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Sample records for acoustic drillhole logging

  1. Unification of acoustic drillhole logging data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehman, I.; Palmen, J.; Heikkinen, E.

    2009-04-01

    Posiva Oy prepares for disposal of spent nuclear fuel in bedrock in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki. This is in accordance of the application filed in 1999, the Decision-in-Principle of the State Council in 2000, and ratification by the Parliament in 2001. The site characterization at Olkiluoto has included comprehensive geological, hydrological, geochemical and geophysical investigations airborne, on ground and in drillholes since 1988. One of key techniques in geophysical drillhole surveys has been acoustic full waveform logging, which has been implemented since 1994. Various tools have been used in acquisition of acoustic data and several processing techniques have been applied. The logging work and processing to P and S wave velocities has been previously carried out on single drillhole basis. Comparisons to actual values and levels have not been made, and the results have not been calibrated. Therefore results for different drillholes have not been comparable. Resolution of the P and S wave velocity has been rather coarse, and depth correlation to the core data has been on tentative level. As the investigation data has been accumulating, it has become possible to correlate the results to geological and laboratory control data and to calibrate the results of separate measurement campaigns and different drillholes together onto same reference level and resolution. The presented technique has been applied for drillhole OL-KR29 onwards and has set the processing standard, settings and reference levels for later surveys. This approach will further assist the application of the method for mapping and numerical description of lithology variation and possible effect of alteration and deformation on it. Further on, the P and S wave velocity data together with density can be used in computing of dynamic in situ rock mechanical parameters, and possibly in correlating rock strength laboratory data to P and S wave velocity logging data. The acoustic logging data from drillholes OL-KR1

  2. Geophysical logging and imaging of characterisation drillholes ONK-KR13, ONK-KR14 and ONK-KR15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, A.-M.

    2011-08-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging as well as optical and acoustic imaging of drillholes ONK-KR13, ONK-KR14 and ONK-KR15 at ONKALO in June-July 2010 and in March 2011. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  3. Geophysical drillhole logging and imaging of drillholes OL-KR54, OL-KR55 and OL-KR55B at Olkiluoto in 2010 and 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, A.-M.; Heikkinen, E.

    2011-08-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging as well as optical and acoustic imaging of the drillholes OL-KR54, OL-KR55 and OL-KR55B at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki between August 2010 and January 2011. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. New focused resistivity, susceptibility, natural gamma and density probes were tested and compared with old probes. This report describes the major features of new probes and the comparison with old probes. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  4. ONKALO pose experiment. Geophysical logging and imaging of drillholes ONK-PP223, ONK-PP226, ONK-PP254 and ONK-PP259...261

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, A.-M.

    2011-08-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging as well as optical and acoustic imaging of shallow drillholes ONK-PP223, ONK-PP226, ONK-PP254, ONKPP259, ONK-PP260 and ONK-PP261 at ONKALO in the investigation niche ONKTKU- 3 (POSE) between December 2009 and June 2010. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  5. Acoustic sorting models for improved log segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Steve Verrill; Eini Lowell; Robert J. Ross; Vicki L. Herian

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined three individual log measures (acoustic velocity, log diameter, and log vertical position in a tree) for their ability to predict average modulus of elasticity (MOE) and grade yield of structural lumber obtained from Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb. Franco]) logs. We found that log acoustic velocity only had a...

  6. Geophysical drillhole logging and imaging of drillholes OL-KR51, OL-KR52, OL-KR52B, OL-KR53 and OL-KR53B at Olkiluoto in 2009 and 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, A.-M.

    2010-10-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging and optical imaging of the drillholes OL-KR51, OL-KR52, OL-KR52B, OL-KR53 and OL-KR53B at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki between November 2009 and February 2010. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  7. Geophysical drillhole logging of the drillholes OL-KR40, OL-KR41, OL-KR41B, OL-KR42, OLKR42B, OL-KR43 and OL-KR43B, at Olkiluoto 2006 and 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, A.-M.

    2007-05-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes drillholes OL-KR40, OL-KR41, OL-KR41B, OL-KR42, OL-KR42B, OL-KR43 and OL-KR43B at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during August, September, December 2006 and January 2007. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  8. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

    1989-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in gelogical formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleous present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described.

  9. Acoustic--nuclear permeability logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, D.J.; Arnold, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    A down hole logging tool featuring a neutron generator, an acoustic disturbance generator, and a radiation detection system is described. An array of acoustic magnetostriction transducers is arranged about the target of a neutron accelerator. Two gamma ray sensors are separated from the accelerator target by shielding. According to the method of the invention, the underground fluid at the level of a formation is bombarded by neutrons which react with oxygen in the fluid to produce unstable nitrogen 16 particles according to the reaction 16 O(n,p) 16 N. Acoustic pulses are communicated to the fluid, and are incident on the boundary of the borehole at the formation. The resulting net flow of fluid across the boundary is determined from radiation detection measurements of the decaying 16 N particles in the fluid. A measure of the permeability of the formation is obtained from the determination of net fluid flow across the boundary

  10. Acoustic reflection log in transversely isotropic formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquillo Jarillo, G.; Markova, I.; Markov, M.

    2018-01-01

    We have calculated the waveforms of sonic reflection logging for a fluid-filled borehole located in a transversely isotropic rock. Calculations have been performed for an acoustic impulse source with the characteristic frequency of tens of kilohertz that is considerably less than the frequencies of acoustic borehole imaging tools. It is assumed that the borehole axis coincides with the axis of symmetry of the transversely isotropic rock. It was shown that the reflected wave was excited most efficiently at resonant frequencies. These frequencies are close to the frequencies of oscillations of a fluid column located in an absolutely rigid hollow cylinder. We have shown that the acoustic reverberation is controlled by the acoustic impedance of the rock Z = Vphρs for fixed parameters of the borehole fluid, where Vph is the velocity of horizontally propagating P-wave; ρs is the rock density. The methods of waveform processing to determine the parameters characterizing the reflected wave have been discussed.

  11. Drilling and associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropainen, V.; Tarvainen, A.-M.; Poellaenen, J.; Pekkanen, J.; Pere, T.; Kaepyaho, E.; Lahti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH12 was drilled from ONKALO chainage 4092 to chainage 4215 in January 2010. The length of the hole is 123.96 metres. The drilling method was orientated core drilling. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss, and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The test to determine rock strength and deformation were made with Rock Tester -equipment. Water conductivity of the fractures or fractured zones was measured by Posiva Flow Log equipment. The measurements were done in two phases. During flow measurements also grounding resistance electric conductivity and temperature were measured. In flow logging test, sections of 0.5 m with increments of 0.1 m were used. Water loss measurements were conducted in the drillhole section 5.0-123.85 m dhd. Geophysical logging as well as optical and acoustic imaging of the pilot hole included the fieldwork of all surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and drillhole radar data. Groundwater sampling was not applicable because no

  12. Drilling and associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karttunen, P.; Mancini, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Tarvainen, A.-M.; Toropainen, V.; Pere, T.

    2011-01-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH11 was drilled from chainage 3922 to chainage 4053 in October 2009. The length of the hole is 131.21 metres. The aim during the drilling work was to orient core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Hydraulic conductivity of the fractures or fractured zones was measured by Posiva Flow Log equipment. During flow measurements also electric conductivity and temperature were measured. In flow logging test sections of 0.5 m and increments of 0.1 m were used. The water loss measurements were performed after drilling was completed by the drilling company. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, RQD, fractured zones, weathering and possible intersections. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The rock strength and deformation were determined with Rock Tester -equipment. Geophysical logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole included the fieldwork of all surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and drillhole radar data. The groundwater samples were collected from the open hole without any packers. The collected groundwater samples were

  13. Drilling and associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, A.-M.; Toropainen, V.; Pekkanen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Kosunen, P.; Lahti, M.; Pere, T.; Aalto, P.

    2011-04-01

    . Groundwater samples were not collected due to too low inflow to the drillhole. Geophysical surveys included natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, magnetic susceptibility, Wenner resistivity, short and long normal resistivity, single point resistance, drillhole radar and full waveform sonic measurements as well as optical and acoustic imaging. The results were joined with the available geological data received from Posiva. A group of geoscientists produced an integrated interpretation based on the investigation results of ONK-PH13. In single-hole interpretation the objective is to identify and describe the general characteristics of major rock units and possible deformation zones within a drillhole. A single-hole interpretation involves integrated interpretation of the data from the geological mapping, geophysical logging as well as hydrogeological investigations. The method is regarded useful for integrated and detailed modelling for the use of the RSC (Rock Suitability Criteria) program. (orig.)

  14. A synchronous serial bus for multidimensional array acoustic logging tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Baiyong; Ju, Xiaodong; Lu, Junqiang; Qiao, Wenxiao

    2016-12-01

    In high-temperature and spatial borehole applications, a distributed structure is employed in a multidimensional array acoustic logging tool (MDALT) based on a phased array technique for electronic systems. However, new challenges, such as synchronous multichannel data acquisition, multinode real-time control and bulk data transmission in a limited interval, have emerged. To address these challenges, we developed a synchronous serial bus (SSB) in this study. SSB works in a half-duplex mode via a master-slave architecture. It also consists of a single master, several slaves, a differential clock line and a differential data line. The clock line is simplex, whereas the data line is half-duplex and synchronous to the clock line. A reliable communication between the master and the slaves with real-time adjustment of synchronisation is achieved by rationally designing the frame format and protocol of communication and by introducing a scramble code and a Hamming error-correcting code. The control logic of the master and the slaves is realized in field programmable gate array (FPGA) or complex programmable logic device (CPLD). The clock speed of SSB is 10 MHz, the effective data rate of the bulk data transmission is over 99%, and the synchronous errors amongst the slaves are less than 10 ns. Room-temperature test, high-temperature test (175 °C) and field test demonstrate that the proposed SSB is qualified for MDALT.

  15. Core drilling of REPRO drillholes in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2010-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-05-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled ten drillholes for the Posiva's Experiments to investigate Rock Matrix Retention Properties (REPRO) in ONKALO at Eurajoki, 2010 - 2011. The drillholes are used for geological characterization, hydrological and geophysical studies and instrumenting in research for retention of radionuclides to rock matrix. The drillhole ONK-PP240 was drilled in March 2010 and the drillholes ONKPP318... 324 and ONK-PP326...327 in October - December 2011. The lengths of the drillholes range from 4.90 to 21.65 metres. The drillholes are 56.5 mm by diameter. The drillhole ONK-PP240 was drilled for pretesting in the investigation niche 4 at access tunnel chainage 3747 and the rest of the drillholes in the investigation niche 5 at access tunnel chainage 4219. The hydraulic DE 130 drilling rig was used. The starting directions of the close spaced drillholes were controlled with an aligner assembly to be as parallel as possible. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The drillholes were measured with EMS deviation survey tool. In addition to drilling the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock types in the drillholes are veined gneiss, pegmatitic granite and quartz gneiss (skarn rock). The average fracture frequency in drill cores is 1.2 pcs/m and the average RQD value 98.6 %. (orig.)

  16. Effect of Temperature on Acoustic Evaluation of Standing trees and logs: Part 1-Laboratory investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan Gao; Xiping Wang; Lihai Wang; R. Bruce. Allison

    2012-01-01

    The goals of this study were to investigate the effect of environment temperature on acoustic velocity of standing trees and green logs and to develop workable models for compensating temperature differences as acoustic measurements are performed in different climates and seasons. The objective of Part 1 was to investigate interactive effects of temperature and...

  17. Effect of temperature on Acoustic Evaluation of standing trees and logs: Part 2: Field Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan Gao; Xiping Wang; Lihai Wang; R. Bruce Allison

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of seasonal temperature changes on acoustic velocity measured on standing trees and green logs and to develop models for compensating temperature differences because acoustic measurements are performed in different climates and seasons. Field testing was conducted on 20 red pine (Pinus resinosa...

  18. Design of acoustic logging signal source of imitation based on field programmable gate array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Ju, X. D.; Lu, J. Q.; Men, B. Y.

    2014-08-01

    An acoustic logging signal source of imitation is designed and realized, based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), to improve the efficiency of examining and repairing acoustic logging tools during research and field application, and to inspect and verify acoustic receiving circuits and corresponding algorithms. The design of this signal source contains hardware design and software design,and the hardware design uses an FPGA as the control core. Four signals are made first by reading the Random Access Memory (RAM) data which are inside the FPGA, then dealing with the data by digital to analog conversion, amplification, smoothing and so on. Software design uses VHDL, a kind of hardware description language, to program the FPGA. Experiments illustrate that the ratio of signal to noise for the signal source is high, the waveforms are stable, and also its functions of amplitude adjustment, frequency adjustment and delay adjustment are in accord with the characteristics of real acoustic logging waveforms. These adjustments can be used to imitate influences on sonic logging received waveforms caused by many kinds of factors such as spacing and span of acoustic tools, sonic speeds of different layers and fluids, and acoustic attenuations of different cementation planes.

  19. Drilling and associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karttunen, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Tarvainen, A.-M.; Toropainen, V.; Lamminmaeki, T.; Kosunen, P.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH9 was drilled from chainage 3263 to chainage 3413.27 in November 2008. The length of the hole is 150.3 metres. The aim during the drilling work was to orient core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Hydraulic conductivity of the fractures or fractured zones was measured by Posiva Flow Log equipment. The measurements were done in two phases. During flow measurements also electric conductivity, grounding resistance and temperature were measured. In flow logging test sections of 0.5 m and increments of 0.1 m were used. The water loss measurements were performed after drilling was completed by the drilling company. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss, and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The rock strength and deformation were determined with Rock Tester equipment. Geophysical logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole included the fieldwork of all surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and drillhole radar data. One of the objectives of the geochemical study

  20. Drilling and associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, P.; Karttunen, P.; Lokkila, M.; Pekkanen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Tarvainen, A.-M.; Toropainen, V.; Kosunen, P.; Pere, T.

    2010-08-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH10 was drilled from chainage 3459 to chainage 3639 in March 2009. The length of the hole is 180.00 metres. The drilling was done as orientated core drilling. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss, and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The test to determine rock strength and deformation were made with Rock Tester -equipment. Water conductivity of the fractures or fractured zones was measured by Posiva Flow Log equipment. The measurements were done in two phases. During flow measurements also grounding resistance electric conductivity and temperature were measured. In flow logging test, sections of 0.5 m with increments of 0.1 m were used. Water loss measurements were conducted in the hole section 3.70-180.00 m dhd. Geophysical logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole included the fieldwork of all surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and drillhole radar data. One of the objectives of the geochemical study was to get information of the composition of

  1. Drilling and the associated drillhole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karttunen, P.; Poellaenen, J.; Rautio, T.; Tarvainen, A.-M.; Lamminmaeki, T.; Kemppainen, K.; Kosunen, P.; Lampinen, H.

    2009-02-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are drillholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes are aimed to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular to identify water conductive fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH8 was drilled from chainage 3116 to chainage 3266.29 in June- July 2008. The length of the hole is 150.29 metres. The aim during the drilling work was to orient core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Water conductivity of the fractures or fractured zones was measured by Posiva Flow Log equipment. The measurements were done in two phases. During flow measurements also grounding resistance, electric conductivity and temperature were measured. In flow logging test sections of 0.5 m and increments of 0.1 m were used. The water loss measurements failed. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss, and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The test to determine rock strength and deformation were made with Rock Tester-equipment. Geophysical logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole included the fieldwork of all surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and drillhole radar data. One of the objectives of the geochemical study was to get information of the composition of ONKALO

  2. Difference flow measurements in Greenland, drillhole DH-GAP04 in July 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellaenen, J.; Heikkinen, P. [Poyry Finland Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Lehtinen, A.

    2012-07-15

    To improve the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository of spent nuclear fuel, the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP) has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet, east of Kangerlussuaq, and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project began in 2009 and is scheduled for completion in 2012. In 2011, deep drillhole DH-GAP04 was drilled at the study site and Posiva Flow Log measurements were carried out in the drillhole. The Posiva Flow Log, Difference Flow Method (PFL DIFF) uses a flowmeter that incorporates a flow guide and can be used for relatively quick determinations of transmissivity and hydraulic head in fractures/fractured zones in cored drillholes. The aim of the measurements was to find high transmissive fractures, which would define the target for water sampling, i.e. the location for the packers in the drillhole. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements carried out in drillhole DH-GAP04 in July 2011. The length of the flow guide in the flow logging measurements was 10 m (section length). Flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole to the bedrock was measured within the section length. The measurements were carried out in both pumped and natural (i.e. un-pumped) conditions. Calculations of the transmissivity (T) and the hydraulic head (h) of the fractures are shown in the results. Measurements were carried out in drillhole length interval 184 - 675 m without pumping. During pumping, measurements were conducted in drillhole length interval 274 - 675 m due to permafrost condition above this level. The risk for the drillhole freezing over in the permafrost area was remarkable. Due to lack of time, the

  3. Core drilling of hydco drillholes ONK-PP262 and ONK-PP274 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled two drillholes for HYDCO-program in ONKALO at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto in 2010. The drillhole ONK-PP262 was drilled in May 2010 and the drillhole ONK-PP274 in December 2010. The lengths of the drillholes are 25.02 and 23.88 m respectively. The drillholes are 75.7 mm by diameter. The drillholes were drilled in the investigation niche 4 at the access tunnel chainage 3747. The hydraulic DE 130 drilling rig was used. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The drillholes were measured with EMS deviation survey tool. In addition to drilling the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock types in the drillholes are veined gneiss and pegmatitic granite. The average fracture frequencies in both drill cores are 1.4 pcs/m. The average RQD values in the drillcores are 97.2 % (ONK-PP262) and 98.6 % (ONK-PP274). (orig.)

  4. Core drilling of drillholes ONK-PVA9 and ONK-PVA10 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled two drillholes for groundwater monitoring stations in ONKALO at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto in 2011. The groundwater monitoring stations are used for monitoring changes in groundwater conditions. The drillhole ONK-PVA9 was drilled in March 2011 and the drillhole ONK-PVA10 in June 2011. The lengths of the drillholes are 15.95 and 20.10 m respectively. The drillholes are 75.7 mm by diameter. The drillhole ONK-PVA9 was drilled in a niche of the access tunnel at chainage 4366 and the ONK-PVA10 in the access tunnel wall at chainage 3851. The hydraulic DE 130 drilling rig was used. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The drillholes were measured with EMS deviation survey tool. In addition to drilling the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock types in the drillholes are veined gneiss and pegmatitic granite. The average fracture frequencies in drill cores are 2.9 pcs/m (ONK-PVA9) and 2.3 pcs/m (ONK-PVA10) and the average RQD values 81.6 % and 96.2 % respectively. (orig.)

  5. Statistical methods of fracture characterization using acoustic borehole televiewer log interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massiot, Cécile; Townend, John; Nicol, Andrew; McNamara, David D.

    2017-08-01

    Acoustic borehole televiewer (BHTV) logs provide measurements of fracture attributes (orientations, thickness, and spacing) at depth. Orientation, censoring, and truncation sampling biases similar to those described for one-dimensional outcrop scanlines, and other logging or drilling artifacts specific to BHTV logs, can affect the interpretation of fracture attributes from BHTV logs. K-means, fuzzy K-means, and agglomerative clustering methods provide transparent means of separating fracture groups on the basis of their orientation. Fracture spacing is calculated for each of these fracture sets. Maximum likelihood estimation using truncated distributions permits the fitting of several probability distributions to the fracture attribute data sets within truncation limits, which can then be extrapolated over the entire range where they naturally occur. Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Schwartz Bayesian Criterion (SBC) statistical information criteria rank the distributions by how well they fit the data. We demonstrate these attribute analysis methods with a data set derived from three BHTV logs acquired from the high-temperature Rotokawa geothermal field, New Zealand. Varying BHTV log quality reduces the number of input data points, but careful selection of the quality levels where fractures are deemed fully sampled increases the reliability of the analysis. Spacing data analysis comprising up to 300 data points and spanning three orders of magnitude can be approximated similarly well (similar AIC rankings) with several distributions. Several clustering configurations and probability distributions can often characterize the data at similar levels of statistical criteria. Thus, several scenarios should be considered when using BHTV log data to constrain numerical fracture models.

  6. Core Drilling of shallow drillholes OL-PP72...OL-PP89 at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-05-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled eighteen drillholes to survey the ground and bedrock conditions in the encapsulation plant building site at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki 2011. Soil quality, bedrock depth and quality of near surface bedrock were investigated in this project. The drillholes were drilled between 19th of October and 8th of November 2011. The lengths of the drillholes are mostly between 7 to 9 metres, except for the drillhole OL-PP79, which is 15 metres by length. The drillholes are 76 mm by diameter, and the core diameter is 60.2 mm. The lightweight GM75 drilling rig with rubber tracks was used. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO area research building freshwater pipeline and sodium fluorescein was added as a label agent in the drilling water. The drillholes were not left open. In addition to drilling the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The average natural fracture frequencies of the drillcores range from 2.5 pc/m (OL-PP77) to 11.8 pc/m (OL-PP86). The average RQD ranges from 55.1 % (OL-PP86) to 96.4 % (OL-PP77). The penetrated soils are mostly ground fill (blast rock), but some clays and sands are lying below the fill layer. (orig.)

  7. Reliable data storage system design and implementation for acoustic logging while drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaolong; Ju, Xiaodong; Wu, Xiling; Lu, Junqiang; Men, Baiyong; Yao, Yongchao; Liu, Dong

    2016-12-01

    Owing to the limitations of real-time transmission, reliable downhole data storage and fast ground reading have become key technologies in developing tools for acoustic logging while drilling (LWD). In order to improve the reliability of the downhole storage system in conditions of high temperature, intensive shake and periodic power supply, improvements were made in terms of hardware and software. In hardware, we integrated the storage system and data acquisition control module into one circuit board, to reduce the complexity of the storage process, by adopting the controller combination of digital signal processor and field programmable gate array. In software, we developed a systematic management strategy for reliable storage. Multiple-backup independent storage was employed to increase the data redundancy. A traditional error checking and correction (ECC) algorithm was improved and we embedded the calculated ECC code into all management data and waveform data. A real-time storage algorithm for arbitrary length data was designed to actively preserve the storage scene and ensure the independence of the stored data. The recovery procedure of management data was optimized to realize reliable self-recovery. A new bad block management idea of static block replacement and dynamic page mark was proposed to make the period of data acquisition and storage more balanced. In addition, we developed a portable ground data reading module based on a new reliable high speed bus to Ethernet interface to achieve fast reading of the logging data. Experiments have shown that this system can work stably below 155 °C with a periodic power supply. The effective ground data reading rate reaches 1.375 Mbps with 99.7% one-time success rate at room temperature. This work has high practical application significance in improving the reliability and field efficiency of acoustic LWD tools.

  8. Difference flow and electrical conductivity measurements at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, drillholes OL-KR54, OL-KR55, OL-KR55B and OL-KR47B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komulainen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Hurmerinta, E.; Ripatti, K. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-04-15

    The Posiva Flow Log, Difference flow method (PFL DIFF) uses a flowmeter that incorporates a flow guide and can be used for relatively quick determinations of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head of fractures/fractured zones in drillholes. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements carried out in drillholes OL-KR54, OL-KR55, OL-KR55B and OL-KR47B at the Olkiluoto investigation site between January 2011 and September 2011. The measuring programme employed was the same in all drillholes. The applied section lengths of the flow guide were either 2 m and 0.5 m. Flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole to the bedrock was measured within the section length. The measurements were carried out in both pumped and natural (i.e. un-pumped) conditions. The transmissivity and hydraulic head of zones were calculated from the flow and pressure results. The device used includes a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR was measured in connection with the flow measurements. The electrical conductivity (EC) of fracture-specific water was measured in chosen fractures. Fractures were selected on the basis of the measured flow from fractures into the drillhole. The drillhole flow (flow along the drillhole) was measured in conjunction with drillhole EC measurements. (orig.)

  9. Bentonite buffer pre-test. Core drilling of drillholes ONK-PP264...267 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropainen, V.

    2010-12-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled four drillholes for bentonite buffer pre-test in ONKALO at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto in July 2010. The identification numbers of the holes are ONK-PP264..267, and the lengths of the drillholes are approximately 4.30 metres each. The drillholes are 75.7 mm by diameter. The drillholes were drilled in a niche at access tunnel chainage 1475. The hydraulic DE 130 drilling rig was used for the work. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. In addition to drilling, the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock type in the drillholes is pegmatitic granite. The average fracture frequency in the drill cores is 4.0 pcs / m and the average RQD value 94.2 %. (orig.)

  10. Monitoring measurements by difference flow method during the year 2006, drillholes OL-KR1, KR2, KR4, KR7, KR8, KR10, KR14, KR22, KR22B, KR27 and KR28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeisaesvaara, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Sokolnicki, M.

    2008-04-01

    The Posiva Flow Log/Difference Flow Method can be used for a relatively fast determination of water conductivity and hydraulic head in fractures/fractured zones in cored drillholes. In this method, a flow meter with a flow guide is used. This report presents the principles and results of the measurements carried out in drillholes OL-KR1, -KR2, -KR4, -KR7, -KR8, -KR10, -KR14, -KR22, -KR22B, -KR27 and -KR28 at the Olkiluoto investigation site during the year 2006. These measurements are a part of the Olkiluoto monitoring programme. Two different section lengths (2 m and 0.5 m) were used in the flow logging measurements. The flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole into the bedrock was measured within the section. Measurements were carried out both in natural conditions and when the drillhole was pumped. The transmissivity (T) and hydraulic head (h) of zones were calculated and are presented in the results. The measurement device also includes a sensor for single-point resistance (SPR) measurements. SPR was always measured in connection with flow measurements. SPR is measured when the tool is moving. The electric conductivity of fracture-specific water (EC) was measured in selected fractures in some of the drillholes. The fractures were chosen on the basis of the measured flow from the fracture to the drillhole. In addition to this some previously selected fractures were measured. The EC of the drillhole water was measured separately. (orig.)

  11. Acoustic Emission and Echo Signal Compensation Techniques Applied to an Ultrasonic Logging-While-Drilling Caliper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yongchao; Ju, Xiaodong; Lu, Junqiang; Men, Baiyong

    2017-06-10

    A logging-while-drilling (LWD) caliper is a tool used for the real-time measurement of a borehole diameter in oil drilling engineering. This study introduces the mechanical structure and working principle of a new LWD caliper based on ultrasonic distance measurement (UDM). The detection range is a major performance index of a UDM system. This index is determined by the blind zone length and remote reflecting interface detection capability of the system. To reduce the blind zone length and detect near the reflecting interface, a full bridge acoustic emission technique based on bootstrap gate driver (BGD) and metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) is designed by analyzing the working principle and impedance characteristics of a given piezoelectric transducer. To detect the remote reflecting interface and reduce the dynamic range of the received echo signals, the relationships between the echo amplitude and propagation distance of ultrasonic waves are determined. A signal compensation technique based on time-varying amplification theory, which can automatically change the gain according to the echo arrival time is designed. Lastly, the aforementioned techniques and corresponding circuits are experimentally verified. Results show that the blind zone length in the UDM system of the LWD caliper is significantly reduced and the capability to detect the remote reflecting interface is considerably improved.

  12. Drilling and associated Drillhole measurements of the Pilot Hole ONK-PH14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalto, P.; Toropainen, V.; Tarvainen, A.-M.; Pekkanen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Lamminmaeki, T.

    2011-09-01

    The construction of ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. During the construction, investigations serving both research and construction purposes need to be done. Investigations can be done for example in so called pilot holes. Pilot holes are cored drillholes to be drilled to the tunnel profile. The length of the holes varies from some tens of metres to some hundreds of metres. The purpose of the holes is to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, especially to identify water conductive fractures/fractured zones and to provide information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH14 was drilled in June 2010. Drilling was started in chainage 4313.6. The length of the hole was 150.80 metres. The deviation of the drillhole was measured during and after the drilling. Additionally, oriented core samples were collected from the drill core and the electric conductivity of returning water was measured. Logging of the core samples included following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The strength and deformation properties of the rock were defined by using Rock-Tester equipment. Hydraulic measurements were made by using the PFL DIFF (Posiva Flow log, Difference Flow Method). PFL DIFF measurements were performed with a 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m length increments. With PFL DIFF tool the locations of transmissive fractures were detected. Simultaneously, the electric conductivity (EC) of the drillhole water and fracture specific water, temperature of the drillhole water, single point resistance (SPR) of the drillhole wall and the prevailing water pressure were measured. Water loss measurements were done after the drilling by the tool developed by Posiva. The tool was in test use during the measurements. The groundwater sample was

  13. Assessing wood quality of borer-infested red oak logs with a resonance acoustic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Henry E. Stelzer; Jan Wiedenbeck; Patricia K. Lebow; Robert J. Ross

    2009-01-01

    Large numbers of black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.) and scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea Muenchh.) trees are declining and dying in the Missouri Ozark forest as a result of oak decline. Red oak borer-infested trees produce low-grade logs that become extremely difficult to merchandize as the level of insect attack increases. The objective of this study was to investigate...

  14. Basic Data Report for Drillhole SNL-9 (C-2950)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, Dennis W.

    2005-01-01

    SNL-9 (permitted by the State Engineer as C-2950) was drilled to provide geological data and hydrological testing of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation within a proposed re-entrant of the margin of halite dissolved from the upper part of the Salado near Livingston Ridge. SNL-9 is located in the southeast quarter of section 23, T22S, R30E, in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico. SNL-9 was drilled to a total depth of 845 ft below the ground surface. Below surface dune sand and the Berino soil, SNL-9 encountered, in order, the Mescalero caliche, Gatuna, Dewey Lake, Rustler, and uppermost Salado Formations. Two intervals were cored: (1) from the lower Forty-niner Member through the Magenta Dolomite and into the upper Tamarisk Member; and (2) from the lower Tamarisk Member through the Culebra Dolomite and Los Medanos Members and into the uppermost Salado Formation. Geophysical logs were acquired from the open hole to total depth, and the drillhole was successfully completed with a screened interval open across the Culebra.

  15. Basic Data Report for Drillhole SNL-9 (C-2950)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis W. Powers; Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-01-19

    SNL-9 (permitted by the State Engineer as C-2950) was drilled to provide geological data and hydrological testing of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation within a proposed re-entrant of the margin of halite dissolved from the upper part of the Salado near Livingston Ridge. SNL-9 is located in the southeast quarter of section 23, T22S, R30E, in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico. SNL-9 was drilled to a total depth of 845 ft below the ground surface. Below surface dune sand and the Berino soil, SNL-9 encountered, in order, the Mescalero caliche, Gatuna, Dewey Lake, Rustler, and uppermost Salado Formations. Two intervals were cored: 1) from the lower Forty-niner Member through the Magenta Dolomite and into the upper Tamarisk Member; and 2) from the lower Tamarisk Member through the Culebra Dolomite and Los Meda?os Members and into the uppermost Salado Formation. Geophysical logs were acquired from the open hole to total depth, and the drillhole was successfully completed with a screened interval open across the Culebra.

  16. Basic Data Report for Drillhole SNL-12 (C-2954)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Dennis W. [Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services (United States)

    2005-01-20

    SNL-12 (permitted by the New Mexico State Engineer as C-2954) was drilled to provide geological data and hydrological testing of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation near the margin of dissolution of halite in the upper part of the Salado south of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). SNL-12 is located in the southeast quarter of section 20, T23S, R31E, in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico. SNL-12 was drilled to a total depth of 905 ft below the ground level. Below surface dune sand and the Berino soil, SNL-12 encountered, in order, the Mescalero caliche, Gatu?a, Dewey Lake, Rustler, and uppermost Salado Formations. Two intervals were cored: (1) from the lower Forty-niner Member through the Magenta Dolomite and into the upper Tamarisk Member; and (2) from the lower Tamarisk Member through the Culebra Dolomite and Los Meda?os Members and into the uppermost Salado Formation. Geophysical logs were acquired from the open hole to total depth, and the drillhole was successfully completed with a screened interval open across the Culebra. At SNL-12, the uppermost Salado cores display displacive halite crystals in clastic-rich units below an amalgamated sulfate at the top of the formation. There is no indication of thinning of the upper Salado due to postdepositional dissolution, and this is consistent with predrilling expectations.

  17. Basic Data Report for Drillhole SNL-5 (C-3002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis W. Powers; Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-01-18

    SNL-5 (permitted by the New Mexico State Engineer as C-3002) was drilled to provide geological data and hydrological testing of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation in an area north of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site where data are sparse and where a pumping or monitoring well for the northern pumping test is needed. SNL-5 is located in the southeast quarter of section 6, T22S, R31E, in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico. SNL-5 was drilled to a total depth of 687 ft below ground level (bgl), based on driller's measurements. Below the caliche pad, SNL-5 encountered the Mescalero caliche, Gatu?a, Dewey Lake, and Rustler Formations. Two intervals of the Rustler were cored: (1) from the lower Forty-niner Member through the Magenta Dolomite and into the upper Tamarisk Member; and (2) from the lower Tamarisk Member through the Culebra Dolomite and into the upper Los Meda?os Members. Geophysical logs were acquired from the open hole to a depth of ~672 ft. No water was observed to flow into the open drillhole until the Culebra was penetrated. includes horizontal beds and laminae near the base, and the uppermost part shows some inclined bedding. The mudstone unit shows mostly reddish brown claystone and siltstone with some gray mottling. Clasts or intraclasts are also included in the unit. The upper Tamarisk sulfate is somewhat brecciated near the base.

  18. Numerical study of the collar wave characteristics and the effects of grooves in acoustic logging while drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yufeng; Guan, Wei; Hu, Hengshan; Xu, Minqiang

    2017-05-01

    Large-amplitude collar wave covering formation signals is still a tough problem in acoustic logging-while-drilling (LWD) measurements. In this study, we investigate the propagation and energy radiation characteristics of the monopole collar wave and the effects of grooves on reducing the interference to formation waves by finite-difference calculations. We found that the collar wave radiates significant energy into the formation by comparing the waveforms between a collar within an infinite fluid, and the acoustic LWD in different formations with either an intact or a truncated collar. The collar wave recorded on the outer surface of the collar consists of the outward-radiated energy direct from the collar (direct collar wave) and that reflected back from the borehole wall (reflected collar wave). All these indicate that the significant effects of the borehole-formation structure on collar wave were underestimated in previous studies. From the simulations of acoustic LWD with a grooved collar, we found that grooves broaden the frequency region of low collar-wave excitation and attenuate most of the energy of the interference waves by multireflections. However, grooves extend the duration of the collar wave and convert part of the collar-wave energy originally kept in the collar into long-duration Stoneley wave. Interior grooves are preferable to exterior ones because both the low-frequency and the high-frequency parts of the collar wave can be reduced and the converted inner Stoneley wave is relatively difficult to be recorded on the outer surface of the collar. Deeper grooves weaken the collar wave more greatly, but they result in larger converted Stoneley wave especially for the exterior ones. The interference waves, not only the direct collar wave but also the reflected collar wave and the converted Stoneley waves, should be overall considered for tool design.

  19. Optimizing grade-control drillhole spacing with conditional simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Martínez-Vargas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes a method to determine the optimum spacing of grade-control drillholes drilled with reverse-circulation. The optimum drillhole spacing was defined as that one whose cost equals the cost of misclassifying ore and waste in selection mining units (SMU. The cost of misclassification of a given drillhole spacing is equal to the cost of processing waste misclassified as ore (Type I error plus the value of the ore misclassified as waste (Type II error. Type I and Type II errors were deduced by comparing true and estimated grades at SMUs, in relation to a cuttoff grade value and assuming free ore selection. True grades at SMUs and grades at drillhole samples were generated with conditional simulations. A set of estimated grades at SMU, one per each drillhole spacing, were generated with ordinary kriging. This method was used to determine the optimum drillhole spacing in a gold deposit. The results showed that the cost of misclassification is sensitive to extreme block values and tend to be overrepresented. Capping SMU’s lost values and implementing diggability constraints was recommended to improve calculations of total misclassification costs.

  20. Basic data report for drillholes at the H-11 complex (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, J.W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Snyder, R.P. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Drillholes H-11b1, H-11b2, and H-11b3 were drilled from August to December 1983 for site characterization and hydrologic studies of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Upper Permian Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. In October 1984, the three wells were subjected to a series of pumping tests designed to develop the wells, provide information on hydraulic communication between the wells, provide hydraulic properties information, and to obtain water samples for quality of water measurements. Based on these tests, it was determined that this location would provide an excellent pad to conduct a convergent-flow non-sorbing tracer test in the Culebra dolomite. In 1988, a fourth hole (H-11b4) was drilled at this complex to provide a tracer-injection hole for the H-11 convergent-flow tracer test and to provide an additional point at which the hydraulic response of the Culebra H-11 multipad pumping test could be monitored. A suite of geophysical logs was run on the drillholes and was used to identify different lithologies and aided in interpretation of the hydraulic tests. 4 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Basic data report for drillholes at the H-11 complex (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer, J.W.; Snyder, R.P.

    1990-05-01

    Drillholes H-11b1, H-11b2, and H-11b3 were drilled from August to December 1983 for site characterization and hydrologic studies of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Upper Permian Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. In October 1984, the three wells were subjected to a series of pumping tests designed to develop the wells, provide information on hydraulic communication between the wells, provide hydraulic properties information, and to obtain water samples for quality of water measurements. Based on these tests, it was determined that this location would provide an excellent pad to conduct a convergent-flow non-sorbing tracer test in the Culebra dolomite. In 1988, a fourth hole (H-11b4) was drilled at this complex to provide a tracer-injection hole for the H-11 convergent-flow tracer test and to provide an additional point at which the hydraulic response of the Culebra H-11 multipad pumping test could be monitored. A suite of geophysical logs was run on the drillholes and was used to identify different lithologies and aided in interpretation of the hydraulic tests. 4 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  2. The wavefield of acoustic logging in a cased hole with a single casing—Part II: a dipole tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Fehler, Michael

    2018-02-01

    The acoustic method, being the most effective method for cement bond evaluation, has been used by industry for more than a half century. However, the methods currently used are almost always focused on the first arrival (especially for sonic logging), which has limitations. We use a 3-D finite-difference method to numerically simulate the wavefields from a dipole source in a single-cased hole with different cement conditions. By using wavefield snapshots and dispersion curves, we interpret the characteristics of the modes in the models. We investigate the effect of source frequency, the thickness and location of fluid columns on different modes. The dipole wavefield in a single-cased hole consists of a leaky P (for frequency >10 kHz) from formation, formation flexural, and also some casing modes. Depending on the mode, their behaviour is sometimes sensitive to the existence of fluid between the cement and formation and sometimes sensitive to the existence of fluid between the casing and cement. The formation S velocity can be obtained from the formation flexural mode at low frequency. However, interference from high-order casing modes makes the leaky P invisible and P velocity determination difficult when the casing is not well cemented. The dispersion curve of the formation flexural mode is sensitive to the fluid thickness when fluid exists only at the interface between casing and cement. The fundamental casing dipole mode is only sensitive to the total fluid thickness in the annulus between casing and formation. Either the arrival time or amplitude of the high-order casing dipole mode is sensitive to the fluid column when the fluid column is next to the casing. We provide a table that summarizes the ability of different modes to detect fluid columns between various layers of casing, cement and formation. Based on the results, we suggest a data processing flow for field application, which will highly improve cement evaluation.

  3. Basic Data Report for Drillhole SNL-2 (C-2948)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Dennis W. [Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services (United States)

    2005-01-19

    SNL-2 was drilled in the northwest quarter of Section 12, T22S, R30E, in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico (Figure 2-1). It is located 574 ft from the north line (fnl) and 859 ft from the west line (fwl) of the section (Figure 2-2). This location places the drillhole east of the Livingston Ridge escarpment among oil wells of the Cabin Lake field. SNL-2 will be used to test hydraulic properties and to monitor ground water levels of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation. SNL-2 was permitted by the New Mexico State Engineer as C-2948. [Official correspondence regarding permitting and regulatory information must reference this permit number.] In the plan describing the integrated groundwater hydrology program (Sandia National Laboratories, 2003), SNL-2 is also codesignated WTS-1 because the location also satisfies needs for long-term monitoring of water quality and movement in the Culebra Dolomite for RCRA permitting; this program is under the management of Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS). In the event that additional wells are established on the SNL-2 drillpad to monitor other hydrological units (e.g., the Magenta Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation), the current drillhole will likely be referred to as SNL-2C because it is completed in the Culebra. Most drillholes at WIPP have been described after completion to provide an account of the geology, hydrology, or other basic data acquired during drilling and immediate completion of the drillhole. In addition, the basic data report provides an account of the drilling procedures and activities that may be helpful to later interpretations of data or for further work in the drillhole, including test activities and eventual plugging and abandoning activities. The basic data report also provides a convenient means of reporting information about administrative activities necessary to drill the hole.

  4. Summary of investigations in personnel shaft pre-grouting drillholes ONK-PP131, -PP134 and -PP137 in Olkiluoto, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, E.; Ahokas, T.; Heikkinen, P.; Kristiansson, S.; Tiensuu, K.; Pere, T.

    2010-06-01

    Posiva Oy is preparing for disposal of spent nuclear fuel in the bedrock at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki. This act is in accordance with the application filed in 1999, the Decision-in- Principle of the State Council in 2000, and the ratification by Parliament in 2001. The ONKALO underground characterisation facility has been under construction since 2004. Construction work has included excavation of an access tunnel (currently at a depth of c. 350 m) and driving of three vertical shafts using raise-boring. In 2008, geological, hydrological and geophysical measurements were carried out in three vertical drillholes intended for pre-grouting of personnel shaft ONK-KU1 at depth level -177 to -280 m. The drillholes are 76 mm in diameter, 104.5 m long and located 3.2 m apart within the perimeter of vertical shaft to be constructed. The shaft also contains geological and geophysical information from deep drillhole OL-KR24. Goal of survey and integrating interpretation was to investigate variation in bedrock properties and their predictability in small scale. Goal was also to demonstrate appropriate survey techniques. These techniques can be applied for characterization of bedrock in disposal tunnel and specifically in the near field of disposal holes. Information is gained from fracturing with orientations and continuity as well as hydraulic conductivity, and position and continuity of electrically conductive layers and fractures. Surveys included flow logging, crosshole mise-a-la-masse measurements, optical imaging and drillhole radar surveys. Data sets were adjusted to common depth level with core logging according to geological reference points. Results were interpreted for hydraulically conductive fractures and their orientations, fracture orientations, and electrical conductivity features from mise-a-la-masse and radar. Geophysical results were compared with geological information. The drillholes are located in a sparsely fractured rock mass. Rock quality is very good and

  5. Installation of groundwater observation tubes OL-PVP36-38 and drilling of shallow drillholes OL-PP70-71 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-05-15

    In order to widen the groundwater monitoring network at Olkiluoto, Posiva Oy contracted Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) to install new groundwater observation tubes to three locations and to drill two shallow drillholes with standpipes. The identification numbers of the groundwater observation tubes are OL-PVP36, OL-PVP37A, 37B, 37C, OL-PVP38A, 38B, 38C and 38D, and the shallow drillholes are named OL-PP70 and OL-PP71. The observation tubes were installed and the shallow holes drilled between September 22nd and October 12th in 2011. The drilling rig used in the installation work was a GM-200 rig. Drilling equipment consisted of casing tubes (90/77 mm) with drilling bit, 55 mm geo rods and 64 mm drilling bits and T76-equipment for drilling the shallow holes. Monitoring pipes (PVC, 60/52 mm) were lowered into the holes inside the casings. The monitoring pipes consist of a lower section of riser pipe, a middle section of screen pipe and an upper section of riser pipe. The screen pipe slot size is 0.3 mm and the length of the screen section is two metres. Protective stainless steel covers with lock-up caps were installed around the monitoring tubes and the shallow drillholes. In addition to the installation of the tubes, the work included water level measurements after installation. The core samples of the shallow drillholes were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. (orig.)

