRS formulation is valid for a spherical shell of any size and material regardless of its location relative to the incident beam. It is shown here that the scattering coefficients derived for a spherical shell immersed in water and placed in an arbitrary beam equal those obtained for plane wave incidence. Numerical examples for an elastic shell placed in the field of acoustical Bessel beams of different types, namely, a zero-order Bessel beam and first-order Bessel vortex and trigonometric (nonvortex) beams are provided. The scattered pressure is expressed using a generalized partial-wave series expansion involving the beam-shape coefficients (BSCs), the scattering coefficients of the spherical shell, and the half-cone angle of the beam. The BSCs are evaluated using the numerical discrete spherical harmonics transform (DSHT). The far-field acoustic resonance scattering directivity diagrams are calculated for an albuminoidal shell immersed in water and filled with perfluoropropane gas, by subtracting an appropriate background from the total far-field form function. The properties related to the arbitrary scattering are analyzed and discussed. The results are of particular importance in acoustical scattering applications involving imaging and beam-forming for transducer design. Moreover, the GTRS method can be applied to investigate the scattering of any beam of arbitrary shape that satisfies the source-free Helmholtz equation, and the method can be readily adapted to viscoelastic spherical shells or spheres.
Mössbauer forward scattering: time-domain spectra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadykov, E. K., E-mail: esadykov@kpfu.ru; Yurichuk, A. A.; Gainov, R. R.; Vagizov, F. G. [Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University (Russian Federation)
2016-12-15
The transmission of the Mössbauer radiation through an absorber being in the acoustic oscillation mode under forward scattering (FS) conditions has been analyzed. The modification of the existing models of the FS spectra (frequency and time) formation to the case of the arbitrary phase correlation of nuclear oscillations in the sample has been proposed. An adequate description of the time delayed experiments with the {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer resonance using the modulation of the single-photon wave packet by acoustic field has been obtained. One has been done in the frame of the Raman scattering of Mössbauer photons. The models extended this way can be used to control the degree of phase correlation of nuclear oscillations (or other processes) induced in the sample by external fields.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kober, Jan; Dvořáková, Zuzana; Převorovský, Zdeněk; Krofta, Josef
2015-01-01
Roč. 138, č. 1 (2015), EL49-EL53 ISSN 0001-4966 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : acoustic waves * boundary value problems * elastic waves * green's function methods * acoustic scattering Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.572, year: 2015 http://scitation.aip.org/content/asa/journal/jasa/138/1/10.1121/1.4922623
Acoustic cloak/anti-cloak device with realizable passive/active metamaterials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen Huijie; Wen Jihong; Yu Dianlong; Cai Li; Wen Xisen; Païdoussis, Michael P.
2012-01-01
Utilizing the coordinate transformation method, together with exchange of variables between Maxwell's equations and the acoustic equations with axial-invariance in cylindrical coordinates, the acoustic parameters (anisotropic density and scalar bulk modulus) for an ideal cloak and an ideal anti-cloak are obtained. An anti-cloak allows the inside object to ‘see’ outside, but to be invisible from outside; whereas a cloak is invisible from outside, but ‘blind’ from inside. Utilizing a scattering algorithm developed in this paper, the pressure field calculation of the cloak/anti-cloak is performed and the concepts and characteristics of the acoustic cloak/anti-cloak are revisited. To be more easily achievable experimentally, a multilayered cloak/anti-cloak model with homogeneous isotropic materials is introduced, and its corresponding pressure distributions are calculated. Also, the total scattering cross-section curves for the multilayered cloak and anti-cloak over a certain frequency range are presented and compared. Finally, an active acoustic metamaterial made up of piezo-diaphragm cavity arrays is designed for the cloak/anti-cloak. Taking into account the coupling between adjacent cavity cells, a multi-control strategy for piezo-diaphragm cavity arrays is exploited, rendering possible wide ranges of effective densities and effective bulk moduli (or acoustic speeds), or even double-negative transformation medium (i.e. both density and bulk modulus parameters are negative). With such sets of active acoustic metamaterials, the cloak and anti-cloak may become both theoretically and experimentally realizable. (paper)
Aspects of electron acoustic wave physics in laser backscatter from plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sircombe, N J; Arber, T D; Dendy, R O
2006-01-01
Recent experimental results from the Trident laser confirm the importance of kinetic effects in determining laser reflectivities at high intensities. Examples observed include scattering from low frequency electron acoustic waves (EAWs) and the first few stages of a cascade towards turbulence through the Langmuir decay instability. Interpretive and predictive computational capability in this area is assisted by the development of Vlasov codes, which offer high velocity space resolution in high energy regions of particle phase space and do not require analytical pre-processing of the fundamental equations. A direct Vlasov solver, capable of resolving these kinetic processes, is used here to address fundamental aspects of the existence and stability of the electron acoustic wave, together with its collective scattering properties. These simulations are extended to realistic laser and plasma parameters characteristic of single hot-spot experiments. Results are in qualitative agreement with experiments displaying both stimulated Raman and stimulated electron acoustic scattering. The amplitude of simulated EAWs is greater than that observed experimentally and is accompanied by a higher phase velocity. These minor differences can be attributed to the limitations of a one-dimensional collisionless model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Yan; TANG Weilin; FAN Wei; FAN Jun
2012-01-01
A geometrical acoustic method based on image-source method and physicM acoustic method was developed to calculate the echo of targets submerged in the shallow water waveguide. The incident rays and the scattering rays are reflected by two boundaries for many times, and then the back rays become countless. The total backscattering field is obtained through summing up the scattering field produced by each combination of incident rays and back rays. The echo of the 10m-radius pressure release sphere in Pekeris waveguide with the range is calculated by the geometrical acoustic method. Compared with the results calculated by the wave acoustic method in the available literature, it shows that both are in accordance on average value and descend trend. The following results indicate that the difference between Effective Target Strength （ETS） in shallow water and the Target Strength （TS） in free space for spheres and certain other rounded objects is small. However, the ETS of some targets such as cone-shaped is quite different from TS in free space, which can lead to large errors in estimating a target＇s scattering property using traditional sonar equation. Compared with the method of wave acoustics, the geometrical acoustic method not only has the definite physical meaning but also can calculate the echo of complex objects in shallow water waveguide.
Precipitate Contribution to the Acoustic Nonlinearity in Nickel-Based Superalloy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chung-Seok KIM; Cliff J.LISSENDEN
2009-01-01
The influence of γ' precipitate on the acoustic nonlinearity is investigated for a nickel-based superalloy,which is subjected to creep deformation.During creep deformation,the cuboidal γ' precipitate is preferentially coarsened in a direction perpendicular to the applied stress axis.The length and shape factor of the γ' precipitate increase with creep time.The increase of relative acoustic nonlinearity with increasing fraction of creep life is discussed in relation to the rafting of γ' precipitate,which is closely related to the scattering and distortion of the acoustic wave.
Bounds on complex polarizabilities and a new perspective on scattering by a lossy inclusion
Milton, Graeme W.
2017-09-01
Here, we obtain explicit formulas for bounds on the complex electrical polarizability at a given frequency of an inclusion with known volume that follow directly from the quasistatic bounds of Bergman and Milton on the effective complex dielectric constant of a two-phase medium. We also describe how analogous bounds on the orientationally averaged bulk and shear polarizabilities at a given frequency can be obtained from bounds on the effective complex bulk and shear moduli of a two-phase medium obtained by Milton, Gibiansky, and Berryman, using the quasistatic variational principles of Cherkaev and Gibiansky. We also show how the polarizability problem and the acoustic scattering problem can both be reformulated in an abstract setting as "Y problems." In the acoustic scattering context, to avoid explicit introduction of the Sommerfeld radiation condition, we introduce auxiliary fields at infinity and an appropriate "constitutive law" there, which forces the Sommerfeld radiation condition to hold. As a consequence, we obtain minimization variational principles for acoustic scattering that can be used to obtain bounds on the complex backwards scattering amplitude. Some explicit elementary bounds are given.
Hamilton, Mark F.
1989-08-01
Four projects are discussed in this annual summary report, all of which involve basic research in nonlinear acoustics: Scattering of Sound by Sound, a theoretical study of two nonconlinear Gaussian beams which interact to produce sum and difference frequency sound; Parametric Receiving Arrays, a theoretical study of parametric reception in a reverberant environment; Nonlinear Effects in Asymmetric Sound Beams, a numerical study of two dimensional finite amplitude sound fields; and Pulsed Finite Amplitude Sound Beams, a numerical time domain solution of the KZK equation.
Wave scattering theory a series approach based on the Fourier transformation
Eom, Hyo J
2001-01-01
The book provides a unified technique of Fourier transform to solve the wave scattering, diffraction, penetration, and radiation problems where the technique of separation of variables is applicable. The book discusses wave scattering from waveguide discontinuities, various apertures, and coupling structures, often encountered in electromagnetic, electrostatic, magnetostatic, and acoustic problems. A system of simultaneous equations for the modal coefficients is formulated and the rapidly-convergent series solutions amenable to numerical computation are presented. The series solutions find practical applications in the design of microwave/acoustic transmission lines, waveguide filters, antennas, and electromagnetic interference/compatibilty-related problems.
Acoustical radiation torque and force for spheres and Bessel beam extinction efficiency
Marston, Philip L.; Zhang, Likun
2014-11-01
The scattering of optical and acoustical beams is relevant to the levitation and manipulation of drops. Here we examine theoretical developments in the acoustical case. We previously showed how the optical theorem for extinction can be extended to invariant beams. The example of a sphere in a Bessel beam facilitates the direct comparison with a circular disc computed using Babinet's principle and the Kirchhoff approximation. In related work, by considering traveling or standing wave first-order vortex beams we previously showed that the radiation torque is the ratio of the absorbed power and the radian acoustic frequency. By modifying the scattering to account for the viscosity of the surrounding fluid in the analysis of the absorbed power, approximations for radiation torque and force are obtained at long wavelengths in special cases and these can be compared with results published elsewhere.
Mitri, Farid
2014-11-01
The generalized theory of resonance scattering (GTRS) by an elastic spherical target in acoustics is extended to describe the arbitrary scattering of a finite beam using the addition theorem for the spherical wave functions of the first kind under a translation of the coordinate origin. The advantage of the proposed method over the standard discrete spherical harmonics transform previously used in the GTRS formalism is the computation of the off-axial beam-shape coefficients (BSCs) stemming from a closed-form partial-wave series expansion representing the axial BSCs in spherical coordinates. With this general method, the arbitrary acoustical scattering can be evaluated for any particle shape and size, whether the particle is partially or completely illuminated by the incident beam. Numerical examples for the axial and off-axial resonance scattering from an elastic sphere placed arbitrarily in the field of a finite circular piston transducer with uniform vibration are provided. Moreover, the 3-D resonance directivity patterns illustrate the theory and reveal some properties of the scattering. Numerous applications involving the scattering phenomenon in imaging, particle manipulation, and the characterization of multiphase flows can benefit from the present analysis because all physically realizable beams radiate acoustical waves from finite transducers as opposed to waves of infinite extent.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pandya, Ankur; Shinde, Satyam; Jha, Prafulla K.
2015-01-01
In this paper the hot electron transport properties like carrier energy and momentum scattering rates and electron energy loss rates are calculated via interactions of electrons with polar acoustical phonons for Mn doped BN quantum well in BN nanosheets via piezoelectric scattering and deformation potential mechanisms at low temperatures with high electric field. Electron energy loss rate increases with the electric field. It is observed that at low temperatures and for low electric field the phonon absorption is taking place whereas, for sufficient large electric field, phonon emission takes place. Under the piezoelectric (polar acoustical phonon) scattering mechanism, the carrier scattering rate decreases with the reduction of electric field at low temperatures wherein, the scattering rate variation with electric field is limited by a specific temperature beyond which there is no any impact of electric field on such scattering
Zizka, J.; King, S.; Every, A.; Sooryakumar, R.
2018-04-01
To reduce the RC (resistance-capacitance) time delay of interconnects, a key development of the past 20 years has been the introduction of porous low-k dielectrics to replace the traditional use of SiO2. Moreover, in keeping pace with concomitant reduction in technology nodes, these low-k materials have reached thicknesses below 100 nm wherein the porosity becomes a significant fraction of the film volume. The large degree of porosity not only reduces mechanical strength of the dielectric layer but also renders a need for non-destructive approaches to measure the mechanical properties of such ultra-thin films within device configurations. In this study, surface Brillouin scattering (SBS) is utilized to determine the elastic constants, Poisson's ratio, and Young's modulus of these porous low-k SiOC:H films (˜ 25-250 nm thick) grown on Si substrates by probing surface acoustic phonons and their dispersions.
Acoustic measuring techniques for suspended sediment
Gruber, P.; Felix, D.; Storti, G.; Lattuada, M.; Fleckenstein, P.; Deschwanden, F.
2016-11-01
Acoustic signals can be used in various ways for suspended sediment monitoring. One possibility which lends itself particularly well in the context of hydropower plants (HPPs), is to use installations for acoustic discharge measurement (ADM). Such installations already exist at waterways of many HPPs. Similar to certain turbidimeters, the attenuation of the forward scattered signal travelling through the water-sediment mixture is correlated with suspended sediment concentration (SSC). This correlation can be based on reference SSCs, e.g. from gravimetric analyses of bottle samples. Without the need of additional sensors and practically maintenance-free, this method is used successfully in the HPP Fieschertal to warn the HPP operator of high SSC to prevent excessive turbine abrasion. Acoustic methods and systems that allow for estimating both SSC and particle size distribution (PSD) are under development. The simultaneous determination of SSC and PSD is not possible using a single frequency. Therefore, multi-frequency approaches are investigated for generally scattered signals. When backscattered signals are used, a stronger frequency dependency can be exploited. However, the reliable simultaneous determination of particle size (and distribution) and concentration is still a major challenge due to a low signal-to-noise ratio and an ill- posed problem of estimating concentration and size from recorded signals. The optimal setup configuration (angles, frequencies) for such a system is not unique and further investigations are recommended.
Broadband and flexible acoustic focusing by metafiber bundles
Sun, Hong-Xiang; Chen, Jia-He; Ge, Yong; Yuan, Shou-Qi; Liu, Xiao-Jun
2018-06-01
We report a broadband and flexible acoustic focusing through metafiber bundles in air, in which each metafiber consists of eight circular and narrow rectangular cavities. The fractional bandwidth of the acoustic focusing could reach about 0.2, which arises from the eigenmodes of the metafiber structure. Besides, owing to the flexible characteristic of the metafibers, the focus position can be manipulated by bending the metafiber bundles, and the metafiber bundles could bypass rigid scatterers inside the lens structure. More interestingly, the acoustic propagation and focusing directions can be changed by using a designed right-angled direction converter fabricated by the metafibers, and a waveform converter and a focusing lens of the cylindrical acoustic source are realized based on the metafiber bundles. The proposed focusing lens has the advantages of broad bandwidth, flexible structure, and high focusing performance, showing great potentials in versatile applications.
The interpretation of the intensity of components of laser scattering by interaction with matter
Fidanovski, Z.; Srećković, M.; Ostojić, S.; Ilić, J.; Merkle, M.
2012-05-01
The measurement of scattered light properties offers many optical, acoustic, dielectric, thermodynamic data about the scattering medium. Brillouin spectroscopy with various modifications and different laser types has been a measurement technique in acoustics for a long time, but it is still important as an autonomous technique. It enables more detailed and exhaustive knowledge of the acoustic and optical properties of matter. A series of Rayleigh-Brillouin spectra are recorded for a set of organic solvents and phytol. The equipment used in spectra recordings enables the measurement of four components of scattered laser intensity Ihh, Ihv, Ivv and Ivh. The ratios of the linewidth, as well as shifts, are determined for Rayleigh-Brillouin spectra. According to them, the hypersound velocity and absorption coefficients can be calculated. There is much software for data processing obtained in laser interaction with matter, with different programming tools. An analysis of spectra is performed, i.e. an examination of which distribution (Gaussian or Lorentzian) better explains the experimentally obtained diagrams.
Battistoni, Andrea; Bencivenga, Filippo; Fioretto, Daniele; Masciovecchio, Claudio
2014-10-15
In this Letter, we present a simple method to avoid the well-known spurious contributions in the Brillouin light scattering (BLS) spectrum arising from the finite aperture of collection optics. The method relies on the use of special spatial filters able to select the scattered light with arbitrary precision around a given value of the momentum transfer (Q). We demonstrate the effectiveness of such filters by analyzing the BLS spectra of a reference sample as a function of scattering angle. This practical and inexpensive method could be an extremely useful tool to fully exploit the potentiality of Brillouin acoustic spectroscopy, as it will easily allow for effective Q-variable experiments with unparalleled luminosity and resolution.
Methods And Systems For Using Reference Images In Acoustic Image Processing
Moore, Thomas L.; Barter, Robert Henry
2005-01-04
A method and system of examining tissue are provided in which a field, including at least a portion of the tissue and one or more registration fiducials, is insonified. Scattered acoustic information, including both transmitted and reflected waves, is received from the field. A representation of the field, including both the tissue and the registration fiducials, is then derived from the received acoustic radiation.
Enhanced ion acoustic fluctuations and ion outflows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. R. E. Forme
1999-02-01
Full Text Available A number of observations showing enhanced ion acoustic echoes observed by means of incoherent scatter radars have been reported in the literature. The received power is extremely enhanced by up to 1 or 2 orders of magnitude above usual values, and it is mostly contained in one of the two ion acoustic lines. This spectral asymmetry and the intensity of the received signal cannot be resolved by the standard analysis procedure and often causes its failure. As a result, and in spite of a very clear spectral signature, the analysis is unable to fit the plasma parameters inside the regions of ion acoustic turbulence. We present European Incoherent Scatter radar (EISCAT observations of large ion outflows associated with the simultaneous occurrence of enhanced ion acoustic echoes. The ion fluxes can reach 1014 m-2 s-1 at 800 km altitude. From the very clear spectral signatures of these echoes, a method is presented to extract estimates of the electron temperature and the ion drift within the turbulent regions. It is shown that the electron gas is strongly heated up to 11 000 K. Also electron temperature gradients of about 0.02 K/m exist. Finally, the estimates of the electron temperature and of the ion drift are used to study the possible implications for the plasma transport inside turbulent regions. It is shown that strong electron temperature gradients cause enhancement of the ambipolar electric field and can account for the observed ion outflows.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere · magnetosphere interactions; plasma waves and instabilities.
Surface Wave Focusing and Acoustic Communications in the Surf Zone
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Preisig, James
2004-01-01
The forward scattering of acoustic signals off of shoaling surface gravity waves in the surf zone results in a time-varying channel impulse response that is characterized by intense, rapidly fluctuating arrivals...
Hybrid CFD/CAA Modeling for Liftoff Acoustic Predictions
Strutzenberg, Louise L.; Liever, Peter A.
2011-01-01
This paper presents development efforts at the NASA Marshall Space flight Center to establish a hybrid Computational Fluid Dynamics and Computational Aero-Acoustics (CFD/CAA) simulation system for launch vehicle liftoff acoustics environment analysis. Acoustic prediction engineering tools based on empirical jet acoustic strength and directivity models or scaled historical measurements are of limited value in efforts to proactively design and optimize launch vehicles and launch facility configurations for liftoff acoustics. CFD based modeling approaches are now able to capture the important details of vehicle specific plume flow environment, identifY the noise generation sources, and allow assessment of the influence of launch pad geometric details and sound mitigation measures such as water injection. However, CFD methodologies are numerically too dissipative to accurately capture the propagation of the acoustic waves in the large CFD models. The hybrid CFD/CAA approach combines the high-fidelity CFD analysis capable of identifYing the acoustic sources with a fast and efficient Boundary Element Method (BEM) that accurately propagates the acoustic field from the source locations. The BEM approach was chosen for its ability to properly account for reflections and scattering of acoustic waves from launch pad structures. The paper will present an overview of the technology components of the CFD/CAA framework and discuss plans for demonstration and validation against test data.
Hidden acoustic information revealed by intentional nonlinearity
Dowling, David R.
2017-11-01
Acoustic waves are omnipresent in modern life and are well described by the linearized equations of fluid dynamics. Once generated, acoustic waves carry and collect information about their source and the environment through which they propagate, respectively, and this information may be retrieved by analyzing recordings of these waves. Because of this, acoustics is the primary means for observation, surveillance, reconnaissance, and remote sensing in otherwise opaque environments, such as the Earth's oceans and crust, and the interior of the human body. For such information-retrieval tasks, acoustic fields are nearly always interrogated within their recorded frequency range or bandwidth. However, this frequency-range restriction is not general; acoustic fields may also carry (hidden) information at frequencies outside their bandwidth. Although such a claim may seem counter intuitive, hidden acoustic-field information can be revealed by re-introducing a marquee trait of fluid dynamics: nonlinearity. In particular, an intentional quadratic nonlinearity - a form of intra-signal heterodyning - can be used to obtain acoustic field information at frequencies outside a recorded acoustic field's bandwidth. This quadratic nonlinearity enables a variety of acoustic remote sensing applications that were long thought to be impossible. In particular, it allows the detrimental effects of sparse recordings and random scattering to be suppressed when the original acoustic field has sufficient bandwidth. In this presentation, the topic is developed heuristically, with a just brief exposition of the relevant mathematics. Hidden acoustic field information is then revealed from simulated and measured acoustic fields in simple and complicated acoustic environments involving frequencies from a few Hertz to more than 100 kHz, and propagation distances from tens of centimeters to hundreds of kilometers. Sponsored by ONR, NAVSEA, and NSF.
Rakotonarivo, S T; Walker, S C; Kuperman, W A; Roux, P
2011-12-01
A method to actively localize a small perturbation in a multiple scattering medium using a collection of remote acoustic sensors is presented. The approach requires only minimal modeling and no knowledge of the scatterer distribution and properties of the scattering medium and the perturbation. The medium is ensonified before and after a perturbation is introduced. The coherent difference between the measured signals then reveals all field components that have interacted with the perturbation. A simple single scatter filter (that ignores the presence of the medium scatterers) is matched to the earliest change of the coherent difference to localize the perturbation. Using a multi-source/receiver laboratory setup in air, the technique has been successfully tested with experimental data at frequencies varying from 30 to 60 kHz (wavelength ranging from 0.5 to 1 cm) for cm-scale scatterers in a scattering medium with a size two to five times bigger than its transport mean free path. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America
Dol, H.S.; Colin, M.E.G.D.; Ainslie, M.A.; Walree, P.A. van; Janmaat, J.
2012-01-01
Sea surface scattering by wind-generated waves and bubbles is regarded to be the main non-platform related cause of the time variability of shallow acoustic communication channels. Simulations for predicting the quality of acoustic communication links in such channels thus require adequate modeling
Spatial Processing of Urban Acoustic Wave Fields from High-Performance Computations
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Ketcham, Stephen A; Wilson, D. K; Cudney, Harley H; Parker, Michael W
2007-01-01
.... The objective of this work is to develop spatial processing techniques for acoustic wave propagation data from three-dimensional high-performance computations to quantify scattering due to urban...
Uncertainty of input data for room acoustic simulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Marbjerg, Gerd; Brunskog, Jonas
2016-01-01
Although many room acoustic simulation models have been well established, simulation results will never be accurate with inaccurate and uncertain input data. This study addresses inappropriateness and uncertainty of input data for room acoustic simulations. Firstly, the random incidence absorption...... and scattering coefficients are insufficient when simulating highly non-diffuse rooms. More detailed information, such as the phase and angle dependence, can greatly improve the simulation results of pressure-based geometrical and wave-based models at frequencies well below the Schroeder frequency. Phase...... summarizes potential advanced absorption measurement techniques that can improve the quality of input data for room acoustic simulations. Lastly, plenty of uncertain input data are copied from unreliable sources. Software developers and users should be careful when spreading such uncertain input data. More...
Internal tides and deep diel fades in acoustic intensity.
White, Andrew W; Henyey, Frank S; Andrew, Rex K; Mercer, James A; Worcester, Peter F; Dzieciuch, Matthew A; Colosi, John A
2016-11-01
A mechanism is presented by which the observed acoustic intensity is made to vary due to changes in the acoustic path that are caused by internal-tide vertical fluid displacements. The position in range and depth of large-scale caustic structure is determined by the background sound-speed profile. Internal tides cause a deformation of the background profile, changing the positions of the caustic structures-which can introduce intensity changes at a distant receiver. Gradual fades in the acoustic intensity occurring over timescales similar to those of the tides were measured during a low-frequency (284-Hz) acoustic scattering experiment in the Philippine Sea in 2009 [White et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134(4), 3347-3358 (2013)]. Parabolic equation and Hamiltonian ray-tracing calculations of acoustic propagation through a plane-wave internal tide environmental model employing sound-speed profiles taken during the experiment indicate that internal tides could cause significant gradual changes in the received intensity. Furthermore, the calculations demonstrate how large-scale perturbations to the index of refraction can result in variation in the received intensity.
Riemann–Hilbert problem approach for two-dimensional flow inverse scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agaltsov, A. D., E-mail: agalets@gmail.com [Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Novikov, R. G., E-mail: novikov@cmap.polytechnique.fr [CNRS (UMR 7641), Centre de Mathématiques Appliquées, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); IEPT RAS, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation)
2014-10-15
We consider inverse scattering for the time-harmonic wave equation with first-order perturbation in two dimensions. This problem arises in particular in the acoustic tomography of moving fluid. We consider linearized and nonlinearized reconstruction algorithms for this problem of inverse scattering. Our nonlinearized reconstruction algorithm is based on the non-local Riemann–Hilbert problem approach. Comparisons with preceding results are given.
Riemann–Hilbert problem approach for two-dimensional flow inverse scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agaltsov, A. D.; Novikov, R. G.
2014-01-01
We consider inverse scattering for the time-harmonic wave equation with first-order perturbation in two dimensions. This problem arises in particular in the acoustic tomography of moving fluid. We consider linearized and nonlinearized reconstruction algorithms for this problem of inverse scattering. Our nonlinearized reconstruction algorithm is based on the non-local Riemann–Hilbert problem approach. Comparisons with preceding results are given
Electron-electron scattering and mobilities in semiconductors and quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyo, S.K.
1986-01-01
The effect of electron-electron scattering on the mobility in semiconductors and semiconductor quantum wells is examined. A general exact formula is derived for the mobility, when the electron-electron collision rate is much faster than other scattering rates such as those by ionized impurities and phonons. In this limit, the transport relaxation rate is independent of the carrier's energy and contributions to the inverse mobility from individual scattering mechanism add up. The mobility becomes significantly reduced from its value in the absence of electron-electron scattering. When the collision rates are not necessarily dominated by electron-electron scattering, the mobility is calculated by the Kohler-Sondheimer variational method in the presence of ionized-impurity scattering and acoustic-phonon scattering in a nondegenerate two-dimensional quantum well
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Muller, Peter Barkholt; Barnkob, Rune; Jensen, Mads Jakob Herring
2012-01-01
We present a numerical study of the transient acoustophoretic motion of microparticles suspended in a liquid-filled microchannel and driven by the acoustic forces arising from an imposed standing ultrasound wave: the acoustic radiation force from the scattering of sound waves on the particles...
Acoustic study of YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub x thin films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, S.; Chi, C.; Koren, G.; Gupta, A. (IBM Research Division, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, P. O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (US))
1991-03-01
The attenuation of surface acoustic waves by epitaxial YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub {ital x}} films has been studied for {ital x}{congruent}6 to 7. For fully oxygenated samples, the acoustic attenuation as a function of temperature shows two broad peaks at about 135 and 240 K, and decreases monotonically below the lower peak temperature. The cause of attenuation peaks is attributed to scattering by optical phonons. Our data do not show any gap structure at {ital T}{sub {ital c}} due to relatively weak electron-phonon interactions at the acoustic frequencies. As the oxygen deficiency increases, the temperature dependence of the dc resistance changes from metallic to semiconducting and finally to insulating behavior. Acoustic attenuation data correspondingly show a drastic change due to different attenuation mechanisms: from the phonon scattering loss in the metallic regime to the electric-field coupling loss in the semiconducting and insulating regimes. In the latter regimes, the temperature dependence of low-frequency resistance calculated from the attenuation data can be fitted to a three-dimensional Mott variable-range-hopping model.
Dynamics of beam-driven Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves including electrostatic decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, B.; Willes, A.J.; Robinson, P.A.; Cairns, I.H.
2003-01-01
The evolution of Langmuir waves and ion-acoustic waves stimulated by a hot electron beam in an initially homogeneous plasma is investigated numerically in time, position, and wave number space. Quasilinear interactions between the beam particles and Langmuir waves, nonlinear interactions between the Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves through Langmuir decay processes, and spontaneous emission are taken into account in the kinetic theory employed. For illustrative parameters of those in the solar wind near 1 a.u., nonlinear Langmuir decays are observed to transfer the beam-driven Langmuir waves rapidly out of resonance. The scattered Langmuir waves then undergo further decays, moving sequentially toward small wave numbers, until decay is kinematically prohibited. The main features of the evolution of Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves are spatially inhomogeneous. The scattered Langmuir spectra increase and eventually reach or exceed the beam-driven Langmuir spectra at a given spatial location (except in regions where further decays proceed). The ion-acoustic waves are relatively weak and subject to damping at the later stages of their evolution. The development of fine structures in the product Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves are observed, due to depletion of their energy by decay and dominant damping effects, respectively. The propagation of the beam is essentially unaffected by the operation of the decay process. The decay process is thus slaved to the primary beam-plasma evolution, as assumed in previous studies. A variation of the ratio of electron temperature to ion temperature is found to affect not only the ion-acoustic wave levels through effects on the damping rate, but also the dynamics of decay via effects on the decay rate. The latter was not addressed in previous studies. Furthermore, spontaneous emission of ion-acoustic waves is found to affect the dynamics of decay, thus its inclusion is necessary to correctly model the Langmuir and ion-acoustic spectra
Practical methods to define scattering coefficients in a room acoustics computer model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zeng, Xiangyang; Christensen, Claus Lynge; Rindel, Jens Holger
2006-01-01
of obtaining the data becomes quite time consuming thus increasing the cost of design. In this paper, practical methods to define scattering coefficients, which is based on an approach of modeling surface scattering and scattering caused by limited size of surface as well as edge diffraction are presented...
Acoustic simulations of Mudejar-Gothic churches.
Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara
2009-09-01
In this paper, an iterative process is used in order to estimate the values of absorption coefficients of those materials of which little is known in the literature, so that an acoustic simulation can be carried out in Mudejar-Gothic churches. The estimation of the scattering coefficients, which is even less developed, is based on the size of the irregularities. This methodology implemented is applied to six Mudejar-Gothic churches of Seville (southern Spain). The simulated monophonic acoustic parameters, both in the frequency domain and as a function of source-receiver distance (spatial distribution), are analyzed and compared with the in situ measures. Good agreement has been found between these sets of values, whereby each parameter is discussed in terms of the just noticeable difference. This procedure for existing buildings, especially for those which are rich in heritage, enables a reliable evaluation of the effect on the maintenance, restoration, and conditioning for new uses, as well as the recreation of the acoustic environment of ancient times. Along these lines, the acoustic influence of the timber roof and the presence of the public in these churches have also been studied.
Acoustic Wave Dispersion and Scattering in Complex Marine Sediment Structures
2018-03-21
slides) versus scattering from discrete particles (e.g., rocks, shells, or bubbles). Measurements are needed to 1) exploit the volume scattering theory...Developed theory and methodology to distinguish between the two major classes of volume heterogeneities, discrete particles or a fluctuation...reflection to obtain a quasi -three-dimensional map of sediment sound speed. The sound speed is obtained over a 2 km x 2 km area of high variability
Performance analysis of an acoustic time reversal system in dynamic and random oceanic environments
Khosla, Sunny Rajendra
This dissertation provides a theoretical framework along with specific performance predictions for an acoustic time reversal system in shallow oceanic environments. Acoustic time-reversal is a robust means of retrofocusing acoustic energy, in both time and space, to the original sound-source location without any information about the acoustic environment in which it is deployed. The effect of three performance limiting oceanic complexities addressed, include (i)ambient noise field, (ii)reflection and volume scattering from a deterministic soliton internal wave traveling on the thermocline between two water masses, and (iii)volume scattering from a random superposition of linear internal waves convecting a gradient in the sound speed profile. The performance analysis establishes acoustic time reversal to be a promising technology for a two-way communication system in an oceanic medium. For an omni-directional noisy environment a general formulation for the probability of retrofocusing is developed that includes the effect of the medium, accounts for the system hardware and the acoustic parameters. Monte-Carlo simulations in both, a free-space environment and a shallow-ocean sound-channel environment compare well with theory. A 41 element TRA spanning a shallow water depth of 60 m is predicted to return a 70% focal probability at -15 dB SNR for a source to array range of 6 km. Preliminary research with broadband signals suggest that they should outperform narrowband response in both free space and sound channel environments. The impact of the nonlinear solitary waves is addressed using a two-path Green's function to treat the presence of a flat thermocline, and the single scattering Born approximation to address scattering from the soliton internal wave. It is predicted that a stationary soliton located along ray turning paths between the source and the TRA can lead to both enhanced and degraded focal performance. Based on extension of previous research in wave
Point sources and multipoles in inverse scattering theory
Potthast, Roland
2001-01-01
Over the last twenty years, the growing availability of computing power has had an enormous impact on the classical fields of direct and inverse scattering. The study of inverse scattering, in particular, has developed rapidly with the ability to perform computational simulations of scattering processes and led to remarkable advances in a range of applications, from medical imaging and radar to remote sensing and seismic exploration. Point Sources and Multipoles in Inverse Scattering Theory provides a survey of recent developments in inverse acoustic and electromagnetic scattering theory. Focusing on methods developed over the last six years by Colton, Kirsch, and the author, this treatment uses point sources combined with several far-reaching techniques to obtain qualitative reconstruction methods. The author addresses questions of uniqueness, stability, and reconstructions for both two-and three-dimensional problems.With interest in extracting information about an object through scattered waves at an all-ti...
Acoustic wave spread in superconducting-normal-superconducting sandwich
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Urushadze, G.I.
2004-01-01
The acoustic wave spread, perpendicular to the boundaries between superconducting and normal metals in superconducting-normal-superconducting (SNS) sandwich has been considered. The alternate current flow sound induced by the Green function method has been found and the coefficient of the acoustic wave transmission through the junction γ=(S 1 -S 2 )/S 1 , (where S 1 and S 2 are average energy flows formed on the first and second boundaries) as a function of the phase difference between superconductors has been investigated. It is shown that while the SNS sandwich is almost transparent for acoustic waves (γ 0 /τ), n=0,1,2, ... (where τ 0 /τ is the ratio of the broadening of the quasiparticle energy levels in impurity normal metal as a result of scattering of the carriers by impurities 1/τ to the spacing between energy levels 1/τ 0 ), γ=2, (S 2 =-S 1 ), which corresponds to the full reflection of the acoustic wave from SNS sandwich. This result is valid for the limit of a pure normal metal but in the main impurity case there are two amplification and reflection regions for acoustic waves. The result obtained shows promise for the SNS sandwich as an ideal mirror for acoustic wave reflection
Scattering and/or diffusing elements in a variety of recently completed music auditoria
McKay, Ronald L.
2002-11-01
Architectural elements which provide effective acoustic scattering and/or diffusion in a variety of recently completed auditoria for music performance will be presented. Color slides depicting the various elements will be shown. Each will be discussed with respect to its acoustic performance and architectural logic. Measured time-energy reflection patterns will be presented in many cases.
Effect of pressure on the second-order Raman scattering intensities of zincblende semiconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trallero-Giner, C.; Syassen, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)
2010-01-15
A microscopic description of the two-phonon scattering intensities in direct-gap zincblende-type semiconductors as a function of hydrostatic pressure and for non-resonant excitation is presented. The calculations were performed according to the electron-two-phonon deformation potential interaction for the {gamma}{sub 1} and {gamma}{sub 15} components of the Raman tensor. It is shown that the effect of pressure on the Raman scattering cross-section exhibits a complex behavior according to the contribution of the acoustical or optical phonons to the overtones and combinations. Second-order scattering intensities via acoustical modes could decrease or increase with increasing hydrostatic pressure, while for combinations or overtones of optical phonons a decreasing intensity is obtained. Calculations of the effect of pressure on second-order Raman intensities are compared to experimental results for ZnTe. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
The inside–outside duality for inverse scattering problems with near field data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lechleiter, Armin; Peters, Stefan
2015-01-01
We derive an inside–outside duality for near field scattering data generated by time-harmonic scattering of acoustic point sources from a sound-soft scatterer. This duality in particular rigorously characterizes interior Dirichlet eigenvalues of the scattering object by near field operators for an interval of wave numbers. As a crucial new concept to prove this duality we exploit the numerical ranges of certain modifications of these near field operators. We also show that our theoretical results can be numerically used to approximate interior Dirichlet eigenvalues from multi-frequency near field measurements. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Yang Han
2005-09-01
This book mentions string vibration and wave, one-dimension wave and wave equation, characteristic impedance, governing equation of string, and wave energy from string, wave equation of wave and basic physical quantity like one-dimension wave equation, sound unit, sound intensity and energy, sound movement in a surface of discontinuity with transmission loss of sound by partition, and Snell's law, radiation, scatter and diffraction and sound in closed space with Sabine's theory, sound characteristic of closed space and duct acoustics.
Flexural-Phonon Scattering Induced by Electrostatic Gating in Graphene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gunst, Tue; Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Brandbyge, Mads
2017-01-01
Graphene has an extremely high carrier mobility partly due to its planar mirror symmetry inhibiting scattering by the highly occupied acoustic flexural phonons. Electrostatic gating of a graphene device can break the planar mirror symmetry, yielding a coupling mechanism to the flexural phonons......-limiting factor, and show how the carrier density and temperature scaling of the mobility depends on the electrostatic environment. Our findings may explain the high deformation potential for in-plane acoustic phonons extracted from experiments and, furthermore, suggest a direct relation between device symmetry...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hilmar Hofmann
Full Text Available Optical (fluorescence and acoustic in-situ techniques were tested in their ability to measure the spatial and temporal distribution of plankton in freshwater ecosystems with special emphasis on the harmful and buoyant cyanobacterium P. rubescens. Fluorescence was measured with the multi-spectral FluoroProbe (Moldaenke FluoroProbe, MFP and a Seapoint Chlorophyll Fluorometer (SCF. In-situ measurements of the acoustic backscatter strength (ABS were conducted with three different acoustic devices covering multiple acoustic frequencies (614 kHz ADCP, 2 MHz ADP, and 6 MHz ADV. The MFP provides a fast and reliable technique to measure fluorescence at different wavelengths in situ, which allows discriminating between P. rubescens and other phytoplankton species. All three acoustic devices are sensitive to P. rubescens even if other scatterers, e.g., zooplankton or suspended sediment, are present in the water column, because P. rubescens containing gas vesicles has a strong density difference and hence acoustic contrast to the ambient water and other scatterers. After calibration, the combination of optical and acoustical measurements not only allows qualitative and quantitative observation of P. rubescens, but also distinction between P. rubescens, other phytoplankton, and zooplankton. As the measuring devices can sample in situ at high rates they enable assessment of plankton distributions at high temporal (minutes and spatial (decimeters resolution or covering large temporal (seasonal and spatial (basin scale scales.
Acoustic radiation force due to arbitrary incident fields on spherical particles in soft tissue
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Treweek, Benjamin C., E-mail: btreweek@utexas.edu; Ilinskii, Yurii A.; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.; Hamilton, Mark F. [Applied Research Laboratories, The University of Texas at Austin, P.O. Box 8029, Austin, TX 78713-8029 (United States)
2015-10-28
Acoustic radiation force is of interest in a wide variety of biomedical applications ranging from tissue characterization (e.g. elastography) to tissue treatment (e.g. high intensity focused ultrasound, kidney stone fragment removal). As tissue mechanical properties are reliable indicators of tissue health, the former is the focus of the present contribution. This is accomplished through an investigation of the acoustic radiation force on a spherical scatterer embedded in tissue. Properties of both the scatterer and the surrounding tissue are important in determining the magnitude and the direction of the force. As these properties vary, the force computation shows changes in magnitude and direction, which may enable more accurate noninvasive determination of tissue properties.
Hamilton, Mark F.
1990-12-01
This report discusses five projects all of which involve basic theoretical research in nonlinear acoustics: (1) pulsed finite amplitude sound beams are studied with a recently developed time domain computer algorithm that solves the KZK nonlinear parabolic wave equation; (2) nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in a liquid layer is a study of harmonic generation and acoustic soliton information in a liquid between a rigid and a free surface; (3) nonlinear effects in asymmetric cylindrical sound beams is a study of source asymmetries and scattering of sound by sound at high intensity; (4) effects of absorption on the interaction of sound beams is a completed study of the role of absorption in second harmonic generation and scattering of sound by sound; and (5) parametric receiving arrays is a completed study of parametric reception in a reverberant environment.