  6. Difference flow measurements and hydraulic interference test in ONKALO at Olkiluoto drillholes ONK-PH16 and ONK-PH17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komulainen, J.; Pekkanen, J. [Poyry Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-08-15

    The Posiva Flow Log, Difference Flow Method (PFL DIFF) uses a flowmeter that incorporates a flow guide and can be used for relatively quick determinations of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head in fractures/fractured zones in cored drillholes. This report presents the principles of the method as well as the results of the measurements carried out in the underground facilities of ONKALO. The measurements were conducted in pilot holes ONK-PH16 and ONK-PH17 between October 12 and December 29, 2010. The aim of the measurements was to detect water conducting fractures and hydraulic interference between pilot holes ONK-PH16 and ONK-PH17. The flow rate into a 0.5 m long test section was measured using 0.1 m point intervals. The flowing fractures in both pilot holes were obtained between 50 m - 80 m. For hydraulic interference test one drillhole was closed with packers to increase its pressure. Flow response to the increased pressure was measured in the other drillhole. The flow guide of the PFL DIFF probe encloses an electrode for single point resistance measurement, which was carried out with 0.01 m point intervals during the automatic flow measurements. The flow measurement and the single point resistance measurement were used to locate flowing fractures and evaluate their transmissivity. Electrical conductivity (EC) and temperature of water were registered during automatic flow logging. The conductivity values are temperature corrected to 25 deg C. The distance between the drillholes is about 14 m. Flow response in fractures of open ONK-PH16 could be detected when pressure was changed in ONK-PH17. (orig.)

  7. Nouvelles méthodes d'identification des fractures par diagraphie acoustique en full wave form New Methods of Identifying Fractures by Full Wave Form Acoustic Logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les outils acoustiques de dernière génération permettent maintenant d'enregistrer l'ensemble des ondes générées par une source acoustique à l'intérieur d'une géométrie cylindrique telle qu'un puits de sondage. Le train d'onde qu'il est alors possible d'analyser se compose successivement de trois composantes majeures (l'onde de compression, de cisaillement et de Stoneley dont nous avons une représentation pour chaque position de la sonde à l'intérieur du puits. Nous présentons, dans ce texte, trois méthodes originales et rapides (calculs possibles sur le site même pour identifier, à partir du traitement de l'onde de Stoneley, les fractures ouvertes recoupées par un forage. Nous donnons, dans un premier temps, nos motivations pour le choix unique du traitement de l'onde de Stoneley pour, dans un deuxième temps, exposer les trois méthodes développées et montrer pour chacune d'entre elles une application pratique. Interest in recognizing and identifying fractures in a coherent formation for the petroleum, geothermal and storage (oil and gas, wastes sectors has led to the development of indirect prospection methods inside boreholes such as acoustic logging. The latest acoustic tools are capable of recording all waves generated by an acoustic logging tool inside a cyclindrical geometry such as a borehole. The wavetrain that can then be analyzed is successively made up of three major components (the P compression wave, the S shear wave and the Stoneley wave for which we have a representation for each position of the logging tool in the borehole. An example of a recording is shown in Fig. 1. Because of its specific features (high amplitudes, low frequency, high signal-to-noise ratio, the Stoneley wave is recognized to be a good indicator of open fractures. Therefore, we use simple digital processing to quantify the influence of fracturing on the propagation of the Stoneley wave. Three methods stemming from the digital processing of

  8. Considering the Epistemic Uncertainties of the Variogram Model in Locating Additional Exploratory Drillholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Soltani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the certainty of the grade block model, it is necessary to increase the number of exploratory drillholes and collect more data from the deposit. The inputs of the process of locating these additional drillholes include the variogram model parameters, locations of the samples taken from the initial drillholes, and the geological block model. The uncertainties of these inputs will lead to uncertainties in the optimal locations of additional drillholes. Meanwhile, the locations of the initial data are crisp, but the variogram model parameters and the geological model have uncertainties due to the limitation of the number of initial data. In this paper, effort has been made to consider the effects of variogram uncertainties on the optimal location of additional drillholes using the fuzzy kriging and solve the locating problem with the genetic algorithm (GA optimization method.A bauxite deposit case study has shown the efficiency of the proposed model.

  9. Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jerry R.; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    The acoustics environment in space operations is important to maintain at manageable levels so that the crewperson can remain safe, functional, effective, and reasonably comfortable. High acoustic levels can produce temporary or permanent hearing loss, or cause other physiological symptoms such as auditory pain, headaches, discomfort, strain in the vocal cords, or fatigue. Noise is defined as undesirable sound. Excessive noise may result in psychological effects such as irritability, inability to concentrate, decrease in productivity, annoyance, errors in judgment, and distraction. A noisy environment can also result in the inability to sleep, or sleep well. Elevated noise levels can affect the ability to communicate, understand what is being said, hear what is going on in the environment, degrade crew performance and operations, and create habitability concerns. Superfluous noise emissions can also create the inability to hear alarms or other important auditory cues such as an equipment malfunctioning. Recent space flight experience, evaluations of the requirements in crew habitable areas, and lessons learned (Goodman 2003; Allen and Goodman 2003; Pilkinton 2003; Grosveld et al. 2003) show the importance of maintaining an acceptable acoustics environment. This is best accomplished by having a high-quality set of limits/requirements early in the program, the "designing in" of acoustics in the development of hardware and systems, and by monitoring, testing and verifying the levels to ensure that they are acceptable.

  10. Exploration of joint systems and major horizontal stress direction in HDR drillholes of the Soultz site (Alsace, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genter, A. [BRGM/GIG, Orleans (France); Tenzer, H. [Stadtwerke Bad Urach (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    Borehole imaging logs enable continuous recording of natural and artificial planar discontinuities on the drillhole wall and data of the drillhole geometry to be made. Efforts were made to resolve the orientation and characterization of the natural joint system, the active fault pattern, the alteration zones, the orientation of microcracks and the direction of maximum horizontal stress. Intense logging operations and measurements were carried out in the HDR drillholes GPK1 and EPS1 between 1000 and 3600 m depth in the Muschelkalk, Bunter and Granite at Soultz sous Forets. With the help of investigations on subvertical fractures the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress direction was determined as N175 E{+-}17 . These results are consistent with previous investigations performed in the horeholes GPK-1 and EPS-1. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Bohrlochmessungen mit dem akustschen Borehole Televiewer und elektrischen Formation MicroScanner (Imager) sowie dem Azimuthal Resistivity Imager und verschiedenen Sonic-Sonden ermoeglichen eine kontinuierliche Aufnahme sowohl von natuerlichen und kuenstlich erzeugten planaren Diskontinuitaeten an der Bohrlochwand als auch der Bohrlochgeometrie. Es wurden die Orientierung und Charakterisierung des natuerlichen Kluftsystems, das aktive Stoerungsmuster, die Alterationszonen, die Orientierung von Mikrorissen und die Orientierung der maximalen horizontalen Hauptspannungsrichtung ermittelt. Die Verfuegbarkeit von Strukturdaten aus Bohrloechern durch Bohrlochmessungen und hydraulischen Testen ermoeglicht die Bestimmung von hydraulisch aktiven Klueften und deren Beziehung zum regionalen Spannungsfeld. Mit Hilfe spezieller Bohrloch-Logs wurden die Orientierung und Haeufigkeit planarer Diskontinuitaeten und ihre scheinbare Oeffnungsweite sowie die Vorzugsrichtung der verschiedenen scheinbaren Weiten bestimmt. Innerhalb des gemeinsamen europaeischen Hot-Dry-Rock-Geothermal-Forschungsprogramms wurden vielfaeltige Bohrlochmessungen in den

  11. Velocity Structure of the Alpine Fault Zone, New Zealand: Laboratory and Log-Based Fault Rock Acoustic Properties at Elevated Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppson, T.; Graham, J. L., II; Tobin, H. J.; Paris Cavailhes, J.; Celerier, B. P.; Doan, M. L.; Nitsch, O.; Massiot, C.

    2015-12-01

    The elastic properties of fault zone rocks at seismogenic depth play a key role in rupture nucleation, propagation, and damage associated with fault slip. In order to understand the seismic hazard posed by a fault we need to both measure these properties and understand how they govern that particular fault's behavior. The Alpine Fault is the principal component of the active transpressional plate boundary through the South Island of New Zealand. Rapid exhumation along the fault provides an opportunity to study near-surface rocks that have experienced similar histories to those currently deforming at mid-crustal depths. In this study, we examine the acoustic properties of the Alpine Fault in Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP)-1 drill core samples and borehole logs from the shallow fault zone, DFDP-2 borehole logs from the hanging wall, and outcrop samples from a number of field localities along the central Alpine Fault. P- and S-wave velocities were measured at ultrasonic frequencies on saturated 2.5 cm-diameter core plugs taken from DFDP-1 core and outcrops. Sampling focused on mylonites, cataclasites, and fault gouge from both the hanging and foot walls of the fault in order to provide a 1-D seismic velocity transect across the entire fault zone. Velocities were measured over a range of effective pressures between 1 and 68 MPa to determine the variation in acoustic properties with depth and pore pressure. When possible, samples were cut in three orthogonal directions and S-waves were measured in two polarization directions on all samples to constrain velocity anisotropy. XRD and petrographic characterization were used to examine how fault-related alteration and deformation change the composition and texture of the rock, and to elucidate how these changes affect the measured velocities. The ultrasonic velocities were compared to sonic logs from DFDP to examine the potential effects of frequency dispersion, brittle deformation, and temperature on the measured

  12. Traitement des diagraphies acoustiques. Deuxième partie : séparation des ondes en diagraphie acoustique Full-Waveform Acoustic Data Processing. Second Part: Wave Separation in Acoustic Well Logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin P.

    2006-11-01

    'ambiguïté sur l'origine des réflexions. The fule waveforms recorded by an array of receivers in a borehole sonic tool contain a set of waves that can be fruitfully used to obtain detailed information about the nearborehole lithology and structure. Each wave contains information that can be disturbed by the presence of the other waves. The great amount of full-waveform sonic data leads geophysicists and log analysts to implement algorithms for separating waves. The log analyst must pay attention to the choice of parameters for acquisition. The acoustic data must be recorded with well suited spatial and temporal sampling-rates to avoid spatial and temporal aliasings. The efficiency of the wave-separation algorithms depends on the choice of acoustic data gathers. Acoustic data are sorted either in a common-shot gather or in a constant-offset gather. The wave separation filters commonly used are apparent velocity filters. Less usual filters are a Wiener filter and a spectral matrix filter. The efficiency of an apparent velocity filter is enhanced by application of spectrum equalization. The signal to noise ratio is enhanced by spectral matrix filtering. We describe different processing sequences applied to a set of field examples. First field example: full-waveform sonic data in a vertical wellFull-waveform sonic data were acquired in a vertical well drilled in an anticline structure used for underground gas storage by Gaz de France. The sonic tool used was a Schlumberger Dipole Imaging tool. This tool is an eight-receiver/three-transmitter device. The receiver section contains eight dipole-monopole stations spanning 3. 5 ft, each station spaced 6 inches (15 cm from its neighbor. The distance between the monopole transmitter and the first receiver station is 9 ft. The source was fired at equal spacings of 6 inches throughout the open hole section. For this experiment, the monopole transmitter was activated with a low frequency pulse for the purpose of generating low frequency

  13. Acoustic Velocity Log Numerical Simulation and Saturation Estimation of Gas Hydrate Reservoir in Shenhu Area, South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas hydrate model and free gas model are established, and two-phase theory (TPT for numerical simulation of elastic wave velocity is adopted to investigate the unconsolidated deep-water sedimentary strata in Shenhu area, South China Sea. The relationships between compression wave (P wave velocity and gas hydrate saturation, free gas saturation, and sediment porosity at site SH2 are studied, respectively, and gas hydrate saturation of research area is estimated by gas hydrate model. In depth of 50 to 245 m below seafloor (mbsf, as sediment porosity decreases, P wave velocity increases gradually; as gas hydrate saturation increases, P wave velocity increases gradually; as free gas saturation increases, P wave velocity decreases. This rule is almost consistent with the previous research result. In depth of 195 to 220 mbsf, the actual measurement of P wave velocity increases significantly relative to the P wave velocity of saturated water modeling, and this layer is determined to be rich in gas hydrate. The average value of gas hydrate saturation estimated from the TPT model is 23.2%, and the maximum saturation is 31.5%, which is basically in accordance with simplified three-phase equation (STPE, effective medium theory (EMT, resistivity log (Rt, and chloride anomaly method.

  14. Scientific Bases of Innovation Technology of Drill-Hole Equipment by Cryogenic-Gravel Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Коzhevnikov, А.А.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing technologies of cryogenic-gravel filter element and equipment of drill-hole water receiving part by a cryogenic-gravel filter are described. Compoundings of mineral binder and cryogenically-gravel composition are substantiated. Patterns of physical fields influence on the change of their properties and technological operations of equipping drill-hole water receiving part on changes of physical, mechanical, thermal and technological properties of experimental cryogenic gravel filter element are established. Parameters of delivery technology of cryogenicgravel filter to drill-hole water receiving part are theoretically and experimentally worked out.

  15. Basic Data Report for Drillhole SNL-5 (C-3002) (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, Dennis W.

    2005-01-01

    SNL-5 (permitted by the New Mexico State Engineer as C-3002) was drilled to provide geological data and hydrological testing of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation in an area north of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site where data are sparse and where a pumping or monitoring well for the northern pumping test is needed. SNL-5 is located in the southeast quarter of section 6, T22S, R31E, in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico. SNL-5 was drilled to a total depth of 687 ft below ground level (bgl), based on driller's measurements. Below the caliche pad, SNL-5 encountered the Mescalero caliche, Gatuna, Dewey Lake, and Rustler Formations. Two intervals of the Rustler were cored: (1) from the lower Forty-niner Member through the Magenta Dolomite and into the upper Tamarisk Member; and (2) from the lower Tamarisk Member through the Culebra Dolomite and into the upper Los Medanos Members. Geophysical logs were acquired from the open hole to a depth of ∼672 ft. No water was observed to flow into the open drillhole until the Culebra was penetrated. includes horizontal beds and laminae near the base, and the uppermost part shows some inclined bedding. The mudstone unit shows mostly reddish brown claystone and siltstone with some gray mottling. Clasts or intraclasts are also included in the unit. The upper Tamarisk sulfate is somewhat brecciated near the base.

  16. Basic Data Report for Drillhole SNL-12 (C-2954) (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, Dennis W.

    2005-01-01

    SNL-12 (permitted by the New Mexico State Engineer as C-2954) was drilled to provide geological data and hydrological testing of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation near the margin of dissolution of halite in the upper part of the Salado south of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). SNL-12 is located in the southeast quarter of section 20, T23S, R31E, in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico. SNL-12 was drilled to a total depth of 905 ft below the ground level. Below surface dune sand and the Berino soil, SNL-12 encountered, in order, the Mescalero caliche, Gatu?a, Dewey Lake, Rustler, and uppermost Salado Formations. Two intervals were cored: (1) from the lower Forty-niner Member through the Magenta Dolomite and into the upper Tamarisk Member; and (2) from the lower Tamarisk Member through the Culebra Dolomite and Los Medanos Members and into the uppermost Salado Formation. Geophysical logs were acquired from the open hole to total depth, and the drillhole was successfully completed with a screened interval open across the Culebra. At SNL-12, the uppermost Salado cores display displacive halite crystals in clastic-rich units below an amalgamated sulfate at the top of the formation. There is no indication of thinning of the upper Salado due to postdepositional dissolution, and this is consistent with predrilling expectations.

  17. Wavelet Transform: Application to Acoustic Logging La transformée en ondelettes : application à la diagraphie acoustique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirion N.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The wavelet transform can be used to develop the process which allows group and phase velocity measurement of dispersive waves. The method has been applied to acoustic data to measure formation velocities. The behavior and the accuracy of the method have been checked on synthetic full waveform acoustic data. The method was applied to dispersive waves of the Stoneley type and to flexural modes whose low frequency components are propagated at the formation shear velocity. A raw measurement of the phase velocity of a flexural mode gives an estimate of the shear velocity with an error of about 5%. The use of a wavelet transform yields an accurate study of dispersion and gives a shear velocity measurement with an error of less than 1 %. However, all the examples presented here are based on the use of synthetic data, which are not corrupted by noise and were obtained with a numerical model. This algorithm is complete, to the extent in which it enables simulation of all the seismic arrivals for the considered geometry (cylindrical borehole with a circular section, in an homogeneous medium. Nevertheless, such a model remains a simplified version of what will occur in reality, when the irregularities of the borehole, the cementing defects and the background noise may call into question the excellent precision of the results obtained. The process which is described in this paper must be seen as one possible method for the analysis of field data, but it still has to be applied to many recordings of field data before its effectiveness can really be proved. Les analyses Temps-Fréquence caractérisant un signal dans le plan Temps-Fréquence permettent d'obtenir une bonne localisation des composantes spectrales du signal analysé aussi bien dans le domaine fréquentiel que dans le domaine temporel. Dans ce contexte, la théorie des ondelettes sert de base à différentes méthodes développées dans le cadre d'applications variées en traitement du signal. Le

  18. Core drilling of deep drillhole OL-KR57 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2011-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropainen, V.

    2012-07-01

    As a part of the confirming site investigations at Olkiluoto, Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 401.71 m and 45.01 m deep drillholes, OL-KR57 and OL-KR57B, at Olkiluoto in September 2011 - January 2012. The diameter of the drillholes is 75.7 mm. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the returning and drilling water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and the computer recorded drilling parameters during drilling. The objective of the measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling, flushing and washing water were 350 m3 and 30 m3 in the drillholes OL-KR57 and OL-KR57B, respectively. The measured volumes of the returning water in the drillholes were 328 m 3 and 16.8 m 3 , respectively. The deviations of the drillholes were measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Gyro. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength was 123.9 MPa, the average Young's Modulus was 42.6 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio was 0.23. The main rock types are veined and diatexitic gneisses, mica gneiss and tonaliticgranodioritic- granitic gneiss. The average fracture frequency is 2.5 pcs/m in drillhole OL-KR57 and 3.3 pcs/m in the drillhole OL-KR57B. The average RQD values are 95.0 % and 93.0 %. Seven separate fractured zones were interpreted from OL-KR57 and three fractured zones from OL-KR57B. (orig.)

  19. Core drilling of deep drillhole OL-KR54 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropainen, V.

    2010-11-01

    As a part of the confirming site investigations at Olkiluoto, Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled a 500.18 m deep drillhole with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in July - August 2010. The identification number of the drillhole is OL-KR54. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the returning and drilling water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and the computer recorded drilling parameters during drilling. The objective of the measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volume of the used drilling, washing and flushing water was 382 m 3 . The measured volume of the returning water in the drillhole was 334 m 3 . The deviation of the drillhole was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Gyro. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength was 111.5 MPa, the average Young's Modulus was 43.7 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio was 0.17. The main rock types are diatexitic and veined gneisses, pegmatitic granite and mafic gneiss. The average fracture frequency is 1.6 pcs/m and the average RQD value is 97.6 %. Nine fractured zones were penetrated by the drillhole. (orig.)

  20. Core drilling of deep drillhole OL-KR48 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropainen, V.

    2008-01-01

    Posiva Oy submitted an application for the Decision in Principle to the Finnish Government in May 1999. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle on the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 530.11 m deep drillhole (identification number OL-KR48) with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in summer 2007. This drillhole was aimed to get additional information of the quality of bedrock in the area, where a new shaft with a diameter of 3.5 m is planned. The drillhole is nearly vertical, and its deviation was minimized with directional drilling. The drillhole requires cleaning and stabilization for down the hole measurements. To obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties, a set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the returning and drilling waters were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and recorded drilling parameters. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volume of the used drilling and washing water was 438 m 3 . Measured volume of the returning water was 123 m 3 . The deviation of the drillhole was measured with the deviation measuring instruments DeviTool and EMS. The results of the EMS measurements indicate that the drillhole deviates 2.51 m north and 0.51 m west from the target point at the drillhole depth of 528 m. Results of DeviTool indicate deviation of 1.44 m north and 0.40 m west at depth of 530 m. Uniaxial compressive strength (113.0 Mpa), Young's Modulus (36.2 GPa) and

  1. Core drilling of deep drillhole OL-KR57 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2011-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-07-15

    As a part of the confirming site investigations at Olkiluoto, Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 401.71 m and 45.01 m deep drillholes, OL-KR57 and OL-KR57B, at Olkiluoto in September 2011 - January 2012. The diameter of the drillholes is 75.7 mm. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the returning and drilling water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and the computer recorded drilling parameters during drilling. The objective of the measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling, flushing and washing water were 350 m3 and 30 m3 in the drillholes OL-KR57 and OL-KR57B, respectively. The measured volumes of the returning water in the drillholes were 328 m{sup 3} and 16.8 m{sup 3}, respectively. The deviations of the drillholes were measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Gyro. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength was 123.9 MPa, the average Young's Modulus was 42.6 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio was 0.23. The main rock types are veined and diatexitic gneisses, mica gneiss and tonaliticgranodioritic- granitic gneiss. The average fracture frequency is 2.5 pcs/m in drillhole OL-KR57 and 3.3 pcs/m in the drillhole OL-KR57B. The average RQD values are 95.0 % and 93.0 %. Seven separate fractured zones were interpreted from OL-KR57 and three fractured zones from OL-KR57B. (orig.)

  2. Basic Data Report for Drillhole SNL-2 (C-2948) (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, Dennis W.

    2005-01-01

    SNL-2 was drilled in the northwest quarter of Section 12, T22S, R30E, in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico (Figure 2-1). It is located 574 ft from the north line (fnl) and 859 ft from the west line (fwl) of the section (Figure 2-2). This location places the drillhole east of the Livingston Ridge escarpment among oil wells of the Cabin Lake field. SNL-2 will be used to test hydraulic properties and to monitor ground water levels of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation. SNL-2 was permitted by the New Mexico State Engineer as C-2948. [Official correspondence regarding permitting and regulatory information must reference this permit number.] In the plan describing the integrated groundwater hydrology program (Sandia National Laboratories, 2003), SNL-2 is also codesignated WTS-1 because the location also satisfies needs for long-term monitoring of water quality and movement in the Culebra Dolomite for RCRA permitting; this program is under the management of Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS). In the event that additional wells are established on the SNL-2 drillpad to monitor other hydrological units (e.g., the Magenta Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation), the current drillhole will likely be referred to as SNL-2C because it is completed in the Culebra. Most drillholes at WIPP have been described after completion to provide an account of the geology, hydrology, or other basic data acquired during drilling and immediate completion of the drillhole. In addition, the basic data report provides an account of the drilling procedures and activities that may be helpful to later interpretations of data or for further work in the drillhole, including test activities and eventual plugging and abandoning activities. The basic data report also provides a convenient means of reporting information about administrative activities necessary to drill the hole.

  3. Core drilling of deep drillhole OL-KR56 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2011 - 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-07-15

    As a part of the confirming site investigations at Olkiluoto, Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled a 1201.65 m deep drillhole with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in October 2011 - January 2012. The identification number of the drillhole is OL-KR56. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the returning and drilling water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and the computer recorded drilling parameters during drilling. The objective of the measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volume of the used drilling, washing and flushing water was 1628 m{sup 3}. The measured volume of the returning water in the drillhole was 1142 m{sup 3}. The deviation of the drillhole was measured with the deviation measuring instruments Reflex EMS and Reflex Gyro. The main rock types are veined and diatexitic gneisses, pegmatitic granite and mica gneiss. The average fracture frequency is 2.4 pcs/m and the average RQD value is 96.2 %. Fifty fractured zones were penetrated by the drillhole. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength was 120.0 MPa, the average Young's Modulus was 38.3 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio was 0.22. (orig.)

  4. High-resolution hydro- and geo-stratigraphy at Atlantic Coastal Plain drillhole CR-622 (Strat 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrege, B.M.; Isely, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    We interpret borehole geophysical logs in conjunction with lithology developed from continuous core to produce high-resolution hydro- and geo-stratigraphic profiles for the drillhole CR-622 (Strat 8) in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of North Carolina. The resulting hydrologic and stratigraphic columns show a generalized relation between hydrologic and geologic units. Fresh-water aquifers encountered are the surficial, Yorktown, Pungo River and Castle Hayne. Geologic units present are of the middle and upper Tertiary and Quaternary periods, these are the Castle Hayne (Eocene), Pungo River (Miocene), Yorktown (Pliocene), James City and Flanner Beach (Pleistocene), and the topsoil (Holocene). The River Bend Formation (Oligocene) is missing as a distinct unit between the Pungo River Formation and the Castle Hayne Formation. The confining unit underlying the Yorktown Aquifer corresponds to the Yorktown Geologic Unit. The remaining hydrologic units and geologic units are hydrologically transitional and non-coincident. The lower Pungo River Formation serves as the confining unit for the Castle Hayne Aquifer, rather than the River Bend Aquifer, and separates the Pungo River Aquifer from the upper Castle Hayne Aquifer. All geologic formations were bound by unconformities. All aquifers were confined by the anticipated hydrologic units. We conclude that CR-622 (Strat 8) represents a normal sequence in the Atlantic Coastal Plain.

  5. Basic Data Report for Drillholes on the H-19 Hydropad (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant--WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer, J.W.; Cole, D.L.; Holt, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Seven holes were drilled and wells (H-19b0, H-19b2, H-19b3, H-19b4, H-19b5, H-19b6, and H-19b7) were constructed on the H-19 hydropad to conduct field activities in support of the Culebra Transport Program. These wells were drilled and completed on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site during February to September 1995. An eighth hole, H-19b1, was drilled but had to be abandoned before the target depth was reached because of adverse hole conditions. The geologic units penetrated at the H-19 location include surficial deposits of Holocene age, rocks from the Dockum Group of Upper Triassic age, the Dewey Lake Redbeds, and Rustler Formation of the Permian age. The Rustler Formation has been further divided into five informal members which include the Forty-niner Member, Magenta Member, Tamarisk Member, Culebra Dolomite Member, and an unnamed lower member. The Rustler Formation, particularly the Culebra Dolomite Member, is considered critical for hydrologic site characterization. The Culebra is the most transmissive saturated unit above the WIPP repository and, as such, is considered to be the most likely pathway for radionuclide transport to the accessible environment in the unlikely event the repository is breached. Seven cores from the Culebra were recovered during drilling activities at the H-19 hydropad and detailed descriptions of these cores were made. On the basis of geologic descriptions, four hydrostratigraphic units were identified in the Culebra cores and were correlated with the mapping units from the WFP air intake shaft. The entire length of H-19b1 was cored and was described in detail. During coring of H-19b1, moisture was encountered in the upper part of the Dewey Lake Redbeds. A 41-ft-thick section of this core was selected for detailed description to qualify the geologic conditions related to perched water in the upper Dewey Lake. In addition to cuttings and core, a suite of geophysical logs run on the drillholes was used to identify and

  6. Basic Data Report for Drillholes on the H-19 Hydropad (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant--WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, J.W.; Cole, D.L.; Holt, R.M.

    1998-10-09

    Seven holes were drilled and wells (H-19b0, H-19b2, H-19b3, H-19b4, H-19b5, H-19b6, and H-19b7) were constructed on the H-19 hydropad to conduct field activities in support of the Culebra Transport Program. These wells were drilled and completed on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site during February to September 1995. An eighth hole, H-19b1, was drilled but had to be abandoned before the target depth was reached because of adverse hole conditions. The geologic units penetrated at the H-19 location include surficial deposits of Holocene age, rocks from the Dockum Group of Upper Triassic age, the Dewey Lake Redbeds, and Rustler Formation of the Permian age. The Rustler Formation has been further divided into five informal members which include the Forty-niner Member, Magenta Member, Tamarisk Member, Culebra Dolomite Member, and an unnamed lower member. The Rustler Formation, particularly the Culebra Dolomite Member, is considered critical for hydrologic site characterization. The Culebra is the most transmissive saturated unit above the WIPP repository and, as such, is considered to be the most likely pathway for radionuclide transport to the accessible environment in the unlikely event the repository is breached. Seven cores from the Culebra were recovered during drilling activities at the H-19 hydropad and detailed descriptions of these cores were made. On the basis of geologic descriptions, four hydrostratigraphic units were identified in the Culebra cores and were correlated with the mapping units from the WFP air intake shaft. The entire length of H-19b1 was cored and was described in detail. During coring of H-19b1, moisture was encountered in the upper part of the Dewey Lake Redbeds. A 41-ft-thick section of this core was selected for detailed description to qualify the geologic conditions related to perched water in the upper Dewey Lake. In addition to cuttings and core, a suite of geophysical logs run on the drillholes was used to identify and

  7. A drill-hole geodatabase as a tool to investigate geological hazard in Napoli Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albericoa, I.; Lirer, L.; Petrosino, P.

    2003-04-01

    Geological investigations in urban areas are complicated by the absence of good outcrops and field exposures, as a result of the density of civil buildings and railway and road network. On the other side, in urban areas geological investigation represents a basic tool to decisional support for the management of present private buildings and public works and for the planning of new ones. This is much more true in urban areas very exposed to geological hazard (volcanic, hydrogeological, seismic) where the high exposed value greatly rises the risk. The methodology to deal with the geological hazard in urban areas here presented is the reconstruction of buried geological formations deduced by drill-holes stratigraphy.The test area is represented by the whole municipality of Napoli city, that proves very apt to the investigation of the hazard in urban areas since it stands over an active volcanic area, comprised between the Campi Flegrei volcanic field and the Somma-Vesuvio district, that both gave explosive and effusive activity through the last centuries. Besides, the extension of the main part of the city constrained between the coastline and the belt of volcanic hills together with the presence of loose material due to pyroclastic activity makes the alluvional events an other hazardous phenomenon for the city. The performed up datable drill-holes geodata-base for the city of Napoli at present contains the record of about 800 holes stratigraphy, collected through the main public and private bodies, reflecting the drill-holes surveys made along the last 50 years before constructing the main railways, roads and aqueduct network. Drill-holes data have been interpreted and can now be read under various viewpoints (geological, lithological, volcanological); the present work presents the first results of the geological hazard investigation. The investigation of buried stratigraphy in the eastern area allows to identify the presence of pyroclastic flow deposits from Somma

  8. Hydraulic rock stress measurements in drillholes OL-KR40 and ONK-PP125 at the Olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ask, D.; Fontbonne, F.; Brunet, C.

    2011-02-01

    Hydraulic rock stress measurements were performed in the surface drillhole OL-KR40 (25 tests) and in the underground drillhole ONK-PP125 (10 tests) at the Olkiluoto site, Finland. The measurements were carried out in two separate campaigns with a total of 6 sleeve fracturing tests (SF), 17 hydraulic fracturing tests (HF), and 12 hydraulic tests on pre-existing fractures (HTPF). This report presents scope, objectives and performance of stress measurements in the two drillholes. Further, a description is given of the employed test equipment, quality assurance, testing methodology, and results of stress determination at the Olkiluoto site. The results of the stress measurement campaign in drillholes OL-KR40 and ONKPP125 were initially not optimal. The primary reason for difficulty in drillhole OLKR40 relates to the drillhole inclination, which is not optimal for hydraulic stress measurements. Hydraulic fracturing theory does not apply and the testing was therefore based primarily on HTPF approach. This technique requires a variety of fracture orientations in order to solve all components with precision. However, as a result of the drillhole inclination, the drillhole wall failed during pressurization and this physical constraint significantly limited the amount of successful HTPF tests. Because the induced fractures have similar orientation, the resolution of maximum horizontal stress magnitude and its orientation was not optimal based on conventional stress calculation. For drillhole ONK-PP125, few tests were undertaken and stress calculation results were not conclusive. For this borehole, despite the application of sleeve and hydraulic fracturing, axial fractures were not produced. As a result of these difficulties, a decision was made to employ en echelon theory. This theory investigates if the observed induced fractures can be explained by tensile or shear failure; thus it is a tool that may provide additional information that may help constrain the stress field

  9. Basic data report for drilling and hydrologic testing of drillhole DOE-2 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIIP) site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer, J.W.; Beauheim, R.L.; Snyder, R.P.; Fairer, G.M.

    1987-04-01

    Drillhole DOE-2 was drilled to investigate a structural depression marked by the downward displacement of stratigraphic markers in the Salado Formation. Contrary to several hypotheses, halite layers were thicker in the lower part of the Salado, not thinner as a result of any removal of halite. The upper Castile anhydrite in Drillhole DOE-2 is anomalously thick and is strongly deformed relative to the anhydrite in adjacent drillholes. In contrast, the halite was <8 ft thick and significantly thinner than usually encountered. The lower Castile anhydrite appears to be normal. The depression within the correlated marker beds in the Salado Formation in Drillhole DOE-2 is interpreted as a result of gravity-driven deformation of the underlying Castile Formation. Several stratigraphic units were hydrologically tested in Drillhole DOE-2. Testing of the unsaturated lower portion of the Dewey Lake Red Beds was unsuccessful because of exceptionally small rates of fluid intake. Drill-stem tests were conducted in five intervals in the Rustler Formation, over the Marker Bed 138-139 interval in the Salado formation, and over three sandstone members of the Bell Canyon Formation. A pumping test was conducted in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation. Pressure-pulse tests were conducted over the entire Salado Formation. Fluid samples were collected from the Culebra Dolomite Member and from the Hays Member of the Bell Canyon Formation. 31 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Basic data report for drilling and hydrologic testing of drillhole DOE-2 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIIP) site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, J.W.; Beauheim, R.L.; Snyder, R.P.; Fairer, G.M.

    1987-04-01

    Drillhole DOE-2 was drilled to investigate a structural depression marked by the downward displacement of stratigraphic markers in the Salado Formation. Contrary to several hypotheses, halite layers were thicker in the lower part of the Salado, not thinner as a result of any removal of halite. The upper Castile anhydrite in Drillhole DOE-2 is anomalously thick and is strongly deformed relative to the anhydrite in adjacent drillholes. In contrast, the halite was <8 ft thick and significantly thinner than usually encountered. The lower Castile anhydrite appears to be normal. The depression within the correlated marker beds in the Salado Formation in Drillhole DOE-2 is interpreted as a result of gravity-driven deformation of the underlying Castile Formation. Several stratigraphic units were hydrologically tested in Drillhole DOE-2. Testing of the unsaturated lower portion of the Dewey Lake Red Beds was unsuccessful because of exceptionally small rates of fluid intake. Drill-stem tests were conducted in five intervals in the Rustler Formation, over the Marker Bed 138-139 interval in the Salado formation, and over three sandstone members of the Bell Canyon Formation. A pumping test was conducted in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation. Pressure-pulse tests were conducted over the entire Salado Formation. Fluid samples were collected from the Culebra Dolomite Member and from the Hays Member of the Bell Canyon Formation. 31 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Traitement des diagraphies acoustiques. Troisième partie : caractérisation d'un réservoir par diagraphies acoustiques obtenues avec un outil dipolaire Full-Waveform Acoustic Data Processing. Part Three: Reservoir Characterisation Using Acoustic Logs Obtained with the Dipole Sonic Imaging Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wicquart E.

    2006-11-01

    for generating flexural modes having propagation characteristics in the formation enabling the slowness S of the formation to be measured. The picking of the first arrivals of the different waves making up a total acoustic field recording leads to conventional acoustic logs (slowness, frequency, attenuation as well as to dispersion measurement logs associated with them. The logs are shown in Figs. 5 to 7 for the compression waves, in Figs. 9 and 10 for the shear wave, and in Figs. 13 and 14 for the Stoneley wave. The slowness log of Stoneley waves was used to compute the slowness wave S, using the equation proposed by White (1983 linking the slowness of the S wave (DtS to the slowness of Stoneley waves (DtSt, to the formation density pb, and to the slowness (Dtf and density (pf of the fluid (Fig. 15. Measurement of the slowness of compression and shear waves gives access to the Poisson coefficient (Fig. 16, which is a good lithologic indicator (Fig. 17. It can be used to differentiate compact formations from unconsolidated formations and is a direct indicator of the presence of hydrocarbons in gas sands. For wells crossing through a shaly-sandy formation, the log of the Poisson coefficient and the frequency log of Stoneley waves are used as lithologic indicators of the shaliness (Fig. 18 and of the presence of hydrocarbons (gas. After correction for shaliness, the slowness logs of the compression and shear waves are used in combination with a density log of the Gartner type for estimating the petrophysical parameters of the formation (porosity and gas-saturation indices. Porosity was evaluated by using the slowness log of compression waves with correction for shaliness (Fig. 18 and the Wyllie relationship for formations having a Poisson coefficient higher than 0. 25 by assuming that such formations are water saturated (Dtf = 190 µs/ft. The cutoff made by using the log of the Poisson coefficient is introduced so as to eliminated partially gas-saturated zones in the

  12. Cores, logs and tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A general overview is given of well logging procedures used in the exploration and production of oil and gas wells. Techniques include γ logging, neutron logging, caliper logging, resistivity logging, temperature logging, and production logging. Typical logs are shown for some techniques

  13. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 30 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    WIPP 30 was drilled in east-central Eddy County, New Mexico, in NW 1/4, Sec. 33, T21S, R31E, to obtain drill core for the study of dissolution of near-surface rocks. The borehole encountered from top to bottom, the Dewey Lake Red Beds (449' including artificial fill for drill pad), Rustler Formation (299'), and the upper 160' of the Salado Formation. Continuous core was cut from the surface to total depth. Geophysical logs were taken the full length of the borehole to measure acoustic velocities, density, and distribution of potassium and other radioactive elements. Information from this borehole will be included in an interpretive report on dissolution in Nash Draw based on combined borehole data, surface mapping and laboratory analyses of rocks and fluids. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes and to then be converted to a repository. The WIPP will also provide research facilities for interactions between high-level waste and salt. Administration policy as of February 1980 is to hold the WIPP site in reserve until the first disposal site can be chosen from several potential sites, including the WIPP

  14. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 19 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    WIPP 19 is an exploratory borehole whose objective was to determine the nature of the near-surface formations after seismic information indicated a possible fault. The borehole is located in section 20, T.22S., R.31E., in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, and was drilled between April 6 and May 4, 1978. The hole was drilled to a depth of 1038.2 feet and encountered, from top to bottom, surficial Holocene deposits (7', including artificial fill for drill pad), the Mescalero caliche (7'), the Santa Rosa Sandstone (82'), the Dewey Lake Red Beds (494'), the Rustler Formation (315'), and the upper portion of the Salado Formation (143'). Cuttings were collected at 10-foot intervals. A suite of geophysical logs was run to measure acoustic velocities, density, and radioactivity. On the basis of comparison with other geologic sections drilled in the area, the WIPP 19 section is a normal stratigraphic sequence and it does not show structural disruption. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes. The WIPP will also provide facilities to research interactions between high-level waste and salt

  15. Basic data report for Drillhole WIPP 22 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    WIPP 22 is an exploratory borehole whose objective is to determine the nature of the near-surface formations after seismic information indicated a possible fault. The borehole is located in section 20, T.22S., R.31E., in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, and was drilled between March 14 and 30, 1978. The hole was drilled to a depth of 1448 feet and encountered, from top to bottom, surficial Holocene deposits (6', including artificial fill for drill pad), the Mescalero caliche (7'), the Santa Rosa Sandstone (68'), the Dewey Lake Red Beds (492'), the Rustler Formation (311'), and the upper portion of the Salado Formation (565'). Cuttings were collected at 10-foot intervals. A suite of geophysical logs was run to measure acoustic velocities, density, and radioactivity. On the basis of comparison with other geologic sections drilled in the area, the WIPP 22 section is a normal stratigraphic sequence and it does not show structural disruption. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes. The WIPP will also provide facilities to research interactions between high-level waste and salt.

  16. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 21 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    WIPP 21 is an exploratory borehole whose objective is to determine the nature of the near-surface formations after seismic information indicated a possible fault. The borehole is located in section 20, T.22S., R.31E., in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, and was drilled between May 24 and 26, 1978. The hole was drilled to a depth of 1046 feet and encountered, from top to bottom, surficial Holocene deposits (6', including artificial fill for drill pad), the Mescalero caliche (6'), the Santa Rosa Sandstone (34'), the Dewey Lake Red Beds (487'), the Rustler Formation (308'), and the upper portion of the Salado Formation (178'). Cuttings were collected at 10-foot intervals. A suite of goephysical logs was run to measure acoustic velocities, density, and radioactivity. On the basis of comparison with other geologic sections drilled in the area, the WIPP 21 section is a normal stratigraphic sequence and it does not show structural disruption. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes. The WIPP will also provide facilities to research interactions between high-level waste and salt.

  17. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 30 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    WIPP 30 was drilled in east-central Eddy County, New Mexico, in NW 1/4, Sec. 33, T21S, R31E, to obtain drill core for the study of dissolution of near-surface rocks. The borehole encountered from top to bottom, the Dewey Lake Red Beds (449' including artificial fill for drill pad), Rustler Formation (299'), and the upper 160' of the Salado Formation. Continuous core was cut from the surface to total depth. Geophysical logs were taken the full length of the borehole to measure acoustic velocities, density, and distribution of potassium and other radioactive elements. Information from this borehole will be included in an interpretive report on dissolution in Nash Draw based on combined borehole data, surface mapping and laboratory analyses of rocks and fluids. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes and to then be converted to a repository. The WIPP will also provide research facilities for interactions between high-level waste and salt. Administration policy as of February 1980 is to hold the WIPP site in reserve until the first disposal site can be chosen from several potential sites, including the WIPP.

  18. Basic data report for Drillhole WIPP 28 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    WIPP 28 was drilled in Nash Draw (NE 1/4, sec. 18, T.21S., R.31E.) in Eddy County, New Mexico, to determine subsurface stratigraphy and examine dissolution features above undisturbed salt in the Salado Formation. Determination of dissolution rates will refine previous estimates and provide short-term (geologically) rates for WIPP risk assessments. The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, Mescalero caliche (12 ft with fill material for pad), Dewey Lake Red Beds (203 ft), Rustler Formation (316 ft), and the upper 270 ft of the Salado Formation. A dissolution residue, 58 ft thick, is at the top of the Salado Formation overlying halite-rich beds. In addition to obtaining nearly continuous core from the surface to total depth (801 ft), geophysical logs were taken to measure acoustic velocities, density, radioactivity, and formation resistivity. An interpretive report on dissolution in Nash Draw will be based on combined borehole basin data, surface mapping, and laboratory analyses of Nash Draw rocks and fluids. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes and to then be converted to a repository. The WIPP will also provide research facilities for interactions between high-level waste and salt

  19. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 26 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    WIPP 26 was drilled in Nash Draw (SE 1/4 NE 1/4, sec. 29, T22S, R30E) in Eddy County, New Mexico, to determine subsurface stratigraphy and examine dissolution features above undisturbed salt in the Salado Formation. Determination of dissolution rates will refine previous estimates and provide short-term (geologically) rates for WIPP risk assessments. The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, surficial deposits (10 ft with full materials for pad), Rustler Formation (299 ft), and the upper 194 ft of the Salado Formation. A dissolution residue, 11 ft thick, is at the top of the Salado Formation overlying halite-rich beds. In addition to obtaining nearly continuous core from the surface to total depth (503 ft), geophysical logs were taken to measure acoustic velocities, density, radioactivity, and formation resistivity. An interpretive report on dissolution in Nash Draw will be based on combined borehole basin data, surface mapping, and laboratory analyses of Nash Draw rocks and fluids. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes and to then be converted to a repository. The WIPP will also provide research facilities for interactions between high-level waste and salt

  20. Architectural acoustics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Long, Marshall

    2014-01-01

    .... Beginning with a brief history, it reviews the fundamentals of acoustics, human perception and reaction to sound, acoustic noise measurements, noise metrics, and environmental noise characterization...

  1. http Log Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøving, Kristian Billeskov; Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    This article documents how log analysis can inform qualitative studies concerning the usage of web-based information systems (WIS). No prior research has used http log files as data to study collaboration between multiple users in organisational settings. We investigate how to perform http log...... analysis; what http log analysis says about the nature of collaborative WIS use; and how results from http log analysis may support other data collection methods such as surveys, interviews, and observation. The analysis of log files initially lends itself to research designs, which serve to test...... hypotheses using a quantitative methodology. We show that http log analysis can also be valuable in qualitative research such as case studies. The results from http log analysis can be triangulated with other data sources and for example serve as a means of supporting the interpretation of interview data...

  2. The Meaning of Logs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, Sandro; Massacci, Fabio; Yautsiukhin, Artsiom

    2007-01-01

    While logging events is becoming increasingly common in computing, in communication and in collaborative work, log systems need to satisfy increasingly challenging (if not conflicting) requirements.Despite the growing pervasiveness of log systems, to date there is no high-level framework which

  3. The Meaning of Logs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, Sandro; Massacci, Fabio; Yautsiukhin, Artsiom; Lambrinoudakis, Costas; Pernul, Günther; Tjoa, A Min

    While logging events is becoming increasingly common in computing, in communication and in collaborative environments, log systems need to satisfy increasingly challenging (if not conflicting) requirements. In this paper we propose a high-level framework for modeling log systems, and reasoning about

  4. Communication Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blauert, Jens

    Communication Acoustics deals with the fundamentals of those areas of acoustics which are related to modern communication technologies. Due to the advent of digital signal processing and recording in acoustics, these areas have enjoyed an enormous upswing during the last 4 decades. The book...... the book a source of valuable information for those who want to improve or refresh their knowledge in the field of communication acoustics - and to work their way deeper into it. Due to its interdisciplinary character Communication Acoustics is bound to attract readers from many different areas, such as......: acoustics, cognitive science, speech science, and communication technology....

  5. Decomposition of log crepant birational morphisms between log terminal surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Shigetaka

    1999-01-01

    We prove that every log crepant birational morphism between log terminal surfaces is decomposed into log-flopping type divisorial contraction morphisms and log blow-downs. Repeating these two kinds of contractions we reach a minimal log minimal surface from any log minimal surface.

  6. Acoustic telemetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To determine movements of green turtles in the nearshore foraging areas, we deployed acoustic tags and determined their movements through active and passive acoustic...

  7. Power to the logs!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; MACMAHON, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Are you tired of using grep, vi and emacs to read your logs? Do you feel like you’re missing the big picture? Does the word "statistics" put a smile on your face? Then it’s time to give power to the logs!

  8. Digital mineral logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    A digital mineral logging system acquires data from a mineral logging tool passing through a borehole and transmits the data uphole to an electronic digital signal processor. A predetermined combination of sensors, including a deviometer, is located in a logging tool for the acquisition of the desired data as the logging tool is raised from the borehole. Sensor data in analog format is converted in the logging tool to a digital format and periodically batch transmitted to the surface at a predetermined sampling rate. An identification code is provided for each mineral logging tool, and the code is transmitted to the surface along with the sensor data. The self-identifying tool code is transmitted to the digital signal processor to identify the code against a stored list of the range of numbers assigned to that type of tool. The data is transmitted up the d-c power lines of the tool by a frequency shift key transmission technique. At the surface, a frequency shift key demodulation unit transmits the decoupled data to an asynchronous receiver interfaced to the electronic digital signal processor. During a recording phase, the signals from the logging tool are read by the electronic digital signal processor and stored for later processing. During a calculating phase, the stored data is processed by the digital signal processor and the results are outputted to a printer or plotter, or both

  9. Thermal conductivities and diffusivities of rocks in four shallow ONKALO holes and drillholes OL-KR46 and OL-KR56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpisalo, A.; Suppala, I.; Kukkonen, I.; Koskinen, T.

    2013-11-01

    The thermal drillhole device (76 mm drillholes) used in this study for determining thermal properties of rocks in situ was developed and constructed under TERO projects in Geological Survey of Finland with Posiva in early 2000's. After the renovation of the device in 2010, the new TERO76 device has now been taken into the productive use. In addition to the numerical inversion technique a rapid interpretation tool makes it possible to calculate the first estimates of thermal properties of the measurements already in the field. The thermal properties of the measurements are estimated by using both a numerical optimization and a simple solution of infinite line model. Because of the unique measurement geometry only the thermal conductivities can directly be estimated accurately (5 %) using the late times of heating periods. The methods can't directly give the thermal diffusivities or heat capacities at a necessary accuracy. However, thermal diffusivities can be estimated by using the specific heat capacities and densities of the known rock types or the laboratory results on diffusivity-conductivity relationship of different Olkiluoto rock types. The latter technique is applied in this study. Thermal properties were measured in four shallow ONKALO drillholes (ONK-PP379, ONK-PP380, ONK-PP381, ONK-PP382) in the Demonstration tunnel 2 (ONK-TDT-4399-30) at +420 m level and in deep drillholes OL-KR46 and OL-KR56 from the surface. In the drillholes in tunnel, the average numerical values fall within 3.31 and 4.19 Wm - 1 K- 1 for the conductivities and 1.75-2.26 x 10 -6 m 2 s -1 for the diffusivities. The corresponding analytical values are within 3.19-3.99 Wm -1 K -1 and 1.68-2.15 x 10 -6 m 2 s -1 . In drillholes OL-KR46 and OL-KR56, the average numerical values fall within 3.42-4.06 and 3.30-3.77 Wm -1 K -1 for the conductivities and 1.81-2.18 and 1.75-2.02 x 10 -6 m 2 s -1 for the diffusivities. The corresponding average analytical conductivities fall within 3.22-3.81 and

  10. Mariners Weather Log

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Mariners Weather Log (MWL) is a publication containing articles, news and information about marine weather events and phenomena, worldwide environmental impact...

  11. Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Huanyang [School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006 (China); Chan, C T, E-mail: kenyon@ust.h, E-mail: phchan@ust.h [Department of Physics and the William Mong Institute of NanoScience and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong)

    2010-03-24

    In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)

  12. EE-3A Logging Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, David W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1993-12-15

    Two logs of EE-3A were performed during the last couple of weeks. The first of which, was a Temperature/Casing-Collar Locator (CCL) log, which took place on Friday, December 10th., 1993. The second log was a Caliper log which was done in cooperation with the Dia-Log Company, of Odessa, TX. on Monday, December, 13th., 1993.

  13. Acoustical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Litniewski, Jerzy; Kujawska, Tamara; 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging

    2012-01-01

    The International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging is a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place continuously since 1968. In the course of the years the proceedings volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have become a reference for cutting-edge research in the field. In 2011 the 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Warsaw, Poland, April 10-13. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art as well as  in-depth research contributions by the specialists in the field, this Volume 31 in the Series contains an excellent collection of papers in six major categories: Biological and Medical Imaging Physics and Mathematics of Acoustical Imaging Acoustic Microscopy Transducers and Arrays Nondestructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Underwater Imaging

  14. Acoustic textiles

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, Rajkishore

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights the manufacturing and applications of acoustic textiles in various industries. It also includes examples from different industries in which acoustic textiles can be used to absorb noise and help reduce the impact of noise at the workplace. Given the importance of noise reduction in the working environment in several industries, the book offers a valuable guide for companies, educators and researchers involved with acoustic materials.

  15. Permeability log using new lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, D.J.; Boyd, J.F.; Fuchs, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Comparative measurements of thermal neutron decay time are obtained for a formation after irradiation with a pulsed neutron source. Chloride ions in formation fluids are concentrated by the electrosmosis effect using charged poles on a well logging sonde. The formation is irradiated with fast neutrons and a first comparative measure of the thermal neutron decay time or neutron lifetime is taken. The chloride ions are then dispersed by acoustic pumping with a magnetostrictive transducer. The formation is then again irradiated with fast neutrons and a comparative measure of neutron lifetime is taken. The comparison is a function of the variation in chloride concentration between the two measurements which is related to formation permeability

  16. Log4J

    CERN Document Server

    Perry, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Log4j has been around for a while now, and it seems like so many applications use it. I've used it in my applications for years now, and I'll bet you have too. But every time I need to do something with log4j I've never done before I find myself searching for examples of how to do whatever that is, and I don't usually have much luck. I believe the reason for this is that there is a not a great deal of useful information about log4j, either in print or on the Internet. The information is too simple to be of real-world use, too complicated to be distilled quickly (which is what most developers

  17. Radiation acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Lyamshev, Leonid M

    2004-01-01

    Radiation acoustics is a developing field lying at the intersection of acoustics, high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and condensed matter physics. Radiation Acoustics is among the first books to address this promising field of study, and the first to collect all of the most significant results achieved since research in this area began in earnest in the 1970s.The book begins by reviewing the data on elementary particles, absorption of penetrating radiation in a substance, and the mechanisms of acoustic radiation excitation. The next seven chapters present a theoretical treatment of thermoradiation sound generation in condensed media under the action of modulated penetrating radiation and radiation pulses. The author explores particular features of the acoustic fields of moving thermoradiation sound sources, sound excitation by single high-energy particles, and the efficiency and optimal conditions of thermoradiation sound generation. Experimental results follow the theoretical discussions, and these clearl...

  18. Modes of log gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Rosseel, Jan; Townsend, Paul K.

    2011-01-01

    The physical modes of a recently proposed D-dimensional "critical gravity'', linearized about its anti-de Sitter vacuum, are investigated. All "log mode'' solutions, which we categorize as "spin-2'' or "Proca'', arise as limits of the massive spin-2 modes of the noncritical theory. The linearized

  19. Borehole logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    A radioactive borehole logging tool employs an epithermal neutron detector having a neutron counter surrounded by an inner thermal neutron filter and an outer thermal neutron filter. Located between the inner and outer filters is a neutron moderating material for extending the lifetime of epithermal neutrons to enhance the counting rate of such epithermal neutrons by the neutron counter

  20. Log of Apollo 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The major events of the first manned moon landing mission, Apollo 11, are presented in chronological order from launch time until arrival of the astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. The log is descriptive, non-technical, and includes numerous color photographs of the astronauts on the moon. (PR)

  1. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 32 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    WIPP 32 is an exploratory borehole drilled to examine the subsurface at a small topographic high in Nash Draw. The borehole is located in east-central Eddy County, New Mexico, in NE 1/4 SE 1/4 Sec. 33, T.22S., R.29E. and was drilled in August, 1979. The hole was drilled to a depth of 390 feet, and encountered, from top to bottom, the Rustler Formation (166') and the upper Salado Formation (224'). Core was taken from 4 to 353 feet. Geophysical logs were run the full length of the hole to measure formation properties. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes. The WIPP will also provide facilities to research interactions between high-level waste and salt

  2. Basic data report for Drillhole ERDA 10 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    Borehole ERDA 10 was drilled to obtain information on possible dissolution of halite within the Castile Formation and on the hydrologic characteristics of the fluid-bearing zones in the Bell Canyon Formation. The borehole is located in Section 34, T23S,R30E in southern Eddy County, New Mexico. ERDA 10 was drilled to a depth of 4431.5 ft. Cores from the Castile were taken to obtain direct information which was supplemented by geophysical logging. Based on preliminary analysis of the data, the ERDA 10 stratigraphic section is interpreted as a sequence of sandstones, siltstones, claystones, and evaporites normal for the area. No evidence of dissolution of significant amounts of halite was observed

  3. Identification of carbonate reservoirs based on well logging data for boreholes drilled using oil base muds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukhalikov, Ya.N; Serebrennikov, V.S.

    1979-01-01

    Experiment on carbonate reservoir identification according to well logging data for boreholes drilled using oil base muds is described. Pulse neutron-neutron logging (PNNL) was widely used at the territory of Pripyat' hole to solve the task. To evaluate volumetric clayiness of carbonate rocks the dependence of gamma-logging, that is data of gamma-logging against clayey rocks built for every hollow, is used. Quantitative estimation of clayiness of dense and clayey carbonate rocks-non-reservoirs is carried out on the basis of the data of neutron-gamma and acoustic logging. Porosity coefficient and lithological characteristic of rocks are also determined according to the data of acoustic and neutron gamma-logging

  4. Log-Concavity and Strong Log-Concavity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saumard, Adrien; Wellner, Jon A

    We review and formulate results concerning log-concavity and strong-log-concavity in both discrete and continuous settings. We show how preservation of log-concavity and strongly log-concavity on ℝ under convolution follows from a fundamental monotonicity result of Efron (1969). We provide a new proof of Efron's theorem using the recent asymmetric Brascamp-Lieb inequality due to Otto and Menz (2013). Along the way we review connections between log-concavity and other areas of mathematics and statistics, including concentration of measure, log-Sobolev inequalities, convex geometry, MCMC algorithms, Laplace approximations, and machine learning.

  5. Geophysical borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, D.; Barton, K.J.; Hearn, K.

    1981-08-01

    Most of the available literature on geophysical borehole logging refers to studies carried out in sedimentary rocks. It is only in recent years that any great interest has been shown in geophysical logging in boreholes in metamorphic and igneous rocks following the development of research programmes associated with geothermal energy and nuclear waste disposal. This report is concerned with the programme of geophysical logging carried out on the three deep boreholes at Altnabreac, Caithness, to examine the effectiveness of these methods in crystalline rock. Of particular importance is the assessment of the performance of the various geophysical sondes run in the boreholes in relation to the rock mass properties. The geophysical data can be used to provide additional in-situ information on the geological, hydrogeological and engineering properties of the rock mass. Fracturing and weathering in the rock mass have a considerable effect on both the design parameters for an engineering structure and the flow of water through the rock mass; hence, the relation between the geophysical properties and the degree of fracturing and weathering is examined in some detail. (author)

  6. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 15 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    WIPP 15 is a borehole drilled in Marformation.h, 1978, in section 18, T.23S., R. 35E. of south-central Lea County. The purpose of WIPP 15 was to examine fill in San Simon Sink in order to extract climatic information and to attempt to date the collapse of the sink. The borehole was cored to total depth (810.5 feet) and encountered, from top to bottom, Quaternary calcareous clay, marl and sand, the claystones and siltstones of the Triassic Santa Rosa Formation. Neutron and gamma ray geophysical logs were run to measure density and radioactivity. The sink was about 547 feet of Quaternary fill indicating subsidence and deposition. Diatomaceous beds exposed on the sink margin yielded samples dated by 14 C at 20,570 +- 540 years BP and greater than 32,000 years BP; these beds are believed stratigraphically equivalent to ditomaceous beds at 153 to 266 feet depth in the core. Aquatic fauna and flora from the upper 98 feet of core indicate a pluvial period (probably Tohokan) followed by an arid or very arid time before the present climate was established. Aquifer pump tests performed in the Quaternary sands and clays show transmissivities to be as high as 600 feet squared per day. As the water quality was good, the borehole was released to the lessee as a potential water well

  7. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 15 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    WIPP 15 is a borehole drilled in Marformation.h, 1978, in section 18, T.23S., R. 35E. of south-central Lea County. The purpose of WIPP 15 was to examine fill in San Simon Sink in order to extract climatic information and to attempt to date the collapse of the sink. The borehole was cored to total depth (810.5 feet) and encountered, from top to bottom, Quaternary calcareous clay, marl and sand, the claystones and siltstones of the Triassic Santa Rosa Formation. Neutron and gamma ray geophysical logs were run to measure density and radioactivity. The sink was about 547 feet of Quaternary fill indicating subsidence and deposition. Diatomaceous beds exposed on the sink margin yielded samples dated by /sup 14/C at 20,570 +- 540 years BP and greater than 32,000 years BP; these beds are believed stratigraphically equivalent to ditomaceous beds at 153 to 266 feet depth in the core. Aquatic fauna and flora from the upper 98 feet of core indicate a pluvial period (probably Tohokan) followed by an arid or very arid time before the present climate was established. Aquifer pump tests performed in the Quaternary sands and clays show transmissivities to be as high as 600 feet squared per day. As the water quality was good, the borehole was released to the lessee as a potential water well.

  8. Battlefield acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Damarla, Thyagaraju

    2015-01-01

    This book presents all aspects of situational awareness in a battlefield using acoustic signals. It starts by presenting the science behind understanding and interpretation of sound signals. The book then goes on to provide various signal processing techniques used in acoustics to find the direction of sound source, localize gunfire, track vehicles, and detect people. The necessary mathematical background and various classification and fusion techniques are presented. The book contains majority of the things one would need to process acoustic signals for all aspects of situational awareness in one location. The book also presents array theory, which is pivotal in finding the direction of arrival of acoustic signals. In addition, the book presents techniques to fuse the information from multiple homogeneous/heterogeneous sensors for better detection. MATLAB code is provided for majority of the real application, which is a valuable resource in not only understanding the theory but readers, can also use the code...

  9. Acoustic Neuroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a team composed of neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists, medical physicists and a nursing staff. Specialists in neuroimaging join ... Even though most acoustic neuromas arise from the balance nerve (and not from the adjacent hearing nerve), ...

  10. Acoustic neuroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Professional Call your provider if you have: Hearing loss that is sudden or getting worse Ringing in one ear Dizziness (vertigo) Alternative Names Vestibular schwannoma; Tumor - acoustic; ... Patient Instructions Brain surgery - discharge ...

  11. Acoustics Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fisheries acoustics data are collected from more than 200 sea-days each year aboard the FRV DELAWARE II and FRV ALBATROSS IV (decommissioned) and the FSV Henry B....

  12. Acoustical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, Iwaki

    2009-01-01

    The 29th International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Shonan Village, Kanagawa, Japan, April 15-18, 2007. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place every two years since 1968 and forms a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. In the course of the years the volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have developed and become well-known and appreciated reference works. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art in the field as well as an in-depth look at its leading edge research, this Volume 29 in the Series contains again an excellent collection of seventy papers presented in nine major categories: Strain Imaging Biological and Medical Applications Acoustic Microscopy Non-Destructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Components and Systems Geophysics and Underwater Imaging Physics and Mathematics Medical Image Analysis FDTD method and Other Numerical Simulations Audience Researcher...

  13. Room Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttruff, Heinrich; Mommertz, Eckard

    The traditional task of room acoustics is to create or formulate conditions which ensure the best possible propagation of sound in a room from a sound source to a listener. Thus, objects of room acoustics are in particular assembly halls of all kinds, such as auditoria and lecture halls, conference rooms, theaters, concert halls or churches. Already at this point, it has to be pointed out that these conditions essentially depend on the question if speech or music should be transmitted; in the first case, the criterion for transmission quality is good speech intelligibility, in the other case, however, the success of room-acoustical efforts depends on other factors that cannot be quantified that easily, not least it also depends on the hearing habits of the listeners. In any case, absolutely "good acoustics" of a room do not exist.

  14. Basic data report for drillhole ERDA 6 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    ERDA 6 was drilled in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, to investigate a candidate site for a nuclear waste repository. The site was subsequently rejected on the basis of geological data. ERDA 6 was drilled in the NE 1/4 SE 1/4, section 35, T21S,R31E. The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, 17 ft of Quaternary deposits, 55 ft of the Triassic Santa Rosa Sandstone, 466 ft of the Dewey Lake Red Beds, 273 ft of the Rustler Formation, 1785.5 ft of the Salado Formation and 374.5 ft of the upper Castile Formation, all of Permian age. Cores or drill cuttings were taken throughout the hole. A suite of wireline geophysical logs was run to a depth of 883 ft to facilitate the recognition and correlation of rock units, to assure identification of major lithologies and to provide depth determinations independent of drill-pipe measurements. The site at ERDA 6 was rejected because the structure of the lower Salado and the Castile is too severe to develop a repository along a single set of beds. The borehole also intersected a reservoir of pressurized brine and gas at about 2710'. The pore volume for the reservoir was estimated to be in the range from about 200,000 to about 2 million barrels. ERDA 6 was re-entered in 1981 by the Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of further testing the brine reservoir. Those tests are described in separate reports by the DOE and its contractors. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes.

  15. Basic data report for drillhole ERDA 9 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    ERDA 9 was drilled in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, to investigate and test salt beds for the disposal of nuclear wastes. The hole was placed near the SE corner of section 20, T22S,R31E. It was drilled between April 28 and June 4, 1976, to a depth of 2889 ft (measured from a kelly bushing altitude of 3,420.4 ft MSL). The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, Holocene deposits (including artificial fill) of 22 ft, the Pleistocene Mescalero Caliche (5 ft) and Gatuna Formation (27 ft), 9 ft of the Triassic Santa Rosa Sandstone, and 487 ft of the Dewey Lake Red Beds, 290 ft of the Rustler Formation, 1976 ft of the Salado Formation and 53 ft of the Castile Formation, all of Permian age. Cuttings were collected at 5-ft intervals for the land surface to a depth of 1090 ft, and consecutive cores were taken to a depth of 2876.6 ft. A suite of wireline geophysical logs was run the full length of the borehole to measure distribution of radioactive elements and hydrogen, and variations in rock density and elastic velocity. On the basis of the borehole findings and related hydrological and geophysical programs, the site was judged suitable to pursue the extensive geological characterization program which followed. The core from ERDA 9 provided a suite of samples extensively tested for rock mechanics, physical properties, and mineralogy. Drill-stem tests in ERDA 9 indicated no significant fluids or permeability in the Salado beds of interest. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes

  16. Basic data report for drillhole ERDA 6 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    ERDA 6 was drilled in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, to investigate a candidate site for a nuclear waste repository. The site was subsequently rejected on the basis of geological data. ERDA 6 was drilled in the NE 1/4 SE 1/4, section 35, T21S,R31E. The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, 17 ft of Quaternary deposits, 55 ft of the Triassic Santa Rosa Sandstone, 466 ft of the Dewey Lake Red Beds, 273 ft of the Rustler Formation, 1785.5 ft of the Salado Formation and 374.5 ft of the upper Castile Formation, all of Permian age. Cores or drill cuttings were taken throughout the hole. A suite of wireline geophysical logs was run to a depth of 883 ft to facilitate the recognition and correlation of rock units, to assure identification of major lithologies and to provide depth determinations independent of drill-pipe measurements. The site at ERDA 6 was rejected because the structure of the lower Salado and the Castile is too severe to develop a repository along a single set of beds. The borehole also intersected a reservoir of pressurized brine and gas at about 2710'. The pore volume for the reservoir was estimated to be in the range from about 200,000 to about 2 million barrels. ERDA 6 was re-entered in 1981 by the Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of further testing the brine reservoir. Those tests are described in separate reports by the DOE and its contractors. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes

  17. Reflection on the first five years of South Africa's Acoustic Tracking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Acoustic Tracking Array Platform (ATAP) is a marine science programme that monitors the movements and migrations of inshore marine animals along the South African coastline. Acoustically tagged animals are monitored by an expanded network of approximately 100 automated data-logging acoustic receivers ...

  18. Modeling temperature and moisture state effects on acoustic velocity in wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan Gao; X. Wang; L. Wang; R.B. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has proved the concept of acoustic wave propagation methods for evaluating wood quality of trees and logs during forest operations. As commercial acoustic equipment is implemented in field for various purposes, one has to consider the influence of operating temperature on acoustic velocity — a key parameter for wood property prediction. Our field...

  19. Shallow coal exploration drill-hole data--Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Brett J.; Dennen, Kristin O.

    2012-01-01

    Coal exploration drill-hole data from over 24,000 wells in 10 States are discussed by State in the chapters of this report, and the data are provided in an accompanying spreadsheet. The drill holes were drilled between 1962 and 1984 by Phillips Coal Company, a division of Phillips Petroleum Company (Phillips). The data were donated to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2001 by the North American Coal Corporation, which purchased the Phillips assets as part of a larger dataset. Under the terms of the agreement with North American Coal Corporation, the data were deemed proprietary until February 2011, a period of 10 years after the donation (Appendix of Chapter A). Now that the required period of confidentiality has passed, the data have been digitized from tabulated data files to create unified and spatially consistent coal exploration drill-hole maps and reports for the States of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas. The data are made publically available by this report.

  20. Cross-Borehole research with EMRE-system. Radiofrequency measurements in drillhole section OL-KR40 - OL-KR45 at Olkiluoto, 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpisalo, A.; Niemelae, M.

    2010-04-01

    Posiva Oy carries out research and development work for the spent nuclear fuel disposal in Finland. The repository will be constructed deep in the crystalline bedrock at Olkiluoto island in Eurajoki. Construction of the underground characterization facility ONKALO started in 2004. Posiva Oy has been actively reviewing the methods for examining granitic i.e. crystalline bedrock properties. One of the considered methods was electromagnetic cross-borehole survey. This report describes the field work carried out in 2009 and the interpretation of the continuous wave device in one drillhole panel at 100-750 m depth level. Panel was conic in shape thus the collars were in close vicinity (about 10 m) at the earth surface and diverged in deeper parts being several hundreds of meters from each others. The works were carried out by Geological Survey of Finland. After the pioneering work in 2005 the device was repaired thoroughly and the proper functioning of the device was ensured after several tests. Geological-geophysical characterization of Olkiluoto site has been run since 1989, and more than 40 drillholes have been prepared

  1. Dynamic Planar Convex Hull with Optimal Query Time and O(log n · log log n ) Update Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Jakob, Riko

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic maintenance of the convex hull of a set of points in the plane is one of the most important problems in computational geometry. We present a data structure supporting point insertions in amortized O(log n · log log log n) time, point deletions in amortized O(log n · log log n) time, a...

  2. Acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straus, A.; Lopez Pumarega, M.I.; Di Gaetano, J.O.; D'Atellis, C.E.; Ruzzante, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is related to our activities on acoustic emission (A.E.). The work is made with different materials: metals and fibre reinforced plastics. At present, acoustic emission transducers are being developed for low and high temperature. A test to detect electrical discharges in electrical transformers was performed. Our experience in industrial tests to detect cracks or failures in tanks or tubes is also described. The use of A.E. for leak detection is considered. Works on pattern recognition of A.E. signals are also being performed. (Author)

  3. Nova Event Logging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calliger, R.J.; Suski, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    Nova is a 200 terawatt, 10-beam High Energy Glass Laser currently under construction at LLNL. This facility, designed to demonstrate the feasibility of laser driven inertial confinement fusion, contains over 5000 elements requiring coordinated control, data acquisition, and analysis functions. The large amounts of data that will be generated must be maintained over the life of the facility. Often the most useful but inaccessible data is that related to time dependent events associated with, for example, operator actions or experiment activity. We have developed an Event Logging System to synchronously record, maintain, and analyze, in part, this data. We see the system as being particularly useful to the physics and engineering staffs of medium and large facilities in that it is entirely separate from experimental apparatus and control devices. The design criteria, implementation, use, and benefits of such a system will be discussed

  4. Querying Workflow Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Tang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A business process or workflow is an assembly of tasks that accomplishes a business goal. Business process management is the study of the design, configuration/implementation, enactment and monitoring, analysis, and re-design of workflows. The traditional methodology for the re-design and improvement of workflows relies on the well-known sequence of extract, transform, and load (ETL, data/process warehousing, and online analytical processing (OLAP tools. In this paper, we study the ad hoc queryiny of process enactments for (data-centric business processes, bypassing the traditional methodology for more flexibility in querying. We develop an algebraic query language based on “incident patterns” with four operators inspired from Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN representation, allowing the user to formulate ad hoc queries directly over workflow logs. A formal semantics of this query language, a preliminary query evaluation algorithm, and a group of elementary properties of the operators are provided.

  5. Minimal Model Theory for Log Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Fujino, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the log minimal model theory for log surfaces. We show that the log minimal model program, the finite generation of log canonical rings, and the log abundance theorem for log surfaces hold true under assumptions weaker than the usual framework of the log minimal model theory.

  6. Acoustic emission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Universidade do Minho, Department Engineering Mecânica, Azurém,. 4800058 Guimar˜aes, Portugal e-mail: mathew@dem.uminho.pt. Abstract. Acoustic Emission (AE) has been widely used for monitoring man- ufacturing processes particularly those involving metal cutting. Monitoring the condition of the cutting tool in the ...

  7. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  8. Acoustic detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccobene, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    The proposal of acoustic neutrino detection is living a renaissance: the interest in ultra high energy neutrino detection, the fast improvements of deep sea technology and the availability of large deep sea research infrastructures are the three main ingredients to explain the new interest in this technique. The status of simulation work, medium studies, sensor developments and first results from test experimental setups are presented.

  9. Acoustic Territoriality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Under the heading of "Gang i København" a number of initiatives was presented by the Lord Mayer and the Technical and Environmental Mayer of Copenhagen in May 2006. The aim of the initiative, which roughly translates to Lively Copenhagen, was both to make Copenhagen a livelier city in terms of ci...... this article outline a few approaches to a theory of acoustic territoriality....

  10. Acoustic lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittmer, C.A.

    1983-03-01

    Acoustic lenses focus ultrasound to produce pencil-like beams with reduced near fields. When fitted to conventional (flat-faced) transducers, such lenses greatly improve the ability to detect and size defects. This paper describes a program developed to design acoustic lenses for use in immersion or contact inspection, using normal or angle beam mode with flat or curved targets. Lens surfaces are circular in geometry to facilitate machining. For normal beam inspection of flat plate, spherical or cylindrical lenses are used. For angle beam or curved surface inspections, a compound lens is required to correct for the extra induced aberration. Such a lens is aspherical with one radius of curvature in the plane of incidence, and a different radius of curvature in the plane perpendicular to the incident plane. The resultant beam profile (i.e., location of the acoustic focus, beam diameter, 6 dB working range) depends on the degree of focusing and the transducer used. The operating frequency and bandwidth can be affected by the instrumentation used. Theoretical and measured beam profiles are in good agreement. Various applications, from zone focusing used for defect sizing in thick plate, to line focusing for pipe weld inspection, are discussed

  11. Use of acoustics to deter bark beetles from entering tree material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflitto, Nicholas C; Hofstetter, Richard W

    2014-12-01

    Acoustic technology is a potential tool to protect wood materials and eventually live trees from colonization by bark beetles. Bark beetles such as the southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis, western pine beetle D. brevicomis and pine engraver Ips pini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) use chemical and acoustic cues to communicate and to locate potential mates and host trees. In this study, the efficacy of sound treatments on D. frontalis, D. brevicomis and I. pini entry into tree materials was tested. Acoustic treatments significantly influenced whether beetles entered pine logs in the laboratory. Playback of artificial sounds reduced D. brevicomis entry into logs, and playback of stress call sounds reduced D. frontalis entry into logs. Sound treatments had no effect on I. pini entry into logs. The reduction in bark beetle entry into logs using particular acoustic treatments indicates that sound could be used as a viable management tool. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Mechanical properties of fractures from drillholes, UE25-NRG-4; USW-NRG-6; USW-NRG-7; USW-SD-9, at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, W.A.; Brown, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    Rock cores from drillholes UE25-NRG-4, USW-NRG-6, USW-NRG-7, and USW-SD-9 containing natural fractures were obtained from the Sample Management Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. All recoverable fractures were sheared at constant normal stresses from 2.5 to 15 MPa, in the as-received condition (air-dry). Detailed profilometer data were collected from each fracture surface before testing. The tests yielded the normal closure as a function of normal stress, and the shear stress and dilation as functions of shear offset. The constitutive properties obtained from these stress-displacement relations were: normal stiffness, shear stiffness, shear strength, and dilation angle at peak shear stress. Shear strength plotted against normal stress for four thermomechanical units shows that friction angle varies from 370 to 460 and cohesion varies from 0.02 to 1.71 MPa

  13. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Learn Back Learn about acoustic neuroma AN Facts What is acoustic neuroma? Diagnosing Symptoms Side Effects Keywords ... patient kit Treatment Options Overview Observation Radiation Surgery What is acoustic neuroma Diagnosing Symptoms Side effects Question ...

  14. Marine Acoustic Sensor Assembly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruffa, Anthony A

    2007-01-01

    A marine acoustic sensor assembly includes an acoustic panel having a forward surface and an after surface, a laser scanner oriented so as to project a laser beam onto the acoustic panel after surface...

  15. Engineering aspects of radiometric logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huppert, P.

    1982-01-01

    Engineering problems encountered in the development of nuclear borehole logging techniques are discussed. Spectrometric techniques require electronic stability of the equipment. In addition the electronics must be capable of handling high count rates of randomly distributed pulses of fast rise time from the detector and the systems must be designed so that precise calibration is possible under field operating conditions. Components of a logging system are discussed in detail. They include the logging probe (electronics, detector, high voltage supply, preamplifier), electronic instrumentation for data collection and processing and auxiliary equipment

  16. New materials for fireplace logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieselback, D. J.; Smock, A. W.

    1971-01-01

    Fibrous insulation and refractory concrete are used for logs as well as fireproof walls, incinerator bricks, planters, and roof shingles. Insulation is lighter and more shock resistant than fireclay. Lightweight slag bonded with refractory concrete serves as aggregrate.

  17. Parametric Room Acoustic Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Svidt, Kjeld; Molin, Erik

    2017-01-01

    and interoperability with Grasshopper 3d. The focus will be placed to the benchmarking of three different acoustic analysis tools based on raytracing. To compare the accuracy and speed of the acoustic evaluation across different tools, a homogeneous set of acoustic parameters is chosen. The room acoustics parameters...

  18. Log quality enhancement: A systematic assessment of logging company wellsite performance and log quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnan, R.A.; Mc Hattie, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    To improve the monitoring of logging company performance, computer programs were developed to assess information en masse from log quality check lists completed on wellsite by the service company engineer and Phillips representative. A study of all logging jobs performed by different service companies for Phillips in Oklahoma (panhandle excepted) during 1982 enabled several pertinent and beneficial interpretations to be made. Company A provided the best tool and crew service. Company B incurred an excessive amount of lost time related to tool failure, in particular the neutron-density tool combination. Company C, although used only three times, incurred no lost time. With a reasonable data base valid conclusions were made pertaining, for example, to repeated tool malfunctions. The actual logs were then assessed for quality

  19. Influence of borehole-eccentred tools on wireline and logging-while-drilling sonic logging measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, David

    2013-02-13

    We describe a numerical study to quantify the influence of tool-eccentricity on wireline (WL) and logging-while-drilling (LWD) sonic logging measurements. Simulations are performed with a height-polynomial-adaptive (hp) Fourier finite-element method that delivers highly accurate solutions of linear visco-elasto-acoustic problems in the frequency domain. The analysis focuses on WL instruments equipped with monopole or dipole sources and LWD instruments with monopole excitation. Analysis of the main propagation modes obtained from frequency dispersion curves indicates that the additional high-order modes arising as a result of borehole-eccentricity interfere with the main modes (i.e., Stoneley, pseudo-Rayleigh and flexural). This often modifies (decreases) the estimation of shear and compressional formation velocities, which should be corrected (increased) to account for borehole-eccentricity effects. Undesired interferences between different modes can occur at different frequencies depending upon the properties of the formation and fluid annulus size, which may difficult the estimation of the formation velocities. © 2013 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  20. Pulsed neutron generator for logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibideau, F.D.

    1977-01-01

    A pulsed neutron generator for uranium logging is described. This generator is one component of a prototype uranium logging probe which is being developed by SLA to detect, and assay, uranium by borehole logging. The logging method is based on the measurement of epithermal neutrons resulting from the prompt fissioning of uranium from a pulsed source of 17.6 MeV neutrons. An objective of the prototype probe was that its diameter not exceed 2.75 inches, which would allow its use in conventional rotary drill holes of 4.75-inch diameter. This restriction limited the generator to a maximum 2.375-inch diameter. The performance requirements for the neutron generator specified that it operate with a nominal output of 5 x 10 6 neutrons/pulse at up to 100 pulses/second for a one-hour period. The development of a neutron generator meeting the preliminary design goals was completed and two prototype models were delivered to SLA. These two generators have been used by SLA to log a number of boreholes in field evaluation of the probe. The results of the field evaluations have led to the recommendation of several changes to improve the probe's operation. Some of these changes will require additional development effort on the neutron generator. It is expected that this work will be performed during 1977. The design and operation of the first prototype neutron generators is described

  1. Method for acoustic signal detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blalock, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a method and apparatus for acoustic signal detection, adapted for use in acoustic velocity well logging to measure the difference in transit times of an acoustic signal between a transmitter and two or more receivers. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention two timing measurements of the signal arriving at each of two receivers may be made by activating zero crossing detectors at the arrival of the first negative and first positive half-cycles at each receiver. A transit time is calculated from the zero crossing times following the first negative half-cycle. This first transit time may be checked for accuracy by comparing the first transit time with a second transit time calculated from zero crossing times following the first positive half-cycles, by comparing the first transit time to a previously measured transit time and/or by detecting the order of arrival of the negative and positive half-cycles to determine whether the half-cycles have been detected out of sequence at either receiver. Should the first transit time be determined to be inaccurate, the previously measured transit time or the second transit time may be substituted therefor

  2. Logística interna

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Paulo Teixeira de

    2002-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. Essa dissertação tem como objetivo demonstrar a importância da logística interna nas organizações prestadoras de serviço. A logística é vista como um processo capaz de aumentar a eficiência organizacional através da redução dos custos operacionais bem como agiliza os processos de movimentação das mercadorias em toda cadeia de abastecimento. A logística é...

  3. Mud Logging; Control geologico en perforaciones petroliferas (Mud Logging)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumarega Lafuente, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    Mud Logging is an important activity in the oil field and it is a key job in drilling operations, our duties are the acquisition, collection and interpretation of the geological and engineering data at the wellsite, also inform the client immediately of any significant changes in the well. (Author)

  4. Selected visualizations and summaries of the contents of the foliation and lithology data regarding drillholes OL-KR1 - OL-KR38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuusisto, S.; Raunio, J.-P.

    2010-01-01

    Posiva Oy has acquired an extensive amount of data on the geology of the Olkiluoto Island. Part of that data is the collection of foliation information, known as the foliation database. In this work, the foliation database was studied and analyzed using data mining techniques aiming to characterize the properties of the database. The goal was to discover previously unknown correlations, patterns, and properties contained within the data. In addition to the foliation database, deviation survey measurements were used as a supporting dataset. The following analyses related to the general properties of the database were carried out: logical discrepancies and potential errors in data; statistics of alphanumeric strings, numeric values, and empty fields; discovery of stereotypic data items whose appearance count deviates significantly from the count that would be expected if the properties were assumed independent; analysis of free text remarks; comparison between reported foliation orientations with those that were recalculated using the core orientations and foliation orientations with respect to core. Rock and foliation type sequences were analysed both in terms of the lengths of contiguous segments and the frequencies in which different sequences appear in the drillholes. The variance of rock types and the density of measurements was assessed by dividing the bedrock volume of interest into cubes and providing numerical values for these quantities for each cube. This was carried out in two resolutions: cube's sides were 500 m and 200 m. The foliation orientations were summarized also with respect to these cubes. In addition to analysis tasks, another task was to come up with alternative bedrock models - in terms of rock type units - based on data that contains rock type classifications and foliation orientation measurements obtained from drillholes. The interpretation of the analysis results was beyond the scope of this work. The assessment of the novelty and the

  5. Pulsed neutron porosity logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D. Jr.; Smith, M.P.; Schultz, W.E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved pulsed neutron porosity logging system is provided in the present invention. A logging tool provided with a 14 MeV pulsed neutron source, an epithermal neutron detector, and a fast neutron detector is moved through a borehole. Repetitive bursts of neutrons irradiate the earth formations and, during the bursts, the fast neutron population is sampled. During the interval between bursts the epithermal neutron population is sampled along with background gamma radiation due to lingering thermal neutrons. The fast and epithermal neutron population measurements are combined to provide a measurement of formation porosity

  6. Responsive acoustic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Brady; Tamke, Martin; Nielsen, Stig Anton

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic performance is defined by the parameter of reverberation time; however, this does not capture the acoustic experience in some types of open plan spaces. As many working and learning activities now take place in open plan spaces, it is important to be able to understand and design...... for the acoustic conditions of these spaces. This paper describes an experimental research project that studied the design processes necessary to design for sound. A responsive acoustic surface was designed, fabricated and tested. This acoustic surface was designed to create specific sonic effects. The design...... was simulated using custom integrated acoustic software and also using Odeon acoustic analysis software. The research demonstrates a method for designing space- and sound-defining surfaces, defines the concept of acoustic subspace, and suggests some new parameters for defining acoustic subspaces....

  7. Springer Handbook of Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Rossing, Thomas D

    2007-01-01

    Acoustics, the science of sound, has developed into a broad interdisciplinary field encompassing the academic disciplines of physics, engineering, psychology, speech, audiology, music, architecture, physiology, neuroscience, and others. The Springer Handbook of Acoustics is an unparalleled modern handbook reflecting this richly interdisciplinary nature edited by one of the acknowledged masters in the field, Thomas Rossing. Researchers and students benefit from the comprehensive contents spanning: animal acoustics including infrasound and ultrasound, environmental noise control, music and human speech and singing, physiological and psychological acoustics, architectural acoustics, physical and engineering acoustics, signal processing, medical acoustics, and ocean acoustics. This handbook reviews the most important areas of acoustics, with emphasis on current research. The authors of the various chapters are all experts in their fields. Each chapter is richly illustrated with figures and tables. The latest rese...

  8. Acoustic Neurinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Faraji Rad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic neuromas (AN are schwann cell-derived tumors that commonly arise from the vestibular portion of the eighth cranial nerve also known as vestibular schwannoma(VS causes unilateral hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo and unsteadiness. In many cases, the tumor size may remain unchanged for many years following diagnosis, which is typically made by MRI. In the majority of cases the tumor is small, leaving the clinician and patient with the options of either serial scanning or active treatment by gamma knife radiosurgery (GKR or microneurosurgery. Despite the vast number of published treatment reports, comparative studies are few. The predominant clinical endpoints of AN treatment include tumor control, facial nerve function and hearing preservation. Less focus has been put on symptom relief and health-related quality of life (QOL. It is uncertain if treating a small tumor leaves the patient with a better chance of obtaining relief from future hearing loss, vertigo or tinnitus than by observing it without treatment.   In this paper we review the literature for the natural course, the treatment alternatives and the results of AN. Finally, we present our experience with a management strategy applied for more than 30 years.

  9. ONKALO POSE experiment. Determination of in situ thermal properties of rocks in drillholes ONK-PP340, ONK-PP346, ONK-PP398, ONK-PP399, ONK-PP405, ONK-PP411

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpisalo, A.; Suppala, I.; Kukkonen, I.; Koskinen, T.