Ultrasonic trap for light scattering measurement
Barton, Petr; Pavlu, Jiri
2017-04-01
Light scattering is complex phenomenon occurring widely in space environments, including the dense dusty clouds, nebulas or even the upper atmosphere of the Earth. However, when the size of the dust (or of other scattering center) is close to the incident light wavelength, theoretical determination is difficult. In such case, Mie theory is to be used but there is a lack of the material constants for most space-related materials. For experimental measurement of light scattering, we designed unique apparatus, based on ultrasonic trap. Using acoustic levitation we are able to capture the dust grain in midair, irradiate it with laser, and observe scattering directly with goniometer-mounted photodiode. Advantage of this approach is ability to measure directly in the air (thus, no need for the carrier medium) and possibility to study non-spherical particles. Since the trap development is nearly finished and initial experiments are carried out, the paper presents first tests on water droplets.
Crystal-like nature of acoustic excitations in glassy ethanol
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matic, A.; Engberg, D.; Boerjesson, L.; Masciovecchio, C.; Santucci, S.C.; Monaco, G.; Verbeni, R.
2004-01-01
We report on inelastic x-ray scattering experiments on crystalline and glassy phases of ethanol in order to directly compare the influence of disorder on high frequency acoustic excitations. We find that both the dispersion and the line-width of the longitudinal acoustic excitations in the glass are the same as in the polycrystal in the reciprocal space portion covering the 1st and 2nd Brillouin zones. The structural disorder is found to play little role apart from an intrinsic angular averaging, and the nature of these excitations must essentially be the same in both glass and poly crystal
Design of a broadband ultra-large area acoustic cloak based on a fluid medium
Zhu, Jian; Chen, Tianning; Liang, Qingxuan; Wang, Xiaopeng; Jiang, Ping
2014-10-01
A broadband ultra-large area acoustic cloak based on fluid medium was designed and numerically implemented with homogeneous metamaterials according to the transformation acoustics. In the present work, fluid medium as the body of the inclusion could be tuned by changing the fluid to satisfy the variant acoustic parameters instead of redesign the whole cloak. The effective density and bulk modulus of the composite materials were designed to agree with the parameters calculated from the coordinate transformation methodology by using the effective medium theory. Numerical simulation results showed that the sound propagation and scattering signature could be controlled in the broadband ultra-large area acoustic invisibility cloak, and good cloaking performance has been achieved and physically realized with homogeneous materials. The broadband ultra-large area acoustic cloaking properties have demonstrated great potentials in the promotion of the practical applications of acoustic cloak.
Bubble nonlinear dynamics and stimulated scattering process
Jie, Shi; De-Sen, Yang; Sheng-Guo, Shi; Bo, Hu; Hao-Yang, Zhang; Shi-Yong, Hu
2016-02-01
A complete understanding of the bubble dynamics is deemed necessary in order to achieve their full potential applications in industry and medicine. For this purpose it is first needed to expand our knowledge of a single bubble behavior under different possible conditions including the frequency and pressure variations of the sound field. In addition, stimulated scattering of sound on a bubble is a special effect in sound field, and its characteristics are associated with bubble oscillation mode. A bubble in liquid can be considered as a representative example of nonlinear dynamical system theory with its resonance, and its dynamics characteristics can be described by the Keller-Miksis equation. The nonlinear dynamics of an acoustically excited gas bubble in water is investigated by using theoretical and numerical analysis methods. Our results show its strongly nonlinear behavior with respect to the pressure amplitude and excitation frequency as the control parameters, and give an intuitive insight into stimulated sound scattering on a bubble. It is seen that the stimulated sound scattering is different from common dynamical behaviors, such as bifurcation and chaos, which is the result of the nonlinear resonance of a bubble under the excitation of a high amplitude acoustic sound wave essentially. The numerical analysis results show that the threshold of stimulated sound scattering is smaller than those of bifurcation and chaos in the common condition. Project supported by the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University, China (Grant No. IRT1228) and the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11204050 and 11204049).
Spectral estimation for characterization of acoustic aberration.
Varslot, Trond; Angelsen, Bjørn; Waag, Robert C
2004-07-01
Spectral estimation based on acoustic backscatter from a motionless stochastic medium is described for characterization of aberration in ultrasonic imaging. The underlying assumptions for the estimation are: The correlation length of the medium is short compared to the length of the transmitted acoustic pulse, an isoplanatic region of sufficient size exists around the focal point, and the backscatter can be modeled as an ergodic stochastic process. The motivation for this work is ultrasonic imaging with aberration correction. Measurements were performed using a two-dimensional array system with 80 x 80 transducer elements and an element pitch of 0.6 mm. The f number for the measurements was 1.2 and the center frequency was 3.0 MHz with a 53% bandwidth. Relative phase of aberration was extracted from estimated cross spectra using a robust least-mean-square-error method based on an orthogonal expansion of the phase differences of neighboring wave forms as a function of frequency. Estimates of cross-spectrum phase from measurements of random scattering through a tissue-mimicking aberrator have confidence bands approximately +/- 5 degrees wide. Both phase and magnitude are in good agreement with a reference characterization obtained from a point scatterer.
What does See the Impulse Acoustic Microscopy inside Nanocomposites?
Levin, V. M.; Petronyuk, Y. S.; Morokov, E. S.; Celzard, A.; Bellucci, S.; Kuzhir, P. P.
The paper presents results of studying bulk microstructure in carbon nanocomposites by impulse acoustic microscopy technique. Nanocomposite materials are in the focus of interest because of their outstanding properties in minimal nanofiller content. Large surface area and high superficial activity cause strong interaction between nanoparticles that can result in formation of fractal conglomerates. This paper involves results of the first direct observation of nanoparticle conglomerates inside the bulk of epoxy-carbon nanocomposites. Diverse types of carbon nanofiller have been under investigation. The impulse acoustic microscope SIAM-1 (Acoustic Microscopy Lab, IBCP RAS) has been employed for 3D imaging bulk microstructure and measuring elastic properties of the nanocomposite specimens. The range of 50-200 MHz allows observing microstructure inside the entire specimen bulk. Acoustic images are obtained in the ultramicroscopic regime; they are formed by the Rayleigh type scattered radiation. It has been found the high-resolution acoustic vision (impulse acoustic microscopy) is an efficient technique to observe mesostructure formed by fractal cluster inside nanocomposites. The clusterization takes its utmost form in nanocomposites with graphite nanoplatelets as nanofiller. The nanoparticles agglomerate into micron-sized conglomerates distributed randomly over the material. Mesostructure in nanocomposites filled with carbon nanotubes is alternation of regions with diverse density of nanotube packing. Regions with alternative density of CNT packing are clearly seen in acoustical images as neighboring pixels of various brightness.
Using acoustic levitation in synchrotron based laser pump hard x-ray probe experiments
Hu, Bin; Lerch, Jason; Suthar, Kamlesh; Dichiara, Anthony
Acoustic levitation provides a platform to trap and hold a small amount of material by using standing pressure waves without a container. The technique has a potential to be used for laser pump x-ray probe experiments; x-ray scattering and laser distortion from the container can be avoided, sample consumption can be minimized, and unwanted chemistry that may occur at the container interface can be avoided. The method has been used at synchrotron sources for studying protein and pharmaceutical solutions using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). However, pump-probe experiments require homogeneously excited samples, smaller than the absorption depth of the material that must be held stably at the intersection of both the laser and x-ray beams. We discuss 1) the role of oscillations in acoustic levitation and the optimal acoustic trapping conditions for x-ray/laser experiments, 2) opportunities to automate acoustic levitation for fast sample loading and manipulation, and 3) our experimental results using SAXS to monitor laser induced thermal expansion in gold nanoparticles solution. We also performed Finite Element Analysis to optimize the trapping performance and stability of droplets ranging from 0.4 mm to 2 mm. Our early x-ray/laser demonstrated the potential of the technique for time-resolved X-ray science.
A manifestly reciprocal theory of scattering in the presence of elastic media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wurmser, D.
1996-01-01
The role of elastic waves in the scattering problem is examined in the context of modern field theory. This effort builds upon a previously published, and since successfully applied formalism for solving the acoustic and electromagnetic scattering problems. It specifically addresses the scattering of acoustic waves from a fluid-solid interface, as well as the scattering of elastodynamic waves from surfaces satisfying the zero-displacement, stress-free, and solid endash solid boundary conditions. Expressions for the change in the scattering amplitude due to a perturbation in the scattering surface are derived directly from the requirement of time reversal symmetry (also known as reciprocity). These results constitute formal statements of the composite (or two-scale) model. In a typical application, the perturbation usually corresponds to Bragg scattering and is treated statistically, while the reference surface provides tilt, shadowing, and multiple scattering, and is usually treated deterministically. Used in this way, the new formalism effectively allows existing numerical and operator expansion methods to be used to calculate the scattering from rougher and/or higher dimensional surfaces than would otherwise be possible. An alternate application of the formalism is illustrated using the fluid-solid boundary as an example. A new manifestly reciprocal expression for the scattering amplitude is presented, as are the small slope and open-quote open-quote local close-quote close-quote two-scale approximations for this problem. (By local, it is meant that only local phenomena such as the tilt of the reference surface are automatically included. However, since the result is manifestly reciprocal, it is fairly straightforward to incorporate a non-local effect such as shadowing.) During the course of the discussion, the classical scattering problem is reexamined from an entirely new perspective
Spatial filtering of audible sound with acoustic landscapes
Wang, Shuping; Tao, Jiancheng; Qiu, Xiaojun; Cheng, Jianchun
2017-07-01
Acoustic metasurfaces manipulate waves with specially designed structures and achieve properties that natural materials cannot offer. Similar surfaces work in audio frequency range as well and lead to marvelous acoustic phenomena that can be perceived by human ears. Being intrigued by the famous Maoshan Bugle phenomenon, we investigate large scale metasurfaces consisting of periodic steps of sizes comparable to the wavelength of audio frequency in both time and space domains. We propose a theoretical method to calculate the scattered sound field and find that periodic corrugated surfaces work as spatial filters and the frequency selective character can only be observed at the same side as the incident wave. The Maoshan Bugle phenomenon can be well explained with the method. Finally, we demonstrate that the proposed method can be used to design acoustical landscapes, which transform impulsive sound into famous trumpet solos or other melodious sound.
Collective hypersonic excitations in strongly multiple scattering colloids.
Still, T; Gantzounis, G; Kiefer, D; Hellmann, G; Sainidou, R; Fytas, G; Stefanou, N
2011-04-29
Unprecedented low-dispersion high-frequency acoustic excitations are observed in dense suspensions of elastically hard colloids. The experimental phononic band structure for SiO(2) particles with different sizes and volume fractions is well represented by rigorous full-elastodynamic multiple-scattering calculations. The slow phonons, which do not relate to particle resonances, are localized in the surrounding liquid medium and stem from coherent multiple scattering that becomes strong in the close-packing regime. Such rich phonon-matter interactions in nanostructures, being still unexplored, can open new opportunities in phononics.
Lé tourneau, Pierre-David; Wu, Ying; Papanicolaou, George; Garnier, Josselin; Darve, Eric
2016-01-01
We present a wideband fast algorithm capable of accurately computing the full numerical solution of the problem of acoustic scattering of waves by multiple finite-sized bodies such as spherical scatterers in three dimensions. By full solution, we
Experimental observation of acoustic sub-harmonic diffraction by a grating
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Jingfei, E-mail: benjamin.jf.liu@gatech.edu; Declercq, Nico F., E-mail: declercqdepatin@gatech.edu [Laboratory for Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation “LUNE,” Georgia Tech Lorraine, Georgia Tech-CNRS UMI2958, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2, rue Marconi, Metz 57070 (France)
2014-06-28
A diffraction grating is a spatial filter causing sound waves or optical waves to reflect in directions determined by the frequency of the waves and the period of the grating. The classical grating equation is the governing principle that has successfully described the diffraction phenomena caused by gratings. However, in this work, we show experimental observation of the so-called sub-harmonic diffraction in acoustics that cannot be explained by the classical grating equation. Experiments indicate two physical phenomena causing the effect: internal scattering effects within the corrugation causing a phase shift and nonlinear acoustic effects generating new frequencies. This discovery expands our current understanding of the diffraction phenomenon, and it also makes it possible to better design spatial diffraction spectra, such as a rainbow effect in optics with a more complicated color spectrum than a traditional rainbow. The discovery reveals also a possibly new technique to study nonlinear acoustics by exploitation of the natural spatial filtering effect inherent to an acoustic diffraction grating.
Particle levitation and laboratory scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reid, Jonathan P.
2009-01-01
Measurements of light scattering from aerosol particles can provide a non-intrusive in situ method for characterising particle size distributions, composition, refractive index, phase and morphology. When coupled with techniques for isolating single particles, considerable information on the evolution of the properties of a single particle can be gained during changes in environmental conditions or chemical processing. Electrostatic, acoustic and optical techniques have been developed over many decades for capturing and levitating single particles. In this review, we will focus on studies of particles in the Mie size regime and consider the complimentarity of electrostatic and optical techniques for levitating particles and elastic and inelastic light scattering methods for characterising particles. In particular, we will review the specific advantages of establishing a single-beam gradient force optical trap (optical tweezers) for manipulating single particles or arrays of particles. Recent developments in characterising the nature of the optical trap, in applying elastic and inelastic light scattering measurements for characterising trapped particles, and in manipulating particles will be considered.
Sensing small changes in a wave chaotic scattering system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taddese, Biniyam Tesfaye; Antonsen, Thomas M.; Ott, Edward; Anlage, Steven M.
2010-01-01
Classical analogs of the quantum mechanical concepts of the Loschmidt Echo and quantum fidelity are developed with the goal of detecting small perturbations in a closed wave chaotic region. Sensing techniques that employ a one-recording-channel time-reversal-mirror, which in turn relies on time reversal invariance and spatial reciprocity of the classical wave equation, are introduced. In analogy with quantum fidelity, we employ scattering fidelity techniques which work by comparing response signals of the scattering region, by means of cross correlation and mutual information of signals. The performance of the sensing techniques is compared for various perturbations induced experimentally in an acoustic resonant cavity. The acoustic signals are parametrically processed to mitigate the effect of dissipation and to vary the spatial diversity of the sensing schemes. In addition to static boundary condition perturbations at specified locations, perturbations to the medium of wave propagation are shown to be detectable, opening up various real world sensing applications in which a false negative cannot be tolerated.
Mitri, F G
2016-03-01
This work proposes a formal analytical theory using the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in cylindrical coordinates, to calculate the acoustic backscattering form function as well as the radiation force-per-length on an infinitely long elliptical (non-circular) cylinder in plane progressive waves. The major (or minor) semi-axis of the ellipse coincides with the direction of the incident waves. The scattering coefficients for the rigid elliptical cylinder are determined by imposing the Neumann boundary condition for an immovable surface and solving a resulting system of linear equations by matrix inversion. The present method, which utilizes standard cylindrical (Bessel and Hankel) wave functions, presents an advantage over the solution for the scattering that is ordinarily expressed in a basis of elliptical Mathieu functions (which are generally non-orthogonal). Furthermore, an integral equation showing the direct connection of the radiation force function with the square of the scattering form function in the far-field from the scatterer (applicable for plane waves only), is noted and discussed. An important application of this integral equation is the adequate evaluation of the radiation force function from a bistatic measurement (i.e., in the polar plane) of the far-field scattering from any 2D object of arbitrary shape. Numerical predictions are evaluated for the acoustic backscattering form function and the radiation force function, which is the radiation force per unit length, per characteristic energy density, and per unit cross-sectional surface of the ellipse, with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio a/b, where a and b are the semi-axes, as well as the dimensionless size parameter kb, without the restriction to a particular range of frequencies. The results are particularly relevant in acoustic levitation, acousto-fluidics and particle dynamics applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Discrimination between discrete and continuum scattering from the sub-seafloor.
Holland, Charles W; Steininger, Gavin; Dosso, Stan E
2015-08-01
There is growing evidence that seabed scattering is often dominated by heterogeneities within the sediment volume as opposed to seafloor roughness. From a theoretical viewpoint, sediment volume heterogeneities can be described either by a fluctuation continuum or by discrete particles. In at-sea experiments, heterogeneity characteristics generally are not known a priori. Thus, an uninformed model selection is generally made, i.e., the researcher must arbitrarily select either a discrete or continuum model. It is shown here that it is possible to (acoustically) discriminate between continuum and discrete heterogeneities in some instances. For example, when the spectral exponent γ3>4, the volume scattering cannot be described by discrete particles. Conversely, when γ3≤2, the heterogeneities likely arise from discrete particles. Furthermore, in the range 2discrete vs continuum heterogeneities via acoustic remote sensing may lead to improved observations and concomitant increased understanding of the marine benthic environment.
Acoustic phonon dispersion of CoSi2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiss, L.; Rumyantsev, A.Yu.; Ivanov, A.S.
1985-01-01
The acoustical phonon dispersion curves of CoSi 2 are measured at room temperature along the main symmetry directions by means of coherent one-phonon scattering of thermal neutrons. The dispersion curves are compared with those of Ge, Si, and the fluorite structure types as CaF 2 and UO 2 . From the slope of the phonon dispersion curves at the GAMMA-point the elastic constants have been obtained
Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Huanyang; Chan, C T
2010-01-01
In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)
Acoustic coupling of two parallel shells in compressible fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerges, S.N.Y.
1982-01-01
Modifications are done in the acoustic impedance for a vibrating shell, due to the pressure of another similar shell. The multi-analysis method of scattering is used. The results of the impedance in function of the shell radius, the wave length, the distance between the shell axis and its vibration models are presented. (E.G.) [pt
Magnon and phonon thermometry with inelastic light scattering
Olsson, Kevin S.; An, Kyongmo; Li, Xiaoqin
2018-04-01
Spin caloritronics investigates the interplay between the transport of spin and heat. In the spin Seebeck effect, a thermal gradient across a magnetic material generates a spin current. A temperature difference between the energy carriers of the spin and lattice subsystems, namely the magnons and phonons, is necessary for such thermal nonequilibrium generation of spin current. Inelastic light scattering is a powerful method that can resolve the individual temperatures of magnons and phonons. In this review, we discuss the thermometry capabilities of inelastic light scattering for measuring optical and acoustic phonons, as well as magnons. A scattering spectrum offers three temperature sensitive parameters: frequency shift, linewidth, and integrated intensity. We discuss the temperatures measured via each of these parameters for both phonon and magnons. Finally, we discuss inelastic light scattering experiments that have examined the magnon and phonon temperatures in thermal nonequilibrium which are particularly relevant to spin caloritronic phenomena.
A Neutron Scattering Study of Phonons in Per-Deuterated S-Triazine
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Doue, M. T.; Heilmann, I. U.; Kjems, Jørgen
1983-01-01
The lattice dynamics of a fully-deuterated single crystal of s-triazine is investigated using the technique of coherent inelastic neutron scattering. Detailed measurements of the temperature dependence of the dispersion of the soft acoustic mode associated with the ferroelastic phase transition...
On stimulated scattering of laser light in inertial fusion energy targets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikolic, Lj; Skoric, M.M.; Ishiguro, S.; Sato, T.
2002-11-01
Propagation of a laser light through regions of an underdense plasma is an active research topic in laser fusion. In particular, a large effort has been invested in studies of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) which can reflect laser energy and produce energetic particles to preheat a fusion energy target. Experiments, theory and simulations agree on a complex interplay between various laser-plasma instabilities. By particle-in-cell simulations of an underdense electron-plasma, we have found, apart from the standard SRS, a strong backscattering near the electron plasma frequency at densities beyond the quarter critical. This novel instability, recognized in recent experiments as stimulated laser scattering on a trapped electron-acoustic mode (SEAS), is absent from a classical theory of laser-parametric instabilities. A parametric excitation of SEAS instability, is explained by a three-wave resonant decay of the incident laser light into a standing backscattered wave and a slow trapped electron acoustic wave (ω p ). Large SEAS pulsations, eventually suppressed by relativistic heating of electrons, are observed in our simulations. This phenomenon seems relevant to future hohlraum target and fast ignition experiments. (author)
Near field acoustic holography with microphones mounted on a rigid sphere
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacobsen, Finn; Moreno, Guillermo; Fernandez Grande, Efren
2008-01-01
Spherical near field acoustic holography (spherical NAH) is a technique that makes it pos-sible to reconstruct the sound field inside and just outside an acoustically transparent spherical surface on which the sound pressure is measured with an array of microphones with negligible scattering...... is only valid if it can be assumed that the sphere has a negligible in-fluence on the incident sound field, and this is not necessarily a good assumption when the sphere is very close to a radiating surface. This paper describes the modified spherical NAH theory and examines the matter through simulations...
Spherical near field acoustic holography with microphones on a rigid sphere
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacobsen, Finn; Hald, Jørgen; Fernandez Grande, Efren
2008-01-01
Spherical near field acoustic holography (SNAH) is a recently developed technique that makes it possible to reconstruct the sound field inside and just outside an acoustically transparent spherical surface on which the sound pressure is measured with an array of microphones with negligible...... with an array of microphones flush-mounted on a rigid sphere. However, this approach is only valid if it can be assumed that the sphere has a negligible influence on the incident sound field, in other words if multiple scattering can be ignored, and this is not necessarily a good assumption when the sphere...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu-Lin, Feng; Xiao-Zhou, Liu; Jie-Hui, Liu; Li, Ma
2009-01-01
Based on an equivalent medium approach, this paper presents a model describing the nonlinear propagation of acoustic waves in a viscoelastic medium containing cylindrical micropores. The influences of pores' nonlinear oscillations on sound attenuation, sound dispersion and an equivalent acoustic nonlinearity parameter are discussed. The calculated results show that the attenuation increases with an increasing volume fraction of micropores. The peak of sound velocity and attenuation occurs at the resonant frequency of the micropores while the peak of the equivalent acoustic nonlinearity parameter occurs at the half of the resonant frequency of the micropores. Furthermore, multiple scattering has been taken into account, which leads to a modification to the effective wave number in the equivalent medium approach. We find that these linear and nonlinear acoustic parameters need to be corrected when the volume fraction of micropores is larger than 0.1%
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Bruch, Ludwig Walter
2007-01-01
Conditions likely to lead to enhanced inelastic atomic scattering that creates shear horizontal (SH) and longitudinal acoustic (LA) monolayer phonons are identified, specifically examining the inelastic scattering of He-4 atoms by a monolayer solid of Xe/Pt(111) at incident energies of 2-25 meV. ...
Rakotonarivo , Sandrine; Walker , S.C.; Kuperman , W. A.; Roux , Philippe
2011-01-01
International audience; A method to actively localize a small perturbation in a multiple scattering medium using a collection of remote acoustic sensors is presented. The approach requires only minimal modeling and no knowledge of the scatterer distribution and properties of the scattering medium and the perturbation. The medium is ensonified before and after a perturbation is introduced. The coherent difference between the measured signals then reveals all field components that have interact...
Colosi, John A
2008-09-01
While many results have been intuited from numerical simulation studies, the precise connections between shallow-water acoustic variability and the space-time scales of nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs) as well as the background environmental conditions have not been clearly established analytically. Two-dimensional coupled mode propagation through NLIWs is examined using a perturbation series solution in which each order n is associated with nth-order multiple scattering. Importantly, the perturbation solution gives resonance conditions that pick out specific NLIW scales that cause coupling, and seabed attenuation is demonstrated to broaden these resonances, fundamentally changing the coupling behavior at low frequency. Sound-speed inhomogeneities caused by internal solitary waves (ISWs) are primarily considered and the dependence of mode coupling on ISW amplitude, range width, depth structure, location relative to the source, and packet characteristics are delineated as a function of acoustic frequency. In addition, it is seen that significant energy transfer to modes with initially low or zero energy involves at least a second order scattering process. Under moderate scattering conditions, comparisons of first order, single scattering theoretical predictions to direct numerical simulation demonstrate the accuracy of the approach for acoustic frequencies upto 400 Hz and for single as well as multiple ISW wave packets.
Incoherent neutron scattering in acetanilide and three deuterated derivatives
Barthes, Mariette; Almairac, Robert; Sauvajol, Jean-Louis; Moret, Jacques; Currat, Roland; Dianoux, José
1991-03-01
Incoherent-neutron-scattering measurements of the vibrational density of states of acetanilide and three deuterated derivatives are presented. These data allow one to identify an intense maximum, assigned to the N-H out-of-plane bending mode. The data display the specific behavior of the methyl torsional modes: large isotopic shift and strong low-temperature intensity; confirm our previous inelastic-neutron-scattering studies, indicating no obvious anomalies in the range of frequency of the acoustic phonons. In addition, the data show the existence of thermally activated quasielastic scattering above 100 K, assigned to the random diffusive motion of the methyl protons. These results are discussed in the light of recent theoretical models proposed to explain the anomalous optical properties of this crystal.
Reverberant acoustic energy in auditoria that comprise systems of coupled rooms
Summers, Jason E.
2003-11-01
A frequency-dependent model for reverberant energy in coupled rooms is developed and compared with measurements for a 1:10 scale model and for Bass Hall, Ft. Worth, TX. At high frequencies, prior statistical-acoustics models are improved by geometrical-acoustics corrections for decay within sub-rooms and for energy transfer between sub-rooms. Comparisons of computational geometrical acoustics predictions based on beam-axis tracing with scale model measurements indicate errors resulting from tail-correction assuming constant quadratic growth of reflection density. Using ray tracing in the late part corrects this error. For mid-frequencies, the models are modified to account for wave effects at coupling apertures by including power transmission coefficients. Similarly, statical-acoustics models are improved through more accurate estimates of power transmission measurements. Scale model measurements are in accord with the predicted behavior. The edge-diffraction model is adapted to study transmission through apertures. Multiple-order scattering is theoretically and experimentally shown inaccurate due to neglect of slope diffraction. At low frequencies, perturbation models qualitatively explain scale model measurements. Measurements confirm relation of coupling strength to unperturbed pressure distribution on coupling surfaces. Measurements in Bass Hall exhibit effects of the coupled stage house. High frequency predictions of statistical acoustics and geometrical acoustics models and predictions of coupling apertures all agree with measurements.
Scattering from Artificial Piezoelectriclike Meta-Atoms and Molecules
Goltcman, Leonid; Hadad, Yakir
2018-01-01
Inspired by natural piezoelectricity, we introduce hybrid-wave electromechanical meta-atoms and metamolecules that consist of coupled electrical and mechanical oscillators with similar resonance frequencies. We explore the linearized electromechanical scattering process and demonstrate that by exploiting the hybrid-wave interaction one may enable functionalities that are forbidden otherwise. For example, we study a dimer metamolecule that is highly directional for electromagnetic waves, although it is electrically deep subwavelength. This unique behavior is a consequence of the fact that, while the metamolecule is electrically small, it is acoustically large. This idea opens vistas for a plethora of exciting dynamics and phenomena in electromagnetics and acoustics, with implications for miniaturized sensors, superresolution imaging, compact nonreciprocal antennas, and more.
Zhang, Zhiwang; Wei, Qi; Cheng, Ying; Zhang, Ting; Wu, Dajian; Liu, Xiaojun
2017-02-01
The discovery of topological acoustics has revolutionized fundamental concepts of sound propagation, giving rise to strikingly unconventional acoustic edge modes immune to scattering. Because of the spinless nature of sound, the "spinlike" degree of freedom crucial to topological states in acoustic systems is commonly realized with circulating background flow or preset coupled resonator ring waveguides, which drastically increases the engineering complexity. Here we realize the acoustic pseudospin multipolar states in a simple flow-free symmetry-broken metamaterial lattice, where the clockwise (anticlockwise) sound propagation within each metamolecule emulates pseudospin down (pseudospin up). We demonstrate that tuning the strength of intermolecular coupling by simply contracting or expanding the metamolecule can induce the band inversion effect between the pseudospin dipole and quadrupole, which leads to a topological phase transition. Topologically protected edge states and reconfigurable topological one-way transmission for sound are further demonstrated. These results provide diverse routes to construct novel acoustic topological insulators with versatile applications.
A Neutron Scattering Study of Lattice Dynamics of HgTe and HgSe
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kepa, H.; Giebultowicz, T.; Buras, B.
1982-01-01
The dispersion relations for the acoustic and optic phonons in HgTe and for the acoustic phonons in HgSe were determined by neutron inelastic scattering in three high symmetry directions. The effect of the free-carrier screening of the long-range electric field of LO phonons in HgTe was observed....... The formalism of the rigid ion model is used for numerical calculations of the phonon dispersion relations and the phonon densities of states in HgTe and HgSe....
X-ray scattering at liquid surfaces and interfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daillant, Jean
2000-01-01
X-ray and neutron reflectivity techniques have become quite popular for the analysis of surfaces and interfaces over the last ten years. In this review, we discuss the specific aspects of both specular and diffuse x-ray reflectivity at liquid interfaces. We start from a model liquid surface for which the scattering cross-section can be calculated in terms of thermally excited capillary and acoustic waves, and we examine in detail the experimental consequences of the large bulk scattering and of the low q divergence of the surface scattering. Deviations from the simple calculated behaviour point to interesting phenomena which can be studied in detail, like the appearance of a bending stiffness. The method is illustrated through the discussion of representative studies of liquid surfaces, of surfactant monolayers, of liquid-liquid interfaces and of microemulsions. (author)
Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kojima, Seiji; Bokov, Alexei A; Ye, Zuo-Guang
2010-12-08
A Brillouin spectroscopic investigation was carried out on PMN-55%PT single crystals, which are known to have no chemically ordered regions and undergo a well-defined structural phase transition at T(C) ∼ 521 K. The longitudinal and transverse sound velocities probed on a right-angle scattering geometry exhibited a remarkable softening and increasing hypersonic damping on approaching T(C) from T(B) ∼ 610 K that was characterized by the deviation of the dielectric permittivity from the high-temperature Curie-Weiss behavior. The acoustic anomalies of the longitudinal acoustic mode at the backward scattering were more substantial than those observed at the right-angle scattering, which could be understood in the framework of normal acoustic dispersion considering the difference in the acoustic frequency. The softening of the transverse sound velocity was more significant than that of the longitudinal one upon cooling toward T(C), suggesting that this acoustic anomaly may be related to the local rhombohedral transformation, occurring in polar nano-regions (PNRs). The observed acoustic behaviors combined with the central peak dynamics clearly indicated the existence of dynamic polar nano-regions in PMN-55%PT where there are no chemically ordered regions, and seem to suggest that the order parameter fluctuations due to two kinds of coupling contribute to the acoustic anomalies in the temperature range of T(C) ∼ T(B): electrostrictive coupling between the acoustic waves and the dynamic PNRs, and linear coupling between the acoustic waves and the precursor polar clusters, i.e., the ordering unit responsible for the order-disorder-type slowing down behavior probed by the central peak.
Acoustic and thermal anomalies in a liquid-glass transition of racemic S(+)-R(-) ketoprofen
Shibata, Tomohiko; Takayama, Haruki; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kojima, Seiji
2014-01-01
Acoustic and thermal properties of pharmaceutical racemic S(+)-R(-) ketoprofen were investigated in wide temperature range including glassy, supercooled liquid and liquid states by Brillouin scattering and temperature modulated DSC. Sound velocity and acoustic attenuation exhibited clear changes at 265 K indicating a liquid-glass transition and showed the typical structural relaxation above Tg. The high value of the fragility index m = 71 was determined by the dispersion of the complex heat capacity. New relaxation map was suggested in combination with previous study of dielectric measurement.
Four-jet impingement: Noise characteristics and simplified acoustic model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brehm, C.; Housman, J.A.; Kiris, C.C.; Barad, M.F.; Hutcheson, F.V.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Large eddy simulation of unique four jet impingement configuration. • Characterization of flow features using POD, FFT, and wavelet decomposition. • Noise source identification utilizing causality method. • Development of simplified acoustic model utilizing equivalent source method. • Comparison with experimental data from BENS experiment. - Abstract: The noise generation mechanisms for four directly impinging supersonic jets are investigated employing implicit large eddy simulations with a higher-order weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme. Although these types of impinging jet configurations have been used in many experiments, a detailed investigation of the noise generation mechanisms has not been conducted before. The flow field is highly complex and contains a wide range of temporal and spatial scales relevant for noise generation. Proper orthogonal decomposition is utilized to characterize the unsteady nature of the flow field involving unsteady shock oscillations, large coherent turbulent flow structures, and the sporadic appearance of vortical flow structures in the center of the four-jet impingement region. The causality method based on Lighthills acoustic analogy is applied to link fluctuations of flow quantities inside the source region to the acoustic pressure in the far field. It will be demonstrated that the entropy fluctuation term plays a vital role in the noise generation process. Consequently, the understanding of the noise generation mechanisms is employed to develop a simplified acoustic model of the four-jet impingement device by utilizing the equivalent source method. Finally, three linear acoustic four-jet impingement models of the four-jet impingement device are used as broadband noise sources inside an engine nacelle and the acoustic scattering results are validated against far-field acoustic experimental data.
Effects of the ohmic current on collective scattering spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castiglioni, S.; Lontano, M.; Tartari, U.
1993-01-01
A numerical and analytical study of the modifications induced in the collective scattering spectra by the ohmic current governing the equilibrium magnetic configuration in toroidal plasmas is presented. The spectral density function is calculated assuming equilibrium distributions for the (bulk and impurity) ion species and a Spitzer-like distribution to describe the response of the electrons to the applied DC electric field. As expected, the spectral asymmetries can be non-negligibly enhanced in the region of the ion-acoustic frequency. They reach their maxima for tangential scattering geometries, where the magnetic effects on the spectra are negligible. This justifies the assumption of the non-magnetized spectra. A theoretically motivated potential is shown to exist for a more detailed experimental investigation of the feasibility of current-density measurements in ohmic plasmas, based on collective scattering. (author)
Multipole expansion of acoustical Bessel beams with arbitrary order and location.
Gong, Zhixiong; Marston, Philip L; Li, Wei; Chai, Yingbin
2017-06-01
An exact solution of expansion coefficients for a T-matrix method interacting with acoustic scattering of arbitrary order Bessel beams from an obstacle of arbitrary location is derived analytically. Because of the failure of the addition theorem for spherical harmonics for expansion coefficients of helicoidal Bessel beams, an addition theorem for cylindrical Bessel functions is introduced. Meanwhile, an analytical expression for the integral of products including Bessel and associated Legendre functions is applied to eliminate the integration over the polar angle. Note that this multipole expansion may also benefit other scattering methods and expansions of incident waves, for instance, partial-wave series solutions.
Specularity of longitudinal acoustic phonons at rough surfaces
Gelda, Dhruv; Ghossoub, Marc G.; Valavala, Krishna; Ma, Jun; Rajagopal, Manjunath C.; Sinha, Sanjiv
2018-01-01
The specularity of phonons at crystal surfaces is of direct importance to thermal transport in nanostructures and to dissipation in nanomechanical resonators. Wave scattering theory provides a framework for estimating wavelength-dependent specularity, but experimental validation remains elusive. Widely available thermal conductivity data presents poor validation since the involvement of the infinitude of phonon wavelengths in thermal transport presents an underconstrained test for specularity theory. Here, we report phonon specularity by measuring the lifetimes of individual coherent longitudinal acoustic phonon modes excited in ultrathin (36-205 nm) suspended silicon membranes at room temperature over the frequency range ˜20 -118 GHz. Phonon surface scattering dominates intrinsic Akhiezer damping at frequencies ≳60 GHz, enabling measurements of phonon boundary scattering time over wavelengths ˜72 -140 nm . We obtain detailed statistics of the surface roughness at the top and bottom surfaces of membranes using HRTEM imaging. We find that the specularity of the excited modes are in good agreement with solutions of wave scattering only when the TEM statistics are corrected for projection errors. The often-cited Ziman formula for phonon specularity also appears in good agreement with the data, contradicting previous results. This work helps to advance the fundamental understanding of phonon scattering at the surfaces of nanostructures.
Mitri, F. G.
2017-11-01
The acoustic radiation forces arising on a pair of sound impenetrable cylindrical particles of arbitrary cross-sections are derived. Plane progressive, standing or quasi-standing waves with an arbitrary incidence angle are considered. Multiple scattering effects are described using the multipole expansion formalism and the addition theorem of cylindrical wave functions. An effective incident acoustic field on a particular object is determined, and used with the scattered field to derive closed-form analytical expressions for the radiation force vector components. The mathematical expressions for the radiation force components are exact, and have been formulated in partial-wave series expansions in cylindrical coordinates involving the angle of incidence, the reflection coefficient forming the progressive or the (quasi)standing wave field, the addition theorem, and the expansion coefficients. Numerical examples illustrate the analysis for two rigid circular cross-sections immersed in a non-viscous fluid. Computations for the dimensionless radiation force functions are performed with emphasis on varying the angle of incidence, the interparticle distance, the sizes of the particles as well as the characteristics of the incident field. Depending on the interparticle distance and angle of incidence, one of the particles yields neutrality; it experiences no force and becomes unresponsive (i.e., ;invisible;) to the linear momentum transfer of the effective incident field due to multiple scattering cancellation effects. Moreover, attractive or repulsive forces between the two particles may arise depending on the interparticle distance, the angle of incidence and size parameters of the particles. This study provides a complete analytical method and computations for the axial and transverse radiation force components in multiple acoustic scattering encompassing the cases of plane progressive, standing or quasi-standing waves of arbitrary incidence by a pair of scatterers
Homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials
Yang, Min
2014-02-26
We present a homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials that is based on reproducing the lowest orders of scattering amplitudes from a finite volume of metamaterials. This approach is noted to differ significantly from that of coherent potential approximation, which is based on adjusting the effective-medium parameters to minimize scatterings in the long-wavelength limit. With the aid of metamaterials’ eigenstates, the effective parameters, such as mass density and elastic modulus can be obtained by matching the surface responses of a metamaterial\\'s structural unit cell with a piece of homogenized material. From the Green\\'s theorem applied to the exterior domain problem, matching the surface responses is noted to be the same as reproducing the scattering amplitudes. We verify our scheme by applying it to three different examples: a layered lattice, a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, and a decorated-membrane system. It is shown that the predicted characteristics and wave fields agree almost exactly with numerical simulations and experiments and the scheme\\'s validity is constrained by the number of dominant surface multipoles instead of the usual long-wavelength assumption. In particular, the validity extends to the full band in one dimension and to regimes near the boundaries of the Brillouin zone in two dimensions.
Two-dimensional phononic crystals with time-varying properties: a multiple scattering analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wright, D W; Cobbold, R S C
2010-01-01
Multiple scattering theory is a versatile two- and three-dimensional method for characterizing the acoustic wave transmission through many scatterers. It provides analytical solutions to wave propagation in scattering structures, and its computational complexity grows logarithmically with the number of scatterers. In this paper we show how the 2D method can be adapted to include the effects of time-varying material parameters. Specifically, a new T-matrix is defined to include the effects of frequency modulation that occurs in time-varying phononic crystals. Solutions were verified against finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations and showed excellent agreement. This new method enables fast characterization of time-varying phononic crystals without the need to resort to lengthy FDTD simulations. Also, the method of combining T-matrices to form the T-supermatrix remains unchanged provided that the new matrix definitions are used. The method is quite compatible with existing implementations of multiple scattering theory and could be readily extended to three-dimensional multiple scattering theory
Distributed temperature and distributed acoustic sensing for remote and harsh environments
Mondanos, Michael; Parker, Tom; Milne, Craig H.; Yeo, Jackson; Coleman, Thomas; Farhadiroushan, Mahmoud
2015-05-01
Advances in opto-electronics and associated signal processing have enabled the development of Distributed Acoustic and Temperature Sensors. Unlike systems relying on discrete optical sensors a distributed system does not rely upon manufactured sensors but utilises passive custom optical fibre cables resistant to harsh environments, including high temperature applications (600°C). The principle of distributed sensing is well known from the distributed temperature sensor (DTS) which uses the interaction of the source light with thermal vibrations (Raman scattering) to determine the temperature at all points along the fibre. Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) uses a novel digital optical detection technique to precisely capture the true full acoustic field (amplitude, frequency and phase) over a wide dynamic range at every point simultaneously. A number of signal processing techniques have been developed to process a large array of acoustic signals to quantify the coherent temporal and spatial characteristics of the acoustic waves. Predominantly these systems have been developed for the oil and gas industry to assist reservoir engineers in optimising the well lifetime. Nowadays these systems find a wide variety of applications as integrity monitoring tools in process vessels, storage tanks and piping systems offering the operator tools to schedule maintenance programs and maximize service life.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bellis, Cédric; Bonnet, Marc; Cakoni, Fioralba
2013-01-01
Originally formulated in the context of topology optimization, the concept of topological derivative has also proved effective as a qualitative inversion tool for a wave-based identification of finite-sized objects. This approach remains, however, largely based on a heuristic interpretation of the topological derivative, whereas most other qualitative approaches to inverse scattering are backed by a mathematical justification. As an effort toward bridging this gap, this study focuses on a topological derivative approach applied to the L 2 -norm of the misfit between far-field measurements. Either an inhomogeneous medium or a finite number of point-like scatterers are considered, using either the Born approximation or a full-scattering model. Topological derivative-based imaging functionals are analyzed using a suitable factorization of the far-field operator, for each of the considered cases, in order to characterize their behavior and assess their ability to reconstruct the unknown scatterer(s). Results include the justification of the usual sign heuristic underpinning the method for (i) the Born approximation and (ii) full-scattering models limited to moderately strong scatterers. Semi-analytical and numerical examples are presented. Within the chosen framework, the topological derivative approach is finally discussed and compared to other well-known qualitative methods. (paper)
Evaluation of performance of Son Tek Argonaut acoustic doppler velocity log in tow tank and sea
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Joseph, A; Madhan, R.; Mascarenhas, A.A; Desai, R.G.P.; VijayKumar, K.; Dias, M.; Tengali, S.; Methar, A
Performance of a 500-kHz, 3-beam downward-looking Sontex Argonaut acoustic Doppler velocity log (DVL) based on measurements at tow-tank and sea is addressed. Its accuracy and linearity under tow-tank measurements were largely scattered...
Acoustics of finite asymmetric exotic beams: Examples of Airy and fractional Bessel beams
Mitri, F. G.
2017-12-01
The purpose of this investigation is to examine the properties of finite asymmetric exotic scalar (acoustic) beams with unusual properties using the angular spectrum decomposition in plane waves. Such beams possess intrinsic uncommon characteristics that make them attractive from the standpoint of particle manipulation, handling and rotation, and possibly other applications in particle clearing and separation. Assuming a specific apodization function at the acoustic source, the angular spectrum function is calculated and used to synthesize the radiated pressure field (i.e., excluding evanescent waves that decay away from the source) in the forward direction of wave motion (i.e., away from the source). Moreover, a generalized hybrid method combining the angular spectrum approach with the multipole expansion formalism in spherical coordinates is developed, which is applicable to any finite beam of arbitrary wavefront. The improved approach allows adequate computation of the resonance scattering, radiation force, and spin torque components on an object of arbitrary shape, located on or off the axis of the incident beam in space. Considering the illustrative example of a viscous fluid sphere submerged in a non-viscous liquid and illuminated by finite asymmetric beams such as the Airy and the Bessel vortex beam with fractional order, numerical computations for the scattering, radiation force, and torque components are performed with an emphasis on the distance from the source, the arbitrary location of the particle ,and the asymmetric nature of the incident field. Moreover, beamforming calculations are presented with supplementary animations for the pressure field distribution in space, with an emphasis on the intrinsic properties of the selected beams. The numerical predictions illustrate the scattering, radiation force, and spin torque properties depending on the beam parameters and the distance separating the sphere from the source. This study provides a generalized
Underwater object classification using scattering transform of sonar signals
Saito, Naoki; Weber, David S.
2017-08-01
In this paper, we apply the scattering transform (ST)-a nonlinear map based off of a convolutional neural network (CNN)-to classification of underwater objects using sonar signals. The ST formalizes the observation that the filters learned by a CNN have wavelet-like structure. We achieve effective binary classification both on a real dataset of Unexploded Ordinance (UXOs), as well as synthetically generated examples. We also explore the effects on the waveforms with respect to changes in the object domain (e.g., translation, rotation, and acoustic impedance, etc.), and examine the consequences coming from theoretical results for the scattering transform. We show that the scattering transform is capable of excellent classification on both the synthetic and real problems, thanks to having more quasi-invariance properties that are well-suited to translation and rotation of the object.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zulkarnaen Fahmi
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Hydroacoustic techniques are a valuable tool for the stock assessments of many fish species. Nonetheless, such techniques are limited by problems of species identification. Several methods and techniques have been used in addressing the problem of acoustic identification species and one of them is Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs. In this paper, Back propagation (BP and Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP of the Artificial Neural Network were used to classify carp (Cyprinus carpio, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and catfish (Pangasius hypothalmus. Classification was done using a set of descriptors extracted from the acoustic data records, i.e. Volume Back scattering (Sv, Target Strength (TS, Area Back scattering Strength, Skewness, Kurtosis, Depth, Height and Relative altitude. The results showed that the Multi Layer Perceptron approach performed better than the Back propagation. The classification rates was 85.7% with the multi layer perceptron (MLP compared to 84.8% with back propagation (BP ANN.
Acoustic radiation force on a sphere in standing and quasi-standing zero-order Bessel beam tweezers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitri, F.G.
2008-01-01
Starting from the exact acoustic scattering from a sphere immersed in an ideal fluid and centered along the propagation axis of a standing or quasi-standing zero-order Bessel beam, explicit partial-wave representations for the radiation force are derived. A standing or a quasi-standing acoustic field is the result of propagating two equal or unequal amplitude zero-order Bessel beams, respectively, along the same axis but in opposite sense. The Bessel beam is characterized by the half-cone angle β of its plane wave components, such that β = 0 represents a plane wave. It is assumed here that the half-cone angle β for each of the counter-propagating acoustic Bessel beams is equal. Fluid, elastic and viscoelastic spheres immersed in water are treated as examples. Results indicate the capability of manipulating spherical targets based on their mechanical and acoustical properties. This condition provides an impetus for further designing acoustic tweezers operating with standing or quasi-standing Bessel acoustic waves. Potential applications include particle manipulation in micro-fluidic lab-on-chips as well as in reduced gravity environments
Observational constraints on dark matter-dark energy scattering cross section
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, Suresh [BITS Pilani, Department of Mathematics, Rajasthan (India); Nunes, Rafael C. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Fisica, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)
2017-11-15
In this letter, we report precise and robust observational constraints on the dark matter-dark energy scattering cross section, using the latest data from cosmic microwave background (CMB) Planck temperature and polarization, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) measurements and weak gravitational lensing data from Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). The scattering scenario consists of a pure momentum exchange between the dark components, and we find σ{sub d} < 10{sup -29} cm{sup 2} (m{sub dm}c{sup 2}/GeV) at 95% CL from the joint analysis (CMB + BAO + CFHTLenS), where m{sub dm} is a typical dark matter particle mass. We notice that the scattering among the dark components may influence the growth of large scale structure in the Universe, leaving the background cosmology unaltered. (orig.)
Use of acoustic vortices in acoustic levitation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Juhl, Peter Møller
2009-01-01
Acoustic fields are known to exert forces on the surfaces of objects. These forces are noticeable if the sound pressure is sufficiently high. Two phenomena where acoustic forces are relevant are: i) acoustic levitation, where strong standing waves can hold small objects at certain positions......, counterbalancing their weight, and ii) acoustic vortices, spinning sound fields that can impinge angular momentum and cause rotation of objects. In this contribution, both force-creating sound fields are studied by means of numerical simulations. The Boundary Element Method is employed to this end. The simulation...... of acoustical vortices uses an efficient numerical implementation based on the superposition of two orthogonal sound fields with a delay of 90° between them. It is shown that acoustic levitation and the use of acoustic vortices can be combined to manipulate objects in an efficient and controlled manner without...
Dynamics of acoustically levitated disk samples.
Xie, W J; Wei, B
2004-10-01
The acoustic levitation force on disk samples and the dynamics of large water drops in a planar standing wave are studied by solving the acoustic scattering problem through incorporating the boundary element method. The dependence of levitation force amplitude on the equivalent radius R of disks deviates seriously from the R3 law predicted by King's theory, and a larger force can be obtained for thin disks. When the disk aspect ratio gamma is larger than a critical value gamma(*) ( approximately 1.9 ) and the disk radius a is smaller than the critical value a(*) (gamma) , the levitation force per unit volume of the sample will increase with the enlargement of the disk. The acoustic levitation force on thin-disk samples ( gammaacoustic field for stable levitation of a large water drop is to adjust the reflector-emitter interval H slightly above the resonant interval H(n) . The simulation shows that the drop is flattened and the central parts of its top and bottom surface become concave with the increase of sound pressure level, which agrees with the experimental observation. The main frequencies of the shape oscillation under different sound pressures are slightly larger than the Rayleigh frequency because of the large shape deformation. The simulated translational frequencies of the vertical vibration under normal gravity condition agree with the theoretical analysis.
Simulation of non-destructive inspections and acoustic emission measurements involving guided waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baronian, V; Lhemery, A; Bonnet-BenDhia, A-S
2009-01-01
In a structure that guides elastic waves, a discontinuity (defect, shape variation) causes scattering (reflection, partial extinction or mode conversion). Two modal formulations have been developed to link separate models dealing with the calculation of the modal decomposition, with the generation and reception of guided waves (GW), with their scattering. The first concerns pulse-echo configurations (involving a single transducer), the other concerns pitch-catch configurations (two transducers involved). A new finite element (FE) method has been developed to compute the scattering by an arbitrary discontinuity, based on the modal decomposition of the field. Perfectly transparent boundary conditions (Dirichlet-to-Neuman boundaries) are developed, allowing the FE computation zone to be reduced to a minimum. A specific variational problem including these boundary conditions was obtained and solved using FE tools. By combining the modal formulations, the new FE scheme and tools for GW radiation, propagation and reception based on the Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method, a new simulation tool has been developed. It can address almost arbitrary configurations of GW nondestructive testing. Moreover, a source inside the FE computation zone can be defined so that configurations of testing by acoustic emission can also be simulated. Examples of use of this tool are shown, some dealing with junctions of complex geometry between two guides, other with surface or bulk sources of acoustic emission.
Lamarche, G.; Le Gonidec, Y.; Lucieer, V.; Lurton, X.; Greinert, J.; Dupré, S.; Nau, A.; Heffron, E.; Roche, M.; Ladroit, Y.; Urban, P.
2017-12-01
Detecting liquid, solid or gaseous features in the ocean is generating considerable interest in the geoscience community, because of their potentially high economic values (oil & gas, mining), their significance for environmental management (oil/gas leakage, biodiversity mapping, greenhouse gas monitoring) as well as their potential cultural and traditional values (food, freshwater). Enhancing people's capability to quantify and manage the natural capital present in the ocean water goes hand in hand with the development of marine acoustic technology, as marine echosounders provide the most reliable and technologically advanced means to develop quantitative studies of water column backscatter data. This is not developed to its full capability because (i) of the complexity of the physics involved in relation to the constantly changing marine environment, and (ii) the rapid technological evolution of high resolution multibeam echosounder (MBES) water-column imaging systems. The Water Column Imaging Working Group is working on a series of multibeam echosounder (MBES) water column datasets acquired in a variety of environments, using a range of frequencies, and imaging a number of water-column features such as gas seeps, oil leaks, suspended particulate matter, vegetation and freshwater springs. Access to data from different acoustic frequencies and ocean dynamics enables us to discuss and test multifrequency approaches which is the most promising means to develop a quantitative analysis of the physical properties of acoustic scatterers, providing rigorous cross calibration of the acoustic devices. In addition, high redundancy of multibeam data, such as is available for some datasets, will allow us to develop data processing techniques, leading to quantitative estimates of water column gas seeps. Each of the datasets has supporting ground-truthing data (underwater videos and photos, physical oceanography measurements) which provide information on the origin and
Diffraction and diffusion in room acoustics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rindel, Jens Holger; Rasmussen, Birgit
1996-01-01
Diffraction and diffusion are two phenomena that are both related to the wave nature of sound. Diffraction due to the finite size of reflecting surfaces and the design of single reflectors and reflector arrays are discussed. Diffusion is the result of scattering of sound reflected from surfaces...... that are not plane but curved or irregular. The importance of diffusion has been demonstrated in concert halls. Methods for the design of diffusing surfaces and the development of new types of diffusers are reviewed. Finally, the importance of diffraction and diffusion in room acoustic computer models is discussed....
Kristin Lewis; William P. Arnott; Hans Moosmuller; Cyle E. Wold
2008-01-01
A dual-wavelength photoacoustic instrument operating at 405 and 870 nm was used during the 2006 Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment to measure light scattering and absorption by smoke from the combustion of a variety of biomass fuels. Simultaneous measurements of aerosol light scattering by reciprocal nephelometry within the instrument's acoustic resonator accompany...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Louena Shtrepi
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Simulations of the acoustic effects that diffusive surfaces have on the objective acoustic parameters and on sound perception have not yet been fully understood. To this end, acoustic simulations have been performed in Odeon in the model of a variable-acoustic concert hall. This paper is presented as a follow-up study to a previous paper that dealt with in-field measurements only. As in measurements, a diffusive and a reflective condition of one of the lateral walls have been considered in the room models. Two modeling alternatives of the diffusive condition, that is, (a a flat surface with high scattering coefficient applied; and (b a triangular relief modeled including edge diffraction, have been investigated. Objective acoustic parameters, such as early decay time (EDT, reverberation time (T30, clarity (C80, definition (D50, and interaural cross correlation (IACC, have been compared between the two conditions. Moreover, an auditory experiment has been performed to determine the maximum distance from a diffusive surface at which the simulated acoustic scattering effects are still audible. Although the simulated objective results showed a good match with measured values, the subjective results showed that the differences between the diffuse and reflective conditions become significant when model (b is used.
Acoustic radiation force on a multilayered sphere in a Gaussian standing field
Wang, Haibin; Liu, Xiaozhou; Gao, Sha; Cui, Jun; Liu, Jiehui; He, Aijun; Zhang, Gutian
2018-03-01
We develop a model for calculating the radiation force on spherically symmetric multilayered particles based on the acoustic scattering approach. An expression is derived for the radiation force on a multilayered sphere centered on the axis of a Gaussian standing wave propagating in an ideal fluid. The effects of the sound absorption of the materials and sound wave on acoustic radiation force of a multilayered sphere immersed in water are analyzed, with particular emphasis on the shell thickness of every layer, and the width of the Gaussian beam. The results reveal that the existence of particle trapping behavior depends on the choice of the non-dimensional frequency ka, as well as the shell thickness of each layer. This study provides a theoretical basis for the development of acoustical tweezers in a Gaussian standing wave, which may benefit the improvement and development of acoustic control technology, such as trapping, sorting, and assembling a cell, and drug delivery applications. Project supported by National Key R&D Program (Grant No. 2016YFF0203000), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11774167 and 61571222), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. 020414380001), the Key Laboratory of Underwater Acoustic Environment, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. SSHJ-KFKT-1701), and the AQSIQ Technology R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2017QK125).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nichols, R.W.
1976-01-01
The volume contains six papers which together provide an overall review of the inspection technique known as acoustic emission or stress wave emission. The titles are: a welder's introduction to acoustic emission technology; use of acoustic emission for detection of defects as they arise during fabrication; examples of laboratory application and assessment of acoustic emission in the United Kingdom; (Part I: acoustic emission behaviour of low alloy steels; Part II: fatigue crack assessment from proof testing and continuous monitoring); inspection of selected areas of engineering structures by acoustic emission; Japanese experience in laboratory and practical applications of acoustic emission to welded structures; and ASME acoustic emission code status. (U.K.)
Acoustics flow analysis in circular duct using sound intensity and dynamic mode decomposition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weyna, S
2014-01-01
Sound intensity generation in hard-walled duct with acoustic flow (no mean-flow) is treated experimentally and shown graphically. In paper, numerous methods of visualization illustrating the vortex flow (2D, 3D) can graphically explain diffraction and scattering phenomena occurring inside the duct and around open end area. Sound intensity investigation in annular duct gives a physical picture of sound waves in any duct mode. In the paper, modal energy analysis are discussed with particular reference to acoustics acoustic orthogonal decomposition (AOD). The image of sound intensity fields before and above 'cut-off' frequency region are found to compare acoustic modes which might resonate in duct. The experimental results show also the effects of axial and swirling flow. However acoustic field is extremely complicated, because pressures in non-propagating (cut-off) modes cooperate with the particle velocities in propagating modes, and vice versa. Measurement in cylindrical duct demonstrates also the cut-off phenomenon and the effect of reflection from open end. The aim of experimental study was to obtain information on low Mach number flows in ducts in order to improve physical understanding and validate theoretical CFD and CAA models that still may be improved.
Pevernagie, Dirk; Aarts, Ronald M; De Meyer, Micheline
2010-04-01
Snoring is a prevalent disorder affecting 20-40% of the general population. The mechanism of snoring is vibration of anatomical structures in the pharyngeal airway. Flutter of the soft palate accounts for the harsh aspect of the snoring sound. Natural or drug-induced sleep is required for its appearance. Snoring is subject to many influences such as body position, sleep stage, route of breathing and the presence or absence of sleep-disordered breathing. Its presentation may be variable within or between nights. While snoring is generally perceived as a social nuisance, rating of its noisiness is subjective and, therefore, inconsistent. Objective assessment of snoring is important to evaluate the effect of treatment interventions. Moreover, snoring carries information relating to the site and degree of obstruction of the upper airway. If evidence for monolevel snoring at the site of the soft palate is provided, the patient may benefit from palatal surgery. These considerations have inspired researchers to scrutinize the acoustic characteristics of snoring events. Similarly to speech, snoring is produced in the vocal tract. Because of this analogy, existing techniques for speech analysis have been applied to evaluate snoring sounds. It appears that the pitch of the snoring sound is in the low-frequency range (noise-like', and has scattered energy content in the higher spectral sub-bands (>500 Hz). To evaluate acoustic properties of snoring, sleep nasendoscopy is often performed. Recent evidence suggests that the acoustic quality of snoring is markedly different in drug-induced sleep as compared with natural sleep. Most often, palatal surgery alters sound characteristics of snoring, but is no cure for this disorder. It is uncertain whether the perceived improvement after palatal surgery, as judged by the bed partner, is due to an altered sound spectrum. Whether some acoustic aspects of snoring, such as changes in pitch, have predictive value for the presence of
A Literature Survey on Inverse Scattering for Electron Density Profile Determination. Volume II.
1981-09-24
THE INVERSE SCATTERING PROBLEM4 FOR THE EQUAT ION Of ACOUSTIC$ AVILA, G.S.S. DEPT. DE MATEMATICA . INST. DE CIENCIAS EXATAS. UNIV. Of BRASILIA...of Colict support Portinari. Joao C. Departamento do Matematica . Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Rio do Janeiro. Brasil J. Math
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balakirev, V.A.; Buts, V.A.
1982-01-01
The interaction of a relativistic electron beam with a plasma waveguide whose density is modulated by an ion acoustic wave leads to the emission of electromagnetic radiation. The wavelength of the radiation is 2#betta# 2 times shorter than the ion acoustic wavelength. The emission is accompanied by the amplification of the ion acoustic wave. The maximum amplitudes of the excited waves are found
Recovering an elastic obstacle containing embedded objects by the acoustic far-field measurements
Qu, Fenglong; Yang, Jiaqing; Zhang, Bo
2018-01-01
Consider the inverse scattering problem of time-harmonic acoustic waves by a 3D bounded elastic obstacle which may contain embedded impenetrable obstacles inside. We propose a novel and simple technique to show that the elastic obstacle can be uniquely recovered by the acoustic far-field pattern at a fixed frequency, disregarding its contents. Our method is based on constructing a well-posed modified interior transmission problem on a small domain and makes use of an a priori estimate for both the acoustic and elastic wave fields in the usual H 1-norm. In the case when there is no obstacle embedded inside the elastic body, our method gives a much simpler proof for the uniqueness result obtained previously in the literature (Natroshvili et al 2000 Rend. Mat. Serie VII 20 57-92 Monk and Selgas 2009 Inverse Problems Imaging 3 173-98).
Lin, Shengtao; Zhang, Ge; Hau Leow, Chee; Tang, Meng-Xing
2017-09-01
The sub-micron phase change contrast agent (PCCA) composed of a perfluorocarbon liquid core can be activated into gaseous state and form stable echogenic microbubbles for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging. It has shown great promise in imaging microvasculature, tumour microenvironment, and cancer cells. Although PCCAs have been extensively studied for different diagnostic and therapeutic applications, the effect of biologically geometrical confinement on the acoustic vaporisation of PCCAs is still not clear. We have investigated the difference in PCCA-produced ultrasound contrast enhancement after acoustic activation with and without a microvessel confinement on a microchannel phantom. The experimental results indicated more than one-order of magnitude less acoustic vaporisation in a microchannel than that in a free environment taking into account the attenuation effect of the vessel on the microbubble scattering. This may provide an improved understanding in the applications of PCCAs in vivo.
Wave scattering from statistically rough surfaces
Bass, F G; ter Haar, D
2013-01-01
Wave Scattering from Statistically Rough Surfaces discusses the complications in radio physics and hydro-acoustics in relation to wave transmission under settings seen in nature. Some of the topics that are covered include radar and sonar, the effect of variations in topographic relief or ocean waves on the transmission of radio and sound waves, the reproduction of radio waves from the lower layers of the ionosphere, and the oscillations of signals within the earth-ionosphere waveguide. The book begins with some fundamental idea of wave transmission theory and the theory of random processes a
Translational illusion of acoustic sources by transformation acoustics.
Sun, Fei; Li, Shichao; He, Sailing
2017-09-01
An acoustic illusion of creating a translated acoustic source is designed by utilizing transformation acoustics. An acoustic source shifter (ASS) composed of layered acoustic metamaterials is designed to achieve such an illusion. A practical example where the ASS is made with naturally available materials is also given. Numerical simulations verify the performance of the proposed device. The designed ASS may have some applications in, e.g., anti-sonar detection.
Acoustic excitations in glassy sorbitol and their relation with the fragility and the boson peak
Ruta, B.; Baldi, G.; Scarponi, F.; Fioretto, D.; Giordano, V. M.; Monaco, G.
2012-12-01
We report a detailed analysis of the dynamic structure factor of glassy sorbitol by using inelastic X-ray scattering and previously measured light scattering data [B. Ruta, G. Monaco, F. Scarponi, and D. Fioretto, Philos. Mag. 88, 3939 (2008), 10.1080/14786430802317586]. The thus obtained knowledge on the density-density fluctuations at both the mesoscopic and macroscopic length scale has been used to address two debated topics concerning the vibrational properties of glasses. The relation between the acoustic modes and the universal boson peak (BP) appearing in the vibrational density of states of glasses has been investigated, also in relation with some recent theoretical models. Moreover, the connection between the elastic properties of glasses and the slowing down of the structural relaxation process in supercooled liquids has been scrutinized. For what concerns the first issue, it is here shown that the wave vector dependence of the acoustic excitations can be used, in sorbitol, to quantitatively reproduce the shape of the boson peak, supporting the relation between BP and acoustic modes. For what concerns the second issue, a proper study of elasticity over a wide spatial range is shown to be fundamental in order to investigate the relation between elastic properties and the slowing down of the dynamics in the corresponding supercooled liquid phase.
All-optical in-depth detection of the acoustic wave emitted by a single gold nanorod
Xu, Feng; Guillet, Yannick; Ravaine, Serge; Audoin, Bertrand
2018-04-01
A single gold nanorod dropped on the surface of a silica substrate is used as a transient optoacoustic source of gigahertz hypersounds. We demonstrate the all-optical detection of the as-generated acoustic wave front propagating in the silica substrate. For this purpose, time-resolved femtosecond pump-probe experiments are performed in a reflection configuration. The fundamental breathing mode of the nanorod is detected at 23 GHz by interferometry, and the longitudinal acoustic wave radiated in the silica substrate is detected by time-resolved Brillouin scattering. By tuning the optical probe wavelength from 750 to 900 nm, hypersounds with wavelengths of 260-315 nm are detected in the silica substrate, with corresponding acoustic frequencies in the range of 19-23 GHz. To confirm the origin of these hypersounds, we theoretically analyze the influence of the acoustic excitation spectrum on the temporal envelope of the transient reflectivity. This analysis proves that the acoustic wave detected in the silica substrate results from the excitation of the breathing mode of the nanorod. These results pave the way for performing local in-depth elastic nanoscopy.
The theory of electromagnetic wave scattering by density fluctuations in nonequilibrium plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlenko, V.N.; Panchenko, V.G.
1993-01-01
Scattering of electromagnetic waves by density fluctuations in a magnetized plasma in the presence of the external pump field is investigated. The spectral density of electron density fluctuations is calculated. The pump wave is supposed to decay into a lower hybrid wave and low frequency oscillations (ion-acoustic wave, modified convective cell and ion-cyclotron wave with ion-temperature anisotropy). When the pump wave amplitude tends to the threshold strength of the electric field, the scattering cross section increases anomalously, i.e. there is the critical opalescence. The differential scattering cross section dependence on the pump amplitude and ion temperature anisotropy is obtained in the region above the parametric instability threshold. For characteristic parameters of fusion and space plasmas it is shown that the pump field terms considerably surmount the thermal noise contribution to the scattering cross section
Distribution and diel vertical movements of mesopelagic scattering layers in the Red Sea
Klevjer, Thor A.
2012-06-13
The mesopelagic zone of the Red Sea represents an extreme environment due to low food concentrations, high temperatures and low oxygen waters. Nevertheless, a 38 kHz echosounder identified at least four distinct scattering layers during the daytime, of which the 2 deepest layers resided entirely within the mesopelagic zone. Two of the acoustic layers were found above a mesopelagic oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), one layer overlapped with the OMZ, and one layer was found below the OMZ. Almost all organisms in the deep layers migrated to the near-surface waters during the night. Backscatter from a 300 kHz lowered Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler indicated a layer of zooplankton within the OMZ. They carried out DVM, yet a portion remained at mesopelagic depths during the night. Our acoustic measurements showed that the bulk of the acoustic backscatter was restricted to waters shallower than 800 m, suggesting that most of the biomass in the Red Sea resides above this depth. 2012 The Author(s).
Distribution and diel vertical movements of mesopelagic scattering layers in the Red Sea
Klevjer, Thor A.; Torres, Daniel J.; Kaartvedt, Stein
2012-01-01
The mesopelagic zone of the Red Sea represents an extreme environment due to low food concentrations, high temperatures and low oxygen waters. Nevertheless, a 38 kHz echosounder identified at least four distinct scattering layers during the daytime, of which the 2 deepest layers resided entirely within the mesopelagic zone. Two of the acoustic layers were found above a mesopelagic oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), one layer overlapped with the OMZ, and one layer was found below the OMZ. Almost all organisms in the deep layers migrated to the near-surface waters during the night. Backscatter from a 300 kHz lowered Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler indicated a layer of zooplankton within the OMZ. They carried out DVM, yet a portion remained at mesopelagic depths during the night. Our acoustic measurements showed that the bulk of the acoustic backscatter was restricted to waters shallower than 800 m, suggesting that most of the biomass in the Red Sea resides above this depth. 2012 The Author(s).
Annular spherically focused ring transducers for improved single-beam acoustical tweezers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitri, F. G., E-mail: F.G.Mitri@ieee.org [Chevron, Area 52 Technology—ETC, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87508 (United States)
2016-02-14
The use of ultrasonic transducers with a central hollow is suggested for improved single-beam acoustical tweezers applications. Within the framework of the Fresnel-Kirchhoff parabolic approximation, a closed-form partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) for the incident velocity potential (or pressure) field is derived for an annular spherically focused ring (asfr) with uniform vibration across its surface in spherical coordinates. The Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral and the addition theorems for the Legendre and spherical wave functions are used to obtain the PWSE assuming a weakly focused beam (with a focusing angle α ≤ 20°). The PWSE allows evaluating the incident field from the finite asfr in 3D. Moreover, the obtained solution allows computing efficiently the acoustic scattering and radiation force on a sphere centered on the beam's axis of wave propagation. The analytical solution is valid for wavelengths largely exceeding the radius of the asfr and when the viscosity of the surrounding fluid can be neglected. Numerical predictions for the beam-forming, scattering, and axial time-averaged radiation force are performed with particular emphasis on the asfr thickness, the axial distance separating the sphere from the center of the transducer, the (non-dimensional) size of the transducer, as well as the sphere's elastic properties without restriction to the long- (i.e., Rayleigh) or the short-wavelength (i.e., ray acoustics) regimes. Potential applications of the present solution are in beam-forming design, particle tweezing, and manipulation due to negative forces using ultrasonic asfr transducers.
Al-Taiy, Hassanain Majeed
2017-01-01
Stimulated Brillouin scattering is a third order non-linear effect with the lowest power threshold in standard single mode optical fiber, by which an interaction between optical and acoustic modes takes place. During the Brillouin scattering process, part of the pump wave power will be transferred to a counter propagating wave (Stokes), with a frequency shift of about 11 GHz for a telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm in a standard single mode fiber. The frequency shift effective parameters...
Acoustic Studies on Nanodroplets, Microbubbles and Liposomes
Kumar, Krishna Nandan
Microbubbles and droplets are nanometer to micron size biocompatible particles which are primarily used for drug delivery and contrast imaging. Our aim is to broaden the use of microbubbles from contrast imaging to other applications such as measuring blood pressure. The other goal is to develop in situ contrast agents (phase shift droplets) which can be used for applications such as cancer tumor imaging. Therefore, the focus is on developing and validating the concept using experimental and theoretical methods. Below is an overview of each of the projects performed on droplets and microbubbles. Phase shift droplets vaporizable by acoustic stimulation offer many advantages over microbubbles as contrast agents due to their higher stability and possibility of smaller sizes. In this study, the acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) threshold of a suspension of PFP droplets (400-3000nm) was acoustically measured as a function of the excitation frequency by examining the scattered signals, fundamental, sub- and second-harmonic. This work presents the experimental methodology to determine ADV threshold. The threshold increases with frequency: 1.25 MPa at 2.25 MHz, 2.0 MPa at 5 MHz and 2.5 MPa at 10 MHz. The scattered response from droplets was also found to match well with that of independently prepared lipid-coated microbubble suspension in magnitude as well as trends above the threshold value. Additionally, we have employed classical nucleation theory (CNT) to investigate the ADV, specifically the threshold value of the peak negative pressure required for vaporization. The theoretical analysis predicts that the ADV threshold increases with increasing surface tension of the droplet core and frequency of excitation, while it decreases with increasing temperature and droplet size. The predictions are in qualitative agreement with experimental observations. A technique to measure the ambient pressure using microbubbles was developed. Here we are presenting the results of an
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
van Capel, P. J. S.; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Porte, Henrik
2011-01-01
signals and THz electromagnetic radiation signals demonstrates that transient strain generation in InGaN/GaN MQWs is correlatedwith electromagnetic THz generation, and both types of emission find their origin in ultrafast dynamical screening of the built-in piezoelectric field in the MQWs. The measured......We investigate acoustic and electromagnetic emission from optically excited strained piezoelectric In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs), using optical pump-probe spectroscopy, time-resolved Brillouin scattering, and THz emission spectroscopy. A direct comparison of detected acoustic...
Forces acting on a small particle in an acoustical field in a thermoviscous fluid.
Karlsen, Jonas T; Bruus, Henrik
2015-10-01
We present a theoretical analysis of the acoustic radiation force on a single small spherical particle, either a thermoviscous fluid droplet or a thermoelastic solid particle, suspended in a viscous and heat-conducting fluid medium. Within the perturbation assumptions, our analysis places no restrictions on the length scales of the viscous and thermal boundary-layer thicknesses δ(s) and δ(t) relative to the particle radius a, but it assumes the particle to be small in comparison to the acoustic wavelength λ. This is the limit relevant to scattering of ultrasound waves from nanometer- and micrometer-sized particles. For particles of size comparable to or smaller than the boundary layers, the thermoviscous theory leads to profound consequences for the acoustic radiation force. Not only do we predict forces orders of magnitude larger than expected from ideal-fluid theory, but for certain relevant choices of materials, we also find a sign change in the acoustic radiation force on different-sized but otherwise identical particles. These findings lead to the concept of a particle-size-dependent acoustophoretic contrast factor, highly relevant to acoustic separation of microparticles in gases, as well as to handling of nanoparticles in lab-on-a-chip systems.
Létourneau, Pierre-David
2016-09-19
We present a wideband fast algorithm capable of accurately computing the full numerical solution of the problem of acoustic scattering of waves by multiple finite-sized bodies such as spherical scatterers in three dimensions. By full solution, we mean that no assumption (e.g. Rayleigh scattering, geometrical optics, weak scattering, Born single scattering, etc.) is necessary regarding the properties of the scatterers, their distribution or the background medium. The algorithm is also fast in the sense that it scales linearly with the number of unknowns. We use this algorithm to study the phenomenon of super-resolution in time-reversal refocusing in highly-scattering media recently observed experimentally (Lemoult et al., 2011), and provide numerical arguments towards the fact that such a phenomenon can be explained through a homogenization theory.
Rayleigh scattering of a cylindrical sound wave by an infinite cylinder.
Baynes, Alexander B; Godin, Oleg A
2017-12-01
Rayleigh scattering, in which the wavelength is large compared to the scattering object, is usually studied assuming plane incident waves. However, full Green's functions are required in a number of problems, e.g., when a scatterer is located close to the ocean surface or the seafloor. This paper considers the Green's function of the two-dimensional problem that corresponds to scattering of a cylindrical wave by an infinite cylinder embedded in a homogeneous fluid. Soft, hard, and impedance cylinders are considered. Exact solutions of the problem involve infinite series of products of Bessel functions. Here, simple, closed-form asymptotic solutions are derived, which are valid for arbitrary source and receiver locations outside the cylinder as long as its diameter is small relative to the wavelength. The scattered wave is given by the sum of fields of three linear image sources. The viability of the image source method was anticipated from known solutions of classical electrostatic problems involving a conducting cylinder. The asymptotic acoustic Green's functions are employed to investigate reception of low-frequency sound by sensors mounted on cylindrical bodies.
Djebbi, Ramzi
2013-08-19
Anisotropy is an inherent character of the Earth subsurface. It should be considered for modeling and inversion. The acoustic VTI wave equation approximates the wave behavior in anisotropic media, and especially it\\'s kinematic characteristics. To analyze which parts of the model would affect the traveltime for anisotropic traveltime inversion methods, especially for wave equation tomography (WET), we drive the sensitivity kernels for anisotropic media using the VTI acoustic wave equation. A Born scattering approximation is first derived using the Fourier domain acoustic wave equation as a function of perturbations in three anisotropy parameters. Using the instantaneous traveltime, which unwraps the phase, we compute the kernels. These kernels resemble those for isotropic media, with the η kernel directionally dependent. They also have a maximum sensitivity along the geometrical ray, which is more realistic compared to the cross-correlation based kernels. Focusing on diving waves, which is used more often, especially recently in waveform inversion, we show sensitivity kernels in anisotropic media for this case.
Djebbi, Ramzi; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2013-01-01
Anisotropy is an inherent character of the Earth subsurface. It should be considered for modeling and inversion. The acoustic VTI wave equation approximates the wave behavior in anisotropic media, and especially it's kinematic characteristics. To analyze which parts of the model would affect the traveltime for anisotropic traveltime inversion methods, especially for wave equation tomography (WET), we drive the sensitivity kernels for anisotropic media using the VTI acoustic wave equation. A Born scattering approximation is first derived using the Fourier domain acoustic wave equation as a function of perturbations in three anisotropy parameters. Using the instantaneous traveltime, which unwraps the phase, we compute the kernels. These kernels resemble those for isotropic media, with the η kernel directionally dependent. They also have a maximum sensitivity along the geometrical ray, which is more realistic compared to the cross-correlation based kernels. Focusing on diving waves, which is used more often, especially recently in waveform inversion, we show sensitivity kernels in anisotropic media for this case.
Density and Shape Effects in the Acoustic Propulsion of Bimetallic Nanorod Motors.
Ahmed, Suzanne; Wang, Wei; Bai, Lanjun; Gentekos, Dillon T; Hoyos, Mauricio; Mallouk, Thomas E
2016-04-26
Bimetallic nanorods are propelled without chemical fuels in megahertz (MHz) acoustic fields, and exhibit similar behaviors to single-metal rods, including autonomous axial propulsion and organization into spinning chains. Shape asymmetry determines the direction of axial movement of bimetallic rods when there is a small difference in density between the two metals. Movement toward the concave end of these rods is inconsistent with a scattering mechanism that we proposed earlier for acoustic propulsion, but is consistent with an acoustic streaming model developed more recently by Nadal and Lauga ( Phys. Fluids 2014 , 26 , 082001 ). Longer rods were slower at constant power, and their speed was proportional to the square of the power density, in agreement with the acoustic streaming model. The streaming model was further supported by a correlation between the disassembly of spinning chains of rods and a sharp decrease in the axial speed of autonomously moving motors within the levitation plane of the cylindrical acoustic cell. However, with bimetallic rods containing metals of different densities, a consistent polarity of motion was observed with the lighter metal end leading. Speed comparisons between single-metal rods of different densities showed that those of lower density are propelled faster. So far, these density effects are not explained in the streaming model. The directionality of bimetallic rods in acoustic fields is intriguing and offers some new possibilities for designing motors in which shape, material, and chemical asymmetry might be combined for enhanced functionality.
Ostashev, Vladimir E; Wilson, D Keith; Muhlestein, Michael B; Attenborough, Keith
2018-02-01
Although sound propagation in a forest is important in several applications, there are currently no rigorous yet computationally tractable prediction methods. Due to the complexity of sound scattering in a forest, it is natural to formulate the problem stochastically. In this paper, it is demonstrated that the equations for the statistical moments of the sound field propagating in a forest have the same form as those for sound propagation in a turbulent atmosphere if the scattering properties of the two media are expressed in terms of the differential scattering and total cross sections. Using the existing theories for sound propagation in a turbulent atmosphere, this analogy enables the derivation of several results for predicting forest acoustics. In particular, the second-moment parabolic equation is formulated for the spatial correlation function of the sound field propagating above an impedance ground in a forest with micrometeorology. Effective numerical techniques for solving this equation have been developed in atmospheric acoustics. In another example, formulas are obtained that describe the effect of a forest on the interference between the direct and ground-reflected waves. The formulated correspondence between wave propagation in discrete and continuous random media can also be used in other fields of physics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seonhyeop Shin
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The elastic properties of KF-substituted perovskite lead titanate (PbTiO3 were investigated by dielectric measurements and Brillouin light scattering. The ferroelectric phase transition occurred at substantially lower temperature due to KF substitution, which was attributed to the modification of the covalency in Pb–O and Ti–O bonds. The longitudinal acoustic (LA mode of KF-substituted PbTiO3 showed a frequency softening in the paraelectric phase, which was accompanied by increasing acoustic damping. This indicated that polarization fluctuations responsible for the acoustic anomalies were enhanced by KF substitution.
Fundamentals of Acoustics. Psychoacoustics and Hearing. Acoustical Measurements
Begault, Durand R.; Ahumada, Al (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
These are 3 chapters that will appear in a book titled "Building Acoustical Design", edited by Charles Salter. They are designed to introduce the reader to fundamental concepts of acoustics, particularly as they relate to the built environment. "Fundamentals of Acoustics" reviews basic concepts of sound waveform frequency, pressure, and phase. "Psychoacoustics and Hearing" discusses the human interpretation sound pressure as loudness, particularly as a function of frequency. "Acoustic Measurements" gives a simple overview of the time and frequency weightings for sound pressure measurements that are used in acoustical work.
Waveform inversion in acoustic orthorhombic media with a practical set of parameters
Masmoudi, Nabil; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2017-01-01
Full-waveform inversion (FWI) in anisotropic media is overall challenging, mainly because of the large computational cost, especially in 3D, and the potential trade-offs between the model parameters needed to describe such a media. We propose an efficient 3D FWI implementation for orthorhombic anisotropy under the acoustic assumption. Our modeling is based on solving the pseudo-differential orthorhombic wave equation split into a differential operator and a scalar one. The modeling is computationally efficient and free of shear wave artifacts. Using the adjoint state method, we derive the gradients with respect to a practical set of parameters describing the acoustic orthorhombic model, made of one velocity and five dimensionless parameters. This parameterization allows us to use a multi-stage model inversion strategy based on the continuity of the scattering potential of the parameters as we go from higher symmetry anisotropy to lower ones. We apply the proposed approach on a modified SEG-EAGE overthrust synthetic model. The quality of the inverted model suggest that we may recover only 4 parameters, with different resolution scales depending on the scattering potential of these parameters.
Waveform inversion in acoustic orthorhombic media with a practical set of parameters
Masmoudi, Nabil
2017-08-17
Full-waveform inversion (FWI) in anisotropic media is overall challenging, mainly because of the large computational cost, especially in 3D, and the potential trade-offs between the model parameters needed to describe such a media. We propose an efficient 3D FWI implementation for orthorhombic anisotropy under the acoustic assumption. Our modeling is based on solving the pseudo-differential orthorhombic wave equation split into a differential operator and a scalar one. The modeling is computationally efficient and free of shear wave artifacts. Using the adjoint state method, we derive the gradients with respect to a practical set of parameters describing the acoustic orthorhombic model, made of one velocity and five dimensionless parameters. This parameterization allows us to use a multi-stage model inversion strategy based on the continuity of the scattering potential of the parameters as we go from higher symmetry anisotropy to lower ones. We apply the proposed approach on a modified SEG-EAGE overthrust synthetic model. The quality of the inverted model suggest that we may recover only 4 parameters, with different resolution scales depending on the scattering potential of these parameters.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blauert, Jens
Communication Acoustics deals with the fundamentals of those areas of acoustics which are related to modern communication technologies. Due to the advent of digital signal processing and recording in acoustics, these areas have enjoyed an enormous upswing during the last 4 decades. The book...... the book a source of valuable information for those who want to improve or refresh their knowledge in the field of communication acoustics - and to work their way deeper into it. Due to its interdisciplinary character Communication Acoustics is bound to attract readers from many different areas, such as......: acoustics, cognitive science, speech science, and communication technology....