    2014-12-01

    The thermal drillhole device TERO76 (for diameter 76 mm drillholes) used in this study for determining thermal properties of rocks in situ was developed at the Geological Survey of Finland for Posiva in the early 2000's. The measurement method is based on monitoring the temperature variation of a cylindrical heating source in a drillhole. The measured data can be interpreted with full numerical 3D codes as well as with an analytical infinite line source method, a 'rapid interpretation tool', which makes it possible to calculate the first estimates of thermal properties already in the field. Both methods were applied in this study. Because of the unique measurement geometry, only the thermal conductivities can accurately be estimated using the late times of heating periods (accuracy ± 2%). The cylindrical source method cannot directly give the thermal diffusivity or volumetric heat capacity at a sufficient accuracy. Thermal diffusivities are estimated by using the average specific heat capacities and densities of the rock type at the measurement point, or the laboratory results on the general diffusivity-conductivity relationship for different Olkiluoto rock types. The latter technique was applied in this study. Thermal properties were determined in four shallow drillholes (ONK-PP398, ONK-PP399, ONK-PP405, ONK-PP411) located in the ONKALO investigation niche 3 (ONK-TKU-3620) at the access tunnel chainage of 3620 m. The measurement positions (17) were strictly selected on the grounds that approximately an equal number of in situ results would be available in both veined gneiss (VGN) and pegmatitic granite (PGR). The results from the drillholes ONK-PP340 and ONK-PP346 measured in a previous project are also presented in this report. In veined gneiss, the average conductivity determined with numerical model of the present measurements is 3.49 (2.83) Wm -1 K -1 and diffusivity 1.89 x 10 -6 (1.3 10 -6 ) m 2 s -1 . The laboratory values of Olkiluoto rocks

  10. Soil Wetness Influences Log Skidding

    Science.gov (United States)

    William N. Darwin

    1960-01-01

    One of the least explored variables in timber harvesting is the effect of ground conditions on log production . The Southern Hardwoods Laboratory is studying this variable and its influence on performance of skidding vehicles in Southern bottom lands. The test reported here was designed to evaluate the effects of bark features on skidding coefficients, but it also...

  11. Log exports by port, 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debra D. Warren

    1989-01-01

    Volumes and average values of log exports by port have been compiled by quarter for 1987. The tables show the four Northwest customs districts by ports, species, and destinations. These data were received from the U.S. Department of Commerce too late to be published in the 1987 quarterly reports, "Production, Prices, Employment, and Trade in Northwest Forest...

  12. Postfire logging in riparian areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon H. Reeves; Peter A. Bisson; Bruce E. Rieman; Lee E. Benda

    2006-01-01

    We reviewed the behavior of wildfire in riparian zones, primarily in the western United States, and the potential ecological consequences of postfire logging. Fire behavior in riparian zones is complex, but many aquatic and riparian organisms exhibit a suite of adaptations that allow relatively rapid recovery after fire. Unless constrained by other factors, fish tend...

  13. Responsive acoustic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Brady; Tamke, Martin; Nielsen, Stig Anton

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic performance is defined by the parameter of reverberation time; however, this does not capture the acoustic experience in some types of open plan spaces. As many working and learning activities now take place in open plan spaces, it is important to be able to understand and design...... was simulated using custom integrated acoustic software and also using Odeon acoustic analysis software. The research demonstrates a method for designing space- and sound-defining surfaces, defines the concept of acoustic subspace, and suggests some new parameters for defining acoustic subspaces....

  14. Acoustics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kuttruff, Heinrich

    2006-01-01

    This definitive textbook provides students with a comprehensive introduction to acoustics. Beginning with the basic physical ideas, Acoustics balances the fundamentals with engineering aspects, applications and electroacoustics, also covering music, speech and the properties of human hearing. The concepts of acoustics are exposed and applied in:room acousticssound insulation in buildingsnoise controlunderwater sound and ultrasoundScientifically thorough, but with mathematics kept to a minimum, Acoustics is the perfect introduction to acoustics for students at any level of mechanical, electrical or civil engineering courses and an accessible resource for architects, musicians or sound engineers requiring a technical understanding of acoustics and their applications.

  15. Nuclear well logging in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The optimum development of regional and local groundwater resources requires a quantitative evaluation of its aquifers and aquicludes, and of the physical and chemical properties relevant to the recharge to and withdrawal of water from them. If an understanding of the groundwater regime is to be obtained, geological observations at outcrop must be augmented by subsurface measurements of the strata and the waters they contain. Measurements of many hydrological and geological parameters can be made in situ by nuclear geophysical well-logging methods. Very simply, well logging consists of lowering a measuring probe into a well and making a continuous record of the variations of a particular parameter with depth. In most circumstances, repetition of the measurements under differing hydrodynamic conditions results in a better definition of the flow regime in the aquifer. Nuclear well-logging techniques have for some years been capable of solving a number of the sub-surface measurement problems faced by hydrogeologists. However, the present usage of these methods varies from country to country and the literature concerning applications is scattered in the professional journals of several disciplines. The objective of this report is to include in a single reference volume descriptions of the physical principles of nuclear logging methods, their applications to hydrogeological problems and their limitations on a level suitable for the practising hydrologists with a limited knowledge of nuclear physics. The Working Group responsible for compiling the report recommended that it should cover a broad spectrum of hydrogeological investigations and problems. For example, it saw no valid reason to distinguish for the purposes of the report between well-logging applications for water-supply purposes and for water-flooding studies in the petroleum industry. Neutron measurements made for soil-moisture determinations in the unsaturated zone have been specifically omitted, however, as

  16. Acoustic Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang-Hann

    One of the subtle problems that make noise control difficult for engineers is the invisibility of noise or sound. A visual image of noise often helps to determine an appropriate means for noise control. There have been many attempts to fulfill this rather challenging objective. Theoretical (or numerical) means for visualizing the sound field have been attempted, and as a result, a great deal of progress has been made. However, most of these numerical methods are not quite ready for practical applications to noise control problems. In the meantime, rapid progress with instrumentation has made it possible to use multiple microphones and fast signal-processing systems. Although these systems are not perfect, they are useful. A state-of-the-art system has recently become available, but it still has many problematic issues; for example, how can one implement the visualized noise field. The constructed noise or sound picture always consists of bias and random errors, and consequently, it is often difficult to determine the origin of the noise and the spatial distribution of the noise field. Section 26.2 of this chapter introduces a brief history, which is associated with sound visualization, acoustic source identification methods and what has been accomplished with a line or surface array. Section 26.2.3 introduces difficulties and recent studies, including de-Dopplerization and de-re verberation methods, both essential for visualizing a moving noise source, such as occurs for cars or trains. This section also addresses what produces ambiguity in realizing real sound sources in a room or closed space. Another major issue associated with sound/noise visualization is whether or not we can distinguish between mutual dependencies of noise in space (Sect. 26.2.4); for example, we are asked to answer the question, Can we see two birds singing or one bird with two beaks?

  17. Hardwood log supply: a broader perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iris Montague; Adri Andersch; Jan Wiedenbeck; Urs. Buehlmann

    2015-01-01

    At regional and state meetings we talk with others in our business about the problems we face: log exports, log quality, log markets, logger shortages, cash flow problems, the weather. These are familiar talking points and real and persistent problems. But what is the relative importance of these problems for log procurement in different regions of...

  18. Palm distributions for log Gaussian Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    2017-01-01

    This paper establishes a remarkable result regarding Palm distributions for a log Gaussian Cox process: the reduced Palm distribution for a log Gaussian Cox process is itself a log Gaussian Cox process that only differs from the original log Gaussian Cox process in the intensity function. This new...

  19. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facts What is acoustic neuroma? Diagnosing Symptoms Side Effects Keywords Questions to ask Choosing a healthcare provider ... Surgery What is acoustic neuroma Diagnosing Symptoms Side effects Question To Ask Treatment Options Back Overview Observation ...

  20. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more... LOGIN CALENDAR DONATE NEWS Home Learn Back Learn about acoustic neuroma AN Facts What is acoustic ... Stories Keywords Shop ANA Discussion Forum About Back Learn more about ANA About ANA Mission, Vision & Values ...

  1. Atlantic Herring Acoustic Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Advanced Sampling Technologies Research Group conducts annual fisheries acoustic surveys using state-of-the-art acoustic, midwater trawling, and underwater...

  2. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more Click to learn more... LOGIN CALENDAR DONATE NEWS Home Learn Back Learn about acoustic neuroma AN ... a Sponsor Patient Events Acoustic Neuroma Association Latest News Join / Renew Login Contact Us Become a Sponsor ...

  3. Uranium logging in earth formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givens, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A technique is provided for assaying the formations surrounding a borehole for uranium. A borehole logging tool cyclically irradiates the formations with neutrons and responds to neutron fluxes produced during the period of time that prompt neutrons are being produced by the neutron fission of uranium in the formations. A borehole calibration tool employs a steady-state (continuous output) neutron source, firstly, to produce a response to neutron fluxes in models having known concentrations of uranium and, secondly, to to produce a response to neutron fluxes in the formations surrounding the borehole. The neutron flux responses of the borehole calibration tool in both the model and the formations surrounding the borehole are utilized to correct the neutron flux response of the borehole logging tool for the effects of epithermal/thermal neutron moderation, scattering, and absorption within the borehole itself

  4. Tutorial on architectural acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Neil; Talaske, Rick; Bistafa, Sylvio

    2002-11-01

    This tutorial is intended to provide an overview of current knowledge and practice in architectural acoustics. Topics covered will include basic concepts and history, acoustics of small rooms (small rooms for speech such as classrooms and meeting rooms, music studios, small critical listening spaces such as home theatres) and the acoustics of large rooms (larger assembly halls, auditoria, and performance halls).

  5. Logística empresarial

    OpenAIRE

    Feres Sahid

    1987-01-01

    RESUMEN El concepto logístico, se pudo ver reflejado con exactitud desde el punto de vista etimológico e histórico a través de la revista de la E.A.N; ya que  tiene cierto carácter militar que lo hace característico a la gestión empresarial y de esto se formula un debate definitivo de este concepto.

  6. Logística empresarial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feres Sahid

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El concepto logístico, se pudo ver reflejado con exactitud desde el punto de vista etimológico e histórico a través de la revista de la E.A.N; ya que  tiene cierto carácter militar que lo hace característico a la gestión empresarial y de esto se formula un debate definitivo de este concepto.

  7. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.A.; McAtee, R.E.

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  8. Neutron capture in borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    The use is described of a pulsed source of fast neutrons and a radiation detector to measure the thermal neutron population decay rate in a well logging instrument. The macroscopic neutron absorption cross-section is calculated by taking the natural logarithm of the ratio of the detected radiation counts occurring within two measurement intervals of fixed duration and starting at a fixed time after a neutron burst. (U.K.)

  9. Simulation of Monopole and Multipole Seismoelectric Logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Cui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a fluid-saturated porous formation, acoustics and electromagnetic waves are coupled based on Pride seismoelectric theory. An exact treatment of the nonaxisymmetric seismoelectric field excited by acoustic multipole sources is presented. The frequency wavenumber domain representations of the acoustic field and associated seismoelectric field due to acoustic multipole sources are formulated. The full waveforms of acoustic waves and electric and magnetic fields in the time domain propagation in borehole are simulated by using discrete wave number integration, and frequency versus axial-wave number responses are presented and analyzed.

  10. Accurately determining log and bark volumes of saw logs using high-resolution laser scan data

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward Thomas; Neal D. Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Accurately determining the volume of logs and bark is crucial to estimating the total expected value recovery from a log. Knowing the correct size and volume of a log helps to determine which processing method, if any, should be used on a given log. However, applying volume estimation methods consistently can be difficult. Errors in log measurement and oddly shaped...

  11. Application of petroleum geophysical well logging and sampling techniques for evaluating aquifer characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temples, T.J.; Waddell, M.G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Earth Science and Resource Inst.

    1996-05-01

    The Hilton Head Island Test Well {number_sign}1 was drilled to a depth of 3,833 feet to evaluate the upper Cretaceous section as a potential ground-water source for Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. The initial plan was to analyze continuous conventional cores. The interval to be analyzed extended from the top of the Eocene to the base of the Cretaceous (approximately 3,500 feet). However, due to the high cost ($400,000), the decision was made to evaluate aquifer potential using advanced geophysical logs with sidewall cores for calibration. The logging suite consisted of a dual induction resistivity, spontaneous potential, compensated neutron, density log, gamma ray, spectral gamma, multipole array acoustic log, caliper, high resolution dipmeter, and a circumferential borehole imaging log. In addition to the wireline logs, 239 sidewall cores and 12 Formation Multi-Test samples were obtained. The log, sidewall core, and FMT information were integrated into an interpretive package using computer generated logs and simple spreadsheets to calculate aquifer properties. Porosity, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity, and lithologic data derived from this integrated analysis were then used to select screen zones. Water quality in relation to drinking water standards exceeded expectations. The information obtained from the integrated program allowed estimates to be made about the well`s productivity without the expense of conventional coring, flow testing, and completion of the well.

  12. AUTOMATED TECHNIQUE FOR CREATING LITHOLOGIC LOG PLOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Posavec

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents automated technique for creating lithologic log plots. Technique is based on three computer tools: Microsoft (MS Access program, LogPlot program, and Visual Basic (VB macros for MS Excel. MS Access ensures professional storage of lithologic data which can be in that way easier and faster entered, searched, updated, and also used for different purposes, while LogPlot provides tools for creating lithologic log plots. VB macros enable transfer of lithologic data from MS Access to LogPlot. Data stored in MS Access are exported in ASCII files which are later used by LogPlot for creation of lithologic log plots. Presented concept facilitates creation of lithologic log plots, and automated technique enables processing of a large number of data i.e. creation of lareg number lithologic log plots in a short period of time (the paper is published in Croatian.

  13. Geohydrologic and drill-hole data for test well USW H-4, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, M.S.; Thordarson, William; Eshom, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    Data are presented on drilling operations, lithology, geophysical well logs, sidewall-core samples, water-level monitoring, pumping tests, injection tests, radioactive-tracer borehole flow survey, and water chemistry for test well USW H-4. The well is one of a series of test wells drilled in the southwestern part of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. These test wells are part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations to identify sites for storage of high-level radioactive wastes. Test well USW H-4 was drilled in ash-flow tuff to a total depth of 1,219 meters. Depth to water below land surface was 519 meters or at an altitude of 730 meters above sea level. After test pumping at a rate of 17.4 liters per second for approximately 9 days, the drawdown was 4.85 meters. A radioactive borehole-flow survey indicated that the Bullfrog Member was the most productive geologic unit, producing 36.5 percent of the water in the well. The second most productive geologic unit was the Tram Member, which produced 32 percent of the water. The water in test well USW H-4 is predominantly a soft, sodium bicarbonate type of water typical of water produced in tuffaceous rocks in southern Nevada. (USGS)

  14. Data Mining of Network Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo, Carlimar

    2011-01-01

    The statement of purpose is to analyze network monitoring logs to support the computer incident response team. Specifically, gain a clear understanding of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and its structure, and provide a way to breakdown a URL based on protocol, host name domain name, path, and other attributes. Finally, provide a method to perform data reduction by identifying the different types of advertisements shown on a webpage for incident data analysis. The procedures used for analysis and data reduction will be a computer program which would analyze the URL and identify and advertisement links from the actual content links.

  15. Neutron borehole logging correction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, L.H.

    1978-01-01

    In accordance with an illustrative embodiment of the present invention, a method and apparatus is disclosed for logging earth formations traversed by a borehole in which an earth formation is irradiated with neutrons and gamma radiation produced thereby in the formation and in the borehole is detected. A sleeve or shield for capturing neutrons from the borehole and producing gamma radiation characteristic of that capture is provided to give an indication of the contribution of borehole capture events to the total detected gamma radiation. It is then possible to correct from those borehole effects the total detected gamma radiation and any earth formation parameters determined therefrom

  16. Hydraulic conductivity measurements with HTU at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto, drillholes OL-KR19, OL-KR45 and OL-KR46 in 2009 and 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, H. [Geopros Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    As a part of the site investigations for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, hydraulic conductivity measurements were carried out with HTU-equipment in drillholes OL-KR19, OL-KR45 and OL-KR46 at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto. The objective was to investigate the distribution of the hydraulic conductivity in the surrounding bedrock volume. Measurements were carried out during 2009 and 2010. The total length of the borehole OL-KR19 is 544,34 m, 241,80 m of which was covered by 121 standard tests with 2 m packer separation as specified in the measurement plan. Respectively, OL-KR45 is 1023,30 m long and 63 similar tests were made in it covering 126,00 m of the hole and OL-KR46 600,10 m long, 151 tests made covering 301,35 m. The measured sections are around the depths of the planned repository. Double-packer constant-head method was used throughout with nominal 200 kPa overpressure. Injection stage lasted normally 20 minutes and fall-off stage 10 minutes. The tests were often shortened if there were clear indications that the hydraulic conductivity is below the measuring range of the system. The pressure in the test section was let to stabilise at least 5 min before injection. In some test sections the test stage times were extended. Two transient (Horner and 1/Q) interpretations and one stationary- state (Moye) interpretation were made in-situ immediately after the test. The Hydraulic Testing Unit (HTU-system) is owned by Posiva Oy and it was operated by Geopros Oy. (orig.)

  17. An overview of acoustic telemetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry has been a dream of the drilling industry for the past 50 years. It offers the promise of data rates which are one-hundred times greater than existing technology. Such a system would open the door to true logging-while-drilling technology and bring enormous profits to its developers. The basic idea is to produce an encoded sound wave at the bottom of the well, let it propagate up the steel drillpipe, and extract the data from the signal at the surface. Unfortunately, substantial difficulties arise. The first difficult problem is to produce the sound wave. Since the most promising transmission wavelengths are about 20 feet, normal transducer efficiencies are quire low. Compounding this problem is the structural complexity of the bottomhole assembly and drillstring. For example, the acoustic impedance of the drillstring changes every 30 feet and produces an unusual scattering pattern in the acoustic transmission. This scattering pattern causes distortion of the signal and is often confused with signal attenuation. These problems are not intractable. Recent work has demonstrated that broad frequency bands exist which are capable of transmitting data at rates up to 100 bits per second. Our work has also identified the mechanism which is responsible for the observed anomalies in the patterns of signal attenuation. Furthermore in the past few years a body of experience has been developed in designing more efficient transducers for application to metal waveguides. The direction of future work is clear. New transducer designs which are more efficient and compatible with existing downhole power supplies need to be built and tested; existing field test data need to be analyzed for transmission bandwidth and attenuation; and the new and less expensive methods of collecting data on transmission path quality need to be incorporated into this effort. 11 refs.

  18. Artificial intelligence approach to interwell log correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jong-Se [Korea Maritime University, Pusan(Korea); Kang, Joo Myung [Seoul National University, Seoul(Korea); Kim, Jung Whan [Korea National Oil Corp., Anyang(Korea)

    2000-04-30

    This paper describes a new approach to automated interwell log correlation using artificial intelligence and principal component analysis. The approach to correlate wire line logging data is on the basis of a large set of subjective rules that are intended to represent human logical processes. The data processed are mainly the qualitative information such as the characteristics of the shapes extracted along log traces. The apparent geologic zones are identified by pattern recognition for the specific characteristics of log trace collected as a set of objects by object oriented programming. The correlation of zones between wells is made by rule-based inference program. The reliable correlation can be established from the first principal component logs derived from both the important information around well bore and the largest common part of variances of all available well log data. Correlation with field log data shows that this approach can make interwell log correlation more reliable and accurate. (author). 6 refs., 7 figs.

  19. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of the...

  20. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid sling...

  1. Linking log quality with product performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. W. Green; Robert Ross

    1997-01-01

    In the United States, log grading procedures use visual assessment of defects, in relation to the log scaling diameter, to estimate the yield of lumber that maybe expected from the log. This procedure was satisfactory when structural grades were based only on defect size and location. In recent years, however, structural products have increasingly been graded using a...

  2. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. P. Asner; D. E. Knapp; E. N. Broadbent; P. J. C. Oliveira; M Keller; J. N. Silva

    2005-01-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square...

  3. Selective logging and its relation to deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asner; Michael Keller; Marco Lentini; Frank Merry; Souza Jr. Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Selective logging is a major contributor to the social, economic, and ecological dynamics of Brazilian Amazonia. Logging activities have expanded from low-volume floodplain harvests in past centuries to high-volume operations today that take about 25 million m3 of wood from the forest each year. The most common high-impact conventional and often illegal logging...

  4. Acoustic streaming in microchannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tribler, Peter Muller

    This thesis presents studies of boundary-driven acoustic streaming in microfluidic channels, which is a steady flow of the fluid initiated by the interactions of an oscillating acoustic standing wave and the rigid walls of the microchannel. The studies present analysis of the acoustic resonance......, the acoustic streaming flow, and the forces on suspended microparticles. The work is motivated by the application of particle focusing by acoustic radiation forces in medical, environmental and food sciences. Here acoustic streaming is most often unwanted, because it limits the focusability of particles...... oscillating plates. Furthermore, under general thermodynamic conditions, we derive the time-dependent first- and second-order equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. The coupling from fluid equations to particle motion is achieved through the expressions for the streaming-induced drag...

  5. Vibro-acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This three-volume book gives a thorough and comprehensive presentation of vibration and acoustic theories. Different from traditional textbooks which typically deal with some aspects of either acoustic or vibration problems, it is unique of this book to combine those two correlated subjects together. Moreover, it provides fundamental analysis and mathematical descriptions for several crucial phenomena of Vibro-Acoustics which are quite useful in noise reduction, including how structures are excited, energy flows from an excitation point to a sound radiating surface, and finally how a structure radiates noise to a surrounding fluid. Many measurement results included in the text make the reading interesting and informative. Problems/questions are listed at the end of each chapter and the solutions are provided. This will help the readers to understand the topics of Vibro-Acoustics more deeply. The book should be of interest to anyone interested in sound and vibration, vehicle acoustics, ship acoustics and inter...

  6. Springer handbook of acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Acoustics, the science of sound, has developed into a broad interdisciplinary field encompassing the academic disciplines of physics, engineering, psychology, speech, audiology, music, architecture, physiology, neuroscience, and electronics. The Springer Handbook of Acoustics is also in his 2nd edition an unparalleled modern handbook reflecting this richly interdisciplinary nature edited by one of the acknowledged masters in the field, Thomas Rossing. Researchers and students benefit from the comprehensive contents. This new edition of the Handbook features over 11 revised and expanded chapters, new illustrations, and 2 new chapters covering microphone arrays  and acoustic emission.  Updated chapters contain the latest research and applications in, e.g. sound propagation in the atmosphere, nonlinear acoustics in fluids, building and concert hall acoustics, signal processing, psychoacoustics, computer music, animal bioacousics, sound intensity, modal acoustics as well as new chapters on microphone arrays an...

  7. Deep Water Ocean Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-22

    analysis was conducted on the North Pacific Acoustics Laboratory Philippine Sea tests 2009 and 2010, both of which Dr. Heaney participated as a co-chief...obtained from the ambient noise field. In underwater acoustics , this travel time strongly depends on the depth and temperature and to a lesser extent...et al. 2012) and underwater volcanoes (Green at al. 2013). Guided wave propagation contributes to the limited acoustical attenuation by the SOFAR

  8. Analysis of Web Proxy Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Bennie; Eloff, Jan; Olivier, Martin; Venter, Hein

    Network forensics involves capturing, recording and analysing network audit trails. A crucial part of network forensics is to gather evidence at the server level, proxy level and from other sources. A web proxy relays URL requests from clients to a server. Analysing web proxy logs can give unobtrusive insights to the browsing behavior of computer users and provide an overview of the Internet usage in an organisation. More importantly, in terms of network forensics, it can aid in detecting anomalous browsing behavior. This paper demonstrates the use of a self-organising map (SOM), a powerful data mining technique, in network forensics. In particular, it focuses on how a SOM can be used to analyse data gathered at the web proxy level.

  9. A neutron well logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A pulsed neutron well logging system using a sealed off neutron generator tube is provided with a programmable digital neutron output control system. The control system monitors the target beam current and compares a function of this current with a pre-programmed control function to develop a control signal for the neutron generator. The control signal is used in a series regulator to control the average replenisher current of the neutron generator tube. The programmable digital control system of the invention also provides digital control signals as a function of time to provide ion source voltages. This arrangement may be utilized to control neutron pulses durations and repetition rates or to produce other modulated wave forms for intensity modulating the output of the neutron generator as a function of time. (Auth.)

  10. Decomposable log-linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Poul Svante

    can be characterized by a structured set of conditional independencies between some variables given some other variables. We term the new model class decomposable log-linear models, which is illustrated to be a much richer class than decomposable graphical models.It covers a wide range of non...... The present paper considers discrete probability models with exact computational properties. In relation to contingency tables this means closed form expressions of the maksimum likelihood estimate and its distribution. The model class includes what is known as decomposable graphicalmodels, which......-hierarchical models, models with structural zeroes, models described by quasi independence and models for level merging. Also, they have a very natural interpretation as they may be formulated by a structured set of conditional independencies between two events given some other event. In relation to contingency...

  11. Shallow Water Acoustic Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where high-frequency acoustic scattering and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures...

  12. Acoustic Signals and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook...... will present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...

  13. Acoustic Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains an electro-magnetic worldwide data collection and field measurement capability in the area of acoustic technology. Outfitted by NASA Langley...

  14. Localized Acoustic Surface Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-08-04

    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes (ASMs). We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  15. Handbook of Engineering Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Möser, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the physical background of engineering acoustics, focusing on empirically obtained engineering experience as well as on measurement techniques and engineering methods for prognostics. Its goal is not only to describe the state of art of engineering acoustics but also to give practical help to engineers in order to solve acoustic problems. It deals with the origin, the transmission and the methods of the abating different kinds of air-borne and structure-borne sounds caused by various mechanisms – from traffic to machinery and flow-induced sound. In addition the modern aspects of room and building acoustics, as well as psychoacoustics and active noise control, are covered.

  16. Laboratory for Structural Acoustics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where acoustic radiation, scattering, and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures are...

  17. Static dictionaries on AC0 RAMs: query time (√log n/log log n) is necessary and sufficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Arne; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Riis, Søren

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we consider solutions to the static dictionary problem on AC0 RAMs, i.e. random access machines where the only restriction on the finite instruction set is that all computational instructions are in AC0. Our main result is a tight upper and lower bound of θ(√log n/log log n) on the ......In this paper we consider solutions to the static dictionary problem on AC0 RAMs, i.e. random access machines where the only restriction on the finite instruction set is that all computational instructions are in AC0. Our main result is a tight upper and lower bound of θ(√log n/log log n......, we show a tradeoff between time and circuit depth under the unit-cost assumption: any RAM instruction set which permits a linear space, constant query time solution to the static dictionary problem must have an instruction of depth Ω(log w/log log to), where w is the word size of the machine (and log...

  18. Geomicrobial Optical Logging Detectors (GOLD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramall, N. E.; Stoker, C. R.; Price, P. B.; Coates, J. D.; Allamandola, L. J.; Mattioda, A. L.

    2008-12-01

    We will present concepts for downhole instrumentation that could be used in the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). We envision optical borehole-logging instruments that could monitor bacterial concentration, mineralogy, aromatic organics, temperature and oxygen concentration, allowing for the in situ monitoring of time-dependent microbial and short-scale geologic processes and provide valuable in situ data on stratigraphy to supplement core analyses, especially where instances of missing or damaged core sections make such studies difficult. Incorporated into these instruments will be a sampling/inoculation tool to allow for the recovery and/or manipulation of particularly interesting sections of the borehole wall for further study, enabling a series of microbiological studies. The borehole tools we will develop revolve around key emerging technologies and methods, some of which are briefly described below: 1) Autofluorescence Spectroscopy: Building on past instruments, we will develop a new borehole logger that searches for microbial life and organics using fluorescence spectroscopy. Many important organic compounds (e.g. PAHs) and biomolecules (e.g. aromatic amino acids, proteins, methanogenic coenzymes) fluoresce when excited with ultraviolet and visible light. Through the careful selection of excitation wavelength(s) and temporal gating parameters, a borehole logging instrument can detect and differentiate between these different compounds and the mineral matrix in which they exist. 2) Raman Spectroscopy: Though less sensitive than fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy is more definitive: it can provide important mineral phase distribution/proportions and other chemical data enabling studies of mineralogy and microbe-mineral interactions (when combined with fluorescence). 3) Borehole Camera: Imaging of the borehole wall with extended information in the UV, visible, and NIR for a more informative view can provide a lot of insight

  19. Deep Water Ocean Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-17

    Ocean Acoustics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER...paper and presented on global acoustic propagation (including on Europa, a small moon of Jupiter ) at the International Conference of Sound and

  20. Acoustic emission source modeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hora, Petr; Červená, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2010), s. 25-36 ISSN 1802-680X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1630 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : acoustic emission source * wave propagation * FEM Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  1. Computational Ocean Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Finn B; Porter, Michael B; Schmidt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, the computer has played an increasingly pivotal role in the field of ocean acoustics. Faster and less expensive than actual ocean experiments, and capable of accommodating the full complexity of the acoustic problem, numerical models are now standard research tools in ocean laboratories. The progress made in computational ocean acoustics over the last thirty years is summed up in this authoritative and innovatively illustrated new text. Written by some of the field's pioneers, all Fellows of the Acoustical Society of America, Computational Ocean Acoustics presents the latest numerical techniques for solving the wave equation in heterogeneous fluid–solid media. The authors discuss various computational schemes in detail, emphasizing the importance of theoretical foundations that lead directly to numerical implementations for real ocean environments. To further clarify the presentation, the fundamental propagation features of the techniques are illustrated in color. Computational Ocean A...

  2. Ocean acoustic reverberation tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wide-angle imaging using ship-towed acoustic sources and networks of ocean bottom seismographs is a common technique for exploring earth structure beneath the oceans. In these studies, the recorded data are dominated by acoustic waves propagating as reverberations in the water column. For surveys with a small receiver spacing (e.g., ocean acoustic reverberation tomography, is developed that uses the travel times of direct and reflected waves to image ocean acoustic structure. Reverberation tomography offers an alternative approach for determining the structure of the oceans and advancing the understanding of ocean heat content and mixing processes. The technique has the potential for revealing small-scale ocean thermal structure over the entire vertical height of the water column and along long survey profiles or across three-dimensional volumes of the ocean. For realistic experimental geometries and data noise levels, the method can produce images of ocean sound speed on a smaller scale than traditional acoustic tomography.

  3. Detection of gas hydrate with downhole logs and assessment of gas hydrate concentrations (saturations) and gas volumes on the Blake Ridge with electrical resistivity log data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, T.S.; Ladd, J.

    2000-01-01

    Let 164 of the Ocean Drilling Program was designed to investigate the occurrence of gas hydrate in the sedimentary section beneath the Blake Ridge on the southeastern continental margin of North America. Site 994, and 997 were drilled on the Blake Ridge to refine our understanding of the in situ characteristics of natural gas hydrate. Because gas hydrate is unstable at surface pressure and temperature conditions, a major emphasis was placed on the downhole logging program to determine the in situ physical properties of the gas hydrate-bearing sediments. Downhole logging tool strings deployed on Leg 164 included the Schlumberger quad-combination tool (NGT, LSS/SDT, DIT, CNT-G, HLDT), the Formation MicroScanner (FMS), and the Geochemical Combination Tool (GST). Electrical resistivity (DIT) and acoustic transit-time (LSS/SDT) downhole logs from Sites 994, 995, and 997 indicate the presence of gas hydrate in the depth interval between 185 and 450 mbsf on the Blake Ridge. Electrical resistivity log calculations suggest that the gas hydrate-bearing sedimentary section on the Blake Ridge may contain between 2 and 11 percent bulk volume (vol%) gas hydrate. We have determined that the log-inferred gas hydrates and underlying free-gas accumulations on the Blake Ridge may contain as much as 57 trillion m3 of gas.

  4. Geophysical well-log measurements in three drill holes at Salt Valley, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, J.J.; Hite, R.J.; Scott, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Three exploratory drill holes were drilled at Salt Valley, Utah, to study the geologic, physical, geochemical, and hydrologic properties of the evaporite sequence in the Permian Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation. The results of these studies will be used to help to determine the suitability of salt deposits in the Paradox basin as a storage medium for radioactive waste material. The following geophysical well-log measurements were made in each of the three drill holes: (1) density, (2) neutron, (3) acoustic velocity, (4) normal resistivity, and (5) gamma ray. Widely spaced resistivity and conductivity well-log measurements were made in the deep drill hole. Each of these well-log measurements shows the division of the evaporite sequence into halite and interbed sections. At the present time the most useful well-logging measurements for determining the individual lithologies in an evaporite sequence are gamma ray, neutron, density, and acoustic velocity. The high resistivity contrast between the drilling fluid (0.5 ohm-m) and salt (10,000 ohm-m) makes it difficult to obtain quantitative measurements of electrical properties in an evaporite sequence. Tests of widely spaced electrode configurations show that the effects of the brine on the resistivity measurements can be reduced, and the depth of investigation increased, by increasing the source-receiver electrode spacing. Tests of a single-coil induction probe show good resolution of the contrasting electrical properties of the various interbed lithologies

  5. Log Analysis Using Splunk Hadoop Connect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    losses caused by individual components and by interactions between them. One performance difficulty with log analysis is the observer effect. The act of...a loss of connection with a single node that impacts performance. The research used specialized supercomputer system logs to combat and predict...for high reliability, some log messages were corrupt , incomplete, or had an incorrect timestamp. The volume of administrative messages and failures

  6. Acoustic Force Density Acting on Inhomogeneous Fluids in Acoustic Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Jonas Tobias; Augustsson, Per; Bruus, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    We present a theory for the acoustic force density acting on inhomogeneous fluids in acoustic fields on time scales that are slow compared to the acoustic oscillation period. The acoustic force density depends on gradients in the density and compressibility of the fluid. For microfluidic systems...

  7. Parametric Room Acoustic workflows with real-time acoustic simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates and assesses the opportunities that real-time acoustic simulation offer to engage in parametric acoustics workflow and to influence architectural designs from early design stages......The paper investigates and assesses the opportunities that real-time acoustic simulation offer to engage in parametric acoustics workflow and to influence architectural designs from early design stages...

  8. Logging in the campus: borehole research and monitoring in a test hole in Barcelona (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, M. J.; Crespo, J.; Espallargas, R.

    2012-04-01

    Almera-1 hole was drilled for research purposes in the University of Barcelona campus area. The hole is 214m deep and was drilled in Quaternary to Paleozoic rocks in a urban area, next to the Institute of Earth Sciences (CSIC) borehole research lab. The main objectives for drilling a research hole were both the study of the poorly known subsurface geology and structure in this urban area and the construction of a dedicated infrastructure for logging tools tests, calibrations and long term monitoring. A direct connection to the lab was built to facilitate long term measuring experiments tool powering and data monitoring. A second auxiliary hole, Almera-2 50m deep was drilled to carry out cross-hole and tomographic experiments and hydrological monitoring. The upper section of Almera-1 hole is cased with PVC and the lowermost is an open hole section in paleozoic rock. The entire hole was logged in open hole mode (before casing) and also after the hole was cased in order to study the effect of the PVC casing on different logging tools responses (total and spectral gamma radioactivity through casing, acoustic televiewer through casing, full wave sonic through casing and magnetic susceptibility through casing). The comparison shows the effect on each of these tools response of the PVC casing. Also how the tools responses are more or less affected by the attenuation caused by the PVC of the rock signal and how this is more or less critical in the diverse lithologies represented in the Almera-1 hole. Wireline drilling was used to obtain best core recovery and to carry out log-core comparative analyses for logging tool response calibration and log-core correlation. The results obtained in the study of gamma ray (total and spectral), magnetic susceptibility and acoustic petrophysics are shown.

  9. EDZ09 project and related EDZ studies in ONKALO 2008-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellanen, S. [Genpro Solutions Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Lehtimaeki, T. [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Heikkinen, E. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland) Water and Environment; Mustonen, S.; Norokallio, J.

    2010-12-15

    drilled parallel to the tunnel; (3) seismic tomography between two pairs of drillholes inclined forward from the tunnel in a horizontal plane at the tunnel wall level and in a vertical plane from the tunnel floor. The surveys in these holes also included geological core logging, geophysical logging, acoustic and optical drillhole imaging, differential flow logging, borehole radar measurements, and water loss measurements. Additionally, differential flow logging, water loss measurements and interference tests were conducted in three parallel drillholes inclined forward from the tunnel at tunnel floor level. Repeated investigations performed after the tunnel excavation included: (1) a reflection seismic single-hole survey carried out in the remaining drillhole parallel to the tunnel; (2) seismic tomography between the tunnel wall and the remaining drillhole parallel to the tunnel; (3) seismic tomography between the horizontally located drillholes in the wall, and between sub-vertically located drillholes in the floor; (4) borehole radar reflection in the remaining drillhole parallel to the tunnel; (5) optical and acoustic imaging in drillholes in the horizontal plane in the wall and in a sub-vertical plane in the floor; and (6) differential flow logging and water loss measurements in the holes in the sub-vertical plane in the floor and in the parallel sub-vertical holes in the floor.

  10. EDZ09 project and related EDZ studies in ONKALO 2008-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellanen, S.; Lehtimaeki, T.; Heikkinen, E.; Mustonen, S.; Norokallio, J.

    2010-12-01

    drilled parallel to the tunnel; (3) seismic tomography between two pairs of drillholes inclined forward from the tunnel in a horizontal plane at the tunnel wall level and in a vertical plane from the tunnel floor. The surveys in these holes also included geological core logging, geophysical logging, acoustic and optical drillhole imaging, differential flow logging, borehole radar measurements, and water loss measurements. Additionally, differential flow logging, water loss measurements and interference tests were conducted in three parallel drillholes inclined forward from the tunnel at tunnel floor level. Repeated investigations performed after the tunnel excavation included: (1) a reflection seismic single-hole survey carried out in the remaining drillhole parallel to the tunnel; (2) seismic tomography between the tunnel wall and the remaining drillhole parallel to the tunnel; (3) seismic tomography between the horizontally located drillholes in the wall, and between sub-vertically located drillholes in the floor; (4) borehole radar reflection in the remaining drillhole parallel to the tunnel; (5) optical and acoustic imaging in drillholes in the horizontal plane in the wall and in a sub-vertical plane in the floor; and (6) differential flow logging and water loss measurements in the holes in the sub-vertical plane in the floor and in the parallel sub-vertical holes in the floor

  11. Acoustic building infiltration measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Raman, Ganesh

    2018-04-10

    Systems and methods of detecting and identifying a leak from a container or building. Acoustic pressure and velocity are measured. Acoustic properties are acquired from the measured values. The acoustic properties are converted to infiltration/leakage information. Nearfield Acoustic Holography (NAH) may be one method to detect the leakages from a container by locating the noise sources.

  12. Acoustic well cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Jr., Voldi E.; Sharma, Mukul M.

    1997-01-21

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for cleaning the wellbore and the near wellbore region. A sonde is provided which is adapted to be lowered into a borehole and which includes a plurality of acoustic transducers arranged around the sonde. Electrical power provided by a cable is converted to acoustic energy. The high intensity acoustic energy directed to the borehole wall and into the near wellbore region, redissolves or resuspends the material which is reducing the permeability of the formation and/or restricting flow in the wellbore.

  13. SOME LIMIT-THEOREMS IN LOG DENSITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BERKES, [No Value; DEHLING, H

    Motivated by recent results on pathwise central limit theorems, we study in a systematic way log-average versions of classical limit theorems. For partial sums S(k) of independent r.v.'s we prove under mild technical conditions that (1/log N)SIGMA(k less-than-or-equal-to N)(1/k)I{S(k)/a(k)

  14. Utilization and cost for animal logging operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraj P. Shrestha; Bobby L. Lanford

    2001-01-01

    Forest harvesting with animals is a labor-intensive operation. Due to the development of efficient machines and high volume demands from the forest products industry, mechanization of logging developed very fast, leaving behind the traditional horse and mule logging. It is expensive to use machines on smaller woodlots, which require frequent moves if mechanically...

  15. The Computer as a Log of Wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coad, Peter; Coad, Raylene

    1985-01-01

    Because a teacher and a student were seated on either end of a log (facing each other), there was direct, eye-to-eye, one-on-one communication. If properly used, computers can take the place of the log, establishing the eye-to-eye, one-on-one, two-way communication. Advantages occur because computers are interactive, individualized, modular, and…

  16. Logging methods and peeling of Aspen

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Schantz-Hansen

    1948-01-01

    The logging of forest products is influenced by many factors, including the size of the trees, density of the stand, the soundness of the trees, size of the area logged, topography and soil, weather conditions, the degree of utilization, the skill of the logger and the equipment used, the distance from market, etc. Each of these factors influences not only the method...

  17. Log-binomial models: exploring failed convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tyler; Eliasziw, Misha; Fick, Gordon Hilton

    2013-12-13

    Relative risk is a summary metric that is commonly used in epidemiological investigations. Increasingly, epidemiologists are using log-binomial models to study the impact of a set of predictor variables on a single binary outcome, as they naturally offer relative risks. However, standard statistical software may report failed convergence when attempting to fit log-binomial models in certain settings. The methods that have been proposed in the literature for dealing with failed convergence use approximate solutions to avoid the issue. This research looks directly at the log-likelihood function for the simplest log-binomial model where failed convergence has been observed, a model with a single linear predictor with three levels. The possible causes of failed convergence are explored and potential solutions are presented for some cases. Among the principal causes is a failure of the fitting algorithm to converge despite the log-likelihood function having a single finite maximum. Despite these limitations, log-binomial models are a viable option for epidemiologists wishing to describe the relationship between a set of predictors and a binary outcome where relative risk is the desired summary measure. Epidemiologists are encouraged to continue to use log-binomial models and advocate for improvements to the fitting algorithms to promote the widespread use of log-binomial models.

  18. LHCb Online Log Analysis and Maintenance System

    CERN Document Server

    Garnier, J-C

    2011-01-01

    History has shown, many times computer logs are the only information an administrator may have for an incident, which could be caused either by a malfunction or an attack. Due to the huge amount of logs that are produced from large-scale IT infrastructures, such as LHCb Online, critical information may be overlooked or simply be drowned in a sea of other messages. This clearly demonstrates the need for an automatic system for long-term maintenance and real time analysis of the logs. We have constructed a low cost, fault tolerant centralized logging system which is able to do in-depth analysis and cross-correlation of every log. This system is capable of handling O(10000) different log sources and numerous formats, while trying to keep the overhead as low as possible. It provides log gathering and management, Offline analysis and online analysis. We call Offline analysis the procedure of analyzing old logs for critical information, while Online analysis refer to the procedure of early alerting and reacting. ...

  19. Aggregation of log-linear risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Embrechts, Paul; Hashorva, Enkeleijd; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we work in the framework of a k-dimensional vector of log-linear risks. Under weak conditions on the marginal tails and the dependence structure of a vector of positive risks, we derive the asymptotic tail behaviour of the aggregated risk {and present} an application concerning log......-normal risks with {stochastic volatility....

  20. Palm distributions for log Gaussian Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    This paper reviews useful results related to Palm distributions of spatial point processes and provides a new result regarding the characterization of Palm distributions for the class of log Gaussian Cox processes. This result is used to study functional summary statistics for a log Gaussian Cox...

  1. Log canonical thresholds of smooth Fano threefolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheltsov, Ivan A; Shramov, Konstantin A

    2008-01-01

    The complex singularity exponent is a local invariant of a holomorphic function determined by the integrability of fractional powers of the function. The log canonical thresholds of effective Q-divisors on normal algebraic varieties are algebraic counterparts of complex singularity exponents. For a Fano variety, these invariants have global analogues. In the former case, it is the so-called α-invariant of Tian; in the latter case, it is the global log canonical threshold of the Fano variety, which is the infimum of log canonical thresholds of all effective Q-divisors numerically equivalent to the anticanonical divisor. An appendix to this paper contains a proof that the global log canonical threshold of a smooth Fano variety coincides with its α-invariant of Tian. The purpose of the paper is to compute the global log canonical thresholds of smooth Fano threefolds (altogether, there are 105 deformation families of such threefolds). The global log canonical thresholds are computed for every smooth threefold in 64 deformation families, and the global log canonical thresholds are computed for a general threefold in 20 deformation families. Some bounds for the global log canonical thresholds are computed for 14 deformation families. Appendix A is due to J.-P. Demailly.

  2. Data logging system upgrade for Indus accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, R.; Merh, B.N.; Agrawal, R.K.; Fatnani, P.; Navathe, C.P.; Pal, S.