Physical Acoustics in the Solid State
Lüthi, B
2006-01-01
Suitable for researchers and graduate students in physics and material science, "Physical Acoustics in the Solid State" reviews the modern aspects in the field, including many experimental results, especially those involving ultrasonics. Practically all fields of solid-state physics are covered: metals, semiconductors, magnetism, superconductivity, different kinds of phase transitions, low-dimensional systems, and the quantum Hall effect. After a review of the relevant experimental techniques and an introduction to the theory of elasticity, emphasizing the symmetry aspects, applications in the various fields of condensed matter physics are presented. Also treated are Brillouin-scattering results and results from thermodynamic investigations, such as thermal expansion and specific heat.
Physical Acoustics in the Solid State
Lüthi, Bruno
2007-01-01
Suitable for researchers and graduate students in physics and material science, "Physical Acoustics in the Solid State" reviews the modern aspects in the field, including many experimental results, especially those involving ultrasonics. Practically all fields of solid-state physics are covered: metals, semiconductors, magnetism, superconductivity, different kinds of phase transitions, low-dimensional systems, and the quantum Hall effect. After a review of the relevant experimental techniques and an introduction to the theory of elasticity, emphasizing the symmetry aspects, applications in the various fields of condensed matter physics are presented. Also treated are Brillouin-scattering results and results from thermodynamic investigations, such as thermal expansion and specific heat.
Gong, Zheng; Chen, Tianrun; Ratilal, Purnima; Makris, Nicholas C
2013-11-01
An analytical model derived from normal mode theory for the accumulated effects of range-dependent multiple forward scattering is applied to estimate the temporal coherence of the acoustic field forward propagated through a continental-shelf waveguide containing random three-dimensional internal waves. The modeled coherence time scale of narrow band low-frequency acoustic field fluctuations after propagating through a continental-shelf waveguide is shown to decay with a power-law of range to the -1/2 beyond roughly 1 km, decrease with increasing internal wave energy, to be consistent with measured acoustic coherence time scales. The model should provide a useful prediction of the acoustic coherence time scale as a function of internal wave energy in continental-shelf environments. The acoustic coherence time scale is an important parameter in remote sensing applications because it determines (i) the time window within which standard coherent processing such as matched filtering may be conducted, and (ii) the number of statistically independent fluctuations in a given measurement period that determines the variance reduction possible by stationary averaging.
Acoustic metamaterials for new two-dimensional sonic devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torrent, Daniel; Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose [Wave Phenomena Group, Department of Electronic Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, C/Camino de Vera sn, E-46022 Valencia (Spain)
2007-09-15
It has been shown that two-dimensional arrays of rigid or fluidlike cylinders in a fluid or a gas define, in the limit of large wavelengths, a class of acoustic metamaterials whose effective parameters (sound velocity and density) can be tailored up to a certain limit. This work goes a step further by considering arrays of solid cylinders in which the elastic properties of cylinders are taken into account. We have also treated mixtures of two different elastic cylinders. It is shown that both effects broaden the range of acoustic parameters available for designing metamaterials. For example, it is predicted that metamaterials with perfect matching of impedance with air are now possible by using aerogel and rigid cylinders equally distributed in a square lattice. As a potential application of the proposed metamaterial, we present a gradient index lens for airborne sound (i.e. a sonic Wood lens) whose functionality is demonstrated by multiple scattering simulations.
Acoustic analog of monolayer graphene and edge states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhong, Wei; Zhang, Xiangdong
2011-01-01
Acoustic analog of monolayer graphene has been designed by using silicone rubber spheres of honeycomb lattices embedded in water. The dispersion of the structure has been studied theoretically using the rigorous multiple-scattering method. The energy spectra with the Dirac point have been verified and zigzag edge states have been found in ribbons of the structure, which are analogous to the electronic ones in graphene nanoribbons. The guided modes along the zigzag edge excited by a point source have been numerically demonstrated. The open cavity and 'Z' type edge waveguide with 60 o corners have also been realized by using such edge states. -- Highlights: → Acoustic analog of monolayer graphene has been designed. → The energy spectra with the Dirac point have been verified. → The zigzag edge states have been found in ribbons of the structure. → The guided modes excited by a point source have been demonstrated. → The open cavity and 'Z' type edge waveguide have been realized.
Effect of surface roughness scattering on the transport properties of a 2DEG
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yarar, Z.
2004-01-01
In this work surface roughness scattering of electrons in a two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed at heterojunction interfaces is investigated for various auto-correlation functions. Gaussian, exponential and Lorentzian auto-correlation functions are used to represent surface roughness. Poisson and Schrodinger equations are solved self consistently at the hetero interface to find the energy levels, the wave functions corresponding to each level and electron concentrations at each level. Using these wave functions and the auto-correlation functions mentioned above, the scattering rates due to surface roughness are calculated. Scattering rates resulting from acoustic and optical phonons are also calculated. These rates are used to study the transport properties of the two dimensional electrons using ensemble Monte Carlo method at various temperatures. Emphasis is given to the effect of surface roughness scattering on the transport properties of the electrons
Highly localized distributed Brillouin scattering response in a photonic integrated circuit
Zarifi, Atiyeh; Stiller, Birgit; Merklein, Moritz; Li, Neuton; Vu, Khu; Choi, Duk-Yong; Ma, Pan; Madden, Stephen J.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.
2018-03-01
The interaction of optical and acoustic waves via stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) has recently reached on-chip platforms, which has opened new fields of applications ranging from integrated microwave photonics and on-chip narrow-linewidth lasers, to phonon-based optical delay and signal processing schemes. Since SBS is an effect that scales exponentially with interaction length, on-chip implementation on a short length scale is challenging, requiring carefully designed waveguides with optimized opto-acoustic overlap. In this work, we use the principle of Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis to locally measure the SBS spectrum with high spatial resolution of 800 μm and perform a distributed measurement of the Brillouin spectrum along a spiral waveguide in a photonic integrated circuit. This approach gives access to local opto-acoustic properties of the waveguides, including the Brillouin frequency shift and linewidth, essential information for the further development of high quality photonic-phononic waveguides for SBS applications.
Highly localized distributed Brillouin scattering response in a photonic integrated circuit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Atiyeh Zarifi
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The interaction of optical and acoustic waves via stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS has recently reached on-chip platforms, which has opened new fields of applications ranging from integrated microwave photonics and on-chip narrow-linewidth lasers, to phonon-based optical delay and signal processing schemes. Since SBS is an effect that scales exponentially with interaction length, on-chip implementation on a short length scale is challenging, requiring carefully designed waveguides with optimized opto-acoustic overlap. In this work, we use the principle of Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis to locally measure the SBS spectrum with high spatial resolution of 800 μm and perform a distributed measurement of the Brillouin spectrum along a spiral waveguide in a photonic integrated circuit. This approach gives access to local opto-acoustic properties of the waveguides, including the Brillouin frequency shift and linewidth, essential information for the further development of high quality photonic-phononic waveguides for SBS applications.
Acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam
Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian
2016-05-31
An acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam includes a housing; a plurality of spaced apart piezo-electric layers disposed within the housing; and a non-linear medium filling between the plurality of layers. Each of the plurality of piezoelectric layers is configured to generate an acoustic wave. The non-linear medium and the plurality of piezo-electric material layers have a matching impedance so as to enhance a transmission of the acoustic wave generated by each of plurality of layers through the remaining plurality of layers.
Piotukh, V. B.; Zatsepin, A. G.; Kuklev, S. B.
2017-05-01
A possible approach to, and preliminary results of, amplitude calibration of acoustic signals backscattered from an ADCP moored at the bottom of the near-shelf zone of the Black Sea is considered. The aim of this work is to obtain vertical profiles of acoustic scattering signal levels, showing the real characteristics of the volume content of suspended sediments in sea water in units of conventional acoustic turbidity for a given signal frequency. In this case, the assumption about the intervals of maximum acoustic transparency and vertical homogeneity of the marine environment in long-term series of ADCP measurements is used. According to this hypothesis, the intervals of the least values of acoustic backscattered signals are detected, an empirical transfer function of the ADCP reception path is constructed, and it is calibrated. Normalized sets of acoustic backscattered signals relative to a signal from a level of conventionally clear water are obtained. New features in the behavior of vertical profiles of an acoustic echo-signal are revealed due to the calibration. The results of this work will be used in subsequent analysis of the vertical and time variations in suspended sediment content in the near-shelf zone of the Black Sea.
Acoustic calibration apparatus for calibrating plethysmographic acoustic pressure sensors
Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Davis, David C. (Inventor)
1995-01-01
An apparatus for calibrating an acoustic sensor is described. The apparatus includes a transmission material having an acoustic impedance approximately matching the acoustic impedance of the actual acoustic medium existing when the acoustic sensor is applied in actual in-service conditions. An elastic container holds the transmission material. A first sensor is coupled to the container at a first location on the container and a second sensor coupled to the container at a second location on the container, the second location being different from the first location. A sound producing device is coupled to the container and transmits acoustic signals inside the container.
Fan, H. J.; Kuok, M. H.; Ng, S. C.; Boukherroub, R.; Lockwood, D. J.
2002-07-01
Brillouin scattering has been performed to probe acoustic waves in porous silicon films that have been chemically modified with either 1-decene, decyl aldehyde, undecylenic acid, or ethyl undecylenate. The shift in the frequencies of acoustic modes in the passivated porous silicon samples, relative to those in freshly prepared porous silicon, is different for different chemical modifiers. The magnitude of the frequency shift is qualitatively correlated with the change, caused by the passivation, in the average densities and elastic constants of the samples.
The Mathematical Basis of the Inverse Scattering Problem for Cracks from Near-Field Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yao Mao
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the acoustic scattering problem from a crack which has Dirichlet boundary condition on one side and impedance boundary condition on the other side. The inverse scattering problem in this paper tries to determine the shape of the crack and the surface impedance coefficient from the near-field measurements of the scattered waves, while the source point is placed on a closed curve. We firstly establish a near-field operator and focus on the operator’s mathematical analysis. Secondly, we obtain a uniqueness theorem for the shape and surface impedance. Finally, by using the operator’s properties and modified linear sampling method, we reconstruct the shape and surface impedance.
Alloy scattering dependence of electron transport in AlGaN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yarar, Z.; Ozdemir, M.
2010-01-01
The electron transport and velocity characteristics in AlGaN are examined using an ensemble Monte Carlo simulation method. A three valley band structure model where nonparabolicity effects are considered in all valleys is used for Monte Carlo calculations. All of the major electron scattering interactions like acoustic and optical phonon, intervaley, ionized impurity and alloy disorder scatterings are included in the calculations. The velocity-applied electric field characteristics are analyzed as a function of Al molar fraction and temperature in the ranges of x=0.1 to x=0.5 and 77 K to 500 K, respectively. The velocity overshoot is clearly observed and the population of valleys seems well-matched with the occupancy of valleys in AlGaN. The results of electron steady state velocity-field curves are found that the alloy disorder scattering has important effects on the electron transport characteristics of AlGaN.
Acoustically Induced Vibration of Structures: Reverberant Vs. Direct Acoustic Testing
Kolaini, Ali R.; O'Connell, Michael R.; Tsoi, Wan B.
2009-01-01
Large reverberant chambers have been used for several decades in the aerospace industry to test larger structures such as solar arrays and reflectors to qualify and to detect faults in the design and fabrication of spacecraft and satellites. In the past decade some companies have begun using direct near field acoustic testing, employing speakers, for qualifying larger structures. A limited test data set obtained from recent acoustic tests of the same hardware exposed to both direct and reverberant acoustic field testing has indicated some differences in the resulting structural responses. In reverberant acoustic testing, higher vibration responses were observed at lower frequencies when compared with the direct acoustic testing. In the case of direct near field acoustic testing higher vibration responses appeared to occur at higher frequencies as well. In reverberant chamber testing and direct acoustic testing, standing acoustic modes of the reverberant chamber or the speakers and spacecraft parallel surfaces can strongly couple with the fundamental structural modes of the test hardware. In this paper data from recent acoustic testing of flight hardware, that yielded evidence of acoustic standing wave coupling with structural responses, are discussed in some detail. Convincing evidence of the acoustic standing wave/structural coupling phenomenon will be discussed, citing observations from acoustic testing of a simple aluminum plate. The implications of such acoustic coupling to testing of sensitive flight hardware will be discussed. The results discussed in this paper reveal issues with over or under testing of flight hardware that could pose unanticipated structural and flight qualification issues. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the structural modal coupling with standing acoustic waves that has been observed in both methods of acoustic testing. This study will assist the community to choose an appropriate testing method and test setup in
Ejofodomi, O'tega A; Zderic, Vesna; Zara, Jason M
2010-04-01
Acoustic radiation force-optical coherence elastography (ARF-OCE) systems are novel imaging systems that have the potential to simultaneously quantify and characterize the optical and mechanical properties of in vivo tissues. This article presents the construction of bladder wall phantoms for use in ARF-OCE systems. Mechanical, acoustic, and optical properties are reported and compared to published values for the urinary bladder. The phantom consisted of 0.2000 +/- 0.0089 and 6.0000 +/- 0.2830 microm polystyrene microspheres (Polysciences Inc., Warrington, PA, Catalog Nos. 07304 and 07312), 7.5 +/- 1.5 microm copolymer microspheres composed of acrylonitrile and vinylidene chloride, (Expancel, Duluth, GA, Catalog No. 461 DU 20), and bovine serum albumin within a gelatin matrix. Young's modulus was measured by successive compression of the phantom and obtaining the slope of the resulting force-displacement data. Acoustic measurements were performed using the transmission method. The phantoms were submerged in a water bath and placed between transmitting and receiving 13 mm diameter unfocused transducers operating at a frequency of 3.5 MHz. A MATLAB algorithm to extract the optical scattering coefficient from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the phantom was used. The phantoms possess a Young's modulus of 17.12 +/- 2.72 kPa, a mass density of 1.05 +/- 0.02 g/cm3, an acoustic attenuation coefficient of 0.66 +/- 0.08 dB/cm/MHz, a speed of sound of 1591 +/- 8.76 m/s, and an optical scattering coefficient of 1.80 +/- 0.23 mm(-1). Ultrasound and OCT images of the bladder wall phantom are presented. A material that mimics the mechanical, optical, and acoustic properties of healthy bladder wall has been developed. This tissue-mimicking bladder wall phantom was developed as a control tool to investigate the feasibility of using ARF-OCE to detect the mechanical and optical changes that may be indicative of the onset or development of cancer in the urinary bladder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wael Akl
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Acoustic cloaks have traditionally been intended to externally surround critical objects to render these objects acoustically invisible. However, in this paper, the emphasis is placed on investigating the application of the acoustic cloaks to the interior walls of acoustic cavities in an attempt to minimize the noise levels inside these cavities. In this manner, the acoustic cloaks can serve as a viable and efficient alternative to the conventional passive noise attenuation treatments which are invariably heavy and bulky. The transformation acoustics relationships that govern the operation of this class of interior acoustic cloaks are presented. Physical insights are given to relate these relationships to the reasons behind the effectiveness of the proposed interior acoustic cloaks. Finite element models are presented to demonstrate the characteristics of interior acoustic cloaks used in treating the interior walls of circular and square cavities both in the time and frequency domains. The obtained results emphasize the effectiveness of the proposed interior cloaks in eliminating the reflections of the acoustic waves from the walls of the treated cavities and thereby rendering these cavities acoustically quiet. It is important to note here that the proposed interior acoustic cloaks can find applications in acoustic cavities such as aircraft cabins and auditoriums as well as many other critical applications.
151Eu nuclear resonant inelastic scattering of Eu3Pd20Ge6
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsutsui, S.; Yoda, Y.; Kobayashi, Y.; Higashitaniguchi, S.; Seto, M.; Kitagawa, J.; Takabatake, T.
2010-01-01
151 Eu nuclear resonant inelastic scattering of Eu 3 Pd 20 Ge 6 . The Eu partial phonon density of states (DOS) in Eu 3 Pd 20 Ge 6 are investigated using 151 Eu nuclear resonance inelastic scattering (NRIS). 151 Eu NRIS was carried out at BL09XU of SPring-8. Significant temperature dependence was found in the partial phonon DOS. Judging from the valence change at the Eu 4a site and the comparison with the ab initio calculation of Eu 3 Pd 20 Ge 6 , the change of the Eu DOS is caused by the electronic states. On the other hand, significant acoustic contribution was found even at the guest site of the Eu ones. In addition, slower average velocity than transverse sound velocity was obtained by Eu partial phonon DOS. Considering that heat is carried by the acoustic phonon in materials, the present results demonstrate that the moderate thermal insulation in Eu 3 Pd 20 Ge 6 is connected with the observation of slow average sound velocity at the Eu sites. (K.F.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tadayyon, Hadi [Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Czarnota, Gregory, E-mail: Gregory.Czarnota@sunnybrook.ca [Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5T 1P5 (Canada); Wirtzfeld, Lauren [Department of Physics, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Wright, Frances C. [Division of Surgical Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)
2014-01-15
Purpose: Tumor grading is an important part of breast cancer diagnosis and currently requires biopsy as its standard. Here, the authors investigate quantitative ultrasound parameters in locally advanced breast cancers that can potentially separate tumors from normal breast tissue and differentiate tumor grades. Methods: Ultrasound images and radiofrequency data from 42 locally advanced breast cancer patients were acquired and analyzed. Parameters related to the linear regression of the power spectrum—midband fit, slope, and 0-MHz-intercept—were determined from breast tumors and normal breast tissues. Mean scatterer spacing was estimated from the spectral autocorrelation, and the effective scatterer diameter and effective acoustic concentration were estimated from the Gaussian form factor. Parametric maps of each quantitative ultrasound parameter were constructed from the gated radiofrequency segments in tumor and normal tissue regions of interest. In addition to the mean values of the parametric maps, higher order statistical features, computed from gray-level co-occurrence matrices were also determined and used for characterization. Finally, linear and quadratic discriminant analyses were performed using combinations of quantitative ultrasound parameters to classify breast tissues. Results: Quantitative ultrasound parameters were found to be statistically different between tumor and normal tissue (p < 0.05). The combination of effective acoustic concentration and mean scatterer spacing could separate tumor from normal tissue with 82% accuracy, while the addition of effective scatterer diameter to the combination did not provide significant improvement (83% accuracy). Furthermore, the two advanced parameters, including effective scatterer diameter and mean scatterer spacing, were found to be statistically differentiating among grade I, II, and III tumors (p = 0.014 for scatterer spacing, p = 0.035 for effective scatterer diameter). The separation of the tumor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tadayyon, Hadi; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Czarnota, Gregory; Wirtzfeld, Lauren; Wright, Frances C.
2014-01-01
Purpose: Tumor grading is an important part of breast cancer diagnosis and currently requires biopsy as its standard. Here, the authors investigate quantitative ultrasound parameters in locally advanced breast cancers that can potentially separate tumors from normal breast tissue and differentiate tumor grades. Methods: Ultrasound images and radiofrequency data from 42 locally advanced breast cancer patients were acquired and analyzed. Parameters related to the linear regression of the power spectrum—midband fit, slope, and 0-MHz-intercept—were determined from breast tumors and normal breast tissues. Mean scatterer spacing was estimated from the spectral autocorrelation, and the effective scatterer diameter and effective acoustic concentration were estimated from the Gaussian form factor. Parametric maps of each quantitative ultrasound parameter were constructed from the gated radiofrequency segments in tumor and normal tissue regions of interest. In addition to the mean values of the parametric maps, higher order statistical features, computed from gray-level co-occurrence matrices were also determined and used for characterization. Finally, linear and quadratic discriminant analyses were performed using combinations of quantitative ultrasound parameters to classify breast tissues. Results: Quantitative ultrasound parameters were found to be statistically different between tumor and normal tissue (p < 0.05). The combination of effective acoustic concentration and mean scatterer spacing could separate tumor from normal tissue with 82% accuracy, while the addition of effective scatterer diameter to the combination did not provide significant improvement (83% accuracy). Furthermore, the two advanced parameters, including effective scatterer diameter and mean scatterer spacing, were found to be statistically differentiating among grade I, II, and III tumors (p = 0.014 for scatterer spacing, p = 0.035 for effective scatterer diameter). The separation of the tumor
Nardi, Damiano; Travagliati, Marco; Siemens, Mark E; Li, Qing; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C; Ferrini, Gabriele; Parmigiani, Fulvio; Banfi, Francesco
2011-10-12
High-frequency surface acoustic waves can be generated by ultrafast laser excitation of nanoscale patterned surfaces. Here we study this phenomenon in the hypersonic frequency limit. By modeling the thermomechanics from first-principles, we calculate the system's initial heat-driven impulsive response and follow its time evolution. A scheme is introduced to quantitatively access frequencies and lifetimes of the composite system's excited eigenmodes. A spectral decomposition of the calculated response on the eigemodes of the system reveals asymmetric resonances that result from the coupling between surface and bulk acoustic modes. This finding allows evaluation of impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic wave frequencies and lifetimes and expands our understanding of the scattering of surface waves in mesoscale metamaterials. The model is successfully benchmarked against time-resolved optical diffraction measurements performed on one-dimensional and two-dimensional surface phononic crystals, probed using light at extreme ultraviolet and near-infrared wavelengths.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Peters, Brady; Tamke, Martin; Nielsen, Stig Anton
2011-01-01
Acoustic performance is defined by the parameter of reverberation time; however, this does not capture the acoustic experience in some types of open plan spaces. As many working and learning activities now take place in open plan spaces, it is important to be able to understand and design...... for the acoustic conditions of these spaces. This paper describes an experimental research project that studied the design processes necessary to design for sound. A responsive acoustic surface was designed, fabricated and tested. This acoustic surface was designed to create specific sonic effects. The design...... was simulated using custom integrated acoustic software and also using Odeon acoustic analysis software. The research demonstrates a method for designing space- and sound-defining surfaces, defines the concept of acoustic subspace, and suggests some new parameters for defining acoustic subspaces....
Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits
Peng, Pai
2014-10-01
We design a flat sub-wavelength lens that can focus acoustic wave. We analytically study the transmission through an acoustic grating with curled slits, which can serve as a material with tunable impedance and refractive index for acoustic waves. The effective parameters rely on the geometry of the slits and are independent of frequency. A flat acoustic focusing lens by such acoustic grating with gradient effective refractive index is designed. The focusing effect is clearly observed in simulations and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry-Perot resonance.
Hahne, G. E.
1991-01-01
A formal theory of the scattering of time-harmonic acoustic scalar waves from impenetrable, immobile obstacles is established. The time-independent formal scattering theory of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, in particular the theory of the complete Green's function and the transition (T) operator, provides the model. The quantum-mechanical approach is modified to allow the treatment of acoustic-wave scattering with imposed boundary conditions of impedance type on the surface (delta-Omega) of an impenetrable obstacle. With k0 as the free-space wavenumber of the signal, a simplified expression is obtained for the k0-dependent T operator for a general case of homogeneous impedance boundary conditions for the acoustic wave on delta-Omega. All the nonelementary operators entering the expression for the T operator are formally simple rational algebraic functions of a certain invertible linear radiation impedance operator which maps any sufficiently well-behaved complex-valued function on delta-Omega into another such function on delta-Omega. In the subsequent study, the short-wavelength and the long-wavelength behavior of the radiation impedance operator and its inverse (the 'radiation admittance' operator) as two-point kernels on a smooth delta-Omega are studied for pairs of points that are close together.
Parametric Room Acoustic workflows with real-time acoustic simulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parigi, Dario
2017-01-01
The paper investigates and assesses the opportunities that real-time acoustic simulation offer to engage in parametric acoustics workflow and to influence architectural designs from early design stages......The paper investigates and assesses the opportunities that real-time acoustic simulation offer to engage in parametric acoustics workflow and to influence architectural designs from early design stages...
Dynamics of metastable breathers in nonlinear chains in acoustic vacuum
Sen, Surajit; Mohan, T. R. Krishna
2009-03-01
The study of the dynamics of one-dimensional chains with both harmonic and nonlinear interactions, as in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam and related problems, has played a central role in efforts to identify the broad consequences of nonlinearity in these systems. Nevertheless, little is known about the dynamical behavior of purely nonlinear chains where there is a complete absence of the harmonic term, and hence sound propagation is not admissible, i.e., under conditions of “acoustic vacuum.” Here we study the dynamics of highly localized excitations, or breathers, which are known to be initiated by the quasistatic stretching of the bonds between adjacent particles. We show via detailed particle-dynamics-based studies that many low-energy pulses also form in the vicinity of the perturbation, and the breathers that form are “fragile” in the sense that they can be easily delocalized by scattering events in the system. We show that the localized excitations eventually disperse, allowing the system to attain an equilibrium-like state that is realizable in acoustic vacuum. We conclude with a discussion of how the dynamics is affected by the presence of acoustic oscillations.
Acoustic backscatter at a Red Sea whale shark aggregation site
Hozumi, Aya; Kaartvedt, Stein; Rø stad, Anders; Berumen, Michael L.; Cochran, Jesse E.M.; Jones, Burton
2018-01-01
An aggregation of sexually immature whale sharks occurs at a coastal submerged reef near the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast each spring. We tested the hypothesis that these megaplanktivores become attracted to a prey biomass peak coinciding with their aggregation. Acoustic backscatter of the water column at 120 kHz and 333 kHz –a proxy for potential prey biomass –was continuously measured spanning the period prior to, during, and subsequent to the seasonal whale shark aggregations. No peak in acoustic backscatter was observed at the time of the aggregation. However, we observed a decrease in acoustic backscatter in the last days of deployment, which coincided the trailing end of whale shark season. Organisms forming the main scattering layer performed inverse diel vertical migration, with backscatter peaking at mid-depths during the day and in the deeper half of the water column at night. Target strength analyses suggested the backscatter was likely composed of fish larvae. Subsurface foraging behavior of the whale sharks within this aggregation has not been described, yet this study does not support the hypothesis that seasonal peaks in local whale shark abundance correspond to similar peaks in prey availability.
Acoustic backscatter at a Red Sea whale shark aggregation site
Hozumi, Aya
2018-03-28
An aggregation of sexually immature whale sharks occurs at a coastal submerged reef near the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast each spring. We tested the hypothesis that these megaplanktivores become attracted to a prey biomass peak coinciding with their aggregation. Acoustic backscatter of the water column at 120 kHz and 333 kHz –a proxy for potential prey biomass –was continuously measured spanning the period prior to, during, and subsequent to the seasonal whale shark aggregations. No peak in acoustic backscatter was observed at the time of the aggregation. However, we observed a decrease in acoustic backscatter in the last days of deployment, which coincided the trailing end of whale shark season. Organisms forming the main scattering layer performed inverse diel vertical migration, with backscatter peaking at mid-depths during the day and in the deeper half of the water column at night. Target strength analyses suggested the backscatter was likely composed of fish larvae. Subsurface foraging behavior of the whale sharks within this aggregation has not been described, yet this study does not support the hypothesis that seasonal peaks in local whale shark abundance correspond to similar peaks in prey availability.
A study on the dimensioning of flaws by acoustical holography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamamoto, Michio; Ando, Tomozumi; Enami, Koji; Yajima, Minoru; Fukui, Shigetaka.
1978-01-01
As a means of evaluating the safety of flawed pressure vessels and other structures against fracture, fracture mechanics has come to be applied. For the application of fracture mechanics it is necessary to get information concerning the sizes and shapes of flaws. The ultrasonic flaw detection method that is widely used as a nondestructive inspection method cannot measure the sizes and shapes of flaws accurately. Considering that acoustical holography is an useful means for the dimensioning of flaws, we performed basic tests on this method and obtained the following results: (1) The measured values of artificial flaws (flat bottom drilled holes: 5 - 36 mm) made on a steel plate of 150 mm thick showed a good linear relation with their actual sizes and scatter in the measured values was +-3 - 6 mm. (2) The measured values of fatigue cracks (length: 5 - 57 mm) introduced into a steel plate of 150 mm thick also showed a good linear relation with their actual sizes and scatter in the measured values was +-3 mm. (3) It was found that acoustical holography can also be applied to heavy section cast steels. (4) The method of correcting distortion caused by curved surface was investigated by computer-aided simulation and it was considered that such distortion can be corrected by radial scanning of a transducer. (author)
Raman scattering in three-cation diluted magnetic semiconductor Cd1-x-yMnxMgyTe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agekyan, V.F.; Gridneva, L.K.; Karpov, S.V.; Serov, A.Yu.
1995-01-01
Investigations of Raman scattering (RS) in quaternary compounds were conducted to determine and interpret LO and TO frequencies, characterizing CdTe, MnTe, MgTe components in mixed crystal. Raman spectrum in the range of low frequencies is interpreted as interaction of quasi local vibrations with acoustic continuum
Bernhardt, P. A.; Selcher, C. A.
2009-12-01
An ordinary or extraordinary mode electromagnetic wave can decay into a low frequency electrostatic wave and a scattered electromagnetic wave by a process called stimulated Brillouin scatter (SBS). The low frequency wave can be either an ion acoustic wave (IA) or an electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) wave. The first detection ion acoustic waves by this process during ionospheric modification with high power radio waves was reported by Norin et al. (2009) using the HAARP transmitter in Alaska. The first detection of the electrostatic ion cyclotron waves is reported here using HAARP during the March 2009 campaign. Subsequent experiments have provided additional verification of the SBS process and quantitative interpretation of the scattered wave frequency offsets to yield measurements of the electron temperatures in the heated ionosphere by Bernhardt et al. (2009). Using the SBS technique to generate ion acoustic waves, electron temperatures between 3000 and 4000 K were measured over the HAARP facility. The matching conditions for decay of the high frequency pump wave show that in addition to the production of an ion-acoustic wave, an electrostatic ion cyclotron wave can produced by the generalized SBS processes only if the pump waves makes a large angle with the magnetic field. When the EIC mode is produced, it is seen as a narrow of stimulated electromagnetic emissions at the ion cyclotron frequency. Occasionally, multiple lines are seen and analyzed to yield the relative abundance of oxygen, and molecular ions in the lower ionosphere. This ion mass spectrometer interpretation of the SBS data is new to the field of ionosphere remote sensing. In addition, based on the matching condition theory, the first profiles of the scattered wave amplitude are produced using the stimulated Brillouin scatter (SBS) matching conditions. These profiles are consistent with maximum ionospheric interactions at the upper-hybrid resonance height and at a region just below the plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ross, J. S., E-mail: ross36@llnl.gov; Datte, P.; Divol, L.; Galbraith, J.; Hatch, B.; Landen, O.; Manuel, A. M.; Molander, W.; Moody, J. D.; Swadling, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Froula, D. H.; Katz, J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Kilkenny, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Montgomery, D. S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Weaver, J. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)
2016-11-15
An optical Thomson scattering diagnostic has been designed for the National Ignition Facility to characterize under-dense plasmas. We report on the design of the system and the expected performance for different target configurations. The diagnostic is designed to spatially and temporally resolve the Thomson scattered light from laser driven targets. The diagnostic will collect scattered light from a 50 × 50 × 200 μm volume. The optical design allows operation with different probe laser wavelengths. A deep-UV probe beam (λ{sub 0} = 210 nm) will be used to Thomson scatter from electron plasma densities of ∼5 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} while a 3ω probe will be used for plasma densities of ∼1 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}. The diagnostic package contains two spectrometers: the first to resolve Thomson scattering from ion acoustic wave fluctuations and the second to resolve scattering from electron plasma wave fluctuations. Expected signal levels relative to background will be presented for typical target configurations (hohlraums and a planar foil).
Airborne chemistry: acoustic levitation in chemical analysis.
Santesson, Sabina; Nilsson, Staffan
2004-04-01
This review with 60 references describes a unique path to miniaturisation, that is, the use of acoustic levitation in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry applications. Levitation of small volumes of sample by means of a levitation technique can be used as a way to avoid solid walls around the sample, thus circumventing the main problem of miniaturisation, the unfavourable surface-to-volume ratio. Different techniques for sample levitation have been developed and improved. Of the levitation techniques described, acoustic or ultrasonic levitation fulfils all requirements for analytical chemistry applications. This technique has previously been used to study properties of molten materials and the equilibrium shape()and stability of liquid drops. Temperature and mass transfer in levitated drops have also been described, as have crystallisation and microgravity applications. The airborne analytical system described here is equipped with different and exchangeable remote detection systems. The levitated drops are normally in the 100 nL-2 microL volume range and additions to the levitated drop can be made in the pL-volume range. The use of levitated drops in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry offers several benefits. Several remote detection systems are compatible with acoustic levitation, including fluorescence imaging detection, right angle light scattering, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Applications include liquid/liquid extractions, solvent exchange, analyte enrichment, single-cell analysis, cell-cell communication studies, precipitation screening of proteins to establish nucleation conditions, and crystallisation of proteins and pharmaceuticals.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Auvermann, Harry
2001-01-01
The objective of one portion of the Army Research Laboratory program on acoustic propagation on the battlefield is to develop an advanced method of accounting for the effects of anisotropic inhomogeneous turbulence...
A numerical study on acoustic behavior in gas turbine combustor with acoustic resonator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, I Sun; Sohn, Chae Hoon
2005-01-01
Acoustic behavior in gas turbine combustor with acoustic resonator is investigated numerically by adopting linear acoustic analysis. Helmholtz-type resonator is employed as acoustic resonator to suppress acoustic instability passively. The tuning frequency of acoustic resonator is adjusted by varying its length. Through harmonic analysis, acoustic-pressure responses of chamber to acoustic excitation are obtained and the resonant acoustic modes are identified. Acoustic damping effect of acoustic resonator is quantified by damping factor. As the tuning frequency of acoustic resonator approaches the target frequency of the resonant mode to be suppressed, mode split from the original resonant mode to lower and upper modes appears and thereby complex patterns of acoustic responses show up. Considering mode split and damping effect as a function of tuning frequency, it is desirable to make acoustic resonator tuned to broad-band frequencies near the maximum frequency of those of the possible upper modes
Litniewski, Jerzy; Kujawska, Tamara; 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging
2012-01-01
The International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging is a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place continuously since 1968. In the course of the years the proceedings volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have become a reference for cutting-edge research in the field. In 2011 the 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Warsaw, Poland, April 10-13. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art as well as in-depth research contributions by the specialists in the field, this Volume 31 in the Series contains an excellent collection of papers in six major categories: Biological and Medical Imaging Physics and Mathematics of Acoustical Imaging Acoustic Microscopy Transducers and Arrays Nondestructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Underwater Imaging
Anomalous Refraction of Acoustic Guided Waves in Solids with Geometrically Tapered Metasurfaces.
Zhu, Hongfei; Semperlotti, Fabio
2016-07-15
The concept of a metasurface opens new exciting directions to engineer the refraction properties in both optical and acoustic media. Metasurfaces are typically designed by assembling arrays of subwavelength anisotropic scatterers able to mold incoming wave fronts in rather unconventional ways. The concept of a metasurface was pioneered in photonics and later extended to acoustics while its application to the propagation of elastic waves in solids is still relatively unexplored. We investigate the design of acoustic metasurfaces to control elastic guided waves in thin-walled structural elements. These engineered discontinuities enable the anomalous refraction of guided wave modes according to the generalized Snell's law. The metasurfaces are made out of locally resonant toruslike tapers enabling an accurate phase shift of the incoming wave, which ultimately affects the refraction properties. We show that anomalous refraction can be achieved on transmitted antisymmetric modes (A_{0}) either when using a symmetric (S_{0}) or antisymmetric (A_{0}) incident wave, the former clearly involving mode conversion. The same metasurface design also allows achieving structure embedded planar focal lenses and phase masks for nonparaxial propagation.
A multifrequency MUSIC algorithm for locating small inhomogeneities in inverse scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Griesmaier, Roland; Schmiedecke, Christian
2017-01-01
We consider an inverse scattering problem for time-harmonic acoustic or electromagnetic waves with sparse multifrequency far field data-sets. The goal is to localize several small penetrable objects embedded inside an otherwise homogeneous background medium from observations of far fields of scattered waves corresponding to incident plane waves with one fixed incident direction but several different frequencies. We assume that the far field is measured at a few observation directions only. Taking advantage of the smallness of the scatterers with respect to wavelength we utilize an asymptotic representation formula for the far field to design and analyze a MUSIC-type reconstruction method for this setup. We establish lower bounds on the number of frequencies and receiver directions that are required to recover the number and the positions of an ensemble of scatterers from the given measurements. Furthermore we briefly sketch a possible application of the reconstruction method to the practically relevant case of multifrequency backscattering data. Numerical examples are presented to document the potentials and limitations of this approach. (paper)
Anisotropic mass density by two-dimensional acoustic metamaterials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torrent, Daniel; Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose [Wave Phenomena Group, Department of Electronic Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, C/Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.es
2008-02-15
We show that specially designed two-dimensional arrangements of full elastic cylinders embedded in a nonviscous fluid or gas define (in the homogenization limit) a new class of acoustic metamaterials characterized by a dynamical effective mass density that is anisotropic. Here, analytic expressions for the dynamical mass density and the effective sound velocity tensors are derived in the long wavelength limit. Both show an explicit dependence on the lattice filling fraction, the elastic properties of cylinders relative to the background, their positions in the unit cell, and their multiple scattering interactions. Several examples of these metamaterials are reported and discussed.
A simple and convenient set-up for high-temperature Brillouin light scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guerette, Michael; Huang Liping
2012-01-01
An emulated platelet geometry (or reflection-induced platelet geometry) is employed to collect photons scattered from both longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves travelling within a bulk transparent sample sitting on a reflective Pt plate. Temperature of the sample was controlled with a Linkam TS1500 optical furnace (maximum temperature of 1500 °C). This simple and convenient set-up allows a full determination of elastic constants of transparent materials in situ as a function of temperature from Brillouin light scattering. Structural information can be gained at the same time by guiding the scattered light into a Raman spectrometer using a flipping mirror or a beam splitter. We will demonstrate the applications of this set-up in transparent inorganic glasses, but it can be easily extended to any other transparent materials, either crystalline or amorphous in nature. (paper)
Acoustical tweezers using single spherically focused piston, X-cut, and Gaussian beams.
Mitri, Farid G
2015-10-01
Partial-wave series expansions (PWSEs) satisfying the Helmholtz equation in spherical coordinates are derived for circular spherically focused piston (i.e., apodized by a uniform velocity amplitude normal to its surface), X-cut (i.e., apodized by a velocity amplitude parallel to the axis of wave propagation), and Gaussian (i.e., apodized by a Gaussian distribution of the velocity amplitude) beams. The Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral and the addition theorems for the Legendre and spherical wave functions are used to obtain the PWSEs assuming weakly focused beams (with focusing angle α ⩽ 20°) in the Fresnel-Kirchhoff (parabolic) approximation. In contrast with previous analytical models, the derived expressions allow computing the scattering and acoustic radiation force from a sphere of radius a without restriction to either the Rayleigh (a ≪ λ, where λ is the wavelength of the incident radiation) or the ray acoustics (a ≫λ) regimes. The analytical formulations are valid for wavelengths largely exceeding the radius of the focused acoustic radiator, when the viscosity of the surrounding fluid can be neglected, and when the sphere is translated along the axis of wave propagation. Computational results illustrate the analysis with particular emphasis on the sphere's elastic properties and the axial distance to the center of the concave surface, with close connection of the emergence of negative trapping forces. Potential applications are in single-beam acoustical tweezers, acoustic levitation, and particle manipulation.
Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Fei; Shi, Xihang; Lin, Xiao; Gao, Zhen; Chong, Yidong; Zhang, Baile
2015-03-01
The manipulation of acoustic wave propagation in fluids has numerous applications, including some in everyday life. Acoustic technologies frequently develop in tandem with optics, using shared concepts such as waveguiding and metamedia. It is thus noteworthy that an entirely novel class of electromagnetic waves, known as "topological edge states," has recently been demonstrated. These are inspired by the electronic edge states occurring in topological insulators, and possess a striking and technologically promising property: the ability to travel in a single direction along a surface without backscattering, regardless of the existence of defects or disorder. Here, we develop an analogous theory of topological fluid acoustics, and propose a scheme for realizing topological edge states in an acoustic structure containing circulating fluids. The phenomenon of disorder-free one-way sound propagation, which does not occur in ordinary acoustic devices, may have novel applications for acoustic isolators, modulators, and transducers.
Analysis of a Cartesian PML approximation to acoustic scattering problems in and
Bramble, James H.; Pasciak, Joseph E.
2013-01-01
to that of the original problem in the domain of interest near the scatterer. This justifies the simple computational strategy of selecting a fixed PML layer and increasing σ0 to obtain the desired accuracy. The results of numerical experiments varying M and σ0 are given
High transmission acoustic focusing by impedance-matched acoustic meta-surfaces
Al Jahdali, Rasha
2016-01-19
Impedance is an important issue in the design of acoustic lenses because mismatched impedance is detrimental to real focusing applications. Here, we report two designs of acoustic lenses that focus acoustic waves in water and air, respectively. They are tailored by acoustic meta-surfaces, which are rigid thin plates decorated with periodically distributed sub-wavelength slits. Their respective building blocks are constructed from the coiling-up spaces in water and the layered structures in air. Analytic analysis based on coupled-mode theory and transfer matrix reveals that the impedances of the lenses are matched to those of the background media. With these impedance-matched acoustic lenses, we demonstrate the acoustic focusing effect by finite-element simulations.
High transmission acoustic focusing by impedance-matched acoustic meta-surfaces
Al Jahdali, Rasha; Wu, Ying
2016-01-01
Impedance is an important issue in the design of acoustic lenses because mismatched impedance is detrimental to real focusing applications. Here, we report two designs of acoustic lenses that focus acoustic waves in water and air, respectively. They are tailored by acoustic meta-surfaces, which are rigid thin plates decorated with periodically distributed sub-wavelength slits. Their respective building blocks are constructed from the coiling-up spaces in water and the layered structures in air. Analytic analysis based on coupled-mode theory and transfer matrix reveals that the impedances of the lenses are matched to those of the background media. With these impedance-matched acoustic lenses, we demonstrate the acoustic focusing effect by finite-element simulations.
Lossless acoustic half-bipolar cylindrical cloak with negative-index metamaterial
Lee, Yong Y.; Ahn, Doyeol
2018-05-01
A lossless acoustic half-bipolar cylindrical cloak that has an exposed bottom is considered. Here, we show that a cloak that includes a complementary region including a negative-index medium inside of the cloaking shell works in the illumination direction independently even in the presence of the exposed bottom of the structure. This is due to the fact that the phase velocity of the wave in the normal direction can be cancelled in the presence of a boundary containing a negative-index medium that reduces scattering significantly.
Acoustic backscatter models of fish: Gradual or punctuated evolution
Horne, John K.
2004-05-01
Sound-scattering characteristics of aquatic organisms are routinely investigated using theoretical and numerical models. Development of the inverse approach by van Holliday and colleagues in the 1970s catalyzed the development and validation of backscatter models for fish and zooplankton. As the understanding of biological scattering properties increased, so did the number and computational sophistication of backscatter models. The complexity of data used to represent modeled organisms has also evolved in parallel to model development. Simple geometric shapes representing body components or the whole organism have been replaced by anatomically accurate representations derived from imaging sensors such as computer-aided tomography (CAT) scans. In contrast, Medwin and Clay (1998) recommend that fish and zooplankton should be described by simple theories and models, without acoustically superfluous extensions. Since van Holliday's early work, how has data and computational complexity influenced accuracy and precision of model predictions? How has the understanding of aquatic organism scattering properties increased? Significant steps in the history of model development will be identified and changes in model results will be characterized and compared. [Work supported by ONR and the Alaska Fisheries Science Center.
Nilsson, Anders
2015-01-01
This three-volume book gives a thorough and comprehensive presentation of vibration and acoustic theories. Different from traditional textbooks which typically deal with some aspects of either acoustic or vibration problems, it is unique of this book to combine those two correlated subjects together. Moreover, it provides fundamental analysis and mathematical descriptions for several crucial phenomena of Vibro-Acoustics which are quite useful in noise reduction, including how structures are excited, energy flows from an excitation point to a sound radiating surface, and finally how a structure radiates noise to a surrounding fluid. Many measurement results included in the text make the reading interesting and informative. Problems/questions are listed at the end of each chapter and the solutions are provided. This will help the readers to understand the topics of Vibro-Acoustics more deeply. The book should be of interest to anyone interested in sound and vibration, vehicle acoustics, ship acoustics and inter...
Kuttruff, Heinrich
2006-01-01
This definitive textbook provides students with a comprehensive introduction to acoustics. Beginning with the basic physical ideas, Acoustics balances the fundamentals with engineering aspects, applications and electroacoustics, also covering music, speech and the properties of human hearing. The concepts of acoustics are exposed and applied in:room acousticssound insulation in buildingsnoise controlunderwater sound and ultrasoundScientifically thorough, but with mathematics kept to a minimum, Acoustics is the perfect introduction to acoustics for students at any level of mechanical, electrical or civil engineering courses and an accessible resource for architects, musicians or sound engineers requiring a technical understanding of acoustics and their applications.
A study on the measurement of flaw sizes by acoustical holography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamamoto, M.; Ando, T.; Enami, K.; Yajima, M.; Fukui, S.
1978-01-01
As a means of evaluating the safety of flawed pressure vessels and other structures against fracture, fracture mechanics has come to be applied. For the application of fracture mechanics it is necessary to get information concerning the sizes and shapes of flaws. The ultrasonic flaw detection method which is widely used as a nondestructive inspection method cannot measure the sizes and shapes of flaws accurately. Considering that acoustical holography is an useful means for the measurement of flaws, we performed basic tests on this method and obtained the following results: (1) The measured values of artificial flaws (flat bottom drilled holes: 5 -- 36 mm) made on a steel plate with a thickness of 150 mm showed a good linear relation with their actual sizes and scatter in the measured values was +-3 -- 6 mm. (2) The measured values of fatigue cracks (length: 5 -- 57 mm) introduced into a steel plate with thickness of 150 mm also showed a good linear relation with their actual sizes and scatter in the measured values was +-3 mm. (3) It was found that acoustical holography can also be applied to heavy section cast steels. (4) The method of correcting distortion caused by curved surface was investigated by computer-aided simulation and it was considered that such distortion can be corrected by radial scanning of a transducer. (auth.)
Wael Akl; A. Baz
2014-01-01
Acoustic cloaks have traditionally been intended to externally surround critical objects to render these objects acoustically invisible. However, in this paper, the emphasis is placed on investigating the application of the acoustic cloaks to the interior walls of acoustic cavities in an attempt to minimize the noise levels inside these cavities. In this manner, the acoustic cloaks can serve as a viable and efficient alternative to the conventional passive noise attenuation treatments which a...
Buscombe, Daniel D.; Grams, Paul E.; Kaplinski, Matt A.
2014-01-01
In this, the second of a pair of papers on the statistical signatures of riverbed sediment in high-frequency acoustic backscatter, spatially explicit maps of the stochastic geometries (length- and amplitude-scales) of backscatter are related to patches of riverbed surfaces composed of known sediment types, as determined by geo-referenced underwater video observations. Statistics of backscatter magnitudes alone are found to be poor discriminators between sediment types. However, the variance of the power spectrum, and the intercept and slope from a power-law spectral form (termed the spectral strength and exponent, respectively) successfully discriminate between sediment types. A decision-tree approach was able to classify spatially heterogeneous patches of homogeneous sands, gravels (and sand-gravel mixtures), and cobbles/boulders with 95, 88, and 91% accuracy, respectively. Application to sites outside the calibration, and surveys made at calibration sites at different times, were plausible based on observations from underwater video. Analysis of decision trees built with different training data sets suggested that the spectral exponent was consistently the most important variable in the classification. In the absence of theory concerning how spatially variable sediment surfaces scatter high-frequency sound, the primary advantage of this data-driven approach to classify bed sediment over alternatives is that spectral methods have well understood properties and make no assumptions about the distributional form of the fluctuating component of backscatter over small spatial scales.
Sound-scattering layers of the Black Sea based on ADCP observations
Morozov, A. N.; Lemeshko, E. M.; Fedorov, S. V.
2017-09-01
The paper discusses the results of expeditions to the northwestern part of the Black Sea carried out in 2004-2008. Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) with an operating frequency of 150 and 300 kHz were used as the echo sounders. The characteristic scales of the spatial variability of sound scattering in the Black Sea were determined; the revealed peculiarities are interpreted. The characteristics of a deep soundscattering layer in the Black Sea are given.
Acoustic energy harvesting based on a planar acoustic metamaterial
Qi, Shuibao; Oudich, Mourad; Li, Yong; Assouar, Badreddine
2016-06-01
We theoretically report on an innovative and practical acoustic energy harvester based on a defected acoustic metamaterial (AMM) with piezoelectric material. The idea is to create suitable resonant defects in an AMM to confine the strain energy originating from an acoustic incidence. This scavenged energy is converted into electrical energy by attaching a structured piezoelectric material into the defect area of the AMM. We show an acoustic energy harvester based on a meta-structure capable of producing electrical power from an acoustic pressure. Numerical simulations are provided to analyze and elucidate the principles and the performances of the proposed system. A maximum output voltage of 1.3 V and a power density of 0.54 μW/cm3 are obtained at a frequency of 2257.5 Hz. The proposed concept should have broad applications on energy harvesting as well as on low-frequency sound isolation, since this system acts as both acoustic insulator and energy harvester.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitarai, O; Watanabe, T; Nakamura, Y; Nakamura, K; Hiraki, N; Toi, K; Kawai, Y; Itoh, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics
1980-12-01
Density fluctuations in the frequency range of several MHz are observed in the turbulently heated TRIAM-1 tokamak plasma by means of a 4 mm microwave scattering method. It is found from the measurement of the dispersion relation that this instability is considered to be the low-frequency ion acoustic instability propagating nearly perpendicular to the toroidal magnetic field.
Panel acoustic contribution analysis.
Wu, Sean F; Natarajan, Logesh Kumar
2013-02-01
Formulations are derived to analyze the relative panel acoustic contributions of a vibrating structure. The essence of this analysis is to correlate the acoustic power flow from each panel to the radiated acoustic pressure at any field point. The acoustic power is obtained by integrating the normal component of the surface acoustic intensity, which is the product of the surface acoustic pressure and normal surface velocity reconstructed by using the Helmholtz equation least squares based nearfield acoustical holography, over each panel. The significance of this methodology is that it enables one to analyze and rank relative acoustic contributions of individual panels of a complex vibrating structure to acoustic radiation anywhere in the field based on a single set of the acoustic pressures measured in the near field. Moreover, this approach is valid for both interior and exterior regions. Examples of using this method to analyze and rank the relative acoustic contributions of a scaled vehicle cabin are demonstrated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. R. Baev
2018-01-01
Full Text Available for the enhancement and improvement of ultrasonic methods evaluation and measurements. The purpose of this work is to determine the influence of the geometric parameters of the acoustic load body and its position on the coefficients of reflection and propagation of the Stoneley and Rayleigh waves and to identify the possibility of using the results of the study for practical applications.Based on the analysis of the acoustic path and the experimental data, the relationship between the measured amplitude parameters and the coefficients of the propagation and reflection of surface waves, as well as the reflectivity of the contact region of the load body in the form of a prism through the sliding boundary, which reaches up to ≈ 32–34 дБ, is established. For the first time, the dependence of these coefficients on the inclination angle of one of the prism lateral faces in the range of 0 ± 45°, dimensionless thickness of the contact layer (0–0,05 and its orientation relative to the acoustic axis.It is established that these coefficients are mainly maximal when the prism is rectangular. The coefficient of reflectivity in the hard contact of bodies is more than an order of magnitude less, and the coefficients of wave propagation – comparable in magnitude. The prospects of using the results of the study to evaluate the quality of adhesion of materials during welding, soldering, gluing, detection of defects in hardto-reach places, as well as to determine the physical and mechanical properties of metals by the proposed method of creating a reference signal are shown.
Arndt, Christoph M.; Severin, Michael; Dem, Claudiu; Stöhr, Michael; Steinberg, Adam M.; Meier, Wolfgang
2015-04-01
A gas turbine model combustor for partially premixed swirl flames was equipped with an optical combustion chamber and operated with CH4 and air at atmospheric pressure. The burner consisted of two concentric nozzles for separately controlled air flows and a ring of holes 12 mm upstream of the nozzle exits for fuel injection. The flame described here had a thermal power of 25 kW, a global equivalence ratio of 0.7, and exhibited thermo-acoustic instabilities at a frequency of approximately 400 Hz. The phase-dependent variations in the flame shape and relative heat release rate were determined by OH* chemiluminescence imaging; the flow velocities by stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV); and the major species concentrations, mixture fraction, and temperature by laser Raman scattering. The PIV measurements showed that the flow field performed a "pumping" mode with varying inflow velocities and extent of the inner recirculation zone, triggered by the pressure variations in the combustion chamber. The flow field oscillations were accompanied by variations in the mixture fraction in the inflow region and at the flame root, which in turn were mainly caused by the variations in the CH4 concentration. The mean phase-dependent changes in the fluxes of CH4 and N2 through cross-sectional planes of the combustion chamber at different heights above the nozzle were estimated by combining the PIV and Raman data. The results revealed a periodic variation in the CH4 flux by more than 150 % in relation to the mean value, due to the combined influence of the oscillating flow velocity, density variations, and CH4 concentration. Based on the experimental results, the feedback mechanism of the thermo-acoustic pulsations could be identified as a periodic fluctuation of the equivalence ratio and fuel mass flow together with a convective delay for the transport of fuel from the fuel injector to the flame zone. The combustor and the measured data are well suited for the validation of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Bo, E-mail: hubo2011@semi.ac.cn
2015-03-15
The effect of surface polar optical phonons (SOs) from the dielectric layers on electron mobility in dual-gated graphene field effect transistors (GFETs) is studied theoretically. By taking into account SO scattering of electron as a main scattering mechanism, the electron mobility is calculated by the iterative solution of Boltzmann transport equation. In treating scattering with the SO modes, the dynamic dielectric screening is included and compared to the static dielectric screening and the dielectric screening in the static limit. It is found that the dynamic dielectric screening effect plays an important role in the range of low net carrier density. More importantly, in-plane acoustic phonon scattering and charged impurity scattering are also included in the total mobility for SiO{sub 2}-supported GFETs with various high-κ top-gate dielectric layers considered. The calculated total mobility results suggest both Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and AlN are the promising candidate dielectric layers for the enhancement in room temperature mobility of graphene in the future.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Jiuhui; Zhang Siwen; Zhou Kejiang
2012-01-01
A physical mechanism of phononic band gap and resonant nanoacoustic scattering in an aggregate of two elastic nanospheres is presented in this paper. By considering the Van der Waals (VdW) force between two nanospheres illuminated by nanoacoustic wave, phononic band gap and frequency shift at the lower frequency side, and largely enhanced nanoacoustic scattering at the other frequency range have been found through calculating the form function of the acoustic scattering from the nanosystem. This VdW-force-induced band gap is different from the known mechanisms of Bragg scattering and local resonances for periodic media. It is shown that when the separation distance between two nanospheres is decreasing from 20 to 1 nm, due to the increasing VdW force, the nanoacoustic scattering is much heightened by two order of magnitude, and meanwhile the frequency shift and phononic band gap at the low frequencies are both widened. These results could provide potential applications of nanoacoustic devices.
Springer Handbook of Acoustics
Rossing, Thomas D
2007-01-01
Acoustics, the science of sound, has developed into a broad interdisciplinary field encompassing the academic disciplines of physics, engineering, psychology, speech, audiology, music, architecture, physiology, neuroscience, and others. The Springer Handbook of Acoustics is an unparalleled modern handbook reflecting this richly interdisciplinary nature edited by one of the acknowledged masters in the field, Thomas Rossing. Researchers and students benefit from the comprehensive contents spanning: animal acoustics including infrasound and ultrasound, environmental noise control, music and human speech and singing, physiological and psychological acoustics, architectural acoustics, physical and engineering acoustics, signal processing, medical acoustics, and ocean acoustics. This handbook reviews the most important areas of acoustics, with emphasis on current research. The authors of the various chapters are all experts in their fields. Each chapter is richly illustrated with figures and tables. The latest rese...
Multi-scale responses of scattering layers to environmental variability in Monterey Bay, California
Urmy, Samuel S.; Horne, John K.
2016-07-01
A 38 kHz upward-facing echosounder was deployed on the seafloor at a depth of 875 m in Monterey Bay, CA, USA (36° 42.748‧N, 122° 11.214‧W) from 27 February 2009 to 18 August 2010. This 18-month record of acoustic backscatter was compared to oceanographic time series from a nearby data buoy to investigate the responses of animals in sound-scattering layers to oceanic variability at seasonal and sub-seasonal time scales. Pelagic animals, as measured by acoustic backscatter, moved higher in the water column and decreased in abundance during spring upwelling, attributed to avoidance of a shoaling oxycline and advection offshore. Seasonal changes were most evident in a non-migrating scattering layer near 500 m depth that disappeared in spring and reappeared in summer, building to a seasonal maximum in fall. At sub-seasonal time scales, similar responses were observed after individual upwelling events, though they were much weaker than the seasonal relationship. Correlations of acoustic backscatter with oceanographic variability also differed with depth. Backscatter in the upper water column decreased immediately following upwelling, then increased approximately 20 days later. Similar correlations existed deeper in the water column, but at increasing lags, suggesting that near-surface productivity propagated down the water column at 10-15 m d-1, consistent with sinking speeds of marine snow measured in Monterey Bay. Sub-seasonal variability in backscatter was best correlated with sea-surface height, suggesting that passive physical transport was most important at these time scales.
Studies on laser beam propagation and stimulated scattering in multiple beam experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Labaune, C.; Lewis, K.; Bandulet, H.; Lewis, K.; Depierreux, S.; Huller, S.; Masson-Laborde, P.E.; Pesme, D.; Riazuelo, G.
2006-01-01
The propagation and stimulated scattering of intense laser beams interacting with underdense plasmas are two important issues for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The purpose of this work was to perform experiments under well-controlled interaction conditions and confront them with numerical simulations to test the physics included in the codes. Experimental diagnostics include time and space resolved images of incident and SBS light and of SBS-ion acoustic activity. New numerical diagnostics, including similar constraints as the experimental ones and the treatment of the propagation of the light between the emitting area and the detectors, have been developed. Particular care was put to include realistic plasma density and velocity profiles, as well as laser pulse shape in the simulations. In the experiments presented in this paper, the interaction beam was used with a random phase plate (RPP) to produce a statistical distribution of speckles in the focal volume. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) was described using a decomposition of the spatial scales which provides a predictive modeling of SBS in an expanding mm-scale plasma. Spatial and temporal behavior of the SBS-ion acoustic waves was found to be in good agreement with the experimental ones for two laser intensities. (authors)
Vibrational spectroscopy of superconducting MgB2 by neutron inelastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muranaka, Takahiro
2001-01-01
Neutron inelastic scattering measurements have been performed on superconducting MgB 2 above and below T c . The temperature dependence of the generalized phonon density-of-states showed clear anomalous behaviour near 24 meV in the acoustic phonon region, which may be interpreted as evidence of a substantial contribution to the total electron-phonon coupling strength deriving from these phonons. Weaker evidence for a corresponding response in the high-energy B bond stretching phonons was also encountered. (author)
The PAC-MAN model: Benchmark case for linear acoustics in computational physics
Ziegelwanger, Harald; Reiter, Paul
2017-10-01
Benchmark cases in the field of computational physics, on the one hand, have to contain a certain complexity to test numerical edge cases and, on the other hand, require the existence of an analytical solution, because an analytical solution allows the exact quantification of the accuracy of a numerical simulation method. This dilemma causes a need for analytical sound field formulations of complex acoustic problems. A well known example for such a benchmark case for harmonic linear acoustics is the ;Cat's Eye model;, which describes the three-dimensional sound field radiated from a sphere with a missing octant analytically. In this paper, a benchmark case for two-dimensional (2D) harmonic linear acoustic problems, viz., the ;PAC-MAN model;, is proposed. The PAC-MAN model describes the radiated and scattered sound field around an infinitely long cylinder with a cut out sector of variable angular width. While the analytical calculation of the 2D sound field allows different angular cut-out widths and arbitrarily positioned line sources, the computational cost associated with the solution of this problem is similar to a 1D problem because of a modal formulation of the sound field in the PAC-MAN model.
Luo, Chengtao; Bansal, Dipanshu; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight; Winn, Barry; Ren, Yang; Li, Xiaobing; Luo, Haosu; Delaire, Olivier
2017-11-01
Neutron and x-ray scattering measurements were performed on (N a1 /2B i1 /2 ) Ti O3-x at %BaTi O3 (NBT-x BT ) single crystals (x =4 , 5, 6.5, and 7.5) across the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), as a function of both composition and temperature, and probing both structural and dynamical aspects. In addition to the known diffuse scattering pattern near the Γ points, our measurements revealed new, faint superlattice peaks, as well as an extensive diffuse scattering network, revealing a short-range ordering of polar nanoregions (PNR) with a static stacking morphology. In samples with compositions closest to the MPB, our inelastic neutron scattering investigations of the phonon dynamics showed two unusual features in the acoustic phonon branches, between the superlattice points, and between the superlattice points and Γ points, respectively. These critical elements are not present in the other compositions away from the MPB, which suggests that these features may be related to the tilt modes coupling behavior near the MPB.
... EVENTS DONATE NEWS Home Learn Back Learn about acoustic neuroma AN Facts What is acoustic neuroma? Diagnosing ... Brain Freeze ? READ MORE Read More What is acoustic neuroma? Identifying an AN Learn More Get Info ...
Development of ion-acoustic double layers through ion-acoustic fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sekar, A.N.; Saxena, Y.C.
1985-01-01
Experimental results on the formation of ion acoustic double layers resembling asymmetric ion-holes are presented. In a double plasma device, modified suitably to inject electron beam into the target plasma, modulation of the beam through step potential leads to excitation of ion-acoustic fluctuation. The ion-acoustic fluctuation, growing away from the grids separating source and target plasmas, developed into weak asymmetric ion-acoustic double layer. The observations are in qualitative agreement with theoretical models and computer simulations. (author)
Acoustic tweezers via sub-time-of-flight regime surface acoustic waves.
Collins, David J; Devendran, Citsabehsan; Ma, Zhichao; Ng, Jia Wei; Neild, Adrian; Ai, Ye
2016-07-01
Micrometer-scale acoustic waves are highly useful for refined optomechanical and acoustofluidic manipulation, where these fields are spatially localized along the transducer aperture but not along the acoustic propagation direction. In the case of acoustic tweezers, such a conventional acoustic standing wave results in particle and cell patterning across the entire width of a microfluidic channel, preventing selective trapping. We demonstrate the use of nanosecond-scale pulsed surface acoustic waves (SAWs) with a pulse period that is less than the time of flight between opposing transducers to generate localized time-averaged patterning regions while using conventional electrode structures. These nodal positions can be readily and arbitrarily positioned in two dimensions and within the patterning region itself through the imposition of pulse delays, frequency modulation, and phase shifts. This straightforward concept adds new spatial dimensions to which acoustic fields can be localized in SAW applications in a manner analogous to optical tweezers, including spatially selective acoustic tweezers and optical waveguides.
Observation of soft phonon mode in TbFe3(BO3)4 by inelastic neutron scattering
Pavlovskiy, M. S.; Shaykhutdinov, K. A.; Wu, L. S.; Ehlers, G.; Temerov, V. L.; Gudim, I. A.; Shinkorenko, A. S.; Podlesnyak, A.
2018-02-01
The phonon dispersion in terbium iron borate TbFe3(BO3)4 has been measured by inelastic neutron scattering in a temperature range 180
Stimulated Brillouin scattering of laser in semiconductor plasma embedded with nano-sized grains
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharma, Giriraj, E-mail: grsharma@gmail.com [SRJ Government Girls’ College, Neemuch (M P) (India); Dad, R. C. [Government P G College, Mandsaur (M P) (India); Ghosh, S. [School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University, Ujjain, (M P) (India)
2015-07-31
A high power laser propagating through semiconductor plasma undergoes Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) from the electrostrictively generated acoustic perturbations. We have considered that nano-sized grains (NSGs) ions are embedded in semiconductor plasma by means of ion implantation. The NSGs are bombarded by the surrounding plasma particles and collect electrons. By considering a negative charge on the NSGs, we present an analytically study on the effects of NSGs on threshold field for the onset of SBS and Brillouin gain of generated Brillouin scattered mode. It is found that as the charge on the NSGs builds up, the Brillouin gain is significantly raised and the threshold pump field for the onset of SBS process is lowered.
Effect of diffraction on stimulated Brillouin scattering from a single laser hot spot
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eliseev, V.V.; Rozmus, W.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.; Capjack, C.E.
1996-01-01
A single laser hot spot in an underdense plasma is represented as a focused Gaussian laser beam. Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) from such a Gaussian beam with small f/numbers 2-4 has been studied in a three-dimensional slab geometry. It is shown that the SBS reflectivity from a single laser hot spot is much lower than that predicted by a simple three wave coupling model because of the diffraction of the scattered light from the spatially localized ion acoustic wave. SBS gain per one Rayleigh length of the incident laser beam is proposed as a quantitative measure of this effect. Diffraction-limited SBS from a randomized laser beam is also discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Inelastic neutron scattering studies of the phonon spectra of Chevrel-phase superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bader, S.D.; Sinha, S.K.; Shelton, R.N.
1976-01-01
Phonon spectra are obtained using inelastic neutron scattering by polycrystals of the Chevrel-phase superconductors SnMo 6 S 8 , PbMo 6 S 8 , Mo 6 Se 8 , and Pb 1 . 2 Mo 6 Se 8 . Modes associated primarily with Sn (or Pb) atomic displacements are clearly identified. Acoustic softening on cooling is noted for SnMo 6 S 8 . Anharmonicity and the superconductivity are discussed utilizing the molecular-crystal concept
Prospects for ion temperature measurements in JET by Thomson scattering of submillimetre waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whitbourn, L.B.
1975-03-01
The Thomson scattering of submillimeter waves is envisaged as a possible means for measuring the ion temperature of the JET plasma. The present discussion is principally concerned with the practical limitations imposed to the method by the availability of high power pulsed sources and sensitive detectors and noise due to plasma emission at submillimeter wavelengths (bremsstrahlung and electron cyclotron emission). Coherent scattering from plasma wave (e.g. ion acoustic waves and electron drift waves) with millimeter and submillimeter waves are considered briefly. Further suitable development of lasers and heterodyne detectors would make such measurements possible. A pulsed HCN laser associated with a detectors with a lower heterodyne noise equivalent power could then be used to advantage. For scattering with CH 3 F laser the NEP of a Josephson junction would be adequate because a relatively high level of plasma emission is expected at 496 μm [fr
Theory of near-critical-angle scattering from a curved interface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiedler-Ferrari, N.; Nussenzveig, H.M.; Wiscombe, W.J.
1990-01-01
A new type of diffraction effect, different from the standard semiclassical ones (rainbow, glory, forward peak, orbiting), takes place near the critical angle for total reflection at a curved interface between two homogeneous media. A theoretical treatment of this new effects is given for Mie scattering, e.g., light scattering by an air bubble in water; it can readily be extended to more general curved interface problems in a variety of different fields (quantum mechanics, acoustics, seismic waves). The relatively slowly-varying Mie diffraction pattern associated with near-critical scattering is obscured by rapid fine-structure oscillations due to interference with unrelated farside contributions. These contributions are evaluated and subtracted from the Mie amplitudes to yield the relevant nearside effects. A zero-order transitional CAM (complex angular momentum) approximation to the nearside amplitude is developed. The most important contributions arise from partial and total reflection, represented by two new diffraction integrals, designated Fresnel-Fock and Pearcey-Fock respectively. Also discussed are the WKB approximation, a known physical optics approximation and a new modified version of this approximation: they are compared with the exact nearside Mie amplitude obtained by numerical partial-wave summation, at scatterer size parameters (circumference/wavelength) ranging from 1,000 to 10,000. (author)
Nayak, Rajkishore
2016-01-01
This book highlights the manufacturing and applications of acoustic textiles in various industries. It also includes examples from different industries in which acoustic textiles can be used to absorb noise and help reduce the impact of noise at the workplace. Given the importance of noise reduction in the working environment in several industries, the book offers a valuable guide for companies, educators and researchers involved with acoustic materials.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Long, Marshall
2014-01-01
.... Beginning with a brief history, it reviews the fundamentals of acoustics, human perception and reaction to sound, acoustic noise measurements, noise metrics, and environmental noise characterization...
Dust grain characterization — Direct measurement of light scattering
BartoÅ, P.; PavlÅ¯, J.
2018-01-01
Dust grains play a key role in dusty plasma since they interact with the plasma we can use them to study plasma itself. The grains are illuminated by visible light (e.g., a laser sheet) and the situation is captured with camera. Despite of simplicity, light scattering on similar-to-wavelength sized grains is complex phenomenon. Interaction of the electromagnetic wave with material has to be computed with respect to Maxwell equations — analytic solution is nowadays available only for several selected shapes like sphere, coated sphere, or infinite cylinder. Moreover, material constants needed for computations are usually unknown. For computation result verification and material constant determination, we designed and developed a device directly measuring light scattering profiles. Single dust grains are trapped in the ultrasonic field (so called "acoustic levitation") and illuminated by the laser beam. Scattered light is then measured by a photodiode mounted on rotating platform. Synchronous detection is employed for a noise reduction. This setup brings several benefits against conventional methods: (1) it works in the free air, (2) the measured grain is captured for a long time, and (3) the grain could be of arbitrary shape.
Low and high frequency asymptotics acoustic, electromagnetic and elastic wave scattering
Varadan, VK
2013-01-01
This volume focuses on asymptotic methods in the low and high frequency limits for the solution of scattering and propagation problems. Each chapter is pedagogical in nature, starting with the basic foundations and ending with practical applications. For example, using the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction, the canonical problem of edge diffraction is first solved and then used in solving the problem of diffraction by a finite crack. In recent times, the crack problem has been of much interest for its applications to Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of flaws in structural materials.
Supersonic acoustic intensity with statistically optimized near-field acoustic holography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn
2011-01-01
The concept of supersonic acoustic intensity was introduced some years ago for estimating the fraction of the flow of energy radiated by a source that propagates to the far field. It differs from the usual (active) intensity by excluding the near-field energy resulting from evanescent waves...... to the information provided by the near-field acoustic holography technique. This study proposes a version of the supersonic acoustic intensity applied to statistically optimized near-field acoustic holography (SONAH). The theory, numerical results and an experimental study are presented. The possibility of using...
Ikramullah, Ahmad, Rashid; Sharif, Saqib; Khattak, Fida Younus
2018-01-01
The interaction of Circularly Polarized Electro-Magnetic (CPEM) waves with a 4-component relativistic quantum plasma is studied. The plasma constituents are: relativistic-degenerate electrons and positrons, dynamic degenerate ions, and Thomas-Fermi distributed electrons in the background. We have employed the Klein-Gordon equations for the electrons as well as for the positrons, while the ions are represented by the Schrödinger equation. The Maxwell and Poisson equations are used for electromagnetic waves. Three modes are observed: one of the modes is associated with the electron acoustic wave, a second mode at frequencies greater than the electron acoustic wave mode could be associated with the positrons, and the third one at the lowest frequencies could be associated with the ions. Furthermore, Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS), Modulational, and Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) instabilities are studied. It is observed that the growth rates of both the SRS and SBS instabilities decrease with increase in the quantum parameter of the plasma. It is also observed that the scattering spectra in both the SRS and SBS get restricted to very small wavenumber regions. It is shown that for low amplitude CPEM wave interaction with the quantum plasma, the positron concentration has no effect on the SRS and SBS spectra. In the case of large amplitude CPEM wave interaction, however, one observes spectral changes with varying positron concentrations. An increase in the positron concentration also enhances the scattering instability growth rates. Moreover, the growth rate first increases and then decreases with increasing intensity of the CPEM wave, indicating an optimum value of the CPEM wave intensity for the growth of these scattering instabilities. The modulational instability also shows dependence on the quantum parameter as well as on the positron concentration.
Acoustic radiation force on a rigid elliptical cylinder in plane (quasi)standing waves
Mitri, F. G.
2015-12-01
The acoustic radiation force on a 2D elliptical (non-circular) cylinder centered on the axis of wave propagation of plane quasi-standing and standing waves is derived, based on the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in cylindrical coordinates. A non-dimensional acoustic radiation force function, which is the radiation force per unit length, per characteristic energy density and per unit cross-sectional surface of the ellipse, is defined in terms of the scattering coefficients that are determined by applying the Neumann boundary condition for an immovable surface. A system of linear equations involving a single numerical integration procedure is solved by matrix inversion. Numerical simulations showing the transition from the quasi-standing to the (equi-amplitude) standing wave behaviour are performed with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio a/b, where a and b are the ellipse semi-axes, as well as the dimensionless size parameter kb (where k is the wavenumber), without the restriction to a particular range of frequencies. It is found that at high kb values > 1, the radiation force per length with broadside incidence is larger, whereas the opposite situation occurs in the long-wavelength limit (i.e., kb acoustic levitation of elliptical cylinders, the acoustic stabilization of liquid columns in a host medium, acousto-fluidics devices, and other particle dynamics applications to name a few. Moreover, the formalism presented here may be effectively applied to compute the acoustic radiation force on other 2D surfaces of arbitrary shape such as super-ellipses, Chebyshev cylindrical particles, or other non-circular geometries.
On the role of acoustic feedback in boundary-layer instability.
Wu, Xuesong
2014-07-28
In this paper, the classical triple-deck formalism is employed to investigate two instability problems in which an acoustic feedback loop plays an essential role. The first concerns a subsonic boundary layer over a flat plate on which two well-separated roughness elements are present. A spatially amplifying Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) wave between the roughness elements is scattered by the downstream roughness to emit a sound wave that propagates upstream and impinges on the upstream roughness to regenerate the T-S wave, thereby forming a closed feedback loop in the streamwise direction. Numerical calculations suggest that, at high Reynolds numbers and for moderate roughness heights, the long-range acoustic coupling may lead to absolute instability, which is characterized by self-sustained oscillations at discrete frequencies. The dominant peak frequency may jump from one value to another as the Reynolds number, or the distance between the roughness elements, is varied gradually. The second problem concerns the supersonic 'twin boundary layers' that develop along two well-separated parallel flat plates. The two boundary layers are in mutual interaction through the impinging and reflected acoustic waves. It is found that the interaction leads to a new instability that is absent in the unconfined boundary layer. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Acoustic Metamaterials in Aeronautics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giorgio Palma
2018-06-01
Full Text Available Metamaterials, man-made composites that are scaled smaller than the wavelength, have demonstrated a huge potential for application in acoustics, allowing the production of sub-wavelength acoustic absorbers, acoustic invisibility, perfect acoustic mirrors and acoustic lenses for hyper focusing, and acoustic illusions and enabling new degrees of freedom in the control of the acoustic field. The zero, or even negative, refractive sound index of metamaterials offers possibilities for the control of acoustic patterns and sound at sub-wavelength scales. Despite the tremendous growth in research on acoustic metamaterials during the last decade, the potential of metamaterial-based technologies in aeronautics has still not been fully explored, and its utilization is still in its infancy. Thus, the principal concepts mentioned above could very well provide a means to develop devices that allow the mitigation of the impact of civil aviation noise on the community. This paper gives a review of the most relevant works on acoustic metamaterials, analyzing them for their potential applicability in aeronautics, and, in this process, identifying possible implementation areas and interesting metabehaviors. It also identifies some technical challenges and possible future directions for research with the goal of unveiling the potential of metamaterials technology in aeronautics.
Kierkegaard, Axel; Boij, Susann; Efraimsson, Gunilla
2010-02-01
Acoustic wave propagation in flow ducts is commonly modeled with time-domain non-linear Navier-Stokes equation methodologies. To reduce computational effort, investigations of a linearized approach in frequency domain are carried out. Calculations of sound wave propagation in a straight duct are presented with an orifice plate and a mean flow present. Results of transmission and reflections at the orifice are presented on a two-port scattering matrix form and are compared to measurements with good agreement. The wave propagation is modeled with a frequency domain linearized Navier-Stokes equation methodology. This methodology is found to be efficient for cases where the acoustic field does not alter the mean flow field, i.e., when whistling does not occur.
Holmberg, Andreas; Kierkegaard, Axel; Weng, Chenyang
2015-06-01
In this paper, a method for including damping of acoustic energy in regions of strong turbulence is derived for a linearized Navier-Stokes method in the frequency domain. The proposed method is validated and analyzed in 2D only, although the formulation is fully presented in 3D. The result is applied in a study of the linear interaction between the acoustic and the hydrodynamic field in a 2D T-junction, subject to grazing flow at Mach 0.1. Part of the acoustic energy at the upstream edge of the junction is shed as harmonically oscillating disturbances, which are conveyed across the shear layer over the junction, where they interact with the acoustic field. As the acoustic waves travel in regions of strong shear, there is a need to include the interaction between the background turbulence and the acoustic field. For this purpose, the oscillation of the background turbulence Reynold's stress, due to the acoustic field, is modeled using an eddy Newtonian model assumption. The time averaged flow is first solved for using RANS along with a k-ε turbulence model. The spatially varying turbulent eddy viscosity is then added to the spatially invariant kinematic viscosity in the acoustic set of equations. The response of the 2D T-junction to an incident acoustic field is analyzed via a plane wave scattering matrix model, and the result is compared to experimental data for a T-junction of rectangular ducts. A strong improvement in the agreement between calculation and experimental data is found when the modification proposed in this paper is implemented. Discrepancies remaining are likely due to inaccuracies in the selected turbulence model, which is known to produce large errors e.g. for flows with significant rotation, which the grazing flow across the T-junction certainly is. A natural next step is therefore to test the proposed methodology together with more sophisticated turbulence models.
Calibration of acoustic emission transducers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leschek, W.C.
1976-01-01
A method is described for calibrating an acoustic emission transducer to be used in a pre-set frequency range. The absolute reception sensitivity of a reference transducer is determined at frequencies selected within the frequency range. The reference transducer and the acoustic emission transducer are put into acoustic communication with the surface of a limited acoustic medium representing an equivalent acoustic load appreciably identical to that of the medium in which the use of the acoustic emission transducer is intended. A blank random acoustic noise is emitted in the acoustic medium in order to establish a diffuse and reverberating sound field, after which the output responses of the reference transducer and of the acoustic emission transducer are obtained with respect to the diffuse and reverberating field, for selected frequencies. The output response of the acoustic emission transducer is compared with that of the reference transducer for the selected frequencies, so as to determine the reception sensitivity of the acoustic emission transducer [fr
Ultrafast electron-optical phonon scattering and quasiparticle lifetime in CVD-grown graphene.
Shang, Jingzhi; Yu, Ting; Lin, Jianyi; Gurzadyan, Gagik G
2011-04-26
Ultrafast quasiparticle dynamics in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been studied by UV pump/white-light probe spectroscopy. Transient differential transmission spectra of monolayer graphene are observed in the visible probe range (400-650 nm). Kinetics of the quasiparticle (i.e., low-energy single-particle excitation with renormalized energy due to electron-electron Coulomb, electron-optical phonon (e-op), and optical phonon-acoustic phonon (op-ap) interactions) was monitored with 50 fs resolution. Extending the probe range to near-infrared, we find the evolution of quasiparticle relaxation channels from monoexponential e-op scattering to double exponential decay due to e-op and op-ap scattering. Moreover, quasiparticle lifetimes of mono- and randomly stacked graphene films are obtained for the probe photon energies continuously from 1.9 to 2.3 eV. Dependence of quasiparticle decay rate on the probe energy is linear for 10-layer stacked graphene films. This is due to the dominant e-op intervalley scattering and the linear density of states in the probed electronic band. A dimensionless coupling constant W is derived, which characterizes the scattering strength of quasiparticles by lattice points in graphene.
Measurements of acoustic pressure at high amplitudes and intensities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crum, L A; Bailey, M R; Kaczkowski, P; McAteer, J A; Pishchalnikov, Y A; Sapozhnikov, O A
2004-01-01
In our research group, we desire measurements of the large pressure amplitudes generated by the shock waves used in shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) and the large acoustic intensities used in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). Conventional piezoelectric or PVDF hydrophones can not be used for such measurements as they are damaged either by cavitation, in SWL applications, or heat, in HIFU applications. In order to circumvent these difficulties, we have utilized optical fiber hydrophones in SWL that do not cavitate, and small glass probes and a scattering technique for measurements of large HIFU intensities. Descriptions of these techniques will be given as well as some typical data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerold, Bjoern; Prentice, Paul; Rachmilevitch, Itay
2013-01-01
The acoustic emissions from single cavitation clouds at an early stage of development in 0.521 MHz focused ultrasound of varying intensity, are detected and directly correlated to high-speed microscopic observations, recorded at 1 × 10 6 frames per second. At lower intensities, a stable regime of cloud response is identified whereby bubble-ensembles exhibit oscillations at half the driving frequency, which is also detected in the acoustic emission spectra. Higher intensities generate clouds that develop more rapidly, with increased nonlinearity evidenced by a bifurcation in the frequency of ensemble response, and in the acoustic emissions. A single bubble oscillation model is subject to equivalent ultrasound conditions and fitted to features in the hydrophone and high-speed spectral data, allowing an effective quiescent radius to be inferred for the clouds that evolve at each intensity. The approach indicates that the acoustic emissions originate from the ensemble dynamics and that the cloud acts as a single bubble of equivalent radius in terms of the scattered field. Jetting from component cavities on the periphery of clouds is regularly observed at higher intensities. The results may be of relevance for monitoring and controlling cavitation in therapeutic applications of focused ultrasound, where the phenomenon has the potential to mediate drug delivery from vasculature. (paper)
Acoustical and optical radiation pressure and the development of single beam acoustical tweezers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, Jean-Louis; Marchiano, Régis; Baresch, Diego
2017-01-01
Studies on radiation pressure in acoustics and optics have enriched one another and have a long common history. Acoustic radiation pressure is used for metrology, levitation, particle trapping and actuation. However, the dexterity and selectivity of single-beam optical tweezers are still to be matched with acoustical devices. Optical tweezers can trap, move and position micron size particles, biological samples or even atoms with subnanometer accuracy in three dimensions. One limitation of optical tweezers is the weak force that can be applied without thermal damage due to optical absorption. Acoustical tweezers overcome this limitation since the radiation pressure scales as the field intensity divided by the speed of propagation of the wave. However, the feasibility of single beam acoustical tweezers was demonstrated only recently. In this paper, we propose a historical review of the strong similarities but also the specificities of acoustical and optical radiation pressures, from the expression of the force to the development of single-beam acoustical tweezers. - Highlights: • Studies on radiation pressure in acoustics and optics have enriched one another and have a long common history. • Acoustic radiation pressure is used for metrology, levitation, particle trapping and actuation. • However, the dexterity and selectivity of single-beam optical tweezers are still to be matched with acoustical devices. • Optical tweezers can trap, move and positioned micron size particles with subnanometer accuracy in three dimensions. • One limitation of optical tweezers is the weak force that can be applied without thermal damage due to optical absorption. • Acoustical tweezers overcome this limitation since the force scales as the field intensity divided by its propagation speed. • However, the feasibility of single beam acoustical tweezers was demonstrated only recently. • We propose a review of the strong similarities but also the specificities of acoustical
Cho, Y.; Chang, C.-C.; Wang, L. V.; Zou, J.