    2012-01-01

    An accelerator has various subsystems like Magnet Power Supply, Beam Diagnostics and Vacuum etc. which are required to work in a stable manner to ensure required machine performance. Logging of system parameters at a faster rate plays a crucial role in analysing and understanding machine behaviour. Logging all the machine parameters consistently at the rate of typically more than 1 Hz has been the aim of a recent data logging system upgrade. Nearly ten thousand parameters are being logged at varying intervals of one second to one minute in Indus accelerator complex. The present logging scheme is augmented to log all these parameters at a rate equal to or more than 1 Hz. The database schema is designed according to the data type of the parameter. The data is distributed into historical table and intermediate table which comprises of recent data. Machine control applications read the parameter values from the control system and store them into the text files of finite time duration for each sub-system. The logging application of each sub-system passes these text files to database for bulk insertion. The detail design of database, logging scheme and its architecture is presented in the paper. (author)

  3. An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1992-03-24

    Acoustic telemetry has been a dream of the drilling industry for the past 50 years. It offers the promise of data rates which are one-hundred times greater than existing technology. Such a system would open the door to true logging-while-drilling technology and bring enormous profits to its developers. The oil and gas industry has led in most of the attempts to develop this type of telemetry system; however, very substantial efforts have also been made through government sponsored work in the geothermal industry. None of these previous attempts have lead to a commercial telemetry system. Conceptually, the problem looks easy. The basic idea is to produce an encoded sound wave at the bottom of the well, let it propagate up the steel drillpipe, and extract the data from the signal at the surface. Unfortunately, substantial difficulties arise. The first difficult problem is to produce the sound wave. Since the most promising transmission wavelengths are about 20 feet, normal transducer efficiencies are quite low. Compounding this problem is the structural complexity of the bottomhole assembly and drillstring. For example, the acoustic impedance of the drillstring changes every 30 feet and produces an unusual scattering pattern in the acoustic transmission. This scattering pattern causes distortion of the signal and is often confused with signal attenuation. These problems are not intractable. Recent work has demonstrated that broad frequency bands exist which are capable of transmitting data at rates up to 100 bits per second. Our work has also identified the mechanism which is responsible for the observed anomalies in the patterns of signal attenuation. Furthermore in the past few years a body of experience has been developed in designing more efficient transducers for application to metal Waveguides. The direction of future work is clear. New transducer designs which are more efficient and compatible with existing downhole power supplies need to be built and tested

  4. Processing of gamma-ray spectrometric logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umiastowski, K.; Dumesnil, P.

    1984-10-01

    CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) has developped a gamma-ray spectrometric tool, containing an analog-to-digital converter. This new tool permits to perform very precise uranium logs (natural gamma-ray spectrometry), neutron activation logs and litho-density logs (gamma-gamma spectrometric logs). Specific processing methods were developped to treate the particular problems of down-hole gamma-ray spectrometry. Extraction of the characteristic gamma-ray peak, even if they are superposed on the background radiation of very high intensity, is possible. This processing methode enables also to obtain geological informations contained in the continuous background of the spectrum. Computer programs are written in high level language for SIRIUS (VICTOR) and APOLLO computers. Exemples of uranium and neutron activation logs treatment are presented [fr

  5. Model wells for nuclear well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tittle, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    Considerations needed in the design and construction of model wells for nuclear log calibration are covered, with special attention to neutron porosity logging and total γ-ray logging. Pulsed neutron decay-time and spectral γ-ray logging are discussed briefly. The American Petroleum Institute calibration facility for nuclear logs is a good starting point for similar or expanded facilities. A few of its shortcomings are mentioned; they are minor. The problem of fluid saturation is emphasized. Attention is given to models made of consolidated rock and those containing unconsolidated material such as Ottawa sand. Needed precautions are listed. A similarity method is presented for estimating the porosity index of formations that are not fully saturated. (author)

  6. Density gamma gamma logging of oil wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, Yu.A.

    1974-01-01

    The application of gamma-gamma density logging for the evaluation of the volume weight and porosity of terrigenous and carbonate rocks in oil and gas boreholes is discussed. A two-probe (155 and 360 mm) apparatus has been developed for this purpose and has been in serial production since 1970. It is designed for use in boreholes between 190 and 300 mm in diameter and down to 4.000 metres deep at a maximum temperature of up to 120 deg C. The radiation source is 137 Cs with an activity of up to 100 kg-eq Ra. To interpret the results, measuring grids have been compiled in accordance with the experimental measurements taken on models of the strata. For carbonate sections combination of gamma-gamma density logging and epithermal-neutron-neutron logging is recommended. A combination of gamma-gamma density logging and neutron-gamma logging is used to evaluate the clayness of terrigenous deposits

  7. Instantaneous Attributes Applied to Full Waveform Sonic Log and Seismic Data in Integration of Elastic Properties of Shale Gas Formations in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyniak-Guz, Kamila

    2018-03-01

    Seismic attributes calculated from full waveform sonic log were proposed as a method that may enhance the interpretation the data acquired at log and seismic scales. Though attributes calculated in the study were the mathematical transformations of amplitude, frequency, phase or time of the acoustic full waveforms and seismic traces, they could be related to the geological factors and/or petrophysical properties of rock formations. Attributes calculated from acoustic full waveforms were combined with selected attributes obtained for seismic traces recorded in the vicinity of the borehole and with petrophysical parameters. Such relations may be helpful in elastic and reservoir properties estimation over the area covered by the seismic survey.

  8. Analysis of RIA standard curve by log-logistic and cubic log-logit models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hideo; Kuroda, Akira; Yatabe, Tami; Inaba, Taeko; Chiba, Kazuo

    1981-01-01

    In order to improve goodness-of-fit in RIA standard analysis, programs for computing log-logistic and cubic log-logit were written in BASIC using personal computer P-6060 (Olivetti). Iterative least square method of Taylor series was applied for non-linear estimation of logistic and log-logistic. Hear ''log-logistic'' represents Y = (a - d)/(1 + (log(X)/c)sup(b)) + d As weights either 1, 1/var(Y) or 1/σ 2 were used in logistic or log-logistic and either Y 2 (1 - Y) 2 , Y 2 (1 - Y) 2 /var(Y), or Y 2 (1 - Y) 2 /σ 2 were used in quadratic or cubic log-logit. The term var(Y) represents squares of pure error and σ 2 represents estimated variance calculated using a following equation log(σ 2 + 1) = log(A) + J log(y). As indicators for goodness-of-fit, MSL/S sub(e)sup(2), CMD% and WRV (see text) were used. Better regression was obtained in case of alpha-fetoprotein by log-logistic than by logistic. Cortisol standard curve was much better fitted with cubic log-logit than quadratic log-logit. Predicted precision of AFP standard curve was below 5% in log-logistic in stead of 8% in logistic analysis. Predicted precision obtained using cubic log-logit was about five times lower than that with quadratic log-logit. Importance of selecting good models in RIA data processing was stressed in conjunction with intrinsic precision of radioimmunoassay system indicated by predicted precision. (author)

  9. An Analysis of the Differences among Log Scaling Methods and Actual Log Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward Thomas; Neal D. Bennett

    2017-01-01

    Log rules estimate the volume of green lumber that can be expected to result from the sawing of a log. As such, this ability to reliably predict lumber recovery forms the foundation of log sales and purchase. The more efficient a sawmill, the less the scaling methods reflect the actual volume recovery and the greater the overrun factor. Using high-resolution scanned...

  10. Designing and Piloting a Leadership Daily Practice Log: Using Logs to Study the Practice of Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, James P.; Zuberi, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to validate the Leadership Daily Practice (LDP) log, an instrument for conducting research on leadership in schools. Research Design: Using a combination of data sources--namely, a daily practice log, observations, and open-ended cognitive interviews--the authors evaluate the validity of the LDP log. Participants: Formal…

  11. LOG2MARKUP: State module to transform a Stata text log into a markup document

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    log2markup extract parts of the text version from the Stata log command and transform the logfile into a markup based document with the same name, but with extension markup (or otherwise specified in option extension) instead of log. The author usually uses markdown for writing documents. However...

  12. Processing well logging data, for example for verification and calibration of well logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suau, J.; Boutemy, Y.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described of machine processing well logging data derived from borehole exploring devices which investigate earth formations traversed by boreholes. The method can be used for verifying and recalibrating logs, reconstructing missing logs and combining the data to form a statistical model of the traversed earth formations. (U.K.)

  13. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Connections Overview Find a Meeting Host a Meeting Volunteer Become a Volunteer Opportunities Support Overview Patient Events ... ANA About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Shop ANA Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma Association 600 Peachtree ...

  14. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with AN Healthcare Providers Acoustic Neuroma Association Donate Now Newly Diagnosed What is AN? Request a Patient ... Volunteer About ANA Get Info Shop ANA Donate Now DONATE Ways to Give Legacy Society Team ANA © ...

  15. Acoustics Noise Test Cell

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Acoustic Noise Test Cell at the NASA/Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is located adjacent to the large vibration system; both are located in a class 10K...

  16. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Choosing a healthcare provider Request a patient kit Treatment Options Overview Observation Radiation Surgery What is acoustic neuroma Diagnosing Symptoms Side effects Question To Ask Treatment Options Back Overview Observation Radiation Surgery Choosing a ...

  17. Acoustic imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard W.

    1979-01-01

    An acoustic imaging system for displaying an object viewed by a moving array of transducers as the array is pivoted about a fixed point within a given plane. A plurality of transducers are fixedly positioned and equally spaced within a laterally extending array and operatively directed to transmit and receive acoustic signals along substantially parallel transmission paths. The transducers are sequentially activated along the array to transmit and receive acoustic signals according to a preestablished sequence. Means are provided for generating output voltages for each reception of an acoustic signal, corresponding to the coordinate position of the object viewed as the array is pivoted. Receptions from each of the transducers are presented on the same display at coordinates corresponding to the actual position of the object viewed to form a plane view of the object scanned.

  18. Acoustic Igniter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An acoustic igniter eliminates the need to use electrical energy to drive spark systems to initiate combustion in liquid-propellant rockets. It does not involve the...

  19. Cryogenic Acoustic Suppression Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A proof-of-concept method utilizing a cryogenic fluid for acoustic suppression in rocket engine testing environments will be demonstrated. It is hypothesized that...

  20. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mission, Vision & Values Shop ANA Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma Association 600 Peachtree Parkway Suite 108 ... About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Shop ANA Home Learn Educational Video English English ...

  1. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ANA About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Shop ANA Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma Association 600 Peachtree ... info@ANAUSA.org About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Shop ANA Home Learn Educational ...

  2. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Click to learn more... LOGIN CALENDAR DONATE NEWS Home Learn Back Learn about acoustic neuroma AN Facts ... Vision & Values Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Shop ANA Home Learn Educational Video English English Arabic Catalan Chinese ( ...

  3. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Info Booklets Research Back ANA Survey/Registry AN Research ... About Back Learn more about ANA About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Shop ANA Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Acoustic ...

  4. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a patient kit Treatment Options Overview Observation Radiation Surgery What is acoustic neuroma Diagnosing Symptoms Side effects ... To Ask Treatment Options Back Overview Observation Radiation Surgery Choosing a healthcare provider Request a patient kit ...

  5. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Back Learn more about ANA About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Shop ANA Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Acoustic ... 205-8211 info@ANAUSA.org About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Shop ANA Home ...

  6. Department of Cybernetic Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of the theory, instrumentation and applications of methods and systems for the measurement, analysis, processing and synthesis of acoustic signals within the audio frequency range, particularly of the speech signal and the vibro-acoustic signal emitted by technical and industrial equipments treated as noise and vibration sources was discussed. The research work, both theoretical and experimental, aims at applications in various branches of science, and medicine, such as: acoustical diagnostics and phoniatric rehabilitation of pathological and postoperative states of the speech organ; bilateral ""man-machine'' speech communication based on the analysis, recognition and synthesis of the speech signal; vibro-acoustical diagnostics and continuous monitoring of the state of machines, technical equipments and technological processes.

  7. Autonomous Acoustic Receiver System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Collects underwater acoustic data and oceanographic data. Data are recorded onboard an ocean buoy and can be telemetered to a remote ship or shore station...

  8. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Learn more about ANA About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Shop ANA Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma ... 8211 info@ANAUSA.org About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Shop ANA Home Learn ...

  9. Acoustic MIMO signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yiteng; Chen, Jingdong

    2006-01-01

    A timely and important book addressing a variety of acoustic signal processing problems under multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) scenarios. It uniquely investigates these problems within a unified framework offering a novel and penetrating analysis.

  10. Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) is a progressive wave tube test facility that is used to test structures for dynamic response and sonic fatigue due to...

  11. Principles of musical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, William M

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Musical Acoustics focuses on the basic principles in the science and technology of music. Musical examples and specific musical instruments demonstrate the principles. The book begins with a study of vibrations and waves, in that order. These topics constitute the basic physical properties of sound, one of two pillars supporting the science of musical acoustics. The second pillar is the human element, the physiological and psychological aspects of acoustical science. The perceptual topics include loudness, pitch, tone color, and localization of sound. With these two pillars in place, it is possible to go in a variety of directions. The book treats in turn, the topics of room acoustics, audio both analog and digital, broadcasting, and speech. It ends with chapters on the traditional musical instruments, organized by family. The mathematical level of this book assumes that the reader is familiar with elementary algebra. Trigonometric functions, logarithms and powers also appear in the book, but co...

  12. Acoustic ambient noise recorder

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saran, A.K.; Navelkar, G.S.; Almeida, A.M.; More, S.R.; Chodankar, P.V.; Murty, C.S.

    with a robust outfit that can withstand high pressures and chemically corrosion resistant materials. Keeping these considerations in view, a CMOS micro-controller-based marine acoustic ambient noise recorder has been developed with a real time clock...

  13. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Request a patient kit Treatment Options Overview Observation Radiation Surgery What is acoustic neuroma Diagnosing Symptoms Side ... Question To Ask Treatment Options Back Overview Observation Radiation Surgery Choosing a healthcare provider Request a patient ...

  14. Acoustic Igniter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An acoustic igniter eliminates the need to use electrical energy to drive spark systems to initiate combustion in liquid-propellant rockets. It does not involve the...

  15. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Shop ANA Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma Association 600 Peachtree Parkway ... ANAUSA.org About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Shop ANA Home Learn Educational Video ...

  16. Drilling and geophysical logs of the tophole at an oil-and-gas well site, Central Venango County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John H.; Bird, Philip H.; Conger, Randall W.; Anderson, J. Alton

    2014-01-01

    In a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey, drilling and geophysical logs were used to characterize the geohydrologic framework and the freshwater and saline-water zones penetrated by the tophole at an oil-and-gas well site in central Venango County, Pennsylvania. The geohydrologic setting of the well site is typical of the dissected Appalachian Plateau underlain by Pennsylvanian and Mississippian sandstone and shale. The drilling, gamma, and acoustic-televiewer logs collected from the 575-foot deep tophole define the penetrated Pennsylvanian and Mississippian stratigraphic units and their lithology. The caliper, video, and acoustic-televiewer logs delineate multiple bedding-related and high-angle fractures in the lower Pottsville Group and Shenango Formation from 22 to 249 feet below land surface. The caliper and acoustic-televiewer logs indicate a sparsity of fractures below 249 feet below land surface in the lowermost Shenango Formation, Cuyahoga Group, Corry Sandstone, “Drake Well” formation, and upper Riceville Formation.

  17. The gamma-ray full-spectrum logging represents the nuclear well logging trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Jufeng

    1993-01-01

    The history of the nuclear well logging is briefly reviewed. It is discussed that the gamma-ray full-spectrum logging will be the developing trend of the nuclear well logging. Starting from the theory on the gamma-ray and neutron interactions with a geological formation, the discussion is based on the acquisitive capacity of the logging in formations, the ability to solve the problems about the formation evaluation and the geological interpretation in the petroleum prospecting, also the achieved technical level. The current status and the future developments of the γ-spectrum logging are discussed as well

  18. Logística del transporte

    OpenAIRE

    Robusté Antón, Francesc

    2005-01-01

    La logística se ha conformado como un proceso estratégico para organizar las actividades de producción y de distribución de las empresas. El concepto de sistema logístico ha incluido un amplio espectro de operaciones que condicionan la eficiencia y la competitividad empresarial en el actual contexto de globalización de la economía. En este sentido, este libro afronta y analiza los distintos aspectos que inciden en los procesos de planificación y gestión de los procesos logísticos relacionados...

  19. Supply of Rubber Wood Log in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Noraida, A. W.; Abdul-Rahim, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Issue on shortage of raw material for wood processing solved by discovery of rubber wood log as one of the substitutes the natural log. This paper examines the supply of rubber wood log in Malaysia. We employ ARDL Bound Approach Test and time series data from 1980 to 2010 which represented the whole Malaysia are used to achieve the established objectives. The result shown, in the long run harvested area and wages have 1% and 10% significant level respectively. While in the short run, there wa...

  20. Laboratory investigation of a passive acoustic method for measurement of underwater gas seep ebullition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Chad A; Wilson, Preston S

    2012-01-01

    Passive acoustic techniques are of interest as a low-power means of quantifying underwater point-source gas ebullition. Toward the development of systems for logging natural seep activity, laboratory experiments were performed that exploited the bubble's Minnaert natural frequency for the measurement of gas flow from a model seep. Results show agreement among acoustic, optical, and gas trap ebullition measurements over the range of emission rates from 0 to 10 bubbles per second. A mathematical model is proposed to account for the real gas behavior of bubbles which cannot be approximated as ideal, such as methane at marine depths exceeding 30 m. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America.

  1. Acoustic comfort in eating establishments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, David; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The subjective concept of acoustic comfort in eating establishments has been investigated in this study. The goal was to develop a predictive model for the acoustic comfort, by means of simple objective parameters, while also examining which other subjective acoustic parameters could help explain...... the feeling of acoustic comfort. Through several layers of anal ysis, acoustic comfort was found to be rather complex, and could not be explained entirely by common subjective parameters such as annoyance, intelligibility or privacy. A predictive model for the mean acoustic comfort for an eating establishment...

  2. Neutron logging reliability techniques and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus and methods for verifying the validity of data derived at least in part by neutron logging of earth formations, and, where indicated, for affording neutron diffusion-corrected values of such data, are disclosed. (WHK)

  3. CMLOG: A common message logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Akers, W.; Bickley, M.; Wu, D.; Watson, W. III

    1997-01-01

    The Common Message Logging (CMLOG) system is an object-oriented and distributed system that not only allows applications and systems to log data (messages) of any type into a centralized database but also lets applications view incoming messages in real-time or retrieve stored data from the database according to selection rules. It consists of a concurrent Unix server that handles incoming logging or searching messages, a Motif browser that can view incoming messages in real-time or display stored data in the database, a client daemon that buffers and sends logging messages to the server, and libraries that can be used by applications to send data to or retrieve data from the database via the server. This paper presents the design and implementation of the CMLOG system meanwhile it will also address the issue of integration of CMLOG into existing control systems. CMLOG into existing control systems

  4. LATTE - Log and Time Tracking for Elections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — LATTE - Log and Time Tracking for Elections is a time tracking and voucher preparation system used to schedule employees to cover elections, to document their time...

  5. Smartphone log data in a qualitative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørmen, Jacob; Thorhauge, Anne Mette

    2015-01-01

    Log data from smartphones have primarily been used in large-scale research designs to draw statistical inferences from hundreds or even thousands of participants. In this article, we argue that more qualitatively oriented designs can also benefit greatly from integrating these rich data sources...... into studies of smartphones in everyday life. Through an illustrative study, we explore a more nuanced perspective on what can be considered “log data” and how these types of data can be collected and analysed. A qualitative approach to log data analysis offers researchers new opportunities to situate...... smartphone use within people’s practices, norms, and routines. This is of relevance both to studies focusing on smartphones as cultural objects in everyday life and studies that use such devices as proxies for social behaviour more generally. We argue that log data, for instance in in-depth interviews, may...

  6. Conversation Threads Hidden within Email Server Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palus, Sebastian; Kazienko, Przemysław

    Email server logs contain records of all email Exchange through this server. Often we would like to analyze those emails not separately but in conversation thread, especially when we need to analyze social network extracted from those email logs. Unfortunately each mail is in different record and those record are not tided to each other in any obvious way. In this paper method for discussion threads extraction was proposed together with experiments on two different data sets - Enron and WrUT..

  7. Selective Logging, Fire, and Biomass in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass and rates of disturbance are major factors in determining the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and neither of them is well known for most of the earth's surface. Satellite data over large areas are beginning to be used systematically to measure rates of two of the most important types of disturbance, deforestation and reforestation, but these are not the only types of disturbance that affect carbon storage. Other examples include selective logging and fire. In northern mid-latitude forests, logging and subsequent regrowth of forests have, in recent decades, contributed more to the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere than any other type of land use. In the tropics logging is also becoming increasingly important. According to the FAO/UNEP assessment of tropical forests, about 25% of total area of productive forests have been logged one or more times in the 60-80 years before 1980. The fraction must be considerably greater at present. Thus, deforestation by itself accounts for only a portion of the emissions carbon from land. Furthermore, as rates of deforestation become more accurately measured with satellites, uncertainty in biomass will become the major factor accounting for the remaining uncertainty in estimates of carbon flux. An approach is needed for determining the biomass of terrestrial ecosystems. 3 Selective logging is increasingly important in Amazonia, yet it has not been included in region-wide, satellite-based assessments of land-cover change, in part because it is not as striking as deforestation. Nevertheless, logging affects terrestrial carbon storage both directly and indirectly. Besides the losses of carbon directly associated with selective logging, logging also increases the likelihood of fire.

  8. Defect core detection in radiata pine logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, G.

    1993-01-01

    Internal defect cores in Pinus radiata logs arise primarily from the practice in New Zealand of pruning trees to increase the amount of clear wood. Realising the benefits of this practice when milling the logs is hampered by the lack of a practical method for detecting the defect cores. This report attempts to establish industry requirements for detections and examine techniques which may be suitable. Some trials of a novel technique are described. (author) 19 refs.; 11 figs

  9. Veneer recovery from Douglas-fir logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.H. Clarke; A.C. Knauss

    1957-01-01

    During 1956, the Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station made a series of six veneer-recovery studies in the Douglas-fir region of Oregon and Washington. The net volume of logs involved totaled approximately 777 M board-feet. Purpose of these studies was to determine volume recovery, by grade of veneer, from the four principal grades of Douglas-fir logs...

  10. Modeling Precipitation Extremes using Log-Histospline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W. K.; Nychka, D. W.; Zhang, H.

    2017-12-01

    One of the commonly used approaches to modeling univariate extremes is the peaks-overthreshold (POT) method. The POT method models exceedances over a (sufficiently high/low) threshold as a generalized Pareto distribution (GPD). To apply this method, a threshold has to be chosen and the estimates might be sensitive to the chosen threshold. Here we propose an alternative, the "Log-Histospline", to explore modeling the tail behavior and the remainder of the density in one step using the full range of the data. Log-Histospline applies a smoothing spline model on a finely binned histogram of the log transformed data to estimate its log density. By construction, we are able to preserve the polynomial upper tail behavior, a feature commonly observed in geophysical observations. The Log-Histospline can be extended to the spatial setting by treating the marginal (log) density at each location as spatially indexed functional data, and perform a dimension reduction and spatial smoothing. We illustrate the proposed method by analyzing precipitation data from regional climate model output (North American Regional Climate Change and Assessment Program (NARCCAP)).

  11. The evolution of the LEP logging database

    CERN Document Server

    Billen, R

    1995-01-01

    In January 1992, a project was started to create a system, using an on-line ORACLE database, to allow logging of a multitude of data on the Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP). The aim of this project was to log particle beam characteristics, physics parameters, hardware settings and environmental conditions. Storing and keeping track of this heterogeneous data for a period of at least one year would permit a better understanding of the behavior of the fairly new LEP Collider.After using the logging system for almost four years, nearly three years of which in full operation, the reliability and performance has been proved, endorsing the design of the database and surrounding software. Moreover, the large number of users of the logging database and the huge amount of new requests for data logging shows the high activity and usefulness of this system. Furthermore, in the context of the 1993 and 1995 energy scans, the logged data turns out to be indispensable for thorough monitoring of the LEP beam energy, wh...

  12. Hybrid Pre-Log and Post-Log Image Reconstruction for Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guobao; Zhou, Jian; Yu, Zhou; Wang, Wenli; Qi, Jinyi

    2017-12-01

    Tomographic image reconstruction for low-dose computed tomography (CT) is increasingly challenging as dose continues to reduce in clinical applications. Pre-log domain methods and post-log domain methods have been proposed individually and each method has its own disadvantage. While having the potential to improve image quality for low-dose data by using an accurate imaging model, pre-log domain methods suffer slow convergence in practice due to the nonlinear transformation from the image to measurements. In contrast, post-log domain methods have fast convergence speed but the resulting image quality is suboptimal for low dose CT data because the log transformation is extremely unreliable for low-count measurements and undefined for negative values. This paper proposes a hybrid method that integrates the pre-log model and post-log model together to overcome the disadvantages of individual pre-log and post-log methods. We divide a set of CT data into high-count and low-count regions. The post-log weighted least squares model is used for measurements in the high-count region and the pre-log shifted Poisson model for measurements in the low-count region. The hybrid likelihood function can be optimized using an existing iterative algorithm. Computer simulations and phantom experiments show that the proposed hybrid method can achieve faster early convergence than the pre-log shifted Poisson likelihood method and better signal-to-noise performance than the post-log weighted least squares method.

  13. Theoretical studies of permeability inversion from seismoelectric logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H.; Guan, W.; Zhao, W.

    2012-04-01

    Permeability is one of the most important parameters for evaluating the level of difficulty in oil and gas exploitation. A quick, continuous and accurate in-situ estimate of reservoir permeability is highly significant. Stoneley wave logs have been used to determine formation permeability (Tang and Cheng, 1996). However, the inversion errors of this method are too big in low-permeability formations, especially in high-porosity and low-permeability formations resulting from the high clay content in pores. In this study, we propose to invert permeability by using the full waveforms of seismoelectric logs with low frequencies. This method is based on the relationship of permeability with the ratio of the electric excitation intensity to the pressure field's (REP) with respect to the Stoneley wave in seismoelectric logs. By solving the governing equations for electrokinetic coupled wavefields in homogeneous fluid-saturated porous media (Pride, 1994), we calculate the full waveforms of the borehole seismoelectric wavefields excited by a point pressure source and investigate frequency-dependent excitation intensities of the mode waves and excitation intensities of the real branch points in seismoelectric logs. It is found that the REP's phase, which reflects the phase discrepancy between the Stoneley-wave-induced electric field and the acoustic pressure, is sensitive to formation permeability. To check the relation between permeability and REP's phase qualitatively, an approximate expression of the tangent of the REP's argument is derived theoretically as tan(θEP) ≈-ωc/ω = -φη/ (2πfα ∞ρfκ0), where θEPdenotes the arguments of the REP and their principal value is the REP's phase,ω is the angular frequency,ωc is a critical angular frequency that separates the low-frequency viscous flow from the high-frequency inertial flow, φ is the porosity, α∞ is the tortuosity, κ0 is the Darcy permeability, ρf and η are the density and the viscosity of the pore

  14. Acoustics waves and oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Parameters of acoustics presented in a logical and lucid style Physical principles discussed with mathematical formulations Importance of ultrasonic waves highlighted Dispersion of ultrasonic waves in viscous liquids explained This book presents the theory of waves and oscillations and various applications of acoustics in a logical and simple form. The physical principles have been explained with necessary mathematical formulation and supported by experimental layout wherever possible. Incorporating the classical view point all aspects of acoustic waves and oscillations have been discussed together with detailed elaboration of modern technological applications of sound. A separate chapter on ultrasonics emphasizes the importance of this branch of science in fundamental and applied research. In this edition a new chapter ''Hypersonic Velocity in Viscous Liquids as revealed from Brillouin Spectra'' has been added. The book is expected to present to its readers a comprehensive presentation of the subject matter...

  15. Practical acoustic emission testing

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book is intended for non-destructive testing (NDT) technicians who want to learn practical acoustic emission testing based on level 1 of ISO 9712 (Non-destructive testing – Qualification and certification of personnel) criteria. The essential aspects of ISO/DIS 18436-6 (Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines – Requirements for training and certification of personnel, Part 6: Acoustic Emission) are explained, and readers can deepen their understanding with the help of practice exercises. This work presents the guiding principles of acoustic emission measurement, signal processing, algorithms for source location, measurement devices, applicability of testing methods, and measurement cases to support not only researchers in this field but also and especially NDT technicians.

  16. Sea Turtle Acoustic Telemetry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Acoustic transmitters attached to sea turtles captured in various fishing gear enable the animals to be passively tracked. Acoustic receivers set up in an array...

  17. Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL) is a state-of-the-art Undersea Warfare (USW) acoustic data analysis facility capable of both active and passive underwater...

  18. Well log and seismic application in delineating CBM sweet spot in Berau Basin, East Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, Ahmad Helman; Hamdiana, Diana Putri; Ramadhan, Welly Ahmad

    2013-09-01

    The study area is situated in the northern part of Berau Basin Northeast of Kalimantan. In the area Sajau Formation is the main coal bearing formation. The Sajau Coal were range from Lignite to sub bituminous, low ash content, and low to high cleated coal. Different with the conventional reservoir, coalbed methane reservoirs have sweet spot that are a function of structural/cleat and stratigraphy of the coal seam. The seismic data provides excellent image of faults and stratigraphy of coal seams are very much essential in CBM exploration as delineating the CBM sweet spot. Well log and acoustic impedance inversion can be applied in such a way to provide added insight to the coal distribution and cleat directions in coalbed-methane reservoirs. In this technique the property of acoustic impedance is of much importance in identifying different rock formations, which are associated with coal, and it has been successfully implemented.

  19. Acoustic integrated extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    The integrated extinction (IE) is defined as the integral of the scattering cross section as a function of wavelength. Sohl et al. (2007 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 3206–3210. (doi:10.1121/1.2801546)) derived an IE expression for acoustic scattering that is causal, i.e. the scattered wavefront in the forward direction arrives later than the incident plane wave in the background medium. The IE formula was based on electromagnetic results, for which scattering is causal by default. Here, we der...

  20. Room Acoustical Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Mechel, Fridolin

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the theory of room acoustical fields and revises the Mirror Source Methods for practical computational use, emphasizing the wave character of acoustical fields.  The presented higher methods include the concepts of “Mirror Point Sources” and “Corner sources which allow for an excellent approximation of complex room geometries and even equipped rooms. In contrast to classical description, this book extends the theory of sound fields describing them by their complex sound pressure and the particle velocity. This approach enables accurate descriptions of interference and absorption phenomena.

  1. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    In order to improve the security of handling special nuclear materials at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a sensitive acoustic emission detector has been developed that will detect forcible entry through block or tile walls, concrete floors, or concrete/steel vault walls. A small, low-powered processor was designed to convert the output from a sensitive, crystal-type acoustic transducer to an alarm relay signal for use with a supervised alarm loop. The unit may be used to detect forcible entry through concrete, steel, block, tile, and/or glass

  2. Carbon Nanotube Underwater Acoustic Thermophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-23

    Attorney Docket No. 300009 1 of 8 A CARBON NANOTUBE UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC THERMOPHONE STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The...the Invention [0003] The present invention is an acoustically transparent carbon nanotube thermophone. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004...amplitude of the resulting sound waves. [0006] Recently, there has been development of underwater acoustic carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn sheets capable

  3. Well logging with natural gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, D.V.

    1983-01-01

    An invention is described for use in natural gamma radiation well logging in which measurements taken in a borehole are used in the search for valuable underground resources such as oil or gas. The invention comprises deriving a log of natural gamma radiation detected in selected energy windows for a selected borehole depth interval and converting it into a log of the selected subsurface materials, e.g. Th, U, K. This log is corrected for the effects of 1) either a gamma ray emitter in the borehole fluid, e.g. potassium salts and/or 2) a gamma ray attenuator in the borehole fluid, e.g. a strong attenuator such as barite and/or hematite. The Th, U, K log is particularly useful in the exploration of oil and gas resources since the Th, U, K concentrations are a good indication as to the presence, type and volume of shale and clay in the formations surrounding the borehole. (U.K.)

  4. AML (Advanced Mud Logging: First Among Equals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Loermans

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years an enormous development in mud logging technology has been made. Traditional mud logging was only qualitative in nature, and mudlogs could not be used for the petrophysical well evaluations which form the basis for all subsequent activities on wells and fields. AML however can provide quantitative information, logs with a reliability, trueness and precision like LWD and WLL. Hence for well evaluation programmes there are now three different logging methods available, each with its own pros and cons on specific aspects: AML, LWD and WLL. The largest improvements have been made in mud gas analysis and elemental analysis of cuttings. Mud gas analysis can yield hydrocarbon fluid composition for some components with a quality like PVT analysis, hence not only revolutionising the sampling programme so far done with only LWD/WLL, but also making it possible to geosteer on fluid properties. Elemental analysis of cuttings, e.g. with XRF, with an ability well beyond the capabilities of the spectroscopy measurements possible earlier with LWD/WLL tools, is opening up improved ways to evaluate formations, especially of course where the traditional methods are falling short of requirements, such as in unconventional reservoirs. An overview and specific examples of these AML logs is given, from which it may be concluded that AML now ought to be considered as “first among its equals”.

  5. Final Report: Geothermal dual acoustic tool for measurement of rock stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normann, Randy A. [Perma Works LLC, Pattonville, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This paper outlines the technology need for a rock formation stress measurement in future EGS wells. This paper reports on the results of work undertaken under a Phase I, DOE/SBIR on the feasibility to build an acoustic well logging tool for measuring rock formation stress.

  6. Final Report. Geothermal Dual Acoustic Tool for Measurement of Rock Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normann, Randy A [Perma Works LLC, Pattonville, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This paper outlines the technology need for a rock formation stress measurement in future EGS wells. This paper reports on the results of work undertaken under a Phase I, DOE/SBIR on the feasibility to build an acoustic well logging tool for measuring rock formation stress.

  7. how acoustic schwannomas?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chemistry In the diagnosis of brain tumours and, furthermore, shows that acoustic schwannoma must be considered In the appropriate clinical setting, even in a group previously regarded as low-risk. S Atr Med J 1990; 78: 11-14. Studies from various parts of the world on the relative. freqIJency of primary intracranial tumours ...

  8. Nonlinear acoustic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monk, P.

    1993-01-01

    The use of acoustic waves as probes to determine otherwise inaccessible properties of a medium is extremely widespread. Applications include sonar, medical imaging and non-destructive testing. Despite the importance of the applications, there is as yet no acceptable method for solving the full non-linear problem at resonance frequencies (frequencies at which the size of the features under investigations are approximately the wavelength of the incident acoustic field). The medical imaging problem, which consists in trying to determine the sound speed, density and absorption properties of a bounded inhomogeneous medium from scattered acoustic waves is the motivaiton for the investigation described in this paper. We shall present a solution technique for a standard model inverse acoustic scattering problem which consists of reconstructing the refractive index of an inhomogeneity from given far field data (far field data is essentially the measured scattered field at considerable distance from the inhomogeneity). This model inverse problem simplifies the inhomogeneity by neglecting density and absorption but includes two important features of the real problem: nonlinearity and illposedness. Furthermore the method we present can easily by extended to more general problems

  9. Acoustic emission from beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiple, C.R.; Adams, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    The acoustic emission from both powder and ingot source beryllium has been measured as a function of strain and prior heat treatment. Most measurements were made during tensile deformation, but a limited number of compression tests have also been performed. The acoustic emission observed was of the burst type, with little or no contribution from continuous type emission. The emission was characterized by the variation of burst rate and average energy per burst as a function of strain. The tensile behavior was qualitatively similar for all the materials tested. Burst rate maxima centered roughly at 0.1 percent and 1.0 percent plastic strain were observed. The magnitude but not the strain at the low strain burst rate peak was very sensitive to prior thermal treatment, while the higher strain burst rate peak was insensitive to prior heat treatment. An energy per burst maximum was observed at 0.2 percent plastic strain, the magnitude of which was moderately sensitive to heat treatment. The Kaiser effect is observed in the material studied. Emission during compression was similar to that observed in tension. The acoustic emission observed is attributed to dislocation motion, as proposed by James and Carpenter for LiF, NaCl, and Zn. Metallographic studies of the beryllium at various strains have ruled out microcracking and twin formation as major contributors to the acoustic emission

  10. Acoustic force spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitters, G.; Kamsma, D.; Thalhammer, G.; Ritsch-Marte, M.; Peterman, E.J.G.; Wuite, G.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Force spectroscopy has become an indispensable tool to unravel the structural and mechanochemical properties of biomolecules. Here we extend the force spectroscopy toolbox with an acoustic manipulation device that can exert forces from subpiconewtons to hundreds of piconewtons on thousands of

  11. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 770-205-8211 info@ANAUSA.org ANAwareness Week 2018 – read more Click to learn more... LOGIN CALENDAR ... DONATE Ways to Give Legacy Society Team ANA © 2018 Acoustic Neuroma Association • 600 Peachtree Parkway • Suite 108 • ...

  12. Diagnosing Acoustic Neuroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... triggered by a patient’s symptoms. The most common presenting feature of acoustic neuromas, occurring in 90% of patients, is unilateral hearing loss. When "pure tone audiometry" is used, the most common finding is high frequency hearing loss. The hearing loss ...

  13. Geophysical log analysis of selected test and residential wells at the Shenandoah Road National Superfund Site, East Fishkill, Dutchess County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard J.; Anderson, J. Alton; Williams, John H.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed geophysical logs from 20 test wells and 23 residential wells at the Shenandoah Road National Superfund Site in East Fishkill, New York, from 2006 through 2010 as part of an Interagency Agreement to provide hydrogeologic technical support to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 2. The geophysical logs collected include caliper, gamma, acoustic and optical televiewer, deviation, electromagnetic-induction, magnetic-susceptibility, fluid-property, and flow under ambient and pumped conditions. The geophysical logs were analyzed along with single-well aquifer test data and drilling logs to characterize the lithology, fabric, fractures, and flow zones penetrated by the wells. The results of the geophysical log analysis were used as part of the hydrogeologic characterization of the site and in the design of discrete-zone monitoring installations in the test wells and selected residential wells.

  14. Pulsed neutron logging - a modern approach to petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navalkar, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    As hydrocarbons have strikingly different properties for neutrons as compared with rocks, neutronic methods are useful to prepare logs of bore holes drilled for petroleum exploration. The earlier neutron logs were based on steady neutron sources, but the superior logs, namely, neutron life time log and neutron induced spectral log are based on pulsed neutron sources. The methods of obtaining these logs, their limitations and the field equipment required are described briefly. As the two logs are complementary, a plea has been made to develop field equipment which can obtain two logs in a single run. (M.G.B.)

  15. Select Internet Resources on Acoustics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela R. Davis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Merriam-Webster (2016 defines acoustics as, “a science that deals with the production, control, transmission, reception, and effects of sounds.” According to Rossing (2014, the study of acoustics began in ancient Greece with Pythagoras’ study of vibrating strings on musical instruments. Since those early beginnings, famous scientists including Rayleigh, Alexander Graham Bell, and Thomas Edison, have helped expand the field of acoustics to include architectural, physical, engineering, structural, underwater, physiological and psychological, musical acoustics, and speech. Acoustics is a highly interdisciplinary field and researchers may need resources from physics, medicine, and engineering to understand all aspects of their research.

  16. Analyzing Log Files using Data-Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Mihut

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Information systems (i.e. servers, applications and communication devices create a large amount of monitoring data that are saved as log files. For analyzing them, a data-mining approach is helpful. This article presents the steps which are necessary for creating an ‘analyzing instrument’, based on an open source software called Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (Weka [1]. For exemplification, a system log file created by a Windows-based operating system, is used as input file.

  17. Perfil logístico de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Cardozo Maglioni, María Victoria; Lozano Suarez, María Goretty

    2012-01-01

    El presente documento ofrece un estudio del perfil logístico de Colombia con la finalidad de dar a conocer el estado de arte de las ciudades, puertos e infraestructura principal para facilitar la toma de decisiones de los empresarios. Para el desarrollo de este trabajo se determinaron a partir de un análisis competitivo del país; las principales ciudades y puertos; logrando establecer un inventario de maquinaria y equipo e infraestructura logística; enmarcados en retos ya establecidos en las ...

  18. Perfil logístico de Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Páez, Johanna Marcela

    2014-01-01

    El presente documento ofrece un estudio del perfil logístico de Portugal, abarcando diferentes aspectos que afectan la competitividad y el desempeño de la cadena logística de un país, con la finalidad de conocer a uno de los socios comerciales con los cuáles Colombia se encuentra negociando, en este caso Portugal, uno de los 28 países que hace parte del reciente tratado de libre comercio aprobado con la Unión Europea, es preciso estudiar las ventajas competitivas que poseen dichos socios, a l...

  19. New portable neutron generator for well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicanov, A.E.; Gromov, E. V.; Gulko, V. M.; Izmailov, A. V.

    1994-01-01

    The information about the design, investigation and testing of new well neutron generator for the pulse neutron logging (PNL) is given in this paper. The main physical characteristics of new PNL apparatus are: Neutron flux 2.10 sup 8 n/s ; Pulse frequency>=400 Hz; Diameter= 90 mm; Logging velocity >200 m/h; Number of probes = 2; Resource > 300 h. The generator were provided by gas-filled neutron accelerative tube named NTF-2. The perspective of application and optimization shown PNL apparatus are considered. (author)

  20. Well logging instrumental and methodological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrassy, L.; Barath, I.; Dorko, R.

    1983-01-01

    This part of the Annual Report of the Roland Eoetvoes Geophysical Institute (ELGI) of Hungary for 1982, summarizes the well logging instrumental and methodological researches of ELGI. The theoretical neutron diffusion fluxes for black and brown coals of Hungarian mines were calculated. A coal probe was developed and tested in boreholes using computerized data processing and interpretation. An X-ray radiometric method was used for the determination of Cu and Fe contents of minerals. Researches in the field of magnetic susceptibility and induced polarization logging are also summarized. A rapid analyzer for bauxite mining and a photorecorder for petroleum industry were developed by ELGI. (D.Gy.)

  1. Geophysical borehole logging test procedure: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of geophysical borehole logging from the At-Depth Facility (ADF) is to provide information which will assist in characterizing the site geologic conditions and in classifying the engineering characteristics of the rock mass in the vicinity of the ADF. The direct goals of borehole logging include identification of lithologic units and their correlation from hole to hole, identification of fractured or otherwise porous or permeable zones, quantitative or semi-quantitative estimation of various formation properties, and evaluation of factors such as the borehole diameter and orientation. 11 figs., 4 tabs

  2. CS model coil experimental log book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, Gen; Sugimoto, Makoto; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Hiroshi

    2001-02-01

    Charging test of the ITER CS Model Coil which is the world's largest superconducting pulse coil and the CS Insert Coil had started at April 11, 2000 and had completed at August 18, 2000. In the campaign, total shot numbers were 356 and the size of the data file in the DAS (Data Acquisition System) was over 20 GB. This report is a database that consists of the log list and the log sheets of every shot. One can access the database, make a search, and browse results via Internet (http://1ogwww.naka.jaeri.go.jp). The database will be useful to quick search to choose necessary shots. (author)

  3. Financial feasibility of a log sort yard handling small-diameter logs: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han-Sup Han; E. M. (Ted) Bilek; John (Rusty) Dramm; Dan Loeffler; Dave Calkin

    2011-01-01

    The value and use of the trees removed in fuel reduction thinning and restoration treatments could be enhanced if the wood were effectively evaluated and sorted for quality and highest value before delivery to the next manufacturing destination. This article summarizes a preliminary financial feasibility analysis of a log sort yard that would serve as a log market to...

  4. Log::ProgramInfo: A Perl module to collect and log data for bioinformatics pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, John M; Boutros, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    To reproduce and report a bioinformatics analysis, it is important to be able to determine the environment in which a program was run. It can also be valuable when trying to debug why different executions are giving unexpectedly different results. Log::ProgramInfo is a Perl module that writes a log file at the termination of execution of the enclosing program, to document useful execution characteristics. This log file can be used to re-create the environment in order to reproduce an earlier execution. It can also be used to compare the environments of two executions to determine whether there were any differences that might affect (or explain) their operation. The source is available on CPAN (Macdonald and Boutros, Log-ProgramInfo. http://search.cpan.org/~boutroslb/Log-ProgramInfo/). Using Log::ProgramInfo in programs creating result data for publishable research, and including the Log::ProgramInfo output log as part of the publication of that research is a valuable method to assist others to duplicate the programming environment as a precursor to validating and/or extending that research.

  5. RAYSAW: a log sawing simulator for 3D laser-scanned hardwood logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Laser scanning of hardwood logs provides detailed high-resolution imagery of log surfaces. Characteristics such as sweep, taper, and crook, as well as most surface defects, are visible to the eye in the scan data. In addition, models have been developed that predict interior knot size and position based on external defect information. Computerized processing of...

  6. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummer, Steven A. ; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales....... The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create......-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview...

  7. Speech processor data logging helps in predicting early linguistic outcomes in implanted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerzoni, Letizia; Cuda, Domenico

    2017-10-01

    To analyse the value of listening-data logged in the speech processor on the prediction of the early auditory and linguistic skills in children who received a cochlear implant in their first 2 years of life. Prospective observational non-randomized study. Ten children with profound congenital sensorineural hearing loss were included in the study. The mean age at CI activation was 16.9 months (SD ± 7.2; range 10-24). The auditory skills were evaluated with the Infant Toddler Meaningful Inventory Scale and the Category of Auditory Performance. Lexical level was assessed with the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory. The overall data of average daily use and acoustic scene-analyses were extracted from Data Logging system. The effect of the one-year cumulative listening time to speech (in quiet) and speech-in-noise on the auditory and lexical scores was analysed. A significant positive correlation was found between speech in quiet exposure time at low loudness level (80 dB). The Category of Auditory Performance was not related to the logged data. The listening environment can influence the early functional outcomes in younger implanted children. In this perspective, the data logging system is a promising tool in predicting early linguistic and auditory outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Computer-based logging - simplifying station log preparation, access and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, E.; Thompson, M.; Basso, R.; Herzog, K.; Lane, L.; Chatterton, R.

    1998-01-01

    A computer-based application for preparing and reviewing records of shift activities (i.e., logs) has been developed for CANDU station use. This application was developed with extensive participation of Operations staff at Darlington and several other CANDU stations, incorporates the lessons learned from previous station electronic logging experience, and was guided in development by the application of human engineering principles. Use of the application is expected to simplify and improve log preparation, search of log records, and more timely dissemination of log information to plant staff. This paper outlines the project rationale, reviews key development objectives for the application, discusses the development approach applied, describes key features of the application, and outlines the status of current work leading to station deployment. (author)

  9. Evaluation of performance of Son Tek Argonaut acoustic doppler velocity log in tow tank and sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Madhan, R.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Desai, R.G.P.; VijayKumar, K.; Dias, M.; Tengali, S.; Methar, A.

    within the towing speed bounds of ≈ ±50cm/s is likely to be severely affected if it is operated in a constricted environment where the signal-to-noise ratio might be poor at low speeds. Acknowledgements We are thankful for the assistance and help... offered by the research officers Mr. Marcande, Mrs. Deogade, Mr. Oke, and other technical staff of CWPRS, Pune, during tow- tank experiments. Thanks are also due to the Captain and crewmembers of ORV. Sagar Sukthi for their assistance during measurements...

  10. Evaluation of performance of Son Tek Argonaut acoustic doppler velocity log in tow tank and sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A; Madhan, R.; Mascarenhas, A.A; Desai, R.G.P.; VijayKumar, K.; Dias, M.; Tengali, S; Methar, A

    and inconsistent within the towing speed band of approx. or equal to plus or minus 50 cm/s. Outside of this band, its motion speed output exhibited unexpectedly large error (within the range of -52% and -72% of towing speed) as a result of a computational error...

  11. Chapter 8: Acoustic Assessment of Wood Quality in Trees and Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Peter Carter

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the quality of raw wood materials has become a crucial issue in the operational value chain as forestry and the wood processing industry are increasingly under economic pressure to maximize extracted value. A significant effort has been devoted toward developing robust nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies capable of predicting the intrinsic wood...

  12. Potential for shared log transport services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim McDonald; Steve Taylor; Jorge Valenzuela

    2001-01-01

    A simulation model of a log transport logistics network was developed. The model could be structured to either share truck capacity among a group of loggers, or to assign a fixed number of trucks to individual loggers. Another variation of the model allowed the use of a staging yard to set out loaded trailers and deliver them to destinations using dedicated shuttle...

  13. Log Gaussian Cox processes on the sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Francisco Andrés Cuevas; Møller, Jesper

    We define and study the existence of log Gaussian Cox processes (LGCPs) for the description of inhomogeneous and aggregated/clustered point patterns on the d-dimensional sphere, with d = 2 of primary interest. Useful theoretical properties of LGCPs are studied and applied for the description of sky...

  14. Analyzing Grid Log Data with Affinity Propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modena, G.; van Someren, M.W.; Ali, M; Bosse, T.; Hindriks, K.V.; Hoogendoorn, M.; Jonker, C.M; Treur, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present an unsupervised learning approach to detect meaningful job traffic patterns in Grid log data. Manual anomaly detection on modern Grid environments is troublesome given their increasing complexity, the distributed, dynamic topology of the network and heterogeneity of the jobs

  15. 29 CFR 1910.266 - Logging operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... harvesting and the logging of sawlogs, veneer bolts, poles, pilings and other forest products. This standard... portion thereof. Spring pole. A tree, segment of a tree, limb, or sapling which is under stress or tension... shall be avoided. (iv) When a spring pole or other tree under stress is cut, no employee other than the...

  16. ADN* Density log estimation Using Rockcell*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuku, C.; Iloghalu, Emeka. M.; Omotayo, O.

    2003-01-01

    This work is intended to inform on the possibilities of estimating good density data in zones associated with sliding in a reservoir with ADN* tool with or without ADOS in string in cases where repeat sections were not done, possibly due to hole stability or directional concerns. This procedure has been equally used to obtain a better density data in corkscrew holes. Density data (ROBB) was recomputed using neural network in RockCell* to estimate the density over zones of interest. RockCell* is a Schlumberger software that has neural network functionally which can be used to estimate missing logs using the combination of the responses of other log curves and intervals that are not affected by sliding. In this work, an interval was selected and within this interval twelve litho zones were defined using the unsupervised neural network. From this a training set was selected based on intervals of very good log responses outside the sliding zones. This training set was used to train and run the neural network for a specific lithostratigraphic interval. The results matched the known good density curve. Then after this, an estimation of the density curve was done using the supervised neural network. The output from this estimation matched very closely in the good portions of the log, thus providing some density measurements in the sliding zone. This methodology provides a scientific solution to missing data during the process of Formation evaluation

  17. Changes in the Logging Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Wolf; Jean W. Nolley

    1977-01-01

    Employment in the logging industry dropped 28 percent between 1950 and 1970, while output of industrial roundwood increased 31 percent. Today's loggers are older, better educated, and more skilled. A large proportion are self-employed, many work less than a full year, and a substantial number have incomes below the poverty level. Mechanization of timber harvesting...

  18. Alaska midgrade logs: supply and offshore demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Flora; Wendy J. McGinnis

    1989-01-01

    The outlook for shipments and prices of export logs from Alaska differs significantly by grade (quality class). For the majority lying in the middle of the value range, the trend of prices is projected to increase $200 per thousand board feet, or about 55 percent, by 2000. Shipments are expected to rise about 30 percent by 1995 and then subside about 10 percent. These...

  19. Apache Flume distributed log collection for Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    D'Souza, Subas

    2013-01-01

    A starter guide that covers Apache Flume in detail.Apache Flume: Distributed Log Collection for Hadoop is intended for people who are responsible for moving datasets into Hadoop in a timely and reliable manner like software engineers, database administrators, and data warehouse administrators

  20. Modelling tropical forests response to logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzolla Gatti, Roberto; Di Paola, Arianna; Valentini, Riccardo; Paparella, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Tropical rainforests are among the most threatened ecosystems by large-scale fragmentation due to human activity such as heavy logging and agricultural clearance. Although, they provide crucial ecosystem goods and services, such as sequestering carbon from the atmosphere, protecting watersheds and conserving biodiversity. In several countries forest resource extraction has experienced a shift from clearcutting to selective logging to maintain a significant forest cover and understock of living biomass. However the knowledge on the short and long-term effects of removing selected species in tropical rainforest are scarce and need to be further investigated. One of the main effects of selective logging on forest dynamics seems to be the local disturbance which involve the invasion of open space by weed, vines and climbers at the expense of the late-successional state cenosis. We present a simple deterministic model that describes the dynamics of tropical rainforest subject to selective logging to understand how and why weeds displace native species. We argue that the selective removal of tallest tropical trees carries out gaps of light that allow weeds, vines and climbers to prevail on native species, inhibiting the possibility of recovery of the original vegetation. Our results show that different regime shifts may occur depending on the type of forest management adopted. This hypothesis is supported by a dataset of trees height and weed/vines cover that we collected from 9 plots located in Central and West Africa both in untouched and managed areas.

  1. Extracting useful knowledge from event logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djenouri, Youcef; Belhadi, Asma; Fournier-Viger, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Business process analysis is a key activity that aims at increasing the efficiency of business operations. In recent years, several data mining based methods have been designed for discovering interesting patterns in event logs. A popular type of methods consists of applying frequent itemset mini...

  2. Exploration and grade control neutron logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisler, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques used in neutron logging in boreholes are discussed. They include the application of neutron probes to porosity measurements, to lithological determinations based on macroscopic cross-section measurements and measurements of the concentration of chemical constituents in rocks and ores

  3. Stream macroinvertebrate response to clearcut logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Bruce Wallace; Damon. Ely

    2014-01-01

    Why study response of stream invertebrates to watershed disturbances such as clearcut logging? Stream invertebrates can be excellent integrators of changes in such ecosystem phenomena as changes in the food base of ecosystems. For example, a number of invertebrate taxa appear to track changes in food resources. Many taxa also exhibit substrate-specific as well as taxon...

  4. Bi-log-concave Distribution Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dümbgen, Lutz; Kolesnyk, Petro; Wilke, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Nonparametric statistics for distribution functions F or densities f=F′ under qualitative shape constraints constitutes an interesting alternative to classical parametric or entirely nonparametric approaches. We contribute to this area by considering a new shape constraint: F is said to be bi-log...

  5. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.88 Log operations. (a) Working in... protected by a personal flotation device meeting the requirements of § 1918.105(b)(2). (c) Footwear. The...

  6. Requirements-Driven Log Analysis Extended Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Imagine that you are tasked to help a project improve their testing effort. In a realistic scenario it will quickly become clear, that having an impact is diffcult. First of all, it will likely be a challenge to suggest an alternative approach which is significantly more automated and/or more effective than current practice. The reality is that an average software system has a complex input/output behavior. An automated testing approach will have to auto-generate test cases, each being a pair (i; o) consisting of a test input i and an oracle o. The test input i has to be somewhat meaningful, and the oracle o can be very complicated to compute. Second, even in case where some testing technology has been developed that might improve current practice, it is then likely difficult to completely change the current behavior of the testing team unless the technique is obviously superior and does everything already done by existing technology. So is there an easier way to incorporate formal methods-based approaches than the full edged test revolution? Fortunately the answer is affirmative. A relatively simple approach is to benefit from possibly already existing logging infrastructure, which after all is part of most systems put in production. A log is a sequence of events, generated by special log recording statements, most often manually inserted in the code by the programmers. An event can be considered as a data record: a mapping from field names to values. We can analyze such a log using formal methods, for example checking it against a formal specification. This separates running the system for analyzing its behavior. It is not meant as an alternative to testing since it does not address the important in- put generation problem. However, it offers a solution which testing teams might accept since it has low impact on the existing process. A single person might be assigned to perform such log analysis, compared to the entire testing team changing behavior.

  7. Critical care procedure logging using handheld computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Motta, J Carlos; Walker, Robin; Stewart, Thomas E; Granton, John; Abrahamson, Simon; Lapinsky, Stephen E

    2004-10-01

    We conducted this study to evaluate the feasibility of implementing an internet-linked handheld computer procedure logging system in a critical care training program. Subspecialty trainees in the Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care at the University of Toronto received and were trained in the use of Palm handheld computers loaded with a customized program for logging critical care procedures. The procedures were entered into the handheld device using checkboxes and drop-down lists, and data were uploaded to a central database via the internet. To evaluate the feasibility of this system, we tracked the utilization of this data collection system. Benefits and disadvantages were assessed through surveys. All 11 trainees successfully uploaded data to the central database, but only six (55%) continued to upload data on a regular basis. The most common reason cited for not using the system pertained to initial technical problems with data uploading. From 1 July 2002 to 30 June 2003, a total of 914 procedures were logged. Significant variability was noted in the number of procedures logged by individual trainees (range 13-242). The database generated by regular users provided potentially useful information to the training program director regarding the scope and location of procedural training among the different rotations and hospitals. A handheld computer procedure logging system can be effectively used in a critical care training program. However, user acceptance was not uniform, and continued training and support are required to increase user acceptance. Such a procedure database may provide valuable information that may be used to optimize trainees' educational experience and to document clinical training experience for licensing and accreditation.

  8. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai

    2014-10-01

    We design a flat sub-wavelength lens that can focus acoustic wave. We analytically study the transmission through an acoustic grating with curled slits, which can serve as a material with tunable impedance and refractive index for acoustic waves. The effective parameters rely on the geometry of the slits and are independent of frequency. A flat acoustic focusing lens by such acoustic grating with gradient effective refractive index is designed. The focusing effect is clearly observed in simulations and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry-Perot resonance.

  9. Log-Determinant Divergences Revisited: Alpha-Beta and Gamma Log-Det Divergences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Cichocki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work reviews and extends a family of log-determinant (log-det divergences for symmetric positive definite (SPD matrices and discusses their fundamental properties. We show how to use parameterized Alpha-Beta (AB and Gamma log-det divergences to generate many well-known divergences; in particular, we consider the Stein’s loss, the S-divergence, also called Jensen-Bregman LogDet (JBLD divergence, Logdet Zero (Bhattacharyya divergence, Affine Invariant Riemannian Metric (AIRM, and other divergences. Moreover, we establish links and correspondences between log-det divergences and visualise them on an alpha-beta plane for various sets of parameters. We use this unifying framework to interpret and extend existing similarity measures for semidefinite covariance matrices in finite-dimensional Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces (RKHS. This paper also shows how the Alpha-Beta family of log-det divergences relates to the divergences of multivariate and multilinear normal distributions. Closed form formulas are derived for Gamma divergences of two multivariate Gaussian densities; the special cases of the Kullback-Leibler, Bhattacharyya, Rényi, and Cauchy-Schwartz divergences are discussed. Symmetrized versions of log-det divergences are also considered and briefly reviewed. Finally, a class of divergences is extended to multiway divergences for separable covariance (or precision matrices.

  10. Tradeoffs and interdependence in the Alaska cant and log markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald Flora; Una Woller; Michael. Neergaard

    1990-01-01

    During the 1980s, log exports from Alaska have risen while cant (lumber) exports have declined. Eight explanations for the difference between cant and log market behavior are explored. It seems that declining demand for wood products in Japan and a surge of private-sector log harvests in Alaska are enough to account for the apparent substitution of logs for cants. It...

  11. Anomalous self potential (sp) log signatures observed in a water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophysical logging was done after drilling had been completed in a water well at Okwudor, South Eastern Nigeria. Three electric logs were run viz: Self Potential (SP), Resistivity N16″ and N64″ logs. An anomaly was observed in the SP log. The SP results from this well show some deviation from the standard norm.

  12. Veneer Log Production and Receipts in the Southeast, 1969

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard L. Welch

    1971-01-01

    In 1969, production of veneer logs was almost 657 million board feet in the Southeast, while receipts of domestic logs at the 136 mills in the area were over 690 million board feet. Pine log production now amounts to 40 percent of the total, while hardwood log production is down 17 percent from that of 1963.

  13. Logging utilization in Idaho: Current and past trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Simmons; Todd A. Morgan; Erik C. Berg; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Steven W. Hayes; Mike T. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    A study of commercial timber-harvesting activities in Idaho was conducted during 2008 and 2011 to characterize current tree utilization, logging operations, and changes from previous Idaho logging utilization studies. A two-stage simple random sampling design was used to select sites and felled trees for measurement within active logging sites. Thirty-three logging...

  14. An acoustic prion assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Hayward

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic prion assay has been demonstrated for sheep brain samples. Only five false positives and no false negatives were observed in a test of 45 positive and 45 negative samples. The acoustic prion sensor was constructed using a thickness shear mode quartz resonator coated with a covalently bound recombinant prion protein. The characteristic indicator of a scrapie infected sheep brain sample was an observed shoulder in the frequency decrease in response to a sample.The response of the sensor aligns with a conformational shift in the surface protein and with the propagation mechanism of the disease. This alignment is evident in the response timing and shape, dependence on concentration, cross species behaviour and impact of blood plasma. This alignment is far from sufficient to prove the mechanism of the sensor but it does offer the possibility of a rapid and inexpensive additional tool to explore prion disease. Keywords: Prions, Thickness shear mode quartz sensor

  15. Suppression through acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kevin D.; Short, Kenneth R.; VanMeenen, Kirsten M.; Servatius, Richard J.

    2006-05-01

    This paper reviews research conducted by our laboratory exploring the possible use of acoustical stimuli as a tool for influencing behavior. Over the course of several programs, different types of acoustic stimuli have been evaluated for their effectiveness in disrupting targeting, balance, and high-order cognitive processes in both humans and animals. Escape responses are of particular use in this regard. An escape response serves not only as an objective measure of aversion, but as a potential substitute for ongoing behavior. We have also assessed whether the level of performance changes if the individual does not perform an escape response. In general these studies have both suggested certain types of sounds are more aversive or distracting than others. Although the laboratory development of additional stimuli needs to continue, we are taking the next step by testing some of the more effective stimuli in more applied experimental scenarios including those involving group dynamics.

  16. Acoustic classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardi, Umberto; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Schemes for the classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particular, focusing on sound...... insulation performance, national schemes for sound classification of dwellings have been developed in several European countries. These schemes define acoustic classes according to different levels of sound insulation. Due to the lack of coordination among countries, a significant diversity in terms...... of descriptors, number of classes, and class intervals occurred between national schemes. However, a proposal “acoustic classification scheme for dwellings” has been developed recently in the European COST Action TU0901 with 32 member countries. This proposal has been accepted as an ISO work item. This paper...

  17. A Martian acoustic anemometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, Don; Schindel, David W; Tarr, Steve; Dissly, Richard W

    2016-08-01

    An acoustic anemometer for use on Mars has been developed. To understand the processes that control the interaction between surface and atmosphere on Mars, not only the mean winds, but also the turbulent boundary layer, the fluxes of momentum, heat and molecular constituents between surface and atmosphere must be measured. Terrestrially this is done with acoustic anemometers, but the low density atmosphere on Mars makes it challenging to adapt such an instrument for use on Mars. This has been achieved using capacitive transducers and pulse compression, and was successfully demonstrated on a stratospheric balloon (simulating the Martian environment) and in a dedicated Mars Wind Tunnel facility. This instrument achieves a measurement accuracy of ∼5 cm/s with an update rate of >20 Hz under Martian conditions.

  18. Osmotic Acoustic Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-25

    one side of the radiating surface that is on the order of one meter the length and width of the plane of the enclosure. The walls of the enclosure...DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY OFFICE OF COUNSEL NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE CENTER DIVISION 1176 HOWELL STREET NEWPORT Rl 02841-1708...across a semi-permeable membrane. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] Low frequency acoustic sources such as in a range of one to ten Hertz are

  19. The acoustics of snoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevernagie, Dirk; Aarts, Ronald M; De Meyer, Micheline

    2010-04-01

    Snoring is a prevalent disorder affecting 20-40% of the general population. The mechanism of snoring is vibration of anatomical structures in the pharyngeal airway. Flutter of the soft palate accounts for the harsh aspect of the snoring sound. Natural or drug-induced sleep is required for its appearance. Snoring is subject to many influences such as body position, sleep stage, route of breathing and the presence or absence of sleep-disordered breathing. Its presentation may be variable within or between nights. While snoring is generally perceived as a social nuisance, rating of its noisiness is subjective and, therefore, inconsistent. Objective assessment of snoring is important to evaluate the effect of treatment interventions. Moreover, snoring carries information relating to the site and degree of obstruction of the upper airway. If evidence for monolevel snoring at the site of the soft palate is provided, the patient may benefit from palatal surgery. These considerations have inspired researchers to scrutinize the acoustic characteristics of snoring events. Similarly to speech, snoring is produced in the vocal tract. Because of this analogy, existing techniques for speech analysis have been applied to evaluate snoring sounds. It appears that the pitch of the snoring sound is in the low-frequency range (noise-like', and has scattered energy content in the higher spectral sub-bands (>500 Hz). To evaluate acoustic properties of snoring, sleep nasendoscopy is often performed. Recent evidence suggests that the acoustic quality of snoring is markedly different in drug-induced sleep as compared with natural sleep. Most often, palatal surgery alters sound characteristics of snoring, but is no cure for this disorder. It is uncertain whether the perceived improvement after palatal surgery, as judged by the bed partner, is due to an altered sound spectrum. Whether some acoustic aspects of snoring, such as changes in pitch, have predictive value for the presence of

  20. Deep Water Ocean Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-19

    to a maximum of 143.1°. The back- azimuth as a function of frequency does show coherent behavior, at least within the observed 0.3° small time...level vs. Phone Number (similar to depth) as function of time as the source moved from 10-20 km away. The structure of this interference pattern...dimensional long-range acoustic propagation for improved localisation methods” Dr. Heaney visited Emanuel Coelho at CMRE in La Spezia Italy and

  1. Acoustic emission source modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hora P.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the acoustic emission (AE source modeling by means of FEM system COMSOL Multiphysics. The following types of sources are used: the spatially concentrated force and the double forces (dipole. The pulse excitation is studied in both cases. As a material is used steel. The computed displacements are compared with the exact analytical solution of point sources under consideration.

  2. Acoustically enhanced heat transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, Kar M.; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming K., E-mail: tan.ming.kwang@monash.edu [School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor (Malaysia); Yeo, Leslie Y. [Micro/Nanophysics Research Laboratory, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); Friend, James R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We investigate the enhancement of heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime by inducing high frequency acoustic waves (f ∼ 10{sup 6} Hz) on the heated surface. In the experiments, liquid droplets (deionized water) are dispensed directly onto a heated, vibrating substrate. At lower vibration amplitudes (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −9} m), the improved heat transfer is mainly due to the detachment of vapor bubbles from the heated surface and the induced thermal mixing. Upon increasing the vibration amplitude (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −8} m), the heat transfer becomes more substantial due to the rapid bursting of vapor bubbles happening at the liquid-air interface as a consequence of capillary waves travelling in the thin liquid film between the vapor bubble and the air. Further increases then lead to rapid atomization that continues to enhance the heat transfer. An acoustic wave displacement amplitude on the order of 10{sup −8} m with 10{sup 6} Hz order frequencies is observed to produce an improvement of up to 50% reduction in the surface temperature over the case without acoustic excitation.

  3. Acoustically enhanced heat transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Kar M.; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming K.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the enhancement of heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime by inducing high frequency acoustic waves (f ˜ 106 Hz) on the heated surface. In the experiments, liquid droplets (deionized water) are dispensed directly onto a heated, vibrating substrate. At lower vibration amplitudes (ξs ˜ 10-9 m), the improved heat transfer is mainly due to the detachment of vapor bubbles from the heated surface and the induced thermal mixing. Upon increasing the vibration amplitude (ξs ˜ 10-8 m), the heat transfer becomes more substantial due to the rapid bursting of vapor bubbles happening at the liquid-air interface as a consequence of capillary waves travelling in the thin liquid film between the vapor bubble and the air. Further increases then lead to rapid atomization that continues to enhance the heat transfer. An acoustic wave displacement amplitude on the order of 10-8 m with 106 Hz order frequencies is observed to produce an improvement of up to 50% reduction in the surface temperature over the case without acoustic excitation.

  4. Ocean Acoustic Propagation and Coherence Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Propagation variability is an inescapable complicating factor for both active and passive sonar systems, and for underwater acoustic communications...framework, to be exploited in the use of underwater sound in shallow water. Our knowledge of acoustic field patterns in shallow water, building block...Ocean Acoustics and Signals Laboratory . Five acoustic studies are planned: 1. Canyon and slope acoustics : Identify purely geometrically controlled

  5. Limitations and developing directions of pulsed neutron logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wensheng; Xiao Lizhi

    2007-01-01

    The paper explains briefly the principle of pulsed neutron logging method, summarizes the system and uses of the method in petroleum logging. The paper points out the limitations of pulsed neutron logging such as low precise measurements, low logging speed, plenty of influence factors, low vertical resolution, bad adaptability, difficult logging interpretation and so on, and expounds its developing directions in hardware, software, method and principle. (authors)

  6. Fundamentals of Shallow Water Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Katsnelson, Boris; Lynch, James

    2012-01-01

    Shallow water acoustics (SWA), the study of how low and medium frequency sound propagates and scatters on the continental shelves of the world's oceans, has both technical interest and a large number of practical applications. Technically, shallow water poses an interesting medium for the study of acoustic scattering, inverse theory, and propagation physics in a complicated oceanic waveguide. Practically, shallow water acoustics has interest for geophysical exploration, marine mammal studies, and naval applications. Additionally, one notes the very interdisciplinary nature of shallow water acoustics, including acoustical physics, physical oceanography, marine geology, and marine biology. In this specialized volume, the authors, all of whom have extensive at-sea experience in U.S. and Russian research efforts, have tried to summarize the main experimental, theoretical, and computational results in shallow water acoustics, with an emphasis on providing physical insight into the topics presented.

  7. High-Frequency Seafloor Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Darrell R

    2007-01-01

    High-Frequency Seafloor Acoustics is the first book in a new series sponsored by the Office of Naval Research on the latest research in underwater acoustics. This exciting new title provides ready access to experimental data, theory, and models relevant to high-frequency seafloor acoustics and will be of interest to sonar engineers and researchers working in underwater acoustics. The physical characteristics of the seafloor affecting acoustic propagation and scattering are covered, including physical and geoacoustic properties and surface roughness. Current theories for acoustic propagation in sediments are presented along with corresponding models for reflection, scattering, and seafloor penetration. The main text is backed up by an extensive bibliography and technical appendices.

  8. Acoustic Imaging of Combustion Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramohalli, K. N.; Seshan, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    Elliposidal acoustic mirror used to measure sound emitted at discrete points in burning turbulent jets. Mirror deemphasizes sources close to target source and excludes sources far from target. At acoustic frequency of 20 kHz, mirror resolves sound from region 1.25 cm wide. Currently used by NASA for research on jet flames. Produces clearly identifiable and measurable variation of acoustic spectral intensities along length of flame. Utilized in variety of monitoring or control systems involving flames or other reacting flows.

  9. Assessment of radiation safety in well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alles, A.; Pérez, Y.; Duménigo, C.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation safety assessments required by current regulations are a means to verify compliance with the requirements. Different methods have been used for this purpose. In the paper the results of applying the method of risk matrices, applied for the first time in the practice of well logging are exposed. For each initiating event frequency of occurrence, the severity of its consequences and the probability of failure of the barriers identified were evaluated. Starting from these assumptions, the risk associated is determined for each of the identified accident sequences, using for this the SEVRRA code 'Risk Assessment System', originally designed for use in radiotherapy. As an result sequences increased risk associated with the practice of well logging were identified, which is the starting point for the further implementation of a coherent program of dose optimization in practice. [es

  10. CS model coil experimental log book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishijima, Gen; Sugimoto, Makoto; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2001-02-01

    Charging test of the ITER CS Model Coil which is the world's largest superconducting pulse coil and the CS Insert Coil had started at April 11, 2000 and had completed at August 18, 2000. In the campaign, total shot numbers were 356 and the size of the data file in the DAS (Data Acquisition System) was over 20 GB. This report is a database that consists of the log list and the log sheets of every shot. One can access the database, make a search, and browse results via Internet (http://1ogwww.naka.jaeri.go.jp). The database will be useful to quick search to choose necessary shots. (author)

  11. Wireline logging tool catalog; 2nd edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    This catalog facilitates wireline logging by (1) drawing up programs, (2) showing the adaptation of tools to downhole conditions, drilling fluids, and formations to be measured, and (3) monitoring operations such as recording speeds and calibration control. This edition now represents the tools and services of five additional companies beyond the two companies in the first edition. The participating companies are: BPB Instrument Ltd, Dresser Atlas, Gearhart Geoservices, Micro Log, Prakla Seismos, Schlumberger, and Welex. For quick consultation of the catalog, the tools are classified by ''families.'' For each family of tools, there is a background to the technology and an explanation of the principles of measurement and applications, along with examples of recorded curves. Case documents submitted by service companies include technical data sheets, sketches of tools and their main combinations, and examples of calibration

  12. Narrating illegal logging across the globe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, G.; Leipold, S.; Buhmann, Karin

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade illegal logging has triggered the attention of policy makers and scholars of international forest governance. The issue is multifaceted, involving aspects of social and environmental sustainability, development, trade, access to markets and competitiveness. A vivid academic...... debate has resulted, exploring the nexus between markets and trade on one hand, and environmental and social sustainability on the other. The purpose of this paper is systematically assess the international policy discourse on illegal logging and legality verification policies in different regions...... of the world, drawing on the concept of policy narratives. Specifically, we analyse and compare policy narratives in Australia, Cambodia, China, the EU, Indonesia, Peru and the US. Our analysis is grounded on a rich empirical basis consisting of 260 interviews conducted by various researchers, numerous...

  13. High resolution gamma spectroscopy well logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giles, J.R.; Dooley, K.J.

    1997-01-01

    A Gamma Spectroscopy Logging System (GSLS) has been developed to study sub-surface radionuclide contamination. The absolute counting efficiencies of the GSLS detectors were determined using cylindrical reference sources. More complex borehole geometries were modeled using commercially available shielding software and correction factors were developed based on relative gamma-ray fluence rates. Examination of varying porosity and moisture content showed that as porosity increases, and as the formation saturation ratio decreases, relative gamma-ray fluence rates increase linearly for all energies. Correction factors for iron and water cylindrical shields were found to agree well with correction factors determined during previous studies allowing for the development of correction factors for type-304 stainless steel and low-carbon steel casings. Regression analyses of correction factor data produced equations for determining correction factors applicable to spectral gamma-ray well logs acquired under non-standard borehole conditions

  14. Development of an acoustic sensor for a geothermal Borehole Televiewer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wonn, J.W.

    1979-03-01

    The objective of this project is to upgrade acoustic sensor technology such that appropriate well logging instruments can be made to operate under the hostile environment conditions anticipated in geothermal resource exploration and evaluation. The Borehole Televiewer (BHTV) was selected as the vehicle for this sensor improvement work, primarily because of its demonstrated ability to detect and characterize fractures under sub-geothermal conditions. The work done toward providing an improved sensor for the televiewer is described. An experimental sensor concept was devised, incorporating a thin metal acoustic window, an improved, high-temperature internal coupling fluid, and thermally resistant sensor internals. During an autoclave test, it was successfully demonstrated that the resulting experimental sensor design concept provides the basic target detection and characterization functions required of a fracture mapping, Borehole Televiewer under simulated geothermal conditions. In particular, the experimental sensor remained operational at 275/sup 0/C and 7000 psi.

  15. Development of an acoustic sensor for a geothermal borehole televiewer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wonn, J.W.

    1979-03-01

    The objective of this project is to upgrade acoustic sensor technology such that appropriate well logging instruments can be made to operate under the hostile environment conditions anticipated in geothermal resource exploration and evaluation. The Borehole Televiewer (BHTV) was selected as the vehicle for this sensor improvement work, primarily because of its demonstrated ability to detect and characterize fractures under sub-geothermal conditions. The work done toward providing an improved sensor for the televiewer is described. An experimental sensor concept was devised, incorporating a thin metal acoustic window, an improved, high-temperature internal coupling fluid, and thermally resistant sensor internals. During an autoclave test, it was successfully demonstrated that the resulting experimental sensor design concept provides the basic target detection and characterization functions required of a fracture mapping, Borehole Televiewer under simulated geothermal conditions. In particular, the experimental sensor remained operational at 275/sup 0/C and 7000 psi.

  16. Tunable coupled surface acoustic cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, M. M.; Santos, P. V.; Kosevich, Yu. A.; Cantarero, A.

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate the electric tuning of the acoustic field in acoustic microcavities (MCs) defined by a periodic arrangement of metal stripes within a surface acoustic delay line on LiNbO3 substrate. Interferometric measurements show the enhancement of the acoustic field distribution within a single MC, the presence of a "bonding" and "anti-bonding" modes for two strongly coupled MCs, as well as the positive dispersion of the "mini-bands" formed by five coupled MCs. The frequency and amplitude of the resonances can be controlled by the potential applied to the metal stripes.

  17. Sinusoidal Representation of Acoustic Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Masaaki

    Sinusoidal representation of acoustic signals has been an important tool in speech and music processing like signal analysis, synthesis and time scale or pitch modifications. It can be applicable to arbitrary signals, which is an important advantage over other signal representations like physical modeling of acoustic signals. In sinusoidal representation, acoustic signals are composed as sums of sinusoid (sine wave) with different amplitudes, frequencies and phases, which is based on the timedependent short-time Fourier transform (STFT). This article describes the principles of acoustic signal analysis/synthesis based on a sinusoid representation with focus on sine waves with rapidly varying frequency.

  18. Acoustic Communications Measurement Systems (ACOMMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Design and develop adaptive signal processing techniques to improve underwater acoustic communications and networking. Phase coherent and incoherent signal...

  19. NDE Acoustic Microscopy Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to develop advanced, more effective high-resolution micro-NDE materials characterization methods using scanning acoustic microscopy. The laboratory's...

  20. Combined Environment Acoustic Chamber (CEAC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The CEAC imposes combined acoustic, thermal and mechanical loads on aerospace structures. The CEAC is employed to measure structural response and determine...

  1. Nuclear well logging process and device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antkiw, Stephen; Murphy, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a nuclear logging process and system specially designed for tubed probes and making it possible to obtain additional data on the location and yield of oil bearing strata. The invention coordinates the study of a neutron characteristic with that of gamma ray spectroscopy to obtain, with a single apparatus, enough information on the various parameters concerning strata enabling a complete and accurate assessment to be made of the oil bearing areas [fr

  2. Ceramic vacuum tubes for geothermal well logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    Useful design data acquired in the evaluation of ceramic vacuum tubes for the development of a 500/sup 0/C instrumentation amplifier are presented. The general requirements for ceramic vacuum tubes are discussed for application to the development of high temperature well logs. Commercially available tubes are described and future contract activities that specifically relate to ceramic vacuum tubes are detailed. Supplemental data are presented in the appendix.

  3. SDSS Log Viewer: visual exploratory analysis of large-volume SQL log data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Chen, Chaomei; Vogeley, Michael S.; Pan, Danny; Thakar, Ani; Raddick, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    User-generated Structured Query Language (SQL) queries are a rich source of information for database analysts, information scientists, and the end users of databases. In this study a group of scientists in astronomy and computer and information scientists work together to analyze a large volume of SQL log data generated by users of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data archive in order to better understand users' data seeking behavior. While statistical analysis of such logs is useful at aggregated levels, efficiently exploring specific patterns of queries is often a challenging task due to the typically large volume of the data, multivariate features, and data requirements specified in SQL queries. To enable and facilitate effective and efficient exploration of the SDSS log data, we designed an interactive visualization tool, called the SDSS Log Viewer, which integrates time series visualization, text visualization, and dynamic query techniques. We describe two analysis scenarios of visual exploration of SDSS log data, including understanding unusually high daily query traffic and modeling the types of data seeking behaviors of massive query generators. The two scenarios demonstrate that the SDSS Log Viewer provides a novel and potentially valuable approach to support these targeted tasks.

  4. Estimation of the non records logs from existing logs using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mohammad Salehi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Finding the information of the hydrocarbon reservoirs from well logs is one of the main objectives of the engineers. But, missing the log records (due to many reasons such as broken instruments, unsuitable borehole and etc. is a major challenge to achieve it. Prediction of the density and resistivity logs (Rt, DT and LLS from the conventional wire-line logs in one of the Iranian southwest oil fields is the main purpose of this study. Multilayer neural network was applied to develop an intelligent predictive model for prediction of the logs. A total of 3000 data sets from 3 wells (A, B and C of the studied field were used. Among them, the data of A, B and C wells were used to constructing and testing the model, respectively. To evaluate the performance of the model, the mean square error (MSE and correlation coefficient (R2 in the test data were calculated. A comparison between the MSE of the proposed model and recently intelligent models shows that the proposed model is more accurate than others. Acceptable accuracy and using conventional well logging data are the highlight advantages of the proposed intelligent model.

  5. Precision pressure/temperature logging tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henfling, J.A.; Normann, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Past memory logging tools have provided excellent pressure/temperature data when used in a geothermal environment, and they are easier to maintain and deploy than tools requiring an electric wireline connection to the surface. However, they are deficient since the tool operator is unaware of downhole conditions that could require changes in the logging program. Tools that make ``decisions`` based on preprogrammed scenarios can partially overcome this difficulty, and a suite of such memory tools has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The first tool, which forms the basis for future instruments, measures pressure and temperature. Design considerations include a minimization of cost while insuring quality data, size compatibility with diamond-cored holes, operation in holes to 425 C (800 F), transportability by ordinary passenger air service, and ease of operation. This report documents the development and construction of the pressure/temperature tool. It includes: (1) description of the major components; (2) calibration; (3) typical logging scenario; (4) tool data examples; and (5) conclusions. The mechanical and electrical drawings, along with the tool`s software, will be furnished upon request.

  6. The influence of clay minerals on acoustic properties of sandstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Olav

    1997-12-31

    This thesis aims to provide better understanding of the relationship between the acoustic properties and the petrophysical/mineralogical properties in sand-prone rock. It emphasizes the influence of clay minerals. The author develops a method to deposit clay minerals/mineral aggregates in pore space of a rigid rock framework. Kaolinite aggregates were flushed into porous permeable Bentheimer sandstone to evaluate the effect of pore filling minerals on porosity, permeability and acoustic properties. The compressional velocity was hardly affected by the clay content and it was found that the effect of minor quantities of pore filling minerals may be acoustically modelled as an ideal suspension, where the pore fluid bulk modulus is modified by the bulk modulus of the clay minerals. The influence of clays on acoustic velocities in petroleum reservoir rocks was investigated through ultrasonic measurements of compressional- and shear-waves on core material from reservoir and non-reservoir units on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The measured velocities decrease as the porosity increases, but are not strongly dependent on the clay content. The measured velocities are less dependent on the petrophysical and lithological properties than indicated by previous authors and published mathematical models, and stiffness reduction factors are introduced in two of the models to better match the data. Velocities are estimated along the wellbores based on non-sonic well logs and reflect well the actual sonic log well measurements. In some wells the compressional velocity cannot be modelled correctly by the models suggested. Very high compressional wave anisotropy was measured in the dry samples at atmospheric conditions. As the samples were saturated, the anisotropy was reduced to a maximum of about 30% and decreases further upon pressurization. Reservoir rocks retrieved from 2500 m are more stress dependent than those retrieved from less than 200 m depth. 168 refs., 117 figs., 24

  7. Acoustic transparency and slow sound using detuned acoustic resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that the phenomenon of acoustic transparency and slowsound propagation can be realized with detuned acoustic resonators (DAR), mimicking thereby the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in atomic physics. Sound propagation in a pipe with a series of side...

  8. A history of nuclear well logging in the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tittle, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    Spurred by an interest in logging through steel casing γ-ray logging began in the late 1930s followed soon by neutron logging for porosity. These were the first two nuclear well logs. Gamma-gamma density logging was developed during the 1950s. Pulsed neutron lifetime logging appeared in the 1960s; the slim tools came in the early 1970s. Developments since then have included dual detector devices of several types which offered improved measurements or interpretation, γ-ray spectrometry logging (natural and neutron-induced) which identifies certain chemical elements, induced radioactivity logging, and the photoelectric absorption log, which, combined with the density log in a single tool, is known as litho-density logging. A combination of several γ-ray spectrometers in one tool, designed to determine 10 formation elements, was recently introduced, and a new neutron porosity tool measuring epithermal neutron die-away time has been developed. Digital transmission of logging data was a step forward in about 1975. Also, log interpretation techniques have greatly expanded since the advent of digital computers, and the microcomputer has had a distinct impact. It is now practical and economical to do iterative analysis on a suite of logs to obtain an optimum overall interpretation. (author)

  9. Double negative acoustic metastructure for attenuation of acoustic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Bhushan, Pulak; Prakash, Om; Bhattacharya, Shantanu

    2018-03-01

    Acoustic metamaterials hold great potential for attenuation of low frequency acoustic emissions. However, a fundamental challenge is achieving high transmission loss over a broad frequency range. In this work, we report a double negative acoustic metastructure for absorption of low frequency acoustic emissions in an aircraft. This is achieved by utilizing a periodic array of hexagonal cells interconnected with a neck and mounted with an elastic membrane on both ends. An average transmission loss of 56 dB under 500 Hz and an overall absorption of over 48% have been realized experimentally. The negative mass density is derived from the dipolar resonances created as a result of the in-phase movement of the membranes. Further, the negative bulk modulus is ascribed to the combined effect of out-of-phase acceleration of the membranes and the Helmholtz resonator. The proposed metastructure enables absorption of low frequency acoustic emissions with improved functionality that is highly desirable for varied applications.

  10. Acoustic Mechanical Feedthroughs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic motors can have problems when operating in extreme environments. In addition, if one needs to do mechanical work outside a structure, electrical feedthroughs are required to transport the electric power to drive the motor. In this paper, we present designs for driving rotary and linear motors by pumping stress waves across a structure or barrier. We accomplish this by designing a piezoelectric actuator on one side of the structure and a resonance structure that is matched to the piezoelectric resonance of the actuator on the other side. Typically, piezoelectric motors can be designed with high torques and lower speeds without the need for gears. One can also use other actuation materials such as electrostrictive, or magnetostrictive materials in a benign environment and transmit the power in acoustic form as a stress wave and actuate mechanisms that are external to the benign environment. This technology removes the need to perforate a structure and allows work to be done directly on the other side of a structure without the use of electrical feedthroughs, which can weaken the structure, pipe, or vessel. Acoustic energy is pumped as a stress wave at a set frequency or range of frequencies to produce rotary or linear motion in a structure. This method of transferring useful mechanical work across solid barriers by pumping acoustic energy through a resonant structure features the ability to transfer work (rotary or linear motion) across pressure or thermal barriers, or in a sterile environment, without generating contaminants. Reflectors in the wall of barriers can be designed to enhance the efficiency of the energy/power transmission. The method features the ability to produce a bi-directional driving mechanism using higher-mode resonances. There are a variety of applications where the presence of a motor is complicated by thermal or chemical environments that would be hostile to the motor components and reduce life and, in some instances, not be

  11. Surface Acoustic Wave Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard

    application is modulation of optical waves in waveguides. This presentation elaborates on how a SAW is generated by interdigital transducers using a 2D model of a piezoelectric, inhomogeneous material implemented in the high-level programming language Comsol Multiphysics. The SAW is send through a model......The work of this project is concerned with the simulation of surface acoustic waves (SAW) and topology optimization of SAW devices. SAWs are elastic vibrations that propagate along a material surface and are extensively used in electromechanical filters and resonators in telecommunication. A new...