2016-02-01
This paper reports the development of a new 16-channel parallel acoustic delay line (PADL) array for real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT). The PADLs were directly fabricated from single-crystalline silicon substrates using deep reactive ion etching. Compared with other acoustic delay lines (e.g., optical fibers), the micromachined silicon PADLs offer higher acoustic transmission efficiency, smaller form factor, easier assembly, and mass production capability. To demonstrate its real-time photoacoustic imaging capability, the silicon PADL array was interfaced with one single-element ultrasonic transducer followed by one channel of data acquisition electronics to receive 16 channels of photoacoustic signals simultaneously. A PAT image of an optically-absorbing target embedded in an optically-scattering phantom was reconstructed, which matched well with the actual size of the imaged target. Because the silicon PADL array allows a signal-to-channel reduction ratio of 16:1, it could significantly simplify the design and construction of ultrasonic receivers for real-time PAT.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Y; Chang, C-C; Zou, J; Wang, L V
2016-01-01
This paper reports the development of a new 16-channel parallel acoustic delay line (PADL) array for real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT). The PADLs were directly fabricated from single-crystalline silicon substrates using deep reactive ion etching. Compared with other acoustic delay lines (e.g., optical fibers), the micromachined silicon PADLs offer higher acoustic transmission efficiency, smaller form factor, easier assembly, and mass production capability. To demonstrate its real-time photoacoustic imaging capability, the silicon PADL array was interfaced with one single-element ultrasonic transducer followed by one channel of data acquisition electronics to receive 16 channels of photoacoustic signals simultaneously. A PAT image of an optically-absorbing target embedded in an optically-scattering phantom was reconstructed, which matched well with the actual size of the imaged target. Because the silicon PADL array allows a signal-to-channel reduction ratio of 16:1, it could significantly simplify the design and construction of ultrasonic receivers for real-time PAT. (paper)
Radiation acoustics and its applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyamshev, L.M.
1992-01-01
Radiation acoustics is a new branch of acoustics, developing on the boundary of acoustics, nuclear physics, elementary particles and high-energy physics. Its fundamentals are laying in the research of acoustical effects due to the interaction of penetrating radiation with matter. The study of radiation-acoustical effects leads to the new opportunities in the penetration radiation research (acoustical detection, radiation-acoustical dosimetry), study of the physical parameters of matter, in a solution of some applied problems of nondestructive testing, and also for the radiation-acoustical influence on physical and chemical structure of the matter. Results of theoretical and experimental investigations are given. Different mechanisms of the sound generation by penetrating radiation of liquids and solids are considered. Some applications - the radiation acoustical microscopy and visualisation, the acoustical detection of high energy X-ray particles and possibility of using of high energy neutrino beams in geoacoustics - are discussed
Parametric Room Acoustic Workflows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parigi, Dario; Svidt, Kjeld; Molin, Erik
2017-01-01
The paper investigates and assesses different room acoustics software and the opportunities they offer to engage in parametric acoustics workflow and to influence architectural designs. The first step consists in the testing and benchmarking of different tools on the basis of accuracy, speed...... and interoperability with Grasshopper 3d. The focus will be placed to the benchmarking of three different acoustic analysis tools based on raytracing. To compare the accuracy and speed of the acoustic evaluation across different tools, a homogeneous set of acoustic parameters is chosen. The room acoustics parameters...... included in the set are reverberation time (EDT, RT30), clarity (C50), loudness (G), and definition (D50). Scenarios are discussed for determining at different design stages the most suitable acoustic tool. Those scenarios are characterized, by the use of less accurate but fast evaluation tools to be used...
Thomson scattering measurements from asymmetric interpenetrating plasma flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ross, J. S., E-mail: ross36@llnl.gov; Moody, J. D.; Fiuza, F.; Ryutov, D.; Divol, L.; Huntington, C. M.; Park, H.-S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)
2014-11-15
Imaging Thomson scattering measurements of collective ion-acoustic fluctuations have been utilized to determine ion temperature and density from laser produced counter-streaming asymmetric flows. Two foils are heated with 8 laser beams each, 500 J per beam, at the Omega Laser facility. Measurements are made 4 mm from the foil surface using a 60 J 2ω probe laser with a 200 ps pulse length. Measuring the electron density and temperature from the electron-plasma fluctuations constrains the fit of the multi-ion species, asymmetric flows theoretical form factor for the ion feature such that the ion temperatures, ion densities, and flow velocities for each plasma flow are determined.
An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that develops on the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. ... can press against the brain, becoming life-threatening. Acoustic neuroma can be difficult to diagnose, because the ...
Lizzit, D.; Badami, O.; Specogna, R.; Esseni, D.
2017-06-01
We present a new model for surface roughness (SR) scattering in n-type multi-gate FETs (MuGFETs) and gate-all-around nanowire FETs with fairly arbitrary cross-sections, its implementation in a complete device simulator, and the validation against experimental electron mobility data. The model describes the SR scattering matrix elements as non-linear transformations of interface fluctuations, which strongly influences the root mean square value of the roughness required to reproduce experimental mobility data. Mobility simulations are performed via the deterministic solution of the Boltzmann transport equation for a 1D-electron gas and including the most relevant scattering mechanisms for electronic transport, such as acoustic, polar, and non-polar optical phonon scattering, Coulomb scattering, and SR scattering. Simulation results show the importance of accounting for arbitrary cross-sections and biasing conditions when compared to experimental data. We also discuss how mobility is affected by the shape of the cross-section as well as by its area in gate-all-around and tri-gate MuGFETs.
Rajabi, Majid; Behzad, Mehdi
2014-10-01
A body insonified by a constant (time-varying) intensity sound field is known to experience a steady (oscillatory) force that is called the steady-state (dynamic) acoustic radiation force. Using the classical resonance scattering theorem (RST) which suggests the scattered field as a superposition of a resonance field and a background (non-resonance) component, we show that the radiation force acting on a cylindrical shell may be synthesized as a composition of three components: background part, resonance part and their interaction. The background component reveals the pure geometrical reflection effects and illustrates a regular behavior with respect to frequency, while the others demonstrate a singular behavior near the resonance frequencies. The results illustrate that the resonance effects associated to partial waves can be isolated by the subtraction of the background component from the total (steady-state or dynamic) radiation force function (i.e., residue component). In the case of steady-state radiation force, the components are exerted on the body as static forces. For the case of oscillatory amplitude excitation, the components are exerted at the modulation frequency with frequency-dependant phase shifts. The results demonstrate the dominant contribution of the non-resonance component of dynamic radiation force at high frequencies with respect to the residue component, which offers the potential application of ultrasound stimulated vibro-acoustic spectroscopy technique in low frequency resonance spectroscopy purposes. Furthermore, the proposed formulation may be useful essentially due to its intrinsic value in physical acoustics. In addition, it may unveil the contribution of resonance modes in the dynamic radiation force experienced by the cylindrical objects and its underlying physics.
Acoustic evaluation of wood quality in standing trees. Part I, Acoustic wave behavior
Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; Peter Carter
2007-01-01
Acoustic wave velocities in standing trees or live softwood species were measured by the time-of-flight (TOF) method. Tree velocities were compared with acoustic velocities measured in corresponding butt logs through a resonance acoustic method. The experimental data showed a skewed relationship between tree and log acoustic measurements. For most trees tested,...
Kuttruff, Heinrich; Mommertz, Eckard
The traditional task of room acoustics is to create or formulate conditions which ensure the best possible propagation of sound in a room from a sound source to a listener. Thus, objects of room acoustics are in particular assembly halls of all kinds, such as auditoria and lecture halls, conference rooms, theaters, concert halls or churches. Already at this point, it has to be pointed out that these conditions essentially depend on the question if speech or music should be transmitted; in the first case, the criterion for transmission quality is good speech intelligibility, in the other case, however, the success of room-acoustical efforts depends on other factors that cannot be quantified that easily, not least it also depends on the hearing habits of the listeners. In any case, absolutely "good acoustics" of a room do not exist.
Acoustic scaling: A re-evaluation of the acoustic model of Manchester Studio 7
Walker, R.
1984-12-01
The reasons for the reconstruction and re-evaluation of the acoustic scale mode of a large music studio are discussed. The design and construction of the model using mechanical and structural considerations rather than purely acoustic absorption criteria is described and the results obtained are given. The results confirm that structural elements within the studio gave rise to unexpected and unwanted low-frequency acoustic absorption. The results also show that at least for the relatively well understood mechanisms of sound energy absorption physical modelling of the structural and internal components gives an acoustically accurate scale model, within the usual tolerances of acoustic design. The poor reliability of measurements of acoustic absorption coefficients, is well illustrated. The conclusion is reached that such acoustic scale modelling is a valid and, for large scale projects, financially justifiable technique for predicting fundamental acoustic effects. It is not appropriate for the prediction of fine details because such small details are unlikely to be reproduced exactly at a different size without extensive measurements of the material's performance at both scales.
TU-G-210-03: Acoustic Simulations in Transcranial MRgFUS: Treatment Prediction and Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vyas, U. [Stanford University (United States)
2015-06-15
Modeling can play a vital role in predicting, optimizing and analyzing the results of therapeutic ultrasound treatments. Simulating the propagating acoustic beam in various targeted regions of the body allows for the prediction of the resulting power deposition and temperature profiles. In this session we will apply various modeling approaches to breast, abdominal organ and brain treatments. Of particular interest is the effectiveness of procedures for correcting for phase aberrations caused by intervening irregular tissues, such as the skull in transcranial applications or inhomogeneous breast tissues. Also described are methods to compensate for motion in targeted abdominal organs such as the liver or kidney. Douglas Christensen – Modeling for Breast and Brain HIFU Treatment Planning Tobias Preusser – TRANS-FUSIMO - An Integrative Approach to Model-Based Treatment Planning of Liver FUS Urvi Vyas – Acoustic Simulations in Transcranial MRgFUS: Treatment Prediction and Analysis Learning Objectives: Understand the role of acoustic beam modeling for predicting the effectiveness of therapeutic ultrasound treatments. Apply acoustic modeling to specific breast, liver, kidney and transcranial anatomies. Determine how to obtain appropriate acoustic modeling parameters from clinical images. Understand the separate role of absorption and scattering in energy delivery to tissues. See how organ motion can be compensated for in ultrasound therapies. Compare simulated data with clinical temperature measurements in transcranial applications. Supported by NIH R01 HL172787 and R01 EB013433 (DC); EU Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under 270186 (FUSIMO) and 611889 (TRANS-FUSIMO)(TP); and P01 CA159992, GE, FUSF and InSightec (UV)
Jagannathan, Srinivasan; Küsel, Elizabeth T; Ratilal, Purnima; Makris, Nicholas C
2012-08-01
Bistatic, long-range measurements of acoustic scattered returns from vertically extended, air-filled tubular targets were made during three distinct field experiments in fluctuating continental shelf waveguides. It is shown that Sonar Equation estimates of mean target-scattered intensity lead to large errors, differing by an order of magnitude from both the measurements and waveguide scattering theory. The use of the Ingenito scattering model is also shown to lead to significant errors in estimating mean target-scattered intensity in the field experiments because they were conducted in range-dependent ocean environments with large variations in sound speed structure over the depth of the targets, scenarios that violate basic assumptions of the Ingenito model. Green's theorem based full-field modeling that describes scattering from vertically extended tubular targets in range-dependent ocean waveguides by taking into account nonuniform sound speed structure over the target's depth extent is shown to accurately describe the statistics of the targets' scattered field in all three field experiments. Returns from the man-made targets are also shown to have a very different spectral dependence from the natural target-like clutter of the dominant fish schools observed, suggesting that judicious multi-frequency sensing may often provide a useful means of distinguishing fish from man-made targets.
Scattering and; Delay, Scale, and Sum Migration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lehman, S K
2011-07-06
How do we see? What is the mechanism? Consider standing in an open field on a clear sunny day. In the field are a yellow dog and a blue ball. From a wave-based remote sensing point of view the sun is a source of radiation. It is a broadband electromagnetic source which, for the purposes of this introduction, only the visible spectrum is considered (approximately 390 to 750 nanometers or 400 to 769 TeraHertz). The source emits an incident field into the known background environment which, for this example, is free space. The incident field propagates until it strikes an object or target, either the yellow dog or the blue ball. The interaction of the incident field with an object results in a scattered field. The scattered field arises from a mis-match between the background refractive index, considered to be unity, and the scattering object refractive index ('yellow' for the case of the dog, and 'blue' for the ball). This is also known as an impedance mis-match. The scattering objects are referred to as secondary sources of radiation, that radiation being the scattered field which propagates until it is measured by the two receivers known as 'eyes'. The eyes focus the measured scattered field to form images which are processed by the 'wetware' of the brain for detection, identification, and localization. When time series representations of the measured scattered field are available, the image forming focusing process can be mathematically modeled by delayed, scaled, and summed migration. This concept of optical propagation, scattering, and focusing have one-to-one equivalents in the acoustic realm. This document is intended to present the basic concepts of scalar scattering and migration used in wide band wave-based remote sensing and imaging. The terms beamforming and (delayed, scaled, and summed) migration are used interchangeably but are to be distinguished from the narrow band (frequency domain) beamforming to determine
CALCULATION OF ACOUSTIC EFFICIENCY OF PORTABLE ACOUSTIC SCREEN
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aleksandr Skvortsov
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The research of influence of life environment adverse factors on physical development and health of population is an actual problem of ecology. The aspects of the most actual problems of the modern world, namely environmental industrial noise pollution are considered in the article. Industrial facilities everywhere have noisy equipment. Noise is a significant factors of negative influenceon people and environment. Combined effects of noise and of other physical pollutions on people may cause amplification of their negative impact. If the noise pollution level from the object in a residential area exceeds the permissible levels (MPL, noise protection measures can be initiated. Today, the most common design decisions for noise protection are sound absorbing construction, noise screens and barriers, acousting housings, soundproff cabins. Many of them are popular, others are less known. The article deals with one of the most wide spread means of noise protection – a portable acoustic screen. The aim of the research is to determine the efficiency of portable acoustic screens. It is shown that the installation of such structures can reduce the average value of the sound level. The authors analyzed acoustic screens as device to reduce noise pollution. The authors offer a potable acoustic screen differing from the used easyness, mobility, minimum price and good sound protective properties. Effectiveness, a sound absorption coefficient and sound conductivity coefficient of a portable acoustic screen are evaluated. The descriptions of the algorithm calculations and the combination of technical solutions have practical originality. The results of the research demonstrate the advantages of the proposed solutions for reducing noise levels in the agro-industrial complex.
Ariza, Alejandro
2014-07-21
The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) on 10 October 2011 promoted dramatic perturbation of the water column leading to changes in the distribution of pelagic fauna. To study the response of the scattering biota, we combined acoustic data with hydrographic profiles and concurrent sea surface turbidity indexes from satellite imagery. We also monitored changes in the plankton and nekton communities through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases. Decrease of oxygen, acidification, rising temperature and deposition of chemicals in shallow waters resulted in a reduction of epipelagic stocks and a disruption of diel vertical migration (nocturnal ascent) of mesopelagic organisms. Furthermore, decreased light levels at depth caused by extinction in the volcanic plume resulted in a significant shallowing of the deep acoustic scattering layer. Once the eruption ceased, the distribution and abundances of the pelagic biota returned to baseline levels. There was no evidence of a volcano-induced bloom in the plankton community. © 2014 Ariza et al.
The statistical mechanics of vortex-acoustic ion wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giles, M.J.
1980-01-01
The equilibrium statistical mechanics of electrostatic ion wave turbulence is studied within the framework of a continuum ion flow with adiabatic electrons. The wave field consists in general of two components, namely ion-acoustic and ion vortex modes. It is shown that the latter can significantly affect the equilibria on account of their ability both to emit and to scatter ion sound. Exact equilibria for the vortex-acoustic wave field are given in terms of a canonical distribution and the correlation functions are expressed in terms of a generating functional. Detailed calculations are carried out for the case in which the dominant coupling is an indirect interaction of the vortex modes mediated by the sound field. An equation for the spectrum of the vortex modes is obtained for this case, which is shown to possess a simple exact solution. This solution shows that the spectrum of fluctuations changes considerably as the total energy increases. Condensed vortex states could occur in the plasma sheet of the earth's magnetosphere and it is shown that the predicted ratio of the mean ion energy to the mean electron energy is consistent with the trend of observed values. (author)
Acoustic radiation force on a rigid elliptical cylinder in plane (quasi)standing waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitri, F. G.
2015-01-01
The acoustic radiation force on a 2D elliptical (non-circular) cylinder centered on the axis of wave propagation of plane quasi-standing and standing waves is derived, based on the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in cylindrical coordinates. A non-dimensional acoustic radiation force function, which is the radiation force per unit length, per characteristic energy density and per unit cross-sectional surface of the ellipse, is defined in terms of the scattering coefficients that are determined by applying the Neumann boundary condition for an immovable surface. A system of linear equations involving a single numerical integration procedure is solved by matrix inversion. Numerical simulations showing the transition from the quasi-standing to the (equi-amplitude) standing wave behaviour are performed with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio a/b, where a and b are the ellipse semi-axes, as well as the dimensionless size parameter kb (where k is the wavenumber), without the restriction to a particular range of frequencies. It is found that at high kb values > 1, the radiation force per length with broadside incidence is larger, whereas the opposite situation occurs in the long-wavelength limit (i.e., kb < 1). The results are particularly relevant in acoustic levitation of elliptical cylinders, the acoustic stabilization of liquid columns in a host medium, acousto-fluidics devices, and other particle dynamics applications to name a few. Moreover, the formalism presented here may be effectively applied to compute the acoustic radiation force on other 2D surfaces of arbitrary shape such as super-ellipses, Chebyshev cylindrical particles, or other non-circular geometries
Acoustic radiation force on a rigid elliptical cylinder in plane (quasi)standing waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitri, F. G., E-mail: F.G.Mitri@ieee.org [Chevron, Area 52 Technology–ETC, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87508 (United States)
2015-12-07
The acoustic radiation force on a 2D elliptical (non-circular) cylinder centered on the axis of wave propagation of plane quasi-standing and standing waves is derived, based on the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in cylindrical coordinates. A non-dimensional acoustic radiation force function, which is the radiation force per unit length, per characteristic energy density and per unit cross-sectional surface of the ellipse, is defined in terms of the scattering coefficients that are determined by applying the Neumann boundary condition for an immovable surface. A system of linear equations involving a single numerical integration procedure is solved by matrix inversion. Numerical simulations showing the transition from the quasi-standing to the (equi-amplitude) standing wave behaviour are performed with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio a/b, where a and b are the ellipse semi-axes, as well as the dimensionless size parameter kb (where k is the wavenumber), without the restriction to a particular range of frequencies. It is found that at high kb values > 1, the radiation force per length with broadside incidence is larger, whereas the opposite situation occurs in the long-wavelength limit (i.e., kb < 1). The results are particularly relevant in acoustic levitation of elliptical cylinders, the acoustic stabilization of liquid columns in a host medium, acousto-fluidics devices, and other particle dynamics applications to name a few. Moreover, the formalism presented here may be effectively applied to compute the acoustic radiation force on other 2D surfaces of arbitrary shape such as super-ellipses, Chebyshev cylindrical particles, or other non-circular geometries.
Effects of subsampling of passive acoustic recordings on acoustic metrics.
Thomisch, Karolin; Boebel, Olaf; Zitterbart, Daniel P; Samaran, Flore; Van Parijs, Sofie; Van Opzeeland, Ilse
2015-07-01
Passive acoustic monitoring is an important tool in marine mammal studies. However, logistics and finances frequently constrain the number and servicing schedules of acoustic recorders, requiring a trade-off between deployment periods and sampling continuity, i.e., the implementation of a subsampling scheme. Optimizing such schemes to each project's specific research questions is desirable. This study investigates the impact of subsampling on the accuracy of two common metrics, acoustic presence and call rate, for different vocalization patterns (regimes) of baleen whales: (1) variable vocal activity, (2) vocalizations organized in song bouts, and (3) vocal activity with diel patterns. To this end, above metrics are compared for continuous and subsampled data subject to different sampling strategies, covering duty cycles between 50% and 2%. The results show that a reduction of the duty cycle impacts negatively on the accuracy of both acoustic presence and call rate estimates. For a given duty cycle, frequent short listening periods improve accuracy of daily acoustic presence estimates over few long listening periods. Overall, subsampling effects are most pronounced for low and/or temporally clustered vocal activity. These findings illustrate the importance of informed decisions when applying subsampling strategies to passive acoustic recordings or analyses for a given target species.
Doinikov, Alexander A; Combriat, Thomas; Thibault, Pierre; Marmottant, Philippe
2016-09-01
A theoretical model is developed for acoustic streaming generated by a cylindrical bubble confined in a fluid channel between two planar elastic walls. The bubble is assumed to undergo volume and translational oscillations. The volume oscillation is caused by an imposed acoustic pressure field and generates the bulk scattered wave in the fluid gap and Lamb-type surface waves propagating along the fluid-wall interfaces. The translational oscillation is induced by the velocity field of an external sound source such as another bubble or an oscillatory fluid flow. The acoustic streaming is assumed to result from the interaction of the volume and the translational modes of the bubble oscillations. The general solutions for the linear equations of fluid motion and the equations of acoustic streaming are calculated with no restrictions on the ratio between the viscous penetration depth and the bubble size. Approximate solutions for the limit of low viscosity are provided as well. Simulations of streamline patterns show that the geometry of the streaming resembles flows generated by a source dipole, while the vortex orientation is governed by the driving frequency, bubble size, and the distance of the bubble from the source of translational excitation. Experimental verification of the developed theory is performed using data for streaming generated by bubble pairs.
Stimulated Raman scattering and ion dynamics: the role of Langmuir wave non-linearities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonnaud, G.; Pesme, D.
1988-02-01
The non-linear evolution of stimulated Raman scattering by coupling of the SRS-driven Langmuir waves to ion acoustic waves is studied numerically, in a homogeneous density laser-irradiated plasma. The coupled wave amplitude behaviour is represented either by envelope equations or by complete wave-like equations. The various physical phenomena which are involved are described. This preliminary work has been presented at the 17th Anomalous Absorption Conference, held in last May, in Lake Tahoe City (USA) [fr
Acoustic scattering from a contrast agent microbubble near an elastic wall of finite thickness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doinikov, Alexander A; Aired, Leila; Bouakaz, Ayache
2011-01-01
Interest in the problem under consideration in this study is motivated by targeted ultrasound imaging where one has to deal with microbubble contrast agents pulsating near blood vessel walls. A modified Rayleigh–Plesset equation is derived that describes the oscillation of a contrast agent microbubble near an elastic wall of finite thickness. It is assumed that the medium behind the wall is a fluid but it is shown that the equation obtained is easily transformable to the case that the medium behind the wall is an elastic solid. In contrast to the model of a rigid wall, which predicts decreasing natural frequency of a bubble near the wall, the elastic wall model reveals that the bubble natural frequency can both decrease and increase, and in cases of interest for medical applications, the bubble natural frequency usually increases. It is found that the influence of an elastic wall on the acoustic response of a bubble is determined by the ratio between a cumulative parameter, which integrally characterizes the mechanical properties of the wall and has the dimension of density, and the density of the liquid surrounding the bubble. It is shown that the acoustic influence of the arterial wall on the bubble is weak and apparently cannot be used to recognize the moment when the bubble approaches the wall. However, in experiments where the behavior of bubbles near various plastic walls is observed, changes in the bubble response, such as increasing natural frequency and decreasing oscillation amplitude, are detectable.
Karlsen, Jonas; Bruus, Henrik
2015-11-01
We present a theoretical analysis (arxiv.org/abs/1507.01043) of the acoustic radiation force on a single small particle, either a thermoviscous fluid droplet or a thermoelastic solid particle, suspended in a viscous and heat-conducting fluid. Our analysis places no restrictions on the viscous and thermal boundary layer thicknesses relative to the particle radius, but it assumes the particle to be small in comparison to the acoustic wavelength. This is the limit relevant to scattering of ultrasound waves from sub-micrometer particles. For particle sizes smaller than the boundary layer widths, our theory leads to profound consequences for the acoustic radiation force. For example, for liquid droplets and solid particles suspended in gasses we predict forces orders of magnitude larger than expected from ideal-fluid theory. Moreover, for certain relevant choices of materials, we find a sign change in the acoustic radiation force on different-sized but otherwise identical particles. These findings lead to the concept of a particle-size-dependent acoustophoretic contrast factor, highly relevant to applications in acoustic levitation or separation of micro-particles in gases, as well as to handling of μm- and nm-sized particles such as bacteria and vira in lab-on-a-chip systems.
Modelling of the acoustic field of a multi-element HIFU array scattered by human ribs
Gélat, Pierre; ter Haar, Gail; Saffari, Nader
2011-09-01
The efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the treatment of a range of different cancers, including those of the liver, prostate and breast, has been demonstrated. As a non-invasive focused therapy, HIFU offers considerable advantages over techniques such as chemotherapy and surgical resection in terms of reduced risk of harmful side effects. Despite this, there are a number of significant challenges which currently hinder its widespread clinical application. One of these challenges is the need to transmit sufficient energy through the rib cage to induce tissue necrosis in the required volume whilst minimizing the formation of side lobes. Multi-element random-phased arrays are currently showing great promise in overcoming the limitations of single-element transducers. Nevertheless, successful treatment of a patient with liver tumours requires a thorough understanding of the way in which the ultrasonic pressure field from a HIFU array is scattered by the rib cage. In order to address this, a boundary element approach based on a generalized minimal residual (GMRES) implementation of the Burton-Miller formulation was used in conjunction with phase conjugation techniques to focus the field of a 256-element random HIFU array behind human ribs at locations requiring intercostal and transcostal treatment. Simulations were carried out on a 3D mesh of quadratic pressure patches generated using CT scan anatomical data for adult ribs 9-12 on the right side. The methodology was validated on spherical and cylindrical scatterers. Field calculations were also carried out for idealized ribs, consisting of arrays of strip-like scatterers, demonstrating effects of splitting at the focus. This method has the advantage of fully accounting for the effect of scattering and diffraction in 3D under continuous wave excitation.
Modelling of the acoustic field of a multi-element HIFU array scattered by human ribs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gelat, Pierre [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Ter Haar, Gail [Therapeutic Ultrasound Group, Physics Department, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Saffari, Nader, E-mail: Pierre.Gelat@npl.co.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)
2011-09-07
The efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the treatment of a range of different cancers, including those of the liver, prostate and breast, has been demonstrated. As a non-invasive focused therapy, HIFU offers considerable advantages over techniques such as chemotherapy and surgical resection in terms of reduced risk of harmful side effects. Despite this, there are a number of significant challenges which currently hinder its widespread clinical application. One of these challenges is the need to transmit sufficient energy through the rib cage to induce tissue necrosis in the required volume whilst minimizing the formation of side lobes. Multi-element random-phased arrays are currently showing great promise in overcoming the limitations of single-element transducers. Nevertheless, successful treatment of a patient with liver tumours requires a thorough understanding of the way in which the ultrasonic pressure field from a HIFU array is scattered by the rib cage. In order to address this, a boundary element approach based on a generalized minimal residual (GMRES) implementation of the Burton-Miller formulation was used in conjunction with phase conjugation techniques to focus the field of a 256-element random HIFU array behind human ribs at locations requiring intercostal and transcostal treatment. Simulations were carried out on a 3D mesh of quadratic pressure patches generated using CT scan anatomical data for adult ribs 9-12 on the right side. The methodology was validated on spherical and cylindrical scatterers. Field calculations were also carried out for idealized ribs, consisting of arrays of strip-like scatterers, demonstrating effects of splitting at the focus. This method has the advantage of fully accounting for the effect of scattering and diffraction in 3D under continuous wave excitation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yasenjan Ghupur; Mamtimin Geni; Mamatrishat Mamat; Abudukelimu Abudureheman
2015-01-01
The effects of multiple scattering on the electron transport properties in drain regions are numerically investigated for the cases of strained-Si diodes with or without scattering in the channel. The performance of non-ballistic (with scattering) channel Si-diodes is compared with that of ballistic (without scattering) channel Si-diodes, using the strain and scattering model. Our results show that the values of the electron velocity and the current in the strain model are higher than the respective values in the unstrained model, and the values of the velocity and the current in the ballistic channel model are higher than the respective values in the non-ballistic channel model. In the strain and scattering models, the effect of each carrier scattering mechanism on the performance of the Si-diodes is analyzed in the drain region. For the ballistic channel model, our results show that inter-valley optical phonon scattering improves device performance, whereas intra-valley acoustic phonon scattering degrades device performance. For the strain model, our results imply that the larger energy splitting of the strained Si could suppress the inter-valley phonon scattering rate. In conclusion, for the drain region, investigation of the strained-Si and scattering mechanisms are necessary, in order to improve the performance of nanoscale ballistic regime devices. (paper)
Anti-sound and Acoustical Cloaks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Veturia CHIROIU
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The principles by which the acoustics can be mimicked in order to reduce or cancel the vibrational field are based on anti-sound concept which can be materialized by acoustic cloaks. Geometric transformations open an elegant way towards the unconstrained control of sound through acoustic metamaterials. Acoustic cloaks can be achieved through geometric transformations which bring exotic metamaterial properties into the acoustic equations. Our paper brings new ideas concerning the technological keys for manufacturing of novel metamaterials based on the spatial compression of Cantor structures, and the architecture of 3D acoustic cloaks in a given frequency band, with application to architectural acoustics.
Acoustical and optical radiation pressure and the development of single beam acoustical tweezers
Thomas, Jean-Louis; Marchiano, Régis; Baresch, Diego
2017-07-01
Studies on radiation pressure in acoustics and optics have enriched one another and have a long common history. Acoustic radiation pressure is used for metrology, levitation, particle trapping and actuation. However, the dexterity and selectivity of single-beam optical tweezers are still to be matched with acoustical devices. Optical tweezers can trap, move and position micron size particles, biological samples or even atoms with subnanometer accuracy in three dimensions. One limitation of optical tweezers is the weak force that can be applied without thermal damage due to optical absorption. Acoustical tweezers overcome this limitation since the radiation pressure scales as the field intensity divided by the speed of propagation of the wave. However, the feasibility of single beam acoustical tweezers was demonstrated only recently. In this paper, we propose a historical review of the strong similarities but also the specificities of acoustical and optical radiation pressures, from the expression of the force to the development of single-beam acoustical tweezers.
Invisibility problem in acoustics, electromagnetism and heat transfer. Inverse design method
Alekseev, G.; Tokhtina, A.; Soboleva, O.
2017-10-01
Two approaches (direct design and inverse design methods) for solving problems of designing devices providing invisibility of material bodies of detection using different physical fields - electromagnetic, acoustic and static are discussed. The second method is applied for solving problems of designing cloaking devices for the 3D stationary thermal scattering model. Based on this method the design problems under study are reduced to respective control problems. The material parameters (radial and tangential heat conductivities) of the inhomogeneous anisotropic medium filling the thermal cloak and the density of auxiliary heat sources play the role of controls. A unique solvability of direct thermal scattering problem in the Sobolev space is proved and the new estimates of solutions are established. Using these results, the solvability of control problem is proved and the optimality system is derived. Based on analysis of optimality system, the stability estimates of optimal solutions are established and numerical algorithms for solving particular thermal cloaking problem are proposed.
Acoustic transparency and slow sound using detuned acoustic resonators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.
2011-01-01
We demonstrate that the phenomenon of acoustic transparency and slowsound propagation can be realized with detuned acoustic resonators (DAR), mimicking thereby the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in atomic physics. Sound propagation in a pipe with a series of side...
Liu, Xiaodong
2017-08-01
A sampling method by using scattering amplitude is proposed for shape and location reconstruction in inverse acoustic scattering problems. Only matrix multiplication is involved in the computation, thus the novel sampling method is very easy and simple to implement. With the help of the factorization of the far field operator, we establish an inf-criterion for characterization of underlying scatterers. This result is then used to give a lower bound of the proposed indicator functional for sampling points inside the scatterers. While for the sampling points outside the scatterers, we show that the indicator functional decays like the bessel functions as the sampling point goes away from the boundary of the scatterers. We also show that the proposed indicator functional continuously depends on the scattering amplitude, this further implies that the novel sampling method is extremely stable with respect to errors in the data. Different to the classical sampling method such as the linear sampling method or the factorization method, from the numerical point of view, the novel indicator takes its maximum near the boundary of the underlying target and decays like the bessel functions as the sampling points go away from the boundary. The numerical simulations also show that the proposed sampling method can deal with multiple multiscale case, even the different components are close to each other.
Jensen, Finn B; Porter, Michael B; Schmidt, Henrik
2011-01-01
Since the mid-1970s, the computer has played an increasingly pivotal role in the field of ocean acoustics. Faster and less expensive than actual ocean experiments, and capable of accommodating the full complexity of the acoustic problem, numerical models are now standard research tools in ocean laboratories. The progress made in computational ocean acoustics over the last thirty years is summed up in this authoritative and innovatively illustrated new text. Written by some of the field's pioneers, all Fellows of the Acoustical Society of America, Computational Ocean Acoustics presents the latest numerical techniques for solving the wave equation in heterogeneous fluid–solid media. The authors discuss various computational schemes in detail, emphasizing the importance of theoretical foundations that lead directly to numerical implementations for real ocean environments. To further clarify the presentation, the fundamental propagation features of the techniques are illustrated in color. Computational Ocean A...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salamatov, E.I. [Physico-Technical Institute, UrB RAS, 132 Kirov Street, Izhevsk (Russian Federation)
2012-01-15
Elementary acts of acoustic phonon scattering in nanowires are studied numerically by the FDTD method. The points of bifurcation of the main waveguide are considered as defects. The particularities of the reflection/transmission coefficient of phonons of different polarizations are studied as a function of the frequency and geometrical parameters of the problem. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.
2014-01-01
A spacecraft at launch is subjected to a harsh acoustic and vibration environment resulting from the passage of acoustic energy, created during the liftoff of a launch vehicle, through the vehicle's payload fairing. In order to ensure the mission success of the spacecraft it is often necessary to reduce the resulting internal acoustic sound pressure levels through the usage of acoustic attenuation systems. Melamine foam, lining the interior walls of the payload fairing, is often utilized as the main component of such a system. In order to better understand the acoustic properties of melamine foam, with the goal of developing improved acoustic attenuation systems, NASA has recently performed panel level testing on numerous configurations of melamine foam acoustic treatments at the Riverbank Acoustical Laboratory. Parameters assessed included the foam's thickness and density, as well as the effects of a top outer cover sheet material and mass barriers embedded within the foam. This testing followed the ASTM C423 standard for absorption and the ASTM E90 standard for transmission loss. The acoustic test data obtained and subsequent conclusions are the subjects of this paper.
Density-near-zero using the acoustically induced transparency of a Fano acoustic resonator
Elayouch, A.
2017-01-05
We report experimental results of near-zero mass density involving an acoustic metamaterial supporting Fano resonance. For this, we designed and fabricated an acoustic resonator with two closely coupled modes and measured its transmission properties. Our study reveals that the phenomenon of acoustically induced transparency is accompanied by an effect of near-zero density. Indeed, the dynamic effective parameters obtained from experimental data show the presence of a frequency band where the effective mass density is close to zero, with high transmission levels reaching 0.7. Furthermore, we demonstrate that such effective parameters lead to wave guiding in a 90-degrees-bent channel. This kind of acoustic metamaterial can, therefore, give rise to acoustic functions like controlling the wavefront, which may lead to very promising applications in acoustic cloacking or imaging.
Jena, D. P.; Panigrahi, S. N.
2016-03-01
Requirement of designing a sophisticated digital band-pass filter in acoustic based condition monitoring has been eliminated by introducing a passive acoustic filter in the present work. So far, no one has attempted to explore the possibility of implementing passive acoustic filters in acoustic based condition monitoring as a pre-conditioner. In order to enhance the acoustic based condition monitoring, a passive acoustic band-pass filter has been designed and deployed. Towards achieving an efficient band-pass acoustic filter, a generalized design methodology has been proposed to design and optimize the desired acoustic filter using multiple filter components in series. An appropriate objective function has been identified for genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique with multiple design constraints. In addition, the sturdiness of the proposed method has been demonstrated in designing a band-pass filter by using an n-branch Quincke tube, a high pass filter and multiple Helmholtz resonators. The performance of the designed acoustic band-pass filter has been shown by investigating the piston-bore defect of a motor-bike using engine noise signature. On the introducing a passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring reveals the enhancement in machine learning based fault identification practice significantly. This is also a first attempt of its own kind.
Acoustic comfort in eating establishments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svensson, David; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas
2014-01-01
The subjective concept of acoustic comfort in eating establishments has been investigated in this study. The goal was to develop a predictive model for the acoustic comfort, by means of simple objective parameters, while also examining which other subjective acoustic parameters could help explain...... the feeling of acoustic comfort. Through several layers of anal ysis, acoustic comfort was found to be rather complex, and could not be explained entirely by common subjective parameters such as annoyance, intelligibility or privacy. A predictive model for the mean acoustic comfort for an eating establishment...
Springer handbook of acoustics
2014-01-01
Acoustics, the science of sound, has developed into a broad interdisciplinary field encompassing the academic disciplines of physics, engineering, psychology, speech, audiology, music, architecture, physiology, neuroscience, and electronics. The Springer Handbook of Acoustics is also in his 2nd edition an unparalleled modern handbook reflecting this richly interdisciplinary nature edited by one of the acknowledged masters in the field, Thomas Rossing. Researchers and students benefit from the comprehensive contents. This new edition of the Handbook features over 11 revised and expanded chapters, new illustrations, and 2 new chapters covering microphone arrays and acoustic emission. Updated chapters contain the latest research and applications in, e.g. sound propagation in the atmosphere, nonlinear acoustics in fluids, building and concert hall acoustics, signal processing, psychoacoustics, computer music, animal bioacousics, sound intensity, modal acoustics as well as new chapters on microphone arrays an...
Akiyama, Iwaki
2009-01-01
The 29th International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Shonan Village, Kanagawa, Japan, April 15-18, 2007. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place every two years since 1968 and forms a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. In the course of the years the volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have developed and become well-known and appreciated reference works. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art in the field as well as an in-depth look at its leading edge research, this Volume 29 in the Series contains again an excellent collection of seventy papers presented in nine major categories: Strain Imaging Biological and Medical Applications Acoustic Microscopy Non-Destructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Components and Systems Geophysics and Underwater Imaging Physics and Mathematics Medical Image Analysis FDTD method and Other Numerical Simulations Audience Researcher...
Damarla, Thyagaraju
2015-01-01
This book presents all aspects of situational awareness in a battlefield using acoustic signals. It starts by presenting the science behind understanding and interpretation of sound signals. The book then goes on to provide various signal processing techniques used in acoustics to find the direction of sound source, localize gunfire, track vehicles, and detect people. The necessary mathematical background and various classification and fusion techniques are presented. The book contains majority of the things one would need to process acoustic signals for all aspects of situational awareness in one location. The book also presents array theory, which is pivotal in finding the direction of arrival of acoustic signals. In addition, the book presents techniques to fuse the information from multiple homogeneous/heterogeneous sensors for better detection. MATLAB code is provided for majority of the real application, which is a valuable resource in not only understanding the theory but readers, can also use the code...
Acoustic Emission Beamforming for Detection and Localization of Damage
Rivey, Joshua Callen
the conventional wave propagation tracking technique based on laser doppler vibrometry that requires synchronization of data acquired from numerous excitations and measurements. The proposed technique can be used to characterize and localize damage by detecting the scattering, attenuation, and reflections of stress waves resulting from damage and defects. These studies lend credence to the potential development of new SHM/NDE techniques based on acoustic emission beamforming for characterizing a wide spectrum of damage modes in next-generation materials and structures without the need for mounted contact sensors.
Frequency Domain Multi-parameter Full Waveform Inversion for Acoustic VTI Media
Djebbi, Ramzi
2017-05-26
Multi-parameter full waveform inversion (FWI) for transversely isotropic (TI) media with vertical axis of symmetry (VTI) suffers from the trade-off between the parameters. The trade-off results in the leakage of one parameter\\'s update into the other during the inversion. It affects the accuracy and convergence of the inversion. The sensitivity analyses suggested a parameterisation using the horizontal velocity vh, epsilon and eta to reduce the trade-off for surface recorded seismic data.We test the (vh, epsilon, eta) parameterisation for acoustic VTI media using a scattering integral (SI) based inversion. The data is modeled in frequency domain and the model is updated using a preconditioned conjugate gradient method. We applied the method to the VTI Marmousi II model and in the inversion, we keep eta parameter fixed as the background initial model and we invert simultaneously for both vh and epsilon. The results show the suitability of the parameterisation for multi-parameter VTI acoustic inversion as well as the accuracy of the inversion approach.
Atomic dynamics in fluids studied by inelastic x-ray scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inui, Masanori; Kajihara, Yukio; Matsuda, Kazuhiro; Ishikawa, Daisuke; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Baron, Alfred Q.
2010-01-01
Studies on atomic dynamics in supercritical fluids at high temperature and high pressure have remarkably been advanced by using an inelastic x-ray scattering technique that achieved a meV-energy resolution in the middle of 1990's. In this article, we describe a brief review of the theoretical background on liquid dynamics, our own high-temperature high-pressure technique and recent results of atomic dynamics in supercritical fluids. In particular, we report the results of inelastic x-ray scattering measurements for expanding fluid Hg at high temperature and high pressure, which were conduced at BL35XU/SPring-8. We found that in the metal-nonmetal transition in fluid Hg, the excitation energy of the acoustic mode disperses three times faster than the adiabatic sound velocity obtained by ultrasonic measurements. This phenomenon must be crucial to understand how a metallic state is formed during atomic condensation accurately. Finally we put a future development of this field in perspective. (author)
Acoustic insulator for combined well equipment of acoustic and radioactivity logging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arkad'ev, E.A.; Gorbachev, Yu.I.; Dseban', I.P.; Yagodov, G.I.
1977-01-01
The design of an acoustic insulator for cobined well equipment of acoustic and radioactivity logaing made on the basis of studying the velocity of elastic waves propagation and attenuation in cable structures of various marks is described. It is shown that the cable probe of electric loggign equipment which is recommended as an acoustic insulator for combined well equipment has the necessary sound-insulating properties
Veidt, Martin; Ng, Ching-Tai
2011-03-01
This paper investigates the scattering characteristics of the fundamental anti-symmetric (A(0)) Lamb wave at through holes in composite laminates. Three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) simulations and experimental measurements are used to study the physical phenomenon. Unidirectional, bidirectional, and quasi-isotropic composite laminates are considered in the study. The influence of different hole diameter to wavelength aspect ratios and different stacking sequences on wave scattering characteristics are investigated. The results show that amplitudes and directivity distribution of the scattered Lamb wave depend on these parameters. In the case of quasi-isotropic composite laminates, the scattering directivity patterns are dominated by the fiber orientation of the outer layers and are quite different for composite laminates with the same number of laminae but different stacking sequence. The study provides improved physical insight into the scattering phenomena at through holes in composite laminates, which is essential to develop, validate, and optimize guided wave damage detection and characterization techniques. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America
Acoustic and streaming velocity components in a resonant waveguide at high acoustic levels.
Daru, Virginie; Reyt, Ida; Bailliet, Hélène; Weisman, Catherine; Baltean-Carlès, Diana
2017-01-01
Rayleigh streaming is a steady flow generated by the interaction between an acoustic wave and a solid wall, generally assumed to be second order in a Mach number expansion. Acoustic streaming is well known in the case of a stationary plane wave at low amplitude: it has a half-wavelength spatial periodicity and the maximum axial streaming velocity is a quadratic function of the acoustic velocity amplitude at antinode. For higher acoustic levels, additional streaming cells have been observed. Results of laser Doppler velocimetry measurements are here compared to direct numerical simulations. The evolution of axial and radial velocity components for both acoustic and streaming velocities is studied from low to high acoustic amplitudes. Two streaming flow regimes are pointed out, the axial streaming dependency on acoustics going from quadratic to linear. The evolution of streaming flow is different for outer cells and for inner cells. Also, the hypothesis of radial streaming velocity being of second order in a Mach number expansion, is not valid at high amplitudes. The change of regime occurs when the radial streaming velocity amplitude becomes larger than the radial acoustic velocity amplitude, high levels being therefore characterized by nonlinear interaction of the different velocity components.
Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cummer, Steven A. ; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea
2016-01-01
Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales....... The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create......-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview...
A domain derivative-based method for solving elastodynamic inverse obstacle scattering problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Louër, Frédérique
2015-01-01
The present work is concerned with the shape reconstruction problem of isotropic elastic inclusions from far-field data obtained by the scattering of a finite number of time-harmonic incident plane waves. This paper aims at completing the theoretical framework which is necessary for the application of geometric optimization tools to the inverse transmission problem in elastodynamics. The forward problem is reduced to systems of boundary integral equations following the direct and indirect methods initially developed for solving acoustic transmission problems. We establish the Fréchet differentiability of the boundary to far-field operator and give a characterization of the first Fréchet derivative and its adjoint operator. Using these results we propose an inverse scattering algorithm based on the iteratively regularized Gauß–Newton method and show numerical experiments in the special case of star-shaped obstacles. (paper)
Education in acoustics in Argentina
Miyara, Federico
2002-11-01
Over the last decades, education in acoustics (EA) in Argentina has experienced ups and downs due to economic and political issues interfering with long term projects. Unlike other countries, like Chile, where EA has reached maturity in spite of the acoustical industry having shown little development, Argentina has several well-established manufacturers of acoustic materials and equipment but no specific career with a major in acoustics. At the university level, acoustics is taught as a complementary--often elective--course for careers such as architecture, communication engineering, or music. In spite of this there are several research centers with programs covering environmental and community noise, effects of noise on man, acoustic signal processing, musical acoustics and acoustic emission, and several national and international meetings are held each year in which results are communicated and discussed. Several books on a variety of topics such as sound system, architectural acoustics, and noise control have been published as well. Another chapter in EA is technical and vocational education, ranging between secondary and postsecondary levels, with technical training on sound system operation or design. Over the last years there have been several attempts to implement master degrees in acoustics or audio engineering, with little or no success.
Acoustic modes of the phonon dispersion relation of NbD/sub x/ alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rowe, J.M.; Vagelatos, N.; Rush, J.J.; Flotow, H.E.
1975-01-01
The acoustic modes of the phonon dispersion relation in Nb, NbD 0 . 15 , and NbD 0 . 45 were measured at 473 0 K for phonons with wave vectors along the [100], [110], and [111] axes by coherent neutron scattering. The observed neutron groups for both alloys were well defined, with little or no apparent broadening. Results are compared to similar data for Nb--Mo alloys and with previous lattice-dynamics results for PdD 0 . 63 . This comparison shows that despite differences in detail, the general features of the dispersion relations of NbD/sub x/ and Nb--Mo are similar after allowing for the differences in lattice parameters for the two alloys. The measured dispersion curves and derived phonon frequency distributions for the Nb--D alloys are quite different from the analogous results for PdD 0 . 63 in that the average acoustic phonon frequencies increase with increasing deuterium concentration and lattice parameter
Review of Progress in Acoustic Levitation
Andrade, Marco A. B.; Pérez, Nicolás; Adamowski, Julio C.
2018-04-01
Acoustic levitation uses acoustic radiation forces to counteract gravity and suspend objects in mid-air. Although acoustic levitation was first demonstrated almost a century ago, for a long time, it was limited to objects much smaller than the acoustic wavelength levitating at fixed positions in space. Recent advances in acoustic levitation now allow not only suspending but also rotating and translating objects in three dimensions. Acoustic levitation is also no longer restricted to small objects and can now be employed to levitate objects larger than the acoustic wavelength. This article reviews the progress of acoustic levitation, focusing on the working mechanism of different types of acoustic levitation devices developed to date. We start with a brief review of the theory. Then, we review the acoustic levitation methods to suspend objects at fixed positions, followed by the techniques that allow the manipulation of objects. Finally, we present a brief summary and offer some future perspectives for acoustic levitation.
Molecular Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostic for Dynamic Temperature, Velocity, and Density Measurements
Mielke, Amy R.; Elam, Kristie A.; Sung, Chi-Jen
2006-01-01
A molecular Rayleigh scattering technique is developed to measure dynamic gas temperature, velocity, and density in unseeded turbulent flows at sampling rates up to 16 kHz. A high power CW laser beam is focused at a point in an air jet plume and Rayleigh scattered light is collected and spectrally resolved. The spectrum of the light, which contains information about the temperature and velocity of the flow, is analyzed using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The circular interference fringe pattern is divided into four concentric regions and sampled at 1 and 16 kHz using photon counting electronics. Monitoring the relative change in intensity within each region allows for measurement of gas temperature and velocity. Independently monitoring the total scattered light intensity provides a measure of gas density. A low speed heated jet is used to validate the measurement of temperature fluctuations and an acoustically excited nozzle flow is studied to validate velocity fluctuation measurements. Power spectral density calculations of the property fluctuations, as well as mean and fluctuating quantities are presented. Temperature fluctuation results are compared with constant current anemometry measurements and velocity fluctuation results are compared with constant temperature anemometry measurements at the same locations.
Interaction of surface plasmon polaritons and acoustic waves inside an acoustic cavity.
Khokhlov, Nikolai; Knyazev, Grigoriy; Glavin, Boris; Shtykov, Yakov; Romanov, Oleg; Belotelov, Vladimir
2017-09-15
In this Letter, we introduce an approach for manipulation of active plasmon polaritons via acoustic waves at sub-terahertz frequency range. The acoustic structures considered are designed as phononic Fabry-Perot microresonators where mirrors are presented with an acoustic superlattice and the structure's surface, and a plasmonic grating is placed on top of the acoustic cavity so formed. It provides phonon localization in the vicinity of the plasmonic grating at frequencies within the phononic stop band enhancing phonon-light interaction. We consider phonon excitation by shining a femtosecond laser pulse on the plasmonic grating. Appropriate theoretical model was used to describe the acoustic process caused by the pump laser pulse in the GaAs/AlAs-based acoustic cavity with a gold grating on top. Strongest modulation is achieved upon excitation of propagating surface plasmon polaritons and hybridization of propagating and localized plasmons. The relative changes in the optical reflectivity of the structure are more than an order of magnitude higher than for the structure without the plasmonic film.
Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice; Seshia, Ashwin A
2016-06-30
Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of cost, size and scalability, as well as potential additional features including integration with microfluidics and electronics, scaled sensitivities associated with smaller dimensions and higher operational frequencies, the ability to multiplex detection across arrays of hundreds of devices embedded in a single chip, increased throughput and the ability to interrogate a wider range of modes including within the same device. Additionally, device fabrication is often compatible with semiconductor volume batch manufacturing techniques enabling cost scalability and a high degree of precision and reproducibility in the manufacturing process. Integration with microfluidics handling also enables suitable sample pre-processing/separation/purification/amplification steps that could improve selectivity and the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Three device types are reviewed here: (i) bulk acoustic wave sensors, (ii) surface acoustic wave sensors, and (iii) micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) sensors. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.
Auroral ion acoustic wave enhancement observed with a radar interferometer system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. M. Schlatter
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Measurements of naturally enhanced ion acoustic line (NEIAL echoes obtained with a five-antenna interferometric imaging radar system are presented. The observations were conducted with the European Incoherent SCATter (EISCAT radar on Svalbard and the EISCAT Aperture Synthesis Imaging receivers (EASI installed at the radar site. Four baselines of the interferometer are used in the analysis. Based on the coherence estimates derived from the measurements, we show that the enhanced backscattering region is of limited extent in the plane perpendicular to the geomagnetic field. Previously it has been argued that the enhanced backscatter region is limited in size; however, here the first unambiguous observations are presented. The size of the enhanced backscatter region is determined to be less than 900 × 500 m, and at times less than 160 m in the direction of the longest antenna separation, assuming the scattering region to have a Gaussian scattering cross section in the plane perpendicular to the geomagnetic field. Using aperture synthesis imaging methods volumetric images of the NEIAL echo are obtained showing the enhanced backscattering region to be aligned with the geomagnetic field. Although optical auroral emissions are observed outside the radar look direction, our observations are consistent with the NEIAL echo occurring on field lines with particle precipitation.
Observation of spin-wave dispersion in Nd-Fe-B magnets using neutron Brillouin scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ono, K.; Inami, N.; Saito, K.; Takeichi, Y.; Kawana, D.; Yokoo, T.; Itoh, S.; Yano, M.; Shoji, T.; Manabe, A.; Kato, A.; Kaneko, Y.
2014-01-01
The low-energy spin-wave dispersion in polycrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets was observed using neutron Brillouin scattering (NBS). Low-energy spin-wave excitations for the lowest acoustic spin-wave mode were clearly observed. From the spin-wave dispersion, we were able to determine the spin-wave stiffness constant D sw (100.0 ± 4.9 meV.Å 2 ) and the exchange stiffness constant A (6.6 ± 0.3 pJ/m)
Fazenda, Bruno; Scarre, Chris; Till, Rupert; Pasalodos, Raquel Jiménez; Guerra, Manuel Rojo; Tejedor, Cristina; Peredo, Roberto Ontañón; Watson, Aaron; Wyatt, Simon; Benito, Carlos García; Drinkall, Helen; Foulds, Frederick
2017-09-01
During the 1980 s, acoustic studies of Upper Palaeolithic imagery in French caves-using the technology then available-suggested a relationship between acoustic response and the location of visual motifs. This paper presents an investigation, using modern acoustic measurement techniques, into such relationships within the caves of La Garma, Las Chimeneas, La Pasiega, El Castillo, and Tito Bustillo in Northern Spain. It addresses methodological issues concerning acoustic measurement at enclosed archaeological sites and outlines a general framework for extraction of acoustic features that may be used to support archaeological hypotheses. The analysis explores possible associations between the position of visual motifs (which may be up to 40 000 yrs old) and localized acoustic responses. Results suggest that motifs, in general, and lines and dots, in particular, are statistically more likely to be found in places where reverberation is moderate and where the low frequency acoustic response has evidence of resonant behavior. The work presented suggests that an association of the location of Palaeolithic motifs with acoustic features is a statistically weak but tenable hypothesis, and that an appreciation of sound could have influenced behavior among Palaeolithic societies of this region.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Jianhong; Guo Huazhong; Song Li; Zhang Wei; Gao Jie; Lu Chuan
2010-01-01
We present a comprehensive study of the effects of two counterpropagating surface acoustic waves on the acoustoelectric current of single electron transport devices. A significant improvement in the accuracy of current quantization is achieved as a result of an additional surface acoustic wave beam. The experiments reveal the sinusoidally periodical modulation in the acoustoelectric current characteristic as a function of the relative phase of the two surface acoustic wave beams. Besides, by using standing surface acoustic waves, the acoustoelectric current is detected which we consider as the so-called anomalous acoustoelectric current produced by acoustic wave mechanical deformations. This kind current is contributed to one component of the acoustoelectric current in surface acoustic wave device, which could enable us to establish a more adequate description of acoustoelectric effects on single-electron acoustic charge transport.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2008-01-01
The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook...... will present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...... from different areas, will find the self-contained chapters accessible and will be interested in the similarities and differences between the approaches and techniques used in different areas of acoustics....
Nakamura, Satoshi; Furusawa, Toshiaki; Sasao, Yasuhiro; Katsura, Kogure; Naoki, Kondo
2013-01-01
It is known that macroscopic objects can be levitated for few to several hundred micrometers by near-field acoustic field and this phenomenon is called near-field acoustic levitation (NFAL). Although there are various experiments conducted to measure integrated acoustic pressure on the object surface, up to now there was no direct method to measure pressure distribution. In this study we measured the acoustic radiation pressure of the near-field acoustic levitation via pressure-sensitive paint.
Observation of self-excited acoustic vortices in defect-mediated dust acoustic wave turbulence.
Tsai, Ya-Yi; I, Lin
2014-07-01
Using the self-excited dust acoustic wave as a platform, we demonstrate experimental observation of self-excited fluctuating acoustic vortex pairs with ± 1 topological charges through spontaneous waveform undulation in defect-mediated turbulence for three-dimensional traveling nonlinear longitudinal waves. The acoustic vortex pair has helical waveforms with opposite chirality around the low-density hole filament pair in xyt space (the xy plane is the plane normal to the wave propagation direction). It is generated through ruptures of sequential crest surfaces and reconnections with their trailing ruptured crest surfaces. The initial rupture is originated from the amplitude reduction induced by the formation of the kinked wave crest strip with strong stretching through the undulation instability. Increasing rupture causes the separation of the acoustic vortex pair after generation. A similar reverse process is followed for the acoustic vortex annihilating with the opposite-charged acoustic vortex from the same or another pair generation.
Acoustic Emission Technology and Application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joo, Y. S.; Lim, S. H.; Eom, H. S.; Kim, J. H.; Jung, H. K.
2003-10-01
Acoustic emission is the elastic wave that is generated by the rapid release of energy from the localized sources within a material. After the observation of acoustic emission phenomenon in 1950, the research and further investigation had been performed. Acoustic emission examination becomes a rapidly matured nondestructive testing method with demonstrated capabilities for characterizing material behavior and for detecting the defect. It is of interest as a possible passive monitoring technique for detecting, locating and characterizing the defects in component and structure. Acoustic emission technology has recently strengthened the on-line monitoring application for the detection of incipient failures and the assurance of structural integrity. The field of acoustic emission testing is still growing vigorously and presents many challenges. Especially, acoustic emission has been successfully applied in the leak detection of primary pressure boundary of nuclear power plants. In this state-of-art report, the principle, measurement and field applications of acoustic emission technique is reviewed and summarized. Acoustic emission technology will contribute to the assurance of nuclear safety as the on-line monitoring technique of structural integrity of NSSS components and structures
Acoustic building infiltration measurement system
Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Raman, Ganesh
2018-04-10
Systems and methods of detecting and identifying a leak from a container or building. Acoustic pressure and velocity are measured. Acoustic properties are acquired from the measured values. The acoustic properties are converted to infiltration/leakage information. Nearfield Acoustic Holography (NAH) may be one method to detect the leakages from a container by locating the noise sources.
The accidental (acoustical) tourist
Van Kirk, Wayne
2002-11-01
The acoustical phenomenon observed at an ancient temple in the Great Ball Court at Chichen Itza was described as ''little short of amazing--an ancient whispering gallery'' by Silvanus G. Morley, leader of the Carnegie Institute's archaeological team that excavated and restored these structures in the 1920s. Since then, many others have experienced the extraordinary acoustics at Chichen Itza and other Maya sites. Despite these reports, archaeologists and acousticians have until recently shown little interest in understanding these phenomena. After experiencing Chichen Itza's remarkable acoustics as a tourist in 1994, the author commenced collecting and disseminating information about acoustical phenomena there and at other Mayan sites, hoping to stimulate interest among archaeologists and acousticians. Were these designs accidental or intentional? If intentional, how was the knowledge obtained? How were acoustical features used? This paper highlights the author's collection of anecdotal reports of mysterious Mayan acoustics (http://http://www.ianlawton.com/pa1.htm), recommended reading for scientists and engineers who wish to pursue this fascinating study. Also recounted are some of the reactions of archaeologists-ranging from curious, helpful, and insightful to humorous and appalling--to outsiders' efforts to bring serious scientific attention to the new field of acoustical archaeology.
Acoustic field modulation in regenerators
Hu, J. Y.; Wang, W.; Luo, E. C.; Chen, Y. Y.
2016-12-01
The regenerator is a key component that transfers energy between heat and work. The conversion efficiency is significantly influenced by the acoustic field in the regenerator. Much effort has been spent to quantitatively determine this influence, but few comprehensive experimental verifications have been performed because of difficulties in modulating and measuring the acoustic field. In this paper, a method requiring two compressors is introduced and theoretically investigated that achieves acoustic field modulation in the regenerator. One compressor outputs the acoustic power for the regenerator; the other acts as a phase shifter. A RC load dissipates the acoustic power out of both the regenerator and the latter compressor. The acoustic field can be modulated by adjusting the current in the two compressors and opening the RC load. The acoustic field is measured with pressure sensors instead of flow-field imaging equipment, thereby greatly simplifying the experiment.
A new parameterization for waveform inversion in acoustic orthorhombic media
Masmoudi, Nabil
2016-05-26
Orthorhombic anisotropic model inversion is extra challenging because of the multiple parameter nature of the inversion problem. The high number of parameters required to describe the medium exerts considerable trade-off and additional nonlinearity to a full-waveform inversion (FWI) application. Choosing a suitable set of parameters to describe the model and designing an effective inversion strategy can help in mitigating this problem. Using the Born approximation, which is the central ingredient of the FWI update process, we have derived radiation patterns for the different acoustic orthorhombic parameterizations. Analyzing the angular dependence of scattering (radiation patterns) of the parameters of different parameterizations starting with the often used Thomsen-Tsvankin parameterization, we have assessed the potential trade-off between the parameters and the resolution in describing the data and inverting for the parameters. The analysis led us to introduce new parameters ϵd, δd, and ηd, which have azimuthally dependent radiation patterns, but keep the scattering potential of the transversely isotropic parameters stationary with azimuth (azimuth independent). The novel parameters ϵd, δd, and ηd are dimensionless and represent a measure of deviation between the vertical planes in orthorhombic anisotropy. Therefore, these deviation parameters offer a new parameterization style for an acoustic orthorhombic medium described by six parameters: three vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) parameters, two deviation parameters, and one parameter describing the anisotropy in the horizontal symmetry plane. The main feature of any parameterization based on the deviation parameters, is the azimuthal independency of the modeled data with respect to the VTI parameters, which allowed us to propose practical inversion strategies based on our experience with the VTI parameters. This feature of the new parameterization style holds for even the long-wavelength components of
Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Tests Instrumentation for Acoustic and Pressure Measurements
Vargas, Magda B.; Counter, Douglas D.
2011-01-01
The Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) was a development test performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) East Test Area (ETA) Test Stand 116. The test article included a 5% scale Ares I vehicle model and tower mounted on the Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 200 instruments located throughout the test article. There were four primary ASMAT instrument suites: ignition overpressure (IOP), lift-off acoustics (LOA), ground acoustics (GA), and spatial correlation (SC). Each instrumentation suite incorporated different sensor models which were selected based upon measurement requirements. These requirements included the type of measurement, exposure to the environment, instrumentation check-outs and data acquisition. The sensors were attached to the test article using different mounts and brackets dependent upon the location of the sensor. This presentation addresses the observed effect of the sensors and mounts on the acoustic and pressure measurements.
Agorá Acoustics - Effects of arcades on the acoustics of public squares
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paini, Dario; Gade, Anders Christian; Rindel, Jens Holger
2005-01-01
This paper is part of a PhD work, dealing with the acoustics of the public squares (‘Agorá Acoustics’), especially when music (amplified or not) is played. Consequently, our approach will be to evaluate public squares using the same set of acoustics concepts for subjective evaluation and objective...... measurements as applied for concert halls and theatres. In this paper the acoustical effects of arcades will be studied, in terms of reverberation (EDT and T30), clarity (C80), intelligibility (STI) and other acoustical parameters. For this purpose, also the theory of coupled rooms is applied and compared...... with results. An acoustic modelling program, ODEON 7.0, was used for this investigation. Three different sizes of public squares were considered. In order to evaluate the ‘real’ effects of the arcades on the open square, models of all three squares were designed both with and without arcades. The sound source...
Understanding acoustics an experimentalist’s view of acoustics and vibration
Garrett, Steven L
2017-01-01
This textbook provides a unified approach to acoustics and vibration suitable for use in advanced undergraduate and first-year graduate courses on vibration and fluids. The book includes thorough treatment of vibration of harmonic oscillators, coupled oscillators, isotropic elasticity, and waves in solids including the use of resonance techniques for determination of elastic moduli. Drawing on 35 years of experience teaching introductory graduate acoustics at the Naval Postgraduate School and Penn State, the author presents a hydrodynamic approach to the acoustics of sound in fluids that provides a uniform methodology for analysis of lumped-element systems and wave propagation that can incorporate attenuation mechanisms and complex media. This view provides a consistent and reliable approach that can be extended with confidence to more complex fluids and future applications. Understanding Acoustics opens with a mathematical introduction that includes graphing and statistical uncertainty, followed by five chap...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shilei Liu
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Acoustic standing waves have been widely used in trapping, patterning, and manipulating particles, whereas one barrier remains: the lack of understanding of force conditions on particles which mainly include acoustic radiation force (ARF and acoustic streaming (AS. In this paper, force conditions on micrometer size polystyrene microspheres in acoustic standing wave fields were investigated. The COMSOL® Mutiphysics particle tracing module was used to numerically simulate force conditions on various particles as a function of time. The velocity of particle movement was experimentally measured using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV. Through experimental and numerical simulation, the functions of ARF and AS in trapping and patterning were analyzed. It is shown that ARF is dominant in trapping and patterning large particles while the impact of AS increases rapidly with decreasing particle size. The combination of using both ARF and AS for medium size particles can obtain different patterns with only using ARF. Findings of the present study will aid the design of acoustic-driven microfluidic devices to increase the diversity of particle patterning.
Yang, Yanye; Ni, Zhengyang; Guo, Xiasheng; Luo, Linjiao; Tu, Juan; Zhang, Dong
2017-01-01
Acoustic standing waves have been widely used in trapping, patterning, and manipulating particles, whereas one barrier remains: the lack of understanding of force conditions on particles which mainly include acoustic radiation force (ARF) and acoustic streaming (AS). In this paper, force conditions on micrometer size polystyrene microspheres in acoustic standing wave fields were investigated. The COMSOL® Mutiphysics particle tracing module was used to numerically simulate force conditions on various particles as a function of time. The velocity of particle movement was experimentally measured using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). Through experimental and numerical simulation, the functions of ARF and AS in trapping and patterning were analyzed. It is shown that ARF is dominant in trapping and patterning large particles while the impact of AS increases rapidly with decreasing particle size. The combination of using both ARF and AS for medium size particles can obtain different patterns with only using ARF. Findings of the present study will aid the design of acoustic-driven microfluidic devices to increase the diversity of particle patterning. PMID:28753955
Gautier, G; Kelders, L; Groby, J P; Dazel, O; De Ryck, L; Leclaire, P
2011-09-01
Wave propagation in macroscopically inhomogeneous porous materials has received much attention in recent years. The wave equation, derived from the alternative formulation of Biot's theory of 1962, was reduced and solved recently in the case of rigid frame inhomogeneous porous materials. This paper focuses on the solution of the full wave equation in which the acoustic and the elastic properties of the poroelastic material vary in one-dimension. The reflection coefficient of a one-dimensional macroscopically inhomogeneous porous material on a rigid backing is obtained numerically using the state vector (or the so-called Stroh) formalism and Peano series. This coefficient can then be used to straightforwardly calculate the scattered field. To validate the method of resolution, results obtained by the present method are compared to those calculated by the classical transfer matrix method at both normal and oblique incidence and to experimental measurements at normal incidence for a known two-layers porous material, considered as a single inhomogeneous layer. Finally, discussion about the absorption coefficient for various inhomogeneity profiles gives further perspectives. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mączka, Mirosław, E-mail: m.maczka@int.pan.wroc.pl [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wrocław 2 (Poland); Kim, Tae Hyun [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Gągor, Anna [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wrocław 2 (Poland); Jankowska-Sumara, Irena [Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorążych 2, 30-084 Kraków (Poland); Majchrowski, Andrzej [Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland); Kojima, Seiji [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)
2015-02-15
Highlights: • Phase transition mechanisms were studied in antiferroelectric PbHf{sub 0.975}Sn{sub 0.025}O{sub 3.} • Acoustic phonons showed anomalies at 472 and 426 K due to phase transitions. • Brillouin data showed evidence for presence of polar clusters in paraelectric phase. • An order-disorder mechanism of the PE to AFE2 transition was proved. - Abstract: Specific heat, dielectric, powder X-ray diffraction and Brillouin scattering studies of phase transitions in antiferroelectric PbHf{sub 0.975}Sn{sub 0.025}O{sub 3} crystal were performed. The specific heat data revealed clear anomalies at T{sub 1} = 473.5 and T{sub 2} = 426.3 K on cooling, which could be attributed to onset of first order phase transitions from the paraelectric (PE) phase to an intermediate antiferroelectric phase (AFE2) and the AFE2 phase to another antiferroelectric phase (AFE1), respectively. The estimated entropy changes at T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} pointed to mainly an order-disorder and displacive character of these transitions, respectively. X-ray diffraction data showed a complex superstructure of the intermediate phase with a = 11.895(6) Å, b = 11.936(4) Å, c = 8.223(3) Å at 453 K. Brillouin studies revealed pronounced softening of longitudinal acoustic (LA) mode in the PE phase associated with its broadening. The broadening and softening exhibited maximum values at T{sub 1}. Additional acoustic anomalies, that is, abrupt frequency shifts for LA and transverse acoustic (TA) modes were also observed at T{sub 2}. Brillouin scattering data also showed presence of a broad central peak (CP) that exhibited highest intensity at T{sub 1}. The observed temperature dependences of acoustic modes and CP indicate order-disorder character of the FE to AFE2 phase transition and importance of polar precursor clusters in the PE phase. The obtained data also suggest that the intermediate antiferroelectric phases in Sn{sup 4+} doped PbHfO{sub 3} and PbZrO{sub 3} may have very similar structures
2016-06-28
the Deep Water project and participate in the NPAL Workshops, including Art Baggeroer (MIT), J. Beron- Vera (UMiami), M. Brown (UMiami), T...Kathleen E . Wage. The North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory deep-water acoustic propagation experiments in the Philippine Sea. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 134(4...estimate of the angle α during PhilSea09, made from ADCP measurements at the site of the DVLA. Sim. A B1 B2 B3 C D E F Prof. # 0 4 4 4 5 10 16 20 α
Numerical computations of interior transmission eigenvalues for scattering objects with cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peters, Stefan; Kleefeld, Andreas
2016-01-01
In this article we extend the inside-outside duality for acoustic transmission eigenvalue problems by allowing scattering objects that may contain cavities. In this context we provide the functional analytical framework necessary to transfer the techniques that have been used in Kirsch and Lechleiter (2013 Inverse Problems, 29 104011) to derive the inside-outside duality. Additionally, extensive numerical results are presented to show that we are able to successfully detect interior transmission eigenvalues with the inside-outside duality approach for a variety of obstacles with and without cavities in three dimensions. In this context, we also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the inside-outside duality approach from a numerical point of view. Furthermore we derive the integral equations necessary to extend the algorithm in Kleefeld (2013 Inverse Problems, 29 104012) to compute highly accurate interior transmission eigenvalues for scattering objects with cavities, which we will then use as reference values to examine the accuracy of the inside-outside duality algorithm. (paper)
Feasibility of Acoustic Remote Sensing of Large Herring Shoals and Seafloor by Baleen Whales
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dong Hoon Yi
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Recent research has found a high spatial and temporal correlation between certain baleen whale vocalizations and peak herring spawning processes in the Gulf of Maine. These vocalizations are apparently related to feeding activities with suggested functions that include communication, prey manipulation, and echolocation. Here, the feasibility of the echolocation function is investigated. Physical limitations on the ability to detect large herring shoals and the seafloor by acoustic remote sensing are determined with ocean acoustic propagation, scattering, and statistical theories given baleen whale auditory parameters. Detection is found to be highly dependent on ambient noise conditions, herring shoal distributions, baleen whale time-frequency vocalization spectra, and geophysical parameters of the ocean waveguide. Detections of large herring shoals are found to be physically feasible in common Gulf of Maine herring spawning scenarios at up to 10 ± 6 km in range for humpback parameters and 1 ± 1 km for minke parameters but not for blue and fin parameters even at zero horizontal range. Detections of the seafloor are found to be feasible up to 2 ± 1 km for blue and humpback parameters and roughly 1 km for fin and minke parameters, suggesting that the whales share a common acoustic sensation of rudimentary features of the geophysical environment.
Frequency Selection for Multi-frequency Acoustic Measurement of Suspended Sediment
Chen, X.; HO, H.; Fu, X.
2017-12-01
Multi-frequency acoustic measurement of suspended sediment has found successful applications in marine and fluvial environments. Difficult challenges remain in regard to improving its effectiveness and efficiency when applied to high concentrations and wide size distributions in rivers. We performed a multi-frequency acoustic scattering experiment in a cylindrical tank with a suspension of natural sands. The sands range from 50 to 600 μm in diameter with a lognormal size distribution. The bulk concentration of suspended sediment varied from 1.0 to 12.0 g/L. We found that the commonly used linear relationship between the intensity of acoustic backscatter and suspended sediment concentration holds only at sufficiently low concentrations, for instance below 3.0 g/L. It fails at a critical value of concentration that depends on measurement frequency and the distance between the transducer and the target point. Instead, an exponential relationship was found to work satisfactorily throughout the entire range of concentration. The coefficient and exponent of the exponential function changed, however, with the measuring frequency and distance. Considering the increased complexity of inverting the concentration values when an exponential relationship prevails, we further analyzed the relationship between measurement error and measuring frequency. It was also found that the inversion error may be effectively controlled within 5% if the frequency is properly set. Compared with concentration, grain size was found to heavily affect the selection of optimum frequency. A regression relationship for optimum frequency versus grain size was developed based on the experimental results.
Acoustic Levitation With Less Equipment
Barmatz, M. B.; Jacobi, N.
1983-01-01
Certain chamber shapes require fewer than three acoustic drivers. Levitation at center of spherical chamber attained using only one acoustic driver. Exitation of lowest spherical mode produces asymmetric acoustic potential well.
Anisotropy of acoustic properties in paratellurite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parygin, Vladimir N.
1996-01-01
One of the peculiarities of the TeO 2 crystal consists of its strong acoustic anisotropy. This anisotropy demonstrates itself by acoustic energy walk-off and anisotropic distortion of an acoustic beam. Four constants completely characterise the acoustic anisotropy of the medium. In this paper these constants are calculated for various directions of the acoustic beam in crystal. (authors)
Variable-Position Acoustic Levitation
Barmatz, M. B.; Stoneburner, J. D.; Jacobi, N.; Wang, T. G.
1983-01-01
Method of acoustic levitation supports objects at positions other than acoustic nodes. Acoustic force is varied so it balances gravitational (or other) force, thereby maintaining object at any position within equilibrium range. Levitation method applicable to containerless processing. Such objects as table-tennis balls, hollow plastic spheres, and balsa-wood spheres levitated in laboratory by new method.
Photo-acoustic and video-acoustic methods for sensing distant sound sources
Slater, Dan; Kozacik, Stephen; Kelmelis, Eric
2017-05-01
Long range telescopic video imagery of distant terrestrial scenes, aircraft, rockets and other aerospace vehicles can be a powerful observational tool. But what about the associated acoustic activity? A new technology, Remote Acoustic Sensing (RAS), may provide a method to remotely listen to the acoustic activity near these distant objects. Local acoustic activity sometimes weakly modulates the ambient illumination in a way that can be remotely sensed. RAS is a new type of microphone that separates an acoustic transducer into two spatially separated components: 1) a naturally formed in situ acousto-optic modulator (AOM) located within the distant scene and 2) a remote sensing readout device that recovers the distant audio. These two elements are passively coupled over long distances at the speed of light by naturally occurring ambient light energy or other electromagnetic fields. Stereophonic, multichannel and acoustic beam forming are all possible using RAS techniques and when combined with high-definition video imagery it can help to provide a more cinema like immersive viewing experience. A practical implementation of a remote acousto-optic readout device can be a challenging engineering problem. The acoustic influence on the optical signal is generally weak and often with a strong bias term. The optical signal is further degraded by atmospheric seeing turbulence. In this paper, we consider two fundamentally different optical readout approaches: 1) a low pixel count photodiode based RAS photoreceiver and 2) audio extraction directly from a video stream. Most of our RAS experiments to date have used the first method for reasons of performance and simplicity. But there are potential advantages to extracting audio directly from a video stream. These advantages include the straight forward ability to work with multiple AOMs (useful for acoustic beam forming), simpler optical configurations, and a potential ability to use certain preexisting video recordings. However
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Jing; Liu Zhengyou; Qiu Chunyin
2008-01-01
By using of the multiple scattering methods, we study the negative refraction imaging effect of solid acoustic waves by two-dimensional three-component phononic crystals composed of coated solid inclusions placed in solid matrix. We show that localized resonance mechanism brings on a group of flat single-mode bands in low-frequency region, which provides two equivalent frequency surfaces (EFS) close to circular. The two constant frequency surfaces correspond to two Bloch modes, a right-handed and a left-handed, whose leading mode are respectively transverse (T) and longitudinal (L) modes. The negative refraction behaviors of the two kinds of modes have been demonstrated by simulation of a Gaussian beam through a finite system. High-quality far-field imaging by a planar lens for transverse or longitudinal waves has been realized separately. This three-component phononic crystal may thus serve as a mode selector in negative refraction imaging of solid acoustic waves
Magnetoactive Acoustic Metamaterials.
Yu, Kunhao; Fang, Nicholas X; Huang, Guoliang; Wang, Qiming
2018-04-11
Acoustic metamaterials with negative constitutive parameters (modulus and/or mass density) have shown great potential in diverse applications ranging from sonic cloaking, abnormal refraction and superlensing, to noise canceling. In conventional acoustic metamaterials, the negative constitutive parameters are engineered via tailored structures with fixed geometries; therefore, the relationships between constitutive parameters and acoustic frequencies are typically fixed to form a 2D phase space once the structures are fabricated. Here, by means of a model system of magnetoactive lattice structures, stimuli-responsive acoustic metamaterials are demonstrated to be able to extend the 2D phase space to 3D through rapidly and repeatedly switching signs of constitutive parameters with remote magnetic fields. It is shown for the first time that effective modulus can be reversibly switched between positive and negative within controlled frequency regimes through lattice buckling modulated by theoretically predicted magnetic fields. The magnetically triggered negative-modulus and cavity-induced negative density are integrated to achieve flexible switching between single-negative and double-negative. This strategy opens promising avenues for remote, rapid, and reversible modulation of acoustic transportation, refraction, imaging, and focusing in subwavelength regimes. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Electron/electron acoustic instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gary, S.P.
1987-01-01
The electron acoustic wave becomes a normal mode of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma in the presence of two electron components with similar densities, but strongly disparate temperatures. The characteristic frequency of this mode is the plasma frequency of the cooler electron component. If these two electron components have a relative drift speed several times the thermal speed of the cooler component, the electron/electron acoustic instability may arise. This paper describes the parametric dependences of the threshold drift speed and maximum growth rate of this instability, and compares these with the same properties of the electron/ion acoustic instability. Under the condition of zero current, the electron/ion acoustic instability typically has the lower threshold drift speed, so that observation of the electron/electron acoustic instability is a strong indication of the presence of an electrical current in the plasma
Smith, Richard W.
1979-01-01
An acoustic imaging system for displaying an object viewed by a moving array of transducers as the array is pivoted about a fixed point within a given plane. A plurality of transducers are fixedly positioned and equally spaced within a laterally extending array and operatively directed to transmit and receive acoustic signals along substantially parallel transmission paths. The transducers are sequentially activated along the array to transmit and receive acoustic signals according to a preestablished sequence. Means are provided for generating output voltages for each reception of an acoustic signal, corresponding to the coordinate position of the object viewed as the array is pivoted. Receptions from each of the transducers are presented on the same display at coordinates corresponding to the actual position of the object viewed to form a plane view of the object scanned.