  12. Acoustic Properties of Cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria

    2017-08-01

    Cellulose is the oldest material for thermal insulation in construction field. Thomas Jefferson was the first architect that used the cellulose in his project of the Monticello house (1800). But only after 1945 that the cellulose from newsprint was used across America and northern Europe. In the 70s with the energy crisis it Austria, Czech Republic, Switzerland and Germany began the production of cellulose derived from paper newspapers. It used for both winter and summer thermal insulation, while respecting the environment. In this paper are reported acoustic measurements carried out with the tube of Kundt, with the cellulose melted and with glue with different thicknesses.

  13. Lecture Notes On Acoustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yang Han

    2005-09-01

    This book mentions string vibration and wave, one-dimension wave and wave equation, characteristic impedance, governing equation of string, and wave energy from string, wave equation of wave and basic physical quantity like one-dimension wave equation, sound unit, sound intensity and energy, sound movement in a surface of discontinuity with transmission loss of sound by partition, and Snell's law, radiation, scatter and diffraction and sound in closed space with Sabine's theory, sound characteristic of closed space and duct acoustics.

  14. Quantum positron acoustic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metref, Hassina; Tribeche, Mouloud [Plasma Physics Group (PPG), Theoretical Physics Laboratory (TPL), Faculty of Physics, University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)

    2014-12-15

    Nonlinear quantum positron-acoustic (QPA) waves are investigated for the first time, within the theoretical framework of the quantum hydrodynamic model. In the small but finite amplitude limit, both deformed Korteweg-de Vries and generalized Korteweg-de Vries equations governing, respectively, the dynamics of QPA solitary waves and double-layers are derived. Moreover, a full finite amplitude analysis is undertaken, and a numerical integration of the obtained highly nonlinear equations is carried out. The results complement our previously published results on this problem.

  15. Dynamic acoustic tractor beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitri, F. G., E-mail: F.G.Mitri@ieee.org [Chevron, Area 52 Technology – ETC, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87508 (United States)

    2015-03-07

    Pulling a sphere and vibrating it around an equilibrium position by amplitude-modulation in the near-field of a single finite circular piston transducer is theoretically demonstrated. Conditions are found where a fluid hexane sphere (with arbitrary radius) chosen as an example, centered on the axis of progressive propagating waves and submerged in non-viscous water, experiences an attractive (steady) force pulling it towards the transducer, as well as an oscillatory force forcing it to vibrate back-and-forth. Numerical predictions for the dynamic force illustrate the theory and suggest an innovative method in designing dynamic acoustical tractor beams.

  16. Acoustic Center or Time Origin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staffeldt, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses the acoustic center in relation to measurements of loudspeaker polar data. Also, it presents the related concept time origin and discusses the deviation that appears between positions of the acoustic center found by wavefront based and time based measuring methods....

  17. Propagation of Ion Acoustic Perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered.......Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered....

  18. Acoustic Emission Technology and Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Y. S.; Lim, S. H.; Eom, H. S.; Kim, J. H.; Jung, H. K.

    2003-10-01

    Acoustic emission is the elastic wave that is generated by the rapid release of energy from the localized sources within a material. After the observation of acoustic emission phenomenon in 1950, the research and further investigation had been performed. Acoustic emission examination becomes a rapidly matured nondestructive testing method with demonstrated capabilities for characterizing material behavior and for detecting the defect. It is of interest as a possible passive monitoring technique for detecting, locating and characterizing the defects in component and structure. Acoustic emission technology has recently strengthened the on-line monitoring application for the detection of incipient failures and the assurance of structural integrity. The field of acoustic emission testing is still growing vigorously and presents many challenges. Especially, acoustic emission has been successfully applied in the leak detection of primary pressure boundary of nuclear power plants. In this state-of-art report, the principle, measurement and field applications of acoustic emission technique is reviewed and summarized. Acoustic emission technology will contribute to the assurance of nuclear safety as the on-line monitoring technique of structural integrity of NSSS components and structures

  19. Wastewater treatment with acoustic separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambayashi, Takuya; Saeki, Tomonori; Buchanan, Ian

    2017-07-01

    Acoustic separation is a filter-free wastewater treatment method based on the forces generated in ultrasonic standing waves. In this report, a batch-system separator based on acoustic separation was demonstrated using a small-scale prototype acoustic separator to remove suspended solids from oil sand process-affected water (OSPW). By applying an acoustic separator to the batch use OSPW treatment, the required settling time, which was the time that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased to the environmental criterion (<200 mg/L), could be shortened from 10 to 1 min. Moreover, for a 10 min settling time, the acoustic separator could reduce the FeCl3 dose as coagulant in OSPW treatment from 500 to 160 mg/L.

  20. Acoustic localization of triggered lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechiga, Rene O.; Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Edens, Harald E.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Rison, William

    2011-05-01

    We use acoustic (3.3-500 Hz) arrays to locate local (thunder produced by triggered lightning in the Magdalena Mountains of central New Mexico. The locations of the thunder sources are determined by the array back azimuth and the elapsed time since discharge of the lightning flash. We compare the acoustic source locations with those obtained by the Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) from Langmuir Laboratory, which is capable of accurately locating the lightning channels. To estimate the location accuracy of the acoustic array we performed Monte Carlo simulations and measured the distance (nearest neighbors) between acoustic and LMA sources. For close sources (6 km) the error increases to 800 m for the nearest neighbors and 650 m for the Monte Carlo analysis. This work shows that thunder sources can be accurately located using acoustic signals.

  1. Coupled Acoustic-Mechanical Bandgaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Kook, Junghwan

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the existence of coupled bandgaps for corrugated plate structures and acoustic channels. The study is motivated by the observation that the performance of traditional bandgap structures, such as periodic plates, may be compromised due to the coupling to a surrounding acoustic...... medium and the presence of acoustic resonances. It is demonstrated that corrugation of the plate structure can introduce bending wave bandgaps and bandgaps in the acoustic domain in overlapping and audible frequency ranges. This effect is preserved also when taking the physical coupling between the two...... domains into account. Additionally, the coupling is shown to introduce extra gaps in the band structure due to modal interaction and the appearance of a cut-on frequency for the fundamental acoustic mode....

  2. Electron/electron acoustic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    The electron acoustic wave becomes a normal mode of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma in the presence of two electron components with similar densities, but strongly disparate temperatures. The characteristic frequency of this mode is the plasma frequency of the cooler electron component. If these two electron components have a relative drift speed several times the thermal speed of the cooler component, the electron/electron acoustic instability may arise. This paper describes the parametric dependences of the threshold drift speed and maximum growth rate of this instability, and compares these with the same properties of the electron/ion acoustic instability. Under the condition of zero current, the electron/ion acoustic instability typically has the lower threshold drift speed, so that observation of the electron/electron acoustic instability is a strong indication of the presence of an electrical current in the plasma

  3. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.

    1983-10-25

    This device relates to the concept of and means for performing Acoustic Emission Linear Pulse Holography, which combines the advantages of linear holographic imaging and Acoustic Emission into a single non-destructive inspection system. This unique system produces a chronological, linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. The innovation is the concept of utilizing the crack-generated acoustic emission energy to generate a chronological series of images of a growing crack by applying linear, pulse holographic processing to the acoustic emission data. The process is implemented by placing on a structure an array of piezoelectric sensors (typically 16 or 32 of them) near the defect location. A reference sensor is placed between the defect and the array.

  4. Acoustics and Hearing

    CERN Document Server

    Damaske, Peter

    2008-01-01

    When one listens to music at home, one would like to have an acoustic impression close to that of being in the concert hall. Until recently this meant elaborate multi-channelled sound systems with 5 or more speakers. But head-related stereophony achieves the surround-sound effect in living rooms with only two loudspeakers. By virtue of their slight directivity as well as an electronic filter the limitations previously common to two-speaker systems can be overcome and this holds for any arbitrary two-channel recording. The book also investigates the question of how a wide and diffuse sound image can arise in concert halls and shows that the quality of concert halls decisively depends on diffuse sound images arising in the onset of reverberation. For this purpose a strong onset of reverberation is modified in an anechoic chamber by electroacoustic means. Acoustics and Hearing proposes ideas concerning signal processing in the auditory system that explain the measured results and the resultant sound effects plea...

  5. Omnidirectional ventilated acoustic barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-long; Zhu, Yi-fan; Liang, Bin; Yang, Jing; Yang, Jun; Cheng, Jian-chun

    2017-11-01

    As an important problem in acoustics, sound insulation finds applications in a great variety of situations. In the existing schemes, however, there has always been a trade-off between the thinness of sound-insulating devices and their ventilating capabilities, limiting their potentials in the control of low-frequency sound in high ventilation environments. Here, we design and experimentally implement an omnidirectional acoustic barrier with a planar profile, subwavelength thickness ( 0.18 λ ), yet high ventilation. The proposed mechanism is based on the interference between the resonant scattering of discrete states and the background scattering of continuous states which induces a Fano-like asymmetric transmission profile. Benefitting from the binary-structured design of the coiled unit and hollow pipe, it maximally simplifies the design and fabrication while ensuring the ventilation for all the non-resonant units with open tubes. The simulated and measured results agree well, showing the effectiveness of our proposed mechanism to block low frequency sound coming from various directions while allowing 63% of the air flow to pass. We anticipate our design to open routes to design sound insulators and to enable applications in traditionally unattainable cases such as those calling for noise reduction and cooling simultaneously.

  6. Time-reversal acoustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Mathias [Laboratoire Ondes et Acoustique, Ecole Superieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielle de la Ville de Paris, Universite Denis Diderot, UMR CNRS 7587, 10 Rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris (France)], E-mail: mathias.fink@espci.fr

    2008-10-15

    Time-reversal mirrors (TRMs) refocus an incident acoustic field to the position of the original source regardless of the complexity of the propagation medium. TRM's have now been implemented in a variety of physical scenarios from MHz ultrasonics with order centimeter aperture size to hundreds/thousands of Hz in ocean acoustics with order hundred meter aperture size. Common to this broad range of scales is a remarkable robustness exemplified by observations at all scales that the more complex the medium between the probe source and the TRM, the sharper the focus. The relation between the medium complexity and the size of the focal spot is studied in this paper. It is certainly the most exciting property of TRM compared to standard focusing devices. A TRM acts as an antenna that uses complex environments to appears wider than it is, resulting for a broadband pulse in a refocusing quality that does not depend of the TRM aperture. In this paper, we investigate the time-reversal approach in various media of increasing complexity and we discuss the link existing between time-reversal approach and local helioseismology where Green's functions can be extracted from diffusive noise.

  7. Review of Progress in Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Marco A. B.; Pérez, Nicolás; Adamowski, Julio C.

    2018-04-01

    Acoustic levitation uses acoustic radiation forces to counteract gravity and suspend objects in mid-air. Although acoustic levitation was first demonstrated almost a century ago, for a long time, it was limited to objects much smaller than the acoustic wavelength levitating at fixed positions in space. Recent advances in acoustic levitation now allow not only suspending but also rotating and translating objects in three dimensions. Acoustic levitation is also no longer restricted to small objects and can now be employed to levitate objects larger than the acoustic wavelength. This article reviews the progress of acoustic levitation, focusing on the working mechanism of different types of acoustic levitation devices developed to date. We start with a brief review of the theory. Then, we review the acoustic levitation methods to suspend objects at fixed positions, followed by the techniques that allow the manipulation of objects. Finally, we present a brief summary and offer some future perspectives for acoustic levitation.

  8. Two detector pulse neutron logging porosity technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, R.J.

    1971-01-01

    An illustrative embodiment of the invention discloses a technique for reducing the influence of borehole characteristics on earth formation porosity measurements. Measurements of this sort are accomplished with a borehole logging tool and comprises two neutron detectors spaced at different distances from a pulsed neutron generator. The thermal neutron decay time of the short-spaced detector identifies that portion of the time-dependent population that is most indicative of the formation porosity. Both detectors then register the portion of the neutron distribution so identified to produce two signals from which a ratio is computed that is related to the porosity of the formation. (auth)

  9. On conditional independence and log-convexity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matúš, František

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 4 (2012), s. 1137-1147 ISSN 0246-0203 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750603; GA ČR GA201/08/0539 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Conditional independence * Markov properties * factorizable distributions * graphical Markov models * log-convexity * Gibbs- Markov equivalence * Markov fields * Gaussian distributions * positive definite matrices * covariance selection model Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.933, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/MTR/matus-0386229.pdf

  10. New radio meteor detecting and logging software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Wolfgang

    2017-08-01

    A new piece of software ``Meteor Logger'' for the radio observation of meteors is described. It analyses an incoming audio stream in the frequency domain to detect a radio meteor signal on the basis of its signature, instead of applying an amplitude threshold. For that reason the distribution of the three frequencies with the highest spectral power are considered over the time (3f method). An auto notch algorithm is developed to prevent the radio meteor signal detection from being jammed by a present interference line. The results of an exemplary logging session are discussed.

  11. Zope based electronic operation log system - Zlog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, K.; Satoh, Y.; Kitabayashi, T.

    2004-01-01

    Since January 2004, the Zope based electronic operation logging system, named Zlog, has been running at the KEKB and AR accelerator facilities. Since Zope is the python based open source web application server software and python language is familiar for the members in the KEKB accelerator control group, we have developed the Zlog system rapidly. In this paper, we report the development history and the present status of Zlog system. Also we show some general plug-in components, called Zope products, have been useful for our Zlog development. (author)

  12. Generalized localization for the double trigonometric Fourier series and the Walsh-Fourier series of functions in L log +L log + log +L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloshanskaya, S K; Bloshanskii, I L; Roslova, T Y

    1998-01-01

    For an arbitrary open set Ω subset of I 2 =[0,1) 2 and an arbitrary function f element of L log + L log + log + L(I 2 ) such that f=0 on Ω the double Fourier series of f with respect to the trigonometric system Ψ=E and the Walsh-Paley system Ψ=W is shown to converge to zero (over rectangles) almost everywhere on Ω. Thus, it is proved that generalized localization almost everywhere holds on arbitrary open subsets of the square I 2 for the double trigonometric Fourier series and the Walsh-Fourier series of functions in the class L log + L log + log + L (in the case of summation over rectangles). It is also established that such localization breaks down on arbitrary sets that are not dense in I 2 , in the classes Φ Ψ (L)(I 2 ) for the orthonormal system Ψ=E and an arbitrary function such that Φ E (u)=o(u log + log + u) as u→∞ or for Φ W (u)=u( log + log + u) 1-ε , 0<ε<1

  13. Particle Filter Based Fault-tolerant ROV Navigation using Hydro-acoustic Position and Doppler Velocity Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Bo; Blanke, Mogens; Skjetne, Roger

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a fault tolerant navigation system for a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). The navigation system uses hydro-acoustic position reference (HPR) and Doppler velocity log (DVL) measurements to achieve an integrated navigation. The fault tolerant functionality is based on a modied...... the ROV kinematic states, even when sensor failures appear frequently....

  14. Acoustic sensors in the helmet detect voice and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Michael V.

    2003-09-01

    The Army Research Laboratory has developed body-contacting acoustic sensors that detect diverse physiological sounds such as heartbeats and breaths, high quality speech, and activity. These sensors use an acoustic impedance-matching gel contained in a soft, compliant pad to enhance the body borne sounds, yet significantly repel airborne noises due to an acoustic impedance mismatch. The signals from such a sensor can be used as a microphone with embedded physiology, or a dedicated digital signal processor can process packetized data to separate physiological parameters from voice, and log parameter trends for performance surveillance. Acoustic sensors were placed inside soldier helmets to monitor voice, physiology, activity, and situational awareness clues such as bullet shockwaves from sniper activity and explosions. The sensors were also incorporated into firefighter breathing masks, neck and wrist straps, and other protective equipment. Heart rate, breath rate, blood pressure, voice and activity can be derived from these sensors (reports at www.arl.army.mil/acoustics). Having numerous sensors at various locations provides a means for array processing to reduce motion artifacts, calculate pulse transit time for passive blood pressure measurement, and the origin of blunt/penetrating traumas such as ballistic wounding. These types of sensors give us the ability to monitor soldiers and civilian emergency first-responders in demanding environments, and provide vital signs information to assess their health status and how that person is interacting with the environment and mission at hand. The Objective Force Warrior, Scorpion, Land Warrior, Warrior Medic, and other military and civilian programs can potentially benefit from these sensors.

  15. Technology development for high temperature logging tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veneruso, A.F.; Coquat, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A set of prototype, high temperature logging tools (temperature, pressure and flow) were tested successfully to temperatures up to 275/sup 0/C in a Union geothermal well during November 1978 as part of the Geothermal Logging Instrumentation Development Program. This program is being conducted by Sandia Laboratories for the Department of Energy's Division of Geothermal Energy. The progress and plans of this industry based program to develop and apply the high temperature instrumentation technology needed to make reliable geothermal borehole measurements are described. Specifically, this program is upgrading existing sondes for improved high temperature performance, as well as applying new materials (elastomers, polymers, metals and ceramics) and developing component technology such as high temperature cables, cableheads and electronics to make borehole measurements such as formation temperature, flow rate, high resolution pressure and fracture mapping. In order to satisfy critical existing needs, the near term goal is for operation up to 275/sup 0/C and 7000 psi by the end of FY80. The long term goal is for operation up to 350/sup 0/C and 20,000 psi by the end of FY84.

  16. Public PCs: Log Out or Lose Out

    CERN Document Server

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Do you regularly use one of the public Windows or Linux terminals in the CERN library or in front of the Users' Office? Or do you often give presentations or run meetings, workshops or conferences? Did you recently attend a training session in the CERN Training Centre? If you answered at least once with “yes”, we have a plea for you: LOG OUT when done in order to protect your data!   You might recall that CERN considers that “Your Privacy is Paramount”. But this does not come for free. In the few past months, we have received several reports from vigilant people who have spotted open user sessions on public PCs at CERN. Those users simply forgot to log out once their work, training or meeting was over. Their session continued without them being present. Worse, with CERN using a central Single Sign-On (SSO) portal, their login credentials would allow a malicious person at CERN to use those credentials to access that user’s mailbox, DFS ...

  17. Dewarless Logging Tool - 1st Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HENFLING,JOSEPH A.; NORMANN,RANDY A.

    2000-08-01

    This report focuses on Sandia National Laboratories' effort to create high-temperature logging tools for geothermal applications without the need for heat shielding. One of the mechanisms for failure in conventional downhole tools is temperature. They can only survive a limited number of hours in high temperature environments. For the first time since the evolution of integrated circuits, components are now commercially available that are qualified to 225 C with many continuing to work up to 300 C. These components are primarily based on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology. Sandia has developed and tested a simple data logger based on this technology that operates up to 300 C with a few limiting components operating to only 250 C without thermal protection. An actual well log to 240 C without shielding is discussed. The first prototype high-temperature tool measures pressure and temperature using a wire-line for power and communication. The tool is based around the HT83C51 microcontroller. A brief discussion of the background and status of the High Temperature Instrumentation program at Sandia, objectives, data logger development, and future project plans are given.

  18. Radiation incident in oil well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozada, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    On June 4th 1997 equipment failure and violation of approved procedures by a crew of workers initiated a series of events that resulted in the unnecessary exposure to neutron and gamma radiation, from a 666 GBq Am 241 Be source, of forty two workers from a well logging company in Venezuela. Due to the presence of dry mud or drilling fluids inside the logging tool, the nosepiece was screwed off the rest of the source holder; this piece was mistaken for the entire source holder thus leaving the source inside the tool. The tool was labelled for maintenance and electronic laboratory personal worked near the source for seven hours before they identify its presence. As soon as the incident was detected a contingency plan was implemented and the source could be retrieved from the tool and placed in its shipping container. The TLD badges indicate doses well below the annual limit of 20 mSv, and none of the workers involved in the incident seem to show serious health consequences from it. After the incident, in order to avoid the occurrence of similar situations, a better source and tool maintenance program was implemented, all the workers were re-trained, and area monitors were installed in all operations bases. (author)

  19. From Architectural Acoustics to Acoustical Architecture Using Computer Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2005-01-01

    acoustic design process and to set up a strategy to develop future programmes. The emphasis is put on the first three out of four phases in the working process of the architect and a case study is carried out in which each phase is represented by typical results ? as exemplified with reference...... to the design of Bagsvaerd Church by Jørn Utzon. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the programme in each phase compared to the works of architects not using acoustic simulation programmes. The conclusion of the paper points towards the need to apply the acoustic simulation programmes...

  20. RETRACTED: Thickness variation of the sedimentary cover in the south Western Desert of Egypt as deduced from Bouguer gravity and drill-hole data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senosy, M. M.; Youssef, M. M.; Abdel Zaher, M.

    2013-01-01

    Bouguer gravity anomaly mapped at a scale of 1:500,000 and the lithological logs of about 120 deep wells were used to determine the thickness of the sedimentary sequence containing the main sandstone water formation in important area of Egypt. The area is located in the southern part of the Western Desert bounded by the latitudes 22°00'-26°30' N, and longitudes 28°30'-33°00' E. The predominant structures affecting the basement rocks and the sedimentary cover were also studied. The gravity stripping approach was applied to eliminate the gravity effects caused by sedimentary sequence and to separate density anomalies within the sedimentary fill from the influence of rocks at deeper levels in the crystalline crust. The present study indicated that the surface of the basement rocks is highly rugged and mostly controlled by structures which have a direct effect on thickness variation of the sedimentary cover all over the area. Regionally the area is characterized by two major intracratonic basins (the Dahkla Basin and the Nile valley Basin) separated by a NE-SW trending swell of the Kharga uplift and bounded at the south by the Oweinat-Bir Safsaf-Aswan uplift. These major tectonic units are controlled by fault structures trending in N-S, E-W, NE-SW, NW-SE, which cut the basement rocks and extend upward in the sedimentary cover. The maximum thickness of sandstone formations is recorded at west Oweinat, west Kurkur, southwest of Aswan, Gramashin, Dakhla oasis and some localities west of Sohag and Qena towns. At these localities the thickness ranges between 600 and 900 m. As this formation is the main water aquifer in the study area, therefore these localities are characterized by the presence of big amount of groundwater. Accordingly, these areas must take the priority in the sustainable development programs of southern Egypt.

  1. Data Cleaning Methods for Client and Proxy Logs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinreich, H.; Obendorf, H.; Herder, E.; Edmonds, A.; Hawkey, K.; Kellar, M.; Turnbull, D.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present our experiences with the cleaning of Web client and proxy usage logs, based on a long-term browsing study with 25 participants. A detailed clickstream log, recorded using a Web intermediary, was combined with a second log of user interface actions, which was captured by a

  2. Skew log-concavity of the Boros-Moll sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Eric H

    2017-01-01

    Let [Formula: see text] be a triangular array of numbers. We say that [Formula: see text] is skew log-concave if for any fixed n , the sequence [Formula: see text] is log-concave. In this paper, we show that the Boros-Moll sequences are almost skew log-concave.

  3. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a reported... record the action taken in the airplane maintenance log in accordance with part 43 of this chapter. (b...

  4. 31 CFR 593.309 - Round log or timber product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Round log or timber product. 593.309 Section 593.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.309 Round log or timber product. The term round log or...

  5. 14 CFR 121.701 - Maintenance log: Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance log: Aircraft. 121.701 Section... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.701 Maintenance log... have made, a record of that action in the airplane's maintenance log. (b) Each certificate holder shall...

  6. U.S. Hardwood sawmill log procurement practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Iris Montague; Urs Buehlmann; Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    2015-01-01

    U.S. hardwood sawmill log procurement practices are evolving because of the recent economic recession, market and supply chain shifts, and changing landowner objectives, among other factors. The objective of this study was to characterize the log procurement practices of hardwood sawmills and to characterize the role that log brokers play in supplying the sawmill...

  7. 47 CFR 80.1153 - Station log and radio watches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log and radio watches. 80.1153 Section... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations General § 80.1153 Station log and radio watches. (a) Licensees of voluntary ships are not required to maintain radio station logs. (b...

  8. Petroleum Potentials and Well Log Evaluation from Niger Delta Basin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has being shown that the Niger Delta Basin has spectacularly maintained a thick sedimentary apron and certain petroleum geological features favourable for petroleum generation. This study reports the petroleum potential and well log evaluation of logs in three wells to characterize the reservoir sand bodies. The well log ...

  9. Examples and counter-examples of log-symplectic manifolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavalcanti, Gil R.

    We study topological properties of log-symplectic structures and produce examples of compact manifolds with such structures. Notably, we show that several symplectic manifolds do not admit bona fide log-symplectic structures and several bona fide log-symplectic manifolds do not admit symplectic

  10. Interactive machine learning for postprocessing CT images of hardwood logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol Sarigul; A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    2003-01-01

    This paper concerns the nondestructive evaluation of hardwood logs through the analysis of computed tomography (CT) images. Several studies have shown that the commercial value of resulting boards can be increased substantially if log sawing strategies are chosen using prior knowledge of internal log defects. Although CT imaging offers a potential means of obtaining...

  11. A survey of animal-powered logging in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Toms; Mark R. Dubois; John C. Bliss; John H. Wilhoit; Robert B. Rummer

    2001-01-01

    In a state with a very large, highly mechanized timber harvesting industry, animal-powered logging still occupies a niche in Alabama as a small-scale harvesting alternative. This article summarizes the results from a study that examined the extent of animal logging in Alabama. We investigated this topic by asking who is logging with animals, where are they working,...

  12. Utilization and cost of log production from animal loging operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraj P. Shrestha; Bobby L. Lanford; Robert B. Rummer; Mark Dubois

    2006-01-01

    Forest harvesting with animals is a labor-intensive operation. It is expensive to use machines on smaller woodlots, which require frequent moves if mechanically logged. So, small logging systems using animals may be more cost effective. In this study, work sampling was used for five animal logging operations in Alabama to measure productive and non-productive time...

  13. Economic incentives exist to support measures to reduce illegal logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Turner; J. Buongiorno; A. Katz; S. Zhu; R. Li

    2008-01-01

    Three studies of the global economic implications of eliminating illegal logging are summarized. Processors of illegally sourced wood would lose from the elimination of illegal logging through high prices for logs and decreased production of wood products. Associated with these changes could be losses in employment and income. Beyond these losses to the processing...

  14. Veneer-log production and receipts, North Central Region, 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Jr. Ginnaty

    1972-01-01

    The 1970 Lake States veneer-log production and mill receipts were 34.4 and 37.0 million board feet, respectively. The Central States produced 23.5 million board feet and received 30.0 million board feet of veneer logs. Veneer-log production and mill receipts dropped substantially throughout the north central region from 1968.

  15. Financial and Economic Analysis of Reduced Impact Logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Holmes

    2016-01-01

    Concern regarding extensive damage to tropical forests resulting from logging increased dramatically after World War II when mechanized logging systems developed in industrialized countries were deployed in the tropics. As a consequence, tropical foresters began developing logging procedures that were more environmentally benign, and by the 1990s, these practices began...

  16. MR of acoustic neuromas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Takashima, Tsutomu; Kadoya, Masumi; Takahashi, Shiroh; Miyayama, Shiroh; Taira, Sakae; Kashihara, Kengo; Yamashima, Tetsumori; Itoh, Haruhide

    1989-01-01

    In this report, the relationship of acoustic neuromas to the adjacent cranial nerves is discussed. On T 1 -weighted images, the trigeminal nerve was detected in all 13 cases. Mild to marked compression of these nerves by the tumors was observed in eight cases. The extent of compression did not always correspond to the clinical symptoms. In four cases with a maximum tumor diameter of 2 cm or less, the 7th and 8th cranial nerves were identified. There was no facial palsy in these patients. Two patients with a tumor diameter of more than 2 cm also had no facial palsy. All patients, including those with small tumors, complained of hearing loss and/or tinnitus. While MR imaging has some limitations, it is an effective imaging modality for showing the relationship between tumors and nerves. (author)

  17. Evoked acoustic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, C; Parbo, J; Johnsen, N J

    1985-01-01

    Stimulated acoustic emissions were recorded in response to tonal stimuli at 60 dB p.e. SPL in a small group of normal-hearing adults. Power spectral analysis reveals that the evoked activity from each ear contains energy in preferential frequency bands and the change of stimulus frequency has only...... a minor effect on the power spectra, i.e. the maximum jumps from one spectral peak to another. Experiments with deconvolution demonstrate that the emission generating system at least at a fixed intensity can be regarded as being linear and characterized by its impulse response which is similar...... to the emission evoked by click stimuli. It is concluded that significant information is obtained by the click rather than by the tonal stimuli. The click-evoked emissions were also recorded from both ears in a consecutive series of 100 full-term and otherwise normal babies 2-4 days after birth. The emission...

  18. Acoustics of friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Adnan

    2002-04-01

    This article presents an overview of the acoustics of friction by covering friction sounds, friction-induced vibrations and waves in solids, and descriptions of other frictional phenomena related to acoustics. Friction, resulting from the sliding contact of solids, often gives rise to diverse forms of waves and oscillations within solids which frequently lead to radiation of sound to the surrounding media. Among the many everyday examples of friction sounds, violin music and brake noise in automobiles represent the two extremes in terms of the sounds they produce and the mechanisms by which they are generated. Of the multiple examples of friction sounds in nature, insect sounds are prominent. Friction also provides a means by which energy dissipation takes place at the interface of solids. Friction damping that develops between surfaces, such as joints and connections, in some cases requires only microscopic motion to dissipate energy. Modeling of friction-induced vibrations and friction damping in mechanical systems requires an accurate description of friction for which only approximations exist. While many of the components that contribute to friction can be modeled, computational requirements become prohibitive for their contemporaneous calculation. Furthermore, quantification of friction at the atomic scale still remains elusive. At the atomic scale, friction becomes a mechanism that converts the kinetic energy associated with the relative motion of surfaces to thermal energy. However, the description of the conversion to thermal energy represented by a disordered state of oscillations of atoms in a solid is still not well understood. At the macroscopic level, friction interacts with the vibrations and waves that it causes. Such interaction sets up a feedback between the friction force and waves at the surfaces, thereby making friction and surface motion interdependent. Such interdependence forms the basis for friction-induced motion as in the case of

  19. Perspective: Acoustic metamaterials in transition

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying

    2017-12-15

    Acoustic metamaterials derive their novel characteristics from the interaction between acoustic waves with designed structures. Since its inception seventeen years ago, the field has been driven by fundamental geometric and physical principles that guide the structure design rules as well as provide the basis for wave functionalities. Recent examples include resonance-based acoustic metasurfaces that offer flexible control of acoustic wave propagation such as focusing and re-direction; parity-time (PT)-symmetric acoustics that utilizes the general concept of pairing loss and gain to achieve perfect absorption at a single frequency; and topological phononics that can provide one-way edge state propagation. However, such novel functionalities are not without constraints. Metasurface elements rely on resonances to enhance their coupling to the incident wave; hence, its functionality is limited to a narrow frequency band. Topological phononics is the result of the special lattice symmetry that must be fixed at the fabrication stage. Overcoming such constraints naturally forms the basis for further developments. We identify two emergent directions: Integration of acoustic metamaterial elements for achieving broadband characteristics as well as acoustic wave manipulation tasks more complex than the single demonstrative functionality; and active acoustic metamaterials that can adapt to environment as well as to go beyond the constraints on the passive acoustic metamaterials. Examples of a successful recent integration of multi-resonators in achieving broadband sound absorption can be found in optimal sound-absorbing structures, which utilize causality constraint as a design tool in realizing the target-set absorption spectrum with a minimal sample thickness. Active acoustic metamaterials have also demonstrated the capability to tune bandgaps as well as to alter property of resonances in real time through stiffening of the spring constants, in addition to the PT symmetric

  20. Acoustic of monolithic dome structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Refat Ismail

    2018-03-01

    The interior of monolithic domes have perfect, concave shapes to ensure that sound travels through the dome and perfectly collected at different vocal points. These dome structures are utilized for domestic use because the scale allows the focal points to be positioned across daily life activities, thereby affecting the sonic comfort of the internal space. This study examines the various acoustic treatments and parametric configurations of monolithic dome sizes. A geometric relationship of acoustic treatment and dome radius is established to provide architects guidelines on the correct selection of absorption needed to maintain the acoustic comfort of these special spaces.

  1. Use of historical logging patterns to identify disproportionately logged ecosystems within temperate rainforests of southeastern Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, David M; Schoen, John W

    2013-08-01

    The forests of southeastern Alaska remain largely intact and contain a substantial proportion of Earth's remaining old-growth temperate rainforest. Nonetheless, industrial-scale logging has occurred since the 1950s within a relatively narrow range of forest types that has never been quantified at a regional scale. We analyzed historical patterns of logging from 1954 through 2004 and compared the relative rates of change among forest types, landform associations, and biogeographic provinces. We found a consistent pattern of disproportionate logging at multiple scales, including large-tree stands and landscapes with contiguous productive old-growth forests. The highest rates of change were among landform associations and biogeographic provinces that originally contained the largest concentrations of productive old growth (i.e., timber volume >46.6 m³/ha). Although only 11.9% of productive old-growth forests have been logged region wide, large-tree stands have been reduced by at least 28.1%, karst forests by 37%, and landscapes with the highest volume of contiguous old growth by 66.5%. Within some island biogeographic provinces, loss of rare forest types may place local viability of species dependent on old growth at risk of extirpation. Examination of historical patterns of change among ecological forest types can facilitate planning for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of forest resources. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Rill erosion in burned and salvage logged western montane forests: Effects of logging equipment type, traffic level, and slash treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. W. Wagenbrenner; P. R. Robichaud; R. E. Brown

    2016-01-01

    Following wildfires, forest managers often consider salvage logging burned trees to recover monetary value of timber, reduce fuel loads, or to meet other objectives. Relatively little is known about the cumulative hydrologic effects of wildfire and subsequent timber harvest using logging equipment. We used controlled rill experiments in logged and unlogged (control)...

  3. North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory and Deep Water Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-27

    During FY16 the primary effort has been working on manuscripts as summarized below: 1) A test of deep water Rytov theory at 284 Hz and 107 km in... signal , while the ambient noise field is in direct competition with the received signal . Research conducted in the North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory...low-frequency, long-range, deep water, broadband acoustic propagation, the effects of ocean variability on signal coherence, and the fundamental

  4. Nuclear magnetic logging method and system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear magnetism logging system and method is disclosed in which a surface unit provides power to, control of, and signal reception from a downhole sonde. The surface unit comprises a source of alternating current power and switching circuit means for applying a sequence of alternating current waveforms from the alternating current power source to a surface transformer, each waveform in the sequence starting and stopping with substantially zero amplitude. A rectifier circuit is connected to a polarizing-receiving coil during the polarizing time of the polarizing-receive cycle. A receiving amplifier is connected to the polarizing-receiving coil during the receiving time of the polarizing-receive cycle. Receiver and recording circuits in the surface unit receive and record the downhole signals from the receiving amplifier. Timing circuitry controls a downhole switching circuit means for alternating the connection of the polarizing-receive coil to the rectifier and the receiving amplifier. (Auth.)

  5. Use of borehole-geophysical logs and hydrologic tests to characterize crystalline rock for nuclear-waste storage, Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Manitoba, and Chalk River Nuclear Laboratory, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, C.C.

    1982-12-01

    A number of borehole methods were used in the investigation of crystalline rocks at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment and Chalk River Nuclear Laboratory in Canada. The selection of a crystalline-rock mass for the storage of nuclear waste likely will require the drilling and testing of a number of deep investigative boreholes in the rock mass. Although coring of at least one hole in each new area is essential, methods for making in-situ geophysical and hydrologic measurements can substitute for widespread coring and result in significant savings in time and money. Borehole-geophysical logging techniques permit the lateral extrapolation of data from a core hole. Log response is related to rock type, alteration, and the location and character of fractures. The geophysical logs that particularly are useful for these purposes are the acoustic televiewer and acoustic waveform, neutron and gamma, resistivity, temperature, and caliper. The acoustic-televiewer log of the borehole wall can provide high resolution data on the orientation and apparent width of fractures. In situ hydraulic tests of single fractures or fracture zones isolated by packers provide quantitative information on permeability, extent, and interconnection. The computer analysis of digitized acoustic waveforms has identified a part of the waveform that has amplitude variations related to permeabilities measured in the boreholes by packer tests. 38 refs., 37 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Method and apparatus for logging inclined earth boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youmans, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    An improved technique is provided for comparing the velocity of an elongated well logging instrument traversing an inclined earth borehole with the playout velocity of the well logging cable at the earth's surface to control both the cable hoist drum rotation and the rate of movement of the subsurface instrument and thus insure cable playout is in equilibrium with the logging instrument movement. Method and apparatus are described for detecting any reduction in movement of the logging instrument through the borehole and for reducing the velocity of the logging cable playout in response thereto by reducing drum rotation. Further, when the velocity of cable playout slows to a preselected value, a monitoring circuit generates control signals which actuate a means of power attached to or integral with the logging instrument which, upon initiation, apply a force to move the logging instrument upward or downward within the borehole

  7. Linking downhole logging data with geology and drilling /coring operations - Example from Chicxulub Expedition 364.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofi, Johanna; Smith, Dave; Delahunty, Chris; Le Ber, Erwan; Mellet, Claire; Brun, Laurent; Henry, Gilles; Paris, Jehanne

    2017-04-01

    Expedition 364 was a joint IODP/ICDP mission specific platform expedition to explore the Chicxulub impact crater buried below the Yucatán continental shelf. In April and May 2016, our Expedition drilled a single borehole at Site M0077A into the crater's peak ring. It allowed recovering 303 excellent quality cores from 505.7 to 1334.7 meters below sea floor and acquiring more than 5.8 km of high resolution open hole logs. Downhole logs are rapidly collected, continuous with depth, and measured in situ; these data are classically interpreted in terms of stratigraphy, lithology, porosity, fluid content, geochemical composition and structure of the formation drilled. Downhole logs also allow assessing borehole quality (eg. shape and trajectory), and can provide assistance for decision support during drilling operations. In this work, Expedition 364 downhole logs are used to improve our understanding of the drilling/coring operation history. Differentiating between natural geological features and borehole artifacts are also critical for data quality assessment. The set of downhole geophysical tools used during Expedition 364 was constrained by the scientific objectives, drilling/coring technique, hole conditions and temperature at the drill site. Wireline logging data were acquired with slimline tools in three logging phases at intervals 0-503, 506-699 and 700-1334 mbsf. Logs were recorded either with standalone logging tools or, for the first time in IODP, with stackable slimline tools. Log data included total gamma radiation, sonic velocity, acoustic and optical borehole images, resistivity, conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, caliper and borehole fluid parameters. The majority of measurements were performed in open borehole conditions. During the drilling operations some problems were encountered directly linked to the geology of the drilled formation. For example, two zones of mud circulation losses correlate in depth with the presence of karst cavities or open

  8. Isotropic transformation acoustics and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoshi; Norris, Andrew N.

    2017-04-01

    A novel class of acoustic metamaterial is proposed for directional collimation of a cylindrical source into a plane wave beam. The effect is based on transformation acoustics which retains the exact form of the wave equation under conformal mapping from a circular region to a triangular area. The transformation is adjustable, allowing the acoustic energy to be equally radiated in three directions, or preferentially in a single direction. Importantly, the material properties in the physical domain are isotropic and therefore practically realizable. Two example devices are proposed using cylindrical elastic shells in water as the metamaterial elements and demonstrated using full wave simulations. This approach has potential applications beyond acoustic antenna design in beam-steering and wavefront manipulation.

  9. An Experimental Introduction to Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Andy Nicholas; Magruder, Robert H.

    2017-11-01

    Learning and understanding physics requires more than studying physics texts. It requires doing physics. Doing research is a key opportunity for students to connect physical principles with their everyday experience. A powerful way to introduce students to research and technique is through subjects in which they might find interest. Presented is an experiment that serves to introduce an advanced undergraduate or high school student to conducting research in acoustics via an experiment involving a standard dreadnought acoustic guitar, recording industry-related equipment, and relevant industrial analysis software. This experimental process is applicable to a wide range of acoustical topics including both acoustic and electric instruments. Also, the student has a hands-on experience with relevant audio engineering technology to study physical principles.

  10. Thermal/acoustical insulation foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R. Y.; Struzik, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    Lightweight low-density substance can be used as fire resistant insulation in aircraft. Material density can be controlled over range from 0.6-1.2 pounds per cubic foot and has good thermal and acoustic properties.

  11. NCPA Enhancement for Physical Acoustics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bass, Henry

    2001-01-01

    ...-rate scientists and students and carry out effective, ONR-supported research. Specific objectives of this grant are to support research and recruitment by enhancing the infrastructure in physical acoustics...

  12. Acoustic agglomeration methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Methods are described for using acoustic energy to agglomerate fine particles on the order of one micron diameter that are suspended in gas, to provide agglomerates large enough for efficient removal by other techniques. The gas with suspended particles, is passed through the length of a chamber while acoustic energy at a resonant chamber mode is applied to set up one or more acoustic standing wave patterns that vibrate the suspended particles to bring them together so they agglomerate. Several widely different frequencies can be applied to efficiently vibrate particles of widely differing sizes. The standing wave pattern can be applied along directions transversed to the flow of the gas. The particles can be made to move in circles by applying acoustic energy in perpendicular directions with the energy in both directions being of the same wavelength but 90 deg out of phase.

  13. Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility (RATF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The very large Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility (RATF) at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), Plum Brook Station, is currently under construction and is due to...

  14. PVT Degradation Studies: Acoustic Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dib, Gerges [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tucker, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kouzes, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Under certain environmental conditions, polyvinyl toluene (PVT) plastic scintillator has been observed to undergo internal fogging. This document reports on a study of acoustic techniques to determine whether they can provide a diagnostic for the fogging of PVT. Different ultrasound techniques were employed for detecting the level of internal fogging in PVT, including wave velocity measurements, attenuation, nonlinear acoustics, and acoustic microscopy. The results indicate that there are linear relations between the wave velocity and wave attenuation with the level of internal fogging. The effects of fogging on ultrasound wave attenuation is further verified by acoustic microscopy imaging, where regions with fog in the specimen demonstration higher levels of attenuation compared to clear regions. Results from the nonlinear ultrasound measurements were inconclusive due to high sensitivities to transducer coupling and fixture variabilities.

  15. Geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR23 extension, KR29 and KR29b at Olkiluoto 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahti, M. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland); Heikkinen, E. [JP-Fintact Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2005-04-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR23 extension, KR25b, KR29 and KR29b at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during October 2004. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  16. Acoustical Properties of Contemporary Mosques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaman Özgül Yılmaz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Religious buildings are important for many communities because of their representation of different beliefs. In such structures, the sense of individuality or unity & togetherness are created according to variable worship activities; these different uses have also different acoustical requirements. In order to create the desired feeling in the space at the required time, rooms should be evaluated in terms of acoustical conditions.

  17. Particle Filter ROV Navigation using Hydrodynamic Position and Speed log Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Bo; Blanke, Mogens; Skjetne, Roger

    2012-01-01

    An integrated navigation system design is presented for an underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV). The available navigation information is an acoustic position measurement and a Doppler log speed measurement. Both measurements are studied in detail and modeled statistically. A kinematic model...... is assigned to the ROV with its driving noise from a Gaussian mixture, and a particle filter is suggested to estimate ROV position and velocity. The advantages of using a particle filter in this ROV navigation scheme are: 1) to make full use of all available information to improve the estimation performance......, such as the speed measurement that is a nonlinear function of the states; 2) the particle filter makes good use of a Gaussian mixture as the driving noise, which makes the ROV kinematic model more realistic in both high and low frequency ranges; 3) a good estimate of the ROV velocity vector is achieved...

  18. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole ONK-PH2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahti, M. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland); Heikkinen, E. [JP-Fintact Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2005-01-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of pilot hole ONK-PH2 in ONKALO tunnel at the Olkiluoto site in December 2004. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, single point resistance, Wenner-resistivity, borehole radar, full waveform sonic and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of all the surveys, integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and borehole radar data. The report describes the field operation, equipment, processing procedures, interpretation results and shows the obtained geophysical and image data. The data as well as the interpretation results are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  19. Study on structural plane characteristics of deep rock mass based on acoustic borehole TV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiyong; Su Rui; Chen Liang; Tian Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Deep rock mass structural plane characteristics are one of the basic data for evaluating the quality of rock mass. Based on acoustic borehole TV, the structural plane quantity, density, attitude, dominant set, structural plane aperture of deep rock mass in boreholes BS15 # and BS16 # located in Beishan granite rock mass of Gansu Province have been calculated and compared with the results of geological documentation of drill core. The results indicate that acoustic borehole TV has the effect in study on characteristics of structural plane. But as a kind of technique of geophysical logging, the acoustic borehole TV has certain defect, and need to combine with the analysis of the other geological materials in applications. (authors)

  20. Pulsed neutron uranium borehole logging with prompt fission neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bivens, H.M.; Smith, G.W.; Jensen, D.H.

    1976-01-01

    The gross count natural gamma log normally used for uranium borehole logging is seriously affected by disequilibrium. Methods for the direct measurement of uranium, such as neutron logging, which are not affected by disequilibrium have been the object of considerable effort in recent years. This paper describes a logging system for uranium which uses a small accelerator to generate pulses of 14 MeV neutrons to detect and assay uranium by the measurement of prompt fission neutrons in the epithermal energy range. After an initial feasibility study, a prototype logging probe was built for field evaluation which began in January 1976. Physical and operational characteristics of the prototype probe, the neutron tube-transformer assembly, and the neutron tube are described. In logging operations, only the epithermal prompt fission neutrons detected between 250 microseconds to 2500 microseconds following the excitation neutron pulse are counted. Comparison of corrected neutron logs with the conventional gross count natural gamma logs and the chemical assays of cores from boreholes are shown. The results obtained with this neutron probe clearly demonstrate its advantages over the gross count natural gamma log, although at this time the accuracy of the neutron log assay is not satisfactory under some conditions. The necessary correction factors for various borehole and formation parameters are being determined and, when applied, should improve the assay accuracy

  1. Study of acoustic emission sources and signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pumarega, M.I. Lopez; Armeite, M.; Oliveto, M.E.; Piotrkowski, R.; Ruzzante, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Methods of acoustic emission (AE) signal analysis give information about material conditions, since AE generated in stressed solids can be used to indicate cracks and defect positions so as their damaging potential. We present a review of results of laboratory AE tests on metallic materials. Rings of seamless steel tubes, with and without oxide layers, were cut and then deformed by opening their ends. Seamless Zry-4 tubes were submitted to hydraulic stress tests until rupture with a purposely-constructed hydraulic system. In burst type signals, their parameters, Amplitude (A), Duration (D) and Risetime (R), were statistically studied. Amplitudes were found to follow the Log-normal distribution. This led to infer that the detected AE signal, is the complex consequence of a great number of random independent sources, which individual effects are linked. We could show, using cluster analysis for A, D and R mean values, with 5 clusters, coincidence between the clusters and the test types. A slight linear correlation was obtained for the parameters A and D. The arrival time of the AE signals was also studied, which conducted to discussing Poisson and Polya processes. The digitized signals were studied as (1/f) β noises. The general results are coherent if we consider the AE phenomena in the frame of Self Organized Criticality theory

  2. Improving Robustness of Deep Neural Network Acoustic Models via Speech Separation and Joint Adaptive Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Arun; Wang, DeLiang

    2015-01-01

    Although deep neural network (DNN) acoustic models are known to be inherently noise robust, especially with matched training and testing data, the use of speech separation as a frontend and for deriving alternative feature representations has been shown to improve performance in challenging environments. We first present a supervised speech separation system that significantly improves automatic speech recognition (ASR) performance in realistic noise conditions. The system performs separation via ratio time-frequency masking; the ideal ratio mask (IRM) is estimated using DNNs. We then propose a framework that unifies separation and acoustic modeling via joint adaptive training. Since the modules for acoustic modeling and speech separation are implemented using DNNs, unification is done by introducing additional hidden layers with fixed weights and appropriate network architecture. On the CHiME-2 medium-large vocabulary ASR task, and with log mel spectral features as input to the acoustic model, an independently trained ratio masking frontend improves word error rates by 10.9% (relative) compared to the noisy baseline. In comparison, the jointly trained system improves performance by 14.4%. We also experiment with alternative feature representations to augment the standard log mel features, like the noise and speech estimates obtained from the separation module, and the standard feature set used for IRM estimation. Our best system obtains a word error rate of 15.4% (absolute), an improvement of 4.6 percentage points over the next best result on this corpus.

  3. Acoustics of the Intonarumori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Stefania

    2005-04-01

    The Intonarumori were a family of musical instruments invented by the Italian futurist composer and painter Luigi Russolo. Each Intonarumori was made of a wooden parallelepiped sound box, inside which a wheel of different sizes and materials was setting into vibration a catgut or metal string. The pitch of the string was varied by using a lever, while the speed of the wheel was controlled by the performer using a crank. At one end of the string there was a drumhead that transmitted vibrations to the speaker. Unfortunately, all the original Intonarumori were destroyed after a fire during World War II. Since then, researchers have tried to understand the sound production mechanism of such instruments, especially by consulting the patents compiled by Russolo or by reading his book ``The art of noise.'' In this paper we describe the acoustics of the Intonarumori. Based on such description, we propose physical models that simulate such instruments. The intonarumori's string is modeled using a one dimensional waveguide, which is excited either by an impact or a friction model. The body of the instrument is modeled using a 3-D rectangular mesh, while the horn is considered as an omnidirectional radiator.

  4. Penerapan Reduced Impact Logging Menggunakan Monocable Winch (Pancang Tarik (Implementing Reduced Impact Logging with Monocable Winch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosep Ruslim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest harvesting still encounters many problems especially concerning impact to the residual stand  and environmental damage. Implementing the reduced impact monocable winch and planning of good skid trails should have a positive impact on work efficiency as well as, reducing damage to the residual stand and soil during felling and skidding activities. Reduced impact logging (RIL with a monocable winch (Pancang Tarik system has been tried in several IUPHHKs and it can be concluded that RIL monocable winch system could be applied practically and reduce impact on residual stand and soil damage. Using this technology has many advantages, among others: cost efficiency, locally made, environmental friendly, and high local community participation. Application of  the monocable winch  system in reduced impact logging is an effort to reduce economical and environment  damages when compared to conventional system of ground based skidding with bulldozer system. The aim of this research is to verify the efficiency (operational cost, effectiveness (productivity and  time consumption of monocable winch system. The results  indicate that the implementation monocable winch system, has reduced the soil damage as much as 8% ha-1.  The skidding cost  with monocable system is Rp95.000 m-3. This figure is significantly cheaper if compare with ground base skidding with bulldozer system in which the skidding cost around Rp165.000 m-3.Keywords: mononocable winch, productivity,  skidding cost, reduced impact logging, local community

  5. Focusing of Acoustic Waves through Acoustic Materials with Subwavelength Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Bingmu

    2013-05-01

    In this thesis, wave propagation through acoustic materials with subwavelength slits structures is studied. Guided by the findings, acoustic wave focusing is achieved with a specific material design. By using a parameter retrieving method, an effective medium theory for a slab with periodic subwavelength cut-through slits is successfully derived. The theory is based on eigenfunction solutions to the acoustic wave equation. Numerical simulations are implemented by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for the two-dimensional acoustic wave equation. The theory provides the effective impedance and refractive index functions for the equivalent medium, which can reproduce the transmission and reflection spectral responses of the original structure. I analytically and numerically investigate both the validity and limitations of the theory, and the influences of material and geometry on the effective spectral responses are studied. Results show that large contrasts in impedance and density are conditions that validate the effective medium theory, and this approximation displays a better accuracy for a thick slab with narrow slits in it. Based on the effective medium theory developed, a design of a at slab with a snake shaped" subwavelength structure is proposed as a means of achieving acoustic focusing. The property of focusing is demonstrated by FDTD simulations. Good agreement is observed between the proposed structure and the equivalent lens pre- dicted by the theory, which leads to robust broadband focusing by a thin at slab.

  6. Processing of logging data from nuclear tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.; Petersen, R.

    1988-07-01

    When raw data, e.g. counts or count rates, have been obtained with nuclear logging tools, they have to be processed in order to yield the desired formation properties. Little information is available on this processing. However, it is necessary to understand the processing procedure in order to be able to evaluate its physical correctness, and to understand which corrections are involved. For this reason an analysis has been performed of two sets of field data obtained with neutron porosity and gamma density tools and one data set obtained with a pulsed-neutron capture-gamma tool. Through this analysis it is believed that full insight in the processing of data from the neutron porosity and the gamma density tools has been achieved. The same is not quite the case for the pulsed neutron capture-gamma tool, possibly due to lack of the necessary data. The analysis has also revealed doubt about the physical correctness of some of the features of the processing procedure. (author)

  7. PORTABLE ACOUSTIC MONITORING PACKAGE (PAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John l. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Deepak Mehra

    2003-07-01

    The 1st generation acoustic monitoring package was designed to detect and analyze weak acoustic signals inside natural gas transmission lines. Besides a microphone it housed a three-inch diameter aerodynamic acoustic signal amplifier to maximize sensitivity to leak induced {Delta}p type signals. The theory and test results of this aerodynamic signal amplifier was described in the master's degree thesis of our Research Assistant Deepak Mehra who is about to graduate. To house such a large three-inch diameter sensor required the use of a steel 300-psi rated 4 inch weld neck flange, which itself weighed already 29 pounds. The completed 1st generation Acoustic Monitoring Package weighed almost 100 pounds. This was too cumbersome to mount in the field, on an access port at a pipeline shut-off valve. Therefore a 2nd generation and truly Portable Acoustic Monitor was built. It incorporated a fully self-contained {Delta}p type signal sensor, rated for line pressures up to 1000 psi with a base weight of only 6 pounds. This is the Rosemont Inc. Model 3051CD-Range 0, software driven sensor, which is believed to have industries best total performance. Its most sensitive unit was purchased with a {Delta}p range from 0 to 3 inch water. This resulted in the herein described 2nd generation: Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) for pipelines up to 1000 psi. Its 32-pound total weight includes an 18-volt battery. Together with a 3 pound laptop with its 4-channel data acquisition card, completes the equipment needed for field acoustic monitoring of natural gas transmission pipelines.

  8. Western tight gas sands advanced logging workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, J B; Carroll, Jr, H B [eds.

    1982-04-01

    An advanced logging research program is one major aspect of the Western Tight Sands Program. Purpose of this workshop is to help BETC define critical logging needs for tight gas sands and to allow free interchange of ideas on all aspects of the current logging research program. Sixteen papers and abstracts are included together with discussions. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 12 papers. (DLC)

  9. 12 CFR 27.4 - Inquiry/Application Log.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inquiry/Application Log. 27.4 Section 27.4... SYSTEM § 27.4 Inquiry/Application Log. (a) The Comptroller, among other things, may require a bank to maintain a Fair Housing Inquiry/Application Log (“Log”), based upon, but not limited to, one or more of the...

  10. Erosion associated with cable and tractor logging in northwestern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Rice; P. A. Datzman

    1981-01-01

    Abstract - Erosion and site conditions were measured at 102 logged plots in northwestern California. Erosion averaged 26.8 m 3 /ha. A log-normal distribution was a better fit to the data. The antilog of the mean of the logarithms of erosion was 3.2 m 3 /ha. The Coast District Erosion Hazard Rating was a poor predictor of erosion related to logging. In a new equation...

  11. Cost of skid roads for arch logging in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    George R., Jr. Trimble; Carl R. Barr

    1960-01-01

    In the mountain hardwood country of the northern Appalachians, tree-length skidding with tractor and arch has proved to be economical logging. One essential part of this type of logging is that tree-length logs are winched to the skid roads: tractor and arch do not run around through the woods. Winching distance is commonly 200 to 300 feet; and occasionally an extra...

  12. An artificial intelligence approach to well log correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Startzman, R.A.; Kuo, T.B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper shows how an expert computer system was developed to correlate two well logs in at least moderately difficult situations. A four step process was devised to process log trace information and apply a set of rules to identify zonal correlations. Some of the advantages and problems with the artificial intelligence approach are shown using field logs. The approach is useful and, if properly and systematically applied, it can result in good correlations

  13. Modified-orientation log to assess hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, M; Matherly, S; Farooq, I S; Stravitz, R T; Sterling, R K; Sanyal, A J; Gibson, D P; Wade, J B; Thacker, L R; Heuman, D M; Fuchs, M; Puri, P; Luketic, V; Bickston, S J; Bajaj, J S

    2012-04-01

    The subjectivity of the West-Haven criteria (WHC) hinders hepatic encephalopathy (HE) evaluation. The new HE classification has emphasised assessment of orientation. The modified-orientation log (MO-log, eight questions, scores 0-24; 24 normal) is adapted from a validated brain injury measure. To validate MO-log for HE assessment in cirrhosis. Cirrhotics admitted with/without HE were administered MO-log. We collected cirrhosis/HE details, admission/daily MO-logs and WHC (performed by different examiners), time to reach normal mentation (MO-log ≥23) and MO-log/WHC change (Δ) over day 1. Outcomes were in-hospital mortality, duration to normal mentation and length-of-stay (LOS). Regressions were performed for each outcome. MO-log inter-rater reliability was measured. Ninety-six HE (55 ± 8 years, MELD 21) and 20 non-HE (54 ± 5 years, MELD 19) in-patients were included. In HE patients, median admission WHC was 3 (range 1-4). Mean MO-log was 12 ± 8 (range 0-22). Their LOS was 6 ± 5 days and 13% died. Time to reach normal mentation was 2.4 ± 1.7 days. Concurrent validity: there was a significant negative correlation between admission MO-log and WHC (r = -0.79, P logs were significantly lower in those who died (7 vs. 12, P = 0.03) and higher in those admitted without HE (23.6 vs. 12, P log improved in 69% on day 1 (ΔMO-log 4 ± 8) which was associated with lower duration to normal mentation (2 vs. 3.5 days, P = 0.03) and mortality (3% vs.43%, P log but not WHC as a predictor. Inter-rater reliability: ICC for MO-log inter-rater observations was 0.991. Modified-orientation log is a valid tool for assessing severity and is better than West-Haven criteria in predicting outcomes in hospitalised hepatic encephalopathy patients. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Towards an entropy-based analysis of log variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Back, Christoffer Olling; Debois, Søren; Slaats, Tijs

    2017-01-01

    the development of hybrid miners: given a (sub-)log, can we determine a priori whether the log is best suited for imperative or declarative mining? We propose using the concept of entropy, commonly used in information theory. We consider different measures for entropy that could be applied and show through...... experimentation on both synthetic and real-life logs that these entropy measures do indeed give insights into the complexity of the log and can act as an indicator of which mining paradigm should be used....

  15. Towards an Entropy-based Analysis of Log Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Back, Christoffer Olling; Debois, Søren; Slaats, Tijs

    2018-01-01

    the development of hybrid miners: given a log, can we determine a priori whether the log is best suited for imperative or declarative mining? We propose using the concept of entropy, commonly used in information theory. We consider different measures for entropy that could be applied and show through...... experimentation on both synthetic and real-life logs that these entropy measures do indeed give insights into the complexity of the log and can act as an indicator of which mining paradigm should be used....

  16. [Computerized logP prediction using fragment methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takácsné, N K

    1998-01-01

    Lipophilicity, expressed by the logarithm of octanol/water partition coefficient (logP) is an important physico-chemical property in rational drug design. Beside the experimental determination, the calculation of logP based on the chemical structure is frequently necessary. This has led to the development of numerous logP prediction methods. In the present paper the fragment type approaches and their computer softwares are surveyed (Table I.). The compilation is extended to the introduction and evaluation of a recently developed method of Meylan and Howard [21]: Atom/Fragment Contribution, AFC method (KOWWIN for Windows, software) which possesses the unique option, the Experimental Value Adjusted, EVA logP prediction. The author compared the highly precise experimental logP values of 28 drugs measured in her laboratory with calculated logP values obtained by four approaches: KOWWIN, CLOGP, PROLOGP, ACD/logP. The best prediction was found as follows in decreasing order: KOWWIN (r = 0.983), CLOGP (r = 0.978), PROLOGP/Combined (r = 0.953), ACD/logP (r = 0.942), PROLOGP/Atomic5 (r = 0.940), PROLOGP/Rekker (r = 0.909). The limits of current logP prediction methods (intramolecular H-bond formation, tautomerization, conformation changes, etc.) and the promising future of the molecular lipophilicity potential, MLP, [42] in drug design is also discussed.

  17. Real Time Face Quality Assessment for Face Log Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal, Nasrollahi; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Summarizing a long surveillance video to just a few best quality face images of each subject, a face-log, is of great importance in surveillance systems. Face quality assessment is the back-bone for face log generation and improving the quality assessment makes the face logs more reliable....... Developing a real time face quality assessment system using the most important facial features and employing it for face logs generation are the concerns of this paper. Extensive tests using four databases are carried out to validate the usability of the system....

  18. Method and apparatus for uranium exploration by radioactive well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givens, W.W.

    1974-01-01

    A uranium exploration technique is described employing delayed fission neutrons from uranium in borehole logging operations to obtain both a reconnaissance log to identify possible uranium ore bearing zones and an assay log of such zones in order to obtain a qualitative indication of uranium content. In obtaining a DFN log a neutron source is operated in the borehole in order to irradiate adjacent earth material with repetitive bursts of fast neutrons which are spaced by time intervals greater than the time required for dissipation of neutrons originating in the burst. A detector is operated in order to detect delayed neutrons resulting from neutron fission of uranium. The reconnaissance and assay logging operations may be carried out in conjunction with natural gamma ray logs and also in conjunction with a logging operation to obtain the response of the earth material to moderation and absorption of neutrons. Also disclosed is a delayed fission neutron logging system which may be employed in both reconnaissance and assay logging. (author)

  19. Using a Log Analyser to Assist Research into Haptic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónsson, Fannar Freyr; Hvannberg, Ebba Þóra

    Usability evaluations collect subjective and objective measures. Examples of the latter are time to complete a task. The paper describes use cases of a log analyser for haptic feedback. The log analyser reads a log file and extracts information such as time of each practice and assessment session, analyses whether the user goes off curve and measures the force applied. A study case using the analyser is performed using a PHANToM haptic learning environment application that is used to teach young visually impaired students the subject of polynomials. The paper answers six questions to illustrate further use cases of the log analyser.

  20. Radiological evaluation of acoustic neurinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Tae; Park, Chang Yun; Choi, Byung So

    1974-01-01

    All 25 patients surgically proven acoustic neurinoma was analysed clinically, radiographically at Severance Hospital of Yonsei Univ. The patients not proved surgically in spite of clinical diagnosis of acoustic neurinoma was excluded from this study. The results are summarized as follows; The clinical findings are; 1. The incidence of tumor in female was twice more frequent than in male and the range of age was 20-50 years peak of age at onset of symptom. 2. The clinical symptoms were variable from unilateral hearing impairment or less (100%), headache (84%) to tinnitus (60%) in order of frequency. 3. The tumor growth in the left cerebellopontine angle was twice more than in the right side with the radio of 16:8. However, in one case bilateral simultaneous growth of acoustic neurinoma was noted. The radiological findings are: The best radiographic method to study the shape and size of internal acoustic canal to demonstrate erosion or destruction of petrous pyramida was considered to be straight frontal view and tomography of the skull in our series. 1. The shape of internal acoustic canal in tumors were straight (in 2 cases), bulbous (in 12 cases), and flared (in 11 cases). Particularly there was erosion or destruction of petrous bone in all of the flared cases of canal. 2. The acoustic meatal erosion was mainly suprameatal in 14 cases of 17 which was noted definite erosion radiographically. 3. The difference of height (vertical diameter) of both side of acoustic canal were follows; 6 cases among 25 was in the range of 0-2 mm measurement, remainder was more than 2 mm. Hence the variation in greater than 1 mm in between both sides of canal in same patient should be regard as abnormal as of acoustic neurinoma. 4. The carotid angiogram shows hydrocephalic pattern in 12 cases among 17. 5. In the vertebral angiogram of 8 cases, anterolateral displacement of basilar artery (in 6 caes), the upward displacement of superior cerebellar artery (in 4 cases) was common findings

  1. Sonification of acoustic emission data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raith, Manuel; Große, Christian

    2014-05-01

    While loading different specimens, acoustic emissions appear due to micro crack formation or friction of already existing crack edges. These acoustic emissions can be recorded using suitable ultrasonic transducers and transient recorders. The analysis of acoustic emissions can be used to investigate the mechanical behavior of different specimens under load. Our working group has undertaken several experiments, monitored with acoustic emission techniques. Different materials such as natural stone, concrete, wood, steel, carbon composites and bone were investigated. Also the experimental setup has been varied. Fire-spalling experiments on ultrahigh performance concrete and pullout experiments on bonded anchors have been carried out. Furthermore uniaxial compression tests on natural stone and animal bone had been conducted. The analysis tools include not only the counting of events but the analysis of full waveforms. Powerful localization algorithms and automatic onset picking techniques (based on Akaikes Information Criterion) were established to handle the huge amount of data. Up to several thousand events were recorded during experiments of a few minutes. More sophisticated techniques like moment tensor inversion have been established on this relatively small scale as well. Problems are related to the amount of data but also to signal-to-noise quality, boundary conditions (reflections) sensor characteristics and unknown and changing Greens functions of the media. Some of the acoustic emissions recorded during these experiments had been transferred into audio range. The transformation into the audio range was done using Matlab. It is the aim of the sonification to establish a tool that is on one hand able to help controlling the experiment in-situ and probably adjust the load parameters according to the number and intensity of the acoustic emissions. On the other hand sonification can help to improve the understanding of acoustic emission techniques for training

  2. Acoustic constituents of prosodic typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Masahiko

    Different languages sound different, and considerable part of it derives from the typological difference of prosody. Although such difference is often referred to as lexical accent types (stress accent, pitch accent, and tone; e.g. English, Japanese, and Chinese respectively) and rhythm types (stress-, syllable-, and mora-timed rhythms; e.g. English, Spanish, and Japanese respectively), it is unclear whether these types are determined in terms of acoustic properties, The thesis intends to provide a potential basis for the description of prosody in terms of acoustics. It argues for the hypothesis that the source component of the source-filter model (acoustic features) approximately corresponds to prosody (linguistic features) through several experimental-phonetic studies. The study consists of four parts. (1) Preliminary experiment: Perceptual language identification tests were performed using English and Japanese speech samples whose frequency spectral information (i.e. non-source component) is heavily reduced. The results indicated that humans can discriminate languages with such signals. (2) Discussion on the linguistic information that the source component contains: This part constitutes the foundation of the argument of the thesis. Perception tests of consonants with the source signal indicated that the source component carries the information on broad categories of phonemes that contributes to the creation of rhythm. (3) Acoustic analysis: The speech samples of Chinese, English, Japanese, and Spanish, differing in prosodic types, were analyzed. These languages showed difference in acoustic characteristics of the source component. (4) Perceptual experiment: A language identification test for the above four languages was performed using the source signal with its acoustic features parameterized. It revealed that humans can discriminate prosodic types solely with the source features and that the discrimination is easier as acoustic information increases. The

  3. CALCULATION OF ACOUSTIC EFFICIENCY OF PORTABLE ACOUSTIC SCREEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Skvortsov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The research of influence of life environment adverse factors on physical development and health of population is an actual problem of ecology. The aspects of the most actual problems of the modern world, namely environmental industrial noise pollution are considered in the article. Industrial facilities everywhere have noisy equipment. Noise is a significant factors of negative influenceon people and environment. Combined effects of noise and of other physical pollutions on people may cause amplification of their negative impact. If the noise pollution level from the object in a residential area exceeds the permissible levels (MPL, noise protection measures can be initiated. Today, the most common design decisions for noise protection are sound absorbing construction, noise screens and barriers, acousting housings, soundproff cabins. Many of them are popular, others are less known. The article deals with one of the most wide spread means of noise protection – a portable acoustic screen. The aim of the research is to determine the efficiency of portable acoustic screens. It is shown that the installation of such structures can reduce the average value of the sound level. The authors analyzed acoustic screens as device to reduce noise pollution. The authors offer a potable acoustic screen differing from the used easyness, mobility, minimum price and good sound protective properties. Effectiveness, a sound absorption coefficient and sound conductivity coefficient of a portable acoustic screen are evaluated. The descriptions of the algorithm calculations and the combination of technical solutions have practical originality. The results of the research demonstrate the advantages of the proposed solutions for reducing noise levels in the agro-industrial complex.

  4. Acoustic emission from polycrystalline graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioka, I.; Yoda, S.; Oku, T.; Miyamoto, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Acoustic emission was monitored from polycrystalline graphites with different microstructure (pore size and pore volume) subjected to compressive loading. The graphites used in this study comprised five brands, that is, PGX, ISEM-1, IG-11, IG-15, and ISO-88. A root mean square (RMS) voltage and event counts of acoustic emission for graphites were measured during compressive loading. The acoustic emission was measured using a computed-based data acquisition and analysis system. The graphites were first deformed up to 80 % of the average fracture stress, then unloaded and reloaded again until the fracture occured. During the first loading, the change in RMS voltage for acoustic emission was detected from the initial stage. During the unloading, the RMS voltage became zero level as soon as the applied stress was released and then gradually rose to a peak and declined. The behavior indicated that the reversed plastic deformation occured in graphites. During the second loading, the RMS voltage gently increased until the applied stress exceeded the maximum stress of the first loading; there is no Kaiser effect in the graphites. A bicrystal model could give a reasonable explanation of this results. The empirical equation between the ratio of σ AE to σ f and σ f was obtained. It is considered that the detection of microfracture by the acoustic emission technique is effective in macrofracture prediction of polycrystalline graphites. (author)

  5. Software-based acoustical measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Miyara, Federico

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides a detailed introduction to the use of software in combination with simple and economical hardware (a sound level meter with calibrated AC output and a digital recording system) to obtain sophisticated measurements usually requiring expensive equipment. It emphasizes the use of free, open source, and multiplatform software. Many commercial acoustical measurement systems use software algorithms as an integral component; however the methods are not disclosed. This book enables the reader to develop useful algorithms and provides insight into the use of digital audio editing tools to document features in the signal. Topics covered include acoustical measurement principles, in-depth critical study of uncertainty applied to acoustical measurements, digital signal processing from the basics, and metrologically-oriented spectral and statistical analysis of signals. The student will gain a deep understanding of the use of software for measurement purposes; the ability to implement software-based...

  6. Prototype acoustic resonance spectroscopy monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, D.N.; Olinger, C.T.

    1996-03-01

    This report reports on work performed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through the Program Office for Technical Assistance (POTAS). In this work, we investigate possible applications of nondestructive acoustics measurements to facilitate IAEA safeguards at bulk processing facilities. Two different acoustic techniques for verifying the internal structure of a processing tank were investigated. During this effort we also examined two acoustic techniques for assessing the fill level within a processing tank. The fill-level measurements could be made highly portable and have an added safeguards advantage that they can also detect stratification of fill material. This later application may be particularly useful in confirming the absence of stratification in plutonium processing tanks before accountability samples are withdrawn

  7. Classroom acoustics: Three pilot studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldino, Joseph J.

    2005-04-01

    This paper summarizes three related pilot projects designed to focus on the possible effects of classroom acoustics on fine auditory discrimination as it relates to language acquisition, especially English as a second language. The first study investigated the influence of improving the signal-to-noise ratio on the differentiation of English phonemes. The results showed better differentiation with better signal-to-noise ratio. The second studied speech perception in noise by young adults for whom English was a second language. The outcome indicated that the second language learners required a better signal-to-noise ratio to perform equally to the native language participants. The last study surveyed the acoustic conditions of preschool and day care classrooms, wherein first and second language learning occurs. The survey suggested an unfavorable acoustic environment for language learning.

  8. Acoustic multivariate condition monitoring - AMCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenhave, P.E. [Vestfold College, Maritime Dept., Toensberg (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    In Norway, Vestfold College, Maritime Department presents new opportunities for non-invasive, on- or off-line acoustic monitoring of rotating machinery such as off-shore pumps and diesel engines. New developments within acoustic sensor technology coupled with chemometric data analysis of complex signals now allow condition monitoring of hitherto unavailable flexibility and diagnostic specificity. Chemometrics paired with existing knowledge yields a new and powerful tool for condition monitoring. By the use of multivariate techniques and acoustics it is possible to quantify wear and tear as well as predict the performance of working components in complex machinery. This presentation describes the AMCM method and one result of a feasibility study conducted onboard the LPG/C `Norgas Mariner` owned by Norwegian Gas Carriers as (NGC), Oslo. (orig.) 6 refs.

  9. Performance of several viscothermal acoustic finite elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampinga, W.R.; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries

    2010-01-01

    Viscothermal acoustics can be described by the linearized Navier Stokes equations. Besides inertia and compressibility, these equations take the heat conductivity and the viscosity of the medium (air) into account. These 'viscothermal' effects are significant in, for example, miniature acoustic

  10. Golden Gate and Pt. Reyes Acoustic Detections

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains detections of acoustic tagged fish from two general locations: Golden Gate (east and west line) and Pt. Reyes. Several Vemco 69khz acoustic...

  11. Subwoofer and nanotube butterfly acoustic flame extinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliev, Ali E.; Mayo, Nathanael K.; Baughman, Ray H.; Mills, Brent T.; Habtour, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Nonchemical flame control using acoustic waves from a subwoofer and a lightweight carbon nanotube thermoacoustic projector was demonstrated. The intent was to manipulate flame intensity, direction and propagation. The mechanisms of flame suppression using low frequency acoustic waves were discussed.

  12. Historic perspective of the acoustic otoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, F P; Cox, L C; MacDonald, C B

    1998-02-01

    The acoustic otoscope, originally called the acoustic reflectometer, was developed and produced by John and David Teele in the early 1980s. Since initial production, two different instrument versions have been developed by two separate companies. During the period of time in which the acoustic otoscope has been in production, there have been numerous studies reported with the two instrument versions. We provide a historic summary of the acoustic otoscope, summarize the pertinent studies, and address the contrasting results found in the literature.

  13. Physical foundations of technical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Malecki, I

    1969-01-01

    Physical Foundations of Technical Acoustics discusses theoretical foundations of acoustical engineering. It is not so much a technical compendium as a systematic statement of physical laws so conceived that technologists might find in it all the information they need to become acquainted with the physical meaning and mathematical expression of phenomena they encounter in their work. To facilitate the acquirement of notions, which lie beyond a layman's grasp, the plan of narration adopted consists in beginning with the simplest idealized cases and then gradually moving on to the truest possibl

  14. Acoustic target models and phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiswander, Paul R.; Kaiser, Stephen G.

    2000-07-01

    Ground-based and airborne acoustic systems often target vehicles that are powered by reciprocating internal combustion engines. Typically the far-field acoustic spectra of these vehicles are dominated by a few narrow spectral lines that are harmonically related. The dominant harmonics change with engine speed and also with emission angle. This paper describes a simple model that recreates some of this variability. The model breaks the far-field signature into two components: the generation of a train of pressure pulses at each exhaust outlet, and the radiation of sound pressures from the outlet(s) to the far field. Predictions are compared with field test data for two ground vehicles.

  15. Phase conjugation of acoustic beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkin, F. V.; Vlasov, D. V.; Kravtsov, Iu. A.

    The paper presents a classification of methods for the phase conjugation (PC) of wave fields of various physical natures on the basis of such nonliner interactions as stimulated scattering, and three- and four-wave interactions. Among the latter, attention is given to holographic (volume and surface) and parametric PC schemes, permitting PC with amplification. The possibility of developing phase-conjugated devices using acoustic PC devices on the basis of various nonlinear effects is considered. Experimental results pertaining to the PC of sound fields are presented, and possible applications of acoustic PC devices are indicated.

  16. Prediction of Log "P": ALOGPS Application in Medicinal Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawski, Jacek; Bernard, Marek K.; Janusz, Anna; Kuzma, Weronika

    2012-01-01

    Molecular hydrophobicity (lipophilicity), usually quantified as log "P" where "P" is the partition coefficient, is an important molecular characteristic in medicinal chemistry and drug design. The log "P" coefficient is one of the principal parameters for the estimation of lipophilicity of chemical compounds and pharmacokinetic properties. The…

  17. Erosion control on logging roads in the Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    James N. Kochenderfer; James N. Kochenderfer

    1970-01-01

    In the steep terrain of the Appalachian Mountains much damage to forest streams is caused by erosion on logging roads. Muddy water that is unsuitable for fish, swimming, or human consumption often can be traced to these eroding roads. This paper has been prepared to sum up what land managers know about preventing and controlling erosion on logging roads in the...

  18. Assessment of procurement systems for unutilized logging residues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that coarse logging residues can be available as firewood in traditional utilization manner, but a thin material is left in the forest because of high collection and extraction costs. However, it was found that the increasing demand for forest biomass as a bioenergy resource encouraged the use of logging ...

  19. The application of seismic-log sequence stratigraphy in mapping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of seismic-log sequence stratigraphy was used in mapping stratigraphic traps and reservoirs' facies in Afam Channel area, Niger Delta, for the purpose of prospect re-evaluation and improving production. The data set consists of 3-D seismic data and conventional well logs, which were interpreted iteratively ...

  20. Biased estimation of forest log characteristics using intersect diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa J. Bate; Torolf R. Torgersen; Michael J. Wisdom; Edward O. Garton

    2009-01-01

    Logs are an important structural feature of forest ecosystems, and their abundance affects many resources and forest processes, including fire regimes, soil productivity, silviculture, carbon cycling, and wildlife habitat. Consequently, logs are often sampled to estimate their frequency, percent cover, volume, and weight. The line-intersect method (LIM) is one of the...

  1. Comparing GPS, Log, Survey, and Accelerometry to Measure Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter; Weissman, Jennifer; Wolf, Jean; Mumford, Karen; Contant, Cheryl K; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Taylor, Lynne; Glanz, Karen

    2016-01-01

    We explored how objectively measured global positioning system (GPS) and accelerometer data match with travel logs and questionnaires in predicting trip duration and physical activity (PA). 99 participants wore GPS devices and accelerometers, and recorded all trips in a log for 5 consecutive days. Participants also completed a self-administered questionnaire on PA and travel behaviors. There was good agreement between GPS and log for assessment of trip duration, although log measures overestimated trip duration (concordance correlation coefficient 0.53 [0.47, 0.59]; Bland-Altman estimate 0.76 [0.16, 3.71] comparing GPS to log). Log measures underestimated light PA and overestimated moderate PA compared to accelerometry when greater than zero moderate PA was reported. It is often not feasible to deploy accelerometry or GPS devices in population research because these devices are expensive and require technical expertise and data processing. Questionnaires and logs provide inexpensive tools to assess PA and travel with reasonable concordance with objective measures. However, they have shortcomings in evaluating the presence and amount of light and moderate PA. Future questionnaires and logs should be developed to evaluate sensitivity to light and moderate PA.

  2. 46 CFR 78.37-10 - Official log entires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Official log entires. 78.37-10 Section 78.37-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 78.37-10 Official log entires. (a) In addition to other items required to be entered in the official...

  3. Evaluation of logging impacts on tropical rainforest in Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various strategies and techniques have been designed and implemented to study the effects of logging activities on tropical rainforest amongst which remote sensing and GIS analysis. But there are still few measures available on the effects of industrial timber on forest ecosystem. This paper examined the impact of logging ...

  4. Butt-log grade distributions for five Appalachian hardwood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Myers; Gary W. Miller; Harry V., Jr. Wiant; Joseph E. Barnard; Joseph E. Barnard

    1986-01-01

    Tree quality is an important factor in determining the market value of hardwood timber stands, but many forest inventories do not include estimates of tree quality. Butt-log grade distributions were developed for northern red oak, black oak, white oak, chestnut oak, and yellow-poplar using USDA Forest Service log grades on more than 4,700 trees in West Virginia. Butt-...

  5. Ubiquitous Learning Project Using Life-Logging Technology in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Hiroaki; Hou, Bin; Li, Mengmeng; Uosaki, Noriko; Mouri, Kosuke; Liu, Songran

    2014-01-01

    A Ubiquitous Learning Log (ULL) is defined as a digital record of what a learner has learned in daily life using ubiquitous computing technologies. In this paper, a project which developed a system called SCROLL (System for Capturing and Reusing Of Learning Log) is presented. The aim of developing SCROLL is to help learners record, organize,…

  6. Logging residues under different stand and harvesting conditions, Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Benson; Cameron M. Johnston

    1976-01-01

    Volume and characteristics of logging residues from 34 harvest areas are presented. Clearcuts and partial cuts logged to conventional utilization levels and to close utilization levels are included. Residue volumes ranged from almost 3, 600 ft3 /acre of wood 3-inches-plus down to about 550 ft3 /acre, depending on treatment. More than 60 percent of the residues were...

  7. A selective logging mechanism for hardware transactional memory systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lupon Navazo, Marc; Magklis, Grigorios; González Colás, Antonio María

    2011-01-01

    Log-based Hardware Transactional Memory (HTM) systems offer an elegant solution to handle speculative data that overflow transactional L1 caches. By keeping the pre-transactional values on a software-resident log, speculative values can be safely moved across the memory hierarchy, without requiring expensive searches on L1 misses or commits.

  8. Secure Audit Logging with Tamper-Resistant Hardware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chong, C.N.; Peng, Z.; Peng, Z.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Gritzalis, D.; De Capitani di Vimercati, S.; Katsikas, S.K.; Samarati, P.

    Secure perimeter schemes (e.g. DRM) and tracing traitor schemes (e.g. watermarking, audit logging) strive to mitigate the problems of content escaping the control of the rights holder. Secure audit logging records the user's actions on content and enables detection of some forms of tampering with

  9. Modelling discontinuous well log signal to identify lithological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Identification of sharp and discontinuous lithological boundaries from well log signal stemming from heterogeneous subsurface structures assumes a special significance in geo-exploration studies. Well log data acquired from various geological settings generally display nonstationary/nonlinear characteristics with varying ...

  10. Logging activities in mangrove forests: A case study of Douala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Logging activities in mangrove forests: A case study of Douala Cameroon. N Din, P Saenger, P.R. Jules, D.D. Siegfried, F Basco. Abstract. The Cameroon mangroves are exploited by local communities through fishing, hunting, and especially logging for fuel-wood and charcoal. The changing demographic patterns in the ...

  11. Condition and fate of logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asner; Eben N. Broadbent; Paulo J. C. Oliveira; Michael Keller; David E. Knapp; Jose N. M. Silva

    2006-01-01

    The long-term viability of a forest industry in the Amazon region of Brazil depends on the maintenance of adequate timber volume and growth in healthy forests. Using extensive high-resolution satellite analyses, we studied the forest damage caused by recent logging operations and the likelihood that logged forests would be cleared within 4 years after timber harvest....

  12. Modelling discontinuous well log signal to identify lithological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ter level forecasting (Adamowski and Chan 2011). KTB research geoscientist team has examined the fractal behaviour of well-log signal variabil- ity, presuming that well-log signals in the super deep German Continental Deep Drilling Program. (KTB) borehole display nonlinear characteristics. (Leonardi and Kumpel 1999).

  13. Teaching an Old Log New Tricks with Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Krista; Puri, Colin; Mahler, Paul; Dukatz, Carl

    2014-03-01

    To most people, the log file would not be considered an exciting area in technology today. However, these relatively benign, slowly growing data sources can drive large business transformations when combined with modern-day analytics. Accenture Technology Labs has built a new framework that helps to expand existing vendor solutions to create new methods of gaining insights from these benevolent information springs. This framework provides a systematic and effective machine-learning mechanism to understand, analyze, and visualize heterogeneous log files. These techniques enable an automated approach to analyzing log content in real time, learning relevant behaviors, and creating actionable insights applicable in traditionally reactive situations. Using this approach, companies can now tap into a wealth of knowledge residing in log file data that is currently being collected but underutilized because of its overwhelming variety and volume. By using log files as an important data input into the larger enterprise data supply chain, businesses have the opportunity to enhance their current operational log management solution and generate entirely new business insights-no longer limited to the realm of reactive IT management, but extending from proactive product improvement to defense from attacks. As we will discuss, this solution has immediate relevance in the telecommunications and security industries. However, the most forward-looking companies can take it even further. How? By thinking beyond the log file and applying the same machine-learning framework to other log file use cases (including logistics, social media, and consumer behavior) and any other transactional data source.

  14. Landslides after clearcut logging in a coast redwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie M. Reid; Elizabeth T. Keppeler

    2012-01-01

    Landslides have been mapped at least annually in the 473 ha North Fork Caspar Creek watershed since 1985, allowing evaluation of landslide distribution, characteristics, and rates associated with second-entry partial clearcut logging of 1989 to 1992. Comparison of sliding rates in logged and forested areas shows no appreciable difference for streamside slides (size...

  15. The Log-Linear Return Approximation, Bubbles, and Predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard; Tanggaard, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    We study in detail the log-linear return approximation introduced by Campbell and Shiller (1988a). First, we derive an upper bound for the mean approximation error, given stationarity of the log dividend-price ratio. Next, we simulate various rational bubbles which have explosive conditional expe...

  16. 21 CFR 211.182 - Equipment cleaning and use log.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment cleaning and use log. 211.182 Section 211.182 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Reports § 211.182 Equipment cleaning and use log. A written record of major equipment cleaning...

  17. Fates of trees damaged by logging in Amazonian Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shenkin, A.; Bolker, B.; Peña Claros, M.; Licona, J.C.; Putz, F.E.

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of carbon losses from trees felled and incidentally-killed during selective logging of tropical forests is relatively straightforward and well-documented, but less is known about the fates of collaterally-damaged trees that initially survive. Tree response to logging damage is an

  18. On Architectural Acoustics Design using Computer Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2004-01-01

    The acoustical quality of a given building, or space within the building, is highly dependent on the architectural design. Architectural acoustics design has in the past been based on simple design rules. However, with a growing complexity in the architectural acoustic and the emergence of potent...

  19. Measuring ship acoustic signatures against mine threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.F. de; Quesson, B.A.J.; Ainslie, M.A.; Vermeulen, R.C.N.

    2012-01-01

    The NATO standard ‘AMP-15’ [1] provides procedures for the measurement and reporting of the acoustic signature of ships and for the establishment of acoustic signature goals to counter the naval mine threat. Measurements are carried out at dedicated shallow water acoustic ranges. Measurements

  20. Acoustic communication in plant–animal interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schöner, M.G.; Simon, R.; Schöner, C.R.

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic communication is widespread and well-studied in animals but has been neglected in other organisms such as plants. However, there is growing evidence for acoustic communication in plant–animal interactions. While knowledge about active acoustic signalling in plants (i.e. active sound