Perspective: Acoustic metamaterials in transition
Wu, Ying
2017-12-15
Acoustic metamaterials derive their novel characteristics from the interaction between acoustic waves with designed structures. Since its inception seventeen years ago, the field has been driven by fundamental geometric and physical principles that guide the structure design rules as well as provide the basis for wave functionalities. Recent examples include resonance-based acoustic metasurfaces that offer flexible control of acoustic wave propagation such as focusing and re-direction; parity-time (PT)-symmetric acoustics that utilizes the general concept of pairing loss and gain to achieve perfect absorption at a single frequency; and topological phononics that can provide one-way edge state propagation. However, such novel functionalities are not without constraints. Metasurface elements rely on resonances to enhance their coupling to the incident wave; hence, its functionality is limited to a narrow frequency band. Topological phononics is the result of the special lattice symmetry that must be fixed at the fabrication stage. Overcoming such constraints naturally forms the basis for further developments. We identify two emergent directions: Integration of acoustic metamaterial elements for achieving broadband characteristics as well as acoustic wave manipulation tasks more complex than the single demonstrative functionality; and active acoustic metamaterials that can adapt to environment as well as to go beyond the constraints on the passive acoustic metamaterials. Examples of a successful recent integration of multi-resonators in achieving broadband sound absorption can be found in optimal sound-absorbing structures, which utilize causality constraint as a design tool in realizing the target-set absorption spectrum with a minimal sample thickness. Active acoustic metamaterials have also demonstrated the capability to tune bandgaps as well as to alter property of resonances in real time through stiffening of the spring constants, in addition to the PT symmetric
Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE)
2015-09-30
acoustic communications, acoustic navigation, or acoustic remote sensing of the ocean interior . RELATED PROJECTS The 2015 CANAPE pilot study was a...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE...ocean structure. Changes in sea ice and the water column affect both acoustic propagation and ambient noise. This implies that what was learned
Transmission acoustic microscopy investigation
Maev, Roman; Kolosov, Oleg; Levin, Vadim; Lobkis, Oleg
The nature of acoustic contrast, i.e. the connection of the amplitude and phase of the output signal of the acoustic microscope with the local values of the acoustic parameters of the sample (density, elasticity, viscosity) is a central problem of acoustic microscopy. A considerable number of studies have been devoted to the formation of the output signal of the reflection scanning acoustic microscope. For the transmission acoustic microscope (TAM) this problem has remained almost unstudied. Experimental investigation of the confocal system of the TAM was carried out on an independently manufactured laboratory mockup of the TAM with the working frequency of the 420 MHz. Acoustic lenses with the radius of curvature of about 500 microns and aperture angle of 45 deg were polished out in the end faces of two cylindrical sound conductors made from Al2O3 single crystals with an axis parallel to the axis C of the crystal (the length of the sound conductor is 20 mm; diameter, 6 mm). At the end faces of the sound conductor, opposite to the lenses, CdS transducers with a diameter of 2 mm were disposed. The electric channel of the TAM provided a possibility for registering the amplitude of the microscope output signal in the case of the dynamic range of the 50 dB.
... CALENDAR DONATE NEWS Home Learn Back Learn about acoustic neuroma AN Facts What is acoustic neuroma? Diagnosing ... Italian Japanese Korean Portuguese Romanian Spanish What is Acoustic Neuroma? Each heading slides to reveal information. Important ...
Dynamic manipulation of the subharmonic scattering of phospholipid-coated microbubbles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faez, Telli; Renaud, Guillaume; De Jong, Nico [Biomedical Engineering Thoraxcenter, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands); Defontaine, Marielle; Calle, Samuel, E-mail: t.faez@erasmusmc.nl [INSERM U930-CNRS ERL3106, Universite Francois Rabelais, UFR Medecine, 10 bd Tonnelle, 37000 Tours (France)
2011-10-07
In this paper, the influence of a dynamic variation in the ambient pressure on the subharmonic response of phospholipid-coated microbubbles was investigated. The ambient pressure in water was modulated by a 2.5 kHz acoustic wave with a peak amplitude of 15 kPa. We investigated the fundamental and subharmonic emissions at two driving frequencies: 5 and 10 MHz. The modulation of the bubble radius induced by the dynamic variation in the liquid ambient pressure subsequently causes modulations of the scattered acoustic pressure at the fundamental and subharmonic frequencies (half the fundamental frequency). As a first result, we measured that the variation in the ambient pressure of 15 kPa can modulate the subharmonic amplitude up to 10 dB as compared to the static atmospheric pressure condition. As a second result, we noticed that the relative subharmonic amplitude modulation as a function of the LF acoustic pressure was symmetrical for the 5 MHz driving frequency but asymmetric for 10 MHz. In the latter case, the subharmonic amplitude was more enhanced for an ambient overpressure than reduced for an ambient depression of the same amplitude likely due to the buckling of the lipid shell. However, the fundamental amplitude was symmetrically modulated during bubble compression and expansion. Moreover, subharmonic and fundamental amplitude modulations were found to be either in phase or out of phase with the low-frequency acoustic pressure. Numerical simulations showed that this behavior can be obtained depending on the bubbles' diameter. The highest subharmonic amplitude was measured when microbubbles were insonified at 10 MHz. This fact together with the asymmetry observed in the subharmonic modulation suggests that smaller bubbles with a buckling shell are excited at 10 MHz compared to 5 MHz. These results present new potentials for in vitro characterization of contrast agent microbubbles and possibly a new imaging modality.
2015-09-30
1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Shallow-Water Mud Acoustics William L. Siegmann...models and methods that explain observed material and acoustic properties of different physical types of shallow-ocean mud sediments. Other goals...are to assess prior data relating to the acoustic properties of mud and to provide guidance in the development and interpretation of experiments. A
Tutorial on architectural acoustics
Shaw, Neil; Talaske, Rick; Bistafa, Sylvio
2002-11-01
This tutorial is intended to provide an overview of current knowledge and practice in architectural acoustics. Topics covered will include basic concepts and history, acoustics of small rooms (small rooms for speech such as classrooms and meeting rooms, music studios, small critical listening spaces such as home theatres) and the acoustics of large rooms (larger assembly halls, auditoria, and performance halls).
Cho, Young; Kumar, Akhil; Xu, Song; Zou, Jun
2017-03-01
Recent studies have shown that micromachined silicon acoustic delay lines can provide a promising solution to achieve real-time photoacoustic tomography without the need for complex transducer arrays and data acquisition electronics. However, as its length increases to provide longer delay time, the delay line becomes more vulnerable to structural instability due to reduced mechanical stiffness. In addition, the small cross-section area of the delay line results in a large acoustic acceptance angle and therefore poor directivity. To address these two issues, this paper reports the design, fabrication, and testing of a new silicon acoustic delay line enhanced with 3D printed polymer micro linker structures. First, mechanical deformation of the silicon acoustic delay line (with and without linker structures) under gravity was simulated by using finite element method. Second, the acoustic crosstalk and acoustic attenuation caused by the polymer micro linker structures were evaluated with both numerical simulation and ultrasound transmission testing. The result shows that the use of the polymer micro linker structures significantly improves the structural stability of the silicon acoustic delay lines without creating additional acoustic attenuation and crosstalk. In addition, a new tapered design for the input terminal of the delay line was also investigate to improve its acoustic directivity by reducing the acoustic acceptance angle. These two improvements are expected to provide an effective solution to eliminate current limitations on the achievable acoustic delay time and out-of-plane imaging resolution of micromachined silicon acoustic delay line arrays.
Handbook of Engineering Acoustics
Möser, Michael
2013-01-01
This book examines the physical background of engineering acoustics, focusing on empirically obtained engineering experience as well as on measurement techniques and engineering methods for prognostics. Its goal is not only to describe the state of art of engineering acoustics but also to give practical help to engineers in order to solve acoustic problems. It deals with the origin, the transmission and the methods of the abating different kinds of air-borne and structure-borne sounds caused by various mechanisms – from traffic to machinery and flow-induced sound. In addition the modern aspects of room and building acoustics, as well as psychoacoustics and active noise control, are covered.
A new definition for acoustic dose
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duck, F A
2011-01-01
This paper discusses a recent proposal for definitions of acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate. Acoustic dose is defined as the energy deposited by absorption of an acoustic wave per unit mass of the medium supporting the wave. Its time-derivative, acoustic dose-rate, Q m , in W kg -1 is central to the prediction of both rate of temperature rise and radiation force. These quantities have spatial and temporal dependency, depending on the local field parameters (acoustic pressure, particle velocity, intensity) and local material properties (absorption coefficient, α a , and mass density, ρ 0 ). Spatial and/or temporal averaging can be applied where appropriate. For plane-wave monochromatic conditions in a homogeneous medium, Q m =2α a I/ρ 0 , (I is the time-averaged intensity), a simple expression which may also incorporate frequency dependencies of energy deposition. Acoustic dose and acoustic does-rate are exact analogues for Specific Absorption and Specific Absorption Rate (SAR), quantities central to radiofrequency (RF) and microwave dosimetry. Acoustic dosimetry in the presence of tissue/gas interfaces remains a considerable challenge.
Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Mark E.; Hozman, Aron D.; McNelis, Anne M.
2011-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) is leading the design and build of the new world-class vibroacoustic test capabilities at the NASA GRC s Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio. Benham Companies, LLC is currently constructing modal, base-shake sine and reverberant acoustic test facilities to support the future testing needs of NASA s space exploration program. The large Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility (RATF) will be approximately 101,000 ft3 in volume and capable of achieving an empty chamber acoustic overall sound pressure level (OASPL) of 163 dB. This combination of size and acoustic power is unprecedented amongst the world s known active reverberant acoustic test facilities. The key to achieving the expected acoustic test spectra for a range of many NASA space flight environments in the RATF is the knowledge gained from a series of ground acoustic tests. Data was obtained from several NASA-sponsored test programs, including testing performed at the National Research Council of Canada s acoustic test facility in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, and at the Redstone Technical Test Center acoustic test facility in Huntsville, Alabama. The majority of these tests were performed to characterize the acoustic performance of the modulators (noise generators) and representative horns that would be required to meet the desired spectra, as well as to evaluate possible supplemental gas jet noise sources. The knowledge obtained in each of these test programs enabled the design of the RATF sound generation system to confidently advance to its final acoustic design and subsequent on-going construction.
Select Internet Resources on Acoustics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angela R. Davis
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Merriam-Webster (2016 defines acoustics as, “a science that deals with the production, control, transmission, reception, and effects of sounds.” According to Rossing (2014, the study of acoustics began in ancient Greece with Pythagoras’ study of vibrating strings on musical instruments. Since those early beginnings, famous scientists including Rayleigh, Alexander Graham Bell, and Thomas Edison, have helped expand the field of acoustics to include architectural, physical, engineering, structural, underwater, physiological and psychological, musical acoustics, and speech. Acoustics is a highly interdisciplinary field and researchers may need resources from physics, medicine, and engineering to understand all aspects of their research.
Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics
Havelock, David; Vorländer, Michael
2009-01-01
The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics presents signal processing as it is practiced in the field of acoustics. The Handbook is organized by areas of acoustics, with recognized leaders coordinating the self-contained chapters of each section. It brings together a wide range of perspectives from over 100 authors to reveal the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Success in acoustic applications often requires juggling both the acoustic and the signal processing parameters of the problem. This handbook brings the key issues from both into perspective and is complementary to other reference material on the two subjects. It is a unique resource for experts and practitioners alike to find new ideas and techniques within the diversity of signal processing in acoustics.
Hoshino, Tomoki; Mori, Nobuya
2018-04-01
InGaN has a smaller electron effective mass and is expected to be used as a channel material for high-electron-mobility transistors. However, it is an alloy semiconductor with a random distribution of atoms, which introduces additional scattering mechanisms: alloy disorder and random dipole scatterings. In this work, we calculate the electron mobility in InGaN- and GaN-channel high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) while taking into account acoustic deformation potential, polar optical phonon, alloy disorder, and random dipole scatterings. For InGaN-channel HEMTs, we find that not only alloy disorder but also random dipole scattering has a strong impact on the electron mobility and it significantly decreases as the In mole fraction of the channel increases. Our calculation also shows that the channel thickness w dependence of the mobility is rather weak when w > 1 nm for In0.1Ga0.9N-channel HEMTs.
Thermal-neutron multiple scattering: critical double scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holm, W.A.
1976-01-01
A quantum mechanical formulation for multiple scattering of thermal-neutrons from macroscopic targets is presented and applied to single and double scattering. Critical nuclear scattering from liquids and critical magnetic scattering from ferromagnets are treated in detail in the quasielastic approximation for target systems slightly above their critical points. Numerical estimates are made of the double scattering contribution to the critical magnetic cross section using relevant parameters from actual experiments performed on various ferromagnets. The effect is to alter the usual Lorentzian line shape dependence on neutron wave vector transfer. Comparison with corresponding deviations in line shape resulting from the use of Fisher's modified form of the Ornstein-Zernike spin correlations within the framework of single scattering theory leads to values for the critical exponent eta of the modified correlations which reproduce the effect of double scattering. In addition, it is shown that by restricting the range of applicability of the multiple scattering theory from the outset to critical scattering, Glauber's high energy approximation can be used to provide a much simpler and more powerful description of multiple scattering effects. When sufficiently close to the critical point, it provides a closed form expression for the differential cross section which includes all orders of scattering and has the same form as the single scattering cross section with a modified exponent for the wave vector transfer
Relaxation time of acoustically disturbed plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mkrtchyan, K.S.; Abrahamyan, A.S.
2005-01-01
The conservation time of an acoustic structure in plasma after relieving of external acoustic influence is investigated. Dependences of the conservation time on discharge parameters are presented. It is asserted that the plasma becomes an anisotropic uniaxial medium with an acoustic superlattice under the acoustic influence
Airy acoustical-sheet spinner tweezers
Mitri, F. G.
2016-09-01
The Airy acoustical beam exhibits parabolic propagation and spatial acceleration, meaning that the propagation bending angle continuously increases before the beam trajectory reaches a critical angle where it decays after a propagation distance, without applying any external bending force. As such, it is of particular importance to investigate its properties from the standpoint of acoustical radiation force, spin torque, and particle dynamics theories, in the development of novel particle sorting techniques and acoustically mediated clearing systems. This work investigates these effects on a two-dimensional (2D) circular absorptive structure placed in the field of a nonparaxial Airy "acoustical-sheet" (i.e., finite beam in 2D), for potential applications in surface acoustic waves and acousto-fluidics. Based on the characteristics of the acoustic field, the beam is capable of manipulating the circular cylindrical fluid cross-section and guides it along a transverse or parabolic trajectory. This feature of Airy acoustical beams could lead to a unique characteristic in single-beam acoustical tweezers related to acoustical sieving, filtering, and removal of particles and cells from a section of a small channel. The analysis developed here is based on the description of the nonparaxial Airy beam using the angular spectrum decomposition of plane waves in close association with the partial-wave series expansion method in cylindrical coordinates. The numerical results demonstrate the ability of the nonparaxial Airy acoustical-sheet beam to pull, propel, or accelerate a particle along a parabolic trajectory, in addition to particle confinement in the transverse direction of wave propagation. Negative or positive radiation force and spin torque causing rotation in the clockwise or the anticlockwise direction can occur depending on the nondimensional parameter ka (where k is the wavenumber and a is the radius) and the location of the cylinder in the beam. Applications in
Method of interior boundaries in a mixed problem of acoustic scattering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. A. Krutitskii
1999-01-01
Full Text Available The mixed problem for the Helmholtz equation in the exterior of several bodies (obstacles is studied in 2 and 3 dimensions. The Dirichlet boundary condition is given on some obstacles and the impedance boundary condition is specified on the rest. The problem is investigated by a special modification of the boundary integral equation method. This modification can be called ‘Method of interior boundaries’, because additional boundaries are introduced inside scattering bodies, where impedance boundary condition is given. The solution of the problem is obtained in the form of potentials on the whole boundary. The density in the potentials satisfies the uniquely solvable Fredholm equation of the second kind and can be computed by standard codes. In fact our method holds for any positive wave numbers. The Neumann, Dirichlet, impedance problems and mixed Dirichlet–Neumann problem are particular cases of our problem.
Department of Cybernetic Acoustics
The development of the theory, instrumentation and applications of methods and systems for the measurement, analysis, processing and synthesis of acoustic signals within the audio frequency range, particularly of the speech signal and the vibro-acoustic signal emitted by technical and industrial equipments treated as noise and vibration sources was discussed. The research work, both theoretical and experimental, aims at applications in various branches of science, and medicine, such as: acoustical diagnostics and phoniatric rehabilitation of pathological and postoperative states of the speech organ; bilateral ""man-machine'' speech communication based on the analysis, recognition and synthesis of the speech signal; vibro-acoustical diagnostics and continuous monitoring of the state of machines, technical equipments and technological processes.
Resonant Absorption in GaAs-Based Nanowires by Means of Photo-Acoustic Spectroscopy
Petronijevic, E.; Leahu, G.; Belardini, A.; Centini, M.; Li Voti, R.; Hakkarainen, T.; Koivusalo, E.; Guina, M.; Sibilia, C.
2018-03-01
Semiconductor nanowires made of high refractive index materials can couple the incoming light to specific waveguide modes that offer resonant absorption enhancement under the bandgap wavelength, essential for light harvesting, lasing and detection applications. Moreover, the non-trivial ellipticity of such modes can offer near field interactions with chiral molecules, governed by near chiral field. These modes are therefore very important to detect. Here, we present the photo-acoustic spectroscopy as a low-cost, reliable, sensitive and scattering-free tool to measure the spectral position and absorption efficiency of these modes. The investigated samples are hexagonal nanowires with GaAs core; the fabrication by means of lithography-free molecular beam epitaxy provides controllable and uniform dimensions that allow for the excitation of the fundamental resonant mode around 800 nm. We show that the modulation frequency increase leads to the discrimination of the resonant mode absorption from the overall absorption of the substrate. As the experimental data are in great agreement with numerical simulations, the design can be optimized and followed by photo-acoustic characterization for a specific application.
Acoustic Liners for Turbine Engines
Jones, Michael G (Inventor); Grady, Joseph E (Inventor); Kiser, James D. (Inventor); Miller, Christopher (Inventor); Heidmann, James D. (Inventor)
2016-01-01
An improved acoustic liner for turbine engines is disclosed. The acoustic liner may include a straight cell section including a plurality of cells with straight chambers. The acoustic liner may also include a bent cell section including one or more cells that are bent to extend chamber length without increasing the overall height of the acoustic liner by the entire chamber length. In some cases, holes are placed between cell chambers in addition to bending the cells, or instead of bending the cells.
X-ray and neutron diffuse scattering in LiNbO3 from 38 to 1200 K
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zotov, N.; Mayer, H.M.; Guethoff, F.; Hohlwein, D.
1995-01-01
A semi-quantitative description of X-ray and neutron diffuse scattering from congruent lithium niobate, LiNbO 3 , is given. The diffuse scattering is concentrated in three sets of diffuse planes perpendicular to the pseudo-cubic symmetry-related [221], [241] and [ anti 4 anti 21] directions and can be attributed to one-dimensional displacive and chemical disorder along these directions. The variation of the X-ray and neutron diffuse intensities with the scattering vector, as well as the comparison between X-ray and neutron data, indicate that more than one type of atom is involved. Temperature variations are followed from 38 to 1200 K. Different disorder models are discussed. The increase of the integrated intensities of the diffuse lines along the [0 1k 2l] * and [0 anti 1k 4l] * directions (i.e. sections of the diffuse planes) up to 800 K followed by a slight decrease at higher temperatures may be interpreted either by static disorder related to temperature-dependent variation of disorder/defect clusters or by dynamic disorder. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments do not show any anomaly of the transversal acoustic (TA) modes. (orig.)
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Afzulpurkar, S.; Maurya, P.; Navelkar, G.S.; Desa, E.S.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Dabholkar, N.A.; Madhan, R.; Prabhudesai, S.P.
traffic. This necessitates monitoring the AUV status and data quality through an acoustic link which needs to perform reliably under such conditions, at long range. To address these situations partially, acoustic communication capability is planned...
Acoustical and optical radiation pressures and the development of single beam acoustical tweezers
Thomas , Jean-Louis; Marchiano , Régis; Baresch , Diego
2017-01-01
International audience; Studies on radiation pressure in acoustics and optics have enriched one another and have a long common history. Acoustic radiation pressure is used for metrology, levitation, particle trapping and actuation. However, the dexterity and selectivity of single-beam optical tweezers are still to be matched with acoustical devices. Optical tweezers can trap, move and positioned micron size particles, biological samples or even atoms with subnanometer accuracy in three dimens...
Development of acoustic particle detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuyama, Tadayoshi; Hinode, Fujio; Konno, Osamu
1999-01-01
To detect acoustic sign from electron, determination of acoustic radiation from high energy electron and detector were studied. When charge particles pass through medium, energy loss generates local expansion and contraction of medium and pressure compression wave. We need caustic element with 10 -5 Pa the minimum acoustic receive sensitivity and from 10 to 100 kHz frequency sensitivity characteristic. Elements were made by Low-Q materials, piezoelectric materials (PZT). Various sharp of elements were constructed and measured. 50 mm spherical element showed 38 m V/Pa, the best sensitivity. Our developed acoustic element could detect acoustic radiation generated by electron beam from accelerator. The wave sharp detected proved the same as bipolar wave, which was given theoretically. The pressure generated by beam was proportional to the energy loss E. 200 MeV electron beam existed about 95% particles on the incident axis. So that acoustic detector on the axis proved to detect sound wave generated on the beam axis. (S.Y.)
Focusing of Acoustic Waves through Acoustic Materials with Subwavelength Structures
Xiao, Bingmu
2013-05-01
In this thesis, wave propagation through acoustic materials with subwavelength slits structures is studied. Guided by the findings, acoustic wave focusing is achieved with a specific material design. By using a parameter retrieving method, an effective medium theory for a slab with periodic subwavelength cut-through slits is successfully derived. The theory is based on eigenfunction solutions to the acoustic wave equation. Numerical simulations are implemented by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for the two-dimensional acoustic wave equation. The theory provides the effective impedance and refractive index functions for the equivalent medium, which can reproduce the transmission and reflection spectral responses of the original structure. I analytically and numerically investigate both the validity and limitations of the theory, and the influences of material and geometry on the effective spectral responses are studied. Results show that large contrasts in impedance and density are conditions that validate the effective medium theory, and this approximation displays a better accuracy for a thick slab with narrow slits in it. Based on the effective medium theory developed, a design of a at slab with a snake shaped" subwavelength structure is proposed as a means of achieving acoustic focusing. The property of focusing is demonstrated by FDTD simulations. Good agreement is observed between the proposed structure and the equivalent lens pre- dicted by the theory, which leads to robust broadband focusing by a thin at slab.
Multi-wavelength Observations of Solar Acoustic Waves Near Active Regions
Monsue, Teresa; Pesnell, Dean; Hill, Frank
2018-01-01
Active region areas on the Sun are abundant with a variety of waves that are both acoustically helioseismic and magnetohydrodynamic in nature. The occurrence of a solar flare can disrupt these waves, through MHD mode-mixing or scattering by the excitation of these waves. We take a multi-wavelength observational approach to understand the source of theses waves by studying active regions where flaring activity occurs. Our approach is to search for signals within a time series of images using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm, by producing multi-frequency power map movies. We study active regions both spatially and temporally and correlate this method over multiple wavelengths using data from NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory. By surveying the active regions on multiple wavelengths we are able to observe the behavior of these waves within the Solar atmosphere, from the photosphere up through the corona. We are able to detect enhancements of power around active regions, which could be acoustic power halos and of an MHD-wave propagating outward by the flaring event. We are in the initial stages of this study understanding the behaviors of these waves and could one day contribute to understanding the mechanism responsible for their formation; that has not yet been explained.
The method of fundamental solutions for computing acoustic interior transmission eigenvalues
Kleefeld, Andreas; Pieronek, Lukas
2018-03-01
We analyze the method of fundamental solutions (MFS) in two different versions with focus on the computation of approximate acoustic interior transmission eigenvalues in 2D for homogeneous media. Our approach is mesh- and integration free, but suffers in general from the ill-conditioning effects of the discretized eigenoperator, which we could then successfully balance using an approved stabilization scheme. Our numerical examples cover many of the common scattering objects and prove to be very competitive in accuracy with the standard methods for PDE-related eigenvalue problems. We finally give an approximation analysis for our framework and provide error estimates, which bound interior transmission eigenvalue deviations in terms of some generalized MFS output.
Gorgas, Thomas Joerg
Acoustic in-situ sound speeds and attenuation were measured on the Eel River shelf, CA, with the Acoustic Lance between 5 and 15 kHz to 2.0 meters below seafloor (mbsf). A comparison with laboratory ultrasonic geoacoustic data obtained at 400 kHz on cored sediments showed faster in-situ and ultrasonic sound speeds in coarse-grained deposits in water depths to 60 m than in fine-grained deposits below that contour line. Ultrasonic attenuation was often greater than in-situ values and remained almost constant below 0.4 mbsf in these heterogeneous deposits. In-situ attenuation decreased with depth. These observations partly agree with results from other field studies, and with theoretical models that incorporate intergranular friction and dispersion from viscosity as main controls on acoustic wave propagation in marine sediments. Deviations among in-situ and laboratory acoustic data from the Eel Margin with theoretical studies were linked to scattering effects. Acoustic Lance was also deployed in homogeneous, fine-grained sediments on the inner shelf of SE Korea, where free gas was identified in late-September, but not in mid-September 1999. Free gas was evidenced by an abrupt decrease of in-situ sound speed and by characteristic changes in acoustic waveforms. These results suggest the presence of a gassy sediment layer as shallow as 2 mbsf along the 70 m bathymetry line, and was attributed to a variable abundance of free gas on short-term and/or small-regional scales on the SE Korea shelf. Bulk density variations in marine sediments obtained along the Walvis Ridge/Basin, SW Africa, at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 1081 to 1084 were spectral-analyzed to compute high-resolution sedimentation rates (SRs) in both the time- and age domains by correctly identifying Milankovitch cycles (MCs). SRs for the ODP sites yielded age-depth models that often correlate positively with biostratigraphic data and with organic mass accumulation rates (MAR Corg), a proxy for
A Pseudo-3D Model for Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wuliang Yin
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Previous methods for modelling Rayleigh waves produced by a meander-line-coil electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT consisted mostly of two-dimensional (2D simulations that focussed on the vertical plane of the material. This paper presents a pseudo-three-dimensional (3D model that extends the simulation space to both vertical and horizontal planes. For the vertical plane, we combines analytical and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD methods to model Rayleigh waves’ propagation within an aluminium plate and their scattering behaviours by cracks. For the horizontal surface plane, we employ an analytical method to investigate the radiation pattern of Rayleigh waves at various depths. The experimental results suggest that the models and the modelling techniques are valid.
Acoustic emission linear pulse holography
Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.
1983-10-25
This device relates to the concept of and means for performing Acoustic Emission Linear Pulse Holography, which combines the advantages of linear holographic imaging and Acoustic Emission into a single non-destructive inspection system. This unique system produces a chronological, linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. The innovation is the concept of utilizing the crack-generated acoustic emission energy to generate a chronological series of images of a growing crack by applying linear, pulse holographic processing to the acoustic emission data. The process is implemented by placing on a structure an array of piezoelectric sensors (typically 16 or 32 of them) near the defect location. A reference sensor is placed between the defect and the array.
Topping, David J.; Wright, Scott A.
2016-05-04
It is commonly recognized that suspended-sediment concentrations in rivers can change rapidly in time and independently of water discharge during important sediment‑transporting events (for example, during floods); thus, suspended-sediment measurements at closely spaced time intervals are necessary to characterize suspended‑sediment loads. Because the manual collection of sufficient numbers of suspended-sediment samples required to characterize this variability is often time and cost prohibitive, several “surrogate” techniques have been developed for in situ measurements of properties related to suspended-sediment characteristics (for example, turbidity, laser-diffraction, acoustics). Herein, we present a new physically based method for the simultaneous measurement of suspended-silt-and-clay concentration, suspended-sand concentration, and suspended‑sand median grain size in rivers, using multi‑frequency arrays of single-frequency side‑looking acoustic-Doppler profilers. The method is strongly grounded in the extensive scientific literature on the incoherent scattering of sound by random suspensions of small particles. In particular, the method takes advantage of theory that relates acoustic frequency, acoustic attenuation, acoustic backscatter, suspended-sediment concentration, and suspended-sediment grain-size distribution. We develop the theory and methods, and demonstrate the application of the method at six study sites on the Colorado River and Rio Grande, where large numbers of suspended-sediment samples have been collected concurrently with acoustic attenuation and backscatter measurements over many years. The method produces acoustical measurements of suspended-silt-and-clay and suspended-sand concentration (in units of mg/L), and acoustical measurements of suspended-sand median grain size (in units of mm) that are generally in good to excellent agreement with concurrent physical measurements of these quantities in the river cross sections at
Acoustic communication in plant-animal interactions.
Schöner, Michael G; Simon, Ralph; Schöner, Caroline R
2016-08-01
Acoustic communication is widespread and well-studied in animals but has been neglected in other organisms such as plants. However, there is growing evidence for acoustic communication in plant-animal interactions. While knowledge about active acoustic signalling in plants (i.e. active sound production) is still in its infancy, research on passive acoustic signalling (i.e. reflection of animal sounds) revealed that bat-dependent plants have adapted to the bats' echolocation systems by providing acoustic reflectors to attract their animal partners. Understanding the proximate mechanisms and ultimate causes of acoustic communication will shed light on an underestimated dimension of information transfer between plants and animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Collins, David J; Ma, Zhichao; Ai, Ye
2016-05-17
Concentration and separation of particles and biological specimens are fundamental functions of micro/nanofluidic systems. Acoustic streaming is an effective and biocompatible way to create rapid microscale fluid motion and induce particle capture, though the >100 MHz frequencies required to directly generate acoustic body forces on the microscale have traditionally been difficult to generate and localize in a way that is amenable to efficient generation of streaming. Moreover, acoustic, hydrodynamic, and electrical forces as typically applied have difficulty manipulating specimens in the submicrometer regime. In this work, we introduce highly focused traveling surface acoustic waves (SAW) at high frequencies between 193 and 636 MHz for efficient and highly localized production of acoustic streaming vortices on microfluidic length scales. Concentration occurs via a novel mechanism, whereby the combined acoustic radiation and streaming field results in size-selective aggregation in fluid streamlines in the vicinity of a high-amplitude acoustic beam, as opposed to previous acoustic radiation induced particle concentration where objects typically migrate toward minimum pressure locations. Though the acoustic streaming is induced by a traveling wave, we are able to manipulate particles an order of magnitude smaller than possible using the traveling wave force alone. We experimentally and theoretically examine the range of particle sizes that can be captured in fluid streamlines using this technique, with rapid particle concentration demonstrated down to 300 nm diameters. We also demonstrate that locations of trapping and concentration are size-dependent, which is attributed to the combined effects of the acoustic streaming and acoustic forces.
Coupled Acoustic-Mechanical Bandgaps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Kook, Junghwan
2016-01-01
medium and the presence of acoustic resonances. It is demonstrated that corrugation of the plate structure can introduce bending wave bandgaps and bandgaps in the acoustic domain in overlapping and audible frequency ranges. This effect is preserved also when taking the physical coupling between the two...... domains into account. Additionally, the coupling is shown to introduce extra gaps in the band structure due to modal interaction and the appearance of a cut-on frequency for the fundamental acoustic mode....
Atlantic Herring Acoustic Surveys
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Advanced Sampling Technologies Research Group conducts annual fisheries acoustic surveys using state-of-the-art acoustic, midwater trawling, and underwater...
Band structures in a two-dimensional phononic crystal with rotational multiple scatterers
Song, Ailing; Wang, Xiaopeng; Chen, Tianning; Wan, Lele
2017-03-01
In this paper, the acoustic wave propagation in a two-dimensional phononic crystal composed of rotational multiple scatterers is investigated. The dispersion relationships, the transmission spectra and the acoustic modes are calculated by using finite element method. In contrast to the system composed of square tubes, there exist a low-frequency resonant bandgap and two wide Bragg bandgaps in the proposed structure, and the transmission spectra coincide with band structures. Specially, the first bandgap is based on locally resonant mechanism, and the simulation results agree well with the results of electrical circuit analogy. Additionally, increasing the rotation angle can remarkably influence the band structures due to the transfer of sound pressure between the internal and external cavities in low-order modes, and the redistribution of sound pressure in high-order modes. Wider bandgaps are obtained in arrays composed of finite unit cells with different rotation angles. The analysis results provide a good reference for tuning and obtaining wide bandgaps, and hence exploring the potential applications of the proposed phononic crystal in low-frequency noise insulation.
Transition section for acoustic waveguides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karplus, H.H.B.
1975-01-01
A means of facilitating the transmission of acoustic waves with minimal reflection between two regions having different specific acoustic impedances is described comprising a region exhibiting a constant product of cross-sectional area and specific acoustic impedance at each cross-sectional plane along the axis of the transition region. A variety of structures that exhibit this feature is disclosed, the preferred embodiment comprising a nested structure of doubly reentrant cones. This structure is useful for monitoring the operation of nuclear reactors in which random acoustic signals are generated in the course of operation
Tunable coupled surface acoustic cavities
de Lima, M. M.; Santos, P. V.; Kosevich, Yu. A.; Cantarero, A.
2012-06-01
We demonstrate the electric tuning of the acoustic field in acoustic microcavities (MCs) defined by a periodic arrangement of metal stripes within a surface acoustic delay line on LiNbO3 substrate. Interferometric measurements show the enhancement of the acoustic field distribution within a single MC, the presence of a "bonding" and "anti-bonding" modes for two strongly coupled MCs, as well as the positive dispersion of the "mini-bands" formed by five coupled MCs. The frequency and amplitude of the resonances can be controlled by the potential applied to the metal stripes.
Tethys Acoustic Metadata Database
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tethys database houses the metadata associated with the acoustic data collection efforts by the Passive Acoustic Group. These metadata include dates, locations...
Bafile, U; Barocchi, F; Sampoli, M
2002-01-01
The presence of a fast-sound mode in the microscopic dynamics of the rare-gas mixture He-Ne, predicted by theoretical studies and molecular-dynamics simulations, was demonstrated by an inelastic neutron scattering experiment. In order to study the transition between the fast and the normal acoustic modes in the hydrodynamic regime, k values lower by about one order of magnitude than in the usual experiments have to be probed. We describe here the results of the first neutron Brillouin scattering experiment performed with this purpose on the same system already investigated at larger k. The results of both experiments, together with those of a new molecular-dynamics simulation, provide a complete and consistent description, still missing so far, of the onset of fast-sound propagation in a binary mixture. (orig.)
Aerosol behaviour in an acoustic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malherbe, C.
1985-01-01
The average size of an aerosol submitted to acoustic waves is increased. This results from coagulation of the finest particles on the largest ones. The mechanisms responsible for acoustic agglomeration are mentioned. An experimental apparatus was developed in order to control the evolution of aerosol distribution in an acoustic field. Important deposition on the walls of the agglomeration chamber was observed as a consequence of the acoustically induced turbulent flow. Finally, a dimensionless relationship was established between deposition rates and particle diameters as a function of experimental parameters (aeraulic and acoustic conditions, etc...) [fr
Inverse problems and inverse scattering of plane waves
Ghosh Roy, Dilip N
2001-01-01
The purpose of this text is to present the theory and mathematics of inverse scattering, in a simple way, to the many researchers and professionals who use it in their everyday research. While applications range across a broad spectrum of disciplines, examples in this text will focus primarly, but not exclusively, on acoustics. The text will be especially valuable for those applied workers who would like to delve more deeply into the fundamentally mathematical character of the subject matter.Practitioners in this field comprise applied physicists, engineers, and technologists, whereas the theory is almost entirely in the domain of abstract mathematics. This gulf between the two, if bridged, can only lead to improvement in the level of scholarship in this highly important discipline. This is the book''s primary focus.
Wang, Xiao-Peng; Wan, Le-Le; Chen, Tian-Ning; Song, Ai-Ling; Wang, Fang
2016-07-01
Narrow bandwidth and bulky configuration are the main obstacles for the realization and application of invisible cloaks. In this paper, we present an effective method to achieve broadband and thin acoustic cloak by using an acoustic metasurface (AMS). In order to realize this cloak, we use slitted unit cells to design the AMS due to the advantage of less energy loss, broad operation bandwidth, and subwavelength thickness. According to the hyperboloidal phase profile along the AMS, the incident plane waves can be focused at a designed focal spot by the flat lens. Furthermore, broadband acoustic cloak is obtained by combining two identical flat lenses. The incident plane waves are focused at the center point in between of the two lenses by passing through one lens, and then recovered by passing through the other one. However, they cannot reach the cloaked regions in between of the two lenses. The simulation results can verify the non-detectability effect of the acoustic cloak. Our study results provide an available and simple approach to experimentally achieve the acoustic cloak, which can be used in acoustic non-detectability for large objects.
Lyell, Margaret J.
1992-01-01
The development of acoustic levitation systems has provided a technology with which to undertake droplet studies as well as do containerless processing experiments in a microgravity environment. Acoustic levitation chambers utilize radiation pressure forces to position/manipulate the drop. Oscillations can be induced via frequency modulation of the acoustic wave, with the modulated acoustic radiation vector acting as the driving force. To account for tangential as well as radial forcing, it is necessary that the viscous effects be included in the acoustic field. The method of composite expansions is employed in the determination of the acoustic field with viscous effects.
Novel Fiber-Optic Ring Acoustic Emission Sensor.
Wei, Peng; Han, Xiaole; Xia, Dong; Liu, Taolin; Lang, Hao
2018-01-13
Acoustic emission technology has been applied to many fields for many years. However, the conventional piezoelectric acoustic emission sensors cannot be used in extreme environments, such as those with heavy electromagnetic interference, high pressure, or strong corrosion. In this paper, a novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor is proposed. The sensor exhibits high sensitivity, anti-electromagnetic interference, and corrosion resistance. First, the principle of a novel fiber-optic ring sensor is introduced. Different from piezoelectric and other fiber acoustic emission sensors, this novel sensor includes both a sensing skeleton and a sensing fiber. Second, a heterodyne interferometric demodulating method is presented. In addition, a fiber-optic ring sensor acoustic emission system is built based on this method. Finally, fiber-optic ring acoustic emission experiments are performed. The novel fiber-optic ring sensor is glued onto the surface of an aluminum plate. The 150 kHz standard continuous sinusoidal signals and broken lead signals are successfully detected by the novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor. In addition, comparison to the piezoelectric acoustic emission sensor is performed, which shows the availability and reliability of the novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor. In the future, this novel fiber-optic ring acoustic emission sensor will provide a new route to acoustic emission detection in harsh environments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pelivanov, Ivan M; Barskaya, M I; Podymova, N B; Khokhlova, Tanya D; Karabutov, Aleksander A
2009-01-01
The second part of this work describes the experimental technique of measuring the local light absorption in turbid media. The technique is based on the measurement of the amplitude of an opto-acoustic (OA) signal excited in a turbid medium under the condition of one-sided access to the object under study. An OA transducer is developed to perform the proposed measurement procedure. Experiments are conducted for the turbid media with different optical properties (light absorption and reduced scattering coefficients) and for different diameters of the incident laser beam. It is found that the laser beam diameter can be chosen so that the dependences of the measured OA signal amplitude on the light absorption coefficient coincide upon varying the reduced scattering coefficient by more than twice. The obtained numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the OA method is applicable for measuring the local light absorption coefficient in turbid media, for example, in biological tissues. (measurement of parametrs of laser radiation)
Acoustic logic gates and Boolean operation based on self-collimating acoustic beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Ting; Xu, Jian-yi; Cheng, Ying; Liu, Xiao-jun; Guo, Jian-zhong
2015-01-01
The reveal of self-collimation effect in two-dimensional (2D) photonic or acoustic crystals has opened up possibilities for signal manipulation. In this paper, we have proposed acoustic logic gates based on the linear interference of self-collimated beams in 2D sonic crystals (SCs) with line-defects. The line defects on the diagonal of the 2D square SCs are actually functioning as a 3 dB splitter. By adjusting the phase difference between two input signals, the basic Boolean logic functions such as XOR, OR, AND, and NOT are achieved both theoretically and experimentally. Due to the non-diffracting property of self-collimation beams, more complex Boolean logic and algorithms such as NAND, NOR, and XNOR can be realized by cascading the basic logic gates. The achievement of acoustic logic gates and Boolean operation provides a promising approach for acoustic signal computing and manipulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cuttitta, Christina M.; Ericson, Daniel L.; Scalia, Alexander; Roessler, Christian G.; Teplitsky, Ella; Joshi, Karan; Campos, Olven; Agarwal, Rakhi; Allaire, Marc; Orville, Allen M.; Sweet, Robert M.; Soares, Alexei S.
2015-01-01
An acoustic high-throughput screening method is described for harvesting protein crystals and combining the protein crystals with chemicals such as a fragment library. Acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) is an emerging technology with broad applications in serial crystallography such as growing, improving and manipulating protein crystals. One application of this technology is to gently transfer crystals onto MiTeGen micromeshes with minimal solvent. Once mounted on a micromesh, each crystal can be combined with different chemicals such as crystal-improving additives or a fragment library. Acoustic crystal mounting is fast (2.33 transfers s −1 ) and all transfers occur in a sealed environment that is in vapor equilibrium with the mother liquor. Here, a system is presented to retain crystals near the ejection point and away from the inaccessible dead volume at the bottom of the well by placing the crystals on a concave agarose pedestal (CAP) with the same chemical composition as the crystal mother liquor. The bowl-shaped CAP is impenetrable to crystals. Consequently, gravity will gently move the crystals into the optimal location for acoustic ejection. It is demonstrated that an agarose pedestal of this type is compatible with most commercially available crystallization conditions and that protein crystals are readily transferred from the agarose pedestal onto micromeshes with no loss in diffraction quality. It is also shown that crystals can be grown directly on CAPs, which avoids the need to transfer the crystals from the hanging drop to a CAP. This technology has been used to combine thermolysin and lysozyme crystals with an assortment of anomalously scattering heavy atoms. The results point towards a fast nanolitre method for crystal mounting and high-throughput screening